WorldWideScience

Sample records for single systemic injection

  1. Performance characterization of pneumatic single pellet injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuresko, D.D.; Milora, S.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Foster, C.A.; Combs, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory single-shot pellet injector, which has been used in plasma fueling experiments on ISX and PDX, has been upgraded and extensively instrumented in order to study the gas dynamics of pneumatic pellet injection. An improved pellet transport line was developed which utilizes a 0.3-cm-diam by 100-cm-long guide tube. Pellet gun performance was characterized by measurements of breech and muzzle dynamic pressures and by pellet velocity and mass determinations. Velocities up to 1.4 km/s were achieved for intact hydrogen pellets using hydrogen propellant at 5-MPa breech pressure. These data have been compared with new pellet acceleration calculations which include the effects of propellant friction, heat transfer, time-dependent boundary conditions, and finite gun geometry. These results provide a basis for the extrapolation of present-day pneumatic injection system performance to velocities in excess of 2 km/s

  2. Discharge characteristics of a double injection-valve single-pump injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dana W; Marsh, E T

    1937-01-01

    The discharge characteristics of two similar injection valves operated by a single-cylinder fuel-injection pump were determined with an apparatus that measured the quantity of fuel discharged from each valve during every 0.5 degrees of pump rotation. It was found that similar discharges took place from the two valves at all pump speeds when the valve-opening pressures, the nozzle-orifice diameters, and the injection-tube lengths were the same for both valves. Under these conditions, the effects of changing the pump speed, the pump throttle setting, or the nozzle orifice diameter were very similar to those occurring with a single-injection valve. By a proper selection of discharge-orifice areas and valve-opening pressures it was possible to obtain a great many combinations of discharge quantities, discharge rates, and injection timings for the two valves. A series of tests using injection tubes of unequal lengths for the two valves showed that under these conditions the injection timing and the fuel quantity discharged from each valve varies widely and erratically with changes in the pump speed.

  3. Experimental investigations of a single cylinder genset engine with common rail fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Paras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance and emissions characteristics of compression ignition (CI engines are strongly dependent on quality of fuel injection. In an attempt to improve engine combustion, engine performance and reduce the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder constant speed genset engine, a common rail direct injection (CRDI fuel injection system was deployed and its injection timings were optimized. Results showed that 34°CA BTDC start of injection (SOI timings result in lowest brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and smoke opacity. Advanced injection timings showed higher cylinder peak pressure, pressure rise rate, and heat release rate due to relatively longer ignition delay experienced.

  4. Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems Considering Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    .g. Germany and Italy. Those advanced features can be provided by next generation PV systems, and will be enhanced in the future to ensure an even efficient and reliable utilization of PV systems. In light of this, Reactive Power Injection (RPI) strategies for single-phase PV systems are explored...... like what the conventional power plants do today in the grid regulation participation. Requirements of ancillary services like Low-Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) associated with reactive current injection and voltage support through reactive power control, have been in effectiveness in some countries, e...... in this paper. The RPI possibilities are: a) constant average active power control, b) constant active current control, c) constant peak current control and d) thermal optimized control strategy. All those strategies comply with the currently active grid codes, but are with different objectives. The proposed...

  5. Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems Considering Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    . Those advanced features can be provided by next-generation PV systems, and will be enhanced in the future to ensure an even efficient and reliable utilization of PV systems. In the light of this, Reactive Power Injection (RPI) strategies for single-phase PV systems are explored in this paper. The RPI...... like what the conventional power plants do today in the grid regulation participation. Requirements of ancillary services like Low-Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) associated with reactive current injection and voltage support through reactive power control, have been in effectiveness in some countries...... possibilities are: a) constant average active power control, b) constant active current control, c) constant peak current control and d) thermal optimized control strategy. All those strategies comply with the currently active grid codes, but are with different objectives. The thermal optimized control strategy...

  6. SQL injection detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vargonas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    SQL injection detection system Programmers do not always ensure security of developed systems. That is why it is important to look for solutions outside being reliant on developers. In this work SQL injection detection system is proposed. The system analyzes HTTP request parameters and detects intrusions. It is based on unsupervised machine learning. Trained by regular request data system detects outlier user parameters. Since training is not reliant on previous knowledge of SQL injections, t...

  7. Performance and combustion analysis of Mahua biodiesel on a single cylinder compression ignition engine using electronic fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekaran Anandkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, experiment is carried out on a 1500 rpm constant speed single cylinder Diesel engine. The test is carried out with Neat diesel, neat biodiesel, and blend B20. The engine considered was run with electronic fuel injection system supported by common rail direct injection to obtain high atomization and effective air utilization inside the combustion chamber. The performance of the engine in terms of break thermal efficiency and brake specific energy consumption was found and compared. The B20 blend shows 1.11% decrease in break thermal efficiency and 3.35% increase in brake specific energy consumption than diesel. The combustion characteristics found are in-cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate and compared for peak pressure load to understand the nature of combustion process. For each fuel test run, the maximum peak pressure is observed at part load condition. The rate of change of pressure and heat release rate of diesel is high compared to pure biodiesel and B20 blend. The diffusion combustion is observed to be predominant in case of B100 than B20 and Neat diesel.

  8. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  9. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  10. The effects of a single intravenous injection of novel activin A/BMP-2 (AB204) on toxicity and the respiratory and central nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jae Hyup; Na, Kyuheum; Ahn, Chihoon; Cho, Jongho; Ahn, Hyun Chan; Choi, Jungyoun; Oh, Hyosun; Kim, Byong Moon; Choe, Senyon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a single intravenous injection of a novel osteoinductive material, activin A/BMP-2 (AB204), to rodents on toxicity and their respiratory functions and central nervous system (CNS). A single intravenous injection of AB204 was given to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in doses of 0, 0.625, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg to observe the mortality rate, the general symptoms for 14 days. The experimental groups were also given 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg of AB204, respectively, and the respiration rate, the tidal volume and the minute volume were measured for 240 min. The experimental groups of imprinting control region (ICR) mice were given a single intravenous injection of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg of AB204, respectively. Their body temperature was taken and general behaviors were observed to evaluate the effect of AB204 on the CNS for 240 min. The study on toxicity of a single intravenous injection found no death or abnormal symptoms, abnormal findings from autopsy, or abnormal body weight gain or loss in all the experimental groups. No abnormal variation associated with the test substance was observed in the respiration rate, the tidal volume, the minute volume, body temperature or the general behaviors. On the basis of these results, the approximate lethal dose of AB204 for a single intravenous injection exceeds 10 mg/kg for SD rats and a single intravenous injection of ≤0.8 mg/kg AB204 has no effect on their respiratory system for SD rat and no effect on their CNS for ICR mice.

  11. Supercritical fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, C. J.; Cooper, L. P. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    a fuel injection system for gas turbines is described including a pair of high pressure pumps. The pumps provide fuel and a carrier fluid such as air at pressures above the critical pressure of the fuel. A supercritical mixing chamber mixes the fuel and carrier fluid and the mixture is sprayed into a combustion chamber. The use of fuel and a carrier fluid at supercritical pressures promotes rapid mixing of the fuel in the combustion chamber so as to reduce the formation of pollutants and promote cleaner burning.

  12. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  13. Tunneling spin injection into single layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Pi, K; McCreary, K M; Li, Yan; Wong, Jared J I; Swartz, A G; Kawakami, R K

    2010-10-15

    We achieve tunneling spin injection from Co into single layer graphene (SLG) using TiO₂ seeded MgO barriers. A nonlocal magnetoresistance (ΔR(NL)) of 130  Ω is observed at room temperature, which is the largest value observed in any material. Investigating ΔR(NL) vs SLG conductivity from the transparent to the tunneling contact regimes demonstrates the contrasting behaviors predicted by the drift-diffusion theory of spin transport. Furthermore, tunnel barriers reduce the contact-induced spin relaxation and are therefore important for future investigations of spin relaxation in graphene.

  14. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  15. Spray and atomization of diesel fuel and its alternatives from a single-hole injector using a common rail fuel injection system

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, PinChia

    2013-01-01

    Fuel spray and atomization characteristics play an important role in the performance of internal combustion engines. As the reserves of petroleum fuel are expected to be depleted within a few decades, finding alternative fuels that are economically viable and sustainable to replace the petroleum fuel has attracted much research attention. In this work, the spray and atomization characteristics were investigated for commercial No. 2 diesel fuel, biodiesel (FAME) derived from waste cooking oil (B100), 20% biodiesel blended diesel fuel (B20), renewable diesel fuel produced in house, and civil aircraft jet fuel (Jet-A). Droplet diameters and particle size distributions were measured by a laser diffraction particle analyzing system and the spray tip penetrations and cone angles were acquired using a high speed imaging technique. All experiments were conducted by employing a common-rail high-pressure fuel injection system with a single-hole nozzle under room temperature and pressure. The experimental results showed that biodiesel and jet fuel had different features compared with diesel. Longer spray tip penetration and larger droplet diameters were observed for B100. The smaller droplet size of the Jet-A were believed to be caused by its relatively lower viscosity and surface tension. B20 showed similar characteristics to diesel but with slightly larger droplet sizes and shorter tip penetration. Renewable diesel fuel showed closer droplet size and spray penetration to Jet-A with both smaller than diesel. As a result, optimizing the trade-off between spray volume and droplet size for different fuels remains a great challenge. However, high-pressure injection helps to optimize the trade-off of spray volume and droplet sizes. Furthermore, it was observed that the smallest droplets were within a region near the injector nozzle tip and grew larger along the axial and radial direction. The variation of droplet diameters became smaller with increasing injection pressure.

  16. ITER Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shigeru; Akiba, Masato

    1991-03-01

    A Japanese design proposal of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection System (NBS) which is consistent with the ITER common design requirements is described. The injection system is required to deliver a neutral deuterium beam of 75MW at 1.3MeV to the reactor plasma and utilized not only for plasma heating but also for current drive and current profile control. The injection system is composed of 9 modules, each of which is designed so as to inject a 1.3MeV, 10MW neutral beam. The most important point in the design is that the injection system is based on the utilization of a cesium-seeded volume negative ion source which can produce an intense negative ion beam with high current density at a low source operating pressure. The design value of the source is based on the experimental values achieved at JAERI. The utilization of the cesium-seeded volume source is essential to the design of an efficient and compact neutral beam injection system which satisfies the ITER common design requirements. The critical components to realize this design are the 1.3MeV, 17A electrostatic accelerator and the high voltage DC acceleration power supply, whose performances must be demonstrated prior to the construction of ITER NBI system. (author)

  17. Development of on-line single-drop micro-extraction sequential injection system for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of trace metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthemidis, Aristidis N.; Adam, Ibrahim S.I.

    2009-01-01

    A novel automatic sequential injection (SI) single-drop micro-extraction (SDME) system is proposed as versatile approach for on-line metal preconcentration and/or separation. Coupled to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) the potentials of this SI scheme are demonstrated for trace cadmium determination in water samples. A non-charged complex of cadmium with ammonium diethyldithiophosphate (DDPA) was produced and extracted on-line into a 60 μL micro-drop of di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK). The extraction procedure was performed into a newly designed flow-through extraction cell coupled on a sequential injection manifold. As the complex Cd(II)-DDPA flowed continuously around the micro-droplet, the analyte was extracting into the solvent micro-drop. All the critical parameters were optimized and offered good performance characteristics and high preconcentration ratios. For 600 s micro-extraction time, the enhancement factor was 10 and the sampling frequency was 6 h -1 . The detection limit was 0.01 μg L -1 and the precision (RSD at 0.1 μg L -1 of cadmium) was 3.9%. The proposed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference material

  18. Dual fuel injection piggyback controller system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji, Siti Zarina Mohd.; Hassanal, Muhammad Amirul Hafeez; Lee, Chua King; Fawzi, Mas; Zulkifli, Fathul Hakim

    2017-09-01

    Dual-fuel injection is an effort to reduce the dependency on diesel and gasoline fuel. Generally, there are two approaches to implement the dual-fuel injection in car system. The first approach is changing the whole injector of the car engine, the consequence is excessive high cost. Alternatively, it also can be achieved by manipulating the system's control signal especially the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) signal. Hence, the study focuses to develop a dual injection timing controller system that likely adopted to control injection time and quantity of compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel fuel. In this system, Raspberry Pi 3 reacts as main controller unit to receive ECU signal, analyze it and then manipulate its duty cycle to be fed into the Electronic Driver Unit (EDU). The manipulation has changed the duty cycle to two pulses instead of single pulse. A particular pulse mainly used to control injection of diesel fuel and another pulse controls injection of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The test indicated promising results that the system can be implemented in the car as piggyback system.

  19. Injection molded nanofluidic chips: Fabrication method and functional tests using single-molecule DNA experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utko, Pawel; Persson, Karl Fredrik; Kristensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels.......We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels....

  20. PLT neutral beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) neutral beam injection system is given and its performance characteristics are outlined. A detailed operational procedure is included, as are some tips on troubleshooting. Proper operation of the source is shown to be a crucial factor in system performance

  1. Psoriasis responds to intralesional injections of alefacept and may predict systemic response to intramuscular alefacept: interim results of a single-arm, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattu, Shilpa; Busse, Kristine; Bhutani, Tina; Chiang, Charles; Nguyen, Thao; Becker, Emily; Koo, John Y M

    2012-04-01

    Alefacept is a remittive treatment for generalized psoriasis but is rarely used due to its erratic efficacy. To determine if psoriasis plaques will respond to intralesional alefacept and if this predicts a systemic response to intramuscular (IM) alefacept. We describe a 25-week, single-center, open-label study. Patients received weekly intralesional alefacept of increasing concentrations into target plaques for 3 weeks followed by IM injections for 12 weeks and concluded with an observation period of 9 weeks. The psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) was used to assess the efficacy of IM alefacept. Interim results are reported for the first seven patients enrolled. Two patients responded intralesionally to the most dilute 1:100 concentration of alefacept to sterile water and achieved a 59% and 100% improvement in PASI. Five patients did not respond intralesionally to the most dilute form of alefacept and none achieved PASI 75. Two of these five patients did not respond to any concentration and achieved a 26% and 38% improvement in PASI. Limitations to this study include a small sample size and being non-placebo-controlled. Alefacept is effective intralesionally and may predict a systemic response - challenging the concept that biologics must work systemically.

  2. TORE SUPRA neutral injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayetti, P.; Becherer, R.; Bottiglioni, F.; Jacquot, C.; Jequier, F.; Fumelli, M.; Lotte, P.; Pamela, J.; Sledziewski, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The Neutral Beam Injection on TS consists of three boxes, each housing two injectors. Each of them is designed to accelerate 40 A at 100 kV in D 2 ar 40A at 80 kV in H 2 , in shots of 30 s. The power on the plasma is expected to be 7.5 MW (full energy) and 9 MW (total) for the D-beams; 2.5 MW and 3.8 MW for H-beams. This for a species mix of 0.85 19 m -2 and a transmission efficiency of 0.7. Four injectors are in co and two through another one, and they are tilted of 20 deg from the radial direction. Injectors are designed for the energy recovery of the full energy ions. A prototype line, operated in 1987-88, has given the imput for the demensioning of the present system.First injectors are expected to be operational by the end of 1988. The present contribution describes the injection boxes, injection line, magnetic shielding, electrical circuity and power supplies, control and data acquisition systems, and the Fast Interlock Safety System (FISS). 7 refs.; 6 figs

  3. Impact of physical properties of biodiesel on the injection process in a common-rail direct injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudy, Frederic; Seers, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of biodiesel fuel properties on the injection mass flow rate of a diesel common-rail injection system. Simulations are first performed with ISO 4113 diesel fuel on a four-cylinder common-rail system to evaluate a single and triple injection strategies. For each injection strategy, the impact of modifying a single fuel property at a time is evaluated so as to quantify its influence on the injection process. The results show that fuel density is the main property that affects the injection process, such as total mass injected and pressure wave in the common-rail system. The fuel's viscosity and bulk modulus also influence, but to a lessen degree, the mass flow rate of the injector notably during multiple injection strategies as individual properties change the fuel's dampening property and friction coefficient.

  4. Diesel fuel injection system simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kiijärvi, Jukka

    2003-01-01

    The injection process of a medium-speed diesel engine was studied in detail, using a computer program developed for this purpose. In the program, the injection pump was replaced with the measured pressure at the junction between the pump and high-pressure pipe. The results were calculated with a full and approximately a half load. The calculated and measured results corresponded moderately well with each other. In the calculation, special interest was paid to the flow of the injection valve h...

  5. Dimethyl Ether in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, M.; Abata, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates......A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates...

  6. An automatic injection system for rapid radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmia, M.J.; Kreek, S.A.; Kadkhodayan, B.; Gregorich, K.E.; Lee, D.M.; Hoffman, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    A description is given of the Automated Injection System (AIS), a pneumatically actuated device for automated collection of nuclear reaction products from a He/KCl gas jet transport system. The AIS is used with the Automated Chemical Chromatographic Element Separation System; together these two devices facilitate completely automated separation procedures with improved speed and reproducibility

  7. Construction of tangential injection NBI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohga, Tokumichi; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru

    1995-09-01

    In the Upgrading of the JT-60, the vacuum vessel has been modified to a larger bore. This larger bore vacuum vessel yields a larger toroidal field ripple in the vicinity of a plasma surface because of closing the toroidal field coils and plasmas. A ripple loss of injected neutral beams, then, estimated to be 30-40% through ripple field in the beam injection with the present NBI system that injects the beam perpendicularly to the plasma. An effective way to decrease the ripple loss in the plasma is to inject the beam tangentially. Meanwhile, it has been determined possible with the JT-60 upgrading to use a horizontal port as a tangential beam injection, because of eliminating a group of outer horizontal poloidal coils which are used as a divertor coil in the former JT-60. The modification from perpendicular beamline to tangential one has been executed in four beamlines out of 14 units. Four tangential beamlines are installed in two beamline tanks which are newly fabricated and positioned co- and counter-injection, respectively. Most of the beamline components are reused except a couple of cancellation coils. The modification to the tangential beamline completed in 1993, and the beam injection experiments with the tangential have been conducted successfully since 1993. (author)

  8. Single Cell Transfection through Precise Microinjection with Quantitatively Controlled Injection Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yu Ting; Chen, Shuxun; Wang, Ran; Liu, Chichi; Kong, Chi-Wing; Li, Ronald A.; Cheng, Shuk Han; Sun, Dong

    2016-04-01

    Cell transfection is a technique wherein foreign genetic molecules are delivered into cells. To elucidate distinct responses during cell genetic modification, methods to achieve transfection at the single-cell level are of great value. Herein, we developed an automated micropipette-based quantitative microinjection technology that can deliver precise amounts of materials into cells. The developed microinjection system achieved precise single-cell microinjection by pre-patterning cells in an array and controlling the amount of substance delivered based on injection pressure and time. The precision of the proposed injection technique was examined by comparing the fluorescence intensities of fluorescent dye droplets with a standard concentration and water droplets with a known injection amount of the dye in oil. Injection of synthetic modified mRNA (modRNA) encoding green fluorescence proteins or a cocktail of plasmids encoding green and red fluorescence proteins into human foreskin fibroblast cells demonstrated that the resulting green fluorescence intensity or green/red fluorescence intensity ratio were well correlated with the amount of genetic material injected into the cells. Single-cell transfection via the developed microinjection technique will be of particular use in cases where cell transfection is challenging and genetically modified of selected cells are desired.

  9. Cost-Utility of a Single-Injection Combined Corticosteroid-Hyaluronic Acid Formulation vs a 2-Injection Regimen of Sequential Corticosteroid and Hyaluronic Acid Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzile, Etienne L; Deakon, Robert T; Vannabouathong, Christopher; Bhandari, Mohit; Lamontagne, Martin; McCormack, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown early and sustained relief with a combination therapy of a corticosteroid (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This can be administered via a single injection containing both products or as separate injections. The former may be more expensive when considering only product cost, but the latter incurs the additional costs and time of a second procedure. The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-utility of the single injection with the 2-injection regimen. The results of this analysis revealed that the single-injection formulation of a CS and HA may be cost-effective, assuming a willingness-to-pay of $50 000 per quality-adjusted life year gained, for symptomatic relief of OA symptoms. This treatment may also be more desirable to patients who find injections to be inconvenient or unpleasant.

  10. Microfabricated injectable drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Wang, Amy W.

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated, fully integrated drug delivery system capable of secreting controlled dosages of multiple drugs over long periods of time (up to a year). The device includes a long and narrow shaped implant with a sharp leading edge for implantation under the skin of a human in a manner analogous to a sliver. The implant includes: 1) one or more micromachined, integrated, zero power, high and constant pressure generating osmotic engine; 2) low power addressable one-shot shape memory polymer (SMP) valves for switching on the osmotic engine, and for opening drug outlet ports; 3) microfabricated polymer pistons for isolating the pressure source from drug-filled microchannels; 4) multiple drug/multiple dosage capacity, and 5) anisotropically-etched, atomically-sharp silicon leading edge for penetrating the skin during implantation. The device includes an externally mounted controller for controlling on-board electronics which activates the SMP microvalves, etc. of the implant.

  11. Efficacy of a single ultrasound-guided injection for the treatment of hip osteoarthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Atchia, Ismaël

    2011-01-01

    Intra-articular injection is effective for osteoarthritis, but the best single injection strategy is not known, nor are there established predictors of response. The objectives of this study were to assess and predict response to a single ultrasound-guided injection in moderate to severe hip osteoarthritis.

  12. Single Purpose Satellite Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Warren

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the need for tactically responsive space systems capable of supporting battlefield and fleet commanders. Terminology used to describe this category of satellite system varies according to organization or agency. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Lightsat, the Naval Space Command's SPINSAT, and the Air Force Space Command s TACSAT, are reviewed. The United State Space Command's space support mission IS addressed and the role single-purpose satellites can play ...

  13. The Advanced Photon Source injection timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Laird, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source consists of five accelerators. The injection timing system provides the signals required to cause a bunch emitted from the electron gun to navigate through intermediate accelerators to a specific bucket (1 out of 1296) within the storage ring. Two linacs and a positron accumulator ring operate at 60Hz while a booster synchrotron ramps and injects into the storage ring at 2Hz. The distributed, modular VME/VXI-based injection timing system is controlled by two EPICS-based input/output controllers (IOCs). Over 40 VME/VXI cards have been developed to implement the system. Card types range from 352MHz VXI timing modules to VME-based fiber optic fanouts and logic translators/drivers. All timing is distributed with fiber optics. Timing references are derived directly from machine low-level rf of 9.77MHz and 352MHz. The timing references provide triggers to programmable delay generators. Three grades of timing are provided. Precision timing is derived from commercial digital delay generators, intermediate precision timing is obtained from VXI 8-channel digital delay generators which provide timing with 25ns peak-to-peak jitter, and modest precision timing is provided by the APS event system. The timing system is fully integrated into the APS EPICS-based control system

  14. Increasing energy efficiency of a gasoline direct injection engine through optimal synchronization of single or double injection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Michela; Sorge, Ugo; Allocca, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Advantages of split injection in a GDI engine are studied through numerical simulation. ► At high load and speed, rich conditions, split injection does not improve engine performance. ► At moderate load and speed, lean conditions, double injection improves charge stratification. ► Optimal double injection increases work, reduces HC and increases NO. - Abstract: The greatest fuel efficiency advantages of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are achieved under the so-called mixed mode boosting, where mixture characteristics are properly adapted to the specific working condition. In particular, in the medium range of load and speed, overall lean mixtures are suitable of being used in the so-called direct injection stratified charge operation. Present paper reports the results of numerical optimization analyses aimed at increasing the energetic efficiency of a GDI engine equipped with a high pressure multi-hole injector under both single and double injection events. In moderate-load moderate-speed lean conditions, the single or double injection synchronization in the working cycle is effected through a procedure that couples a 3D numerical model of the in-cylinder processes with an optimization tool. The choice of both the start of the injection events and the time of spark advance is realized to maximize the engine work. The optimal double injection solution is shown to increase the engine energy efficiency with respect to the case injection is realized in one shot, thus confirming that split injections improve the quality of the charge stratification under lean operation. The effect on the major pollutants is also discussed.

  15. An Innovative Needle-free Injection System: Comparison to 1 ml Standard Subcutaneous Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic, Nikola; Goyal, Pragun; Lou, Cheryl Hamer; Corwin, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    A needle-free delivery system may lead to improved satisfaction and compliance, as well as reduced anxiety among patients requiring frequent or ongoing injections. This report describes a first-in-man assessment comparing Portal Instruments' innovative needle-free injection system with subcutaneous injections using a 27G needle. Forty healthy volunteer participants each received a total of four injections of 1.0 mL sterile saline solution, two with a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle, and two using the Portal injection system. Perception of pain was measured using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Injection site reactions were assessed at 2 min and at 20-30 min after each injection. Follow-up contact was made 24-48 h after the injections. Subject preference regarding injection type was also assessed. VAS pain scores at Portal injection sites met the criteria to be considered non-inferior to the pain reported at 27G needle injection sites (i.e., upper 95% confidence bound less than +5 mm). Based on a mixed effects model, at time 0, accounting for potential confounding variables, the adjusted difference in VAS scores indicated that Portal injections were 6.5 mm lower than the 27G needle injections (95% CI -10.5, -2.5). No clinically important adverse events were noted. Portal injections were preferred by 24 (60%) of the subjects (P = 0.0015). As an early step in the development of this new needle-free delivery system, the current study has shown that a 1.0-mL saline injection can be given with less pain reported than a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle.

  16. Optimal sampling strategies to assess inulin clearance in children by the inulin single-injection method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, Lyonne K.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Cransberg, Karlien; Vulto, Arnold G.

    2003-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate in patients can be determined by estimating the plasma clearance of inulin with the single-injection method. In this method, a single bolus injection of inulin is administered and several blood samples are collected. For practical and convenient application of this method

  17. Electroluminescence from single nanowires by tunnel injection: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmler, Mariano A.; Bao, Jiming; Shalish, Ilan; Yi, Wei; Yoon, Joonah; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh; Capasso, Federico

    2007-01-01

    We present a hybrid light-emitting diode structure composed of an n-type gallium nitride nanowire on a p-type silicon substrate in which current is injected along the length of the nanowire. The device emits ultraviolet light under both bias polarities. Tunnel-injection of holes from the p-type substrate (under forward bias) and from the metal (under reverse bias) through thin native oxide barriers consistently explains the observed electroluminescence behaviour. This work shows that the stan...

  18. Discharge characteristics of a high speed fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Robertson

    1925-01-01

    Discussed here are some discharge characteristics of a fuel injection system intended primarily for high speed service. The system consisted of a cam actuated fuel pump, a spring loaded automatic injection valve, and a connecting tube.

  19. Opto-injection into single living cells by femtosecond near-infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng

    This dissertation presents a novel technique to deliver membrane impermeable molecules into single living cells with the assistance of femtosecond (fs) near-infrared (NIR) laser pulses. This approach merges ultrafast laser technology with key biological, biomedical, and medical applications, such as gene transfection, gene therapy and drug delivery. This technique promises several major advantages, namely, very high transfection efficiency, high cell survival rate (≈100%) and fully preserved cell viabilities. It is also a promising method to deliver molecules into cells that are difficult or even completely resistant to established physical methods, such as microinjection by glass pipettes, electroporation, and biolistics. In this work, the system for fs NIR opto-injection was designed and built. Successful fs NIR opto-injection has been performed on several cell systems including single mammalian cells (bovine aortic endothelial cells), marine animal eggs (Spisula solidissima oocytes), and human cancer cells (fibrosarcoma HT1080) cultured in a tissue-like environment. The connections between laser parameters and cell responses were explored through further experiments and in-depth analyses, especially the relationship between dye uptake rate and incident laser intensity, and the relationship between pore size created on cell membranes and incident laser intensity. Dye uptake rate of the target cells was observed to depend on incident laser intensity. Pore size was found dependent on incident laser intensity. The conclusion was made that laser-induced breakdown and plasma-induced ablation in cell membrane are the physical principles that govern the process of fs NIR opto-injection.

  20. Development of pellet injection systems for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing innovative pellet injection systems for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic fusion confinement devices for about 20 years. Recently, the ORNL development has focused on meeting the complex fueling needs of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In this paper, we describe the ongoing research and development activities that will lead to a ITER prototype pellet injector test stand. The present effort addresses three main areas: (1) an improved pellet feed and delivery system for centrifuge injectors, (2) a long-pulse (up to steady-state) hydrogen extruder system, and (3) tritium extruder technology. The final prototype system must be fully tritium compatible and will be used to demonstrate the operating parameters and the reliability required for the ITER fueling application

  1. Single-needle temporomandibular joint arthrocentesis with hyaluronic acid injections. Preliminary data after a five-injection protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, D; Guarda-Nardini, L; Ferronato, G

    2009-10-01

    The classical technique for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthrocentesis provides a double access to the joint space, which may lead to patient's postoperatory discomfort. For this reason, a less invasive, single-needle approach has been recently described, and the present investigation reports findings on a case series of patients with TMJ osteoarthritis treated with hyaluronic acid injections following a single needle arthrocentesis. METHODS. Fourteen consecutive patients with a diagnosis of TMJ osteoarthritis according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporo-mandibular Disorders were treated with a cycle of five weekly injections of hyaluronic acid after arthrocentesis. A number of subjective (pain at rest and mastication, masticatory efficiency, functional limitation, subjective efficacy of treatment, tolerability of treatment) and objective (maximum assisted and unassited mouth opening, protrusive and laterotrusive movements) outcome variables were assessed before and after the treatment period. At the end of the five-injection protocol, significant improvements were showed in almost all the subjective outcome variables. Tolerability of the treatment was good on a four-point ordinal scale since the time of the first injection. The present investigation suggested that the single needle technique for TMJ hyaluronic injection following arthrocentesis in osteoarthritic joints may have promising applications in the clinical setting, which have to be confirmed with future studies.

  2. Electroluminescence from single nanowires by tunnel injection: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmler, Mariano A.; Bao, Jiming; Shalish, Ilan; Yi, Wei; Yoon, Joonah; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh; Capasso, Federico

    2007-06-01

    We present a hybrid light-emitting diode structure composed of an n-type gallium nitride nanowire on a p-type silicon substrate in which current is injected along the length of the nanowire. The device emits ultraviolet light under both bias polarities. Tunnel injection of holes from the p-type substrate (under forward bias) and from the metal (under reverse bias) through thin native oxide barriers consistently explains the observed electroluminescence behaviour. This work shows that the standard p-n junction model is generally not applicable to this kind of device structure.

  3. Injectable hydrogels for central nervous system therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakulska, Malgosia M; Shoichet, Molly S; Ballios, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    Diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) including those in the brain, spinal cord and retina are devastating because the CNS has limited intrinsic regenerative capacity and currently available therapies are unable to provide significant functional recovery. Several promising therapies have been identified with the goal of restoring at least some of this lost function and include neuroprotective agents to stop or slow cellular degeneration, neurotrophic factors to stimulate cellular growth, neutralizing molecules to overcome the inhibitory environment at the site of injury, and stem cell transplant strategies to replace lost tissue. The delivery of these therapies to the CNS is a challenge because the blood–brain barrier limits the diffusion of molecules into the brain by traditional oral or intravenous routes. Injectable hydrogels have the capacity to overcome the challenges associated with drug delivery to the CNS, by providing a minimally invasive, localized, void-filling platform for therapeutic use. Small molecule or protein drugs can be distributed throughout the hydrogel which then acts as a depot for their sustained release at the injury site. For cell delivery, the hydrogel can reduce cell aggregation and provide an adhesive matrix for improved cell survival and integration. Additionally, by choosing a biodegradable or bioresorbable hydrogel material, the system will eventually be eliminated from the body. This review discusses both natural and synthetic injectable hydrogel materials that have been used for drug or cell delivery to the CNS including hyaluronan, methylcellulose, chitosan, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Matrigel. (paper)

  4. UP-GRADED RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAHN,H.FISCHER,W.SEMERTZIDIS,Y.K.WARBURTON,D.S.

    2003-05-12

    The design of the RHIC injection systems anticipated the possibility of filling and operating the rings with a 120 bunch pattern, corresponding to 110 bunches after allowing for the abort gap. Beam measurements during the 2002 run confirmed the possibility, although at the expense of severe transverse emittance growth and thus not on an operational basis. An improvement program was initiated with the goal of reducing the kicker rise time from 110 to {approx}95 ns and of minimizing pulse timing jitter and drift. The major components of the injection system are 4 kicker magnets and Blmlein pulsers using thyratron switches. The kicker terminating resistor and operating voltage was increased to reduce the rise time. Timing has been stabilized by using commercial trigger units and extremely stable dc supplies for the thyratron reservoir. A fiber optical connection between control room and the thyratron trigger unit has been provided, thereby allowing the operator to adjust timing individually for each kicker unit. The changes were successfully implemented for use in the RHIC operation.

  5. Symptomatic Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis After a Single Local Epidural Steroid Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tok, Chung Hong; Kaur, Shaleen; Gangi, Afshin

    2011-01-01

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder that can manifest with progressive neurological deficits. It is characterized by abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated epidural fat commonly associated with the administration of exogenous steroids associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies, and Cushing syndrome (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202–211, 2005). Occasionally, spinal epidural lipomatosis may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or in patients with endocrinopathies, primarily in obese individuals (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202–211, 2005). However, spinal lumbar epidural lipomatosis resulting from local steroid injection has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 45-year-old diabetic man with claudication that was probably due to symptomatic lumbar spinal lipomatosis resulting from a single local epidural steroid injection.

  6. Spread of dye after single thoracolumbar paravertebral injection in infants. A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albokrinov, Andrew A; Fesenko, Ulbolgan A

    2014-06-01

    Thoracolumbar paravertebral block (PVB) is one method of providing regional anaesthesia for abdominal wall surgery in children. It is common practice when performing a PVB for abdominal wall anaesthesia to inject a certain volume of local anaesthetic solution in the paravertebral space at several levels. This increases the duration of the procedure and makes it more invasive. To determine the character of dye spread in infants' paravertebral space, to check the feasibility of single injection PVB and to determine the optimal volume of injectate necessary to cover the paravertebral segments responsible for sensation of the lower abdomen. Experimental study. Single centre, University Hospital, April 2013 to August 2013. Twenty infant cadavers. Ultrasound-guided, single thoracolumbar paravertebral injections were performed on infant cadavers. The total number of paravertebral segments stained after dye injection and specific vertebral levels of cephalad and caudad spread of dye in the paravertebral space. Dye was present in the paravertebral spaces of all cadavers. Spread of dye within the paravertebral space was different depending on dye volume. Strong correlation was found between the volume of injectate and the number of paravertebral segments involved. The number of spinal nerve roots surrounded with dye corresponded with the number of paravertebral segments involved. T11, T12 and L1 nerve roots were stained in all cadavers. The optimal injectate volume to involve T10-L1 segments was defined as 0.2 to 0.3  ml  kg(-1). Single thoracolumbar paravertebral injection at T12-L1 level leads to caudad and cephalad spread of injectate in a dose-dependent manner. Single injection thoracolumbar paravertebral injections could be performed for lower abdomen anaesthesia in infants. We suggest that a single injection of 0.2 to 0.3  ml  kg(-1) of local anaesthetic in the thoracolumbar paravertebral space could provide adequate coverage of the dermatomes of the lower

  7. Contractile injection systems of bacteriophages and related systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Nicholas M I; van Raaij, Mark J; Leiman, Petr G

    2018-01-01

    through the target cell membrane. Subsequently, the bacteriophage genome is injected through the tube. The structural transformation of the bacteriophage T4 baseplate upon binding to the host cell has been recently described in near-atomic detail. In this review we discuss structural elements and features...... of this mechanism that are likely to be conserved in all contractile injection systems (systems evolutionary and structurally related to contractile bacteriophage tails). These include the type VI secretion system (T6SS), which is used by bacteria to transfer effectors into other bacteria and into eukaryotic cells...

  8. Development of filter systems injection systems and mixing device evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loughborough, D.

    1989-01-01

    A problem when in-situ testing High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters is to ensure that the test aerosol provides a uniform challenge to the whole of the filter face. Uniform challenge is defined in this case as a concentration variation of aerosol across the plane of the duct of less than +/- 10%. Injecting into an open duct via a single point injector requires a minimum of 30 hydraulic duct diameters (De) between the injector and sample point to ensure a mixed flow. This may be reduced to 10De with the use of a Stairmand disc mixer. Methods of reducing the lengths of ducting required for an in-situ filter test have been investigated. Results shows that there is a minimum aerosol exit velocity below which the mixing length requirement may be substantially increased. By ensuring that this minimum velocity is exceeded, Harwell has developed a system of multiple point injectors in conjunction with a modified Stairmand disc which reduces the mixing length to 5.5De. Further work has investigated two plane devices which reduce the lengths of ducting to 4.0De, although these have an associated increased resistance to airflow

  9. Beam shaping element for compact fiber injection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichman, L.S.; Dickey, F.M.; Shagam, R.N.

    2000-01-05

    Injection of high power, multi-mode laser profiles into a fiber optic delivery system requires controlling a number of injection parameters to maximize throughput and minimize concerns for optical damage both at the entrance and exit faces of the fiber optic. A simple method for simultaneously achieving a compact fiber injection geometry and control of these injection parameters, independent of the input source characteristics, is provided by a refractive lenslet array and simple injection lens configuration. Design criteria together with analytical and experimental results for the refractive lenslet array and short focal length injection lens are presented. This arrangement provides a uniform spatial intensity distribution at the fiber injection plane to a large degree independent of the source mode structure, spatial profile, divergence, size, and/or alignment to the injection system. This technique has application to a number of laser systems where uniform illumination of a target or remote delivery of high peak power is desired.

  10. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  11. Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

  12. Amplitude Noise Suppression and Orthogonal Multiplexing Using Injection-Locked Single-Mode VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir; von Lerber, Tuomo; Lassas, Matti

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate BER reduction and orthogonal modulation using an injection locked single-mode VCSEL. It allows us suppressing an amplitude noise of optical signal and/or double the capacity of an information channel....

  13. Multi-Element Lean Direct Injection Combustor Single Element Demonstration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate the feasibility in a single element of a Multi-Element Lean Direct Injection, ME-LDI, Combustion concept. The concept will have the...

  14. Direct injection of functional single-domain antibodies from E. coli into human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Toribio, Ana; Muyldermans, Serge; Frankel, Gad; Fernández, Luis Ángel

    2010-12-08

    Intracellular proteins have a great potential as targets for therapeutic antibodies (Abs) but the plasma membrane prevents access to these antigens. Ab fragments and IgGs are selected and engineered in E. coli and this microorganism may be also an ideal vector for their intracellular delivery. In this work we demonstrate that single-domain Ab (sdAbs) can be engineered to be injected into human cells by E. coli bacteria carrying molecular syringes assembled by a type III protein secretion system (T3SS). The injected sdAbs accumulate in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells at levels ca. 10⁵-10⁶ molecules per cell and their functionality is shown by the isolation of sdAb-antigen complexes. Injection of sdAbs does not require bacterial invasion or the transfer of genetic material. These results are proof-of-principle for the capacity of E. coli bacteria to directly deliver intracellular sdAbs (intrabodies) into human cells for analytical and therapeutic purposes.

  15. Direct injection of functional single-domain antibodies from E. coli into human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Blanco-Toribio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular proteins have a great potential as targets for therapeutic antibodies (Abs but the plasma membrane prevents access to these antigens. Ab fragments and IgGs are selected and engineered in E. coli and this microorganism may be also an ideal vector for their intracellular delivery. In this work we demonstrate that single-domain Ab (sdAbs can be engineered to be injected into human cells by E. coli bacteria carrying molecular syringes assembled by a type III protein secretion system (T3SS. The injected sdAbs accumulate in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells at levels ca. 10⁵-10⁶ molecules per cell and their functionality is shown by the isolation of sdAb-antigen complexes. Injection of sdAbs does not require bacterial invasion or the transfer of genetic material. These results are proof-of-principle for the capacity of E. coli bacteria to directly deliver intracellular sdAbs (intrabodies into human cells for analytical and therapeutic purposes.

  16. The Injection Bumper System for LEIR

    CERN Document Server

    Fowler, A

    2004-01-01

    To satisfy the ion beam luminosity requirements for CERN's future Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a small accumulator, the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR), is being built in the injector chain of accelerators. LEIR will use a combined longitudinal and transverse multi-turn injection scheme which requires a bumper system comprising four individually pulsed dipole magnets. The paper discusses the bumper system, in particular the power supplies which will produce a pulsed current linearly decreasing from 1.2kA to zero in a time variable between 120µs and 300µs. Each power supply employs a primary discharge circuit, comprising a storage capacitor, an IGBT switch and the magnet load inductance, to establish the peak current, and a free-wheel circuit in parallel with the magnet, comprising a diode and capacitor, to produce the linear current slope. A novel feature of the circuit is the use of a variable bias voltage on the free-wheel capacitor, allowing continuous variation of the slope duration.

  17. A closed-form analytical solution for thermal single-well injection-withdrawal tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoojin; Pruess, Karsten

    2012-03-01

    Thermal single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tests entail pumping cold water into a hot and usually fractured reservoir, and monitoring the temperature recovery during subsequent backflow. Such tests have been proposed as a potential means to characterize properties of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), such as fracture spacing, connectivity, and porosity. In this paper we develop an analytical solution for thermal SWIW tests, using an idealized model of a single vertical fracture with linear flow geometry embedded in impermeable conductive wall rocks. The analytical solution shows that the time dependence of temperature recovery is dominated by the heat exchange between fracture and matrix rock, but strong thermal diffusivities of rocks as compared to typical solute diffusivities are not necessarily advantageous for characterizing fracture-matrix interactions. The effect of fracture aperture on temperature recovery during backflow is weak, particularly when the fracture aperture is smaller than 0.1 cm. The solution also shows that temperature recovery during backflow is independent of the applied injection and backflow rates. This surprising result implies that temperature recovery is independent of the height of the fracture, or the specific fracture-matrix interface areas per unit fracture length, suggesting that thermal SWIW tests will not be able to characterize fracture growth that may be achieved by stimulation treatments.

  18. TPX Neutral Beam Injection System design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Halle, A.; Bowen, O.N.; Edwards, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The existing Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Neutral Beam system is proposed to be modified for long pulse operation on the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Day one of TPX will call for one TFTR beamline modified for 1000 second pulse lengths oriented co-directional to the plasma current. The system design will be capable of accommodating an additional co-directional and a single counter directional beamline. For the TPX conceptual design, every attempt was made to use existing Neutral Beam hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary systems, service infrastructure, and control systems. This paper describes the moderate modifications required to the power systems, the ion sources, and the beam impinged surfaces of the ion dumps, the calorimeters, the various beam scrapers, and the neutralizers. Also described are the minimal modifications required to the vacuum, cryogenic, and gas systems and the major modification of replacing the beamline-torus duct in its entirety. Operational considerations for Neutral Beam subsystems over 1000 second pulse lengths will be explored including proposed operating scenarios for full steady state operation

  19. Operational considerations for the PSB H- Injection System

    CERN Document Server

    Weterings, W; Borburgh, J; Carli, C; Fowler, T; Goddard, B

    2010-01-01

    For the LINAC4 project the PS Booster (PSB) injection system will be upgraded. The 160 MeV Hbeam will be distributed to the 4 superimposed PSB synchrotron rings and horizontally injected by means of an H- charge-exchange system. Operational considerations for the injection system are presented, including expected beam losses from unwanted field stripping of H- and excited H0 and foil scattering, possible injection failure cases and expected stripping foil lifetimes. Loading assumptions for the internal beam dumps are discussed together with estimates of doses on various components.

  20. An optimization of injecting system in die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei WU

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available After many years of development, die casting technology of metallic materials has been matured. In this paper,the lower-support and its injecting system were created with commercial software. And then the simulation software FLOW3D was applied to study the flow behavior of the melt during injection filling process. Both temperature field and defect distribution were simulated. Based on these results, the better injecting system with two additional overflows wasadopted.

  1. All-in-polymer injection molded device for single cell capture using multilevel silicon master fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanzi, S.; Larsen, S.T.; Matteucci, M.

    2012-01-01

    This work demonstrates a novel all-in-polymer device for single cell capture applicable for biological recordings. The chip is injection molded and comprises a "cornered" (non planar) aperture. It has been demonstrated how cornered apertures are straightforward to mold in PDMS [1,2]. In this stud...... defects during demolding. Capturing of single PC12 cells has been demonstrated.......This work demonstrates a novel all-in-polymer device for single cell capture applicable for biological recordings. The chip is injection molded and comprises a "cornered" (non planar) aperture. It has been demonstrated how cornered apertures are straightforward to mold in PDMS [1,2]. In this study...

  2. 3D-CFD Simulation of Confined Cross-Flow Injection Process Using Single Piston Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elashmawy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Injection process into a confined cross flow is quite important for many applications including chemical engineering and water desalination technology. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of the injection process into a confined cross-flow of a round pipe using a single piston injection pump. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis has been carried out to investigate the effect of the locations of the maximum velocity and minimum pressure on the confined cross-flow process. The jet trajectory is analyzed and related to the injection pump shaft angle of rotation during the injection duty cycle by focusing on the maximum instant injection flow of the piston action. Results indicate a low effect of the jet trajectory within the range related to the injection pump operational conditions. Constant cross-flow was used and injection flow is altered to vary the jet to line flow ratio (QR. The maximum jet trajectory exhibits low penetration inside the cross-flow. The results showed three regions of the flow ratio effect zones with different behaviors. Results also showed that getting closer to the injection port causes a significant decrease on the locations of the maximum velocity and minimum pressure.

  3. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2008-04-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

  4. DIAGNOSTICS OF GASOLINE FUEL SYSTEMS WITH DIRECT INJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bulgakov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A method of diagnosing fuel systems with direct injection by means of producing a pressure oscillation in a hydraulic accumulator is presented. Having obtained a signal from pressure sensor it is possible to register a pressure drop at the moment of injection. If the system has a malfunction, then the pressure drop will be higher.

  5. Variable volume combustor with pre-nozzle fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-06

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of fuel nozzles, a pre-nozzle fuel injection system supporting the fuel nozzles, and a linear actuator to maneuver the fuel nozzles and the pre-nozzle fuel injection system.

  6. Single mode operation of a tea CO2 laser by a CW CO2 laser radiation injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silakhori, K.; Soltanmoradi, F.; Behjat, A.; Montazerghaem, M.; Sadr, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this research work, single mode operation based on injection of a CW laser beam into TEA CO 2 laser cavity has been demonstrated. The technique has vast applications in research programs for laser spectroscopy and optical pumping. The observed smooth pulse shapes indicated that the system is operating in a single mode of operation, where no additional PZT mounted elements or other cavity stabilizing devices have been used. In addition, it have been observed that the output energy has not been reduced when the laser was operating in a single mode of operation, compared with the case when the laser is operating in the multi-mode regime

  7. Optimization of refrigeration system with gas-injected scroll compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Baolong; Shi, Wenxing; Han, Linjun; Li, Xianting [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Gas refrigerant injection has been proven as an effective method to improve the performance of the scroll compressor and its refrigeration system under high compression ratio working conditions. Much research on the injected scroll compressor and its system has been conducted, but the universal control and design method is still lacking. A model of the refrigeration system with a gas-injected scroll compressor is developed in this paper. With this model, the effects of gas injection on the system and component parameters are investigated. Based on the identified evaporator characteristics and thermodynamic analysis, a set of general principles for the design and operation of the refrigeration or heat pump system with a gas-injected scroll compressor is proposed. (author)

  8. The efficacy of multiple versus single hyaluronic acid injections: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concoff, Andrew; Sancheti, Parag; Niazi, Faizan; Shaw, Peter; Rosen, Jeffrey

    2017-12-21

    Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (IA-HA) is a common therapy used to treat knee pain and suppress knee inflammation in knee osteoarthritis (OA), typically prescribed in regimens ranging from a single injection to 5 weekly injections given once weekly. We conducted a systematic review to determine the efficacy of IA-HA, with subgroup analyses to explore the differences in knee pain and adverse events (AEs) across different dosing regimens. We conducted a systematic search of the literature to identify studies evaluating IA-HA for the management of knee OA compared to IA-saline. Primary outcome measure was the mean knee pain score at 13 Weeks (3 months) or 26 weeks (6 months). Secondary outcome was the number of treatment-related AEs and treatment-related serious adverse events (SAEs). We evaluated differences in levels of pain and AEs/SAEs between dosing regimens compared to IA-Saline. Thirty articles were included. Overall, IA-HA injections were associated with less knee pain compared to IA-Saline injections for all dosing regimens. 2-4 injections of IA-HA vs. IA-Saline produced the largest effect size at both 3-months and 6-months (Standard mean difference [SMD] = -0.76; -0.98 to -0.53, 95% CI, P injection studies yielded a non-significant treatment effect at 3 and 6 months, while ≥5 5 injections demonstrated a significant improvement in pain only at 6 months. Five or more injections of IA-HA were associated with a higher risk of treatment-related AEs compared to IA-Saline (Risk ratio [RR] = 1.67; 1.09 to 2.56 95% CI, p = 0.02), which was a result not seen within the 1 and 2-4 injection subgroups. Overall, 2-4 and ≥5 injection regimens provided pain relief over IA-Saline, while single injection did not. Intra-articular injections of HA used in a 2-4 injection treatment regimen provided the greatest benefit when compared to IA-Saline with respect to pain improvement in patients with knee OA, and was generally deemed safe with few to no

  9. Layout considerations for the PSB H- injection system

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Carli, C; Chanel, M; Fowler, A; Goddard, B; Weterings, W

    2009-01-01

    The layout of the PSB H- injection system is described, including the arguments for the geometry and the required equipment performance parameters. The longitudinal positions of the main elements are specified, together with the injected and circulating beam axes. The assumptions used in determining the geometry are listed.

  10. Rapid induction of dopamine sensitization in the nucleus accumbens shell induced by a single injection of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Bryan F; Bryan, Myranda A; Popov, Pavlo; Robinson, Terry E; Aragona, Brandon J

    2017-05-01

    Repeated intermittent exposure to cocaine results in the neurochemical sensitization of dopamine (DA) transmission within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Indeed, the excitability of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is enhanced within hours of initial psychostimulant exposure. However, it is not known if this is accompanied by a comparably rapid change in the ability of cocaine to increase extracellular DA concentrations in the ventral striatum. To address this question we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in awake-behaving rats to measure DA responses in the NAc shell following an initial intravenous cocaine injection, and then again 2-h later. Both injections quickly elevated DA levels in the NAc shell, but the second cocaine infusion produced a greater effect than the first, indicating sensitization. This suggests that a single injection of cocaine induces sensitization-related plasticity very rapidly within the mesolimbic DA system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Injection System of SAGA Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Iwasaki, Yoshitaka; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Okajima, Toshihiro; Takabayashi, Yuichi; Tomimasu, Takio; Yoshida, Katuhide

    2005-01-01

    Saga light Source is a 1.4-GeV electron storage ring with a circumference of 75.6m. The injector is a 250-MeV linac producing 1 ms macro-pulse with a peak current of 12mA and repetition rate of 1Hz. The output beam from the linac is transported though a transport line, and injected into the ring though a septum magnet with a bending angle of 20-degree. The transport line consists of two bending magnets, two quadrupole doublelets, and a quadrupole singlet. The bump orbit is formed by four kicker magnets, two of which are installed at both sides of septum magnet, and other two are positioned apart by one magnet cell of the ring. They are excited by sinusoidal electric currents with a half width of 0.5 ms. The beam optics for the injection trajectory is computed and shown at control room, the parameters for which are provided directly from the power supply control server PC. The operator is able to see real-time result of the beam trajectory calculation. This tool is quite effective to optimize the magnets param...

  12. Ultrasound-guided single-penetration dual-injection block for leg and foot surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Jens; Johansen, Karina; Christensen, Karen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new approach to blocking the sciatic and saphenous nerves in the proximal thigh (level of the lesser trochanter or immediately below) using a single-penetration dual-injection (SPEDI) technique. The popliteal-sciatic approach necessitates repositioning of the leg exposing the poplit...

  13. CANDU 6 liquid injection shutdown system waterhammer analysis using PTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Deuk Yoon; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Yong Sang; Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Seok Bum

    1996-06-01

    An in-core LOCA could result in flooding of the helium header in the liquid injection shutdown system. Flooding of the helium header will result in severe pressure transients (waterhammer) in the liquid injection shutdown system when the shutdown signal is initiated. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic effects of this event, a pressure transient analysis has been performed. This analysis is performed using PTRAN, which is a computer program based on the method of characteristics. The results of this analysis are used in the stress analysis of the piping and pipe supports to ensure that the liquid injection shutdown system can withstand the pressure transient loadings. This analysis report documents the results of waterhammer analysis performed for the liquid injection shutdown system for the Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 2, 3 and 4. 4 tabs., 11 figs., 15 refs. (Author)

  14. The Influence of runner system on production of injection molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janostik Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study describes the influence of runner system on rheological properties during the injection molding process. Economic effects on the amount of production are discussed as well. Autodesk Moldflow Synergy 2016 (Moldflow was used for the study of the injection process. Three suggestions of the runner system, cold runner system, hot runner system and the combination of cold–hot runner system have been promoted. These three variants underwent the rheological and economic analysis. As a result, recommendations for the application of the runner system for the required amount of production have been suggested

  15. Discharge characteristics of a simulated unit injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Edred T

    1938-01-01

    Rate-of-discharge curves that show the discharge characteristics of an injection system having a very short fuel passage are presented. The rate of discharge closely follows the rate of displacement of the injection-pump plunger for open nozzles in which the maximum calculated pressures at the orifice do not exceed a certain value, which is dependent on the particular injection pump. With small orifices and high pump speeds, the rate of discharge does not follow the rate of plunger displacement because the higher discharge pressure results in increased leakage with corresponding decrease in discharge rate. The rate of discharge is not directly related to the rate of plunger displacement with automatic injection valves having closed nozzles. The types of pump check valve tested did not control the rate of cut-off or the discharge rate but they did affect the injection lag. Use of the short fuel passage eliminated the formation of secondary discharges.

  16. Single intra-articular injection of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid for hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Fabrizio

    2016-03-01

    Intra-articular (IA) injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) into the hip joint appears to be safe and well tolerated but only a small number of randomized clinical trials in humans has been published. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a single IA injection of high-molecular-weight (2800 kDa) HA (Coxarthrum) for hip osteoarthritis. All patients received a single IA administration of 2.5 % sodium hyaluronate (75 mg/3 mL) of high molecular weight. Fluoroscopy requires an iodized contrast medium (iopamidol, 1 ml) which highlights the capsule before administering HA. Patients were evaluated before IA injection (T0), after 3 months, after 6 months and after 1 year from injection. Results were evaluated by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI II), Harris Hip Score and a visual analog scale of pain (pain VAS). All treated patients were considered for statistical analysis. Two hundred seven patients were included at T0. The mean age was 67 years (range 46-81). Regarding BPI severity score, changes in pain between T0 and the three following visits were statistically highly significant (p injection of Coxarthrum is effective from the third month and that the results are stable or continue to improve up to 1 year. IV.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of single co-labeled mesenchymal stromal cells after intracardial injection in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, J.; Adam, G.; Peldschus, K. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Wicklein, D.; Schumacher, U. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. of Anatomy II: Experimental Morphology; Didie, M. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Pharmacology; Lange, C. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Bone Marrow Transplantation

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to establish co-labeling of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) for the detection of single MSC in-vivo by MRI and histological validation. Materials and Methods: Mouse MSC were co-labeled with fluorescent iron oxide micro-particles and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE). The cellular iron content was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cell proliferation and expression of characteristic surface markers were determined by flow cytometry. The chondrogenic differentiation capacity was assessed. Different amounts of cells (n1 = 5000, n2 = 15 000, n3 = 50 000) were injected into the left heart ventricle of 12 mice. The animals underwent sequential MRI on a clinical 3.0T scanner (Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands). For histological validation cryosections were examined by fluorescent microscopy. Results: Magnetic and fluorescent labeling of MSC was established (mean cellular iron content 23.6 ± 3 pg). Flow cytometry showed similar cell proliferation and receptor expression of labeled and unlabeled MSC. Chondrogenic differentiation of labeled MSC was verified. After cell injection MRI revealed multiple signal voids in the brain and fewer signal voids in the kidneys. In the brain, an average of 4.6 ± 1.2 (n1), 9.0 ± 3.6 (n2) and 25.0 ± 1.0 (n3) signal voids were detected per MRI slice. An average of 8.7 ± 3.1 (n1), 22.0 ± 6.1 (n2) and 89.8 ± 6.5 (n3) labeled cells per corresponding stack of adjacent cryosections could be detected in the brain. Statistical correlation of the numbers of MRI signal voids in the brain and single MSC found by histology revealed a correlation coefficient of r = 0.91. Conclusion: The study demonstrates efficient magnetic and fluorescent co-labeling of MSC and their detection on a single cell level in mice by in-vivo MRI and histology. The described techniques may broaden the methods for in-vivo tracking of MSC. (orig.)

  18. Spatio-temporally controlled transfection by quantitative injection into a single cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyosung; Park, Hang-soo; Yu, Jewon; Hong, Sunghoi; Choi, Yeonho

    2015-10-01

    Transfection-based cellular control has been widely used in biology; however, conventional transfection methods cannot control spatio-temporal differences in gene expression or the quantity of delivered materials such as external DNA or RNA. Here, we present a non-viral and spatio-temporally controlled transfection technique of a quantitative injection into a single cell. DNA was quantitatively injected into a single cell at a desired location and time, and the optimal gene delivery and expression conditions were determined based on the amount of the delivered DNA and the transfection efficacy. Interestingly, an injection of 1500 DNAs produced an about average 30% gene expression efficiency, which was the optimal condition, and gene expression was sustained for more than 14 days. In a single cell, fluorescent intensity and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results were compared for the quantity of gene expression. The high coincidence of both results suggests that the fluorescence intensity can reveal gene expression level which was investigated by PCR. In addition, 3 multiple DNA genes were successfully expressed in a single cell with different ratio. Overall, these results demonstrate that spatio-temporally controlled transfection by quantitative transfection is a useful technique for regulating gene expression in a single cell, which suggests that this technique may be used for stem cell research, including the creation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of injection speed and volume on perceived pain during subcutaneous injections into the abdomen and thigh: a single-centre, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, T; Nosek, L; Dellweg, S; Zijlstra, E; Præstmark, K A; Kildegaard, J; Nielsen, G; Sparre, T

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess pain associated with subcutaneous injection into the abdomen and thigh of different combinations of injection speeds and volumes. The study was a single-centre, one-visit, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial in 82 adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes receiving daily injections of insulin or glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists. Participants received 17 subcutaneous injections (12 in abdomen, 5 in thigh) of saline at different injection speeds (150, 300 and 450 µl/s), with different volumes (400, 800, 1200 and 1600 µl), and two needle insertions without any injection. Pain was evaluated on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) (0 mm no pain, 100 mm worst pain) and on a yes/no scale for pain acceptability. Injection speed had no impact on injection pain (p = 0.833). Injection of larger volumes caused significantly more pain [VAS least square mean differences 1600 vs. 400 µl, 7 · 2 mm (95% confidence interval - CI; 4.6-9.7; p technique to reduce their injection pain. Furthermore, these findings may have important implications for the development of new injection devices and drug formulations for clinical practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Ambiguity in measuring matrix diffusion with single-well injection/recovery tracer tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessoff, S.C.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    1997-01-01

    Single-well injection/recovery tracer tests are considered for use in characterizing and quantifying matrix diffusion in dual-porosity aquifers. Numerical modeling indicates that neither regional drift in homogeneous aquifers, nor heterogeneity in aquifers having no regional drift, nor hydrodynamic dispersion significantly affects these tests. However, when drift is coupled simultaneously with heterogeneity, they can have significant confounding effects on tracer return. This synergistic effect of drift and heterogeneity may help explain irreversible flow and inconsistent results sometimes encountered in previous single-well injection/recovery tracer tests. Numerical results indicate that in a hypothetical single-well injection/recovery tracer test designed to demonstrate and measure dual-porosity characteristics in a fractured dolomite, the simultaneous effects of drift and heterogeneity sometimes yields responses similar to those anticipated in a homogeneous dual-porosity formation. In these cases, tracer recovery could provide a false indication of the occurrence of matrix diffusion. Shortening the shut-in period between injection and recovery periods may make the test less sensitive to drift. Using multiple tracers having different diffusion characteristics, multiple tests having different pumping schedules, and testing the formation at more than one location would decrease the ambiguity in the interpretation of test data.

  1. Single-frequency injection-seeded Q-switched Ho:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Gao, Chunqing; Na, Quanxin; Zhang, Yixuan; Ye, Qing; Gao, Mingwei

    2017-04-01

    An injection-seeded Ho:YAG laser at 2090 nm with changeable pulse repetition frequency (PRF) is demonstrated. Containing a Ho:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator (NPRO) seed, a slave laser, and a single-pass amplifier, the laser delivered single-frequency pulses with energy ranging from 31.4 to 12.7 mJ. The corresponding pulse duration and PRF varied between 102-215 ns and 150-750 Hz, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest PRF ever obtained from a single-frequency Ho:YAG laser.

  2. Injection of a single electron from static to moving quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Benoit; Hermelin, Sylvain; Mortemousque, Pierre-André; Takada, Shintaro; Yamamoto, Michihisa; Tarucha, Seigo; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Bäuerle, Christopher; Meunier, Tristan

    2016-05-27

    We study the injection mechanism of a single electron from a static quantum dot into a moving quantum dot. The moving quantum dots are created with surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in a long depleted channel. We demonstrate that the injection process is characterized by an activation law with a threshold that depends on the SAW amplitude and on the dot-channel potential gradient. By sufficiently increasing the SAW modulation amplitude, we can reach a regime where the transfer has unity probability and is potentially adiabatic. This study points to the relevant regime to use moving dots in quantum information protocols.

  3. All-in-polymer injection molded device for single cell capture using multilevel silicon master fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanzi, S.; Larsen, S.T.; Matteucci, M.

    2012-01-01

    This work demonstrates a novel all-in-polymer device for single cell capture applicable for biological recordings. The chip is injection molded and comprises a "cornered" (non planar) aperture. It has been demonstrated how cornered apertures are straightforward to mold in PDMS [1,2]. In this study...... we demonstrate cornered apertures made in a thermoplastic polymer. One of the advantages of cornered apertures is the ease of microscopy under a standard inverted optical microscope, when using transparent materials. After the part is injection molded, the sealing of the chip is performed by thermal...

  4. Efficient spin-current injection in single-molecule magnet junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqing Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study theoretically spin transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM in the sequential and cotunneling regimes, where the SMM is weakly coupled to one ferromagnetic and one normal-metallic leads. By a master-equation approach, it is found that the spin polarization injected from the ferromagnetic lead is amplified and highly polarized spin-current can be generated, due to the exchange coupling between the transport electron and the anisotropic spin of the SMM. Moreover, the spin-current polarization can be tuned by the gate or bias voltage, and thus an efficient spin injection device based on the SMM is proposed in molecular spintronics.

  5. Pressure Fluctuations in a Common-Rail Fuel Injection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine experimentally the instantaneous pressures at the discharge orifice of a common-rail fuel injection system in which the timing valve and cut-off valve were at some distance from the automatic fuel injection valve, and also to determine the methods by which the pressure fluctuations could be controlled. The results show that pressure wave phenomena occur between the high-pressure reservoir and the discharge orifice, but that these pressure waves can be controlled so as to be advantageous to the injection of the fuel. The results also give data applicable to the design of such an injection system for a high-speed compression-ignition engine.

  6. Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R L; Baumgartner, L K; Miller, D N; Repert, D A; Böhlke, J K

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 microM) and ammonium (19 to 625 microM) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with (15)N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02-0.28 mumol (L aquifer)(-1) h(-1) with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 mumol (L aquifer)(-1) h(-1) with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations.

  7. Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.L.; Baumgartner, L.K.; Miller, D.N.; Repert, D.A.; Böhlke, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 μM) and ammonium (19 to 625 μM) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with 15N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02–0.28 μmol (L aquifer)−1 h−1 with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 μmol (L aquifer)−1 h−1 with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations.

  8. The acceptability of three vaccine injections given to infants during a single clinic visit in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tabana, Hanani; Dudley, Lilian D.; Knight, Stephen; Cameron, Neil; Mahomed, Hassan; Goliath, Charlyn; Eggers, Rudolf; Wiysonge, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) has increased the number of antigens and injections administered at one visit. There are concerns that more injections at a single immunisation visit could decrease vaccination coverage. We assessed the acceptability and acceptance of three vaccine injections at a single immunisation visit by caregivers and vaccinators in South Africa. Methods A mixed methods exploratory study of caregivers and vaccinators at clinics in two prov...

  9. Manipulation and Immobilization of a Single Fluorescence Nanosensor for Selective Injection into Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairulazwan; Maruyama, Hisataka; Masuda, Taisuke; Arai, Fumihito

    2016-12-01

    Manipulation and injection of single nanosensors with high cell viability is an emerging field in cell analysis. We propose a new method using fluorescence nanosensors with a glass nanoprobe and optical control of the zeta potential. The nanosensor is fabricated by encapsulating a fluorescence polystyrene nanobead into a lipid layer with 1,3,3-trimethylindolino-6'-nitrobenzopyrylospiran (SP), which is a photochromic material. The nanobead contains iron oxide nanoparticles and a temperature-sensitive fluorescent dye, Rhodamine B. The zeta potential of the nanosensor switches between negative and positive by photo-isomerization of SP with ultraviolet irradiation. The positively-charged nanosensor easily adheres to a negatively-charged glass nanoprobe, is transported to a target cell, and then adheres to the negatively-charged cell membrane. The nanosensor is then injected into the cytoplasm by heating with a near-infrared (NIR) laser. As a demonstration, a single 750 nm nanosensor was picked-up using a glass nanoprobe with optical control of the zeta potential. Then, the nanosensor was transported and immobilized onto a target cell membrane. Finally, it was injected into the cytoplasm using a NIR laser. The success rates of pick-up and cell immobilization of the nanosensor were 75% and 64%, respectively. Cell injection and cell survival rates were 80% and 100%, respectively.

  10. Manipulation and Immobilization of a Single Fluorescence Nanosensor for Selective Injection into Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairulazwan; Maruyama, Hisataka; Masuda, Taisuke; Arai, Fumihito

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation and injection of single nanosensors with high cell viability is an emerging field in cell analysis. We propose a new method using fluorescence nanosensors with a glass nanoprobe and optical control of the zeta potential. The nanosensor is fabricated by encapsulating a fluorescence polystyrene nanobead into a lipid layer with 1,3,3-trimethylindolino-6′-nitrobenzopyrylospiran (SP), which is a photochromic material. The nanobead contains iron oxide nanoparticles and a temperature-sensitive fluorescent dye, Rhodamine B. The zeta potential of the nanosensor switches between negative and positive by photo-isomerization of SP with ultraviolet irradiation. The positively-charged nanosensor easily adheres to a negatively-charged glass nanoprobe, is transported to a target cell, and then adheres to the negatively-charged cell membrane. The nanosensor is then injected into the cytoplasm by heating with a near-infrared (NIR) laser. As a demonstration, a single 750 nm nanosensor was picked-up using a glass nanoprobe with optical control of the zeta potential. Then, the nanosensor was transported and immobilized onto a target cell membrane. Finally, it was injected into the cytoplasm using a NIR laser. The success rates of pick-up and cell immobilization of the nanosensor were 75% and 64%, respectively. Cell injection and cell survival rates were 80% and 100%, respectively. PMID:27916931

  11. Manipulation and Immobilization of a Single Fluorescence Nanosensor for Selective Injection into Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairulazwan Hashim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation and injection of single nanosensors with high cell viability is an emerging field in cell analysis. We propose a new method using fluorescence nanosensors with a glass nanoprobe and optical control of the zeta potential. The nanosensor is fabricated by encapsulating a fluorescence polystyrene nanobead into a lipid layer with 1,3,3-trimethylindolino-6′-nitrobenzopyrylospiran (SP, which is a photochromic material. The nanobead contains iron oxide nanoparticles and a temperature-sensitive fluorescent dye, Rhodamine B. The zeta potential of the nanosensor switches between negative and positive by photo-isomerization of SP with ultraviolet irradiation. The positively-charged nanosensor easily adheres to a negatively-charged glass nanoprobe, is transported to a target cell, and then adheres to the negatively-charged cell membrane. The nanosensor is then injected into the cytoplasm by heating with a near-infrared (NIR laser. As a demonstration, a single 750 nm nanosensor was picked-up using a glass nanoprobe with optical control of the zeta potential. Then, the nanosensor was transported and immobilized onto a target cell membrane. Finally, it was injected into the cytoplasm using a NIR laser. The success rates of pick-up and cell immobilization of the nanosensor were 75% and 64%, respectively. Cell injection and cell survival rates were 80% and 100%, respectively.

  12. Single injection thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB for breast surgery in morbidly obese patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kulkarni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbidly obese (MO patients with associated restrictive airway disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and coronary artery disease pose challenge to an anesthesiologist. Regional block combined with general anesthesia (GA is the anesthetic technique of choice as it will decrease the requirement of opioids, anesthetics, and postoperative respiratory depression. A MO patient for modified radical mastectomy was successfully managed with single-injection thoracic paravertebral block and conventional GA.

  13. Chemical castration by a single bilateral intra-testicular injection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences. (P-ISSN 1595-093X/ E-ISSN 2315-6201). Mohammed & James/Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences (2013) 11(1): 62-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sokjvs.v11i1.10. Chemical castration by a single bilateral intra-testicular injection of chlorhexidine gluconate and cetrimide in bucks.

  14. Characteristics of pressure wave in common rail fuel injection system of high-speed direct injection diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Herfatmanesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of high-pressure common rail equipment now provides diesel engines possibility to apply as many as eight separate injection pulses within the engine cycle for reducing emissions and for smoothing combustion. With these complicated injection arrangements, optimizations of operating parameters for various driving conditions are considerably difficult, particularly when integrating fuel injection parameters with other operating parameters such as exhaust gas recirculation rate and boost pressure together for evaluating calibration results. Understanding the detailed effects of fuel injection parameters upon combustion characteristics and emission formation is therefore particularly critical. In this article, the results and discussion of experimental investigations on a high-speed direct injection light-duty diesel engine test bed are presented for evaluating and analyzing the effects of main adjustable parameters of the fuel injection system on all regulated emission gases and torque performance. Main injection timing, rail pressure, pilot amount, and particularly pilot timing have been examined. The results show that optimization of each of those adjustable parameters is beneficial for emission reduction and torque improvement under different operating conditions. By exploring the variation in the interval between the pilot injection and the main injection, it is found that the pressure wave in the common rail has a significant influence on the subsequent injection. This suggests that special attentions must be paid for adjusting pilot timing or any injection interval when multi-injection is used. With analyzing the fuel amount oscillation of the subsequent injections to pilot separation, it demonstrates that the frequency of regular oscillations of the actual fuel amount or the injection pulse width with the variation in pilot separation is always the same for a specified fuel injection system, regardless of engine speed

  15. Validation of the extension of the range of application and of the single system of injection for the determination of total nitrogen in petroleum and its derivatives by chemiluminescence; Validacao da ampliacao da faixa de aplicacao e do sistema unico de injecao para a determinacao de nitrogenio total em petroleos e derivados por quimiluminescencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maria de Fatima Pereira dos [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG(Brazil)]. E-mail: santos@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Tamanqueira, Juliana Boechat [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Magalhaes, Julio Cesar Dias [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Avaliacao de Petroleo; Oliveira, Elcio Cruz de [Transpetro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Logistica e Planejamento; Vaitsman, Delmo Santiago [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2003-12-01

    With the objectives of using a single system of injection and of extending the range of application for the method ASTM D4629/02 'Total Nitrogen in Petroleum Derivatives by the System of Injection with a Syringe and Detection by Chemo- Luminescence', it was studied a procedure by statistical validation with the objective of guaranteeing the analytical reliability of the assay and allowing the inclusion of samples of petroleum and heavy derivatives in one single methodology. The determination of total nitrogen for petroleum and derivatives is traditionally assayed using the method of Kjeldahl - a time-consuming methodology that requires a large amount of time for giving the final result, at the same time that is not recommended for concentrations below 0.1%w/w, which does not meet the requirements for the specifications of the product, in the petroleum industry. An alternative for the method of Kjeldahl is the pyro-chemo luminescence, which allows the achievement of more repetitive results for total nitrogen. In the detection of nitrogen, the technique combines the reliability of oxidative combustion with the sensitivity of chemiluminescence. Therefore, it was developed a protocol of validation in the methodology ASTM D4629/02 for the validation of the extension of the range of application and for the evaluation of the performance of the equipment in analytical conditions, according to the calibration curve. (author)

  16. Sonographic Guidance for Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Blocks: Single vs. Double Injection Cluster Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Ju; Kwak, Hyun Jeong; Jung, Wol Seon; Chung, Seung Hyun; Lee, Mi Geum

    2017-09-01

    The cluster approach for supraclavicular brachial plexus block (SC-BPB) can be easily performed but may result in asymmetric local anesthetic (LA) spread. The authors hypothesized that the use of a cluster approach in each of the 2 planes would achieve better 3-dimensional LA distribution than the traditional single cluster approach. The purpose of the present study was to compare a double injection (DI) in 2 planes (one injection in each plane) with the traditional single injection (SI) cluster approach for ultrasound-guided SC-BPB. A randomized, controlled trial. Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center. In the SI group (n = 18), 30 mL of LA was injected into the main neural cluster after penetrating the brachial plexus sheath laterally. In the DI group (n = 18), the needle penetrated the sheath in a downward direction at the first skin puncture, and 15 mL of LA was injected, and at the second skin puncture (behind the initial puncture site), the needle penetrated the sheath in an upward direction, and 15 mL was again injected. Ultrasound-guided SC-BPB was evaluated from immediately after the block every 5 minutes to 30 minutes by sensory and motor testing. The main outcome variables were procedural time; onset time (time for complete sensory and motor block of the median, radial, ulnar, and musculocutaneous nerves); and rate of blockage of all 4 nerves. Procedure times (medians [interquartile range]) were similar in the DI and SI groups (5.5 [4.75 - 8] vs. 5 [4 - 7] minutes, respectively; P = 0.137). Block onset time in the DI group was not significantly different from that in the SI group (10 [5 - 17.5] vs. 20 [6.25 - 30] minutes, P = 0.142). However, the rate of blockage of all 4 nerves was significantly higher in the DI group (94% vs. 67%, P = 0.035). Although the results of this study indicate LA distribution in the DI group was more evenly spread within brachial plexus sheaths than in the SI group, this was not

  17. A cost analysis of the establishment of a dedicated orthopaedic outpatient injection clinic at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, M; O'Neill, S C; Keogh, P; Kenny, P

    2017-08-01

    Traditionally orthopaedic injections were performed in a theatre setting. A dedicated outpatient injection clinic was established at our institution to attempt to provide injections more cost effectively. Our aim was to perform a cost analysis of orthopaedic injections performed in theatre, compared to those performed in a dedicated OPD injection clinic. Patient data for all orthopaedic injections performed at a single institution from 2013 to 2014 was obtained using HIPE data. A detailed breakdown of costings for two scenarios; those performed in theatre and those in the dedicated OPD injection clinic was obtained from the hospital finance department. A unit cost per injection for theatre and OPD was derived from this financial information. A total of 487 injections were performed in 2013, with 491 performed in 2014. 134 (27.5%) injections were performed in the OPD in 2013 compared to 388 (79%) in 2014. The unit cost per injection was calculated as €52.13 for theatre and €23.85 for OPD, this represented a 115% decrease in cost per injection. The creation of a dedicated orthopaedic injection clinic resulted in considerable cost savings at our institution. We propose this may be a more cost-efficient model for delivery of injections in the orthopaedic setting.

  18. The evaluation of the optimization design and application effect of same-well-injection-production technique’s injection-production circulatory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guoxing, Zheng; Minghu, Jiang; Hongliang, Gong; Nannan, Zhang; Jianguang, Wei

    2018-02-01

    According to basic principles of combining series of strata and demands of same-well injection-production technique, the optimization designing method of same-well injection-production technique’s injection-production circulatory system is given. Based on oil-water two-phase model with condition of arbitrarily well network, a dynamic forecast method for the application of same-well injection-production reservoir is established with considering the demands and capacity of same-well injection-production technique, sample wells are selected to launch the forecast evaluation and analysis of same-well injection-production reservoir application’s effect. Results show: single-test-well composite water cut decreases by 4.7% and test-well-group composite water cut decreases by 1.56% under the condition of basically invariant ground water injection rate. The method provides theoretical support for the proof of same-well injection-production technique’s reservoir development improving effect and further tests.

  19. Fiber-Based, Injection-Molded Optofluidic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteucci, Marco; Triches, Marco; Nava, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to fabricate polymer optofluidic systems by means of injection molding that allow the insertion of standard optical fibers. The chip fabrication and assembly methods produce large numbers of robust optofluidic systems that can be easily assembled and disposed of, yet allow...... optical fibers in a quick and precise manner, with a lateral alignment accuracy of 2.7 ± 1.8 μm. We report the production, assembly methods, and the characterization of the resulting injection-molded chips for Lab-on-Chip (LoC) applications. We demonstrate the versatility of this technology by carrying...

  20. The acceptability of three vaccine injections given to infants during a single clinic visit in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabana, Hanani; Dudley, Lilian D; Knight, Stephen; Cameron, Neil; Mahomed, Hassan; Goliath, Charlyn; Eggers, Rudolf; Wiysonge, Charles S

    2016-08-08

    The Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) has increased the number of antigens and injections administered at one visit. There are concerns that more injections at a single immunisation visit could decrease vaccination coverage. We assessed the acceptability and acceptance of three vaccine injections at a single immunisation visit by caregivers and vaccinators in South Africa. A mixed methods exploratory study of caregivers and vaccinators at clinics in two provinces of South Africa was conducted. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using questionnaires as well as observations of the administration of three-injection vaccination sessions. The sample comprised 229 caregivers and 98 vaccinators. Caregivers were satisfied with the vaccinators' care (97 %) and their infants receiving immunisation injections (93 %). However, many caregivers, (86 %) also felt that three or more injections were excessive at one visit. Caregivers had limited knowledge of actual vaccines provided, and reasons for three injections. Although vaccinators recognised the importance of informing caregivers about vaccination, they only did this sometimes. Overall, acceptance of three injections was high, with 97 % of caregivers expressing willingness to bring their infant for three injections again in future visits despite concerns about the pain and discomfort that the infant experienced. Many (55 %) vaccinators expressed concern about giving three injections in one immunisation visit. However, in 122 (95 %) observed three-injection vaccination sessions, the vaccinators administered all required vaccinations for that visit. The remaining seven vaccinations were not completed because of vaccine stock-outs. We found high acceptance by caregivers and vaccinators of three injections. Caregivers' poor understanding of reasons for three injections resulted from limited information sharing by vaccinators for caregivers. Acceptability of three injections may be improved through

  1. Single injection of platelet-rich plasma as a novel treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Alexander Malahias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Both in vitro and in vivo experiments have confirmed that platelet-rich plasma has therapeutic effects on many neuropathies, but its effects on carpal tunnel syndrome remain poorly understood. We aimed to investigate whether single injection of platelet-rich plasma can improve the clinical symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Fourteen patients presenting with median nerve injury who had suffered from mild carpal tunnel syndrome for over 3 months were included in this study. Under ultrasound guidance, 1-2 mL of platelet-rich plasma was injected into the region around the median nerve at the proximal edge of the carpal tunnel. At 1 month after single injection of platelet-rich plasma, Visual Analogue Scale results showed that pain almost disappeared in eight patients and it was obviously alleviated in three patients. Simultaneously, the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire showed that upper limb function was obviously improved. In addition, no ultrasonographic manifestation of the carpal tunnel syndrome was found in five patients during ultrasonographic measurement of the width of the median nerve. During 3-month follow-up, the pain was not greatly alleviated in three patients. These findings show very encouraging mid-term outcomes regarding use of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  2. Transcatheter aortic-valve implantation with one single minimal contrast media injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Mattia; Maisano, Francesco; Haueis, Sabine; Binder, Ronald K; Taramasso, Maurizio; Nietlispach, Fabian

    2015-06-01

    Performing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the use of minimal contrast in patients at high-risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a major cause of AKI following TAVI and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The amount of contrast media used increases the risk for CIN. Computed tomography was omitted during the screening process. For the procedure transfemoral access was default. The self-expanding CoreValve prosthesis was chosen in all patients to minimize the risk of annular rupture in case of oversizing. Valve sizing was based on echocardiography, aortography, calcification on fluoroscopy, as well as weight and height of the patient. A single contrast injection was performed to confirm correct position of the pigtail catheter at the level of the annulus. The pigtail then served as the marker for the device landing zone. Intraprocedural assessment of the implantation result relied on echocardiography and hemodynamics. Five patients with severe aortic stenosis and at high risk for developing CIN were included. Device success was achieved in all patients and no major complications occurred. The median dose of injected contrast media was 8 ml (4-9). All but one patient had improved renal function after the intervention compared to baseline. Our study shows feasibility of performing TAVI with a single minimal contrast media injection, using a self-expandable valve. This technique has the potential to reduce the incidence of CIN. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Peribulbar anesthesia: efficacy of a single injection with a limited local anesthetic volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausel, H; Touffet, L; Havaux, M; Lamard, M; Savean, J; Cochener, B; Arvieux, C; Gueret, G

    2008-10-01

    Cataract surgery can be performed with peribulbar anesthesia. The classical technique consists of two injections of local anesthetics. The purpose of our study was to assess peribulbar anesthesia with a single injection and a limited volume of local anesthetics. After local ethics committee agreement and oral consent, patients scheduled for cataract surgery using peribulbar anesthesia were prospectively included. The lower temporal puncture was performed with a peribulbar needle with propofol sedation. The mixture of local anesthetics was administered with tactile control of orbital pressure. The puncture was followed by a 10-min compression of the ocular globe. Akinesia, analgesia, complications, and surgical conditions were noted. A total of 101 successive patients were included. We administered 1.2 mg/kg of propofol. The volume of local anesthetics administered was 5.0 +/- 0.9 ml. Ninety patients had akinesia at 10 min and 6.7% moderate chemosis. No puncture complication occurred. At the end of surgery, the pain noted by the patients was 0.4 +/- 2.1 out of 100 (range, 0-10). Surgical conditions were good for all patients. Peribulbar anesthesia performed with a single injection and a limited volume of local anesthetics allows cataract surgery in good conditions for the surgeon with very good analgesia for the patient.

  4. Single injection 51Cr EDTA plasma clearance determination in children using capillary blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broechner-Mortensen, J.; Christoffersen, J.

    1977-01-01

    The reliability of a determination of the total 51 Cr EDTA plasma clearance (e) (and with it the glomerular filtration rate), by a simplified single injection method (injected dose: 4.5 μCi per kg b.w.) using capillary blood samples (0.2 ml), was investigated in twenty children. Clearance values determined from capillary blood samples did not differ significantly from those measured simultaneously from venous blood samples, the mean ratio+-SD being 1.02+-0.06(n = 10). The reproducibility (total day-to-day variation) of E determined from capillary blood samples was 6.7% in children with decreased renal function (n = 3) and 6.9% in children with normal renal function (n = 7). The present data indicate that the use of capillary blood samples is an accurate and very precise approach for determination of E in children. (Auth.)

  5. Stripping foils for the PSB H- injection system

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Goddard, B; Weterings, W

    2009-01-01

    Beam physics considerations for the stripping foil of the PSB H- injection system are described, including the arguments for the foil type, thickness, geometry and positioning. The foil performance considerations are described, including expected stripping efficiency, emittance growth, energy straggling, temperature and lifetime. The required movement ranges and tolerances are detailed, together with the assumptions used.

  6. Modelling of liquid injection shutdown system (LISS) in ACR-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubcher, M.; Colton, A.; Donnelly, J.V.

    2008-01-01

    Modelling of the Liquid Injection Shutdown System (LISS) in the ACR-1000 reactor core must account for the major phenomena that occur following its activation, namely the moderator hydraulics and core neutronics. The former requires modelling of the poison volumes, their time of entry into the reactor, and their propagation into the moderator after emission from the nozzle. The latter requires the reactivity worth of varying volumes and geometries of poisoned moderator fluid in order to simulate the reactivity effect of the injected poison. The time-dependent poison map is generated from hydraulic calculations, and then the neutronics data for standard geometries and concentrations is constructed using DRAGON. (author)

  7. Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

  8. Fat injection to correct contour deformities of the reconstructed breast: a single surgeon experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Tahiri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Autologous fat grafting has gained acceptance as a technique to improve aesthetic outcomes in breast reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to share our clinical experience using autologous fat injection to correct contour deformities during breast reconstruction. Methods: A single surgeon, prospectively maintained database of patients who underwent autologous fat injection during breast reconstruction from January 2008 to November 2013 at McGill University Health Center was reviewed. Patient characteristics, breast history, type of breast reconstruction, volume of fat injected, and complications were analyzed. Results: One hundred and twenty-four patients benefited from autologous fat injection from January 2008 to November 2013, for a total of 187 treated breasts. The patients were on average 49.3 years old (΁ 8.9 years. Fat was harvested from the medial thighs (20.5%, flanks (39.1%, medial thighs and flanks (2.9%, trochanters (13.3%, medial knees (2.7%, and abdomen (21.9%. An average of 49.25 mL of fat was injected into each reconstructed breast. A total of 187 breasts in 124 patients were lipo-infiltrated during the second stage of breast reconstruction. Thirteen breasts (in 12 separate patients were injected several years after having undergone lumpectomy and radiotherapy. Of the 187 treated breasts, 118 were reconstructed with expanders to implants, 45 with deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps, 9 with latissimus dorsi flaps with implants, 4 with transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps, and 13 had previously undergone lumpectomy and radiotherapy. Six complications were noted in the entire series, for a rate of 3.2%. All were in previously radiated breasts. Average follow-up time was 12 months (range: 2-36 months. Conclusion: Fat injection continues to grow in popularity as an adjunct to breast reconstruction. Our experience demonstrates a low complication rate as compared to most surgical interventions of the breast

  9. High pressure common rail injection system modeling and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H P; Zheng, D; Tian, Y

    2016-07-01

    In this paper modeling and common-rail pressure control of high pressure common rail injection system (HPCRIS) is presented. The proposed mathematical model of high pressure common rail injection system which contains three sub-systems: high pressure pump sub-model, common rail sub-model and injector sub-model is a relative complicated nonlinear system. The mathematical model is validated by the software Matlab and a virtual detailed simulation environment. For the considered HPCRIS, an effective model free controller which is called Extended State Observer - based intelligent Proportional Integral (ESO-based iPI) controller is designed. And this proposed method is composed mainly of the referred ESO observer, and a time delay estimation based iPI controller. Finally, to demonstrate the performances of the proposed controller, the proposed ESO-based iPI controller is compared with a conventional PID controller and ADRC. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrasound-Guided Single-Injection Infraclavicular Block Versus Ultrasound-Guided Double-Injection Axillary Block: A Noninferiority Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Ariane; Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Dion, Nicolas; Lévesque, Simon; Nicole, Pierre C; Turgeon, Alexis F

    2016-01-01

    Single-injection ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block is a simple, reliable, and effective technique. A simplified double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block technique with a high success rate recently has been described. It has the advantage of being performed in a superficial and compressible location, with a potentially improved safety profile. However, its effectiveness in comparison with single-injection infraclavicular block has not been established. We hypothesized that the double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block would show rates of complete sensory block at 30 minutes noninferior to the single-injection ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block. After approval by our research ethics committee and written informed consent, adults undergoing distal upper arm surgery were randomized to either group I, ultrasound-guided single-injection infraclavicular block, or group A, ultrasound-guided double-injection axillary block. In group I, 30 mL of 1.5% mepivacaine was injected posterior to the axillary artery. In group A, 25 mL of 1.5% mepivacaine was injected posteromedial to the axillary artery, after which 5 mL was injected around the musculocutaneous nerve. Primary outcome was the rate of complete sensory block at 30 minutes. Secondary outcomes were the onset of sensory and motor blocks, surgical success rates, performance times, and incidence of complications. All outcomes were assessed by a blinded investigator. The noninferiority of the double-injection ultrasound-guided axillary block was considered if the limits of the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) were within a 10% margin of the rate of complete sensory block of the infraclavicular block. At 30 minutes, the rate of complete sensory block was 79% in group A (90% CI, 71%-85%) compared with 91% in group I (90% CI, 85%-95%); the upper limit of CI of group A is thus included in the established noninferiority margin of 10%. The rate of complete sensory block was lower in group A (proportion

  11. Compact toroid injection system for JFT-2M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, N. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan)]. E-mail: fukumotn@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Ogawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Nagata, M. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Uyama, T. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Shibata, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Kashiwa, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Suzuki, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Kusama, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    The compact toroid (CT) injection system for JFT-2M is composed of a CT injector, a gas delivery and vacuum system, a power supply system, and a diagnostics system. In particular, the power supply system delivers high performance for CT formation and acceleration. The CT formation capacitor bank unit achieved a formation current of 350 kA with a rise time less than 10 {mu}s. Although the CT acceleration bank units are equipped with 14 ignitron switches instead of gap switches to attenuate the discharge noise level, an acceleration current of 400 kA with a short rise time of 9 {mu}s is controlled within a jitter of much less than 1 {mu}s. The resulting CT velocity and mass density satisfy the requirements for CT penetration into the tokamak plasma core at a toroidal field of 1 T. This CT injection system is thus suitable for CT injection in a middle-sized tokamak plasma such as the JFT-2M tokamak.

  12. Recovery of injected freshwater from a brackish aquifer with a multiwell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotliński, Konrad; Dillon, Peter J; Pavelic, Paul; Barry, Karen; Kremer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Herein we propose a multiple injection and recovery well system strategically operated for freshwater storage in a brackish aquifer. With the system we call aquifer storage transfer and recovery (ASTR) by using four injection and two production wells, we are capable of achieving both high recovery efficiency of injected freshwater and attenuation of contaminants through adequately long residence times and travel distances within the aquifer. The usual aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) scheme, in which a single well is used for injection and recovery, does not warrant consistent treatment of injected water due to the shorter minimum residence times and travel distances. We tested the design and operation of the system over 3 years in a layered heterogeneous limestone aquifer in Salisbury, South Australia. We demonstrate how a combination of detailed aquifer characterization and solute transport modeling can be used to maintain acceptable salinity of recovered water for its intended use along with natural treatment of recharge water. ASTR can be used to reduce treatment costs and take advantage of aquifers with impaired water quality that might locally not be otherwise beneficially used. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  13. Single well push-pull CO2 injection experiment for evaluating in-situ residual trapping at Heletz, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Auli; Bensabat, Jacob; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Ronen, Rona; Goren, Yoni; Perez, Lily; Tsarfis, Igal; Joodaki, Saba; Yang, Zhibing; Liang, Tian; Sauter, Martin; Hassan, Jawad; Gouze, Philippe; Rasmusson, Kristina

    2017-04-01

    The Heletz sands is a depleted oil reservoir at 1.6 km depth with saline water at its edges. In the saline part of the reservoir a CO2 injection experiment site has been developed for the purpose of scientifically motivated injection experiments, especially in the context of EU FP7 projects MUSTANG and TRUST. This presentation describes the single-well CO2 injection experiment carried out in September 2016, with the objective of determining field scale values of key CO2 trapping mechanisms, the residual and dissolution trapping. The sequence consisted in creating a residually trapped CO2 zone as well as reference hydraulic and heater tests prior and after the establishment of the zone, in order to determine the in-situ residual trapping. Monitoring included down-hole pressure and temperature measurement, distributed temperature sensing along the well via an optical fiber (DTS), U-tube sampling and tracers. We here present the experimental sequence, the monitoring and sampling system, the key results as well as the first interpretations.

  14. Performance of single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine using water fuel emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Zaid, M.

    2004-01-01

    A single cylinder Diesel engine study of water-in-Diesel emulsions was conducted to investigate the effect of water emulsification on the engine performance and gases exhaust temperature. Emulsified Diesel fuels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 water/Diesel ratios by volume, were used in a single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine, operating at 1200-3300 rpm. The results indicate that the addition of water in the form of emulsion improves combustion efficiency. The engine torque, power and brake thermal efficiency increase as the water percentage in the emulsion increases. The average increase in the brake thermal efficiency for 20% water emulsion is approximately 3.5% over the use of Diesel for the engine speed range studied. The proper brake specific fuel consumption and gases exhaust temperature decrease as the percentage of water in the emulsion increases

  15. Psa study of ETRR-2 Gadolinium injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Messiry, A.M.; Moustafa, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    one of the main safety feature of ETRR-2, egypt test and reactor 3 2 (new reactor), is the use of a redundant and diverse shutdown systems, called second shutdown system SSS. This system operates through injection of a high absorbing material, gadolinium Gd solution, into four rectangular chambers surrounding the reactor core. In view of the fact that the core is super-moderated, the injected neutron poison between the core and the reflector will cause an immediate reactor shutdown. The SSS triggers due to: manual, seismic, fails of actuation of the first shutdown system FSS, or high power neutron flux signal. Because of safety importance of this new system design, the present probabilistic safety assessment PDA study is initiated. The study carried ou in view of the system acceptable unavailability together with the effects of failure probabilities of relevant parameters and basic events. The effect of system design modifications (remove of high power signal and addition of nitrogen filtering line) on reactor safety and system unavailability is analyzed. A new proposed PSA model which take into consideration all possible failure modes of the system components is developed. The results show that the modification done on the system improves its unavailability while increases the minimal cut sets. The proposed model unavailability is greater (bad) than the designer model (That contains many hypothesis). human error contribution on system unavailability is reflected on failure type of gadolinium concentration. The IAEA psa pack IV code is utilized for calculation purposes

  16. The JET cryopump system and its cryolines for neutral injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obert, W.; Duessing, G.; Kuessel, E.; Kupschus, P.; Mayaux, C.; Rebut, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    Two large scale Cryopump Systems each with 40 m 2 pumping area and 8 x 10 6 ls -1 pumping speed for hydrogen have been manufactured for neutral injection on JET, and so far one has been successfully tested. The system is based on a 'serial open structure' cryopump configuration developed by JET. The design of the cryopump system had to comply with stringent design requirements as the cryopump system must operate close to the tokamak and in the direct vicinity of the 40 MW power of the Ni-ion beams. (author)

  17. [Utility and advantages of single tracer subareolar injection in sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Fayna; Hernández, María Jesús; Vega, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Isabel; Jiménez, Concepción; Pavcovich, Marta; Báez, Beatriz; Pérez-Correa, Pedro; Núñez, Valentín

    2005-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a reliable technique for determining axillary status in patients with early breast cancer. This technique is a minimally invasive procedure that can avoid the use of lymphadenectomy in patients without axillary involvement. We present a validation study of SLN biopsy with subareolar injection of 99mTc-nanocolloids. We studied 100 patients with early breast cancer (T1 and T2) over a 2-year period. All patients underwent deep subareolar-injection of 99mTc-nanocoloid for localization of the sentinel node. Images were obtained and when the sentinel node was seen, it was marked on the skin. All patients underwent tumor excision and radioguided SLN biopsy followed by complete lymphadenectomy. Histopathological analysis of sentinel nodes was performed by hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry with cytokeratins. The sentinel node was identified in all patients, and a mean of 1.95 sentinel nodes per patient were found. Lymphatic metastases in the sentinel node were found in 44 patients and in 15 of these tumoral spread was also found in the remaining axillary nodes. In the 56 remaining patients the sentinel node was free of metastasis, but in two of them a non-sentinel node was found to be positive (4.5% false negative rate). Sensitivity was 95.7% (44/46), specificity was 100% (54/54), the positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value was 96.4% (54/56). SLN biopsy is an accurate alternative to complete axillary lymph node dissection in patients with early-stage breast cancer. This technique improves the staging of these patients and decreases the morbidity associated with lymphadenectomy. The advantages of subareolar injection are that a single injection site is required, the tumor does not have to be located by other techniques, it allows rapid visualization of the sentinel node and avoids the "shine through phenomenon" when the tumor is located near the axilla.

  18. Multiple PRP injections are more effective than single injections and hyaluronic acid in knees with early osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görmeli, Gökay; Görmeli, Cemile Ayşe; Ataoglu, Baybars; Çolak, Cemil; Aslantürk, Okan; Ertem, Kadir

    2017-03-01

    To compare the effectiveness of intraarticular (IA) multiple and single platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections as well as hyaluronic acid (HA) injections in different stages of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A total of 162 patients with different stages of knee OA were randomly divided into four groups receiving 3 IA doses of PRP, one dose of PRP, one dose of HA or a saline injection (control). Then, each group was subdivided into two groups: early OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 0 with cartilage degeneration or grade I-III) and advanced OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade IV). The patients were evaluated before the injection and at the 6-month follow-ups using the EuroQol visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective scores. Adverse events and patient satisfaction were recorded. There was a statistically significant improvement in the IKDC and EQ-VAS scores in all the treatment groups compared with the control group. The knee scores of patients treated with three PRP injections were significantly better than those patients of the other groups. There was no significant difference in the scores of patients injected with one dose of PRP or HA. In the early OA subgroups, significantly better clinical results were achieved in the patients treated with three PRP injections, but there was no significant difference in the clinical results of patients with advanced OA among the treatment groups. The clinical results of this study suggest IA PRP and HA treatment for all stages of knee OA. For patients with early OA, multiple (3) PRP injections are useful in achieving better clinical results. For patients with advanced OA, multiple injections do not significantly improve the results of patients in any group. I.

  19. An experimental study of injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends on a common rail injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dong; Wang, Chunhai; Duan, Yaozong; Tian, Zhisong; Huang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are investigated on a common rail injection system. The injection rate, fuel spray evolution process (tip penetration distance, spray cone angle, projected spray area and relative brightness intensity contour) and microscopic droplet features are analyzed. The results show that diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates, earlier starts of injection and shorter injection delays, but little variances are observed in the mass injection rates for different test fuels. Increased gasoline proportion in the test blends causes slightly decreased spray tip penetration distance but increased spray cone angle. Also, more smaller-size droplets are observed in the fuel jet of the diesel and gasoline blends, indicating that the spray breakup and atomization processes are promoted. - Highlights: • Injection rate and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are studied. • Diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates. • Earlier starts of injection are found when using diesel and gasoline blends. • Diesel and gasoline blends produce shorter spray penetration but higher cone angle. • The number of small droplets increases in the spray of diesel and gasoline blends

  20. Basal cardiomyopathy develops in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a single injection of adrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Terunao; Takato, Tetsuya; Matsuzaki, Gen; Seko, Yoshinori; Fujii, Jun; Kawai, Sachio

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that basal cardiomyopathy develops in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias that have been induced by electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus. This study investigated whether similar basal cardiomyopathy would develop in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a single injection of adrenaline. Adrenaline was intravenously infused for 10-360 seconds in anesthetized rabbits. Colloidal carbon was injected after adrenaline infusion. Wall movement velocity of the left ventricular base was assessed by tissue Doppler echocardiography. Animals were killed either 1 week or 3-4 weeks later. Pathological lesions were identified by deposits of carbon particles. Animals were divided into two groups according to the infused dose of adrenaline. The small-dose group (group S, n = 15) received 1-10 μg and the large-dose group (group L, n = 23) received 15-60 μg of adrenaline. Adrenaline infusion induced premature ventricular contractions followed by monomorphic ventricular tachycardias in 22 of 23 animals in group L, but in only 1 of 15 animals in group S. Wall movement velocity of the left ventricular base decreased just after adrenaline infusion, remained low after 1 week, and recovered to near-baseline levels after 3-4 weeks in group L. Unique cardiac lesions identified by deposits of carbon particles were frequently observed on the left ventricular basal portion, almost always associated with the mitral valve and papillary muscles, but were never observed in the apical area. Lesions involving all areas of the left ventricular basal portion were observed in 22 of 23 animals in group L, but in only 2 of 15 animals in group S. Basal cardiomyopathy developed in rabbits with ventricular tachycardias induced by a single injection of adrenaline.

  1. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200 degrees C (2,200 degrees F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed

  2. A comparison of a single or triple injection technique for ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block: a prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgagnés, Marie-Christine; Lévesque, Simon; Dion, Nicolas; Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Coté, Dany; Brassard, Jean; Nicole, Pierre C; Turgeon, Alexis F

    2009-08-01

    Good success rates have been reported with ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block using one or multiple injections of local anesthetic. We hypothesized that a separate injection of local anesthetics on each cord enhances the onset of complete sensory block. We designed this prospective randomized study to compare the rate of complete sensory block using one or three injections of local anesthetic. Patients scheduled for hand, wrist, or elbow surgery were included in this study. All blocks were performed under ultrasound guidance. In Group S (single injection), 30 mL of mepivacaine 1.5% was injected posterior to the axillary artery. In Group T (triple injections), 10 mL of mepivacaine 1.5% was injected on the posterior, medial, and lateral aspects of the axillary artery. Sensory block was evaluated every 3 min up to 30 min. The primary end point was the rate of complete sensory block at 15 min. Forty-nine and 51 patients were randomized in Groups S and T, respectively. The rate of complete sensory block was comparable at 15 min (Group S: 84%, Group T: 78%, P = 0.61) and at each time interval up to 30 min. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of complications between the two groups. The success rate and the onset of complete sensory block after ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block are not enhanced by a triple injection of local anesthetic compared with a single injection posterior to the axillary artery.

  3. Single injection of clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks decreases abdominal fat pad weight in growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijiri, Daichi; Ishitani, Kanae; El-Deep, Mahmoud Mohamed Hamza; Kawaguchi, Mana; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of clenbuterol injection into newly hatched chicks on both the abdominal fat pad tissue weight and the skeletal muscle weight during subsequent growth. Twenty-seven 1-day-old chicks were divided into two groups, receiving either a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clenbuterol (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not affected by clenbuterol injection during the 5-week experimental period, while the abdominal fat pad tissue weight of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was lower than that of the control chicks at 5 weeks post-injection. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were significantly increased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, while plasma triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of fatty acid synthase was lower in the liver of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Conversely, the skeletal muscle weights were not affected by clenbuterol injection. These results suggest that a single clenbuterol injection into 1-day-old chicks decreases the abdominal fat pad tissue weight, but may not affect skeletal muscle weights during growth. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Effects of Stator Shroud Injection on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Single-Stage Transonic Axial Compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Cong-Truong; Ma, Sang-Bum; Kim, Kwang Yong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, stator shroud injection in a single-stage transonic axial compressor is proposed. A parametric study of the effect of stator shroud injection on aerodynamic performances was conducted using the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The curvature, length, width, and circumferential angle of the stator shroud injector and the air injection mass flow rate were selected as the test parameters. The results of the parametric study show that the aerodynamic performances of the single-stage transonic axial compressor were improved by stator shroud injection. The aerodynamic performances were the most sensitive to the injection mass flow rate. Further, the total pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency were the maximum when the ratio of circumferential angle was 10%.

  5. Effects of Stator Shroud Injection on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Single-Stage Transonic Axial Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, Cong-Truong; Ma, Sang-Bum; Kim, Kwang Yong [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    In this study, stator shroud injection in a single-stage transonic axial compressor is proposed. A parametric study of the effect of stator shroud injection on aerodynamic performances was conducted using the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The curvature, length, width, and circumferential angle of the stator shroud injector and the air injection mass flow rate were selected as the test parameters. The results of the parametric study show that the aerodynamic performances of the single-stage transonic axial compressor were improved by stator shroud injection. The aerodynamic performances were the most sensitive to the injection mass flow rate. Further, the total pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency were the maximum when the ratio of circumferential angle was 10%.

  6. Conceptual design for the ZEPHYR neutral-beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.S.; Elischer, V.P.; Goldberg, D.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Jacobson, V.L.; Lou, K.H.; Tanabe, J.T.

    1981-03-01

    In June 1980, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began a conceptual design study for a neutral beam injection system for the ZEPHYR ignition tokamak proposed by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The ZEPHYR project was cancelled, and the LBL design effort concluded prematurely in January 1981. This report describes the conceptual design as it existed at that time, and gives brief consideration to a schedule, but does not deal with costs

  7. Design study of electrostatic inflector in compact cyclotron injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianjue; Fan Mingwu

    1996-01-01

    The beam dynamics behaviour in electrostatic inflector is investigated for a vertical type injection system to a compact cyclotron. The computer aided design and matching of the inflector are based on the simulation of computed beam orbit. Modeling and simulation are done on PC-486 to form a software package. The software package can be used to develop a new type cyclotron design combining with the software package CYCCAE developed by China Institute of Atomic Energy three years ago

  8. Conceptual design for the ZEPHYR neutral-beam injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W.S.; Elischer, V.P.; Goldberg, D.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Jacobson, V.L.; Lou, K.H.; Tanabe, J.T.

    1981-03-01

    In June 1980, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began a conceptual design study for a neutral beam injection system for the ZEPHYR ignition tokamak proposed by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The ZEPHYR project was cancelled, and the LBL design effort concluded prematurely in January 1981. This report describes the conceptual design as it existed at that time, and gives brief consideration to a schedule, but does not deal with costs.

  9. Understanding the effect of single-fracture heterogeneity from single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Martin; Doughty, Christine; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Niemi, Auli

    2013-12-01

    The single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer test is a method used to estimate the tracer retardation properties of a fracture or fracture zone. The effects of single-fracture aperture heterogeneity on SWIW-test tracer breakthrough curves are examined by numerical modelling. The effects of the matrix diffusion and sorption are accounted for by using a particle tracking method through the addition of a time delay added to the advective transport time. For a given diffusion and sorption property ( P m) value and for a heterogeneous fracture, the peak concentration is larger compared to a homogeneous fracture. The cumulative breakthrough curve for a heterogeneous fracture is similar to that for a homogeneous fracture and a less sorptive/diffusive tracer. It is demonstrated that the fracture area that meets the flowing water, the specific flow-wetted surface (sFWS) of the fracture, can be determined by matching the observed breakthrough curve for a heterogeneous fracture to that for a homogeneous fracture with an equivalent property parameter. SWIW tests are also simulated with a regional pressure gradient present. The results point to the possibility of distinguishing the effect of the regional pressure gradient from that of diffusion through the use of multiple tracers with different P m values.

  10. Maintenance and Recovery of Water System for Injection (WFI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Anuar Wan Awang; Ahmad Firdaus Jalil; Wan Mohd Firdaus Wan Ishak

    2015-01-01

    Water system for injection (WFI) is one of the main component in manufacturing pharmaceutical materials and radiopharmaceuticals. This system accredited in 2005. Water quality produced analyzed and give the unsatisfied results. The operation of WFI was stopped temporarily due to technical problems. In 2013, recovery works were implemented with budget of RM 226,500.00. Comprehensive maintenance were implemented by Rykertech (Asia) Sdn. Bhd. With duration of 24 months (October 2014 until September 2016) with cost RM 473,550.00. Now, this system operated in good condition and produced water that meet with the specifications. (author)

  11. Optimum design of the injection duct system of a stenter machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juraeva, Makhsuda; Song, Dong Joo [Yeungnam University, Geyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kyung Jin [Ajou Motor College, Boryeong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Stenter machines are used for drying fabrics in the textile industry and have a heater, injection duct system, and fans inside a chamber. The injection duct system has ducts and air-injecting holes. Plane-type injection duct systems were investigated to obtain uniform airflow at the air-injecting holes. The flow field of the injection duct systems was computed using ANSYS CFX with different heights of the duct end and different shapes for the air-injecting holes. There was a high mass flow rate at the air-injecting holes and high airflow circulation inside both plane-type and mountain-type ducts at the ends. The height of the duct end was varied between 40 mm and 160 mm. The injection duct systems were analyzed with four different shapes of air-injecting holes. The circular and elliptical holes had lower standard deviations of the mass flow rate than other shapes. Relatively uniform mass flow rates were obtained in the plane-type and mountain-type duct systems when the height of the duct end was 40 mm and the shape of the air-injecting holes was circular or elliptical. The developed injection duct systems were improved by obtaining a uniform mass flow rate at the air-injecting holes. A stenter prototype was fabricated with the developed injection duct system to confirm the numerical results. The developed injection duct system had better performance than the original system.

  12. Experimental Research on the Injection Rate of DME and Diesel Fuel in Common Rail Injection System by Using Bosch and Zeuch Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Seemoon Yang; Changhee Lee

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates a preliminary injection characterization of the injection rate and the injection quantity behavior in a high-pressure common rail injection system used in a heavy-duty engine. The injection rate meter and the injection quantity meter used in the test meter measuring systems were jointly connected under the Zeuch method measurement principles at a constant volume chamber and under the Bosch method measurement principles at a long pipe flow. The trade-off trend for the i...

  13. An emergency water injection system (EWIS) for future CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Andre L.F.; Todreas, Neil E.; Driscoll, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of the feasibility and effectiveness of water injection into the annulus between the calandria tubes and the pressure tubes of CANDU reactors. The purpose is to provide an efficient decay heat removal process that avoids permanent deformation of pressure tubes severe accident conditions, such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA). The water injection may present the benefit of cost reduction and better actuation of other related safety systems. The experimental work was conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in a setup that simulated, as close as possible, a CANDU bundle annular configuration, with heat fluxes on the order of 90 kW/m 2 : the inner cylinder simulates the pressure tube and the outer tube represents the calandria tube. The experimental matrix had three dimensions: power level, annulus water level and boundary conditions. The results achieved overall heat transfer coefficients (U), which are comparable to those required (for nominal accident progression) to avoid pressure tube permanent deformation, considering current CANDU reactor data. Nonetheless, future work should be carried out to investigate the fluid dynamics such as blowdown behavior, in the peak bundle, and the system lay-out inside the containment to provide fast water injection. (author)

  14. Electrical spin injection into high mobility 2D systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltscher, M; Ciorga, M; Utz, M; Schuh, D; Bougeard, D; Weiss, D

    2014-12-05

    We report on spin injection into a high mobility 2D electron system confined at an (Al,Ga)As/GaAs interface, using (Ga,Mn)As Esaki diode contacts as spin aligners. We measured a clear nonlocal spin valve signal, which varies nonmonotonically with the applied bias voltage. The magnitude of the signal cannot be described by the standard spin drift-diffusion model, because at maximum this would require the spin polarization of the injected current to be much larger than 100%, which is unphysical. A strong correlation of the spin signal with contact width and electron mean free path suggests that ballistic transport in the 2D region below ferromagnetic contacts should be taken into account to fully describe the results.

  15. Power injected in dissipative systems and the fluctuation theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumaître, S.; Fauve, S.; McNamara, S.; Poggi, P.

    We consider three examples of dissipative dynamical systems involving many degrees of freedom, driven far from equilibrium by a constant or time dependent forcing. We study the statistical properties of the injected and dissipated power as well as the fluctuations of the total energy of these systems. The three systems under consideration are: a shell model of turbulence, a gas of hard spheres colliding inelastically and excited by a vibrating piston, and a Burridge-Knopoff spring-block model. Although they involve different types of forcing and dissipation, we show that the statistics of the injected power obey the ``fluctuation theorem" demonstrated in the case of time reversible dissipative systems maintained at constant total energy, or in the case of some stochastic processes. Although this may be only a consequence of the theory of large deviations, this allows a possible definition of ``temperature" for a dissipative system out of equilibrium. We consider how this ``temperature" scales with the energy and the number of degrees of freedom in the different systems under consideration.

  16. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-02-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  17. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  18. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  19. Critical firing and misfiring boundary in a spark ignition methanol engine during cold start based on single cycle fuel injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhaohui; Gong, Changming; Qu, Xiang; Liu, Fenghua; Sun, Jingzhen; Wang, Kang; Li, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the mass of methanol injected per cycle, ambient temperature, injection and ignition timing, preheating methods, and supplying additional liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) injection into the intake manifold on the critical firing and misfiring boundary of an electronically injection controlled spark ignition (SI) methanol engine during cold start were investigated experimentally based on a single cycle fuel injection with cycle-by-cycle control strategy. The critical firing and misfiring boundary was restricted by all parameters. For ambient temperatures below 16 °C, methanol engines must use auxiliary start-aids during cold start. Optimal control of the methanol injection and ignition timing can realize ideal next cycle firing combustion after injection. Resistance wire and glow plug preheating can provide critical firing down to ambient temperatures of 5 °C and 0 °C, respectively. Using an additional LPG injection into the intake manifold can provide critical firing down to an ambient temperature of −13 °C during cold start. As the ambient temperature decreases, the optimal angle difference between methanol injection timing and LPG injection timing for critical firing of a methanol engine increases rapidly during cold start. - Highlights: • A single cycle fuel injection and cycle-by-cycle control strategy are used to study. • In-cylinder pressure and instantaneous speed were used to determine firing boundary. • For the ambient temperatures below 16 °C, an auxiliary start-aids must be used. • A preheating and additional LPG were used to expand critical firing boundary. • Additional LPG can result in critical firing down to ambient temperature of −13 °C

  20. The acceptability of three vaccine injections given to infants during a single clinic visit in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanani Tabana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI has increased the number of antigens and injections administered at one visit. There are concerns that more injections at a single immunisation visit could decrease vaccination coverage. We assessed the acceptability and acceptance of three vaccine injections at a single immunisation visit by caregivers and vaccinators in South Africa. Methods A mixed methods exploratory study of caregivers and vaccinators at clinics in two provinces of South Africa was conducted. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using questionnaires as well as observations of the administration of three-injection vaccination sessions. Results The sample comprised 229 caregivers and 98 vaccinators. Caregivers were satisfied with the vaccinators’ care (97 % and their infants receiving immunisation injections (93 %. However, many caregivers, (86 % also felt that three or more injections were excessive at one visit. Caregivers had limited knowledge of actual vaccines provided, and reasons for three injections. Although vaccinators recognised the importance of informing caregivers about vaccination, they only did this sometimes. Overall, acceptance of three injections was high, with 97 % of caregivers expressing willingness to bring their infant for three injections again in future visits despite concerns about the pain and discomfort that the infant experienced. Many (55 % vaccinators expressed concern about giving three injections in one immunisation visit. However, in 122 (95 % observed three-injection vaccination sessions, the vaccinators administered all required vaccinations for that visit. The remaining seven vaccinations were not completed because of vaccine stock-outs. Conclusions We found high acceptance by caregivers and vaccinators of three injections. Caregivers’ poor understanding of reasons for three injections resulted from limited information sharing by vaccinators for

  1. Realization of single-phase single-stage grid-connected PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Arafa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single phase single stage grid-tied PV system. Grid angle detection is introduced to allow operation at any arbitrary power factor but unity power factor is chosen to utilize the full inverter capacity. The system ensures MPPT using the incremental conductance method and it can track the changes in insolation level without oscillations. A PI voltage controller and a dead-beat current controller are used to ensure high quality injected current to the grid. The paper investigates the system structure and performance through numerical simulation using Matlab/Simulink. An experimental setup controlled by the MicrolabBox DSP prototyping platform is utilized to realize the system and study its performance. The precautions for smooth and safe system operation including the startup sequence are fully considered in the implementation.

  2. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS for interventional tool guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Guo

    Full Text Available Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking.

  3. Highly efficient subcloning of rodent malaria parasites by injection of single merosomes or detached cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanway, Rebecca R; Graewe, Stefanie; Rennenberg, Annika; Helm, Susanne; Heussler, Volker T

    2009-01-01

    This protocol describes a method for obtaining rodent Plasmodium parasite clones with high efficiency, which takes advantage of the normal course of Plasmodium in vitro exoerythrocytic development. At the completion of development, detached cells/merosomes form, which contain hundreds to thousands of merozoites. As all parasites within a single detached cell/merosome derive from the same sporozoite, we predicted them to be genetically identical. To prove this, hepatoma cells were infected simultaneously with a mixture of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites expressing either GFP or mCherry. Subsequently, individual detached cells/merosomes from this mixed population were selected and injected into mice, resulting in clonal blood stage parasite infections. Importantly, as a large majority of mice become successfully infected using this protocol, significantly less mice are necessary than for the widely used technique of limiting dilution cloning. To produce a clonal P. berghei blood stage infection from a non-clonal infection using this procedure requires between 4 and 5 weeks.

  4. Single injection techniques in determining age-related changes in porcine renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, M.E.C.

    1984-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were determined in 32 anaesthetised female Large White pigs, aged 4-24 months, from the plasma disappearance curves of [sup(99m)Tc]DTPA and [ 131 I]hippuran respectively. Clearance was also monitored by external counting over the heart. GFR and ERPF increased markedly with age in pigs up to 12 months old, reaching mean values of 242.06 +- 5.89 and 919.39 +- 79.01 mL/min. In pigs aged 12-24 months ERPF increased slightly but renal function remained essentially unchanged after 1 yr of age. These results for renal function were similar to previous estimates, using continuous infusion techniques inferring that GFR and ERPF could be accurately monitored using single injection procedures. (author)

  5. Baseline performance and emissions data for a single-cylinder, direct-injected diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezelick, R. A.; Mcfadden, J. J.; Ream, L. W.; Barrows, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensive fuel consumption, mean effective cylinder pressure, and emission test results for a supercharged, single-cylinder, direct-injected, four-stroke-cycle, diesel test engine are documented. Inlet air-to-exhaust pressure ratios were varied from 1.25 to 3.35 in order to establish the potential effects of turbocharging techniques on engine performance. Inlet air temperatures and pressures were adjusted from 34 to 107 C and from 193 to 414 kPa to determine the effects on engine performance and emissions. Engine output ranged from 300 to 2100 kPa (brake mean effective pressure) in the speed range of 1000 to 3000 rpm. Gaseous and particulate emission rates were measured. Real-time values of engine friction and pumping loop losses were measured independently and compared with motored engine values.

  6. Influence of heat exchange of reservoir with rocks on hot gas injection via a single well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Vladimir E.; Ivanov, Gavril I.

    2017-11-01

    In the computational experiment the influence of heat exchange through top and bottom of the gas-bearing reservoir on the dynamics of temperature and pressure fields during hot gas injection via a single well is investigated. The experiment was carried out within the framework of modified mathematical model of non-isothermal real gas filtration, obtained from the energy and mass conservation laws and the Darcy law. The physical and caloric equations of state together with the Newton-Riemann law of heat exchange of gas reservoir with surrounding rocks, are used as closing relations. It is shown that the influence of the heat exchange with environment on temperature field of the gas-bearing reservoir is localized in a narrow zone near its top and bottom, though the size of this zone is increased with time.

  7. Methodology for surge pressure evaluation in a water injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliande, Patricia; Nascimento, Elson A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Mascarenhas, Flavio C.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Hidraulica Computacional; Dandoulakis, Joao P. [SHELL of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Predicting transient effects, known as surge pressures, is of high importance for offshore industry. It involves detailed computer modeling that attempts to simulate the complex interaction between flow line and fluid in order to ensure efficient system integrity. Platform process operators normally raise concerns whether the water injection system is adequately designed or not to be protected against possible surge pressures during sudden valve closure. This report aims to evaluate the surge pressures in Bijupira and Salema water injection systems due to valve closure, through a computer model simulation. Comparisons among the results from empirical formulations are discussed and supplementary analysis for Salema system were performed in order to define the maximum volumetric flow rate for which the design pressure was able to withstand. Maximum surge pressure values of 287.76 bar and 318.58 bar, obtained in Salema and Bijupira respectively, using empirical formulations have surpassed the operating pressure design, while the computer model results have pointed the greatest surge pressure value of 282 bar in Salema system. (author)

  8. Strontium-rich injectable hybrid system for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Nuno, E-mail: nsmneves@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); INEB — Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto (Portugal); FMUP — Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Cirurgia, Serviço de Ortopedia, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Campos, Bruno B. [FCUP — Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Centro de Investigação em Química, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Rua do Campo Alegre 1021/1055, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Almeida, Isabel F.; Costa, Paulo C. [FFUP — Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade do Porto, Laboratório de Tecnologia Farmacêutica, Departamento de Ciências do Medicamento, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Cabral, Abel Trigo [FMUP — Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Cirurgia, Serviço de Ortopedia, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2016-02-01

    Current challenges in the development of scaffolds for bone regeneration include the engineering of materials that can withstand normal dynamic physiological mechanical stresses exerted on the bone and provide a matrix capable of supporting cell migration and tissue ingrowth. The objective of the present work was to develop and characterize a hybrid polymer–ceramic injectable system that consists of an alginate matrix crosslinked in situ in the presence of strontium (Sr), incorporating a ceramic reinforcement in the form of Sr-rich microspheres. The incorporation of Sr in the microspheres and in the vehicle relies on the growing evidence that Sr has beneficial effects in bone remodeling and in the treatment of osteopenic disorders and osteoporosis. Sr-rich porous hydroxyapatite microspheres with a uniform size and a mean diameter of 555 μm were prepared, and their compression strength and friability tested. A 3.5% (w/v) ultrapure sodium alginate solution was used as the vehicle and its in situ gelation was promoted by the addition of calcium (Ca) or Sr carbonate and Glucone-δ-lactone. Gelation times varied with temperature and crosslinking agent, being slower for Sr than for Ca, but adequate for injection in both cases. Injectability was evaluated using a device employed in vertebroplasty surgical procedures, coupled to a texture analyzer in compression mode. Compositions with 35% w of microspheres presented the best compromise between injectability and compression strength of the system, the force required to extrude it being lower than 100 N. Micro CT analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of the microspheres inside the vehicle, and a mean inter-microspheres space of 220 μm. DMA results showed that elastic behavior of the hybrid is dominant over the viscous one and that the higher storage modulus was obtained for the 3.5%Alg–35%Sr-HAp-Sr formulation. - Highlights: • We developed a Sr rich viscoelastic hybrid system (alginate matrix crosslinked in

  9. Interpretation of injection-withdrawal tracer experiments conducted between two wells in a large single fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakowski, K S; Bickerton, G; Lapcevic, P

    2004-09-01

    Tracer experiments conducted using a flow field established by injecting water into one borehole and withdrawing water from another are often used to establish connections and investigate dispersion in fractured rock. As a result of uncertainty in the uniqueness of existing models used for interpretation, this method has not been widely used to investigate more general transport processes including matrix diffusion or advective solute exchange between mobile and immobile zones of fluid. To explore the utility of the injection-withdrawal method as a general investigative tool and with the intent to resolve the transport processes in a discrete fracture, two tracer experiments were conducted using the injection-withdrawal configuration. The experiments were conducted in a fracture which has a large aperture (>500 microm) and horizontally pervades a dolostone formation. One experiment was conducted in the direction of the hydraulic gradient and the other in the direction opposite to the natural gradient. Two tracers having significantly different values of the free-water diffusion coefficient were used. To interpret the experiments, a hybrid numerical-analytical model was developed which accounts for the arcuate shape of the flow field, advection-dispersion in the fracture, diffusion into the matrix adjacent to the fracture, and the presence of natural flow in the fracture. The model was verified by comparison to a fully analytical solution and to a well-known finite-element model. Interpretation of the tracer experiments showed that when only one tracer, advection-dispersion, and matrix diffusion are considered, non-unique results were obtained. However, by using multiple tracers and by accounting for the presence of natural flow in the fracture, unique interpretations were obtained in which a single value of matrix porosity was estimated from the results of both experiments. The estimate of porosity agrees well with independent measurements of porosity obtained from

  10. Temporal pulse precisely sculpted millijoule-level fiber laser injection system for high-power laser driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dangpeng; Tian, Xiaocheng; Zhou, Dandan; Zong, Zhaoyu; Fan, Mengqiu; Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Na; Xie, Lianghua; Li, Hongxun; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Mingzhong; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2017-04-01

    A fiber laser injection system used as a seeder for a high-power laser facility of inertial confinement fusion was designed to meet stringent requirements. Herein, we demonstrate the fiber laser injection system, whose output single-pulse energy reaches the millijoule class. With two-stage amplitude modulators, the system produces a pulse with a higher pulse shaping capability. In addition, amplifying the pulse with large-mode-area fiber and single polarization, large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber (PCF) ensures a good beam quality output. In this proof-of-principle experiment, the long-term stability of FM-to-AM modulation and pulse energy is demonstrated. The successful demonstration of this laser injection system holds great significance for future high-power laser drivers.

  11. Singles transmission scans performed post-injection for quantitative whole body FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.J.; Benard, F.; Karp, J.S. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Post-injection singles transmission scanning has been implemented in the septumless PENN PET 240H scanner (prototype of the GE QUEST). The method uses a 6 mCi point transmission source of {sup 137}Cs at the axial center and 37 cm of transaxial center of the camera field of view. Singles transmission scans of 1.8 minutes per bed axial position provide similar scan count densities to 15 minute coincidence transmission scans with 0.5 mCi {sup 68}Ge rod transmission source. Scatter and emission contamination suppression are achieved by applying a narrow 662 keV transmission photopeak energy window. The residual 511 keV emission contamination constitutes a background of uniform spatial distribution. Accurate and low noise attenuation correction is achieved by segmenting the singles transmission images into lung and soft tissue volumes. Established 511 keV gamma ray attenuation coefficients are then applied and these images are forward projected for attenuation correction. Expectation maximisation or OS-EM reconstruction of the transmission and emission images is used to improve image quality. Both the segmentation and OS-EM reconstruction maintain quantitative accuracy in the fully corrected emission images compared to measured coincidence transmission correction. Thus, a clinical protocol involving 40 minutes of emission scans followed by 20 minutes of singles transmission scans allow the 60 cm of the human torso to be fully scanned within 60 minutes. These quantitative whole body FDG PET images may then be used for tumor grading and assessment of tumor response to treatment.

  12. A study of fault injection in multichannel spacecraft power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1991-01-01

    NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center proposes to implement fault injection into an electrical power system breadboard to study the reactions of the various control elements of this breadboard. Among the elements to be studied are the remote power controllers, the algorithms in the control computers, and the artificially intelligent control programs resident in this breadboard. To this end, a study of electrical power is being performed to yield a list of the most common power system faults. The results of this study are being applied to a multichannel high-voltage DC spacecraft power system called the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System Breadboard. Some of the reactions of the breadboard to some of the faults which have been encountered are presented along with the results of this study.

  13. A study of fault injection in multichannel spacecraft power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center proposes to implement fault injection into an electrical power system breadboard to study the reactions of the various control elements of this breadboard. Among the elements to be studied are the remote power controllers, the algorithms in the control computers, and the artificially intelligent control programs resident in this breadboard. To this end, a study of electrical power is being performed to yield a list of the most common power system faults. The results of this study are being applied to a multichannel high-voltage DC spacecraft power system called the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System Breadboard. Some of the reactions of the breadboard to some of the faults which have been encountered are presented along with the results of this study.

  14. Injection System for Microtron-Based Terahertz FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakevich, G M

    2005-01-01

    A reliable injection system of the widely tunable microtron-based terahertz Free Electron Laser (FEL) has been developed and during last few years provides stable operation of the FEL for users. The system is based on the long-life thermionic cathode assembly using 2.5 mm-in diameter monocrystalline LaB6 emitter, heated by the tungsten cylindrical filament with the power consumption less than 50 W. The cathode emits the macro-pulse current in the range of 1-1.4 A providing operation of the terahertz FEL during more than 1000 h. The cathode assembly is installed on the cover of the I-type microtron accelerating cavity in location providing an efficient injection for the acceleration with variable number of orbits. This variation widely changes the energy of the electron beam and allows on-the-fly retuning of the FEL in the range of 1-3 THz. Pulse-signal system stabilizing the emission current prevents randomized break-downs in the accelerating cavity and decreases macro-pulse power fluctuations of the FEL radi...

  15. Control of Surge in Centrifugal Compressor by Using a Nozzle Injection System: Universality in Optimal Position of Injection Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Hirano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The passive control method for surge and rotating stall in centrifugal compressors by using a nozzle injection system was proposed to extend the stable operating range to the low flow rate. A part of the flow at the scroll outlet of a compressor was recirculated to an injection nozzle installed on the inner wall of the suction pipe of the compressor through the bypass pipe and injected to the impeller inlet. Two types of compressors were tested at the rotational speeds of 50,000 rpm and 60,000 rpm with the parameter of the circumferential position of the injection nozzle. The present experimental results revealed that the optimum circumferential position, which most effectively reduced the flow rate for the surge inception, existed at the opposite side of the tongue of the scroll against the rotational axis and did not depend on the compressor system and the rotational speeds.

  16. [Incidence rate of adverse reaction/event by Qingkailing injection: a Meta-analysis of single rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Chun-ling; Xie, Yan-ming; Li, Ming-quan; Wang, Lian-xin; Liao, Xing

    2015-12-01

    To systematically review the incidence rate of adverse drug reaction/event by Qingkailing injection. Such databases as the PubMed, EMbase, the Cochrane library, CNKI, VIP WanFang data and CBM were searched by computer from foundation to July 30, 2015. Two reviewers independently screened literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data and cross check data. Then, Meta-analysis was performed by using the R 3.2.0 software, subgroup sensitivity analysis was performed based on age, mode of medicine, observation time and research quality. Sixty-three studies involving 9,793 patients with Qingkailing injection were included, 367 cases of adverse reactions/events were reported in total. The incidence rate of adverse reaction in skin and mucosa group was 2% [95% CI (0.02; 0.03)]; the digestive system adverse reaction was 6% [95% CI(0.05; 0.07); the injection site adverse reaction was 4% [95% CI (0.02; 0.07)]. In the digestive system as the main types of adverse reactions/events, incidence of children and adults were 4.6% [0.021 1; 0.097 7] and 6.9% [0.053 5; 0.089 8], respectively. Adverse reactions to skin and mucous membrane damage as the main performance/event type, the observation time > 7 days and ≤ 7 days incidence of 3% [0.012 9; 0.068 3] and 1.9% [0.007 8; 0.046 1], respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that different types of adverse reactions, combination in the incidence of adverse reactions/events were higher than that of single drug, the difference was statistically significant (P reactions occur, and clinical rational drug use, such as combination, age and other fators, and the influence factors vary in different populations. Therefore, clinical doctors for children and the elderly use special care was required for a clear and open spirit injection, the implementation of individualized medication.

  17. Single well injection withdrawal tests (SWIW) in fractured rock. Some aspects on interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neretnieks, Ivars [Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    Single-Well-Injection-Withdrawal, SWIW, tests are used to try to extract information on fracture apertures, sorption and diffusion properties and dispersion information in individual fractures. It is done by injecting a given amount of traced water into an isolated fracture. After a waiting period water is withdrawn from the fracture and the tracer concentration is measured. The concentration time curve is fitted to a model and the parameter values quantifying the different interaction mechanisms are determined. A number of different mechanisms influence the recovery of the tracer. One or more of the following mechanisms are considered. They include: dispersion due to velocity differences, sorption on fracture surface and on infill, diffusion in rock fragments in the fracture, diffusion between 'streamlines', diffusion into rock matrix and other stagnant water volumes, sorption kinetics and slow drift of the plume caused by the natural gradient. Many of the interaction mechanisms can influence the recovery curve in a similar way. For example, diffusion into rock matrix water and into stagnant water in the fracture adjacent to the flowing channels cannot be distinguished if only one tracer is used. Tracers with different properties can in principle be used but they will encounter different parts of the fracture, the sorbing tracer will move out less from the injection point than a nonsorbing tracer will. Diffusion and sorption in small particles in the flowpath can influence the recovery curve in a similar way as rock matrix diffusion does. Dispersion caused by diffusion between 'streamlines', Taylor dispersion, can give very different results in channels of different shapes. Such dispersion effects can be difficult to distinguish from matrix diffusion effects. Dispersion coefficients obtained in a SWIW test may have little relation to dispersion of a tracer moving from A to B. This is partly due to the different mechanisms and partly due to

  18. Single well injection withdrawal tests (SWIW) in fractured rock. Some aspects on interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, Ivars

    2007-08-01

    Single-Well-Injection-Withdrawal, SWIW, tests are used to try to extract information on fracture apertures, sorption and diffusion properties and dispersion information in individual fractures. It is done by injecting a given amount of traced water into an isolated fracture. After a waiting period water is withdrawn from the fracture and the tracer concentration is measured. The concentration time curve is fitted to a model and the parameter values quantifying the different interaction mechanisms are determined. A number of different mechanisms influence the recovery of the tracer. One or more of the following mechanisms are considered. They include: dispersion due to velocity differences, sorption on fracture surface and on infill, diffusion in rock fragments in the fracture, diffusion between 'streamlines', diffusion into rock matrix and other stagnant water volumes, sorption kinetics and slow drift of the plume caused by the natural gradient. Many of the interaction mechanisms can influence the recovery curve in a similar way. For example, diffusion into rock matrix water and into stagnant water in the fracture adjacent to the flowing channels cannot be distinguished if only one tracer is used. Tracers with different properties can in principle be used but they will encounter different parts of the fracture, the sorbing tracer will move out less from the injection point than a nonsorbing tracer will. Diffusion and sorption in small particles in the flowpath can influence the recovery curve in a similar way as rock matrix diffusion does. Dispersion caused by diffusion between 'streamlines', Taylor dispersion, can give very different results in channels of different shapes. Such dispersion effects can be difficult to distinguish from matrix diffusion effects. Dispersion coefficients obtained in a SWIW test may have little relation to dispersion of a tracer moving from A to B. This is partly due to the different mechanisms and partly due to different time scales

  19. Identification of single-input-single-output quantum linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Matthew; GuÅ£ǎ, Mǎdǎlin

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate system identification for single-input-single-output general (active or passive) quantum linear systems. For a given input we address the following questions: (1) Which parameters can be identified by measuring the output? (2) How can we construct a system realization from sufficient input-output data? We show that for time-dependent inputs, the systems which cannot be distinguished are related by symplectic transformations acting on the space of system modes. This complements a previous result of Guţă and Yamamoto [IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 61, 921 (2016), 10.1109/TAC.2015.2448491] for passive linear systems. In the regime of stationary quantum noise input, the output is completely determined by the power spectrum. We define the notion of global minimality for a given power spectrum, and characterize globally minimal systems as those with a fully mixed stationary state. We show that in the case of systems with a cascade realization, the power spectrum completely fixes the transfer function, so the system can be identified up to a symplectic transformation. We give a method for constructing a globally minimal subsystem direct from the power spectrum. Restricting to passive systems the analysis simplifies so that identifiability may be completely understood from the eigenvalues of a particular system matrix.

  20. Reduction of waveform distortion in grid-injection current from single-phase utility interactive PV-inverter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Muhammad Imran; Jusoh, Awang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A reduction scheme for harmonics from utility interactive PV-inverter is proposed. • Single-phase conditioner with 3-phase expandability structure is used. • The single-phase conditioner in 3-phase structure work independently. • The scheme works effectively within overall operation range of the PV-inverter. • Conditioner in the scheme also improves the PV-inverter and plant’s utility factor. - Abstract: As the natural behavior of energy source and design characteristic, the current generated by a grid-interactive PV-inverter may contain harmonics. This distortion component will be carried on from the PV-inverter during injection power into the grid. Excessive harmonics in a grid will lead to a variety of power quality problems. This paper presents a distortion reduction scheme, utilizing a fed forward single-phase, generation-side power conditioner with a structure that can be expanded for use in a three-phase system and can work independently under imbalanced condition. Conditioner is placed in parallel with the photovoltaic plant and it functions to compensate the plant’s output current distortion, so that the total current flow to the grid is sinusoidal. This method also includes the implementation of a simpler control system for the conditioner, which consists of a combination of distortion current extraction, synchronization and a current control system, and realized through a TMS320F28335: a 150 MHz floating point DSP controller. Testing of the conditioner prototype, which was conducted on a real operation of a PV plant, showed that the scheme worked effectively within the overall operation range of the PV plant. This paper also discusses the potential of utility factor improvement of the PV-inverter and plant due to implementation of conditioner in the scheme

  1. Numerical simulations of single and multi-staged injection of H2 in a supersonic scramjet combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abu-Farah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations of a single staged injection of H2 through a central wedge shaped strut and a multi-staged injection through wall injectors are carried out by using Ansys CFX-12 code. Unstructured tetrahedral grids for narrow channel and quarter geometries of the combustor are generated by using ICEM CFD. Steady three-dimensional (3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-stokes (RANS simulations are carried out in the case of no H2 injection and compared with the simulations of single staged pilot and/or main H2 injections and multistage injection. Shear stress transport (SST based on k-ω turbulent model is adopted. Flow field visualization (complex shock waves interactions and static pressure distribution along the wall of the combustor are predicted and compared with the experimental schlieren images and measured wall static pressures for validation. A good agreement is found between the CFD predicted results and the measured data. The narrow and quarter geometries of the combustor give similar results with very small differences. Multi-staged injections of H2 enhance the turbulent H2/air mixing by forming vortices and additional shock waves (bow shocks.

  2. A prospective, randomized comparison between single- and multiple-injection techniques for ultrasound-guided subgluteal sciatic nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroto; Sakura, Shinichi; Wada, Minori; Shido, Akemi

    2014-12-01

    It is believed that local anesthetic injected to obtain circumferential spread around nerves produces a more rapid onset and successful blockade after some ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks. However, evidence demonstrating this point is limited only to the popliteal sciatic nerve block, which is relatively easy to perform by via a high-frequency linear transducer. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that multiple injections of local anesthetic to make circumferential spread would improve the rate of sensory and motor blocks compared with a single-injection technique for ultrasound-guided subgluteal sciatic nerve block, which is considered a relatively difficult block conducted with a low-frequency, curved-array transducer. Ninety patients undergoing knee surgery were divided randomly into 2 groups to receive the ultrasound-guided subgluteal approach to sciatic nerve block with 20 mL of 1.5% mepivacaine with epinephrine. For group M (the multiple-injection technique), the local anesthetic was injected to create circumferential spread around the sciatic nerve without limitation on the number of needle passes. For group S (the single-injection technique), the number of needle passes was limited to 1, and the local anesthetic was injected to create spread along the dorsal surface of the sciatic nerve, during which no adjustment of the needle tip was made. Sensory and motor blockade were assessed in double-blind fashion for 30 minutes after completion of the block. The primary outcome was sensory blockade of all sciatic components tested, including tibial, superficial peroneal, and sural nerves at 30 minutes after injection. Data from 86 patients (43 in each group) were analyzed. Block execution took more time for group M than group S. The proportion of patients with complete sensory blockade of all sciatic components at 30 minutes after injection was significantly larger for group M than group S (41.9% vs 16.3%, P = 0.018). Complete motor blockade of

  3. Single-dose methotrexate injection for treatment of ectopic pregnancy in women with relatively low levels of human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissi, Haim; Peled, Yoav; Eitan, Ram; Bishara, Amani; Goldchmit, Chen; Ben-Haroush, Avi

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate potential risk factors at admission for failed single-dose methotrexate injection in women with ectopic pregnancy. File review of a tertiary medical center in Israel yielded 102 consecutive patients with ectopic pregnancy initially treated with single-dose methotrexate. Overall successful treatment was defined as normalization of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels after the first or second injection. The mean pretreatment hCG level for the whole cohort was 2350 ± 2955 mIU/mL (median, 1187 mIU/mL; 90th percentile, 5000 mIU/mL). Resolution of ectopic pregnancy was achieved after a single injection in 76/102 (74.5%) women and after a second dose in 16/21 (76.2%) women. The remaining 10 (9.8%) patients were treated surgically after the first (5/76) or the second (5/26) dose. The overall success rate for methotrexate treatment was 90.2%. On multivariate stepwise logistic analysis, fetal cardiac activity was an independent predictor of a failed first methotrexate injection, and presence of a yolk sac and mass size were independent predictors of overall methotrexate failure and need for secondary surgery. In patients with ectopic pregnancy and relatively low levels of serum hCG, the most important predictors of overall failure of methotrexate injection were the presence of a yolk sac and mass size. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved plasma uniformity in a discharge system with electron injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizir, A V; Tyunkov, A V; Shandrikov, M V

    2009-02-01

    We present the results of experiments leading to improvement in bulk plasma uniformity of a constricted-arc discharge system with electron injection. The steady-state discharge was in argon, at a gas pressure of 0.5 mTorr, and operated with a main discharge voltage between 20 and 100 V and current between 3 and 15 A. The radial plasma distribution was measured with a movable Langmuir probe. We find that geometric modification of the intermediate electrode exit aperture and the main discharge cathode add little to the plasma uniformity. Improved bulk plasma uniformity is observed when a special distributing grid electrode is used and the main discharge voltage is less than 20-30 V. The application of a weakly divergent magnetic field in the region of the intermediate electrode exit aperture decreases the plasma nonuniformity from 20% to 14% over a radial distance of 30 cm. The plasma uniformity was further improved by compensating the magnetic self-field of the injected electron beam by a reverse magnetic field produced with a special electrode compensator. It is shown that an increase in discharge current causes a proportional increase in back current in the distributing electrode. The approach allows a decrease in plasma nonuniformity from 20% to 13% over a radial distance of 30 cm.

  5. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Antoni K.; Maxson, James A.; Hensinger, David M.

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  6. Embedded computer controlled premixing inline injection system for air-assisted variable-rate sprayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improvements to reduce chemical waste and environmental pollution for variable-rate sprayers used in orchards and ornamental nurseries require inline injection techniques. A microprocessor controlled premixing inline injection system implementing a ceramic piston chemical metering pump and two small...

  7. Effects of a single glucocorticoid injection on propylene glycol-treated cows with clinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Drift, Saskia G A; Houweling, Martin; Bouman, Marina; Koets, Ad P; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Nielen, Mirjam; Jorritsma, Ruurd

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids when administered to propylene glycol-treated cows with clinical ketosis. Clinical ketosis was defined by depressed feed intake and milk production, and a maximal score for acetoacetate in urine. All cows received 250 mL oral propylene glycol twice daily for 3 days and were randomly assigned to a single intramuscular injection with sterile isotonic saline solution (n = 14) or dexamethasone-21-isonicotinate (n = 17). Metabolic blood variables were monitored for 6 days and adipose tissue variables for 3 days. β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in blood decreased in all cows during treatment, but were lower in glucocorticoid-treated cows. Cows treated with glucocorticoids had higher plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, whereas concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, 3-methylhistidine and growth hormone were unaffected. mRNA expression of hormone-sensitive lipase, BHBA receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type γ in adipose tissue was not affected. This shows that lipolytic effects do not appear to be important in ketotic cows when glucocorticoids are combined with PG. Plasma 3-methyl histidine concentrations were similar in both groups, suggesting that glucocorticoids did not increase muscle breakdown and that the greater rise in plasma glucose in glucocorticoid-treated cows may not be due to increased supply of glucogenic amino acids from muscle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A novel current injection model of PWMSC for control and analysis of power system stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel current injection model of Pulse width Modulation based Series Compensator (PWMSC, as new FACTS controller, for damping of low frequency oscillations. The PWMSC operates as a means of continuous control of the degree of series compensation through the variation of the duty cycle of a train of fixed frequency-pulses. The methodology is tested on the sample single machine power system including PWMSC controller by performing computer simulations for small and large distributions. MATLAB/ Simulink software package was used for the simulations.

  9. Experimental Research on the Injection Rate of DME and Diesel Fuel in Common Rail Injection System by Using Bosch and Zeuch Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seemoon Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates a preliminary injection characterization of the injection rate and the injection quantity behavior in a high-pressure common rail injection system used in a heavy-duty engine. The injection rate meter and the injection quantity meter used in the test meter measuring systems were jointly connected under the Zeuch method measurement principles at a constant volume chamber and under the Bosch method measurement principles at a long pipe flow. The trade-off trend for the injection rate and the injection quantity was observed according to the injection pressure. As expected, fuel injection with pilot injection affected the spray quantity and the injection evolution of subsequent fuel injection without pilot injection in dimethyl ether and diesel fuel. The pressure variations in the initial injection duration (2000–6000 µs of the main and pilot injections for diesel and DME were similar. However, after 7000 µs, the pressure of DME increased more rapidly compared to that of diesel. This finding was the result of the rapid density changes caused by the nature of compressive fluid. Therefore, the DME supply pump was expected to require a higher drive energy by approximately 20% compared to that of the diesel supply pump.

  10. Continuously acting fuel injection system. Kontinuierlich arbeitende Kraftstoffeinspritzanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsch, H.; Hofbauer, A.; Steinbeck, H.

    1986-02-20

    A continuously acting fuel injection system with an air quantity meter in the suction pipe and a fuel distributor controlled by it is provided with an additional device for use in a multi-cylinder aircraft engine, which is used to give the best possible performance, fuel saving and safety. An altitude control pressure controller is connected in parallel with a warming up controller to the control pressure pipe going to the fuel distributor, which measures the control pressure and therefore the fuel dosing according to the air density varying with the temperature and pressure. By fitting a fixed throttle between the control pressure pipe and the fuel return pipe to the fuel tank, emergency running of the engine is ensured on failure of both controllers. (orig./BWI).

  11. Administration of follitropin alfa and lutropin alfa combined in a single injection: a feasibility assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinetto Rita

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotrophins are routinely administered in assisted reproductive technology (ART treatment protocols. Recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH; follitropin alfa and recombinant human luteinizing hormone (r-hLH; lutropin alfa can be administered individually or in a fixed combination. The ability to vary the FSH to LH dose ratio in a single injection without compromising the bioactivity of either gonadotrophin or generating losses of active principle is important for physicians and patients alike. Methods This study investigated whether follitropin alfa (GONAL-f (R, as lyophilized powder for reconstitution or solution from the GONAL-f (R (filled-by-mass [FbM] Prefilled Pen, could be used to reconstitute Pergoveris TM (follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa 150 IU/75 IU lyophilized powder. In Ratio Groups 1 and 2, the r-hFSH:r-hLH ratio was 3:1; in Ratio Groups 3 and 4, the ratios of r-hFSH:r-hLH were 5:1 and 8:1, respectively. The protein content and bioactivity of each mixed solution were evaluated. The r-hFSH and r-hLH content was determined using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The biological activity of r-hFSH and r-hLH was assessed using the Steelman-Pohley and Van Hell in vivo bioassays in rats, respectively. Results Follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa 150 IU/75 IU lyophilized powder could be successfully mixed with follitropin alfa 75 IU FbM solution that was either reconstituted from lyophilized powder or injected directly from the prefilled pen to create solutions with ratios of r-hFSH and r-hLH from 3:1 to 8:1. The measured content of r-hFSH and r-hLH corresponded favourably with the target protein content in Ratio Groups 1–4. The in vivo target and measured bioactivity of r-hFSH and r-hLH were also closely matched in all Ratio Groups. Conclusion Follitropin alfa lyophilized powder or solution can be accurately mixed with follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa 150 IU/75 IU lyophilized powder to

  12. Knee Viscosupplementation: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis between Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid in a Single Injection versus Five Injections of Standard Hyaluronic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Estades-Rubio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the wide difference in price per vial between various presentations of hyaluronic acid, this study seeks to compare the effectiveness and treatment cost of stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA in a single injection with standard preparations of hyaluronic acid (HA in five injections in osteoarthritis (OA of the knee. Fifty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren–Lawrence Grade II and III and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC pain score greater than 7, with a homogeneous distribution of age, sex, BMI, and duration of disease, were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group I was treated with NASHA (Durolane® and Group II with HA (Go-ON®. Patient’s evolution was followed up at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 26th week after treatment. A statistically significant improvement in WOMAC score was observed for patients treated with NASHA versus those who received HA at Week 26. In addition, the need for analgesia was significantly reduced at Week 26 in the NASHA-treated group. Finally, the economic analysis showed an increased cost of overall treatment with HA injections. Our data support the use of the NASHA class of products in the treatment of knee OA.

  13. Knee Viscosupplementation: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis between Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid in a Single Injection versus Five Injections of Standard Hyaluronic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estades-Rubio, Francisco J; Reyes-Martín, Alvaro; Morales-Marcos, Victor; García-Piriz, Mercedes; García-Vera, Juan J; Perán, Macarena; Marchal, Juan A; Montañez-Heredia, Elvira

    2017-03-17

    Given the wide difference in price per vial between various presentations of hyaluronic acid, this study seeks to compare the effectiveness and treatment cost of stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) in a single injection with standard preparations of hyaluronic acid (HA) in five injections in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Fifty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence Grade II and III) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score greater than 7, with a homogeneous distribution of age, sex, BMI, and duration of disease, were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group I was treated with NASHA (Durolane ® ) and Group II with HA (Go-ON ® ). Patient's evolution was followed up at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 26th week after treatment. A statistically significant improvement in WOMAC score was observed for patients treated with NASHA versus those who received HA at Week 26. In addition, the need for analgesia was significantly reduced at Week 26 in the NASHA-treated group. Finally, the economic analysis showed an increased cost of overall treatment with HA injections. Our data support the use of the NASHA class of products in the treatment of knee OA.

  14. The comparison of knee osteoarthritis treatment with single-dose bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells vs. hyaluronic acid injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncars, Valdis; Jakobsons, Eriks; Blums, Kristaps; Briede, Ieva; Patetko, Liene; Erglis, Kristaps; Erglis, Martins; Kalnberzs, Konstantins; Muiznieks, Indrikis; Erglis, Andrejs

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare treatment methods of the knee joint degenerative osteoarthritis, using autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells and hyaluronic acid injections and observe prevalence of adverse effects in both groups. A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out. The analysis of pain and changes in osteoarthritis symptoms after a single intra-articular bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell injection into the knee joint in the Kellgren-Lawrence stage II-III osteoarthritis during the 12-month period were performed. The results were compared with the control group treated routinely by hyaluronic acid injections therapy. A therapy group of patients (n=28) received single bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell intra-articular injections. A control group of patients (n=28) was treated with a total of three sodium hyaluronate intra-articular injections each one performed a week apart. The clinical results were obtained using the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Knee Society Score (KSS) before and 3, 6, and 12 months after injection. A statistically significant improvement was observed in the mononuclear cell group over the starting point in all scores. At the endpoint at month 12, the KOOS score improved significantly (Phyaluronic acid versus the bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells group at time points 6 and 12 months demonstrated a statistically significant (Phyaluronic acid group. In both groups serious adverse effects were not observed. The intra-articular injection of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells is a safe manipulation with no side effects during the 12-month period. This treatment provides statistically significant clinical improvement between the starting point and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after. When compared to hyaluronic acid treatment, better pain relief in the long-term period of mononuclear cell group was observed. Copyright © 2017 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production

  15. Effect of injection pressure on performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of diesel-acetylene-fuelled single cylinder stationary CI engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anmesh Kumar; Soni, Shyam Lal; Sharma, Dilip; Jain, Narayan Lal

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the effect of injection pressure on the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a diesel-acetylene fuelled single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection (DI) diesel engine with a rated power of 3.5 kW at a rated speed of 1500 rpm was studied. Experiments were performed in dual-fuel mode at four different injection pressures of 180, 190, 200, and 210 bar with a flow rate of 120 LPH of acetylene and results were compared with that of baseline diesel operation. Experimental results showed that highest brake thermal efficiency of 27.57% was achieved at injection pressure of 200 bar for diesel-acetylene dual-fuel mode which was much higher than 23.32% obtained for baseline diesel. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and smoke emissions were also measured and found to be lower, while the NO x emissions were higher at 200 bar in dual fuel mode as compared to those in other injection pressures in dual fuel mode and also for baseline diesel mode. Peak cylinder pressure, net heat release rate, and rate of pressure rise were also calculated and were higher at 200 bar injection pressure in dual fuel mode.

  16. Injection-locked single-mode VCSEL for orthogonal multiplexing and amplitude noise suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chipouline, Arkadi; Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Malekizandi, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    an injection-locked 1550 nm VCSEL as a slave laser providing separation of amplitude and phase modulations, carrying independent information flows. To validate the possibility of phase modulation extraction by an injection-locked VCSEL, an experimental setup shown in Fig. 1 has been built....

  17. An injectable particle-hydrogel hybrid system for glucose-regulatory insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fuli; Wu, Di; Yao, Dan; Guo, Ruiwei; Wang, Weiwei; Dong, Anjie; Kong, Deling; Zhang, Jianhua

    2017-12-01

    Long-term and daily subcutaneous injections of insulin for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetic patients often lead to poor patient compliance and undesired complications. Phenylboronic acid (PBA)-based polymeric hydrogels have been widely considered as one of the most promising insulin delivery system to replace the frequent insulin injections. However, their applications are limited by clinically irrelevant glucose-responsive range, slow response rate, low tissue-adhesiveness and poor biodegradability, undesirable leakage at normoglycemic state. Herein, we report a novel implantable insulin hydrogel for glucose-regulated delivery of insulin based on a unique particle-hydrogel hybrid platform featuring fast glucose responsiveness at physiological pH, shear-thinning behavior for injection, tissue-adhesive function for long-lasting adherence, and full biodegradability for safe use. The system was thoroughly characterized both in vitro and in vivo and was demonstrated to hold these unique functions. Using streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice as a model, it was shown that a single subcutaneous injection of the insulin-loaded particle-hydrogel formulation led to quasi-steady-state blood glucose levels within the normal range for about two weeks. In addition, the preparation of the formulation only involved simple mixing and self-assembling processes, and thus it had great scalability and reproducibility for practical use. The highly feasible preparation, excellent performance, inherent biocompatibility and biodegradability make this novel composite hydrogel promising platform for diabetes therapy. Phenylboronic acid (PBA)-based polymeric hydrogels have been widely considered as one of the most promising insulin delivery system to replace the frequent insulin injections. However, these hydrogels, mostly based on a variety of PBA-containing acrylamide monomers, are still far from clinical reality. Building upon a unique particle-hydrogel hybrid platform, herein we

  18. Efficient injection from large telescopes into single-mode fibres: Enabling the era of ultra-precision astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, N.; Schwab, C.; Guyon, O.; Lozi, J.; Cvetojevic, N.; Martinache, F.; Leon-Saval, S.; Norris, B.; Gross, S.; Doughty, D.; Currie, T.; Takato, N.

    2017-08-01

    Photonic technologies offer numerous advantages for astronomical instruments such as spectrographs and interferometers owing to their small footprints and diverse range of functionalities. Operating at the diffraction-limit, it is notoriously difficult to efficiently couple such devices directly with large telescopes. We demonstrate that with careful control of both the non-ideal pupil geometry of a telescope and residual wavefront errors, efficient coupling with single-mode devices can indeed be realised. A fibre injection was built within the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument. Light was coupled into a single-mode fibre operating in the near-IR (J - H bands) which was downstream of the extreme adaptive optics system and the pupil apodising optics. A coupling efficiency of 86% of the theoretical maximum limit was achieved at 1550 nm for a diffraction-limited beam in the laboratory, and was linearly correlated with Strehl ratio. The coupling efficiency was constant to within 40% for 84% of the time and >50% for 41% of the time. The laboratory results allow us to forecast that extreme adaptive optics levels of correction (Strehl ratio >90% in H-band) would allow coupling of >67% (of the order of coupling to multimode fibres currently) while standard levels of wavefront correction (Strehl ratio >20% in H-band) would allow coupling of >18%. For Strehl ratios <20%, few-port photonic lanterns become a superior choice but the signal-to-noise, and pixel availability must be considered. These results illustrate a clear path to efficient on-sky coupling into a single-mode fibre, which could be used to realise modal-noise-free radial velocity machines, very-long-baseline optical/near-IR interferometers and/or simply exploit photonic technologies in future instrument design.

  19. Computer-controlled flow injection analysis system for on-line determination of distribution ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekimken, H.L.; Smith, B.F.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Peterson, E.J.; Jones, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    An automated flow injection analysis (FIA) system has been developed for the rapid acquisition of liquid/liquid, metal ion distribution ratios (D). The system features automatic switching between aqueous metal sample and wash solutions, on-line solvent extraction, phase separation, and the simultaneous detection of the separated phases by diode-array spectrophotometry. A comparative study of manual, single-stage liquid/liquid extractions with the flow injection system was completed by using a new extraction system UO 2 2+ /benzene/TOPO (trioctylphosphine oxide)/HBMPPT (4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione). The batch and FIA methods yielded results generally within 5% of each other. The major differences between the two systems are that the FIA system is at least twice as fast, is less labor intensive, is more reproducible, and yields better statistics (a result of the FIA's speed and automation features). Slope analysis of the plotted data from the uranyl extraction studies indicates that the extraction complex is UO 2 (BMPPT) 2 (TOPO)

  20. Experimental investigation of gasoline fumigation in a single cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Z.; Durgun, O.; Bayram, C.

    2008-01-01

    In the presented study, the effects of gasoline fumigation have been investigated experimentally in a single cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine. Gasoline has been introduced into the inlet air flow using an elementary carburetor and no other modification on the engine has been done. The effects of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% (by vol.) gasoline fumigation have been investigated experimentally at the speeds of (900-1600) (rpm) and at the selected compression ratios of (18-23). From the experimental results it is determined that by application of gasoline fumigation effective power output increases at the levels of 4-9%, effective efficiency increases by approximately 1.5-4% and specific fuel consumption decreases by approximately 1.5-4%. It is also determined that 4-6% fumigation ratio range is the most favorable percentage interval of gasoline at the selected compression ratios for this engine. Because cost of gasoline is higher than diesel fuel in Turkey as well as in many of the other countries and the decrease ratio of specific fuel consumption is low, gasoline fumigation is not economic for this engine. In the presented study, heat balance tests have also been performed for 18 and 21 compression ratios. The heat balance has been investigated experimentally in respect of effective power, heat rejected to the cooling water, heat lost through exhaust, and other losses (unaccounted-for losses). Heat lost through exhaust decreases until 4-6% gasoline fumigation ratios and after these fumigation ratios it starts to increase because of increasing exhaust gas temperature. Heat rejected to the cooling water decreases at low fumigation ratios, but at high fumigation ratios it increases. Other losses generally exhibit an increasing tendency at low fumigation ratios

  1. Flow Injection/Sequential Injection Analysis Systems: Potential Use as Tools for Rapid Liver Diseases Biomarker Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Kradtap Hartwell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow injection/sequential injection analysis (FIA/SIA systems are suitable for carrying out automatic wet chemical/biochemical reactions with reduced volume and time consumption. Various parts of the system such as pump, valve, and reactor may be built or adapted from available materials. Therefore the systems can be at lower cost as compared to other instrumentation-based analysis systems. Their applications for determination of biomarkers for liver diseases have been demonstrated in various formats of operation but only a few and limited types of biomarkers have been used as model analytes. This paper summarizes these applications for different types of reactions as a guide for using flow-based systems in more biomarker and/or multibiomarker studies.

  2. A single-dose, open-label, parallel, randomized, dose-proportionality study of paliperidone after intramuscular injections of paliperidone palmitate in the deltoid or gluteal muscle in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleton, Adriaan; Rossenu, Stefaan; Crauwels, Herta; Berwaerts, Joris; Hough, David; Gopal, Srihari; Eerdekens, Marielle; Vandebosch, An; Remmerie, Bart; De Meulder, Marc; Rosso, Clara M

    2014-09-01

    Paliperidone palmitate (PP) is a long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic, developed for monthly intramuscular (i.m.) administration into deltoid/gluteal muscle, approved for the treatment of schizophrenia in many countries. To assess the options for i.m. injection sites, dose-proportionality of PP was investigated after injection of a single dose (25-150 mg eq.) of PP in either gluteal (n = 106) or deltoid (n = 95) muscle of schizophrenic patients. Overall, mean (geometric) area under plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC∞ ) of paliperidone increased proportionally with increasing PP doses, regardless of injection site. Mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) was slightly less than dose-proportional for both injection sites at PP doses >50 mg eq. Mean Cmax was higher after injection in the deltoid compared with the gluteal muscle, except for the 100 mg eq. dose, while AUC∞ for both injection sites was comparable at all doses. Median time to reach Cmax (tmax ) ranged from 13-14 days after deltoid and 13-17 days after gluteal injection across all doses. Single PP injections in deltoid and gluteal muscles in the dose range of 25-150 mg eq. were generally tolerable both locally and systemically. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  3. An Apparatus for Measuring Rates of Discharge of a Fuel-Injection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutee, Francis J

    1941-01-01

    A portable apparatus for rapidly determining rates of discharge of a fuel-injection system is described. Satisfactory operation of this apparatus with injection-pump speeds up to 2400 r.p.m was obtained. Rate-of-discharge tests were made with several cam-plunger-valve injection systems with long injection tubes. A check valve designed to reduce secondary discharges was tested. This check valve was operated with injection-pump speeds up to 2400 r.p.m without the occurrence of large secondary discharges.

  4. The new control system of the SPS injection kicker

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Marchand, A; Verhagen, H

    2002-01-01

    The SPS accelerator will be used as injector for the LHC and has to be adapted to the LHC requirements. The tight specification on beam blow-up and bunch spacing in the SPS has required an upgrade program of the SPS injection kicker in order to obtain a reduction of the magnetic field ripple to less than ± 0.5% and of the magnet current rise time to less than 145 ns. In this context, the slow control part has been entirely rebuilt on the basis of off-the-shelf industrial components. A hierarchical architecture based on a SIEMENS S7-400 master programmable logic controller interconnected through PROFIBUS-DP to S7-300 deported and decentralised I/Os has been implemented. Integration of in-house specific G-64 hardware systems inside this industrial environment has been done through a PROFIBUS-DP to G-64 intelligent interface based on an OEM fieldbus mezzanine board on one side and an FPGA implementing the required functionality on the other. Simultaneously, the fast timing system has been completely reshuffled ...

  5. Shower emboli and digital necrosis after a single corticosteroid injection for trigger thumb: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jonathan; Dumanian, Gregory A

    2009-02-01

    Local corticosteroid injection into the hand is the preferred initial step in the management of trigger finger owing to its safety and efficacy. We report the case of a patient with shower emboli and digital necrosis after a local corticosteroid injection for the treatment of trigger thumb. Given the patient's subsequent negative hypercoagulability workup, we suspect that the patient's symptoms resulted from the injection of steroids into the princeps pollicis artery, with subsequent retrograde flow into multiple other arteries of the hand. The patient was managed conservatively and ultimately her symptoms resolved. No new areas of digital necrosis have appeared in 8 years of follow-up.

  6. [Clinical application features of Fufang Kushen injection in treating malignant esophageal tumor: real world study based on hospital information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Xin; Wang, Zhi-Fei; Xie, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Yin; Chen, Cen; Zhuang, Yan

    2017-08-01

    To analyze the clinical application features of Fufang Kushen injection in treating malignant esophageal tumors in the real world by using hospital information system database, and provide reference for clinical application of Fufang Kushen injection. The electronic medical data from 2 550 patients with malignant esophageal tumors using Fufang Kushen injection from 22 large-scale hospitals nationwide were extracted based on the hospital information system (HIS) established by Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. Then the descriptive analysis based on frequency and rate was conducted for general characteristics, diagnostic characteristics, characteristics of dosage and medication information, characteristics of drug combination, and discharge outcome characteristics. The results showed that the average age of patients treated with Fufang Kushen injection for malignant esophageal tumors was 62.3 years old; more males than females; admitted to hospital mainly in department of cardiology, oncology and digestology first. The total efficiency was 47.15% based on the discharge outcome characteristics; the most common dosage was 10-20 mL for single use; the course of treatment was mainly 4-7 d; and the common drugs in drug combinations included dexamethasone, tropisetron injection, thymosin injection, compound amino acid injection, pantoprazole sodium injection, fluorouracil, et al. The characteristics of the crowd using Fufang Kushen injection to treat the malignant esophageal tumors were clear and in line with the general rule of malignant esophageal tumors; its clinical dosage and scope of treatment for malignant esophageal tumors in the real world were basically consistent with the specification; and the types of clinical drug use combinations were more extensive. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Qualitative response of safety injection system for a large size break in the reactor coolant system cold leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.; Chughtai, I.R.; Aslam, M.

    2007-01-01

    Safety injection system, accumulator injection system and residual heat removal system of CHASNUPP-1 were simulated using the computer code APROS. We observed the qualitative response of the simulated system during injection and re-circulation phases after LOCA. During rapid depressurization of SRC system due to leakage, these systems started coolant injection in the SRC system as per plant requirement. Different thermal-hydraulic parameters of the respective systems are presented and discussed. Results obtained are in good agreement with the reported document of the reference power plant

  8. Dispersion-convolution model for simulating peaks in a flow injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Su-Cheng; Lai, Yee-Hwong; Chiao, Ling-Yun; Yu, Tiing

    2007-01-12

    A dispersion-convolution model is proposed for simulating peak shapes in a single-line flow injection system. It is based on the assumption that an injected sample plug is expanded due to a "bulk" dispersion mechanism along the length coordinate, and that after traveling over a distance or a period of time, the sample zone will develop into a Gaussian-like distribution. This spatial pattern is further transformed to a temporal coordinate by a convolution process, and finally a temporal peak image is generated. The feasibility of the proposed model has been examined by experiments with various coil lengths, sample sizes and pumping rates. An empirical dispersion coefficient (D*) can be estimated by using the observed peak position, height and area (tp*, h* and At*) from a recorder. An empirical temporal shift (Phi*) can be further approximated by Phi*=D*/u2, which becomes an important parameter in the restoration of experimental peaks. Also, the dispersion coefficient can be expressed as a second-order polynomial function of the pumping rate Q, for which D*(Q)=delta0+delta1Q+delta2Q2. The optimal dispersion occurs at a pumping rate of Qopt=sqrt[delta0/delta2]. This explains the interesting "Nike-swoosh" relationship between the peak height and pumping rate. The excellent coherence of theoretical and experimental peak shapes confirms that the temporal distortion effect is the dominating reason to explain the peak asymmetry in flow injection analysis.

  9. Improved estimation of receptor density and binding rate constants using a single tracer injection and displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, A.; Delforge, J.; Mazoyer, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of improving receptor model parameter estimation using a displacement experiment in which an excess of an unlabeled ligand (J) is injected after a delay (t D ) following injection of trace amounts of the β + - labeled ligand (J*) is investigated. The effects of varying t D and J/J* on parameter uncertainties are studied in the case of 11 C-MQNB binding to myocardial acetycholine receptor using parameters identified in a dog experiment

  10. Single-shot measurements of low emittance beams from laser-plasma accelerators comparing two triggered injection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    The success of laser plasma accelerator (LPA) based applications, such as a compact x-ray free electron laser (FEL), relies on the ability to produce electron beams with excellent 6D brightness, where brightness is defined as the ratio of charge to the product of the three normalized emittances. As such, parametric studies of the emittance of LPA generated electron beams are essential. Profiting from a stable and tunable LPA setup, combined with a carefully designed single-shot energy-dispersed emittance diagnostic, we present a direct comparison of charge dependent emittance measurements of electron beams generated by two different injection mechanisms: ionization injection and shock-induced density down-ramp injection. Both injection mechanisms have gained in popularity in recent years due to their demonstrated stable LPA performance. For the down-ramp injection configuration, normalized emittances a factor of two lower were recorded: less than 1 micron at spectral charge densities up to 2 pC/MeV. For both injection mechanisms, a contributing correlation of space charge to the emittance was identified. This measurement technique in general, and these results specifically, are critical to the evaluation of LPA injection methods and development of high-quality LPA beam lines worldwide. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, by the U.S. DOE NNSA, DNN R&D (NA22), by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1415596, and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation under Grant ID GBMF4898.

  11. Stepwise injection potentiometric determination of caffeine in saliva using single-drop microextraction combined with solvent exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, I; Medinskaia, K; Nikolaeva, L; Kirsanov, D; Bulatov, A

    2016-04-01

    A flow potentiometric method for determination of caffeine in saliva is suggested. This task is important for non-invasive assessment of drug metabolizing system activity in hepatocytes. In the current study, stepwise injection analysis (SWIA) was successfully combined with single-drop liquid microextraction (SDLME) and solvent exchange procedure. The method is based on the caffeine SDLME with subsequent solvent evaporation and dissolution of analyte in sulfuric acid followed by potentiometric detection using poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode containing potassium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate as electroactive component. SDLME was employed for elimination of interfering matrix effects of saliva and caffeine metabolites such as theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine. A linear range of 10(-5)-10(-2)M was established for caffeine with detection limit at 6 × 10(-6)M. The sample throughput was 6 samples h(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of caffeine in saliva and the analytical results agreed well with the results obtained with reference HPLC method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Numerical Simulations of Two-Phase Reacting Flow in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Combustor Using NCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Wey, C. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations of Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor have been conducted by using the National Combustion Code (NCC). The simulations have been carried out using the time filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) approach ranging from the steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), unsteady RANS (URANS), to the dynamic flow structure simulation (DFS). The sub-grid model employed for turbulent mixing and combustion includes the well-mixed model, the linear eddy mixing (LEM) model, and the filtered mass density function (FDF/PDF) model. The starting condition of the injected liquid spray is specified via empirical droplet size correlation, and a five-species single-step global reduced mechanism is employed for fuel chemistry. All the calculations use the same grid whose resolution is of the RANS type. Comparisons of results from various models are presented.

  13. Optimizing CT angiography in patients with Fontan physiology: single-center experience of dual-site power injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, K.L.; Markham, L.W.; Mah, M.L.; Byrum, E.P.; Williams, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To identify adult patients with single-ventricle congenital heart disease and Fontan procedure palliation who have been misdiagnosed with or incompletely evaluated for pulmonary embolism. Additionally, this study was designed to demonstrate that simultaneous, dual-injection of contrast medium into an upper and lower extremity vein is superior to single-injection protocols for CT angiography (CTA) of the chest in this population. Materials and methods: Patients included in the study were retrospectively selected from the Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) database. Search criteria included history of Fontan palliation and available chest CT examination. Patients were evaluated for (1) type of congenital heart disease and prior operations;(2) indication for initial CT evaluation;(3) route of contrast medium administration for the initial CT examination and resulting diagnosis;(4) whether or not anticoagulation therapy was initiated; and (5) final diagnosis and treatment plan. Results: The query of the ACHD database resulted in 28 individuals or patients with Fontan palliation (superior and inferior venae cavae anastomosed to the pulmonary arteries). Of these, 19 patients with Fontan physiology underwent CTA of the pulmonary circulation, and 17 had suboptimal imaging studies. Unfortunately, seven of these 17 patients (41%) were started on anticoagulation therapy due to a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism that was later excluded. Conclusion: Patients with single-ventricle/Fontan physiology are at risk of thromboembolic disease. Therefore, studies evaluating their complex anatomy must be performed with the optimal imaging protocol to ensure diagnostic accuracy, which is best achieved with dual-injection of an upper and lower extremity central vein. - Highlights: • The adult congenital heart disease population is growing. • Many of these patients have single ventricle/Fontan physiology. • Patients with Fontan physiology are at increased risk for

  14. Thermally activated, single component epoxy systems

    KAUST Repository

    Unruh, David A.

    2011-08-23

    A single component epoxy system in which the resin and hardener components found in many two-component epoxies are combined onto the same molecule is described. The single molecule precursor to the epoxy resin contains both multiple epoxide moieties and a diamine held latent by thermally degradable carbamate linkages. These bis-carbamate "single molecule epoxies" have an essentially infinite shelf life and access a significant range in curing temperatures related to the structure of the carbamate linkages used. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays from a Pump Injection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1934-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. The pump was used with and without a check valve. The results show that the penetration of the spray tip can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.

  16. Novel Double-Needle System That Can Prevent Intravascular Injection of Any Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang Huang, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. A new type of needle system combines 2 parts, an inner needle and an outer needle. The inner needle is used for filler injection and the outer needle acts as a guiding needle that can observe blood reflow when inserting into the vessel lumen during injection process. This new needle system can be used for all kinds of filler, providing real time monitoring for physician and preventing intravascular injection of any filler.

  17. A Novel Technique of Supra Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Hyaluronic Acid Injection for Lower Face Lifting

    OpenAIRE

    Sahawatwong, Sinijchaya; Sirithanabadeekul, Punyaphat; Patanajareet, Vasiyapha; Wattanakrai, Penpun; Thanasarnaksorn, Wilai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various methods attempting to correct sagging of the lower face focus mainly on manipulation of the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Each technique has its own limitation. The authors propose a relatively simple, conservative method utilizing hyaluronic acid injection just above the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Objective: To address a novel hyaluronic injection technique to lift the lower face. Methods: Details of the injection techniques are described. The Positio...

  18. Experimental study of unsteady heat release in an unstable single element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Varun S.

    In an effort to curb emissions from gas turbine engines, many low emission engine concepts have been developed. Among the most promising of these is the LDI (Lean Direct Injection). These systems operate at relatively low equivalence ratios close to blowout and are prone to instabilities. Combustion instabilities can reduce the life of the combustor by causing large pressure fluctuations and enhanced heat release to the walls of the combustor and reduce the efficiency of the engines. The understanding of combustion instabilities is vital to the implementation of such systems. Combustion instabilities are studied in an self-excited single element gas turbine combustor that uses an LDI element for fuel injection at elevetaed chamber pressures. The LDI combustor uses a swirler to ensure mixing of the air and the fuel and expansion of the swirl through a pressure swirl venturi to create a swirl stabilized flame. This project aims to study the heat release modes that occur in the combustor through measurement of light emissions from the flame using photodiodes that are sensitive to wavelengths of light produced by the flame. These are used along with high frequency pressure transducers. The focus is on the flame behavior in the diverging section of the venturi where the swirl is expanded and the flame starts since optic access cannot be obtained in this section. The use of photodiodes also facilitates the study of hydrodynamic modes that occur in the combustor alongside the thermoacoustics. A section which could accommodate the photodiodes was designed and installed on the LDI test rig in the Gas Turbine Cell at Maurice J Zucrow Propulsion Labs at Purdue University. The combustor was tested with this section and dynamic data was obtained from the pressure transducers and the photodiodes for a range of inlet air temperatures and range of equivalence ratios for each inlet air temperature. The dominant instability modes in both sets of data were analyzed and are presented

  19. Identification and weighting factors influencing the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in plastic injection industry using VIKOR and Shannon Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Hashemzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Single minute exchange of dies (SMED is one of the most important tools to achieve lean production system. The main idea of this system is to provide methods and to use creative and innovative solutions for continuous improvement. Due to the importance of this issue and its effect on reducing waste during the production process, this study presents a method to identify and to weight factors in the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in 14 plastic injection factories. In this study, fourteen factories in injection industry were chosen and the factors influencing the implementation of single minute exchange of dies were identified. Following data collection, decision matrix was formed and the weight of each factor was determined by using Shannon Entropy. Then, in order to determine the readiness of factories, VIKOR method was used to rank companies. The results indicate priorities of the following factors in establishing SMED that include: Senior management support, technical capabilities, technical knowledge of staff and consultants, knowledge of mold design, manufacturing infrastructure, team work, combination of the project team work, benchmarking, training, clear understanding of project objectives, rewards and motivation, proper management expectation, project management, teamwork and organizational culture. Practical implications: Due to the factors, Top manager can make the best decision for implementing of SMED technique. This study develops factors influencing on SMED implementation based on Shannon and VIKOR methods for ranking parameters and plants.

  20. Injection molded polymer chip for electrochemical and electrophysiological recordings from single cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanzi, Simone; Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    We present a novel method to fabricate an all in polymer injection molded chip for electrochemical cell recordings and lateral cell trapping. The complete device is molded in thermoplastic polymer and it results from assembling two halves. We tested spin-coated conductive polymer poly(3...

  1. Histopathological Alterations after Single Epidural Injection of Ropivacaine, Methylprednizolone Acetate, or Contrast Material in Swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsou, Maria-Chrysanthi; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Vlachodimitropoulos, Demetrios; Soultanis, Konstantinos; Batistaki, Chrysanthi; Kelekis, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The consequences from the injection of different types of drugs in the epidural space remains unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that localized inflammation, fibrosis, and arachnoiditis can complicate sequential epidural blockades, or even epidural contrast injection. We investigate the in vivo effect of epidural injections in the epidural space in an animal model. Materials and Methods: A group of ten male adult pigs, five punctures to each at distinct vertebral interspaces under general anesthesia, were examined, testing different drugs, used regularly in the epidural space (iopamidol, methylprednisolone acetate, ropivacaine). Each site was marked with a percutaneous hook wire marker. Histological analysis of the epidural space, the meninges, and the underlying spinal cord of the punctured sites along with staining for caspase-3 followed 20 days later. Results: The epidural space did not manifest adhesions or any other pathology, and the outer surface of the dura was not impaired in any specimen. The group that had the contrast media injection showed a higher inflammation response compared to the other groups (P = 0.001). Positive staining for caspase-3 was limited to <5% of neurons with all substances used. Conclusion: No proof of arachnoiditis and/or fibrosis was noted in the epidural space with the use of the above-described drugs. A higher inflammation rate was noted with the use of contrast media.

  2. Concept design of the axial injection system of type CYCIAE cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Meiqin; Zhang Tianjue; Fan Mingwu

    1996-01-01

    Beam optics properties of the axial injection system of CYCIAE30 is calculated and compared with operation results to show that the theory and the calculation method used are reasonable. Then, the concept design of the axial injection system of CYCIAE 70 is made and optimization results are obtained

  3. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  4. 229 nm UV LEDs on aluminum nitride single crystal substrates using p-type silicon for increased hole injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Cho, Sang June; Park, Jeongpil; Seo, Jung-Hun; Dalmau, Rafael; Zhao, Deyin; Kim, Kwangeun; Gong, Jiarui; Kim, Munho; Lee, In-Kyu; Albrecht, John D.; Zhou, Weidong; Moody, Baxter; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2018-02-01

    AlGaN based 229 nm light emitting diodes (LEDs), employing p-type Si to significantly increase hole injection, were fabricated on single crystal bulk aluminum nitride (AlN) substrates. Nitride heterostructures were epitaxially deposited by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy and inherit the low dislocation density of the native substrate. Following epitaxy, a p-Si layer is bonded to the heterostructure. LEDs were characterized both electrically and optically. Owing to the low defect density films, large concentration of holes from p-Si, and efficient hole injection, no efficiency droop was observed up to a current density of 76 A/cm2 under continuous wave operation and without external thermal management. An optical output power of 160 μW was obtained with the corresponding external quantum efficiency of 0.03%. This study demonstrates that by adopting p-type Si nanomembrane contacts as a hole injector, practical levels of hole injection can be realized in UV light-emitting diodes with very high Al composition AlGaN quantum wells, enabling emission wavelengths and power levels that were previously inaccessible using traditional p-i-n structures with poor hole injection efficiency.

  5. Improvement of fuel injection system of locomotive diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghai; Cui, Hongjiang; Wang, Juan; Guan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The traditional locomotive diesels are usually designed for the performance of rated condition and much fuel will be consumed. A new plunger piston matching parts of fuel injection pump and injector nozzle matching parts were designed. The experimental results of fuel injection pump test and diesel engine show that the fuel consumption rate can be decreased a lot in the most of the working conditions. The forced lubrication is adopted for the new injector nozzle matching parts, which can reduce failure rate and increase service life. The design has been patented by Chinese State Patent Office.

  6. Rapid dual-injection single-scan 13N-ammonia PET for quantification of rest and stress myocardial blood flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, T C; DiBella, E V R; McGann, C J; Christian, P E; Hoffman, J M; Kadrmas, D J

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of myocardial blood flows at rest and stress using 13 N-ammonia PET is an established method; however, current techniques require a waiting period of about 1 h between scans. The objective of this study was to test a rapid dual-injection single-scan approach, where 13 N-ammonia injections are administered 10 min apart during rest and adenosine stress. Dynamic PET data were acquired in six human subjects using imaging protocols that provided separate single-injection scans as gold standards. Rest and stress data were combined to emulate rapid dual-injection data so that the underlying activity from each injection was known exactly. Regional blood flow estimates were computed from the dual-injection data using two methods: background subtraction and combined modelling. The rapid dual-injection approach provided blood flow estimates very similar to the conventional single-injection standards. Rest blood flow estimates were affected very little by the dual-injection approach, and stress estimates correlated strongly with separate single-injection values (r = 0.998, mean absolute difference = 0.06 ml min -1 g -1 ). An actual rapid dual-injection scan was successfully acquired in one subject and further demonstrates feasibility of the method. This study with a limited dataset demonstrates that blood flow quantification can be obtained in only 20 min by the rapid dual-injection approach with accuracy similar to that of conventional separate rest and stress scans. The rapid dual-injection approach merits further development and additional evaluation for potential clinical use

  7. Single Bit Radar Systems for Digital Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørndal, Øystein

    2017-01-01

    Small, low cost, radar systems have exciting applications in monitoring and imaging for the industrial, healthcare and Internet of Things (IoT) sectors. We here explore, and show the feasibility of, several single bit square wave radar architectures; that benefits from the continuous improvement in digital technologies for system-on-chip digital integration. By analysis, simulation and measurements we explore novel and harmonic-rich continuous wave (CW), stepped-frequency CW (SFCW) and freque...

  8. Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin B Injection for Raynaud's Phenomenon and Digital Ulcers in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Uehara, Akihito; Yamada, Kazuya; Sekiguchi, Akiko; Fujiwara, Chisako; Toki, Sayaka; Date, Yuki; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2017-07-06

    The efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin B (BTX-B) for treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon and digital ulcers in patients with systemic sclerosis was assessed. A total of 45 patients with systemic sclerosis who had Raynaud's phenomenon were blinded and divided randomly into 4 groups: a no-treatment control group, and 3 treatment groups, using 250, 1,000 or 2,000 international units (U) of BTX-B injections in the hand with more severe symptoms. Four weeks after injection, pain/numbness visual analogue scale scores and Raynaud's score in the groups treated with 1,000 and 2,000 U BTX-B were significantly lower than in the control group and the group treated with 250 U BTX-B. These beneficial effects were sustained until 16 weeks after the single injection. At 4 weeks after injection skin temperature recovery in the group treated with 2,000 U BTX-B was significantly improved. The numbers of digital ulcers in the groups treated with 1,000 and 2,000 U BTX-B were significantly lower than in the control group. In conclusion, 1,000 and 2,000 U BTX-B injections significantly suppressed the activity of Raynaud's phenomenon and digital ulcers in patients with SSc without serious adverse events.

  9. Forecast of thermal-hydrological conditions and air injection test results of the single heater test at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Tsang, Y.W.

    1996-12-01

    The heater in the Single Heater Test (SHT) in alcove 5 of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) was turned on August 26, 1996. A large number of sensors are installed in the various instrumented boreholes to monitor the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical responses of the rock mass to the heat generated in the single heater. In this report the authors present the results of the modeling of both the heating and cooling phases of the Single Heater Test (SHT), with focus on the thermal-hydrological aspect of the coupled processes. Also in this report, the authors present simulations of air injection tests will be performed at different stages of the heating and cooling phase of the SHT

  10. An Optical Method for Measuring Injection Timing in Diesel Engines, Using a Single Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    5 and NATO F-76, the current fleet standards. However, the use of seawater compensated shipboard storage tanks, legacy engine technology , high flash...76 is 46 [4, 5]. SPK, produced using the Fischer-Tropsch process, was originally derived in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s in response to fuel...noise. Sugiyama et al. [18] tested a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) in a direct injection, turbocharged, automotive diesel and found both decreased

  11. Chemical castration by a single bilateral intra-testicular injection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six apparently healthy Borno white bucks weighing 15± 1.6 kg and aged 1.3± 0.3 years were used for this study. Two and half (2.5) ml Purit® (chlorhexidine gluconate 0.3% B.P W/V and cetrimide 3.0% B.P W/V CAPL Lagos) were injected bilaterally into the caudae of each epididymis following sedation with xylazine ...

  12. A reavaluation of the reliability analysis of the low pressure injection system for Angra-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F.S. de; Fleming, P.V.; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F.F.; Tayt-Sohn, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    The emergency core cooling system of Angra 1 is analysed aiming at the low pressure injection systems, using the fault tree technique. All the failure mode of the components are considered for this analyse. (author) [pt

  13. Methodological study on determining endogenous amino acid excretion of broiler chickens by single intravenous injection of 3H-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Junhu; Wang Kangning; Yang Feng; Zhou Anguo; Cai Xuelin; Duanmu Dao

    1999-01-01

    Forty broiler chickens (1.5 kg of body weight, BW) were randomly divided into 20 groups. Every fifth group was force-fed a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) or a NFd + 3.20% enzyme hydrolysed casein (EHC) diet or diets with 5% and 20% crude protein (CP) in which soybean meal (sol.) was the sole nitrogen source. 30μCi 3 H-leucine/kg BW was intravenously injected into all birds just after the force-feeding. Venous blood samples were taken at 5 min, 4h, 24h, 36h and 48h after the injection, and the amount of excreta for the whole period of 48h was collected. The amino acids excreted after force-feeding NFD + 3.20% EHC of CP5% diet were theoretically endogenous. The ratios of specific radioactivity (SR) in excreta and the value of definite integral in free plasma from 0 to 48 h after injection of labelled leucine were not different (P > 0.05) when NFD, NFD + 3.20% EHC or CP5% diet was fed. From these results and theoretical analysis, it was suggested that for the birds with CP20% diet, the ratio of SR in endogenous leucine and value of definite integral in free plasma from 0 to 48 h after injection of labelled leucine would be the same as that of the birds with NFD diet, and thus endogenous losses of leucine and other amino acids, by the endogenous amino acid pattern measured with NFD diet, could be estimated for CP20% diet. The endogenous amino acid losses measured by this new technique was 120.50% of those measured by NFD method. It was suggested that single intravenous injection of 3 H-leucine first proposed would be more valuable for determining endogenous amino acid losses, especially when practical nitrogen-containing diet was fed

  14. Automated imaging system for single molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David Charles; Runnheim, Rodney; Forrest, Daniel

    2012-09-18

    There is provided a high throughput automated single molecule image collection and processing system that requires minimal initial user input. The unique features embodied in the present disclosure allow automated collection and initial processing of optical images of single molecules and their assemblies. Correct focus may be automatically maintained while images are collected. Uneven illumination in fluorescence microscopy is accounted for, and an overall robust imaging operation is provided yielding individual images prepared for further processing in external systems. Embodiments described herein are useful in studies of any macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, peptides and proteins. The automated image collection and processing system and method of same may be implemented and deployed over a computer network, and may be ergonomically optimized to facilitate user interaction.

  15. Technologies of bearings systems production from composite materials by polyester resin injection into the closed mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аnatoliy M. Turenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of modern technologies for manufacturing components and bearing systems made of composite materials has been conducted. These technologies are based on the polyester resin injection method and do not require high financial costs in manufacturing. The proposed method, due to the low cost of tooling, is convenient to produce a wide range of items made of composite materials, both in large-scale and single-piece production. Composite materials are intensively used in automotive industry, especially for motor racing vehicles’ parts. These technologies allow to solve the problem of creating ultra-light assemblies for modern car bodies, energy-absorbing passive safety elements and other high-loaded parts. They provide better strength and weight characteristics and better specific energy-output ratio of passive safety elements, as compared to conventional materials (metals and plastics. Considering the above, the most appropriate technology for the automotive industry has been assessed with that choice substantiation.

  16. Can a Compact Pre-Filled Auto-Disable Injection System (cPAD) Save Costs for DTP-HepB-Hib Vaccine as Compared with Single-Dose (SDV) and Multi-Dose Vials (MDV)? Evidence from Cambodia, Ghana, and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogier, Cyril; Hanlon, Patrick; Wiedenmayer, Karin; Maire, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    A compact pre-filled auto-disable injection (cPAD) presentation is being developed for the fully liquid pentavalent DTP-HepB-Hib vaccine. A cost analysis (CA) to compare this presentation with the presently used single-dose vial (SDV) and multi-dose vial (MDV) was conducted in Cambodia, Ghana, and Peru. The CA included the development of an excel-based costing model and considered the costs of vaccine, safe injection equipment, procurement, storage, transport and distribution, vaccine administration by health staff, medical waste management, start-up activities, as well as coverage, birth cohort, vaccine, and safe injection equipment wastage rates. The outcome was the change in cost per pentavalent fully immunized child (PFIC) for a switch to cPAD. Field visits to health facilities, and interviews with key informants from immunization services and regulatory authorities, were conducted to collect data and to test the costing model in country context. Cost data were also obtained from manufacturers, published price lists, and author estimates. A sensitivity analysis (SA) was conducted to explore possible variations in values of data collected. Based on vaccine price trends estimated for 2016, cPAD is less costly in Ghana [incremental cost per PFIC: $US-0.59 (-6.46 %)] than the current presentation (ten-dose MDV) and in Peru (SDV): $US-0.89 (-7.14 %). In Cambodia, cPAD is more costly than SDV: $US+0.33 (+3.90 %). The most significant cost item per PFIC is the vaccine (reflecting wastage rates) in all presentations. The dominance of the vaccine price per dose and, to a lesser extent, the wastage rates in the incremental cost per PFIC show potential to simplify future analyses. Other relevant considerations at country level for a change of presentation include the potential for improved safety with cPAD, planned introduction of other vaccines, environmental and safety issues, and financial sustainability.

  17. Computer-controlled data acquisition system for the ISX-B neutral injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, P.H.; Sherrill, B.; Pearce, J.W.

    1980-05-01

    A data acquisition system for the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) neutral injection system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The system is based on CAMAC standards and is controlled by a MIK-11/2 microcomputer. The system operates at the ion source high voltage on the source table, transmitting the analyzed data to a terminal at ground potential. This reduces the complexity of the communications link and also allows much flexibility in the diagnostics and eventual control of the beam line

  18. Inhibition of Neuropathic Pain by a Single Intraperitoneal Injection of Diazepam in the Rat: Possible Role of Neurosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Ling; Zang, Ying; Zheng, Wen-Hui; Wei, Xu-Hong; Liu, Xian-Guo

    2016-02-29

    Diazepam binds with the same high affinity to the central benzodiazepine receptor (CBR) and the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, which has been renamed translocator protein (TSPO). Both receptors could promote neurosteroid synthesis. In the present study, we investigated whether a single dose of diazepam could inhibit neuropathic pain induced by L5 spinal nerve ligation (L5 SNL), and whether CBR and TSPO mediated this effect. We found that a single intraperitoneal injection of diazepam 9 d after L5 SNL significantly depressed the established mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, which persisted until the end of the experiments. Furthermore, the effects were mimicked by a single intraperitoneal injection of Ro5-4864, a specific TSPO agonist and pregnenolone, a neurosteroid precursor. In addition, we found that the inhibitory effect of diazepam was also completely blocked by pretreatment with a specific CBR antagonist, flumazenil. The effects of diazepam or Ro5-4864 on neuropathic pain were completely blocked by pretreatment with a neurosteroid synthesis inhibitor, aminoglutethimide (AMG). Finally, any one of the three drugs, diazepam, Ro5-4864 and pregnenolone, could reduce the activation of astrocytes and the production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in the L5 spinal dorsal horn 14 d after L5 SNL. These results suggest that in addition to exerting effects on CBR, diazepam may inhibit neuropathic pain via TSPO, which promotes neurosteroid formation, subsequently reducing the activation of astrocytes and production of cytokines.

  19. Effectiveness of a single platelet-rich plasma injection to promote recovery in rugby players with ankle syndesmosis injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, David J; Sman, Amy D; Rae, Katherine; Linklater, James; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Hiller, Claire E

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether a single ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection into the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL) reduces the time for rugby athletes to return to function and match play following MRI confirmed ankle syndesmosis injury. Cohort controlled pilot study. 10 Rugby Union players were recruited during the 2014 season, and consented to receive a single autologous PRP injection into the AITFL within 14 days of MRI confirmed ankle syndesmosis injury. A historical control group included 11 comparable Rugby Union players between 2011 and 2013 who were treated conservatively with the same inclusion criteria and rehabilitation protocol as the intervention group. Participants followed a standardised rehabilitation protocol involving simple milestones for progression. Early functional tests were performed 2 weeks after the removal of the CAM (controlled ankle motion) boot. Time to return to play was recorded. Repeat functional testing occurred within 1 week of return to play. Groups were comparable in anthropometrics, playing position and MRI injury severity. Time to return to play was significantly less in the intervention group (p=0.048). Following return to play, athletes in the intervention group showed higher agility (p=0.002) and vertical jump (p=0.001). There was a lower level of fear avoidance associated with rugby in the intervention group (p=0.014). This pilot study shows that, following ankle syndesmosis injury, a single autologous PRP injection may accelerate safe and successful return to Rugby Union, with improved functional capacity and reduced fear avoidance. It demonstrates the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial to further assess this therapy. ANZCTRN12614000055606.

  20. An automatic system for acidity determination based on sequential injection titration and the monosegmented flow approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Joanna; Wójtowicz, Marzena; Gawenda, Nadzieja; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2011-06-15

    An automatic sequential injection system, combining monosegmented flow analysis, sequential injection analysis and sequential injection titration is proposed for acidity determination. The system enables controllable sample dilution and generation of standards of required concentration in a monosegmented sequential injection manner, sequential injection titration of the prepared solutions, data collecting, and handling. It has been tested on spectrophotometric determination of acetic, citric and phosphoric acids with sodium hydroxide used as a titrant and phenolphthalein or thymolphthalein (in the case of phosphoric acid determination) as indicators. Accuracy better than |4.4|% (RE) and repeatability better than 2.9% (RSD) have been obtained. It has been applied to the determination of total acidity in vinegars and various soft drinks. The system provides low sample (less than 0.3 mL) consumption. On average, analysis of a sample takes several minutes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of lab scale fast gas injection system for SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, F.S.; Banaudha, Moni; Khristi, Yohan; Khan, M.S.; Khan, Ziauddin; Raval, D.C.; Khirwadkar, Samir

    2017-01-01

    The plasma density control plays an important role in Tokamak operation. The factors that influence plasma density in a Tokamak device are working gas injection, pumping, ionization rate and the recycle coefficient representing the wall conditions. Among these factors, gas injection is relatively convenient to be controlled. Hence, the most frequently adopted method to control the plasma density is to control the fast gas injection. This paper describes the design and experimental work carried out towards the development of Fast Gas Injection System for SST-1 Tokamak. Laboratory based test setup was successfully established for Fast Gas Injection System that can feed predefined quantity of gas in a controlled manner into vacuum chamber. Further, this FGIS system will be implemented in SST-1 Tokamak environment with online density feedback signal

  2. Estimation of effective renal plasma flow in children by use of a single plasma sample after injection of orthoiodohippurate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauxe, W.N.; Hagge, W.; Stickler, G.B.

    1975-01-01

    Estimates of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) in adults have been greatly simplified by the use of recently developed regression equations based on a single plasma concentration of radioiodinated orthoiodohippurate (OIH) obtained 44 min after a single intravenous injection of the material. The paper reports similar equations for the prediction of ERPF in children. Studies were made in 30 children of both sexes, aged 4 to 16 years, with a wide variety of renal diseases. A single intravenous injection of labelled OIH was made and plasma was sampled at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min after injection. Plasma concentration curves were analysed by the conventional two-compartment analysis technique (Sapirstein, Matthews) and ERPF was computed from them. In addition to ERPF calculations, sizes of the two volumes of distribution (V 1 and V 2 ), intercompartmental flow rates and fractional rate constants were also calculated. Surface area (SA) was calculated from the DuBois height-weight regression formula. Reciprocals of the OIH plasma concentration in terms of per cent injected dose per litre were calculated at each sampling time; this reciprocal is designated x. These values at each sampling time were plotted against ERPF and regression equations and residual error (Sy.x) were calculated. The optimal sampling time was found to occur at 53 min and the corresponding linear regression equation was 19.33 + 3.87x with a Sy.x value of 36 ml. This compares with an optimal sampling time in adults of 44 min. The mean initial volume of distribution (V 1 ) was found to be 5.3 litres and the mean V 2 was found to be 6.8 litres. In contrast to findings in the previous study in adults these volumes were found to correlate well with SA. A mean intercompartmental flow rate of 276 ml/min was found. No correlation between this value and clinical diagnosis was found. The relationship of the concentration reciprocal and plasma flow was a linear one instead of the polynomial one

  3. A single injection technique for subtraction of blood background in 131I-hippuran renograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutland, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method of subtracting blood background during probe-renography is presented which does not require a prior injection of RIHSA and which produces results approximately 11% higher than the RIHSA method. The new method treats the renogram up to two-and-a-half minutes as a combination of a fraction of the blood curve and a fraction of the integral of the blood curve. Analysis of the data, using either a computer or a programmed calculator, enables these two fractions to be calculated, hence producing the 'background subtraction factor' and the 'uptake constant'. (author)

  4. Systems interaction and single failure criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report documents the results of a six-month study to evaluate the ongoing research programs of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and U.S. commercial nuclear station owners which address the safety significance of systems interaction and the regulatory adequacy of the single failure criterion. The evaluation of system interactions provided is the initial phase of a more detailed study leading to the development and application of methodology for quantifying the relative safety of operating nuclear plants. (Auth.)

  5. Single event upsets in spacecraft digital systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukowicz, P. E.; Richter, L. J.

    This paper describes the physical environments that can result in random bit changes in spaceborne memory systems. The impact of bit flips in digital telemetry systems is emphasized, with special attention paid to software requirements for protection from single event upset (SEU) effects. Some observations on incidence rates are presented along with an outline of hardware and software methods that can be taken to prevent future SEU problems. Several conclusions are drawn about strategies for preventing data corruption on the next generation of satellites in the presence of SEU-inducing particles.

  6. Direct current injection and thermocapillary flow for purification of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xu; Islam, Ahmad E.; Seabron, Eric; Dunham, Simon N.; Du, Frank; Lin, Jonathan; Wilson, William L.; Rogers, John A., E-mail: jrogers@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Wahab, Muhammad A.; Alam, Muhammad A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Li, Yuhang [Institute of Solid Mechanics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Tomic, Bojan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Huang, Jiyuan [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Burns, Branden [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Song, Jizhou [Department of Engineering Mechanics and Soft Matter Research Center, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Huang, Yonggang [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Engineering and Health, and Skin Disease Research Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    Aligned arrays of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) represent ideal configurations for use of this class of material in high performance electronics. Development of means for removing the metallic SWNTs (m-SWNTs) in as-grown arrays represents an essential challenge. Here, we introduce a simple scheme that achieves this type of purification using direct, selective current injection through interdigitated electrodes into the m-SWNTs, to allow their complete removal using processes of thermocapillarity and dry etching. Experiments and numerical simulations establish the fundamental aspects that lead to selectivity in this process, thereby setting design rules for optimization. Single-step purification of arrays that include thousands of SWNTs demonstrates the effectiveness and simplicity of the procedures. The result is a practical route to large-area aligned arrays of purely s-SWNTs with low-cost experimental setups.

  7. Direct current injection and thermocapillary flow for purification of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Xu; Islam, Ahmad E.; Seabron, Eric; Dunham, Simon N.; Du, Frank; Lin, Jonathan; Wilson, William L.; Rogers, John A.; Wahab, Muhammad A.; Alam, Muhammad A.; Li, Yuhang; Tomic, Bojan; Huang, Jiyuan; Burns, Branden; Song, Jizhou; Huang, Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    Aligned arrays of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) represent ideal configurations for use of this class of material in high performance electronics. Development of means for removing the metallic SWNTs (m-SWNTs) in as-grown arrays represents an essential challenge. Here, we introduce a simple scheme that achieves this type of purification using direct, selective current injection through interdigitated electrodes into the m-SWNTs, to allow their complete removal using processes of thermocapillarity and dry etching. Experiments and numerical simulations establish the fundamental aspects that lead to selectivity in this process, thereby setting design rules for optimization. Single-step purification of arrays that include thousands of SWNTs demonstrates the effectiveness and simplicity of the procedures. The result is a practical route to large-area aligned arrays of purely s-SWNTs with low-cost experimental setups

  8. Tunable single-longitudinal-mode operation of an injection-locked TEA CO2 laser. [ozone absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megie, G.; Menzies, R. T.

    1979-01-01

    The tunable single-longitudinal-mode operation of a TEA CO2 laser by an injection technique using a CW waveguide laser as the master oscillator is reported. With the experimental arrangement described, in which the waveguide laser frequency is tuned to correspond to one of the oscillating longitudinal modes of the TEA laser, single-longitudinal-mode operation was achieved with no apparent reduction in the TEA output energy, on various CO2 lines with frequency offsets from the line center as large as 300 MHz. The capability of this technique for high-resolution spectroscopy or atmospheric lidar studies is demonstrated by the recording of the absorption spectrum of a strong ozone line.

  9. Quantitative analysis of fragrance in selectable one dimensional or two dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with simultaneous detection of multiple detectors in single injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui Peng; Wan, Tow Shi; Min, Christina Liew Shu; Osborne, Murray; Ng, Khim Hui

    2014-03-14

    A selectable one-dimensional ((1)D) or two-dimensional ((2)D) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) and olfactory detection port (ODP) was employed in this study to analyze perfume oil and fragrance in shower gel. A split/splitless (SSL) injector and a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) injector are connected via a 2-way splitter of capillary flow technology (CFT) in this selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP system to facilitate liquid sample injections and thermal desorption (TD) for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique, respectively. The dual-linked injectors set-up enable the use of two different injector ports (one at a time) in single sequence run without having to relocate the (1)D capillary column from one inlet to another. Target analytes were separated in (1)D GC-MS/FID/ODP and followed by further separation of co-elution mixture from (1)D in (2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP in single injection without any instrumental reconfiguration. A (1)D/(2)D quantitative analysis method was developed and validated for its repeatability - tR; calculated linear retention indices (LRI); response ratio in both MS and FID signal, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), as well as linearity over a concentration range. The method was successfully applied in quantitative analysis of perfume solution at different concentration level (RSD≤0.01%, n=5) and shower gel spiked with perfume at different dosages (RSD≤0.04%, n=5) with good recovery (96-103% for SSL injection; 94-107% for stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption (SBSE-TD). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Validating gravitational-wave detections: The Advanced LIGO hardware injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biwer, C.; Barker, D.; Batch, J. C.; Betzwieser, J.; Fisher, R. P.; Goetz, E.; Kandhasamy, S.; Karki, S.; Kissel, J. S.; Lundgren, A. P.; Macleod, D. M.; Mullavey, A.; Riles, K.; Rollins, J. G.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Abbott, T. D.; Allen, B.; Brown, D. A.; Charlton, P.; Crowder, S. G.; Fritschel, P.; Kanner, J. B.; Landry, M.; Lazzaro, C.; Millhouse, M.; Pitkin, M.; Savage, R. L.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Smith, J. R.; Sun, L.; Veitch, J.; Vitale, S.; Weinstein, A. J.; Cornish, N.; Essick, R. C.; Fays, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Lange, J.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lynch, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Pannarale, F.; Prix, R.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Sigg, D.

    2017-03-01

    Hardware injections are simulated gravitational-wave signals added to the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). The detectors' test masses are physically displaced by an actuator in order to simulate the effects of a gravitational wave. The simulated signal initiates a control-system response which mimics that of a true gravitational wave. This provides an end-to-end test of LIGO's ability to observe gravitational waves. The gravitational-wave analyses used to detect and characterize signals are exercised with hardware injections. By looking for discrepancies between the injected and recovered signals, we are able to characterize the performance of analyses and the coupling of instrumental subsystems to the detectors' output channels. This paper describes the hardware injection system and the recovery of injected signals representing binary black hole mergers, a stochastic gravitational wave background, spinning neutron stars, and sine-Gaussians.

  11. Geometry-induced injection dispersion in single-cell protein electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiong; Herr, Amy E

    2018-02-13

    Arrays of microwells are widely used to isolate individual cells, facilitate high throughput cytometry assays, and ensure compatibility of those assays with whole-cell imaging. Microwell geometries have recently been utilized for handling and preparation of single-cell lysate, prior to single-cell protein electrophoresis. It is in the context of single-cell electrophoresis that we investigate the interplay of microwell geometry (circular, rectangular, triangular) and transport (diffusion, electromigration) on the subsequent performance of single-cell polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for protein targets. We define and measure injector-induced dispersion during PAGE, and develop a numerical model of band broadening sources, experimentally validate the numerical model, and then identify operating conditions (characterized through the Peclet number, Pe) that lead to microwell-geometry induced losses in separation performance. With analysis of mammalian cells as a case study, we sought to understand at what Pe is the PAGE separation performance adversely sensitized to the microwell geometry. In developing design rules, we find that for the microwell geometries that are the most suitable for isolation of mammalian cells and moderate mass protein targets, the Pe is usually small enough (Pe geometry on protein PAGE of single-cell lysate. In extreme cases where the largest mammalian cells are analyzed (Pe > ∼20), consideration of Pe suggests using a rectangular - and not the widely used circular - microwell geometry to maximize protein PAGE separation performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of intake swirl on the performance of single cylinder direct injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod Kumar; Mohan, Man; Mouli, Chandra

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, the effect of inlet manifold geometry and swirl intensity on the direct injection (DI) diesel engine performance was investigated experimentally. Modifications in inlet manifold geometry have been suggested to achieve optimized swirl for the better mixing of fuel with air. The intake swirl intensities of modified cylinder head were measured in swirl test rig at different valve lifts. Later, the overall performance of 435 CC DI diesel engine was measured using modified cylinder head. In addition, the performance of engine was compared for both modified and old cylinder head. For same operating conditions, the brake power and brake specific fuel consumption was improved by 6% and 7% respectively with modified cylinder head compared to old cylinder head. The maximum brake power of 9 HP was achieved for modified cylinder head. The results revealed that the intake swirl has great influence on engine performance.

  13. Symptomatic hepatic cyst in a child: treatment with single-shot injection of tetracycline hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrizzi, Giancarlo; Lanza, Cecilia; Bolli, Valeria; Pieroni, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatic cysts is 0.1% to 0.5% based on autopsy studies, and 2.5% based on US examinations. Percutaneous therapies are a new alternative to surgery. They include simple percutaneous aspiration, catheter drainage alone, and catheter drainage with sclerotherapy. We present an 11-year-old boy admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain. A diagnosis of simple hepatic cyst was made, which was treated with aspiration and tetracycline hydrochloride solution (5%) injection into the cystic cavity. Complete regression was seen on US and MRI examination at 3 months, with total collapse and deflation of the cyst. The cyst regressed totally, leaving a hyperechoic linear scar on US examination at 1 year. On the basis of the clinical and imaging results obtained, percutaneous sclerotherapy of hepatic cysts can be recommended as the treatment of choice and as a valid alternative to laparoscopy in children. (orig.)

  14. Symptomatic hepatic cyst in a child: treatment with single-shot injection of tetracycline hydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrizzi, Giancarlo; Lanza, Cecilia; Bolli, Valeria; Pieroni, Giovanni [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti, Servizio di Radiologia Generale e Pediatrica, Ancona (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    The prevalence of hepatic cysts is 0.1% to 0.5% based on autopsy studies, and 2.5% based on US examinations. Percutaneous therapies are a new alternative to surgery. They include simple percutaneous aspiration, catheter drainage alone, and catheter drainage with sclerotherapy. We present an 11-year-old boy admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain. A diagnosis of simple hepatic cyst was made, which was treated with aspiration and tetracycline hydrochloride solution (5%) injection into the cystic cavity. Complete regression was seen on US and MRI examination at 3 months, with total collapse and deflation of the cyst. The cyst regressed totally, leaving a hyperechoic linear scar on US examination at 1 year. On the basis of the clinical and imaging results obtained, percutaneous sclerotherapy of hepatic cysts can be recommended as the treatment of choice and as a valid alternative to laparoscopy in children. (orig.)

  15. Observing Exoplanets with High-dispersion Coronagraphy. II. Demonstration of an Active Single-mode Fiber Injection Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawet, D.; Ruane, G.; Xuan, W.; Echeverri, D.; Klimovich, N.; Randolph, M.; Fucik, J.; Wang, J.; Dekany, R.; Delorme, J.-R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wallace, J. K.; Vasisht, G.; Mennesson, B.; Choquet, E.; Serabyn, E., E-mail: dmawet@astro.caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    High-dispersion coronagraphy (HDC) optimally combines high-contrast imaging techniques such as adaptive optics/wavefront control plus coronagraphy to high spectral resolution spectroscopy. HDC is a critical pathway toward fully characterizing exoplanet atmospheres across a broad range of masses from giant gaseous planets down to Earth-like planets. In addition to determining the molecular composition of exoplanet atmospheres, HDC also enables Doppler mapping of atmosphere inhomogeneities (temperature, clouds, wind), as well as precise measurements of exoplanet rotational velocities. Here, we demonstrate an innovative concept for injecting the directly imaged planet light into a single-mode fiber, linking a high-contrast adaptively corrected coronagraph to a high-resolution spectrograph (diffraction-limited or not). Our laboratory demonstration includes three key milestones: close-to-theoretical injection efficiency, accurate pointing and tracking, and on-fiber coherent modulation and speckle nulling of spurious starlight signal coupling into the fiber. Using the extreme modal selectivity of single-mode fibers, we also demonstrated speckle suppression gains that outperform conventional image-based speckle nulling by at least two orders of magnitude.

  16. Single injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, into newly hatched chicks alters abdominal fat pad mass in growing birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ijiri, Daichi; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishitani, Kanae; Nojima, Tsutomu; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2015-01-15

    Excessive energy is stored in white adipose tissue as triacylglycerols in birds as well as in mammals. Although β2-adrenergic receptor agonists reduce adipose tissue mass in birds, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of a single intraperitoneal injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, on the abdominal fat pad tissue development. Thirty-three chicks at 1-day-old were given a single intraperitoneal injection of clenbuterol (0.1mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline. At 2 weeks post-dose, the weight of the abdominal fat tissue was decreased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, and small adipocyte-like cells were observed in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Then, the expression of mRNAs encoding genes related to avian adipogenesis was examined in the abdominal fat pat tissue. The expression of mRNAs encoding Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor 5 (KLF-5), KLF-15, and zinc finger protein 423 in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was significantly lower (Pclenbuterol-injected chicks, while clenbuterol injection did not affect FAS activity in liver. These results suggested that a single injection with clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks reduces their abdominal fat pad mass possibly via disrupting adipocyte development during later growth stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Design and Analysis of a Continuous Split Typed Needle-Free Injection System for Animal Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Pan, Min; Liu, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    Liquid needle-free injection devices (NFIDs) employ a high-velocity liquid jet to deliver drugs and vaccine through transdermal injection. NFIDs for animal vaccination are more complicated than those used for human beings for their much larger and more flexible power sources, as well as rapid, repetitive and continuous injection features. In the paper, spring-powered NFID is designed for animal vaccine injection. For convenience, the device is a split into a power source and handheld injector. A mathematical model is proposed to calculate the injection pressure, taking into the account pressure loss and the strain energy loss in the bendable tube due to elastic deformation. An experimental apparatus was build to verify the calculation results. Under the same system conditions, the calculation results of the dynamic injection pressure match the experimental results. It is found that the bendable tube of the split typed NFID has significant impact on the profile of the injection pressure. The initial peak pressure is less than the initial peak pressure of NFID without bendable tube, and there is occurrence time lag of the peak pressure. The mathematical model is the first attempt to reveal the relationship between the injection pressure and the system variables of split typed NFID.

  18. Direct observation of spin-injection in tyrosinate-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsoufis, Theodoros; Ampoumogli, Asem; Gournis, Dimitrios; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Jankovic, Lubos; Christoforidis, Konstantinos C.; Deligiannakis, Yiannis; Mavrandonakis, Andreas; Froudakis, George E.; Maccallini, Enrico; Rudolf, Petra; Mateo-Alonso, Aurelio; Prato, Maurizio

    In this work, we report on the interaction of a tyrosinate radical with single wall carbon nanotubes (CNT). The tyrosinate radical was formed from tyrosine (ester) by Fenton's reagent and, reacted in situ with carbon nanotubes resulting in novel tyrosinated carbon nanotube derivatives. The covalent

  19. Controlled tunnel-coupled ferromagnetic electrodes for spin injection in organic single-crystal transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, W.J.M.; Craciun, M.F.; Lemmens, J.H.J.; Arkenbout, A.H.; Palstra, T.T.M.; Morpurgo, A.F.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard

    2010-01-01

    We report on single-crystal rubrene field-effect transistors (FETs) with ferromagnetic Co electrodes, tunnel-coupled to the conduction channel via an Al2O3 tunnel barrier. Magnetic and electronic characterization shows that the Al2O3 film not only protects the Co from undesired oxidation, but also

  20. Controlled tunnel-coupled ferromagnetic electrodes for spin injection in organic single-crystal transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, W. J. M.; Craciun, M. F.; Lemmens, J. H. J.; Arkenbout, A. H.; Palstra, T. T. M.; Morpurgo, A. F.; van der Wiel, W. G.

    We report on single-crystal rubrene. eld-effect transistors (FETs) with ferromagnetic Co electrodes, tunnel-coupled to the conduction channel via an Al(2)O(3) tunnel barrier. Magnetic and electronic characterization shows that the Al(2)O(3) film not only protects the Co from undesired oxidation, but

  1. Administering Multiple Injectable Vaccines During a Single Visit-Summary of Findings From the Accelerated Introduction of Inactivated Polio Vaccine Globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Samantha B; Patel, Manish; Hampton, Lee M; Burnett, Eleanor; Ehlman, Daniel C; Garon, Julie; Cloessner, Emily; Chmielewski, Elizabeth; Hyde, Terri B; Mantel, Carsten; Wallace, Aaron S

    2017-07-01

    In 2013, the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) recommended that all 126 countries using only oral polio vaccine (OPV) introduce at least 1 dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into their routine immunization schedules by the end of 2015. In many countries, the addition of IPV would necessitate delivery of multiple injectable vaccines (hereafter, "multiple injections") during a single visit, with infants receiving IPV alongside pentavalent vaccine (which covers diphtheria, tetanus, and whole-cell pertussis; hepatitis B; and Haemophilus influenzae type b) and pneumococcal vaccine. Unanticipated concerns emerged from countries over acceptability of multiple injections, sites of administration, and safety. We contextualized the issues surrounding multiple injections by documenting concerns associated with administration of ≥3 injections, existing evidence in the published literature, and findings of a systematic review on administration practices and techniques. Concerns associated with multiple-injection visits were documented from meetings and personal communications with immunization program managers. Published literature on the acceptability of multiple injections by providers and caregivers was summarized, and a systematic review of the literature on administration practices was completed on the following topics: spacing between injection sites (ie, vaccine spacing), site of injection, route of injection, and procedural preparedness. WHO and United Nations Children's Fund data from 2013-2015 were used to assess multiple-injection visits included in national immunization schedules. Healthcare provider and caregiver attitudes and practices indicated concerns about infant pain, potential adverse effects, and uncertainty about vaccine effectiveness with multiple-injection visits. Published literature reinforced the record of safety and acceptance of the recommended schedule of IPV by the SAGE, but the evidence was

  2. Injection system for the PEP II asymmetric B Factory at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieguth, T.; Bloom, E.; Bulos, F.; Davies-White, W.; Donald, M.; Fairfield, K.; Godfrey, G.; Holtzapple, R.; Hutton, A.; Loew, G.; Miller, R.; Sukiennicki, B.; Wen, H.; Ronan, M.; Zisman, M.

    1992-03-01

    The asymmetric energy B Factory proposed as an upgrade of PEP at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center will require a highly reliable and efficient injection system. The conceptual design has shown the feasibility of extracting 9 GeV electrons and 3.1 GeV positrons from the existing linac and injecting equal charges into 1658 buckets in each of the two rings of the collider. An injection study group has continued the development and study of this proposal and has generated workable designs for many related systems and subsystems

  3. Injection system for the PEP II asymmetric B Factory at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieguth, T.; Bloom, E.; Bulos, F.; Davies-White, W.; Donald, M.; Fairfield, K.; Godfrey, G.; Holtzapple, R.; Ronan, M.; Zisman, M.

    1992-01-01

    The asymmetric energy B Factory proposed as an upgrade of PEP at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center will require a highly reliable and efficient injection system. The conceptual design has shown the feasibility of extracting 9 GeV electrons and 3.1 GeV positrons from the existing linac and injecting equal charges into 1658 buckets in each of the two rings of the collider. An injection study group has continued the development and study of this proposal and has generated workable designs for many related systems and subsystems. (author) 3 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. Induction Heating System Applied to Injection Moulding of Micro and Nano Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano

    embedded induction heating system with other heating systems suitable for injection moulding already available on the market. The two selected systems were a variothermal system based on the convective/conductive heating principle and one based on infrared light. During the project simulation software......, moulding, final verification of the mould part. The main object of the project was to develop a system for fast heating of the cavity of an injection moulding mould. The technology adopted was an embedded induction heating system. This system was developed to increase the replication quality of the mould......The present Ph.D. thesis contains a study concerning induction heating system applied to injection moulding of micro and nano structures. The overall process chain was considered and investigated during the project including part design, simulation, conventional and non-conventional tooling...

  5. Single-Shell tank system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FIELD, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    The Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) system consists of 149 underground SSTs and processing equipment designed and constructed between 1940 and 1964 to transport and store radioactive hazardous/dangerous wastes generated from irradiated nuclear fuel processing. The tanks, designed to store waste, vary in size from between 190,000 to 3,800,000 L (50,000 gal to 1,000,000 gal) and contain a variety of solid and liquid waste. The system also includes miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST). In addition to the tanks, there is a large amount of ancillary equipment associated with the system and although not designed to store wastes, the ancillary equipment is contaminated through contact with the waste. Waste was routed to the tanks through a network of underground piping, with interconnections provided in concrete pits that allowed changes to the routing through instrumentation. Processing vaults used during waste handling operations, evaporators used to reduce the waste stored in the system, and other miscellaneous structures used for a variety of waste handling operations are also included in the system. The SST system was taken out of service in 1980 and no additional waste has been added to the tanks. The SSTs and ancillary equipment were designed and constructed before promulgation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1986. The purpose of this document is to describe the SST system for use in performing an engineering and compliance assessment in support of M-23 milestones (Ecology, et al. 2000). This system description provides estimated locations and volumes of waste within the SST system, including storage tanks, transfer systems, evaporators aid miscellaneous support facilities

  6. Studies of the Injection System in the Decay Ring of Beta-Beam Neutrino Souce Project

    CERN Document Server

    Payet, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    After being accelerated the beta radioactive ions are accumulated in a decay ring. The losses due to their decay are compensated with regular injections in presence of filled bucket. Without a damping mechanism, the new particles are injected at a different energy from the stored beam energy, then the old and the new buckets are merged with RF manipulation. This type of injection has to be done, in a dispersive region, in presence of closed orbit bump and a septum magnet. The sizes of the injected beam and of the stored beam have to be adjusted in order to minimize the losses on the septum and to maximize the stored intensity keeping small beam sizes. The dispersion has to be large enough in order to decrease the energy difference. The injection system may be located either in the arc or in a straight section, both possibilities have been studied.

  7. New heavy fuel oil injection system; Neues Schweroel-Common-Rail-Einspritzsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senghaas, Clemens; Schneider, Hartmut; Reinhard, Steffen [L' Orange GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Bereich Entwicklung; Jay, Dave; Ehrstroem, Kenneth [Waertsilae, Vaasa (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    In 2001 Waertsilaeand L'Orange launched the first common rail injection system for heavy fuel oil applications on the WaertsilaeW32 engine. This common rail system is very complex and relatively slow, compared to the marine diesel common rail systems. The second generation of heavy fuel oil common rail systems will be improved regarding functionality, costs, lifetime and maintainability. (orig.)

  8. [Strategy of constructing post-market integral evaluation system of traditional Chinese medicine injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Yan-Ping; Lin, Li-Kai; Shang, Hong-Cai; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2017-08-01

    As an important representative of modern Chinese medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injzection has become an indispensable part of the Chinese medicine industry. However, its development is now restricted by the bottleneck of insufficient core competitiveness, low-level research and production, even injection quality and the safe use are not guaranteed. Thus, it is urgent to reevaluate post-marketing TCM injection generally and to make secondary development. Under current circumstances, taking major brands which have good clinical and market foundation, as well as research value, as the main subject of cultivation and evaluation is an important approach to innovative development of TCM injection industry. Unlike oral proprietary Chinese medicine, the cultivatation of major brands of TCM injection needs higher technical support, quality standards and more timely feedback. Therefore, a post-market integral evaluation system adaptive to TCM injection is required. This article discussed some key points on the construction of a post-market integral evaluation system of TCM injection in three levels: optimizing evaluation methods, building synergistic innovation platforms which combine the medical research institutions and pharmaceutical enterprises, and finally constructing the integral evaluation system. A "five to one" structure has been proposed to enhance TCM injection effectiveness, safety and adaptability on the whole, which are from the following aspects: mechanism research, clinical evidence validation, literature information mining, sustainable development of resources and industrialization operation. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Rates of fuel discharge as affected by the design of fuel-injection systems for internal-combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelalles, A G; Marsh, E T

    1933-01-01

    Using the method of weighing fuel collected in a receiver during a definite interval of the injection period, rates of discharge were determined, and the effects noted, when various changes were made in a fuel-injection system. The injection system consisted primarily of a by-pass controlled fuel pump and an automatic injection valve. The variables of the system studied were the pump speed, pump-throttle setting, discharge-orifice diameter, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, and injection-tube length and diameter.

  10. Heat transfer characteristics around a single heated rod immersed in sodium pool with gas jet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hideto Niikura; Kazuo Soga; Ken-ichiro Sugiyama; Akira Yamaguchi

    2005-01-01

    In a steam generator using liquid sodium, water intensely reacts with sodium when it leaks out from a heat transfer tube. It is important to evaluate the influence of sodium-water reaction to surrounding tubes and the shell. Hence, it has been desired to develop the simulation code for the evaluation of sodium-water reaction. From this viewpoint, the Japan Nuclear Cycle is now developing the SERAPHIM code. We reported a preliminary study to establish an experimental method for a single heated rod immersed in sodium pool with steam jet impingement planned in the near future as well as to obtain a preliminary data to verify the adequacy of SERAPHIM code. We first measured local and mean heat transfer coefficients around a horizontal single heated rod immersed in a water pool and a sodium pool with a limited volume in the experimental apparatus. It was confirmed that the mean heat transfer coefficients fairly agreed with the existing data for natural convection in water and sodium. Secondary we measured local and mean heat transfer coefficients around a horizontal single heated rod with Ar gas jet impingement immersed in the limited water pool and in the limited sodium pool. It was clearly observed that the local heat transfer coefficients in the sodium pool keep almost the same values in every angle regardless of increase in Ar gas jet velocity varied from about 8.7m/s to about 78m/s. On the other hand, it was confirmed in the water pool that local heat transfer coefficients on the forward stagnation side exposed in the Ar gas jet impingement increase with increasing the jet velocity while the local heat transfer coefficients on the opposite surface keep almost same values regardless of increase in the velocity. (authors)

  11. Designing Fault-Injection Experiments for the Reliability of Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Allan L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the long-standing problem of conducting fault-injections experiments to establish the ultra-reliability of embedded systems. There have been extensive efforts in fault injection, and this paper offers a partial summary of the efforts, but these previous efforts have focused on realism and efficiency. Fault injections have been used to examine diagnostics and to test algorithms, but the literature does not contain any framework that says how to conduct fault-injection experiments to establish ultra-reliability. A solution to this problem integrates field-data, arguments-from-design, and fault-injection into a seamless whole. The solution in this paper is to derive a model reduction theorem for a class of semi-Markov models suitable for describing ultra-reliable embedded systems. The derivation shows that a tight upper bound on the probability of system failure can be obtained using only the means of system-recovery times, thus reducing the experimental effort to estimating a reasonable number of easily-observed parameters. The paper includes an example of a system subject to both permanent and transient faults. There is a discussion of integrating fault-injection with field-data and arguments-from-design.

  12. Low-pressure, single-point grout injection for tank heel sludge mixing and in-situ immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, G.A.; Hymas, C.R.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes tests conducted in an approximately 9-ft diameter test tank situated outside the 336 building in Hanford's 300 area. The tests were performed to measure the ability of jets of grout slurry to mobilize and mix simulated tank sludge. The technique is intended for in situ immobilization of tank waste heels. The current approach uses a single, rotated, larger-diameter nozzle driven at lower pressure. Due to the larger diameter, the potential for plugging is reduced and the effective radius around an injection point over which the jet is effective in mobilizing sludge from the tank bottom can be made larger. A total of three grout injection tests were conducted in a 9-ft diameter tank. In each case, a 2-in. layer of kaolin clay paste was placed on a dry tank floor to simulate a sludge heel. The clay was covered with 4 inches of water. The grout slurry, consisting of Portland cement, class F fly ash, and eater, was prepared and delivered by an offsite vendor. In the third test, the sludge in half of the tank was replaced by a layer of 20x50 mesh zeolite, and bentonite clay was added to the grout formulation. After injection, the grout was allowed to set and then the entire grout monolith was manually broken up and excavated using a jack hammer. Intact pieces of clay were visually apparent due to a sharp color contrast between the grout and clay. Remaining clay deposits were collected and weighed and suspended clay pieces within the monolith were photographed. The mobilization performance of the grout jets exceeded expectations

  13. Design and development of a direct injection system for cryogenic engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutumba, Angela; Cheeseman, Kevin; Clarke, Henry; Wen, Dongsheng

    2018-04-01

    The cryogenic engine has received increasing attention due to its promising potential as a zero-emission engine. In this study, a new robust liquid nitrogen injection system was commissioned and set up to perform high-pressure injections into an open vessel. The system is used for quasi-steady flow tests used for the characterisation of the direct injection process for cryogenic engines. An electro-hydraulic valve actuator provides intricate control of the valve lift, with a minimum cycle time of 3 ms and a frequency of up to 20 Hz. With additional sub-cooling, liquid phase injections from 14 to 94 bar were achieved. Results showed an increase in the injected mass with the increase in pressure, and decrease in temperature. The injected mass was also observed to increases linearly with the valve lift. Better control of the injection process, minimises the number of variables, providing more comparable and repeatable sets of data. Implications of the results on the engine performance were also discussed.

  14. Improved healing of transected rabbit Achilles tendon after a single injection of cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Carina; Aspenberg, Per

    2003-01-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures in humans might be treated more efficiently with the help of a growth factor. Cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 has been shown to induce formation of tendon-like tissue. Cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 has a positive effect on mechanical parameters for tendon healing in a rabbit model with Achilles tendon transection. Controlled laboratory study. The right Achilles tendon of 40 rabbits was transected without tendon suture. Cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 (10 micro g) or vehicle control (acetate buffer) was injected locally 2 hours postoperatively. All tendons were tested biomechanically at 8 and 14 days, and treated tendons were histologically and radiographically evaluated at 56 days. At 14 days, both failure load and stiffness of treated tendons were increased by 35%. The treated tendons had significantly larger callus size at 8 and 14 days. Histologic and radiographic examination showed no signs of ossification in the treated tendons after 56 days. A single injection of cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 led to a stronger and stiffer tendon callus than that in the controls without inducing bone formation. Similar results from a larger animal model would suggest a possible future use of cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 in the treatment of human Achilles tendon ruptures.

  15. Improvement of replication fidelity in injection moulding of nano structures using an induction heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    In today’s industry, applications involving surface pattering with sub-μm scale structures have shown a high interest. The replication of these structures by injection molding leads to special requirements for the mold in order to ensure proper replication and an acceptable cycle time. A tool...... of the cavity wall by an induction heating system. The capability of the injection molding process to replicate the patterned surfaces into polycarbonate was investigated. Process optimization was carried out in terms of mold temperature/time variation and injection velocity. The replicated surfaces were...

  16. Combustion characteristics of a charcoal slurry in a direct injection diesel engine and the impact on the injection system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloiu, Valentin; Lewis, Jeffery; Yoshihara, Yoshinobu; Nishiwaki, Kazuie

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the research results pertaining to the renewable biomass charcoal-diesel slurries and their use as alternative fuels for combustion in diesel generating plants. The utilization of charcoal slurry fuel aims to reduce diesel oil consumption and would decrease fossil green house emissions into the atmosphere. The paper investigates the formulation, emulsification, sprays, combustion, injection system operation, and subsequent wear with charcoal-diesel slurries. In the research, cedar wood chips were used for the production of charcoal to be emulsified with diesel oil. The slurry's viscosity of 27 cP achieved the target ( o C. Charcoal slurry displayed a high vaporization rate of 75% by wt. at 300 o C. Engine investigations showed that the top combustion pressure at 1200 rpm and 100% load (7.8 brake mean effective pressure (bmep)) was 79 bar for diesel fuel and 78 bar for the charcoal slurry fuel. From the injection and heat release history was found an ignition delay of 1.7 ms for diesel that increased to 2.1 ms for the slurry fuel. A higher net heat release for charcoal slurry was observed, up to 180 J/crank angle degrees (CAD) compared with the diesel at 145 J/CAD The maximum combustion temperature reached 2300 K for diesel and 2330 K for slurry. The heat fluxes for both fuels have similar values and trends during the entire cycle showing the good compatibility of charcoal slurry with a diesel type combustion and low soot radiation. The exhaust temperatures were about 40-50 o C higher for charcoal slurry at 19 o before top dead center (BTDC) injection timing. The engine's bsfc increased as expected due to the lower heating value of the slurry fuel. The smoke Bosch no. was lower for the slurry fuel at any load, and is believed that the oxygen from the charcoal had a beneficial effect. The measured emissions of slurry fuel were better at 13 o BTDC than those of diesel fuel with the original engine settings and the remaining 6-10% oxygen content in

  17. Muscle pain sensitivity after glutamate injection is not modified by systemic administration of monosodium glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Akiko; Castrillon, Eduardo; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Ghafouri, Bijar; Gerdle, Björn; Ernberg, Malin; Cairns, Brian; Svensson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    in this study was that systemic intake of a substantial amount of MSG does not influence either pain intensity or pressure pain sensitivity in the masseter and temporalis muscles into which Glu injections were made.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of the Central Basin aquifer system in Tennessee for receiving injected wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    An aquifer may be allowed to receive injected wastes where the aquifer meets criteria established in the Environmental Protection Agency 's Underground Injection Control program. The Central Basin aquifer system in Tennessee consists of Ordovician to Devonian carbonate rocks and it occurs from the Valley and Ridge province to west of the Tennessee River. This aquifer system is currently used for drinking water in the Central Basin and western Highland Rim, but is not used for drinking water in the northern Highland Rim nor the Cumberland Plateau provinces. Part of the northern Highland Rim and the Cumberland Plateau, according to the Environmental Protection Agency 's Underground Injection Control criteria, will not be used as a source of drinking water in the future and may be eligible to receive injected wastes. (USGS)

  19. Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chien-Pei [Clive, IA; Short, John [Norwalk, IA; Klemm, Jim [Des Moines, IA; Abbott, Royce [Des Moines, IA; Overman, Nick [West Des Moines, IA; Pack, Spencer [Urbandale, IA; Winebrenner, Audra [Des Moines, IA

    2011-12-13

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

  20. Curcumin protects dopaminergic neurons against inflammation-mediated damage and improves motor dysfunction induced by single intranigral lipopolysaccharide injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha; Sharma, Sheetal; Nehru, Bimla

    2017-06-01

    Various studies have indicated a lower incidence and prevalence of neurological conditions in people consuming curcumin. The ability of curcumin to target multiple cascades, simultaneously, could be held responsible for its neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed to investigate the potential of curcumin in minimizing microglia-mediated damage in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced model of PD. Altered microglial functions and increased inflammatory profile of the CNS have severe behavioral consequences. In the current investigation, a single injection of LPS (5 ug/5 µl PBS) was injected into the substantia nigra (SN) of rats, and curcumin [40 mg/kg b.wt (i.p.)] was administered daily for a period of 21 days. LPS triggered an inflammatory response characterized by glial activation [Iba-1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)] and pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-1β) leading to extensive dopaminergic loss and behavioral abnormality in rats. The behavioral observations, biochemical markers, quantification of dopamine and its metabolites (DOPAC and HVA) using HPLC followed by IHC of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were evaluated after 21 days of LPS injection. Curcumin supplementation prevented dopaminergic degeneration in LPS-treated animals by normalizing the altered levels of biomarkers. Also, a significant improvement in TH levels as well as behavioral parameters (actophotometer, rotarod, beam walking and grid walking tests) were seen in LPS injected rats. Curcumin shielded the dopaminergic neurons against LPS-induced inflammatory response, which was associated with suppression of glial activation (microglia and astrocytes) and transcription factor NF-κB as depicted from RT-PCR and EMSA assay. Curcumin also suppressed microglial NADPH oxidase activation as observed from NADPH oxidase activity. The results suggested that one of the important mechanisms by which curcumin mediates its protective effects in the LPS-induced PD

  1. Development of the computer-aided process planning (CAPP) system for polymer injection molds manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tepić; V. Todić; D. Lukić; M. Milošević; S. Borojević

    2011-01-01

    Beginning of production and selling of polymer products largely depends on mold manufacturing. The costs of mold manufacturing have significant share in the final price of a product. The best way to improve and rationalize polymer injection molds production process is by doing mold design automation and manufacturing process planning automation. This paper reviews development of a dedicated process planning system for manufacturing of the mold for injection molding, which integrates computer-...

  2. Closed-Loop Tension Control System for Injection Moulding Machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In any of these processes, the system was to ensure significant tension control in the filament. The design system process began by selection of components with justification. These components were then assembled and tested using Arduino platform with C-programming and finally, conclusion and recommendation were ...

  3. Combustion characteristics of a gasoline engine with independent intake port injection and direct injection systems for n-butanol and gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Bang-Quan; Chen, Xu; Lin, Chang-Lin; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Different injection approaches for n-butanol and gasoline affect combustion events. • High n-butanol percentage in the total energy of fuels improves combustion stability. • N-butanol promotes ignition and shortens combustion duration. • Lean burn increases indicated mean effective pressure at fixed total energy of fuels. • Different fuel injection methods slightly affect indicated mean effective pressure. - Abstract: N-butanol, as a sustainable biofuel, is usually used as a blend with gasoline in spark ignition engines. In this study, the combustion characteristics were investigated on a four-cylinder spark ignition gasoline engine with independent port fuel injection and direct injection systems for n-butanol and gasoline in different operating conditions. The results show that in the case of port fuel injection of n-butanol with direct injection gasoline at a given total energy released in a cycle, indicated mean effective pressure is slightly affected by spark timing at stoichiometry while it changes much more with delayed spark timing in lean burn conditions and is much higher in lean burn conditions compared to stoichiometry at given spark timings. With the increase of n-butanol percentage in a fixed total energy released in a cycle at given spark timings, ignition timing advances, combustion duration shortens, indicated mean effective pressure and indicated thermal efficiency increase. For the cases of port fuel injection of n-butanol with direction injection gasoline and port fuel injection of gasoline with direction injection n-butanol at a fixed total energy released in a cycle, their indicated mean effective pressures are close. But their combustion processes are dependent on fuel injection approaches.

  4. Not single but periodic injections of synovial mesenchymal stem cells maintain viable cells in knees and inhibit osteoarthritis progression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, N; Muneta, T; Koga, H; Nakagawa, Y; Mizuno, M; Tsuji, K; Mabuchi, Y; Akazawa, C; Kobayashi, E; Matsumoto, K; Futamura, K; Saito, T; Sekiya, I

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the effects of single or repetitive intra-articular injections of synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on a rat osteoarthritis (OA) model, and elucidated the behaviors and underlying mechanisms of the stem cells after the injection. One week after the transection of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of wild type Lewis rats, one million synovial MSCs were injected into the knee joint every week. Cartilage degeneration was evaluated with safranin-o staining after the first injection. To analyze cell kinetics or MSC properties, luciferase, LacZ, and GFP expressing synovial MSCs were used. To confirm the role of MSCs, species-specific microarray and PCR analyses were performed using human synovial MSCs. Histological analysis for femoral and tibial cartilage showed that a single injection was ineffective but weekly injections had significant chondroprotective effects for 12 weeks. Histological and flow-cytometric analyses of LacZ and GFP expressing synovial MSCs revealed that injected MSCs migrated mainly into the synovium and most of them retained their undifferentiated MSC properties though the migrated cells rapidly decreased. In vivo imaging analysis revealed that MSCs maintained in knees while weekly injection. Species-specific microarray and PCR analyses showed that the human mRNAs on day 1 for 21 genes increased over 50-fold, and increased the expressions of PRG-4, BMP-2, and BMP-6 genes encoding chondroprotective proteins, and TSG-6 encoding an anti-inflammatory one. Not single but periodic injections of synovial MSCs maintained viable cells without losing their MSC properties in knees and inhibited osteoarthritis (OA) progression by secretion of trophic factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Scoping analyses for the safety injection system configuration for Korean next generation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Song, Jin Ho; Park, Jong Kyoon

    1996-01-01

    Scoping analyses for the Safety Injection System (SIS) configuration for Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) are performed in this study. The KNGR SIS consists of four mechanically separated hydraulic trains. Each hydraulic train consisting of a High Pressure Safety Injection (HPSI) pump and a Safety Injection Tank (SIT) is connected to the Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) nozzle located above the elevation of cold leg and thus injects water into the upper portion of reactor vessel annulus. Also, the KNGR is going to adopt the advanced design feature of passive fluidic device which will be installed in the discharge line of SIT to allow more effective use of borated water during the transient of large break LOCA. To determine the feasible configuration and capacity of SIT and HPSl pump with the elimination of the Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) pump for KNGR, licensing design basis evaluations are performed for the limiting large break LOCA. The study shows that the DVI injection with the fluidic device SlT enhances the SIS performance by allowing more effective use of borated water for an extended period of time during the large break LOCA

  6. Nitrous Oxide Liquid Injection Thrust Vector Control System Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Nitrous Oxide-fed Liquid Thrust Vector Control system is proposed as an efficient method for vehicle attitude control during powered flight. Pulled from a N2O main...

  7. Accident tolerant high-pressure helium injection system concept for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, Caleb; Miller, James; Vasudevamurthy, Gokul

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential helium injection strategy is proposed for LWR accident scenarios. • Multiple injection sites are proposed for current LWR designs. • Proof-of-concept experimentation illustrates potential helium injection benefits. • Computational studies show an increase in pressure vessel blowdown time. • Current LOCA codes have the capability to include helium for feasibility calculations. - Abstract: While the design of advanced accident-tolerant fuels and structural materials continues to remain the primary focus of much research and development pertaining to the integrity of nuclear systems, there is a need for a more immediate, simple, and practical improvement in the severe accident response of current emergency core cooling systems. Current blowdown and reflood methodologies under accident conditions still allow peak cladding temperatures to approach design limits and detrimentally affect the integrity of core components. A high-pressure helium injection concept is presented to enhance accident tolerance by increasing operator response time while maintaining lower peak cladding temperatures under design basis and beyond design basis scenarios. Multiple injection sites are proposed that can be adapted to current light water reactor designs to minimize the need for new infrastructure, and concept feasibility has been investigated through a combination of proof-of-concept experimentation and computational modeling. Proof-of-concept experiments show promising cooling potential using a high-pressure helium injection concept, while the developed choked-flow model shows core depressurization changes with added helium injection. Though the high-pressure helium injection concept shows promise, future research into the evaluation of system feasibility and economics are needed.Classification: L. Safety and risk analysis

  8. Will a single periarticular lidocaine-corticosteroid injection improve the clinical efficacy of intraarticular hyaluronic acid treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk, Cemil; Altay, Mehmet Akif; Altay, Nuray; Kalender, Ali Murat; Öztürk, İbrahim Avşin

    2016-11-01

    A local injection of corticosteroid-lidocaine into the periarticular soft tissue structures is used commonly for rapid pain relief. It is hypothesized that knee pain associated with knee osteoarthritis would be relieved quickly and effectively in patients receiving intraarticular hyaluronic acid combined with a periarticular lidocaine-corticosteroid injection. To test this hypothesis, the clinical effect of the combined treatment with hyaluronic acid injection alone in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis as compared in this prospective single-blinded randomized trial. This study included 70 patients. Group 1 (n = 35) received intraarticular hyaluronic acid injections only, whereas group 2 (n = 35) received intraarticular hyaluronic acid injections combined with a single local injection of corticosteroid-lidocaine. Injections were administered to the most painful areas of the anterior or posterior medial condyle of the femur or tibia. The outcome was measured by independent assessors (blinded to treatment) using a linear VAS pain scale and WOMAC and HSS knee scores. Assessments were performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks. During the first 3 weeks, group 2 patients showed significantly better all scores than did group 1 patients (p hyaluronic acid alone in patients with knee osteoarthritis and can be considered a useful adjunctive treatment modality. This combined method may provide early return to patient's daily activity. Therapeutic study, Level I.

  9. A Study of Spill Control Characteristics of JP-8 and Conventional Diesel Fuel with a Common Rail Direct Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seomoon Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of energy sources is a key task for decreasing environmental impacts and global emission of gases. JP-8, a fuel derived from natural gas, coal, biomass, and waste plastics, is a bright prospect. JP-8 is considered a multi-source multi-purpose fuel, with several applications. A preliminary characterization of the JP-8 injection rate and injection quantity behavior was investigated based on the high-pressure common rail injection system used in a heavy-duty engine. According to the spill injection and injection pressure, a trade-off trend between injection rate and injection quantity was observed. As expected, pilot injection of JP-8 aviation fuel and diesel fuel affects the spray quantity and injection evolution of the subsequent operation without pilot injection. The difference in spilling between diesel and JP-8 aviation fuel is greater than the difference in injection amount per time; in the process of controlling the injector solenoid through ECU (Electric Control Units, the oil pressure valve and the needle valve operate to a higher extent in order to maintain the diesel fuel’s injection quantity volume. It was found that the total injection quantity was decreased by adding 20% pilot injection duration. Because the pilot injection quantity causes solenoid response, loss and needle lift stroke friction loss.

  10. Modeling and designing a new gas injection diffusion system for metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C. C.; Hsiau, S. S.; Chuang, T. C.

    2018-01-01

    Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is a critical process and is widely used for the epitaxial growth of light-emitting diode (LED) wafers. The key component, a gas injection system, delivers the gas into the reactor by using a nozzle or showerhead. In this paper, the numerical simulation method was applied to investigate the thermal fluid field and to design a new gas injection system for MOCVD. In this study, we developed a new gas injection system with inlet barriers. The inlet barriers can separate the various reactive gases, reduce the prereaction, and prevent adducted particles from forming and blocking the inlet gas system. The barrier geometry, including the barrier length, the barrier inclination angle, and the V/III precursor ratio was systematically studied to determine the optimal design conditions. Higher growth rate and improved uniformity were demonstrated using the new optimal gas inlet barrier design.

  11. Injection control development of the JT-60U electron cyclotron heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiranai, Shinichi; Shinozaki, Shin-ichi; Yokokura, Kenji; Moriyama, Shinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Sato, Fumiaki [Nippon Advanced Technology Co., Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, Yasuo [Atomic Energy General Service Co., Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ikeda, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The JT-60U electron cyclotron heating (ECH) System injects a millimeteric wave at 110 GHz into the JT-60 Plasma, and heats the plasma or drives a current locally to enhance the confinement performance of the JT-60 plasma. The system consists of four sets of high power gyrotrons, high voltage power supplies and transmission lines, and two antennas that launch electron cyclotron (EC) beams toward the plasma. The key features of the injection control system are streering of the direction of the EC beam by driving the movable mirror in the antenna, and capability to set any combination of polarization angle and ellipticity by rotating the two grooved mirrors in the polarizers. This report represents the design, fabrication and improvements of the injection control system. (author)

  12. Hip Inflammation MRI Scoring System (HIMRISS) to predict response to hyaluronic acid injection in hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deseyne, Nicolas; Conrozier, Thierry; Lellouche, Henri

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess predictors of response, according to hip MRI inflammatory scoring system (HIMRISS), in a sample of patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) treated by hyaluronic acid (HA) injection. METHOD: Sixty patients with hip OA were included. Clinical outcomes were assessed at baseline...... and three months after HA injection by WOMAC. On hip MRI performed before HA injection, bone marrow lesion (BML) and synovitis were assessed by HIMRISS by four readers. The inter-reader reliability of HIMRISS was for HIMRISS total, acetabular BML, femoral BML and synovitis-effusion respectively 0.86, 0.......64, 0.83 and 0.78. Associations between MRI features and clinical data were assessed. Logistic regression (univariate and multivariate) was used to explore associations between MRI features and response to HA injection, according to WOMAC50 response at three months. RESULTS: In total, 45.5% of patients...

  13. Fertigation - Injecting soluble fertilizers into the irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Jeremy R. Pinto; Anthony S. Davis

    2009-01-01

    Fertigation (fertilization + irrigation) is the newest way for nursery managers to apply fertilizer, and has become a standard practice in container nurseries. Because of the inherent inefficient water distribution patterns in field irrigation systems, fertigation has not been widely used in bareroot nurseries. However, a bareroot nursery with a center-pivot irrigation...

  14. Fertigation - Injecting soluble fertilizers into the irrigation system: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Jeremy R. Pinto; Anthony S. Davis

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this article in the Summer 2009 issue covered basic mineral nutrition, the 3 components of a fertigation system, and the chemical calculations forformulating your own custom fertigation solutions. In this second and final part, we'll discuss types of fertilizer injectors, fertigation scheduling, and how to check injector function and determine...

  15. Research on the technology of detecting the SQL injection attack and non-intrusive prevention in WEB system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibin

    2017-05-01

    Among numerous WEB security issues, SQL injection is the most notable and dangerous. In this study, characteristics and procedures of SQL injection are analyzed, and the method for detecting the SQL injection attack is illustrated. The defense resistance and remedy model of SQL injection attack is established from the perspective of non-intrusive SQL injection attack and defense. Moreover, the ability of resisting the SQL injection attack of the server has been comprehensively improved through the security strategies on operation system, IIS and database, etc.. Corresponding codes are realized. The method is well applied in the actual projects.

  16. Sensors Based Measurement Techniques of Fuel Injection and Ignition Characteristics of Diesel Sprays in DI Combustion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rehman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Innovative sensor based measurement techniques like needle lift sensor, photo (optical sensor and piezoresistive pressure transmitter are introduced and used to measure the injection and combustion characteristics in direct injection combustion system. Present experimental study is carried out in the constant volume combustion chamber to study the ignition, combustion and injection characteristics of the solid cone diesel fuel sprays impinging on the hot surface. Hot surface ignition approach has been used to create variety of advanced combustion systems. In the present study, the hot surface temperatures were varied from 623 K to 723 K. The cylinder air pressures were 20, 30 and 40 bar and fuel injection pressures were 100, 200 and 300 bar. It is found that ignition delay of fuel sprays get reduced with the rise in injection pressure. The ignition characteristics of sprays much less affected at high fuel injection pressures and high surface temperatures. The fuel injection duration reduces with the increase in fuel injection pressures. The rate of heat release becomes high at high injection pressures and it decreases with the increase in injection duration. It is found that duration of burn/combustion decrease with the increase in injection pressure. The use of various sensors is quite effective, reliable and accurate in measuring the various fuel injection and combustion characteristics. The study simulates the effect of fuel injection system parameters on combustion performance in large heavy duty engines.

  17. Performance Evaluation of a Software Engineering Tool for Automated Design of Cooling Systems in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauregui-Becker, Juan M.; Tosello, Guido; van Houten, Fred J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a software tool for automating the design of cooling systems for injection moulding and a validation of its performance. Cooling system designs were automatically generated by the proposed software tool and by applying a best practice tool engineering design approach. The two...

  18. Stability of position-based bilateral telemanipulation systems by damping injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, M.C.J.; Misra, Sarthak; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    In this paper two different approaches to guarantee stability of bilateral telemanipulation systems are discussed. Both approaches inject damping into the system to guarantee passivity of the interaction with the device in the presence of time delays in the communication channel. The first approach

  19. Performance Evaluation of a Software Engineering Tool for Automated Design of Cooling Systems in Injection Moulding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel; Tosello, Guido; Houten, Fred J.A.M.; Hansen, Hans N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a software tool for automating the design of cooling systems for injection moulding and a validation of its performance. Cooling system designs were automatically generated by the proposed software tool and by applying a best practice tool engineering design approach. The two

  20. Neutral beam injection system design for KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B.H.; Lee, K.W.; Chung, K.S.; Oh, B.H.; Cho, Y.S.; Bae, Y.D.; Han, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    The NBI system for KSTAR (Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) has been designed based on conventional positive ion beam technology. One beam line consists of three ion sources, three neutralizers, one bending magnet, and one drift tube. This system will deliver 8 MW deuterium beam to KSTAR plasma in normal operation to support the advanced experiments on heating, current drive and profile control. The key technical issues in this design were high power ion source(120 kV, 65 A), long pulse operation (300 seconds; world record is 30 sec), and beam rotation from vertical to horizontal direction. The suggested important R and D points on ion source and beam line components are also included. (author). 7 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  1. System for injecting fuel in a gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2016-10-25

    A combustion system uses a fuel nozzle with an inner wall having a fuel inlet in fluid communication with a fuel outlet in a fuel cartridge. The inner wall defines a mounting location for inserting the fuel cartridge. A pair of annular lip seals around the cartridge outer wall on both sides of the fuel outlet seals the fuel passage between the fuel inlet and the fuel outlet.

  2. A prospective, randomized, single - blind study comparing intraplaque injection of thiocolchicine and verapamil in Peyronie's Disease: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Toscano Jr.

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To compare the response to tiocolchicine and verapamil injection in the plaque of patients with Peyronie's disease. Materials and Methods: Prospective, single-blind, randomized study, selecting patients who have presented Peyronie's disease for less than 18 months. Thiocolchicine 4mg or verapamil 5mg were given in 7 injections (once a week. Patients who had received any treatment for Peyronie's disease in the past three months were excluded. The parameters used were the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5 score, analysis of the curvature on pharmaco-induced erections and size of the plaque by ultrasonography. Results: Twenty-five patients were randomized, 13 received thiocolchicine and 12 were treated with verapamil. Both groups were statistically similar. The mean curvature was 46.7° and 36.2° before and after thiocolchicine, respectively (p=0.019 and 50.4° and 42.08° before and after verapamil, respectively (p=0.012. The curvature improved in 69% of patients treated with thiocolchicine and in 66% of those who received verapamil. Regarding sexual function, there was an increase in the IIEF-5 from 16.69 to 20.85 (p=0.23 in the thiocolchicine group. In the verapamil group the IIEF-5 score dropped from 17.50 to 16.25 (p=0.58. In the thiocolchicine group, the plaque was reduced in 61% of patients. In the verapamil group, 8% presented decreased plaque size. No adverse event was associated to thiocolchicine. Conclusion: The use of thiocolchicine in Peyronie's disease demonstrated improvement on penile curvature and reduction in plaque size. Thiocolchicine presented similar results to verapamil in curvature assessment. No significant side effects were observed with the use of tiocolchicine.

  3. Optimization of single injection liver arterial phase gadolinium enhanced MRI using bolus track real-time imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Puneet; Kalb, Bobby; Kitajima, Hiroumi D; Salman, Khalil N; Burrow, Bobbie; Ray, Gaye L; Martin, Diego R

    2011-01-01

    To measure contrast agent enhancement kinetics in the liver and to further evaluate and develop an optimized gadolinium enhanced MRI using a single injection real-time bolus-tracking method for reproducible imaging of the transient arterial-phase. A total of 18 subjects with hypervascular liver lesions were imaged with four dimensional (4D) perfusion scans to measure time-to-peak (TTP) delays of arterial (aorta-celiac axis), liver parenchyma, liver lesion, portal, and hepatic veins. Time delays were calculated from the TTP-aorta signal, and then related to the gradient echo (GRE) k-space acquisition design, to determine optimized timing for real-time bolus-track triggering methodology. As another measure of significance, 200 clinical patients were imaged with 3D-GRE using either a fixed time-interval or by individualized arterial bolus real-time triggering. Bolus TTP-aorta was calculated and arterial-phase acquisitions were compared for accuracy and reproducibility using specific vascular enhancement indicators. The mean bolus transit-time to peak-lesion contrast was 8.1 ± 2.7 seconds following arterial detection, compared to 32.1 ± 5.4 seconds from contrast injection, representing a 62.1% reduction in the time-variability among subjects (N = 18). The real-time bolus-triggered technique more consistently captured the targeted arterial phase (94%), compared to the fixed timing technique (73%), representing an expected improvement of timing accuracy in 28% of patients (P = 0.0001389). Our results show detailed timing window analysis required for optimized arterial real-time bolus-triggering acquisition of transient arterial phase features of liver lesions, with optimized arterial triggering expected to improve reproducibility in a significant number of patients. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Design of the Injection and extraction system and related machine protection for the Clic Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Apsimon, Robert; Barnes, Mike; Borburgh, Jan; Goddard, Brennan; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Uythoven, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Linear machines such as CLIC have relatively low rates of collision between bunches compared to their circular counterparts. In order to achieve the required luminosity, a very small spot size is envisaged at the interaction point, thus a low emittance beam is needed. Damping rings are essential for producing the low emittances needed for the CLIC main beam. It is crucial that the beams are injected and extracted from the damping rings in a stable and repeatable fashion to minimise emittance blow-up and beam jitter at the interaction point; both of these effects will deteriorate the luminosity at the interaction point. In this paper, the parameters and constraints of the injection and extraction systems are considered and the design of these systems is optimised within this parameter space. Related machine protection is considered in order to prevent damage from potential failure modes of the injection and extraction systems.

  5. Computer Aided Design of The Cooling System for Plastic Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan GÜRÜN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of plastic injection molds and their cooling systems affect both the dimension, the shape, the quality of a plastic part and the cycle time of process and the cost of mold. In this study, the solid model design of a plastic injection mold and the design of cooling sysytem were possibly carried out without the designer interaction. Developed program permited the use of three types of the cooling system and the different cavity orientations and the multible plastic part placement into the mold cores. The program which was developed by using Visual LISP language and the VBA (Visual BASIC for Application modules, was applicated in the AutoCAD software domain. Trial studies were presented that the solid model design of plastic injection molds and the cooling systems increased the reliability, the flexibility and the speed of the design.

  6. Gravisensing in single-celled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, M.; Limbach, C.

    Single-celled systems are favourable cell types for studying several aspects of gravisensing and gravitropic responses. Whether and how actin is involved in both processes in higher plant statocytes is still a matter of intensive debate. In single-celled and tip-growing characean rhizoids and protonemata, however, there is clear evidence that actin is a central keyplayer controlling polarized growth and the mechanisms of gravity sensing and growth reorientation. Both cell types exhibit a unique actin polymerization in the extending tip, strictly colocalized with the prominent ER-aggregate in the center of the Spitzenkoerper. The local accumulation of ADF and profilin in this central array suggest that actin polymerization is controlled by these actin-binding proteins, which can be regulated by calcium, pH and a variety of other parameters. Distinct actin filaments extend even into the outermost tip and form a dense meshwork in the apical and subapical region, before they become bundled by villin to form two populations of thick actin cables that generate rotational cytoplasmic streaming in the basal region. Actomyosin not only mediates the delivery of secretory vesicles to the growing tip and controls the incorporation pattern of cell wall material, but also coordinates the tip-focused distribution pattern of calcium channels in the apical membrane. They establish the tip-high calcium gradient, a prerequisite for exocytosis. Microgravity experiments have added much to our understanding that both cell types use an efficient actomyosin-based system to control and correct the position of their statoliths and to direct sedimenting statoliths to confined graviperception sites at the plasma membrane. Actin's involvement in the graviresponses is more indirect. The upward growth of negatively gravitropic protonemata was shown to be preceded by a statolith-induced relocalization the Ca2+-calcium gradient to the upper flank that does not occur in positively gravitropic

  7. Computer-aided analysis of bypass in direct vessel vertical injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yong H.; Suh, Kune Y.; Yoon, Sang H.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in three-dimensional computer-aided design has rendered it practicable to lend itself to commercial computational fluid dynamics and structural mechanics finite element analysis codes to cross-communicate detailed geometric data. The main focus is placed on application of this powerful design tool in examining performance of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) employing the direct vessel injection (DVI) in the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe). In this work a new method of direct vessel vertical injection (DVVI) is proposed as an advanced type of DVI for the APR1400. In view of the ECCS function to efficaciously cool down the core during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), for example, the concept of DVVI is geared to increasing the downward momentum of the injected water so as to maximize penetration into the downcomer versus by pass through the break. Furthermore, one needs to pay a special attention to the structural integrity of the injection nozzle on account of the radioactive primary system environment. In particular, vibration and pressure induced by the safety injection (SI) flow will tend to exert predomination forces onto the DVVI nozzles having an elbow. Therefore, in this work, focus is placed on the flow regime at the tip of the DVVI nozzle and the structural impact caused by rapid injection of the emergency core cooling (ECC) water in the APR1400. The current work consists of a three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design (CAD) modeling using CATIA V5R9, CFX 5.5 and ANSYS 6.1 to determine the most vulnerable spot of the DVVI nozzle, and to check on the performance efficiency of DVVI during the ECC injection period. In this study it was considered that the 3D CAD model for the DVVI nozzle was submerged in a high-velocity steam. The effect of the rebounding force of the injected water has also been simulated. The 3D CAD model for the DVVI nozzle simulates its mass, texture and constitution material. In this work the DVVI

  8. Health risk assessment linked with purified biogas injection in a natural gas distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroux, Carole; Modelon, Hugues; Rousselle, Christophe; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Evanno, Sebastien

    2009-06-01

    This document provides for the opinion of the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (Afsset) expressed after the collective expertise carried out for the evaluation of the health risk linked with biogas injection in the natural gas distribution system. Following the recommendations issued by the Afsset, works have been started in order to collect the sludge-derived biogas and to analyse its composition. These data will be used to assess accidental risks (resulting from biogas valorisation, pipeline transport, industrial and domestic energy valorisation) as well as health risks for users (resulting from the injection in the natural gas distribution system)

  9. Attack methodology Analysis: SQL Injection Attacks and Their Applicability to Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bri Rolston

    2005-09-01

    Database applications have become a core component in control systems and their associated record keeping utilities. Traditional security models attempt to secure systems by isolating core software components and concentrating security efforts against threats specific to those computers or software components. Database security within control systems follows these models by using generally independent systems that rely on one another for proper functionality. The high level of reliance between the two systems creates an expanded threat surface. To understand the scope of a threat surface, all segments of the control system, with an emphasis on entry points, must be examined. The communication link between data and decision layers is the primary attack surface for SQL injection. This paper facilitates understanding what SQL injection is and why it is a significant threat to control system environments.

  10. Review on research of gravity driven and boron gravity-injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Langlang; Jiang Shengyao; Zhang Youjie; Ma Changwen

    2000-01-01

    Gravity driven system is the main kind of passive driven system, which is safe, economical and reliable with prodigious development potential. Integrated analysis to the current research situation of passive driven system and gravity driven system is made. The structure and character of the external gravity driven systems are also analyzed. The structure of the boron gravity-injection system which is compared with other external similar systems is presented. Its extrusive character in its structure design shows that it plays an important role in the development process of passive driven system

  11. Comprehensive characterizations of nanoparticle biodistribution following systemic injection in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Yin; Li, Hui-Jing; Chang, Ming-Yao; Tang, Alan C. L.; Hoffman, Allan S.; Hsieh, Patrick C. H.

    2013-10-01

    Various nanoparticle (NP) properties such as shape and surface charge have been studied in an attempt to enhance the efficacy of NPs in biomedical applications. When trying to undermine the precise biodistribution of NPs within the target organs, the analytical method becomes the determining factor in measuring the precise quantity of distributed NPs. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) represents a more powerful tool in quantifying NP biodistribution compared to conventional analytical methods such as an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). This, in part, is due to better curve linearity offered by HPLC than IVIS. Furthermore, HPLC enables us to fully analyze each gram of NPs present in the organs without compromising the signals and the depth-related sensitivity as is the case in IVIS measurements. In addition, we found that changing physiological conditions improved large NP (200-500 nm) distribution in brain tissue. These results reveal the importance of selecting analytic tools and physiological environment when characterizing NP biodistribution for future nanoscale toxicology, therapeutics and diagnostics.Various nanoparticle (NP) properties such as shape and surface charge have been studied in an attempt to enhance the efficacy of NPs in biomedical applications. When trying to undermine the precise biodistribution of NPs within the target organs, the analytical method becomes the determining factor in measuring the precise quantity of distributed NPs. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) represents a more powerful tool in quantifying NP biodistribution compared to conventional analytical methods such as an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). This, in part, is due to better curve linearity offered by HPLC than IVIS. Furthermore, HPLC enables us to fully analyze each gram of NPs present in the organs without compromising the signals and the depth-related sensitivity as is the case in IVIS measurements. In addition, we found that changing physiological

  12. Comparison of clinical applications of single-dose intravenous injection of mivacurium and cisatracurium in adults’ vocalcordpolyps resection under self-retaining laryngoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Fanglei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Through comparing the clinical observation of mivacurium and cisatracurium in vocal polyp extraction, to study the advantage of mivacurium in vocal polyp extraction. Methods: Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists(ASA physical status I~II patients for vocal polyp extraction, aged 18~60 years old, were randomly divided into two groups as Mivacurium injection group(Group M and Cis-atracurium injection group(Group C, each group includes 20 subjects. None of the patients are allergic, has serious diseases of cardiovascular system, liver or kidney.None of them has asthma, airway high response, difficult airway or neuromuscular diseases.Those patients who use beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers for a long time were excluded .All the subjects had the same premedication, fasting and fluid fobidden time. All the subjects who get into the operating room get the routine monitoring of electrocardiogram(EEG, blood pressure(BP, heart rate(HR, pulse oxygen saturation(SpO2 and the TOF WATCH SX. Each group gives the same medicine other than the muscle relaxant during induction of general anesthesia to do the vocal polyp extraction by the same experienced operator. Two groups were recorded in each index of anesthesia induction and tracheal intubation conditions, operation conditions, anesthesia, muscle relaxation monitoring. Results: There are no statistically significant in Cormack-Lehane grading system,Cooper’s grading system and operation satifaction(p>0.05. 2. Group A have shorter intubation time than Group B(p0.05. Conclusion: 1. A single intubating dose of mivacurium can provide similar intubation and surgeon satisfaction for the vocal polyp extraction. 2. Compared with cis-atracurium, mivacurium can shorten the intubation time and the recovery time of anesthesia. The adverse reactions of mivacurium is mild, and it has less Residual muscle relaxation. Therefore mivacurium is more suitable for the vocal polyp extraction than cis-atracurium.

  13. Physical Watermarking for Securing Cyber-Physical Systems via Packet Drop Injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozel, Omur [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Weekrakkody, Sean [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sinopoli, Bruno [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-10-23

    Physical watermarking is a well known solution for detecting integrity attacks on Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) such as the smart grid. Here, a random control input is injected into the system in order to authenticate physical dynamics and sensors which may have been corrupted by adversaries. Packet drops may naturally occur in a CPS due to network imperfections. To our knowledge, previous work has not considered the role of packet drops in detecting integrity attacks. In this paper, we investigate the merit of injecting Bernoulli packet drops into the control inputs sent to actuators as a new physical watermarking scheme. With the classical linear quadratic objective function and an independent and identically distributed packet drop injection sequence, we study the effect of packet drops on meeting security and control objectives. Our results indicate that the packet drops could act as a potential physical watermark for attack detection in CPSs.

  14. Investigation of Amourphous Deposits and Potential Corrosion Mechanisms in Offshore Water Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eroini, Violette; Oehler, Mike Christian; Graver, Britt Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    Increasing incidence of amorphous deposits in both production and water injection systems has caused considerable problems for offshore oil fields. Amorphous deposits, which are a widely recognized, but often poorly explained phenomenon, are typically comprised of both organic (biological...... or hydrocarbons) and inorganic material, but with compositions that vary considerably. One recurrent form of deposits, found in offshore water injection flowlines and wells, consisting mainly of magnetite as the corrosion product, was further investigated with the objectives of explaining its formation...... and assisting in prevention or remediation. It is proposed that the deposit formation, observed in offshore water injection systems treated with nitrate, is initiated by formation of a nitrate reducing biofilm promoting under deposit corrosion by activity of sulphate reducing and methanogenic prokaryotes...

  15. A Customizable Flow Injection System for Automated, High Throughput, and Time Sensitive Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Mass Spectrometry Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Daniel J. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Tfaily, Malak M. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Moore, Ronald J. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; LaMarche, Brian L. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Zheng, Xueyun [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Fillmore, Thomas L. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Chu, Rosalie K. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Weitz, Karl K. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Monroe, Matthew E. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Kelly, Ryan T. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Smith, Richard D. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States; Baker, Erin S. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, United States

    2017-12-13

    To better understand disease conditions and environmental perturbations, multi-omic studies (i.e. proteomic, lipidomic, metabolomic, etc. analyses) are vastly increasing in popularity. In a multi-omic study, a single sample is typically extracted in multiple ways and numerous analyses are performed using different instruments. Thus, one sample becomes many analyses, making high throughput and reproducible evaluations a necessity. One way to address the numerous samples and varying instrumental conditions is to utilize a flow injection analysis (FIA) system for rapid sample injection. While some FIA systems have been created to address these challenges, many have limitations such as high consumable costs, low pressure capabilities, limited pressure monitoring and fixed flow rates. To address these limitations, we created an automated, customizable FIA system capable of operating at diverse flow rates (~50 nL/min to 500 µL/min) to accommodate low- and high-flow instrument sources. This system can also operate at varying analytical throughputs from 24 to 1200 samples per day to enable different MS analysis approaches. Applications ranging from native protein analyses to molecular library construction were performed using the FIA system. The results from these studies showed a highly robust platform, providing consistent performance over many days without carryover as long as washing buffers specific to each molecular analysis were utilized.

  16. A Customizable Flow Injection System for Automated, High Throughput, and Time Sensitive Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Mass Spectrometry Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Daniel J; Tfaily, Malak M; Moore, Ronald J; LaMarche, Brian L; Zheng, Xueyun; Fillmore, Thomas L; Chu, Rosalie K; Weitz, Karl K; Monroe, Matthew E; Kelly, Ryan T; Smith, Richard D; Baker, Erin S

    2018-01-02

    To better understand disease conditions and environmental perturbations, multiomic studies combining proteomic, lipidomic, and metabolomic analyses are vastly increasing in popularity. In a multiomic study, a single sample is typically extracted in multiple ways, and various analyses are performed using different instruments, most often based upon mass spectrometry (MS). Thus, one sample becomes many measurements, making high throughput and reproducible evaluations a necessity. One way to address the numerous samples and varying instrumental conditions is to utilize a flow injection analysis (FIA) system for rapid sample injections. While some FIA systems have been created to address these challenges, many have limitations such as costly consumables, low pressure capabilities, limited pressure monitoring, and fixed flow rates. To address these limitations, we created an automated, customizable FIA system capable of operating at a range of flow rates (∼50 nL/min to 500 μL/min) to accommodate both low- and high-flow MS ionization sources. This system also functions at varying analytical throughputs from 24 to 1200 samples per day to enable different MS analysis approaches. Applications ranging from native protein analyses to molecular library construction were performed using the FIA system, and results showed a highly robust and reproducible platform capable of providing consistent performance over many days without carryover, as long as washing buffers specific to each molecular analysis were utilized.

  17. Comparison of a single- or double-injection technique for ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block: a prospective, randomized, blinded controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mélanie; Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Côté, Dany; Levesque, Simon; Dion, Nicolas; Nicole, Pierre C; Turgeon, Alexis F

    2012-01-01

    Despite good success rates reported with ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block using 1 or multiple injections, no consensus exists on the best technique to use. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that a double-injection technique would hasten the onset of sensory block. Adult patients undergoing hand, wrist, or elbow surgery were enrolled in this prospective double-blind randomized study. Blocks were performed under ultrasound guidance. In group S (single injection), 30 mL of mepivacaine 1.5% was injected at the junction of the subclavian artery and the first rib. In group D (double injection), 15 mL of the same solution was injected at the site described above, then 15 mL was injected in the most superficial portion of the lateral aspect of the cluster formed by the brachial plexus trunks and divisions. The primary end point was the rate of complete sensory block at 15 mins. Secondary end points were the rates of sensory, motor, and surgical blocks and procedure time. Fifty-one patients were randomized to each group. The rate of complete sensory block was similar at 15 mins (group S: 49% [95% confidence interval, 36%-62%], group D: 53% [95% confidence interval, 40%-66%]; P = 0.80) and at each time interval. The rates of complete motor block and surgical block success were similar between groups. The procedure time was shorter in group S (179 ± 104 vs 275 ± 137 secs; P block.

  18. An interactive web-based design system for rubber injection mold: Automotive rubber parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamnarn Thongmark

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at integrating a knowledge-based system and web-based technology to facilitate the rubber and rubber composite injection mold design. The system integrates both of computer-aided design and web-based management by using the application programming interface. The research processes started with gathering data and knowledge concerning on rubber injection mold design and process, with the designed framework of the system included. An example part was demonstrated in order to validate the developed system. Based on standardized procedures, the system provides counseling that is able to resolve relevant issues at the early stage of the mold design. The system can be used for both designing and training in rubber mold fabrication.

  19. Development of a direct injection system without time lag for application of plant protection products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Krebs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Earlier systems for direct injection of plant protection products (PPP did not satisfy the requirements of practical farming because of time lag between dosing of PPP and its application and because of cleaning problems. To offer solutions in this respect, a prototype field sprayer with direct injection for site-specific application was conceived, constructed and tested. This prototype has three separate nozzle lines, each with its own direct injection unit capable of preloading with individual spray mixture so that no time lag occurs in application. Calculated were the theoretically achievable working widths possible with the applied direct injection dosing pumps. Test stand measurements were carried out to determine dosing precision. The results show that good dosing precision is achieved in the different settings. Hereby, attention should be paid to the working range of the dosing pumps. The results show that practically-applicable systems for direct injection without time lag based on the developed prototype are possible offering the ability to apply PPP more precisely and site-specifically.

  20. Feasibility of Injection/Extraction Systems for Muon FFAG Rings in the Neutrino Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, J.; Berg, J.; Aslaninejad, M.; Kelliher, D.; Machida, S.

    2010-01-01

    Non-scaling FFAG rings have been proposed for muon acceleration in a neutrino factory. In order to achieve small orbit excursion and small time of flight variation, lattices with a very compact cell structure and short straight sections are required. The resulting geometry places very challenging constraints on the injection/extraction systems. The feasibility of injection/extraction is discussed and various implementations focusing on minimization of kicker/septum strength are presented. The injection and extraction systems in the nonscaling FFAG for muon acceleration in a neutrino factory were studied in the ring based on FODO lattice. The vertical direction was found to be preferential for both injection and extraction, which allows for lower kicker strengths and facilitates the distribution of kickers due to a lower phase advance per cell in comparison with the horizontal plane. It is possible to design mirror-symmetric schemes in which the kickers can be reused for both signs of muons. The disadvantage of these solutions is a need for special magnets with large aperture in the injection/extraction region due to the large kicked beam oscillations. The strengths of the required kickers are still very challenging and the fields in the septum magnets dictates the need for a superconducting design.

  1. Direct vessel inclined injection system for reduction of emergency core coolant direct bypass in advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang H.; Lee, Jong G.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2006-01-01

    Multidimensional thermal hydraulics in the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe) downcomer during a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) plays a pivotal role in determining the capability of the safety injection system. APR1400 adopts the direct vessel injection (DVI) method for more effective core penetration of the emergency core cooling (ECC) water than the cold leg injection (CLI) method in the OPR1000 (Optimized Power Reactor 1000 MWe). The DVI method turned out to be prone to occasionally lack in efficacious delivery of ECC to the reactor core during the reflood phase of a LBLOCA, however. This study intends to demonstrate a direct vessel inclined injection (DVII) method, one of various ideas with which to maximize the ECC core penetration and to minimize the direct bypass through the break during the reflood phase of a LBLOCA. The 1/7 scaled down THETA (Transient Hydrodynamics Engineering Test Apparatus) tests show that a vertical inclined nozzle angle of the DVII system increases the downward momentum of the injected ECC water by reducing the degree of impingement on the reactor downcomer, whereby lessening the extent of the direct bypass through the break. The proposed method may be combined with other innovative measures with which to ensure an enough thermal margin in the core during the course of a LBLOCA in APR1400

  2. Design of the injection kicker magnet system for CERN's 14 TeV proton collider LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducimetiere, L.; Jansson, U.; Schroeder, G.H.; Vossenberg, E.B.; Barnes, M.J.; Wait, G.D.

    1995-08-01

    Two counter-rotating proton beams will be injected into the LHC at an energy of 450 GeV by two kicker magnet systems, producing magnetic field pulses of approximately 750 ns rise time and 6.6 micros flat top duration. To avoid dilution of the beam emittance during injection, a stringent design requirement of the system is a flat top ripple of the magnetic field of less than ±0.5%. Both injection systems are composed of 4 travelling wave kicker magnets of 2.17 m length each, powered by pulse forming networks (PFN's) and matched to their characteristic impedance. To achieve the high required kick strength of 1.2 Tm, for a compact and cost efficient design, a comparably low characteristic impedance of 5 Ω has been chosen. The electrical circuit of the system is being designed with the help of PSpice computer modeling. Most known parasitic elements are included in the model to obtain a realistic pulse response prediction. The present paper reports on design and modeling results of the LHC injection kicker magnet system that has several novel and demanding design requirements

  3. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US Massive Gas Injection Disruption Mitigation System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a candidate design for the ITER Disruption Mitigation System. This candidate is the Massive Gas Injection System that provides machine protection in a plasma disruption event. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data as well as some data calculated from operating facilities, and the failure events were ranked for their criticality to system operation.

  4. Durable recovery of the macular architecture and functionality of a diagnosed age-related macular degeneration 1 year after a single intravitreal injection of dobesilate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, P; Outeiriño, L A; Azanza, C; Giménez-Gallego, G

    2013-01-01

    Among the age-related diseases that affect vision, age-related macular degeneration is the most frequent cause of blindness in patients older than 60 years. In this communication, we report the full anatomical and functional recovery of a patient diagnosed with wet age-related macular degeneration 1 year after a single intravitreal injection of dobesilate. PMID:24225910

  5. A single intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin in rats induces long-lasting modifications in behavior and brain protein levels of TNF-α and IL-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossù Paola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic inflammation might cause neuronal damage and sustain neurodegenerative diseases and behavior impairment, with the participation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-18. However, the potential contribution of these cytokines to behavioral impairment in the long-term period has not been fully investigated. Methods Wistar rats were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg or vehicle. After 7 days and 10 months, the animal behavior was evaluated by testing specific cognitive functions, as mnesic, discriminative, and attentional functions, as well as anxiety levels. Contextually, TNF-α and IL-18 protein levels were measured by ELISA in defined brain regions (that is, frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and hypothalamus. Results Behavioral testing demonstrated a specific and persistent cognitive impairment characterized by marked deficits in reacting to environment modifications, possibly linked to reduced motivational or attentional deficits. Concomitantly, LPS induced a TNF-α increase in the hippocampus and frontal cortex (from 7 days onward and cerebellum (only at 10 months. Interestingly, LPS treatment enhanced IL-18 expression in these same areas only at 10 months after injection. Conclusions Overall, these results indicate that the chronic neuroinflammatory network elicited by systemic inflammation involves a persistent participation of TNF-α accompanied by a differently regulated contribution of IL-18. This leads to speculation that, though with still unclear mechanisms, both cytokines might take part in long-lasting modifications of brain functions, including behavioral alteration.

  6. Mathematical modelling of a flow-injection system with a membrane separation module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolev, S.D.; Kolev, Spas D.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model for a flow-injection system with a membrane separation module based on the axially dispersed plug flow model was developed. It takes into account the geometrical dimensions and dispersion properties of the main sections of the manifold, the mass transfer in the channels of the

  7. The development of an air injection system for the forced response testing of axial compressors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wegman, Erik J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available of ASME Turbo Expo 2013: Power for Land, Sea and Air: GT2013, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 3-7 June 2013 THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN AIR INJECTION SYSTEM FOR THE FORCED RESPONSE TESTING OF AXIAL COMPRESSORS E Wegman and G Snedden CSIR, Pretoria, South...

  8. Fault Diagnosis Of A Water For Injection System Using Enhanced Structural Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten; Blanke, Mogens; Düstegör, Dilek

    2008-01-01

    A water for injection system supplies chilled sterile water as solvent to pharmaceutical products. There are ultimate requirements to the quality of the sterile water, and the consequence of a fault in temperature or in flow control within the process may cause loss of one or more batches...

  9. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mantas Smolnikovas; Gintas Viselga; Greta Viselgaitė; Algirdas Jasinskas

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  10. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Smolnikovas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  11. [Martin high pressure common rail diesel engine injection system]. Technical progress report, August--October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    We have a contract with Diesel Recerche of Trieste, Italy, and the Fincantier Group in Italy. They are naval ship builders. Our contract is to work with Diesel Recerche to design the `Martin` fuel injection system for their first test engine for a naval ship. Tiby Martin has been working in the design and detailed layout of the application drawings for Diesel Recerche.

  12. Neural control systems for alternatively fuelled vehicles and natural gas fuel injection for DACIA NOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulatisky, M. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Ghelesel, A. [BC Gas International, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The elements of natural gas vehicle conversion technology are described as background to a discussion of the development of bi-fuel injection system for the Rumanian-manufactured DACIA-NOVA automobile. The bi-fuel injection system mirrors the fueling system installed by the original equipment manufacturer; it can also be easily installed on Ford, General Motors and DaimlerChrysler vehicles as well as on most imports.To meet emission standards after 2000, it is envisaged to install on the DACIA NOVA a neural control system (NCS) and a completely adaptive linear control system (ACLS). Details of natural gas vehicles development and the development of NCS and ACLS are discussed, including short-term and long-term objectives.

  13. Single Phase Transformer-less Buck-Boost Inverter with Zero Leakage Current for PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostaan, Ali; Abdelhakim, Ahmed; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single-stage single-phase transformer-less buck-boost inverter is proposed, in which a reduced number of passive components is used. The proposed inverter combines the conventional buck, boost, and buck-boost converters in one converter in order to obtain a sinusoidal output...... voltage. In the proposed inverter, the input DC source and the load or grid have the same ground. Therefore, the leakage current problem in photovoltaic (PV) systems is eliminated. Furthermore, the proposed inverter supports the bi-directional power flow capability and it can inject reactive power...

  14. Development of the computer-aided process planning (CAPP system for polymer injection molds manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tepić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning of production and selling of polymer products largely depends on mold manufacturing. The costs of mold manufacturing have significant share in the final price of a product. The best way to improve and rationalize polymer injection molds production process is by doing mold design automation and manufacturing process planning automation. This paper reviews development of a dedicated process planning system for manufacturing of the mold for injection molding, which integrates computer-aided design (CAD, computer-aided process planning (CAPP and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM technologies.

  15. Design features and operational characteristics of the PEP beam-transport and injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.M.; Brown, K.L.; Truher, J.B.

    1981-03-01

    The PEP beam-transport system was designed to transmit 4-to-15 GeV electron and positron beams from the SLAC linac within a +- 0.8% momentum band, to have flexible tuning of the betatron and off-momentum functions for matching into the PEP storage ring, and to have convenient operating characteristics. The transport lines were brought into operation quickly and have operated well. Electron injection has been consistent and efficient and relatively easy to accomplish. Positron injection also has been satisfactory but is variable and more sensitive to ring conditions

  16. Application of a Computer Model to Various Specifications of Fuel Injection System for DI Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanishi, Manabu

    A combined experimental and computational investigation was performed in order to evaluate the effects of various design parameters of an in-line injection pump on the nozzle exit characteristics for DI diesel engines. Measurements of the pump chamber pressure and the delivery valve lift were included for validation by using specially designed transducers installed inside the pump. The results confirm that the simulation model is capable of predicting the pump operation for all the different designs investigated pump operating conditions. Following the successful validation of this model, parametric studies were performed which allow for improved fuel injection system design.

  17. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berteau C

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cecile Berteau,1 Orchidée Filipe-Santos,1 Tao Wang,2 Humberto E Rojas,2 Corinne Granger,1 Florence Schwarzenbach1 1Becton-Dickinson Medical Pharmaceutical Systems, Le Pont de Claix, France; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Aim: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC injection pain tolerance. Methods: The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s. All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain. The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results: Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003. Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm than medium (VAS =16.6 mm or low (VAS =22.1 mm viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002. Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89. Slow (0.02 mL/s or fast (0.30 mL/s injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79. In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High

  18. Micro Injection Molding of Thin Walled Geometries with Induction Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    To eliminate defects and improve the quality of molded parts, increasing the mold temperature is one of the applicable solutions. A high mold temperature can increase the path flow of the polymer inside the cavity allowing reduction of the number of injection points, reduction of part thickness...... and moulding of smaller and more complex geometries. The last two aspects are very important in micro injection molding. In this paper a new embedded induction heating system is proposed and validated. An experimental investigation was performed based on a test geometry integrating different aspect ratios...... of small structures. ABS was used as material and different combinations of injection velocity, pressure and mold temperature were tested. The replicated test objects were measured by means of an optical CMM machine. On the basis of the experimental investigation the efficacy of the embedded induction...

  19. Improvement of replication fidelity in injection moulding of nano structures using an induction heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    In today’s industry, applications involving surface pattering with sub-μm scale structures have shown a high interest. The replication of these structures by injection molding leads to special requirements for the mold in order to ensure proper replication and an acceptable cycle time. A tool...... insert with functional surface geometry in the sub-micrometer range was produced using aluminum anodization and subsequent nickel electroforming. For the complete replica of the pattern, elevated mold temperatures are required. For this purposea new mould set-up was developed, which allows rapid heating...... of the cavity wall by an induction heating system. The capability of the injection molding process to replicate the patterned surfaces into polycarbonate was investigated. Process optimization was carried out in terms of mold temperature/time variation and injection velocity. The replicated surfaces were...

  20. CRISPR-Cas systems exploit viral DNA injection to establish and maintain adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Joshua W; Jiang, Wenyan; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2017-04-06

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas systems provide protection against viral and plasmid infection by capturing short DNA sequences from these invaders and integrating them into the CRISPR locus of the prokaryotic host. These sequences, known as spacers, are transcribed into short CRISPR RNA guides that specify the cleavage site of Cas nucleases in the genome of the invader. It is not known when spacer sequences are acquired during viral infection. Here, to investigate this, we tracked spacer acquisition in Staphylococcus aureus cells harbouring a type II CRISPR-Cas9 system after infection with the staphylococcal bacteriophage ϕ12. We found that new spacers were acquired immediately after infection preferentially from the cos site, the viral free DNA end that is first injected into the cell. Analysis of spacer acquisition after infection with mutant phages demonstrated that most spacers are acquired during DNA injection, but not during other stages of the viral cycle that produce free DNA ends, such as DNA replication or packaging. Finally, we showed that spacers acquired from early-injected genomic regions, which direct Cas9 cleavage of the viral DNA immediately after infection, provide better immunity than spacers acquired from late-injected regions. Our results reveal that CRISPR-Cas systems exploit the phage life cycle to generate a pattern of spacer acquisition that ensures a successful CRISPR immune response.

  1. Analytical model for performance verification of liquid poison injection system of a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kansal, Anuj Kumar, E-mail: anujkumarkansal@gmail.com; Maheshwari, Naresh Kumar, E-mail: nmahesh@barc.gov.in; Vijayan, Pallippattu Krishnan, E-mail: vijayanp@barc.gov.in

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • One-dimensional modelling of shut down system-2. • Semi-empirical correlation poison jet progression. • Validation of code. - Abstract: Shut down system-2 (SDS-2) in advanced vertical pressure tube type reactor, provides rapid reactor shutdown by high pressure injection of a neutron absorbing liquid called poison, into the moderator in the calandria. Poison inside the calandria is distributed by poison jets issued from holes provided in the injection tubes. Effectiveness of the system depends on the rate and spread of the poison in the moderator. In this study, a transient one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic code, COPJET is developed, to predict the performance of system by predicting progression of poison jet with time. Validation of the COPJET is done with the data available in literature. Thereafter, it is applied for advanced vertical pressure type reactor.

  2. Program computes single-point failures in critical system designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program analyzes the designs of critical systems that will either prove the design is free of single-point failures or detect each member of the population of single-point failures inherent in a system design. This program should find application in the checkout of redundant circuits and digital systems.

  3. 34 CFR 200.12 - Single State accountability system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Single State accountability system. 200.12 Section 200... Improving Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies State Accountability System § 200.12 Single State accountability system. (a)(1) Each State must demonstrate in its State plan that the State has...

  4. The mechanism of the transient depression of the erythropoietic rate induced in the rat by a single injection of uranyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giglio, M.J.; Brandan, N.; Leal, T.L.; Bozzini, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    With the purpose of assessing the effect of uranyl nitrate (UN) on the rate of erythropoiesis, 1 mg/kg of the compound was injected iv to adult female Wistar rats. The dosing vehicle was injected into control animals. A single injection of UN induced a transient depression of the rate of red cell volume 59 Fe uptake, which reached its lowest value (68% depression) by the seventh postinjection day. By 14 days, 59 Fe incorporation had returned to normal. The amount of iron going to erythroid tissue per hour, reticulocyte count, and immunoreactive erythropoietin concentration in both plasma and kidney extracts were also significantly depressed in UN-treated rats in relation to these values in vehicle-injected rats by the seventh postinjection day. Dose-response curves for exogenous erythropoietin (Epo) performed in polycythemic intact and UN-treated rats 7 days after drug injection revealed a significant depression of the response in UN-injected animals. Moreover, bone marrow cells obtained from rats pretreated with UN formed a reduced number of erythroid colonies in vitro in response to Epo. Therefore, possible mechanisms for the observed transient depression in the rate of erythropoiesis associated with acute UN treatment include decreased Epo production and direct or indirect damage of erythroid progenitor cells

  5. The effects of bacterial endotoxin on lipide metabolism. I. The responses of the serum lipides of rabbits to single and repeated injections of Shear's polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEQUIRE, V S; HUTCHERSON, J D; HAMILTON, R L; GRAY, M E

    1959-08-01

    Single intravenous injections of Shear's polysaccharide in varying dosages invariably produced an elevation in the levels of the total serum lipides 24 hours after injection of endotoxin. The total serum cholesterol and lipide phosphorus were also affected, although they did not change with smaller doses of endotoxin and were rarely elevated to the same degree as were the total serum lipides. The degree of elevation of the serum lipides was apparently related to the amount of endotoxin injected up to a certain point, beyond which there was no further increase. There were two types of response to endotoxin by the serum lipides, a moderate increase and an uncontrolled increase. Higher dosages of endotoxin and fasting apparently increased the incidence of the latter response. No direct correlation could be made between serum lipide responses and histologic evidence typical of the generalized Shwartzman reaction following this regimen of endotoxin injection. The Shwartzman reaction did occur with greater frequency and with lower dosages of endotoxin in fasted animals. Animals given repeated injections of endotoxin showed an initial increase in serum lipides followed by a progressive decrease to normal levels as tolerance to the febrile action of endotoxin appeared. The febrile tolerance as well as the unresponsiveness of the serum lipides to endotoxin was abolished by thorium dioxide (thorotrast) in these animals. In similar experiments a "breakthrough" of lipide unresponsiveness to endotoxin was obtained by increasing the amount of endotoxin injected. Some of the implications of these results for the metabolic alterations produced by bacterial endotoxins are discussed.

  6. Unvented single stack sanitary drainage system I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Najman, Z.

    This report forms the basis of the preparation of design recommendations. In the observation tables all single results from 147 tests of charging are dispersed on 53 test set-ups. At test set-ups in 1 till 4 floors height discharge pipes with dimensions of 100, 125, and 150 mm were tested with di...

  7. Assessment of the efficacy and safety of single platelet-rich plasma injection on different types and grades of facial wrinkles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnehrawy, Naema Y; Ibrahim, Zeinab A; Eltoukhy, Azza M; Nagy, Hala M

    2017-03-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is considered as a growing modality for tissue regeneration and a developing research area for clinicians and researchers. PRP injection treatment provides supraphysiological concentrations of growth factors that may help in accelerated tissue remodeling and regeneration. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of single autologous PRP intradermal injection for treatment of facial wrinkles and for facial rejuvenation. A total of 20 subjects with different types of facial wrinkles were included in this study. All subjects received single PRP intradermal injection and were clinically assessed before and after treatment for a period of 8 weeks using Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale (WSRS), Skin Homogeneity and Texture (SHnT) Scale, Physician Assessment Scale, and Subject Satisfaction Scale. The mean value of WSRS reduced from 2.90 ± 0.91 before treatment to 2.10 ± 0.79 after 8 weeks of treatment. The most significant results were with younger subjects that have mild and moderate wrinkles of the nasolabial folds (NLFs). Fourteen of seventeen subjects with NLFs showed more than 25% improvement in their appearance. Side effects of PRP treatment were minimal to mild and with excellent tolerability. Single PRP intradermal injection is well tolerated and capable of rejuvenating the face and producing a significant correction of wrinkles especially the NLFs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Treatment of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules at a single institution. Radioiodine therapy, surgery, and ethanol injection therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yukiko; Sugino, Kiminori; Akaishi, Junko

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of radioiodine (RI) therapy in Japanese patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs). We performed a retrospective analysis to assess the management of AFTN patients. Thyroid lobectomy was performed to treat toxic adenoma (TA) patients, and total thyroidectomy to treat toxic multinodular goiter (TMNG) patients. RI therapy was administered in the form of a single dose (500 MBq) of isotope in the outpatient clinic. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) was performed under ultrasound guidance. Of the total 205 patients, consisting of 159 TA and 46 TMNG patients, 99 underwent surgery, 50 received RI therapy, and 56 received PEIT. Remission of thyrotoxicosis was achieved in all of the patients who were treated surgically. Hypothyroidism was documented in six of the 72 patients who were treated surgically other than by total thyroidectomy. Remission of thyrotoxicosis was observed in 43 of the 50 patients who were treated by RI therapy. Nine TA patients developed hypothyroidism during the follow-up period after RI therapy. Several PEIT sessions were required to achieve a remission of thyrotoxicosis. Remission of thyrotoxicosis was achieved in 29 of the 56 patients treated by PEIT, and thyrotoxicosis recurred in 17 these 56 patients. Surgery is the treatment of choice for large nodules and nodules that are resistant to other treatments, because it allows prompt control of thyrotoxicosis. RI therapy is a safe and effective means of controlling thyrotoxicosis in AFTN patients. We conclude that RI therapy is the treatment of choice for definitive treatment of AFTN patients who do not have local compression symptoms. (author)

  9. Pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in plasma and milk samples after a single subcutaneous injection in lactating goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, B; Rowe, J D; Carlson, J; Wetzlich, S E; Tell, L A

    2014-04-01

    Eight adult female dairy goats received one subcutaneous administration of tulathromycin at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Blood and milk samples were assayed for tulathromycin and the common fragment of tulathromycin, respectively, using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic disposition of tulathromycin was analyzed by a noncompartmental approach. Mean plasma pharmacokinetic parameters (±SD) following single-dose administration of tulathromycin were as follows: C(max) (121.54 ± 19.01 ng/mL); T(max) (12 ± 12-24 h); area under the curve AUC(0→∞) (8324.54 ± 1706.56 ng·h/mL); terminal-phase rate constant λz (0.01 ± 0.002 h⁻¹); and terminal-phase rate constant half-life t1/2λz (67.20 h; harmonic). Mean milk pharmacokinetic parameters (±SD) following 45 days of sampling were as follows: Cmax (1594 ± 379.23 ng/mL); Tmax (12 ± 12-36 h); AUC(0→∞) (72,250.51 ± 18,909.57 ng·h/mL); λz (0.005 ± 0.001 h⁻¹); and t(1/2λz) (155.28 h; harmonic). All goats had injection-site reactions that diminished in size over time. The conclusions from this study were that tulathromycin residues are detectable in milk samples from adult goats for at least 45 days following subcutaneous administration, this therapeutic option should be reserved for cases where other treatment options have failed, and goat milk should be withheld from the human food chain for at least 45 days following tulathromycin administration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Flow velocity effect on the corrosion/erosion in water injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, C.; Mendez, J.

    1998-01-01

    The main causes of fails at water injection lines on the secondary petroleum recovery systems are related with corrosion/erosion problems which are influenced by the flow velocity, the presence of dissolved oxygen, solids in the medium and the microorganisms proliferation. So too, this corrosion process promotes the suspended solids generation which affects the water quality injected, causing wells tamponage and loss of injectivity, with the consequent decrease in the crude production. This situation has been impacted in meaning order at the production processes of an exploration enterprise which utilizes the Maracaibo lake as water resource for their injection by pattern projects. Stating that, it was developed a study for determining in experimental order the effect of flow velocity on the corrosion/erosion process joined to the presence of dissolved oxygen which allows to determine the optimum range of the said working velocity for the water injection systems. This range is defined by critical velocities of bio layers deposition and erosion. They were realized simulation pilot tests of the corrosion standard variables, concentration of dissolved oxygen and fluid velocity in the injection systems with filtered and non filtered water. For the development of these tests it was constructed a device which allows to install and expose cylindrical manometers of carbon steel according to predetermined conditions which was obtained the necessary information to make correlations the results of these variables. Additionally, they were determined the mathematical models that adjusts to dynamical behavior of the corrosion/erosion process, finding the optimum range of the flow velocity for the control of this process, being necessary to utilize the following techniques: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray dispersion analysis (EDX) for encourage the surface studies. They were effected morphological analysis of the surfaces studies and the values were determined of

  11. Initial Single-Shell Tank Retrieval System mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1996-03-01

    This document provides the mission analysis for the Initial Single-Shell Tank Retrieval System task, which supports the Single-Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Program in its commitment to remove waste from single-shell tanks for treatment and final closure

  12. Attenuation values of the intracranial arterial and venous vessels by bolus injection of various contrast agents. A study with a single-detector helical CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahata, Morio; Abe, Yoshinao; Ono, Shuichi; Yamaguchi, Hikaru; Miura, Hiroyuki; Ohata, Takashi; Tsushima, Fumiyasu; Morimoto, Kohei; Seino, Hiroko

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the arteriovenous contrast on the source images of intracranial three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) angiography (3D-CTA) using a high-concentration (370 mgI/ml) contrast agent in comparison with intermediate-concentration (300 mgI/ml) contrast. With a fixed intravenous injection rate and scanning delay, 3D-CTA was performed using a single-detector helical CT scanner in 30 consecutive patients. We used 100 ml of iohexol 300 for 10 patients, 100 ml of iopamidol 300 for 10 patients, and 80 ml of iopamidol 370 for 10 patients. Attenuation values of the bilateral internal carotid arteries, bilateral middle cerebral arteries, basilar artery trunk, bilateral cavernous sinuses, bilateral basal veins, and Galenic vein were measured quantitatively on the axial CT angiographic source images. High-concentration contrast significantly increased the attenuation values of the intracranial arterial system without increasing the attenuation of the venous system. High-concentration contrast is helpful for obtaining valuable arteriovenous contrast on source images with intracranial 3D-CTA. (author)

  13. Repetitive laser fusion experiment and operation using a target injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Komeda, Osamu; Mori, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    Since 2008, a collaborative research project on laser fusion development based on a high-speed ignition method using repetitive laser has been carried out with several collaborative research institutes. This paper reports the current state of operation of high repetition laser fusion experiments, such as target introduction and control based on a target injection system that allows free falling under 1 Hz, using a high repetition laser driver that has been under research and development, as well as the measurement of targets that freely fall. The HAMA laser driver that enabled high repetition fusion experiments is a titanium sapphire laser using a diode-pumped solid-state laser KURE-I of green light output as a driver pump light source. In order to carry out high repetition laser fusion experiments, the target injection device allows free falling of deuterated polystyrene solid sphere targets of 1 mm in diameter under 1 Hz. The authors integrated the developed laser and injection system, and succeeded first in the world in making the nuclear fusion reaction continuously by hitting the target to be injected with laser, which is essential technology for future laser nuclear fusion reactor. In order to realize repetition laser fusion experiments, stable laser, target synchronization control, and target position measurement technologies are indispensable. (A.O.)

  14. Computer systems for annotation of single molecule fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David Charles; Severin, Jessica

    2016-07-19

    There are provided computer systems for visualizing and annotating single molecule images. Annotation systems in accordance with this disclosure allow a user to mark and annotate single molecules of interest and their restriction enzyme cut sites thereby determining the restriction fragments of single nucleic acid molecules. The markings and annotations may be automatically generated by the system in certain embodiments and they may be overlaid translucently onto the single molecule images. An image caching system may be implemented in the computer annotation systems to reduce image processing time. The annotation systems include one or more connectors connecting to one or more databases capable of storing single molecule data as well as other biomedical data. Such diverse array of data can be retrieved and used to validate the markings and annotations. The annotation systems may be implemented and deployed over a computer network. They may be ergonomically optimized to facilitate user interactions.

  15. 3D pulmonary perfusion MRI and MR angiography of pulmonary embolism in pigs after a single injection of a blood pool MR contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Christian; Ley, Sebastian; Puderbach, Michael; Plathow, Christian; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Radiology, Innovative Cancer Diagnostic and Therapy, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Bock, Michael [Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, Innovative Cancer Diagnostic and Therapy, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of contrast-enhanced 3D perfusion MRI and MR angiography (MRA) of pulmonary embolism (PE) in pigs using a single injection of the blood pool contrast Gadomer. PE was induced in five domestic pigs by injection of autologous blood thrombi. Contrast-enhanced first-pass 3D perfusion MRI (TE/TR/FA: 1.0 ms/2.2 ms/40 ; voxel size: 1.3 x 2.5 x 4.0 mm{sup 3}; TA: 1.8 s per data set) and high-resolution 3D MRA (TE/TR/FA: 1.4 ms/3.4 ms/40 ; voxel size: 0.8 x 1.0 x 1.6 mm{sup 3}) was performed during and after a single injection of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight of Gadomer. Image data were compared to pre-embolism Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI and post-embolism thin-section multislice CT (n=2). SNR measurements were performed in the pulmonary arteries and lung. One animal died after induction of PE. In all other animals, perfusion MRI and MRA could be acquired after a single injection of Gadomer. At perfusion MRI, PE could be detected by typical wedge-shaped perfusion defects. While the visualization of central PE at MRA correlated well with the CT, peripheral PE were only visualized by CT. Gadomer achieved a higher peak SNR of the lungs compared to Gd-DTPA (21{+-}8 vs. 13{+-}3). Contrast-enhanced 3D perfusion MRI and MRA of PE can be combined using a single injection of the blood pool contrast agent Gadomer. (orig.)

  16. Seismic attenuation system for the external injection bench of the Advanced Virgo gravitational wave detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, M.R.; Beker, M.G.; Bertolini, A.; Brand, J.F.J. van den; Bulten, H.J.; Hennes, E.; Mul, F.A.; Rabeling, D.S.; Schimmel, A.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2011 a major upgrade of the Virgo gravitational wave detector was started. After these improvements the detector's sensitivity will have increased by an order of magnitude, increasing the expected event rate by 10 3 compared to its predecessor. Extensive noise studies showed that this improvement can only be accomplished if a number of optical benches, hosting ancillary optics and optical sensors for the alignment of the interferometer, are isolated from seismic ground motion to reduce the amount of beam jitter and control noise they introduce. Here we present the first of these systems: the External Injection Bench Seismic Attenuation System, or EIB-SAS, which is able to reduce seismically induced motion of the external injection bench (last bench before laser beam enters the vacuum system) by more than 40 dB above 10 Hz in 6 degrees of freedom

  17. Design considerations for a future injection system for radocarbon AMS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, R. E. M.; Ramsey, C. Bronk

    1994-06-01

    In planning for a possible upgrade to the Oxford AMS system (dedicated to C-14 measurements), we have given thought to novel as well as conventional designs of injection which achieve both a high level of accuracy and also permit C-14 detection with negligible background due to misidentification. Experiments at Oxford in which sputtered beams from graphite are directly injected (no mass separation) give limits on the sufficient mass resolution to achieve unambiguous C-14 detection. These will be discussed. Our experience with the CO 2 source indicates that space charge effects can become the dominant problem in achieving isotope ratio measurement accuracy and we believe should be taken into account in the design of high beam current systems. We will outline possible designs for a new system with these effects in mind. In particular, we hope to present a feasibility study for a pulsed magnet design.

  18. Investigation of work parameters of SI engine dedicated to energetics aggregates with pneumatic injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, W.; Śliwiński, K.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the possibilities of alternative fuel combustion in the engine four- stroke spark ignition engines. Power of the motor was carried out pneumatic fuel injection system using a hot gas developed by Prof. Stanislaw Jarnuszkiewicz. Presented made the position of the measuring system with the power and results. The engine experimental at the time of the study was powered by a blend of alcohol and gasoline. The main aim of the study was the question of control fuel dosage, taking into account the energy needs of forcing the engine load. During the tests carried load characteristics control the motor using the power control quality. Another issue was the elimination of penetration of fuel to the engine lubrication system, a problem occurred in the initial study on the issue of the pneumatic fuel injection using the hot exhaust gases. In summary we present the findings of this phase of the study.

  19. A description of the ITER's gas injection systems and current R and D activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.; Li, B.; Maruyama, S.; Jiang, T.; Yang, Y.; Xia, Z.W.; Zhang, Y.X.; Lu, J.

    2012-01-01

    The gas injection system (GIS) is an indispensable part of ITER fueling system. It deliveries the necessary gas species from tritium plant to vacuum vessel, pellet injection system or neutral beam for plasma operation and fusion power shutdown. In this paper, the current design status of GIS, including the previous design changes, is briefly described. As the GIS design justification and support, the experimental study on GIS response time is illustrated. The factors delayed the GIS response time are identified, and two kinds of control mode are proved to be effective for improving the GIS response time. The exploration on magnetic shield design shows the discrepancy of shielding performance occurs in the case of the paralleling external magnetic field to the sample cylinder. These R and D works prove the design feasibility in some ways, and support possible solutions for design challenges as alternative design options.

  20. Sericin/Dextran Injectable Hydrogel as an Optically Trackable Drug Delivery System for Malignant Melanoma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Qi, Chao; Tao, Kaixiong; Zhang, Jinxiang; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Luming; Jiang, Xulin; Zhang, Yunti; Huang, Lei; Li, Qilin; Xie, Hongjian; Gao, Jinbo; Shuai, Xiaoming; Wang, Guobin; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Severe side effects of cancer chemotherapy prompt developing better drug delivery systems. Injectable hydrogels are an effective site-target system. For most of injectable hydrogels, once delivered in vivo, some properties including drug release and degradation, which are critical to chemotherapeutic effects and safety, are challenging to monitor. Developing a drug delivery system for effective cancer therapy with in vivo real-time noninvasive trackability is highly desired. Although fluorescence dyes are used for imaging hydrogels, the cytotoxicity limits their applications. By using sericin, a natural photoluminescent protein from silk, we successfully synthesized a hydrazone cross-linked sericin/dextran injectable hydrogel. This hydrogel is biodegradable and biocompatible. It achieves efficient drug loading and controlled release of both macromolecular and small molecular drugs. Notably, sericin's photoluminescence from this hydrogel is directly and stably correlated with its degradation, enabling long-term in vivo imaging and real-time monitoring of the remaining drug. The hydrogel loaded with Doxorubicin significantly suppresses tumor growth. Together, the work demonstrates the efficacy of this drug delivery system, and the in vivo effectiveness of this sericin-based optical monitoring strategy, providing a potential approach for improving hydrogel design toward optimal efficiency and safety of chemotherapies, which may be widely applicable to other drug delivery systems.

  1. Visualization Techniques for Single Channel DPF Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Heather E.; Maupin, Gary D.; Carlson, Shelley J.; Saenz, Natalio T.; Gallant, Thomas R.

    2007-04-01

    New techniques have been developed to visualize soot deposition in both traditional and new diesel particulate filter (DPF) substrate materials using a modified cyanoacrylate fuming technique. Loading experiments have been conducted on a variety of single channel DPF substrates to develop a deeper understanding of soot penetration, soot deposition characteristics, and to confirm modeling results. Early results indicate that stabilizing the soot layer using a vapor adhesive may allow analysis of the layer with new methods.

  2. Safety and Potential Effect of a Single Intracavernous Injection of Autologous Adipose-Derived Regenerative Cells in Patients with Erectile Dysfunction Following Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Martha Kirstine; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour

    2016-01-01

    is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02240823. FINDINGS: Intracavernous injection of ADRCs was well-tolerated and only minor events related to the liposuction and cell injections were reported at the one-month evaluation, but none at later time points. Overall during the study period, 8 of 17 men recovered...... to a mean difference of 0.57 (0.38-0.85; p = 0.0069), versus inclusion. In contrast, incontinent men did not regain erectile function (median IIEF1/3/6 months = 5 (95% CI 5-6); mean difference 1 (95% CI 0.85-1.18), p > 0.9999). INTERPRETATION: In this phase I trial a single intracavernosal injection...

  3. Role of β1 integrins and bacterial adhesins for Yop injection into leukocytes in Yersinia enterocolitica systemic mouse infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuschle, Eva; Keller, Birgit; Siegfried, Alexandra; Manncke, Birgit; Spaeth, Tanja; Köberle, Martin; Drechsler-Hake, Doreen; Reber, Julia; Böttcher, Ralph T; Autenrieth, Stella E; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Bohn, Erwin; Schütz, Monika

    2016-02-01

    Injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into host cells by a type III secretion system is an important immune evasion mechanism of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye). In this process Ye invasin (Inv) binds directly while Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) binds indirectly via extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to β1 integrins on host cells. Although leukocytes turned out to be an important target of Yop injection by Ye, it was unclear which Ye adhesins and which leukocyte receptors are required for Yop injection. To explain this, we investigated the role of YadA, Inv and β1 integrins for Yop injection into leukocytes and their impact on the course of systemic Ye infection in mice. Ex vivo infection experiments revealed that adhesion of Ye via Inv or YadA is sufficient to promote Yop injection into leukocytes as revealed by a β-lactamase reporter assay. Serum factors inhibit YadA- but not Inv-mediated Yop injection into B and T cells, shifting YadA-mediated Yop injection in the direction of neutrophils and other myeloid cells. Systemic Ye mouse infection experiments demonstrated that YadA is essential for Ye virulence and Yop injection into leukocytes, while Inv is dispensable for virulence and plays only a transient and minor role for Yop injection in the early phase of infection. Ye infection of mice with β1 integrin-depleted leukocytes demonstrated that β1 integrins are dispensable for YadA-mediated Yop injection into leukocytes, but contribute to Inv-mediated Yop injection. Despite reduced Yop injection into leukocytes, β1 integrin-deficient mice exhibited an increased susceptibility for Ye infection, suggesting an important role of β1 integrins in immune defense against Ye. This study demonstrates that Yop injection into leukocytes by Ye is largely mediated by YadA exploiting, as yet unknown, leukocyte receptors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. Single-dose Intramuscular-injection Toxicology Test of Water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum Pharmacopuncture in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunju Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study is to investigate both the single-dose intramuscular injection toxicity and the approximate lethal dose of water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum pharmacopuncture (WCFC in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods: The study was conducted at Biotoxtech Co. according to the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP regulation and the toxicity test guidelines of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS after approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Dosages for the control, high dose, middle dose and low dose groups were 0.5 mL/animal of saline and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 mL/animal of WCFC, respectively. WCFC was injected into the muscle of the left femoral region by using a disposable syringe (1 mL, 26 gauge. The general symptoms and mortality were observed 30 minutes, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after the first injection and then daily for 14 days after the injection. The body weights of the SD rats were measured on the day of the injection (before injection and on the third, seventh, and fourteenth days after the injection. Serum biochemical and hematologic tests, necropsy examinations, and histopathologic examinations at the injection site were performed after the observation period. Results: No deaths, abnormal clinical symptoms, or significant weight changes were observed in either male or female SD rats in the control or the test (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mL/animal groups during the observation period. No significant differences in hematology and serum biochemistry and no macroscopic abnormalities at necropsy were found. No abnormal reactions at injection sites were noted on the topical tolerance tests. Conclusion: The results of this single-dose toxicity study show that WCFC is safe, its lethal doses in male and female SD rats being estimated to be higher than 0.5 mL/animal.

  5. Determination of the optional time for taking blood samples by single intravenous injection of 3H-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Delian; Yao Junhu; Lu Jinyin; Wu Xiaobin; Liu Jun

    2003-01-01

    Twenty four young hens (1.5 kg of body weight, BW) were randomly divided into 4 groups. Every group was diet free (FAS) or force-fed a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) or the diet with 20% crude protein in which soybean meal or cotton seed meal was the sole nitrogen source (30 g DM/kg BW). 30 μCi 3 H-Leu/kg BW was intravenously injected into all birds just after force-fed or on fasting. Venous blood samples were taken at 5, 30 min, 4,24,36 and 48h after injection. The excreta during the whole period of 48h after injection was collected. Special radioactivities of nonprotein plasma at every time point and excreta were measured. The optional time of taking blood samples was 20-24 hours after injected 3 H-Leu

  6. Systems interaction and single failure criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This study is a continued assessment of US research. All three of the systems interaction review methodologies which NRC's Systems Interaction Section (SIS) is studying are recommended. They are the Digraph-Matrix Analysis and Interactive Fault Tree/Failure Modes and Effects Analysis methodologies. A third methodology was developed for the Indian Point 3 system interaction review. It is recommended to developing the capability to perform and evaluate systems interaction reviews at Swedish nuclear plants. The Swedish demonstration studies should be performed on BWR's. (G.B.)

  7. Robust Central Nervous System Pathology in Transgenic Mice following Peripheral Injection of α-Synuclein Fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Jacob I; Brooks, Mieu M; Rutherford, Nicola J; Howard, Jasie K; Sorrentino, Zachary A; Riffe, Cara J; Giasson, Benoit I

    2017-01-15

    Misfolded α-synuclein (αS) is hypothesized to spread throughout the central nervous system (CNS) by neuronal connectivity leading to widespread pathology. Increasing evidence indicates that it also has the potential to invade the CNS via peripheral nerves in a prion-like manner. On the basis of the effectiveness following peripheral routes of prion administration, we extend our previous studies of CNS neuroinvasion in M83 αS transgenic mice following hind limb muscle (intramuscular [i.m.]) injection of αS fibrils by comparing various peripheral sites of inoculations with different αS protein preparations. Following intravenous injection in the tail veins of homozygous M83 transgenic (M83 +/+ ) mice, robust αS pathology was observed in the CNS without the development of motor impairments within the time frame examined. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of αS fibrils in hemizygous M83 transgenic (M83 +/- ) mice resulted in CNS αS pathology associated with paralysis. Interestingly, injection with soluble, nonaggregated αS resulted in paralysis and pathology in only a subset of mice, whereas soluble Δ71-82 αS, human βS, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) control proteins induced no symptoms or pathology. Intraperitoneal injection of αS fibrils also induced CNS αS pathology in another αS transgenic mouse line (M20), albeit less robustly in these mice. In comparison, i.m. injection of αS fibrils was more efficient in inducing CNS αS pathology in M83 mice than i.p. or tail vein injections. Furthermore, i.m. injection of soluble, nonaggregated αS in M83 +/- mice also induced paralysis and CNS αS pathology, although less efficiently. These results further demonstrate the prion-like characteristics of αS and reveal its efficiency to invade the CNS via multiple routes of peripheral administration. The misfolding and accumulation of α-synuclein (αS) inclusions are found in a number of neurodegenerative disorders and is a hallmark feature of Parkinson

  8. Investigation of Amourphous Deposits and Potential Corrosion Mechanisms in Offshore Water Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eroini, Violette; Oehler, Mike Christian; Graver, Britt Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    Increasing incidence of amorphous deposits in both production and water injection systems has caused considerable problems for offshore oil fields. Amorphous deposits, which are a widely recognized, but often poorly explained phenomenon, are typically comprised of both organic (biological...... and assisting in prevention or remediation. It is proposed that the deposit formation, observed in offshore water injection systems treated with nitrate, is initiated by formation of a nitrate reducing biofilm promoting under deposit corrosion by activity of sulphate reducing and methanogenic prokaryotes...... and sometimes inappropriate treatment. Initial work, undertaken to classify the different substances encountered, has been previously reported.1 Systematic analysis allowed the development of a classification matrix intending to describe similar material in terms of their major components. The objective...

  9. Advances in the physics modelling of CANDU liquid injection shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.J.; Robinson, R.; Guertin, C.

    1993-01-01

    The physics modelling of liquid poison injection shutdown systems in CANDU reactors accounts for the major phenomena taking place by combining the effects of both moderator hydraulics and neutronics. This paper describes the advances in the physics modelling of liquid poison injection shutdown systems (LISS), discusses some of the effects of the more realistic modelling, and briefly describes the automation methodology. Modifications to the LISS methodology have improved the realism of the physics modelling, showing that the previous methodology significantly overestimated energy deposition during the simulation of a loss of coolant transient in Bruce A, by overestimating the reactivity transient. Furthermore, the automation of the modelling process has reduced the time needed to carry put LISS evaluations to the same level as required for shutoff-rod evaluations, while at the same time minimizing the amount of input, and providing a method for tracing all files used, thus adding a level of quality assurance to the calculation. 5 refs., 11 figs

  10. Effect of steam injection on nox emissions and performance of a single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with soy methyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manickam Madhavan V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel attracts most of the researchers and automotive industries in recent years as an alternative fuel for diesel engines, because of its better lubricity property, higher cetane number, and less greenhouse gas emissions. The use of bio diesel leads to reduction in hydro carbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter, but increase in NOx emissions. Increase in biodiesel blends in standard diesel leads to increase in NOx emission. In this study, an attempt is made to reduce the NOx emis-sions of a diesel engine fueled with pure soy methyl ester (B100 with low pressure steam injection. Experiments were carried out and studied for both standard diesel and pure biodiesel of soy methyl ester with steam injection ratio of 5, 10, and 15% on mass ratio basis of air in the inlet manifold. The present study has shown that around 30% reduction in NOx can be achieved for the steam injection rate of 10% and considerable reduction for all other steam injection rates when compared to standard diesel and B100. It is also observed that steam injection having signifi-cant impact on reduction of other emissions such as HC, CO, and CO2. The study also noted marginal improvement in the engine brake power, brake thermal effi-ciency and reduction in specific fuel consumption at part loads and minor increase during peak load operation for the low pressure steam injection on B100.

  11. Modelling of the work processes high-pressure pump of common rail diesel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botwinska Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Common rail injection systems are becoming a more widely used solution in the fuel systems of modern diesel engines. The main component and the characteristic feature of the system is rail injection of the fuel under high pressure, which is passed to the injector and further to the combustion chamber. An important element in this process is the high-pressure pump, continuing adequate pressure in the rail injection system. Common rail (CR systems are being modified in order to optimise their work and virtual simulations are a useful tool in order to analyze the correctness of operation of the system while varying the parameters and settings, without any negative impact on the real object. In one particular study, a computer simulation of the pump high-pressure CR system was made in MatLab environment, based on the actual dimensions of the object – a one-cylinder diesel engine, the Farymann Diesel 18W. The resulting model consists of two parts – the first is responsible for simulating the operation of the high-pressure pump, and the second responsible for simulation of the remaining elements of the CR system. The results of this simulation produced waveforms of the following parameters: fluid flow from the manifold to the injector [m3/s], liquid flow from the manifold to the atmosphere [m3/s], and manifold pressure [Pa]. The simulation results allow for a positive verification of the model and the resulting system could become a useful element of simulation of the entire position and control algorithm.

  12. The 15N-leucine single-injection method allows for determining endogenous losses and true digestibility of amino acids in cecectomized roosters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujiu Hu

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary protein content in poultry when using the 15N-leucine single-injection method to determine endogenous amino acid losses (EAALs in poultry. Forty-eight cecectomized roosters (2.39 ± 0.23 kg were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments containing protein levels of 0, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, 15%, 18% and 21%. Each bird was precisely fed an experimental diet of 25 g/kg of body weight. After feeding, all roosters were subcutaneously injected with a 15N-leucine solution at a dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight. Blood was sampled 23 h after the injection, and excreta samples were continuously collected during the course of the 48-h experiment. The ratio of 15N-enrichment of leucine in crude mucin to free leucine in plasma ranged from 0.664 to 0.763 and remained relatively consistent (P > 0.05 across all treatments. The amino acid (AA profiles of total endogenous AAs, except isoleucine, alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, proline and serine, were not influenced (P > 0.05 by dietary protein contents. The predominant endogenous AAs in the excreta were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, threonine, serine and proline. The order of the relative proportions of these predominant AAs also remained relatively constant (P > 0.05. The endogenous losses of total AAs determined with the 15N-leucine single-injection method increased curvilinearly with the dietary protein contents. The true digestibility of most AAs and total AAs was independent of their respective dietary protein levels. Collectively, the 15N-leucine single-injection method is appropriate for determining EAALs and the true digestibility of AAs in poultry fed varying levels of protein-containing ingredients.

  13. Remote systems requirements of the high-yield lithium injection fusion energy converter concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, P.E.

    1978-01-01

    Remote systems will be required in the high-yield lithium injection fusion energy converter power plant proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. During inspection operations, viewing of the chamber interior and certain pumps, valve fittings, and welds must be done remotely. Ideas for remote maintenance of laser-beam blast baffles, optics, and target material traps are described. Radioisotope sources, their distributions, and exposure rates at various points in the reactor vicinity are presented

  14. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children with subureteral dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection: a single-centre, 7-year experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biočíc, Mihovil; Todoríc, Jakov; Budimir, Dražen; Roíc, Andrea Cvitkovíc; Pogorelíc, Zenon; Juríc, Ivo; Šušnjar, Tomislav

    2012-01-01

    Background The goals of medical intervention in patients with vesicoureteral reflux are to allow normal renal growth, prevent infections and pyelonephritis, and prevent renal failure. We present our experience with endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children by subureteral dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer injection. Methods Under cystoscopic guidance, dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer underneath the intravesical portion of the ureter in a subureteral or submucosal location was injected in patients undergoing endoscopic correction of vesicoureteral reflux. Results A total of 282 patients (120 boys and 162 girls) underwent the procedure. There were 396 refluxed ureters altogether. The mean age of patients was 4.9 years. The mean overall follow-up period was 44 months. Among the 396 ureters treated, 76% were cured with a single injection. A second and third injection raised the cure rate to 93% and 94%, respectively. Twenty-two (6%) ureters failed all 3 injections, and were converted to open surgery. Conclusion Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux can be recommended as a first-line therapy for most cases of vesicoureteral reflux, because of the short hospital stay, absence of complications and the high success rate. PMID:22854114

  15. Development and integration of a 50 Hz pellet injection system for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Xingjia [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Chen, Yue [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Hu, Jiansheng, E-mail: hujs@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Vinyar, Igor; Lukin, Alexander [PELIN, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Yuan, Xiaoling; Li, Changzheng; Liu, Haiqing [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The design of the pumping system fits the operation requirement well not only theoretically but also experimentally. • The data showed that the averaged pellet injection velocity and propellant gas pressure had a relationship submitting to the power function. • The reliability of the injected pellet was mostly around 90% which is higher than the PI-20 system thanks to the improved pumping system and the new pellet fabrication and acceleration system. - Abstract: A 50 Hz pellet injection system, which is designed for edge-localized mode (ELM) control, has been successfully developed and integrated for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). Pellet injection is achieved by two separated injection system modules that can be operated independently from 1 to 25 Hz. The nominal injection velocity is 250 m/s with a scatter of ±50 m/s at a repetition rate of 50 Hz. A buffer tank and a two-stage differential pumping system of the pellet injection system was designed to increase hydrogen/deuterium ice quality and eliminate the influence of propellant gas on plasma operation, respectively. The pressure of the buffer tank could be pumped to 1 × 10{sup 2} Pa, and the pressure in the second differential chamber could reach 1 × 10{sup −4} Pa during the experiment. Engineering experiments, which consisted of 50 Hz pellet injection and guiding tube mock-up experiments, were also systematically carried out in a laboratory environment and demonstrated that the pellet injection system can reliably inject pellets at a repetitive frequency of 50 Hz.

  16. A model of reaction field in gas-injected arc-in-water method to synthesize single-walled carbon nanohorns: Influence of water temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poonjarernsilp, Chantamanee; Sano, Noriaki; Tamon, Hajime; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai

    2009-01-01

    The method to synthesize single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs) using gas-injected arc in water (GI-AIW) has been experimentally studied. GI-AIW is known as one of the cost-effective methods to obtain SWCNHs. It was revealed that the yield of SWCNHs significantly decreases with the increase in water temperature although the purity of SWCNHs is not dependent on the temperature change. Then the model of relevant reactions in the GI-AIW system was proposed by accounting the emission of carbon vapor, formation of SWCNHs, and diffusion of water vapor in three zones inside the cathode hole (arc plasma zone, quenching zone, and downstream zone). The side reaction between H 2 O and C produces H 2 gas and consumes a certain amount of carbon vapor, resulting in the hindered SWCNH formation. Moreover the observation of the optical spectra emitting from the arc plasma zone strongly supported that the H 2 generating reaction does not occur at arc plasma zone since N 2 flow can purge H 2 O out. The model proposed in this study can precisely explain the correlation between H 2 gas production and water temperature.

  17. Potentiometric electronic tongue-flow injection analysis system for the monitoring of heavy metal biosorption processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D; del Valle, M; Alegret, S; Valderrama, C; Florido, A

    2012-05-15

    An automated flow injection potentiometric (FIP) system with electronic tongue detection (ET) is used for the monitoring of biosorption processes of heavy metals on vegetable wastes. Grape stalk wastes are used as biosorbent to remove Cu(2+) ions in a fixed-bed column configuration. The ET is formed by a 5-sensor array with Cu(2+) and Ca(2+)-selective electrodes and electrodes with generic response to heavy-metals, plus an artificial neural network response model of the sensor's cross-response. The real-time monitoring of both the Cu(2+) and the cation exchanged and released (Ca(2+)) in the effluent solution is performed by using flow-injection potentiometric electronic tongue system. The coupling of the electronic tongue with automation features of the flow-injection system allows us to accurately characterize the Cu(2+) ion-biosorption process, through obtaining its breakthrough curves, and the profile of the Ca(2+) ion release. In parallel, fractions of the extract solution are analysed by spectroscopic techniques in order to validate the results obtained with the reported methodology. The sorption performance of grape stalks is also evaluated by means of well-established sorption models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Review of Injectable Polymeric Hydrogel Systems for Application in Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariksha J. Kondiah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable, stimuli-responsive polymers are essential platforms in the field of drug delivery and injectable biomaterials for application of bone tissue engineering. Various thermo-responsive hydrogels display water-based homogenous properties to encapsulate, manipulate and transfer its contents to the surrounding tissue, in the least invasive manner. The success of bioengineered injectable tissue modified delivery systems depends significantly on their chemical, physical and biological properties. Irrespective of shape and defect geometry, injectable therapy has an unparalleled advantage in which intricate therapy sites can be effortlessly targeted with minimally invasive procedures. Using material testing, it was found that properties of stimuli-responsive hydrogel systems enhance cellular responses and cell distribution at any site prior to the transitional phase leading to gelation. The substantially hydrated nature allows significant simulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM, due to its similar structural properties. Significant current research strategies have been identified and reported to date by various institutions, with particular attention to thermo-responsive hydrogel delivery systems, and their pertinent focus for bone tissue engineering. Research on future perspective studies which have been proposed for evaluation, have also been reported in this review, directing considerable attention to the modification of delivering natural and synthetic polymers, to improve their biocompatibility and mechanical properties.

  19. Chaotic behavior of water column oscillator simulating pressure balanced injection system in passive safety reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Y.; Madarame, H.; Okamoto, K.

    2001-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) proposed a passive safety reactor called the System-integrated Pressurized Water Reactor (SPWR). In a loss of coolant accident, the Pressurizing Line (PL) and the Injection Line (IL) are passively opened. Vapor generated by residual heat pushes down the water level in the Reactor Vessel (RV). When the level is lower than the inlet of the PL, the vapor is ejected into the Containment Vessel (CV) through the PL. Then boronized water in the CV is injected into the RV through the IL by the static head. In an experiment using a simple apparatus, gas ejection and water injection were found to occur alternately under certain conditions. The gas ejection interval was observed to fluctuate considerably. Though stochastic noise affected the interval, the experimental results suggested that the large fluctuation was produced by an inherent character in the system. A set of piecewise linear differential equations was derived to describe the experimental result. The large fluctuation was reproduced in the analytical solution. Thus it was shown to occur even in a deterministic system without any source of stochastic noise. Though the derived equations simulated the experiment well, they had ten independent parameters governing the behavior of the solution. There appeared chaotic features and bifurcation, but the analytical model was too complicated to examine the features and mechanism of bifurcation. In this study, a new simple model is proposed which consists of a set of piecewise linear ordinary differential equations with only four independent parameters. (authors)

  20. Road Maintenance Experience Using Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization as Ground Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhar, A. M. M.; Asmaniza, A.

    2016-07-01

    There are many types of ground rehabilation and improvement that can be consider and implement in engineering construction works for soil improvement in order to prevent road profile deformation in later stage. However, when comes to road maintenance especially on operated expressways, not all method can be apply directly as it must comply to opreation's working window and lane closure basis. Key factors that considering ideal proposal for ground rehabilitation are time, cost, quality and most importantly practicality. It should provide long lifespan structure in order to reduce continuous cycle of maintenance. Thus, this paper will present two approaches for ground rehabilitation, namely Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization. The first approach is an injection system which consists two-parts chemical grout of Isocynate and Polyol when mixed together within soil structure through injection will polymerized with volume expansion. The strong expansion of grouting causes significant compression and compacting of the surrounding soil and subsequently improve ground properties and uplift sunken structure. The later is a cold in-place recyclying whereby mixture process that combines in-situ soil materials, cement, white powder (alkaline) additive and water to produce hard yet flexible and durable ground layer that act as solid foundation with improved bearing capacity. The improvement of the mechanical behaviour of soil through these two systems is investigated by an extensive testing programme which includes in-situ and laboratory test in determining properties such as strength, stiffness, compressibility, bearing capacity, differential settlement and etc.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) after single intravenous and intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uney, Kamil; Altan, Feray; Aboubakr, Mohammed; Cetin, Gul; Dik, Burak

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after single IV and IM injections in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). ANIMALS 8 healthy red-eared slider turtles. PROCEDURES Turtles received 1 dose of meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg) IV or IM (4 turtles/route), a 30-day washout period was provided, and then turtles received the same dose by the opposite route. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times for measurement of plasma meloxicam concentration. Pharmacokinetic values for each administration route were determined with a 2-compartment open model approach. RESULTS For IV administration, mean ± SD values of major pharmacokinetic variables were 1.02 ± 0.41 hours for distribution half-life, 9.78 ± 2.23 hours for elimination half-life, 215 ± 32 mL/kg for volume of distribution at steady state, 11.27 ± 1.44 μg•h/mL for area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, and 18.00 ± 2.32 mL/h/kg for total body clearance. For IM administration, mean values were 0.35 ± 0.06 hours for absorption half-life, 0.72 ± 0.06 μg/mL for peak plasma concentration, 1.5 ± 0.0 hours for time to peak concentration, 3.73 ± 2.41 hours for distribution half-life, 13.53 ± 1.95 hours for elimination half-life, 11.33 ± 0.92 μg•h/mL for area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, and 101 ± 6% for bioavailability. No adverse reactions were detected. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Long half-life, high bioavailability, and lack of immediate adverse reactions of meloxicam administered IM at 0.2 mg/kg suggested the possibility of safe and effective clinical use in turtles. Additional studies are needed to establish appropriate administration frequency and clinical efficacy.

  2. 10 mJ single-frequency, injection-seeded Q-switched Er:YAG laser pumped by a 1470 nm fiber-coupled LD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C. Q.; Shi, Y.; Ye, Q.; Wang, S.; Na, Q. X.; Wang, Q.; Gao, M. W.

    2018-02-01

    A 1645 nm injection-seeded Q-switched Er:YAG laser resonantly pumped by a 1470 nm fiber-coupled laser diode is demonstrated with a non-planar ring oscillator as a seed laser to realize the single-frequency operation. The maximum output pulse energy of the laser is 10.1 mJ, corresponding to a pulse width of 205 ns at a repetition rate of 200 Hz. The half-width of the pulse spectrum is 2.44 MHz measured by a heterodyne technique. The fluctuation of the center frequency of the pulsed laser is 1.43 MHz (RMS) in 1 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is highest energy obtained from a single-frequency, injection-seeded Er:YAG laser pumped by a laser diode.

  3. Highly delayed systemic translocation of aluminum-based adjuvant in CD1 mice following intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépeaux, Guillemette; Eidi, Housam; David, Marie-Odile; Tzavara, Eleni; Giros, Bruno; Exley, Christopher; Curmi, Patrick A; Shaw, Christopher A; Gherardi, Romain K; Cadusseau, Josette

    2015-11-01

    Concerns regarding vaccine safety have emerged following reports of potential adverse events in both humans and animals. In the present study, alum, alum-containing vaccine and alum adjuvant tagged with fluorescent nanodiamonds were used to evaluate i) the persistence time at the injection site, ii) the translocation of alum from the injection site to lymphoid organs, and iii) the behavior of adult CD1 mice following intramuscular injection of alum (400 μg Al/kg). Results showed for the first time a strikingly delayed systemic translocation of adjuvant particles. Alum-induced granuloma remained for a very long time in the injected muscle despite progressive shrinkage from day 45 to day 270. Concomitantly, a markedly delayed translocation of alum to the draining lymph nodes, major at day 270 endpoint, was observed. Translocation to the spleen was similarly delayed (highest number of particles at day 270). In contrast to C57BL/6J mice, no brain translocation of alum was observed by day 270 in CD1 mice. Consistently neither increase of Al cerebral content, nor behavioral changes were observed. On the basis of previous reports showing alum neurotoxic effects in CD1 mice, an additional experiment was done, and showed early brain translocation at day 45 of alum injected subcutaneously at 200 μg Al/kg. This study confirms the striking biopersistence of alum. It points out an unexpectedly delayed diffusion of the adjuvant in lymph nodes and spleen of CD1 mice, and suggests the importance of mouse strain, route of administration, and doses, for future studies focusing on the potential toxic effects of aluminum-based adjuvants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Humoral Dysregulation Associated with Increased Systemic Inflammation among Injection Heroin Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Piepenbrink

    Full Text Available Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles.A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19 and healthy control subjects (n = 19. The IDU group had substantial polydrug use, with 89% reporting cocaine injection within the preceding month. IDUs exhibited a significant, 2-fold increase in total B cells compared to healthy subjects, which was associated with increased activated B cell subsets. Although plasma total IgG titers were similar between groups, IDUs had significantly higher IgG3 and IgG4, suggestive of chronic B cell activation. Total IgM was also increased in IDUs, as well as HIV Envelope-specific IgM, suggestive of increased HIV exposure. IDUs exhibited numerous features suggestive of systemic inflammation, including significantly increased plasma sCD40L, TNF-α, TGF-α, IL-8, and ceramide metabolites. Machine learning multivariate analysis distilled a set of 10 features that classified samples based on group with absolute accuracy.These results demonstrate broad alterations in the steady-state humoral profile of IDUs that are associated with increased systemic inflammation. Such dysregulation may impact the ability of IDUs to generate optimal responses to vaccination and infection, or lead to increased risk for inflammation-related co-morbidities, and should be considered when developing immune-based interventions for this growing population.

  5. Single board system for fuzzy inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symon, James R.; Watanabe, Hiroyuki

    1991-01-01

    The very large scale integration (VLSI) implementation of a fuzzy logic inference mechanism allows the use of rule-based control and decision making in demanding real-time applications. Researchers designed a full custom VLSI inference engine. The chip was fabricated using CMOS technology. The chip consists of 688,000 transistors of which 476,000 are used for RAM memory. The fuzzy logic inference engine board system incorporates the custom designed integrated circuit into a standard VMEbus environment. The Fuzzy Logic system uses Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL) parts to provide the interface between the Fuzzy chip and a standard, double height VMEbus backplane, allowing the chip to perform application process control through the VMEbus host. High level C language functions hide details of the hardware system interface from the applications level programmer. The first version of the board was installed on a robot at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in January of 1990.

  6. Long-term correction of obesity and diabetes in genetically obese mice by a single intramuscular injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding mouse leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J E; Zhou, S; Giese, K; Williams, L T; Escobedo, J A; Dwarki, V J

    1997-12-09

    The ob/ob mouse is genetically deficient in leptin and exhibits a phenotype that includes obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. This phenotype closely resembles the morbid obesity seen in humans. In this study, we demonstrate that a single intramuscular injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector encoding mouse leptin (rAAV-leptin) in ob/ob mice leads to prevention of obesity and diabetes. The treated animals show normalization of metabolic abnormalities including hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and lethargy. The effects of a single injection have lasted through the 6-month course of the study. At all time points measured the circulating levels of leptin in the serum were similar to age-matched control C57 mice. These results demonstrate that maintenance of normal levels of leptin (2-5 ng/ml) in the circulation can prevent both the onset of obesity and associated non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Thus a single injection of a rAAV vector expressing a therapeutic gene can lead to complete and long-term correction of a genetic disorder. Our study demonstrates the long-term correction of a disease caused by a genetic defect and proves the feasibility of using rAAV-based vectors for the treatment of chronic disorders like obesity.

  7. Long-term correction of obesity and diabetes in genetically obese mice by a single intramuscular injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding mouse leptin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John E.; Zhou, Shangzhen; Giese, Klaus; Williams, Lewis T.; Escobedo, Jaime A.; Dwarki, Varavani J.

    1997-01-01

    The ob/ob mouse is genetically deficient in leptin and exhibits a phenotype that includes obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes melitus. This phenotype closely resembles the morbid obesity seen in humans. In this study, we demonstrate that a single intramuscular injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector encoding mouse leptin (rAAV-leptin) in ob/ob mice leads to prevention of obesity and diabetes. The treated animals show normalization of metabolic abnormalities including hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and lethargy. The effects of a single injection have lasted through the 6-month course of the study. At all time points measured the circulating levels of leptin in the serum were similar to age-matched control C57 mice. These results demonstrate that maintenance of normal levels of leptin (2–5 ng/ml) in the circulation can prevent both the onset of obesity and associated non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Thus a single injection of a rAAV vector expressing a therapeutic gene can lead to complete and long-term correction of a genetic disorder. Our study demonstrates the long-term correction of a disease caused by a genetic defect and proves the feasibility of using rAAV-based vectors for the treatment of chronic disorders like obesity. PMID:9391128

  8. Simple flow injection colorimetric system for determination of paraquat in natural water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuntib, Prakit; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    A simple and low cost flow injection colorimetric system has been developed for determination of paraquat in natural water. The developed method is based on the reduction of paraquat by using sodium dithionite as a reducing agent in an alkaline medium to produce a blue free radical ion that can be detected by a simple light emitting diode-light dependent resistor (LED-LDR) colorimeter. The standard or sample solution was injected via a set of 3-way solenoid valves into a water carrier stream and flowed to merge with reagent to generate a colored product which is proportional to the concentration of paraquat ion in the solution. Under the optimum condition of the system, i.e., mixing coil length 30 cm, flow rate 2.0 mL min(-1), sample volume 100 μL, concentrations of dithionite 0.1% (w/v) and sodium hydroxide 0.06 mol L(-1), a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.2-10.0 mg L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996, and a limit of detection of 0.15 mg L(-1) were achieved. Relative standard deviation for 9 replicate injections of 1 mg L(-1) paraquat is 3.7%. A sample throughput of 40 injections h(-1) was achieved. The limit of detection can be improved by off-line preconcentration of paraquat employing a column packed with Dowex 50WX8-100 (H) cation exchange resin and eluted with 10% (w/v) ammonium chloride in ammonium buffer solution pH 10. The eluting solution was then injected into the FI system for paraquat determination. The proposed system did not suffer from interferences of some possible ions in natural water and other herbicides. Recoveries obtained by spiking 0.5 and 5.0 mg L(-1) paraquat standard into water samples were in the range of 104-110% and 101-105%, respectively. The developed system can be conveniently applied for screening of paraquat contaminated in natural water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Family Systems and the Single Client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Cynthia

    1997-01-01

    Describes how a counselor used a combination of systemic family counseling techniques with a divorced middle-aged male client. The counselor states that it proved to be an efficient and honoring combination that helped the client move differently, with more freedom and self-assurance, toward his goals. (MKA)

  10. Efficacy of two systemic insecticides injected into loblolly pine for protection against southern pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosman, Donald M; Clarke, Stephen R; Upton, William W

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of systemic insecticides emamectin benzoate and fipronil for preventing mortality of individual loblolly pines, Pinus taeda L., as a result of attacks by southern pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) for two consecutive years in Mississippi (2005-2006) and Alabama (2006-2007). Trees were injected once in the spring of 2005 (Mississippi) or 2006 (Alabama) and then were baited with species-specific bark beetle lures several weeks later. The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, was the target species but was changed to Ips spp. in Mississippi (but not Alabama) the second year because of few southern pine beetle attacks on baited trees. Single injections of emamectin benzoate were effective in reducing tree mortality caused by bark beetles compared with untreated checks. Although less effective overall, fipronil also significantly reduced tree mortality from southern pine beetle compared with the checks during the second year in Alabama. Tree mortality continued well after the lures had been removed. Evaluations of bolts taken from experimental trees killed in 2006 indicated that emamectin benzoate effectively prevented parent bark beetle gallery construction and that fipronil significantly reduced lengths of galleries constructed by adult beetles, brood development, and emergence, compared with checks. In contrast, neither insecticide treatment prevented the bark beetles from inoculating blue stain fungi, Ophiostoma spp., into treated trees.

  11. Pathway analysis of systemic transcriptome responses to injected polystyrene particles in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneman, Wouter J; Spaink, Herman P; Brun, Nadja R; Bosker, Thijs; Vijver, Martina G

    2017-09-01

    Microplastics are a contaminant of emergent concern in the environment, however, to date there is a limited understanding on their movement within organisms and the response of organisms. In the current study zebrafish embryos at different development stages were exposed to 700nm fluorescent polystyrene (PS) particles and the response pathway after exposure was investigated using imaging and transcriptomics. Our results show limited spreading of particles within the larvae after injection during the blastula stage. This is in contrast to injection of PS particles in the yolk of 2-day old embryos, which resulted in redistribution of the PS particles throughout the bloodstream, and accumulation in the heart region. Although injection was local, the transcriptome profiling showed strong responses of zebrafish embryos exposed to PS particle, indicating a systemic response. We found several biological pathways activated which are related to an immune response in the PS exposed zebrafish larvae. Most notably the complement system was enriched as indicated by upregulation of genes in the alternative complement pathway (e.g. cfhl3, cfhl4, cfb and c9). The fact that complement pathway is activated indicates that plastic microparticles are integrated in immunological recognition processes. This was supported by fluorescence microscopy results, in which we observed co-localisation of neutrophils and macrophages around the PS particles. Identifying these key events can be a first building block to the development of an adverse outcome pathway (AOP). These data subsequently can be used within ecological and human risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

  13. Fault Injection and Monitoring Capability for a Fault-Tolerant Distributed Computation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo; Yates, Amy M.; Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2010-01-01

    The Configurable Fault-Injection and Monitoring System (CFIMS) is intended for the experimental characterization of effects caused by a variety of adverse conditions on a distributed computation system running flight control applications. A product of research collaboration between NASA Langley Research Center and Old Dominion University, the CFIMS is the main research tool for generating actual fault response data with which to develop and validate analytical performance models and design methodologies for the mitigation of fault effects in distributed flight control systems. Rather than a fixed design solution, the CFIMS is a flexible system that enables the systematic exploration of the problem space and can be adapted to meet the evolving needs of the research. The CFIMS has the capabilities of system-under-test (SUT) functional stimulus generation, fault injection and state monitoring, all of which are supported by a configuration capability for setting up the system as desired for a particular experiment. This report summarizes the work accomplished so far in the development of the CFIMS concept and documents the first design realization.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of fault coverage for digitalized systems in NPPs using simulated fault injection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk Joon

    2004-02-01

    Even though digital systems have numerous advantages such as precise processing of data, enhanced calculation capability over the conventional analog systems, there is a strong restriction on the application of digital systems to the safety systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This is because we do not fully understand the reliability of digital systems, and therefore we cannot guarantee the safety of digital systems. But, as the need for introduction of digital systems to safety systems in NPPs increasing, the need for the quantitative analysis on the safety of digital systems is also increasing. NPPs, which are quite conservative in terms of safety, require proving the reliability of digital systems when applied them to the NPPs. Moreover, digital systems which are applied to the NPPs are required to increase the overall safety of NPPs. however, it is very difficult to evaluate the reliability of digital systems because they include the complex fault processing mechanisms at various levels of the systems. Software is another obstacle in reliability assessment of the systems that requires ultra-high reliability. In this work, the fault detection coverage for the digital system is evaluated using simulated fault injection method. The target system is the Local Coincidence Logic (LCL) processor in Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS). However, as the LCL processor is difficult to design equally for evaluating the fault detection coverage, the LCL system has to be simplified. The simulations for evaluating the fault detection coverage of components are performed by dividing into two cases and the failure rates of components are evaluated using MIL-HDBK-217F. Using these results, the fault detection coverage of simplified LCL system is evaluated. In the experiments, heartbeat signals were just emitted at regular interval after executing logic without self-checking algorithm. When faults are injected into the simplified system, fault occurrence can be detected by

  15. Li-ion battery thermal runaway suppression system using microchannel coolers and refrigerant injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandhauer, Todd M.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-11-08

    A battery management system with thermally integrated fire suppression includes a multiplicity of individual battery cells in a housing; a multiplicity of cooling passages in the housing within or between the multiplicity of individual battery cells; a multiplicity of sensors operably connected to the individual battery cells, the sensors adapted to detect a thermal runaway event related to one or more of the multiplicity of individual battery cells; and a management system adapted to inject coolant into at least one of the multiplicity of cooling passages upon the detection of the thermal runaway event by the any one of the multiplicity of sensors, so that the thermal runaway event is rapidly quenched.

  16. Reliability Analysis of Single-Phase PV Inverters with Reactive Power Injection at Night Considering Mission Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anurag, Anup; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    , especially at night when there is no solar irradiance. This serves as a motivation for utilizing the PV inverters at night for reactive power compensation. Thus, an analysis on the impact of reactive power injection by PV inverters outside feed-in operation on the thermal performance and the reliability has...... at night, the impact of PV sites on the economic value of the inverter is assessed. This analysis can be useful in choosing between conventional reactive power compensation devices or PV inverters for injecting reactive power to the grid....

  17. Watt-level widely tunable single-mode emission by injection-locking of a multimode Fabry-Perot quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Paul; Piccardo, Marco; Anand, Sajant; Mejia, Enrique A.; Wang, Yongrui; Mansuripur, Tobias S.; Xie, Feng; Lascola, Kevin; Belyanin, Alexey; Capasso, Federico

    2018-02-01

    Free-running Fabry-Perot lasers normally operate in a single-mode regime until the pumping current is increased beyond the single-mode instability threshold, above which they evolve into a multimode state. As a result of this instability, the single-mode operation of these lasers is typically constrained to few percents of their output power range, this being an undesired limitation in spectroscopy applications. In order to expand the span of single-mode operation, we use an optical injection seed generated by an external-cavity single-mode laser source to force the Fabry-Perot quantum cascade laser into a single-mode state in the high current range, where it would otherwise operate in a multimode regime. Utilizing this approach, we achieve single-mode emission at room temperature with a tuning range of 36 cm-1 and stable continuous-wave output power exceeding 1 W at 4.5 μm. Far-field measurements show that a single transverse mode is emitted up to the highest optical power, indicating that the beam properties of the seeded Fabry-Perot laser remain unchanged as compared to free-running operation.

  18. F-DDIA: A Framework for Detecting Data Injection Attacks in Nonlinear Cyber-Physical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxuan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Data injection attacks in a cyber-physical system aim at manipulating a number of measurements to alter the estimated real-time system states. Many researchers recently focus on how to detect such attacks. However, most of the detection methods do not work well for the nonlinear systems. In this paper, we present a compressive sampling methodology to identify the attack, which allows determining how many and which measurement signals are launched. The sparsity feature is used. Generally, our methodology can be applied to both linear and nonlinear systems. The experimental testing, which includes realistic load patterns from NYISO with various attack scenarios in the IEEE 14-bus system, confirms that our detector performs remarkably well.

  19. [Apply association rules to analysis adverse drug reactions of shuxuening injection based on spontaneous reporting system data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Xie, Yan-Ming; Xiang, Yong-Yang

    2014-09-01

    This research based on the analysis of spontaneous reporting system (SRS) data which the 9 601 case reports of Shuxuening injection adverse drug reactions (ADR) in national adverse drug reaction monitoring center during 2005-2012. Apply to the association rules to analysis of the relationship between Shuxuening injection's ADR and the characteristics of ADR reports were. We found that ADR commonly combination were "nausea + breath + chills + vomiting", "nausea + chills + vomiting + palpitations", and their confidence level were 100%. The ADR and the case reports information commonly combination were "itching, and glucose and sodium chloride Injection, and generally ADR report, and normal dosage", "palpitation, and glucose and sodium chloride injection, and normal dosage, and new report", "chills, and generally ADR report, and normal dosage, and 0.9% sodium chloride injection", and their confidence level were 100% too. The results showed that patients using Shuxuening injection occurred most of ADRs were systemic damage, skin and its accessories damage, digestive system damage, etc. And most of cases were generally and new reports, and patients with normal dosage. The ADR's occurred had little related with solvent. It is showed that the Shuxuening injection occurred of ADR mainly related to drug composition. So Shuxuening injection used in clinical need to closely observation, and focus on the ADR reaction, and to do a good job of drug risk management.

  20. Randomised trial of single and repeated fibrin glue compared with injection of polidocanol in treatment of bleeding peptic ulcer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgeerts, P.; Rauws, E.; Wara, P.; Swain, P.; Hoos, A.; Solleder, E.; Halttunen, J.; Dobrilla, G.; Richter, G.; Prassler, R.

    1997-01-01

    Although injection treatments for ulcer haemostasis seem to be effective, recurrent bleeding remains a serious problem. Large randomised clinical trials are required to show differences between treatment modalities for gastrointestinal bleeding. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and

  1. Single well field injection test of humate to enhance attenuation of uranium and other radionuclides in an acidic plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This report documents the impact of the injected humate on targeted contaminants over a period of 4 months and suggests it is a viable attenuation-based remedy for uranium, potentially for I-129, but not for Sr-90. Future activities will focus on issues pertinent to scaling the technology to full deployment.

  2. Clinical Evaluation of Non-surgical Sterilization of Male Cats with Single Intra-testicular Injection of Calcium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Prabhat K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic. Results At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected and showed complete testicular necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue; very low sperm counts; and reduction of serum testosterone by at least 70% in 20% dose. Androgenic enzyme activities and their expressions were also reduced in all the treated groups along with intra-testicular testosterone concentration was also low. Increased testicular lipid peroxidation, with reduced antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential, were evident following calcium chloride treatments. However, there were no apparent changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, or total serum protein following calcium chloride injection, suggesting that this method of sterilization is not associated with any general stress response. Conclusion Calcium chloride solution demonstrates potential for androgenesis-eliminating nonsurgical sterilization of male cats in addition to its proven efficacy in dogs and other mammals.

  3. Safety and effectiveness of a single and repeat intramuscular injection of a GnRH vaccine (GonaCon™) in adult female domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansandt, L M; Kutzler, M A; Fischer, A E; Morris, K N; Swanson, W F

    2017-04-01

    Sterilization is a key strategy to reduce the number of domestic cats entering and killed in shelters each year. However, surgical sterilization is expensive and labour-intensive and cannot fully address the 70 million free-roaming cats estimated to exist in the United States. GonaCon™ is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine originally developed for use as a wildlife immunocontraceptive. An earlier formulation was tested in domestic cats and found to be safe and effective for long-term contraception. However, the current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered formulation consists of a different antigen-carrier protein and increased antigen concentration and has never been tested in cats. A pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the short-term safety of a single GonaCon immunization, assess the consequences of vaccinated cats receiving an accidental second GonaCon injection and determine the humoral immune response to immunization. During Phase 1, cats in Group A (n = 3) received a single intramuscular injection of GonaCon and Group B (n = 3) received a single intramuscular injection of saline. During Phase 2, Group A received a second GonaCon injection and Group B received their initial GonaCon injection. All cats developed GnRH antibodies within 30 days of vaccine administration. The endpoint titre (1:1,024,000) was similar among all cats, and levels remained high throughout the duration of the study. Four cats developed a sterile, painless, self-limiting mass at the site of injection. The mean number of days to mass development was 110.3 (range, 18-249 days). In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests that the EPA-registered GonaCon formulation is safe for continued testing in domestic cats, an accidental revaccination should not increase the risk of a vaccine reaction and the EPA-registered formulation effectively elicits a strong humoral immune response. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Performance Analysis of AP1000 Passive Systems during Direct Vessel Injection (DVI Line Break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Ekariansyah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Generation II Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs have a design weakness as shown by the Fukushima accident. Therefore, Generation III+ NPPs are developed with focus on improvements of fuel technology and thermal efficiency, standardized design, and the use of passive safety system. One type of Generation III+ NPP is the AP1000 that is a pressurized water reactor (PWR type that has received the final design acceptance from US-NRC and is already under construction at several sites in China as of 2015. The aim of this study is to investigate the behavior and performance of the passive safety system in the AP1000 and to verify the safety margin during the direct vessel injection (DVI line break as selected event. This event was simulated using RELAP5/SCDAP/Mod3.4 as a best-estimate code developed for transient simulation of light water reactors during postulated accidents. This event is also described in the AP1000 design control document as one of several postulated accidents simulated using the NOTRUMP code. The results obtained from RELAP5 calculation was then compared with the results of simulations using the NOTRUMP code. The results show relatively good agreements in terms of time sequences and characteristics of some injected flow from the passive safety system. The simulation results show that the break of one of the two available DVI lines can be mitigated by the injected coolant flowing, which is operated effectively by gravity and density difference in the cooling system and does not lead to core uncovery. Despite the substantial effort to obtain an apropriate AP1000 model due to lack of detailed geometrical data, the present model can be used as a platform model for other initiating event considered in the AP1000 accident analysis.

  5. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel Duckwitz

    2011-05-01

    The continued safe and reliable operation of the ATR is critical to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) mission. While ATR is safely fulfilling current mission requirements, a variety of aging and obsolescence issues challenge ATR engineering and maintenance personnel’s capability to sustain ATR over the long term. First documented in a series of independent assessments, beginning with an OA Environmental Safety and Health Assessment conducted in 2003, the issues were validated in a detailed Material Condition Assessment (MCA) conducted as a part of the ATR Life Extension Program in 2007.Accordingly, near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE’s long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent sub-projects. The first project will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3), switchgear, and the fifty year old antiquated marine diesels with commercial power that is backed with safety-related emergency diesel generators (EDGs), switchgear, and uninterruptible power supply. The second project will replace the four, obsolete, original primary coolant pumps and motors. The third project, the subject of this major modification determination, will replace the current emergency firewater injection system (EFIS). The replacement water injection system will function as the primary emergency water injection system with the EFIS being retained as a defense-in-depth backup. Completion of this and the two other age-related projects (replacement of the ATR diesel bus (E-3) and switchgear and replacement of the existent aged primary coolant pumps and motors) will resolve major age-related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the

  6. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckwitz, Noel

    2011-01-01

    The continued safe and reliable operation of the ATR is critical to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) mission. While ATR is safely fulfilling current mission requirements, a variety of aging and obsolescence issues challenge ATR engineering and maintenance personnel's capability to sustain ATR over the long term. First documented in a series of independent assessments, beginning with an OA Environmental Safety and Health Assessment conducted in 2003, the issues were validated in a detailed Material Condition Assessment (MCA) conducted as a part of the ATR Life Extension Program in 2007. Accordingly, near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE's long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent sub-projects. The first project will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3), switchgear, and the fifty year old antiquated marine diesels with commercial power that is backed with safety-related emergency diesel generators (EDGs), switchgear, and uninterruptible power supply. The second project will replace the four, obsolete, original primary coolant pumps and motors. The third project, the subject of this major modification determination, will replace the current emergency firewater injection system (EFIS). The replacement water injection system will function as the primary emergency water injection system with the EFIS being retained as a defense-in-depth backup. Completion of this and the two other age-related projects (replacement of the ATR diesel bus (E-3) and switchgear and replacement of the existent aged primary coolant pumps and motors) will resolve major age-related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the

  7. Dynamics of 1.55 μm Wavelength Single-Mode Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser Output under External Optical Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Hon Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the temporal dynamics of the laser output spectrum and polarization state of 1.55 μm wavelength single-mode (SM vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs induced by external optical beam injection. Injection of an external continuous-wave laser beam to a gain-switched SM VCSEL near the resonance wavelength corresponding to its main polarization-mode output was critical for improvement of its laser pulse generation characteristics, such as pulse timing-jitter reduction, linewidth narrowing, pulse amplitude enhancement, and pulse width shortening. Pulse injection of pulse width shorter than the cavity photon lifetime into the SM VCSEL in the orthogonal polarization direction with respect to its main polarization mode caused temporal delay of the polarization recovery after polarization switching (PS, and its delay was found to be the minimum at an optimized bias current. Polarization-mode bistability was observed even in the laser output of an SM VCSEL of a standard circularly cylindrical shape and used for all-optical flip-flop operations with set and reset injection pulses of very low pulse energy of order of the 3.5~4.5 fJ.

  8. Process tomography via sequential measurements on a single quantum system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bassa, H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors utilize a discrete (sequential) measurement protocol to investigate quantum process tomography of a single two-level quantum system, with an unknown initial state, undergoing Rabi oscillations. The ignorance of the dynamical parameters...

  9. Mixing Ventilation System in a Single-Aisle Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Zhang, Chen; Wojcik, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    and present a design procedure of the system. Finally, a personalised ventilation system will be described, which can be used together with the mixing ventilation system. The experiments are made in a full-scale, left side mock-up of a single-aisle (Boeing 737) cabin with four seats. The four passengers...

  10. Elimination of Mange Mites Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis from Two Naturally Infested Danish Sow Herds Using a Single Injection Regime with Doramectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, JCE; Nielsen, LH; Arnason, T; Cracknell, V

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to eliminate Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis were made in 2 naturally infested sow herds, by intramuscular (IM) injection of doramectin (Dectomax®, Pfizer, New York, USA). A single injection strategy was used. In one of the herds, the environment was treated with an acaricide following dry cleaning of floors, walls and equipment. In the second herd, no environmental treatment was performed. Results were measured by skin lesion scoring, ear scrapings to show Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis, and calculating rubbing index throughout the observation period of 20 months following treatment. Skin lesion scores decreased and stayed low following treatment for the entire observation period. Live Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis mites were isolated prior to treatment from both herds, but not following treatment. Rubbing index decreased following treatment, but was occasionally at or above 0.4. The results of these studies indicate that elimination of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis from 2 naturally infested herds was successful, using doramectin in a single injection strategy. Precautions must be taken to ensure adequate dosing of every pig, and to avoid reinfestation due to poor biosecurity. PMID:12173505

  11. Elimination of Mange Mites Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis from Two Naturally Infested Danish Sow Herds Using a Single Injection Regime with Doramectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnason T

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to eliminate Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis were made in 2 naturally infested sow herds, by intramuscular (IM injection of doramectin (Dectomax®, Pfizer, New York, USA. A single injection strategy was used. In one of the herds, the environment was treated with an acaricide following dry cleaning of floors, walls and equipment. In the second herd, no environmental treatment was performed. Results were measured by skin lesion scoring, ear scrapings to show Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis, and calculating rubbing index throughout the observation period of 20 months following treatment. Skin lesion scores decreased and stayed low following treatment for the entire observation period. Live Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis mites were isolated prior to treatment from both herds, but not following treatment. Rubbing index decreased following treatment, but was occasionally at or above 0.4. The results of these studies indicate that elimination of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis from 2 naturally infested herds was successful, using doramectin in a single injection strategy. Precautions must be taken to ensure adequate dosing of every pig, and to avoid reinfestation due to poor biosecurity.

  12. Design of Electrical System for Inhibitor Injection Pump’s Motor PAQ 01/02/03 RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taufiq, M.; Teguh Sulistyo; Kiswanto; Santosa Pujiarta

    2008-01-01

    In order to control the water quality related to the growth of scale, corrosion and micro-organism in the PA01 BR01 and PA02 BR 02 piping system of secondary cooling system of RSG-GAS, electrical systems for motor of inhibitor injection pump PAQ 01/02/03, including motor control system circuit for inhibitor injection pump PAQ02 AP01, motor control system circuit for NaOCl injection pump PAQ01 AP01, motor control system circuit for inhibitor injection pump PAQ02 AP02 and control system circuit for stir pump RW02 have been designed. Motor control system circuit for pump PAQ02 AP01 which attached at the inhibitor tank will operate when conductivity control CQ01 indicates blow down condition and pump motor PAQ02 AP02 is not operate when level control CL02 indicates minimum level. This design is expected that, NaOCl injection pump PAQ01 AP 01 will operate continuously and inhibitor injection pump PAQ02 AP02 will operate automatically. (author)

  13. Considerations and calculations for the neutral-injection system in ZEPHYR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feist, J.H.; Herrmann, W.; Speth, E.

    1981-01-01

    The heating of the ZEPHYR plasma to ignition temperatures shall be accomplished by neutral injection and subsequent compression of the plasma. 25 MW of neutral power are required. A parametrical study of beam transmission was performed to find limitations on the type and arrangement of sources imposed by the small width of the porthole to the torus and the small height of the plasma target. A reference beam line has been designed and the power transmission calculated as a function of gas flow through the sources. The limitations mentioned make it necessary to design the beam lines as compact as possible to avoid intolerable losses in the duct or power outside the plasma target. Depending on the reliability of a single source, the number of sources that are available in at least 75 % of the discharges has been calculated for different numbers of installed sources. (author)

  14. Dynamic simulation of electromechanical systems: from Maxwell's theory to common-rail diesel injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, S; Becker, U; Maisch, H

    2001-05-01

    This paper describes the state-of-the-art of dynamic simulation of electromechanical systems. Electromechanical systems can be split into electromagnetic and mechanical subsystems, which are described by Maxwell's equations and by Newton's law, respectively. Since such systems contain moving parts, the concepts of Lorentz and Galilean relativity are briefly addressed. The laws of physics are formulated in terms of (partial) differential equations. Numerical methods ultimately aim at linear systems of equations, which can be solved efficiently on digital computers. The various discretization methods for performing this task are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on domain decomposition as a framework for the coupling of different numerical methods such as the finite element method and the boundary element method. The paper concludes with descriptions of some applications of industrial relevance: a high performance injection valve and an electromechanical relay.

  15. Application of the BacT/ALERTR 3D system for sterility testing of injectable products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bugno

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sterility testing as described in the pharmacopoeia compendia requires a 14-day incubation period to obtain an analytical result. Alternative methods that could be applied to evaluating product sterility are especially interesting due to the possibility of reducing this incubation period and thus the associated costs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of the BacT/ALERTR 3D system in detecting microorganisms in large-volume parenteral solutions that were intentionally contaminated and to compare this system to pharmacopoeia sterility testing using the membrane filtration method. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between the methods regarding the ability to detect microbial contamination; however, detection with the BacT/ALERTR 3D system was faster compared to the pharmacopoeia method. Therefore, the BacT/ALERTR 3D system is a viable alternative for assessing the sterility of injectable products.

  16. Application of the BacT/ALERTR 3D system for sterility testing of injectable products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugno, Adriana; Lira, Rodolfo Santos; Oliveira, Wesley Anderson; Almodovar, Adriana Aparecida Buzzo; Saes, Deborah Pita Sanches; de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha

    2015-01-01

    Sterility testing as described in the pharmacopoeia compendia requires a 14-day incubation period to obtain an analytical result. Alternative methods that could be applied to evaluating product sterility are especially interesting due to the possibility of reducing this incubation period and thus the associated costs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of the BacT/ALERTR 3D system in detecting microorganisms in large-volume parenteral solutions that were intentionally contaminated and to compare this system to pharmacopoeia sterility testing using the membrane filtration method. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between the methods regarding the ability to detect microbial contamination; however, detection with the BacT/ALERTR 3D system was faster compared to the pharmacopoeia method. Therefore, the BacT/ALERTR 3D system is a viable alternative for assessing the sterility of injectable products. PMID:26413055

  17. Interactive visual steering--rapid visual prototyping of a common rail injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matković, Kresimir; Gracanin, Denis; Jelović, Mario; Hauser, Helwig

    2008-01-01

    Interactive steering with visualization has been a common goal of the visualization research community for twenty years, but it is rarely ever realized in practice. In this paper we describe a successful realization of a tightly coupled steering loop, integrating new simulation technology and interactive visual analysis in a prototyping environment for automotive industry system design. Due to increasing pressure on car manufacturers to meet new emission regulations, to improve efficiency, and to reduce noise, both simulation and visualization are pushed to their limits. Automotive system components, such as the powertrain system or the injection system have an increasing number of parameters, and new design approaches are required. It is no longer possible to optimize such a system solely based on experience or forward optimization. By coupling interactive visualization with the simulation back-end (computational steering), it is now possible to quickly prototype a new system, starting from a non-optimized initial prototype and the corresponding simulation model. The prototyping continues through the refinement of the simulation model, of the simulation parameters and through trial-and-error attempts to an optimized solution. The ability to early see the first results from a multidimensional simulation space--thousands of simulations are run for a multidimensional variety of input parameters--and to quickly go back into the simulation and request more runs in particular parameter regions of interest significantly improves the prototyping process and provides a deeper understanding of the system behavior. The excellent results which we achieved for the common rail injection system strongly suggest that our approach has a great potential of being generalized to other, similar scenarios.

  18. A Study on the Optimal Injection Conditions for an HC-LNT Catalyst System with a 12-Hole Type Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jungmo; Lee, Kihyung; Lee, Jinha

    NOx catalytic converter systems periodically require rich or stoichiometric operating conditions to reduce NOx. The HC (hydrocarbon) concentration in a diesel engine is typically so low that the HC is not sufficient for NOx conversion. It was proposed that a rich air fuel ratio in a diesel engine could be realized via post fuel injection or supplemental fuel injection into the exhaust gas. A new method that optimizes the control of an external HC injection to diesel exhaust pipes for HC type LNT (Lean NOx Trap) catalyst systems has been developed. The external injection has other benefits: it can be controlled independently without disturbing engine control, it can be adapted to various layouts for exhaust systems, it has no oil dilution problems, among other benefits. In this study, the concentration and amount of HC can be controlled via control of the external injection. This research investigated the spray behavior of hydrocarbons injected into the transparent exhaust pipe. From this experiment, we obtained useful information about the optimal injection conditions for the HC-LNT catalyst system with an MPI injector.

  19. Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Explosive-Compound Classes on a Single Instrument via Flow-Injection Analysis Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    on a Single In‐ strument via Flow‐Injection Analysis Tandem Mass  Spectrometry   Alla Ostrinskaya, Roderick R. Kunz, Michelle Clark, Rich P...alla.ostrinskaya@ll.mit.edu    ABSTRACT: A flow injection analysis (FIA) tandem mass spectrometry (MSMS) method was developed for rapid quantita- tive analysis of...and has redundant detection channels for reduced  error   rates necessary  for probative use,  (b)  is more  rapid  than existing methods to allow for

  20. The comparison of knee osteoarthritis treatment with single-dose bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells vs. hyaluronic acid injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdis Goncars

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The intra-articular injection of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells is a safe manipulation with no side effects during the 12-month period. This treatment provides statistically significant clinical improvement between the starting point and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after. When compared to hyaluronic acid treatment, better pain relief in the long-term period of mononuclear cell group was observed.

  1. Feasibility Study of the PS Injection for 2 GeV LIU Beams with an Upgraded KFA-45 Injection Kicker System Operating in Short Circuit Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Thomas; Borburgh, Jan; Ducimetière, Laurent; Feliciano, Luis; Ferrero Colomo, Alvaro; Goddard, Brennan; Sermeus, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Under the scope of the LIU project the CERN PS Booster to PS beam transfer will be modified to match the requirements for the future 2 GeV beams. This paper describes the evaluation of the proposed upgrade of the PS injection kicker. Different schemes of an injection for LIU beams into the PS have been outlined in the past already under the aspect of individual transfer kicker rise and fall time performances. Homogeneous rise and fall time requirements in the whole PSB to PS transfer chain have been established which allowed to consider an upgrade option of the present injection kicker system operated in short circuit mode. The challenging pulse quality constraints require an improvement of the flat top and post pulse ripples. Both operation modes, terminated and short circuit mode are analysed and analogue circuit simulations for the present and upgraded system are outlined. Recent measurements on the installed kickers are presented and analysed together with the simulation data. First measurements verifying...

  2. Bee venom acupuncture point injection for central post stroke pain: a preliminary single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seung-Yeon; Park, Joo-Young; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi; Ko, Chang-Nam; Park, Seong-Uk

    2013-06-01

    We investigated apipuncture, or acupuncture point injection with diluted bee venom, as a promising new treatment for central post stroke pain (CPSP). Bee venom, diluted to 0.005% in normal saline, was administered to the treatment group, and normal saline given to control group as twice-weekly injections for three weeks. The points were LI15, GB21, LI11, GB31, ST36 and GB39 of the affected side and the amount of injection was 0.05 ml at each point. Eight patients in each group were included in the analysis. After three weeks there were significant decreases in visual analogue pain scores compared with baseline in both groups and the treatment group improved more significantly than the control group (p = 0.009). Apipuncture significantly improved CPSP in this pilot trial. Further studies of its mechanisms and a larger and long-term follow-up trial will be needed to determine more definitely the efficacy of apipuncture and to elucidate duration of improvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fiber-Based, Injection-Molded Optofluidic Systems: Improvements in Assembly and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteucci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a method to fabricate polymer optofluidic systems by means of injection molding that allow the insertion of standard optical fibers. The chip fabrication and assembly methods produce large numbers of robust optofluidic systems that can be easily assembled and disposed of, yet allow precise optical alignment and improve delivery of optical power. Using a multi-level chip fabrication process, complex channel designs with extremely vertical sidewalls, and dimensions that range from few tens of nanometers to hundreds of microns can be obtained. The technology has been used to align optical fibers in a quick and precise manner, with a lateral alignment accuracy of 2.7 ± 1.8 μm. We report the production, assembly methods, and the characterization of the resulting injection-molded chips for Lab-on-Chip (LoC applications. We demonstrate the versatility of this technology by carrying out two types of experiments that benefit from the improved optical system: optical stretching of red blood cells (RBCs and Raman spectroscopy of a solution loaded into a hollow core fiber. The advantages offered by the presented technology are intended to encourage the use of LoC technology for commercialization and educational purposes.

  4. Detecting Solenoid Valve Deterioration in In-Use Electronic Diesel Fuel Injection Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyuan-Yow Tseng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engine is the main power source for most agricultural vehicles. The control of diesel engine emissions is an important global issue. Fuel injection control systems directly affect fuel efficiency and emissions of diesel engines. Deterioration faults, such as rack deformation, solenoid valve failure, and rack-travel sensor malfunction, are possibly in the fuel injection module of electronic diesel control (EDC systems. Among these faults, solenoid valve failure is most likely to occur for in-use diesel engines. According to the previous studies, this failure is a result of the wear of the plunger and sleeve, based on a long period of usage, lubricant degradation, or engine overheating. Due to the difficulty in identifying solenoid valve deterioration, this study focuses on developing a sensor identification algorithm that can clearly classify the usability of the solenoid valve, without disassembling the fuel pump of an EDC system for in-use agricultural vehicles. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed, including a feedback controller, a parameter identifier, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT sensor, and a neural network classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately identify the usability of solenoid valves.

  5. Detecting solenoid valve deterioration in in-use electronic diesel fuel injection control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsun-Heng; Tseng, Chyuan-Yow

    2010-01-01

    The diesel engine is the main power source for most agricultural vehicles. The control of diesel engine emissions is an important global issue. Fuel injection control systems directly affect fuel efficiency and emissions of diesel engines. Deterioration faults, such as rack deformation, solenoid valve failure, and rack-travel sensor malfunction, are possibly in the fuel injection module of electronic diesel control (EDC) systems. Among these faults, solenoid valve failure is most likely to occur for in-use diesel engines. According to the previous studies, this failure is a result of the wear of the plunger and sleeve, based on a long period of usage, lubricant degradation, or engine overheating. Due to the difficulty in identifying solenoid valve deterioration, this study focuses on developing a sensor identification algorithm that can clearly classify the usability of the solenoid valve, without disassembling the fuel pump of an EDC system for in-use agricultural vehicles. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed, including a feedback controller, a parameter identifier, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) sensor, and a neural network classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately identify the usability of solenoid valves.

  6. High-power actively Q-switched single-mode 1342 nm Nd:YVO4 ring laser, injection-locked by a cw single-frequency microchip laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Peter; Bartschke, Juergen; L'huillier, Johannes A

    2015-11-30

    In this paper we report on the realization of a single-mode Q-switched Nd:YVO4 ring laser at 1342 nm. Unidirectional and single-mode operation of the ring laser is achieved by injection-locking with a continuous wave Nd:YVO4 microchip laser, emitting a single-frequency power of up to 40 mW. The ring laser provides a single-mode power of 13.9 W at 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency with a pulse duration of 18.2 ns and an excellent beam quality (M2 laser, a power of 8.7 W at 671 nm with a pulse duration of 14.8 ns and a beam propagation factor of M2 < 1.1 is obtained. The 671 nm radiation features a long-term spectral width of 75 MHz.

  7. Evaluation of Plasma Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK Level Following a Single Injection of Methotrexate as a Predicator of Treatment Success in Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Safdarian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the plasma creatine phosphokinase (CPK level after a single injection of methotrexate (MTX as a predictor of treatment success in ectopic pregnancy (EP.In this prospective study, seventy nine women older than 18 years treated with methotrexate for ectopic pregnancy were evaluated for CPK and β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG levels, while they received intramuscular MTX at a dose of 50 mg/m2. The day of injection was considered as day 1 (D1. CPK level on D1 was compared between the group 1(as treatment success group, treated by a single MTX injection, and the group 2, treated by two or three MTX injections or by surgery.The success rate of MTX treatment was 58 (73.3%. The mean of CPK was higher in treatment success group (group1 than failure group (group 2 (71.98 ± 15.711 vs. 64.43 ± 15.898, but the difference was not significant (p=0.06. The mean of βhCG was significantly lower in treatment success group (group 1 than failure group (group 2 (1187.52±631.45 vs. 1663.87±1096.845; p=0.01. Ultrasonographic findings of EP were seen in 63 patients, while the means of βHCG and CPK were higher in these patients than those with normal ultrasonography, but difference was not significant (p=0.37 and p=0.24, respectively.The sample was not large enough to indicate a significant difference in the CPK level, which can be considered as an indicator for differentiating between the successful and unsuccessful treatment groups. Moreover, the present study did not show any relation between initial β-hCG and CPK serum levels, so our findings indicate that they are not possibly considered as two independent biomarkers in ectopic pregnancy.

  8. Image reconstruction of dynamic infrared single-pixel imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qi; Jiang, Yilin; Wang, Haiyan; Guo, Limin

    2018-03-01

    Single-pixel imaging technique has recently received much attention. Most of the current single-pixel imaging is aimed at relatively static targets or the imaging system is fixed, which is limited by the number of measurements received through the single detector. In this paper, we proposed a novel dynamic compressive imaging method to solve the imaging problem, where exists imaging system motion behavior, for the infrared (IR) rosette scanning system. The relationship between adjacent target images and scene is analyzed under different system movement scenarios. These relationships are used to build dynamic compressive imaging models. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the reconstruction quality of IR image and enhance the contrast between the target and the background in the presence of system movement.

  9. Overview of Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    A continuous booming installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has been witnessed worldwide. It is mainly driven by the imperative demand of “clean” power generation from renewables. Grid-connected PV systems will thus become an even more active player in the future mixed power systems, which...... systems. This chapter thus gives an overview of the advancement of power electronics converters in single-phase grid-connected PV systems, being commonly used in residential applications. Demands to single-phase grid-connected PV systems and the general control strategies are also addressed...... are linked together by a vast of power electronics converters and the power grid. In order to achieve a reliable and efficient power generation from PV systems, more stringent demands have been imposed on the entire PV system. It, in return, advances the development of the power converter technology in PV...

  10. A warning system based on the RFID technology for running-out of injection fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Fang; Lin, Jen-Hung

    2011-01-01

    For providing an automatic warning system of running-out of injection fluid, RFID technology is applied in this work to propose an infrastructure with low cost to help nurses and patient's company. Specially, a RFID tag is designed and attached on a bag of intravenous drip to demonstrate the benefits in the present system. The main idea of this system is that, tag is disabled when the bag is not empty because of the EM loading due to the liquid contained. The bag can be any kind in the current market and be without any electronic attachment or modification. LAN (Local Area Network) is also applied as a part of this infrastructure for data transmission.

  11. Reliability analysis of the recirculation phase of the safety injection system of Angra-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, R.R.J.M.

    1981-09-01

    The calculation of several reliability parameters-failure probability, unavailability and unreliability - of the recirculation phase of the safety injection system of Angra-1, was done. This system has two distinct modes of operation (short term and long term) which were fault tree analysed both separately and as a whole. To obtain quantitative results the computer codes SAMPLE and PRET-KITT were utilized. The former was used to consider the uncertainties in the failure data (drawn integrally from WASH-1400) and the latter to obtain time dependent unreliability values. Hardware failures and common-mode failures were considered. Altough the analysis methods employed here differ somewhat from those used in WASH-1400, the results which could be compared were found to have the order of magnitude. A viability study of some suggestions of system's modifications was performed, and it has shown that some significant reliability improvements can be achieved with reasonably simple changes. (Author) [pt

  12. Yersinia enterocolitica targets cells of the innate and adaptive immune system by injection of Yops in a mouse infection model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Köberle

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye evades the immune system of the host by injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops via a type three secretion system into host cells. In this study, a reporter system comprising a YopE-beta-lactamase hybrid protein and a fluorescent staining sensitive to beta-lactamase cleavage was used to track Yop injection in cell culture and in an experimental Ye mouse infection model. Experiments with GD25, GD25-beta1A, and HeLa cells demonstrated that beta1-integrins and RhoGTPases play a role for Yop injection. As demonstrated by infection of splenocyte suspensions in vitro, injection of Yops appears to occur randomly into all types of leukocytes. In contrast, upon infection of mice, Yop injection was detected in 13% of F4/80(+, 11% of CD11c(+, 7% of CD49b(+, 5% of Gr1(+ cells, 2.3% of CD19(+, and 2.6% of CD3(+ cells. Taking the different abundance of these cell types in the spleen into account, the highest total number of Yop-injected cells represents B cells, particularly CD19(+CD21(+CD23(+ follicular B cells, followed by neutrophils, dendritic cells, and macrophages, suggesting a distinct cellular tropism of Ye. Yop-injected B cells displayed a significantly increased expression of CD69 compared to non-Yop-injected B cells, indicating activation of these cells by Ye. Infection of IFN-gammaR (receptor- and TNFRp55-deficient mice resulted in increased numbers of Yop-injected spleen cells for yet unknown reasons. The YopE-beta-lactamase hybrid protein reporter system provides new insights into the modulation of host cell and immune responses by Ye Yops.

  13. Single-injection method for evaluation of renal function with 14C-inulin and 3H-tetraethylammonium bromide in dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fettman, M.J.; Allen, T.A.; Wilke, W.L.; Radin, M.J.; Eubank, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    A double-isotope single-injection method without urine collection for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) in dogs and cats was evaluated. The GFR was determined, using 14 C-inulin and ERPF was determined, using [ 3 H]tetraethylammonium bromide. Using a modified single exponential, 1-compartment mathematical model, the renal clearance of these solutes was estimated with a plasma radioactivity disappearance curve constructed from samples collected over a 150-minute time period. In 25 dogs, GFR, ERPF, and filtration fraction were 3.55 +/- 0.14 ml/kg/min, 10.51 +/- 0.72 ml/kg/min, and 0.34 +/- 0.02, respectively. In 25 cats, GFR, ERPF, and filtration fraction were 3.24 +/- 0.14 ml/kg/min, 8.14 +/- 0.53 ml/kg/min, and 0.39 +/- 0.02, respectively. This time-efficient and reliable method, using beta-emitting isotopes, yielded renal functional values well within the normal ranges reported by a variety of other isotopic and nonisotopic procedures. The advantages of the present procedure over previous double-isotope single-injection methods include the use of less costly, lower energy-using, and less penetrating beta emittors, as well as a shortened blood sampling schedule

  14. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Skotte Sørensen, Karen; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution

  15. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistrup, Kasper, E-mail: kkis@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Skotte Sørensen, Karen, E-mail: karen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Center for Integrated Point of Care Technologies (CiPoC), DELTA, Venlighedsvej 4, DK-2870 Hørsholm (Denmark); Wolff, Anders, E-mail: anders.wolff@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Fougt Hansen, Mikkel, E-mail: mikkel.hansen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-04-15

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution.

  16. Low-power wide-locking-range injection-locked frequency divider for OFDM UWB systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Jiangwei; Li Ning; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Ren Junyan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a divide-by-two injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for frequency synthesizers as used in multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. By means of dual-injection technique and other conventional tuning techniques, such as DCCA and varactor tuning, the divider demonstrates a wide locking range while consuming much less power. The chip was fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process. The measurement results show that the divider achieves a locking range of 4.85 GHz (6.23 to 11.08 GHz) at an input power of 8 dBm. The core circuit without the test buffer consumes only 3.7 mA from a 1.8 V power supply and has a die area of 0.38 x 0.28 mm 2 . The wide locking range combined with low power consumption makes the ILFD suitable for its application in UWB systems.

  17. Low-power wide-locking-range injection-locked frequency divider for OFDM UWB systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Jiangwei; Li Ning; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Ren Junyan, E-mail: lining@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a divide-by-two injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for frequency synthesizers as used in multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. By means of dual-injection technique and other conventional tuning techniques, such as DCCA and varactor tuning, the divider demonstrates a wide locking range while consuming much less power. The chip was fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 mum RF CMOS process. The measurement results show that the divider achieves a locking range of 4.85 GHz (6.23 to 11.08 GHz) at an input power of 8 dBm. The core circuit without the test buffer consumes only 3.7 mA from a 1.8 V power supply and has a die area of 0.38 x 0.28 mm{sup 2}. The wide locking range combined with low power consumption makes the ILFD suitable for its application in UWB systems.

  18. Load compensation for single phase system using series active filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a new control strategy for series active filter has been proposed for improvement of power quality problems in single phase system. Since the non linear loads in the system comprises of both voltage source harmonic and current source harmonic loads and the dominancy of each type of load varies from time to ...

  19. Pharmacokinetics of a single intramuscular injection of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadar, Miranda J; Hawkins, Michelle G; Byrne, Barbara A; Cartoceti, Andrew N; Keel, Kevin; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Tell, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects at the injection site of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) following IM administration of 1 dose to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). 7 adult nonreleasable healthy red-tailed hawks. In a randomized crossover study, CCFA (10 or 20 mg/kg) was administered IM to each hawk and blood samples were obtained. After a 2-month washout period, administration was repeated with the opposite dose. Muscle biopsy specimens were collected from the injection site 10 days after each sample collection period. Pharmacokinetic data were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur for various bacterial isolates were assessed. Mean peak plasma concentrations of ceftiofur-free acid equivalent were 6.8 and 15.1 μg/mL for the 10 and 20 mg/kg doses, respectively. Mean times to maximum plasma concentration were 6.4 and 6.7 hours, and mean terminal half-lives were 29 and 50 hours, respectively. Little to no muscle inflammation was identified. On the basis of a target MIC of 1 μg/mL and target plasma ceftiofur concentration of 4 μg/mL, dose administration frequencies for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms were estimated as every 36 and 45 hours for the 10 mg/kg dose and every 96 and 120 hours for the 20 mg/kg dose, respectively. Study results suggested that CCFA could be administered IM to red-tailed hawks at 10 or 20 mg/kg to treat infections with ceftiofur-susceptible bacteria. Administration resulted in little to no inflammation at the injection site. Additional studies are needed to evaluate effects of repeated CCFA administration.

  20. Deltoid injections of risperidone long-acting injectable in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Jorge A; Rusch, Sarah; Thyssen, An; Palumbo, Joseph M; Kushner, Stuart

    2011-06-01

    Risperidone long-acting injectable was previously approved for treatment of schizophrenia as biweekly injections in the gluteal muscle only. We present data on local injection-site tolerability and safety of risperidone long-acting injectable and comparability of systemic exposure of deltoid versus gluteal injections. Risperidone long-acting injectable was administered in an open-label, single-dose, two-way crossover study, with patients randomized to receive either 25mg gluteal/37.5mg deltoid crossover in two treatment periods or 50mg gluteal/50mg deltoid injections crossover; each treatment period was separated by an 85-day observation period (Study 1) and an open-label, multiple-dose study (4 sequential 37.5mg or 50mg deltoid injections every 2 weeks) (Study 2). The pharmacokinetic results from both the studies have already been published. In Study 1 (n=170), the majority of patients had no local injection-site findings, based on investigator and patient-rated evaluations. In Study 2 (n=53), seven of the 51 patients who received at least two deltoid injections discontinued (primary endpoint). However, none of the discontinuations were due to injection-site related reasons. The 90-percent upper confidence limit of the true proportion of injection-site issue withdrawals was 5.7 percent. No moderate or severe injection-site reactions were reported. Intramuscular injections via the deltoid and gluteal sites are equivalent routes of administration of risperidone long-acting injectable with respect to local injection-site tolerability. The overall safety and tolerability profile of risperidone long-acting injectable was comparable when administered as an intramuscular injection in the deltoid (37.5mg and 50mg) and gluteal (25mg and 50mg) sites.

  1. Synthesis of chemically-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes by counter-current ammonia gas injection into the induction thermal plasma process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahverdi, Ali

    Pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are poorly dispersible and insoluble in many solvents and need to be chemically modified prior to their use in many applications. This work is focused on the investigation of the synthesis of chemically modified SWCNTs material through an in situ approach. The main objectives of the presented research are: 1) to explore the in situ chemical process during the synthesis of SWCNT and 2) to closely examine the effect of a reactive environment on SWCNTs. Effects of the catalyst type and content on the SWCNTs final product, synthesized by induction thermal plasma (ITP), were studied to replace toxic cobalt (Co) in the feedstock. In this regard, three different catalyst mixtures (i.e. Ni-Y2O3, Ni-Co-Y2O3, and Ni-Mo-Y2O3) were used. Experimental results showed that the catalyst type affects the quality of the SWCNT final product. Similar quality SWCNTs can be produced when the same amount of Co was replaced by Ni. Moreover, the results observed in this experimental work were further explained by thermodynamic calculation results. Thermogravimetry (TG) was used throughout the work to characterize the SWCNTs product. TG was firstly standardized by studying the effects of three main instrumental parameters (temperature ramp, TR, initial mass of the sample, IM, and gas flow rate, FR) on the Tonset and full-width half maximum (FWHM) obtained from TG and derivative TG graphs of carbon black, respectively. Therefore, a two-level factorial statistical design was performed. The statistical analysis showed that the effect of TR, IM, and to a lower extent, FR, is significant on FWHM and insignificant on Tonset. A methodology was then developed based upon the SWCNTs synthesis using the ITP system, through an in situ chemistry approach. Ammonia (NH3) was selected and counter-currently injected into the ITP reactor at three different flow rates and by four different nozzle designs. Numerical simulation indicated a better mixing of NH3 in

  2. Engineered safety in development of liquid poison injection system (shut down system-2) for 500 MWe PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapra, M.K.; Kundu, S.N.; Mohan, L.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The provision of shut down systems (SDS) is a mandatory requirement for safety of any nuclear reactor. The SDS shall be capable of making and holding the core adequately subcritical in the event of any anticipated operational occurrence and postulated accident conditions. The shut down function will perform as intended when its design and components are thoroughly evaluated for their reliability and effectiveness. A full scale mock up for one injection unit was designed and developed at Hall No.7, BARC. Experimental studies were carried out to qualify the design and evolve process parameters such as gas tank pressure, poison discharge rate and poison injection time. In liquid poison injection system i.e. shutdown system -2, there is no physical barrier, between the two liquids i.e. the poison and the moderator. A liquid in liquid interface, called poison moderator interface (PMI) separates these fluids. Extensive lab scale studies have been carried out on PMI movement study i.e. the interface movement due to molecular diffusion and due to process disturbances under simulated reactor condition. On the basis of lab scale results, a full-scale PMI setup has been designed and developed to generate plant data. From reactor safety consideration, the floating ball in poison tank is designed in such a way that it prevents the over pressurisation of calandria. For this purpose a non-intrusive ultrasonic ball detection system (U-BDS) has been developed. This paper covers the PMI system for 500 MWe PHWR with relevant safety aspects and describes in detail, the experimental results of PMI study. The engineered safety in design, methodology and qualification of U-BDS and its role intended in performance of SDS-2 have been also discussed in the paper

  3. MPC of Single Phase Inverter for PV System

    OpenAIRE

    Irtaza M. Syed; Kaamran Raahemifar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) of a utility interactive (UI) single phase inverter (SPI) for a photovoltaic (PV) system at residential/distribution level. The proposed model uses single-phase phase locked loop (PLL) to synchronize SPI with the grid and performs MPC control in a dq reference frame. SPI model consists of boost converter (BC), maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control, and a full bridge (FB) voltage source inverter (VSI). No PI regula...

  4. System and method for single-phase, single-stage grid-interactive inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Li, Hui

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides for the integration of distributed renewable energy sources/storages utilizing a cascaded DC-AC inverter, thereby eliminating the need for a DC-DC converter. The ability to segment the energy sources and energy storages improves the maintenance capability and system reliability of the distributed generation system, as well as achieve wide range reactive power compensation. In the absence of a DC-DC converter, single stage energy conversion can be achieved to enhance energy conversion efficiency.

  5. A Traffic injection methodology with support for system-level synchronization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Shankar; Angiolini, Federico; Sparsø, Jens

    2007-01-01

    In highly parallel Multi-Processor System-on-Chip (MPSoC) design stages, interconnect performance is a key optimization target. To effectively achieve this objective, true-to-life IP core traffic must be injected and analyzed. However, the parallel development of MPSoC components may cause IP core...... operating systems and when exploiting interrupt facilities. This property makes it very difficult to generate realistic test traffic. This paper presents a selection of application flows, representative of a wide class of applications with complex interrupt-based synchronization; a reference methodology...... models to be still unavailable when tuning communication performance. Traditionally, synthetic traffic generators have been used to overcome such an issue. However, target applications increasingly present non-trivial execution flows and synchronization patterns, especially in presence of underlying...

  6. Voltage inverter with push-pull topology to inject energy into electrical systems with modulation SPWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Charles M. Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal for a voltage inverter topology based on push-pull converters, switched at high frequency to inject energy into the grid from a source of DC power. A system using two reverse voltage static converters provides the power grid; energy in the form of alternating current, that can work in conjunction with the provision of utility power. Aiming at the possible use of renewable energy sources, that can be stored in the form of voltage continuous, such as wind, solar, hydroelectric and others. The functioning of topology is presented, such as the power and control circuits, as well as sizing components, theoretical and practical results achieved with the assembly of a prototype 100W of power and switching in 40khz, which after filtering provides the frequency of 60Hz, which is compatible with the Brazilian electrical system.

  7. Fuel injection and mixing systems and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chien-Pei; Short, John

    2010-08-03

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided. The system includes an injector body having a fuel inlet and a fuel outlet, and defines a fuel flow path between the inlet and outlet. The fuel flow path may include a generally helical flow passage having an inlet end portion disposed proximate the fuel inlet of the injector body. The flow path also may include an expansion chamber downstream from and in fluid communication with the helical flow passage, as well as a fuel delivery device in fluid communication with the expansion chamber for delivering fuel. Heating means is also provided in thermal communication with the injector body. The heating means may be adapted and configured for maintaining the injector body at a predetermined temperature to heat fuel traversing the flow path. A method of preheating and delivering fuel is also provided.

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of uranium and thorium with arsenazo III in the flow injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, M. das G.M. de.

    1986-12-01

    A simple system for flow injection analysis (FIA) with double confluence was built using a filter photocolorimeter, an analogic potentiometer, 'plexiglass' flow cuvettes, polyethylene colls and tubes, 'plexiglass' commuter and peristaltic pump to introduce solutions and gravity as flow source. The system was dimensioned and studied using only Arsenazo III solutions. Spectrophotometric methods for uranium and thorium using Arsenazo III were studied using a scanning spectrophotometer and after chosing adequate red filter, adapted to photocolorimetry using flow cuvettes and FIA. Synthetic samples, phosphate rock, and process samples from uranium recovery of dolomites were analysed. Rocks of Morro do Ferro (MG, Brazil), Caldasite (Baddeleyte + Zirconite), Zirconite, Monazite from a program for certification and certified rocks (Dunite DC-1, CANMET) were analysed without chemical separation of Th (IV) and with ion exchange separation in semi-micro columns of cation exchange resin (Dowex 50). (Author) [pt

  9. An analysis on water hammer in liquid injection shutdown system of CANDU-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. H.; Heo, J.; Han, S. K.; Choi, H. Y.; No, T. S.

    2000-01-01

    The water hammer analysis code, PTRAN, is used for computation of transient pressures and pressure differentials in the Liquid Injection Shutdown System(LISS) piping network of CANDU-9 to ensure that the design allowables for LEVEL C Service Limit are met for the water hammer loads resulting from the water hammer. The LISS piping network of CANDU-9 has incorporated design improvement in considering the water hammer, such as declining the horizontal part of helium header, and raising the elevation of the overall system piping configuration, etc. The maximum pressure in the LISS piping network is found to be 7.92 MPa(a) at the closed valve in the vent line, which is below the allowable working pressure and the valve design pressure under Level C service conditions. And it is also shown that the maximum pressure in CANDU-9 is much lower than that in CANDU-6

  10. A fatal case of systemic fat embolism resulting from gluteal injections of vitamin e for cosmetic enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Morales, R C; Camberos-Nava, E V; Luna-Rosas, A; Garcés-Ramírez, L; De la Cruz, F; García-Dolores, F

    2016-02-01

    Recently in Mexico the number of cosmetic surgeries has increased. These procedures are often carried out by unqualified people using obsolete and contraindicated products such as injectable oil, which cause uncorrectable disfigurement or more serious complications, even death, after reaching the systemic circulation. We report the case of a fat embolism syndrome (FES) caused by injections of vitamin E (tocopherol) in order to increase the volume of the buttocks. This case of a FES caused by injections of vitamin E was confirmed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Pilot Injection Timings on the Combustion Temperature Distribution in a Single-Cylinder CI Engine Fueled with DME and ULSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Joonho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies of DiMethyl Ether (DME as an alternative fuel in Compression-Ignition (CI engines have been performed. Although diverse DME engine research has been conducted, the investigation of combustion behavior and temperature distribution in the combustion engine has not progressed due to the fact that there is no sooting flame in DME combustion. In order to investigate the combustion characteristics in this study, the KIVA-3 V code was implemented to research various pilot injection strategies on a single-cylinder CI engines with DME and Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel (ULSD fuels. The combustion distribution results obtained from the numerical investigation were validated when compared with the measurement of flame temperature behaviors in the experimental approach. This study showed that long intervals between two injection timings enhanced pilot combustion by increasing the ambient pressure and temperature before the start of the main combustion. Different atomization properties between DME and ULSD fuels contributed to the formation of a fuel-air mixture at the nozzle tip and piston lip regions, separately, which strongly affected the temperature distribution of the two fuels. In addition, the pilot injection timing played a vital role in regard to ignition delay and peak combustion temperatures. Exhaust emissions, such as NOx and soot, are related to the local equivalence ratio and temperature in the combustion chamber, also illustrated by the contrary result on a Φ (equivalence ratio – T (temperature map.

  12. Tritium retention in the femoral bone marrow and spleens of mice receiving single intravenous injections of tritiated water and tritiated thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshima, Hisamasa; Matsushita, Satoru; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Kashima, Masatoshi

    1987-01-01

    To derive parameters necessary for evaluating the possible hazards of tritium, retention of tritium in total and TCA-insoluble fractions of the femoral marrow and spleen of mice were observed after single intravenous injections of tritiated water and tritiated thymidine. Retention curves of tritium in TCA-insoluble fractions of the femoral marrow and spleen were resolved fairly well into two exponential components. After injecting tritiated thymidine, most of the activity was detected in the TCA-insoluble fraction. Tritium in this fraction decreased with half-times of 2.2 days in the femoral marrow and 3.6 days in the spleen as the first component, and 23.9 days and 30.5 days, respectively, as the second component. After tritiated water injections, the tritium incorporated into the TCA-insoluble fraction was quite small. Most of the activity was considered to be in the TCA-soluble fraction. Tritium in this fraction was estimated to decrease with half-times of 2.6 days in the femoral marrow and 2.3 days in the spleen as the first component, and 8.0 days and 8.2 days, respectively, as the second component. It is concluded that the retention curves of tritium in the bone marrow are similar to those in the spleen for tritiated water, but not for tritiated thymidine. (author)

  13. Thermogelling chitosan–collagen–bioactive glass nanoparticle hybrids as potential injectable systems for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Cheisy D.F.; Carvalho, Sandhra M.; Mansur, Herman S., E-mail: hmansur@demet.ufmg.br; Pereira, Marivalda M., E-mail: mpereira@demet.ufmg.br

    2016-01-01

    Recently, stimuli-responsive nanocomposite-derived hydrogels have gained prominence in tissue engineering because they can be applied as injectable scaffolds in bone and cartilage repair. Due to the great potential of these systems, this study aimed to synthesize and characterize novel thermosensitive chitosan-based composites, chemically modified with collagen and reinforced by bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG) on the development of injectable nanohybrids for regenerative medicine applications. Thus, the composite hydrogels were extensively characterized by structural, morphological, rheological, and biological testing. The composites showed thermosensitive response with the gelation temperature at approximately 37 °C, which is compatible with the human body temperature. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that the chitosan hydrogels exhibited 3D-porous structures, and the incorporation of collagen in the system caused increase on the average pore size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated the main functional groups of each component of the composite system and their chemical interactions forming the scaffold. Moreover, rheological measurements were employed to assess the viscoelastic behavior of the hydrogels as a function of the temperature. The results demonstrated that the addition of collagen and bioactive glass increases the mechanical properties after the gelation process. The addition of 2 wt.% of BG nanoparticles caused an increase of approximately 39% on stiffness compared to pure chitosan and the addition of 30 wt.% collagen caused a further increase on the stiffness by 95%. The cytotoxicity and cell viability of the hydrogels were assessed by MTT and LIVE/DEAD® assays, where the results demonstrated no toxic effect of the composites on the human osteosarcoma cell culture (SAOS) and kidney cells line of human embryo (HEK 293T). Hence, it can be stated that innovative composites were

  14. [Clinical outcomes research of Shuxuetong injection based on 59 287 cases in hospital information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Hui; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Hu; Zhuang, Yan

    2012-09-01

    In order to find out the condition of patients who used the Shuxuetong injection and provide reference and guidance for clinical practice, we analyzed the data of related indicators in patients in the HIS based of the frequency analysis methods. In this study, we selected the hospitalized patient information in 20 hospital information systems (HIS). Reference to the integrated data warehouse build mode, including some information such as age, gender, cost categories of patients, route of administration etc. The average age of patients are 59-years-old , 56-years-old age and 71-years-old age are the two high peaks during the age distribution. Patients covered by health insurance accounted for 75.8%; Intravenous infusion in patients accounted for 95.76%; Patient are also diagnosed as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, such as hypertension, cerebral infarction, coronary heart diseas, combined with other medicines such as aspirin, insulin, heparin etc. Crowd using Shuxuetong injection mostly in the elderly population, most patients covered by health insurance, the route of administration conforms instructions basically, please attention the benefits and risks of the patients in the clinical practice.

  15. Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, J. A.; Payne, S. E.; Terracina, D. P.; Kihm, K. D.

    Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m(exp 3), the break-up time was 0.30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6 degrees. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  16. A single intracoronary injection of midkine reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury in swine hearts: a novel therapeutic approach for acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisaaki eIshiguro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Several growth factors are effective for salvaging myocardium and limiting infarct size in experimental studies with small animals. Their benefit in large animals and feasibility in clinical practice remains to be elucidated. We investigate the cardioprotective effect of midkine (MK in swine subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R. I/R was created in swine by left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion for 45 min using a percutaneous over-the-wire balloon catheter. MK protein was injected as a bolus through the catheter at the initiation of reperfusion (midkine injected group; MKT. Saline was injected in controls (CONT. Survival rate 24h after I/R was significantly higher in MKT than in CONT, whereas infarct size/area at risk was almost 5 times smaller. Echocardiography in MKT revealed a significantly higher percent wall thickening of the interventricular septum, a higher % fractional shortening and a lower E/e’ compared with CONT. LV catheterization in MKT showed a lower LVEDP, and a higher dP/dtmax compared with CONT. TUNEL-positive myocytes and CD45-positive cell infiltration in the peri-infarct area were significantly less in MKT than in CONT. Here, we showed that a single intracoronary injection of MK protein in swine hearts at the onset of reperfusion dramatically reduces infarct size and mortality and ameliorates systolic/diastolic LV function. This beneficial effect is associated with a reduction of apoptotic and inflammatory reactions. MK application during percutaneous coronary intervention may become a promising adjunctive therapy in acute coronary syndromes.

  17. A randomised non-inferiority controlled trial of a single versus a four intradermal sterile water injection technique for relief of continuous lower back pain during labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Joan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost one third of women suffer continuous lower back pain during labour. Evidence from three systematic reviews demonstrates that sterile water injections (SWI provide statistically and clinically significant pain relief in women experiencing continuous lower back pain during labour. The most effective technique to administer SWI is yet to be determined. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine if the single injection SWI technique is no less effective than the routinely used four injection SWI method in reducing continuous lower back pain during labour. Methods/design The trial protocol was developed in consultation with an interdisciplinary team of clinical researchers. We aim to recruit 319 women presenting at term, seeking analgesia for continuous severe lower back pain during labour. Participants will be recruited from two major maternity hospitals in Australia. Randomised participants are allocated to receive a four or single intradermal needle SWI technique. The primary outcome is the change in self-reported pain measured by visual analogue scale at baseline and thirty minutes post intervention. Secondary outcomes include VAS change scores at 10, 60, 90 and 120 min, analgesia use, mode of birth and maternal satisfaction. Statistical analysis Sample size was calculated to achieve 90% power at an alpha of 0.025 to detect a non-inferiority margin of ≤ 1 cm on the VAS, using a one-sided, two-sample t-test. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics will be analysed for comparability between groups. Differences in primary (VAS pain score and secondary outcomes between groups will be analysed by intention to treat and per protocol analysis using Student's t-test and ANOVA. Conclusion This study will determine if a single intradermal SWI technique is no less effective than the routinely used four injection technique for lower back pain during labour. The findings will allow midwives to offer women

  18. A single-chip computer analysis system for liquid fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongming; Wu Ruisheng; Li Bin

    1998-01-01

    The single-chip computer analysis system for liquid fluorescence is an intelligent analytic instrument, which is based on the principle that the liquid containing hydrocarbons can give out several characteristic fluorescences when irradiated by strong light. Besides a single-chip computer, the system makes use of the keyboard and the calculation and printing functions of a CASIO printing calculator. It combines optics, mechanism and electronics into one, and is small, light and practical, so it can be used for surface water sample analysis in oil field and impurity analysis of other materials

  19. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. Our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. The first two of these areas have resulted in valuable information about the limitations of lubricity and viscosity additives that are presently available in terms of their impact on the viscosity of DME and on wear rates on injector hardware. The third area, that of development of an injector durability test stand, has not resulted in a functioning experiment. Some information is provided in this report to identify the remaining tasks that need to be performed to make the injector stand operational. The key observations from the work are that when blended at 25 wt.% in either diesel fuel or Biodiesel fuel, DME requires more than 5 wt

  20. A Current-Forced Line-Commutated Inverter for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Generation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UNLU, M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple power electronic interface based on the line-commutated inverter (LCI has been developed in order to inject sinusoidal current to the grid for single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV energy generation systems. The proposed inverter facilitates controlling the injecting/grid current with a controllable power factor in contrast to the conventional LCI system. It is achieved that the total harmonic distortion (THD of the injecting currents for the different firing angles/power factors and reference currents is about 5% or less than 5%. Thus, the grid-connected standards for injecting current are satisfied without filter equipment unlike the conventional LCI system. The proposed system has been built in MATLAB/Simulink and examined experimentally on PV array of 160 W. The simulation and experimental results are better performance than the conventional line-commutated inverter methods reported in the literature. The proposed LCI has a simple and robust structure, and it can be easily synchronized with grid thanks to self-latching property of SCRs. Therefore, it is a good alternative for the power transferring from PV panels to the utility grid in grid-connected PV systems.

  1. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni

    2011-01-01

    phase boost converter is applied to improve the performance of this motor. It is easy to generate a double dclink voltage and dc-link voltage and switch both of them. The voltage of boost capacitor is self balance, so the protective circuit is not need to consider. The fast excitation mode helps hybrid......In this paper, a novel single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive system is proposed. It integrated a single phase hybrid SRM and a novel single phase boost converter. This motor can reduce the number of phase switch. And the permanent magnet which is used in the motor can improve...... the performance and efficiency of SR motor. However, the inherent characteristic of this motor is that the negative torque is very sensitive with the excitation current near the turn-on angle. The slow excitation current limits the torque generation region and reduces the average torque. Therefore, a novel single...

  2. Injection Bucket Jitter Compensation Using Phase Lock System at Fermilab Booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiya, K. [Fermilab; Drennan, C. [Fermilab; Pellico, W. [Fermilab; Chaurize, S. [Fermilab

    2017-05-12

    The extraction bucket position in the Fermilab Booster is controlled with a cogging process that involves the comparison of the Booster rf count and the Recycler Ring revolution marker. A one rf bucket jitter in the ex-traction bucket position results from the variability of the process that phase matches the Booster to the Recycler. However, the new slow phase lock process used to lock the frequency and phase of the Booster rf to the Recycler rf has been made digital and programmable and has been modified to correct the extraction notch position. The beam loss at the Recycler injection has been reduced by 20%. Beam studies and the phase lock system will be discussed in this paper.

  3. Application of an EGR system in a direct injection diesel engine to reduce NOx emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Serio, D.; De Oliveira, A.; Sodré, J. R.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the application of an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system in a direct injection diesel engine operating with diesel oil containing 7% biodiesel (B7). EGR rates of up to 10% were applied with the primary aim to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. The experiments were conducted in a 44 kW diesel power generator to evaluate engine performance and emissions for different load settings. The use of EGR caused a peak pressure reduction during the combustion process and a decrease in thermal efficiency, mainly at high engine loads. A reduction of NOx emissions of up to 26% was achieved, though penalizing carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbons (THC) emissions.

  4. The proposed injection system for an asymmetric B Factory in the PEP tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.; Bulos, F.; Loew, G.; Miller, R.; Sukiennicki, B.; Mattison, T.; Barletta, W.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed asymmetric energy B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel at SLAC will require a highly effective and profuse source of low emittance electron and positron bunches. The B Factory will consist of two rings of equal size, a 9 GeV electron ring and a 3.1 GeV positron ring, each with 1658 bunches with total circulating currents of 1.5 and 2.1 amperes respectively. As the luminosity lifetime of the collider is expected to be about two hours, the injector should be capable of filling the rings in a small fraction of an hour. It turns out that with some simple modifications, the SLC linac with its damping rings and positron source is ideally suited to fulfill this function effectively. The overall injection system is described

  5. Sensibility Studies for the Neutral Beam Injection System in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, C.; Liniers, M.; Guasp, J.

    1999-01-01

    The sensibility of the Neutral Beam Injection system of TJ-II to the changes of several parameters is analysed. Transmission, absorption and power loads at the intercepting structures are evaluated. The adopted values for the ion source distance, focal length and divergence are confirmed as optimal, showing a small sensitivity to changes, except for the divergence. The operational margins for beam misalignments has been found to be small but feasible, confirming also the reference directions as optimal. Finally four possible alternatives, intended to reduce the power loads at the beam entering structures, are analysed. All of them have been discarded since lead to the appearance of new risk zones, with unacceptable load levels, and reduce the transmitted power. (Author) 13 refs

  6. Improvements in the injection system of the Canadian Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, J; Boudreau, C; Buchinger, F; Crawford, J E; Gulick, S; Hardy, J C; Heinz, A; Lee, J K P; Moore, R B; Savard, G; Seweryniak, D; Sharma, K S; Sprouse, G; Vaz, J; Wang, J C; Zhou, Z

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer is designed to make precise mass measurements on a variety of stable and short-lived isotopes. Modifications to the injection system of the CPT have been implemented in recent months, the purpose being to more efficiently collect and transfer weakly-produced reaction products from the target to the Penning trap. These include a magnetic triplet situated after the target chamber to increase the acceptance of the Enge spectrograph, a velocity filter to more effectively separate the beam from the reaction products and the replacement of the Paul trap with a linear trap resulting in more efficient capture and accumulation of ions from the ion cooler. This paper will discuss these recent modifications and how they have increased our ability in making mass measurements on isotopes of low abundance, including those from a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf fission source.

  7. Single-cell technologies to study the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proserpio, Valentina; Mahata, Bidesh

    2016-02-01

    The immune system is composed of a variety of cells that act in a coordinated fashion to protect the organism against a multitude of different pathogens. The great variability of existing pathogens corresponds to a similar high heterogeneity of the immune cells. The study of individual immune cells, the fundamental unit of immunity, has recently transformed from a qualitative microscopic imaging to a nearly complete quantitative transcriptomic analysis. This shift has been driven by the rapid development of multiple single-cell technologies. These new advances are expected to boost the detection of less frequent cell types and transient or intermediate cell states. They will highlight the individuality of each single cell and greatly expand the resolution of current available classifications and differentiation trajectories. In this review we discuss the recent advancement and application of single-cell technologies, their limitations and future applications to study the immune system. © 2015 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A very sensitive nonintercepting beam average velocity monitoring system for the TRIUMF 300-keV injection line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Y.; Laxdal, R.E.; Zelenski, A.; Ostroumov, P.

    1997-01-01

    A nonintercepting beam velocity monitoring system has been installed in the 300-keV injection line of the TRIUMF cyclotron to reproduce the injection energy for beam from different ion sources and to monitor any beam energy fluctuations. By using a programmable beam signal leveling method the system can work with a beam current dynamic range of 50 dB. Using synchronous detection, the system can detect 0.5 eV peak-to-peak energy modulation of the beam, sensitivity is 1.7x10 -6 . The paper will describe the principle and beam measurement results. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. Groundwater thermal-effective injection systems in shallow aquifers: possible alternatives to vertical water wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Russo, Stefano; Taddia, Glenda; Cerino Abdin, Elena

    2014-05-01

    areal extent of the thermal plume that develops around the area of injection minimizing the time and the space needed for the disappearance of the thermal plume and the restoration of undisturbed temperature conditions. The reduction in plan and temporal extension of the thermal plume would have several benefits, minimizing the use of large areas around the buildings involved by the thermal perturbation, with direct implementation benefits. In order to investigate alternatives to traditional drilled water well for the re-injection and dispersion of water in aquifer downstream of the heat pump, we modeled with FEFLOW the possible reverse use of commercial draining gabions in various types of ground configuration, geometry and interconnection with systems of pre-fabricated vertical drains on a possible reliable test-site. The results highlighted that they can represent a good and efficient alternative for the groundwater dispersion in the aquifers.

  10. A performance comparison of single product kanban control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Ang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation experiment comparing the Single Stage, Single Product Base Stock (BS, Traditional Kanban Control System (TKCS and Extended Kanban Control System (EKCS. The results showed that BS incurs the highest cost in all scenarios; while EKCS is found to be effective only in a very niche scenario. TKCS is still a very powerful factory management system to date; and EKCS did not perform exceptionally well. The only time EKCS did outperform TKCS was during low demand arrival rates and low Backorder (Cb and Shortage costs (Cs. That is because during then, it holds no stock. The most important discovery made here is that EKCS becomes TKCS once it has base stock (or dispatched kanbans. The results have also evinced the strength of the pure kanban system, the TKCS over BS. Hence managers using BS should consider upgrading to TKCS to save cost.

  11. Investigations of Intelligent Solar Heating Systems for Single Family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Chen, Ziqian; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Three differently designed intelligent solar heating systems are investigated experimentally in a test facility. The systems provide all the needed yearly heating demand in single family houses. The systems are based on highly stratified tanks with variable auxiliary heated volumes. The tank...... is a tank in tank heat storage with domestic hot water in the inner tank and space heating water in the outer tank. The total tank volume is 750 liters and the solar collector area is 9 m2. The auxiliary energy supply system is based on electrical heating element(s)/heat pump and is different for all three...... systems.The system will be equipped with an intelligent control system where the control of the electrical heating element(s)/heat pump is based on forecasts of the variable electricity price, the heating demand and the solar energy production.By means of numerical models of the systems made in Trnsys...

  12. Superconducting technology for overcurrent limiting in a 25 kA current injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari, Hossein; Faghihi, Faramarz; Sharifi, Reza; Poursoltanmohammadi, Amir Hossein

    2008-01-01

    Current injection transformer (CIT) systems are within the major group of the standard type test of high current equipment in the electrical industry, so their performance becomes very important. When designing high current systems, there are many factors to be considered from which their overcurrent protection must be ensured. The output of a CIT is wholly dependent on the impedance of the equipment under test (EUT). Therefore current flow beyond the allowable limit can occur. The present state of the art provides an important guide to developing current limiters not only for the grid application but also in industrial equipment. This paper reports the state of the art in the technology available that could be developed into an application of superconductivity for high current equipment (CIT) protection with no test disruption. This will result in a greater market choice and lower costs for equipment protection solutions, reduced costs and improved system reliability. The paper will also push the state of the art by using two distinctive circuits, closed-core and open-core, for overcurrent protection of a 25 kA CIT system, based on a flux-lock-type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) and magnetic properties of high temperature superconducting (HTS) elements. An appropriate location of the HTS element will enhance the rate of limitation with the help of the magnetic field generated by the CIT output busbars. The calculation of the HTS parameters for overcurrent limiting is also performed to suit the required current levels of the CIT

  13. High heat flux engineering for the upgraded neutral beam injection systems of MAST-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhalla, F., E-mail: Fahim.dhalla@ccfe.ac.uk; Mistry, S.; Turner, I.; Barrett, T.R.; Day, I.; McAdams, R.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A new Residual Ion Dump (RID) and bend magnet system for the upgraded NBI systems have been designed for the 5 s MAST-U pulse requirements. • Design scoping was performed using numerical ion-tracing analysis software (MAGNET and OPERA codes). • A more powerful bending magnet will separate the residual ions into full, half and third energy components. • Three separate CuCrZr dumps spread the power loading resulting in acceptable power footprints. • FE thermo-mechanical analyses using ANSYS to validate the designs against the ITER SDC-IC code. • New bend magnet coils, yoke and CuCrZr water-cooled plates are in the procurement phase. - Abstract: For the initial phase of MAST-U operation the two existing neutral beam injection systems will be used, but must be substantially upgraded to fulfil expected operational requirements. The major elements are the design, manufacture and installation of a bespoke bending magnet and Residual Ion Dump (RID) system. The MAST-design full energy dump is being replaced with new actively-cooled full, half and third energy dumps, designed to receive 2.4 MW of ion power deflected by an iron-cored electromagnet. The main design challenge is limited space available in the vacuum vessel, requiring ion-deflection calculations to ensure acceptable heat flux distribution on the dump panels. This paper presents engineering and physics analysis of the upgraded MAST beamlines and reports the current status of manufacture.

  14. Exploiting an automated microfluidic hydrodynamic sequential injection system for determination of phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khongpet, Wanpen; Pencharee, Somkid; Puangpila, Chanida; Kradtap Hartwell, Supaporn; Lapanantnoppakhun, Somchai; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2018-01-15

    A microfluidic hydrodynamic sequential injection (μHSI) spectrophotometric system was designed and fabricated. The system was built by laser engraving a manifold pattern on an acrylic block and sealing with another flat acrylic plate to form a microfluidic channel platform. The platform was incorporated with small solenoid valves to obtain a portable setup for programmable control of the liquid flow into the channel according to the HSI principle. The system was demonstrated for the determination of phosphate using a molybdenum blue method. An ascorbic acid, standard or sample, and acidic molybdate solutions were sequentially aspirated to fill the channel forming a stack zone before flowing to the detector. Under the optimum condition, a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.1-6mg P L -1 was obtained. The detection limit was 0.1mgL -1 . The system is compact (5.0mm thick, 80mm wide × 140mm long), durable, portable, cost-effective, and consumes little amount of chemicals (83μL each of molybdate and ascorbic acid, 133μL of the sample solution and 1.7mL of water carrier/run). It was applied for the determination of phosphate content in extracted soil samples. The percent recoveries of the analysis were obtained in the range of 91.2-107.3. The results obtained agreed well with those of the batch spectrophotometric method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of aging in containment spray injection system of PWR reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Diogo da S.; Lava, Deise D.; Affonso, Renato R.W.; Guimaraes, Antonio C.F.; Moreira, Maria de L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a contribution to the study of the components aging process in commercial plants of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The analysis is done by applying the method of Fault trees, Monte Carlo Method and Fussell-Vesely Importance Measurement. The study on the aging of nuclear plants, is related to economic factors involved directly with the extent of their operational life, and also provides important data on issues of safety. The most recent case involving the process of extending the life of a PWR plant can be seen in Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant by investing $ 27 million in the installation of a new reactor cover. The corrective action generated an extension of the useful life of Angra 1 estimated in twenty years, and a great savings compared to the cost of building a new plant and the decommissioning of the first, if it had reached the operation time out 40 years. The extension of the lifetime of a nuclear power plant must be accompanied by special attention from the most sensitive components of the systems to the aging process. After the application of the methodology (aging analysis of Containment Spray Injection System (CSIS)) proposed in this paper, it can be seen that increasing the probability of failure of each component, due to the aging process, generate an increased general unavailability of the system that contains these basic components. The final results obtained were as expected and can contribute to the maintenance policy, preventing premature aging in nuclear power systems

  16. A single phase photovoltaic inverter control for grid connected system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Melo G and Canesin C A 2013 Evaluation of the main MPPT techniques for photovoltaic applications. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 60(3): 1156–1167. [7] Jain S and Agarwal V 2007 Comparison of the perfor- mance of maximum power point tracking schemes applied to single-stage grid-connected photovoltaic systems.

  17. Water Flow Experiments: Single and Double Bottle Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 1. Water Flow Experiments: Single and Double Bottle Systems ... Jain International Residential School, Jakkasandra Post, Kanakapura Road, Ramanagara Dist., Karnataka 562 112, India. Room No 425, SH-3 Ashoka University, Near Rai Police ...

  18. Bilateral single system ectopic ureters: Case report with literature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilateral single system ureteral ectopia (BSSEU) is one of the rarest entities in urology, with less than 80 cases reported so far. Incontinence resulting from the underlying anomaly can be devastating to the child. It is generally agreed that suitable urinary continence and long dry intervals are seldom obtainable because of ...

  19. A single phase photovoltaic inverter control for grid connected system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a control scheme for single phase grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system operating under both grid connected and isolated grid mode. The control techniques include voltage and current control of grid-tie PV inverter. During grid connected mode, grid controls the amplitude and frequency of the PV ...

  20. Harmonics Suppression for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in Different Operation Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    -connected PV inverters may be severely affected in different operation modes. In this paper, a detailed analysis is conducted to reveal the relationship between the harmonics level with the power factor and the current level in the PV systems. A current control solution which employs an Internal Model...... Principle (IMP) is proposed to suppress the harmonic currents injected into the grid. Experiments are carried out to verify the analysis and the performance of the proposed control method. It is demonstrated that the proposed method presents an effective solution to harmonics suppression for single......-phase grid-connected PV systems in different operation modes. Especially, it can remove higher order harmonics effectively leading to a better power quality compared to the Proportional plus Multi-Resonant Controller, and it has less computational burden....

  1. Future considerations for pharmacologic adjuvants in single-injection peripheral nerve blocks for patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian A; Murinson, Beth B; Grable, Benjamin R; Orebaugh, Steven L

    2009-01-01

    As the epidemics of obesity and diabetes expand, there are more patients with these disorders requiring elective surgery. For surgery on the extremities, peripheral nerve blocks have become a highly favorable anesthetic option when compared with general anesthesia. Peripheral blocks reduce respiratory and cardiac stresses, while potentially mitigating untreated peripheral pain that can foster physiologic conditions that increase risks for general health complications. However, local anesthetics are generally accepted to be a rare but possible cause of nerve damage, and there are no evidence-based recommendations for dosing local anesthetic nerve blocks in patients with diabetes. This is important because anesthesiologists do not want to potentially accelerate peripheral nerve dysfunction in diabetic patients at risk. This translational vignette (i) examines laboratory models of diabetes, (ii) summarizes the pharmacology of perineural adjuvants (epinephrine, clonidine, buprenorphine, midazolam, tramadol, and dexamethasone), and (iii) identifies areas that warrant further research to determine viability of monotherapy or combination therapy for peripheral nerve analgesia in diabetic patients. Conceivably, future translational research regarding peripheral nerve blocks in diabetic patients may logically include study of nontoxic injectable analgesic adjuvants, in combination, to provide desired analgesia, while possibly avoiding peripheral nerve toxicity that diabetic animal models have exhibited when exposed to traditional local anesthetics.

  2. Impact of physical properties of mixture of diesel and biodiesel fuels on hydrodynamic characteristics of fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Ivan M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the alternative fuels, originating from renewable sources, is biodiesel fuel, which is introduced in diesel engines without major construction modifications on the engine. Biodiesel fuel, by its physical and chemical properties, is different from diesel fuel. Therefore, it is expected that by the application of a biodiesel fuel, the characteristic parameters of the injection system will change. These parameters have a direct impact on the process of fuel dispersion into the engine cylinder, and mixing with the air, which results in an impact on the quality of the combustion process. Method of preparation of the air-fuel mixture and the quality of the combustion process directly affect the efficiency of the engine and the level of pollutant emissions in the exhaust gas, which today is the most important criterion for assessing the quality of the engine. The paper presents a detailed analysis of the influence of physical properties of a mixture of diesel and biodiesel fuels on the output characteristics of the fuel injection system. The following parameters are shown: injection pressure, injection rate, the beginning and duration of injection, transformation of potential into kinetic energy of fuel and increase of energy losses in fuel injection system of various mixtures of diesel and biodiesel fuels. For the analysis of the results a self-developed computer program was used to simulate the injection process in the system. Computational results are verified using the experiment, for a few mixtures of diesel and biodiesel fuels. This paper presents the verification results for diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel in particular.

  3. Fuel injection system and method of operating the same for an engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topinka, Jennifer Ann [Niskayuna, NY; DeLancey, James Peter [Corinth, NY; Primus, Roy James [Niskayuna, NY; Pintgen, Florian Peter [Niskayuna, NY

    2011-02-15

    A fuel injector is coupled to an engine. The fuel injector includes an injection opening configured to vary in cross-section between a open state and a fully closed state. The fuel injector is configured to provide a plurality of discrete commanded fuel injections into an engine cylinder by modulating the size of the injection opening without completely closing the opening to the fully closed state.

  4. Double injection/single detection asymmetric flow injection manifold for spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid: Selection the optimal conditions by MCDM approach based on different criteria weighting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroumand, Samira; Chamjangali, Mansour Arab; Bagherian, Ghadamali

    2017-03-01

    A simple and sensitive double injection/single detector flow injection analysis (FIA) method is proposed for the simultaneous kinetic determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). This method is based upon the difference between the rates of the AA and UA reactions with Fe3 + in the presence of 1, 10-phenanthroline (phen). The absorbance of Fe2 +/1, 10-phenanthroline (Fe-phen) complex obtained as the product was measured spectrophotometrically at 510 nm. To reach a good accuracy in the differential kinetic determination via the mathematical manipulations of the transient signals, different criteria were considered in the selection of the optimum conditions. The multi criteria decision making (MCDM) approach was applied for the selection of the optimum conditions. The importance weights of the evaluation criteria were determined using the analytic hierarchy process, entropy method, and compromised weighting (CW). The experimental conditions (alternatives) were ranked by the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution. Under the selected optimum conditions, the obtained analytical signals were linear in the ranges of 0.50-5.00 and 0.50-4.00 mg L- 1 for AA and UA, respectively. The 3σ detection limits were 0.07 mg L- 1 for AA and 0.12 mg L- 1 for UA. The relative standard deviations for four replicate determinations of AA and UA were 2.03% and 3.30% respectively. The method was also applied for the analysis of analytes in the blood serum, Vitamine C tablets, and tap water with satisfactory results.

  5. Lamp system with a single second-lens newly designed by using the least square method for 4 LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jae Heung; Ryu, Jae Myung; Hong, Chun Gang

    2014-05-01

    It is common for many companies to use multiple LEDs to enhance the brightness of a LED lamp and, in general, four LEDs are used in the LED lamp systems. Moreover, the second-lens must be used to obtain a straight uniform illumination from LED lights. Where four LEDs are used, four second-lenses are also assembled conventionally and those four units of second-lenses are manufactured from a single mold and assembled together with the LEDs. However, this study introduces a new method of using the Least Square Method to get a uniform illumination with the divergence angle of 40 degrees with a new single injection molded lens. Thanks to this optical design with a single lens, the assembling process of LED lamp system was simplified by eliminating the complicated assembly procedure. Also, the uniformity of illumination of this newly designed lamp system was less than 14.1%.

  6. Automated dual capillary electrophoresis system with hydrodynamic injection for the concurrent determination of cations and anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Thi Thanh Thuy; Mai, Thanh Duc [University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, Spitalstrasse 51, Basel 4056 (Switzerland); Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Nguyen Trai Street 334, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Thanh Dam [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Nguyen Trai Street 334, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sáiz, Jorge [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Chemical Engineering – University of Alcalá, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona km 33.6, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid 28871 (Spain); Pham, Hung Viet, E-mail: phamhungviet@hus.edu.vn [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, Nguyen Trai Street 334, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hauser, Peter C., E-mail: Peter.Hauser@unibas.ch [University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, Spitalstrasse 51, Basel 4056 (Switzerland)

    2014-09-02

    Highlights: • Concurrent determination of cations and anions was carried out by electrophoretic separation. • Optimized conditions for each class of analystes was possible by using separate capillaries. • Simultaneous hydrodynamic injection was carried out. • Pneumatic actuation was used for flushing and sample handling. • The denitrification of drinking water was successfully demonstrated. - Abstract: The capillary electrophoresis instrument developed for the concurrent determination of cations and anions features two separate capillaries and individual detectors to allow independent optimization for each group of ions. The capillaries are joined in a common injector block. The sample is drawn into the injector with a small membrane pump and automated simultaneous injection into both capillaries is achieved by pressurization of the fluid with compressed air. Flushing of the injector and of the capillaries with the background electrolyte is also carried out automatically by the same means. The buffer consisted of 12 mM histidine and 2 mM 18-crown-6 adjusted to pH 4 with acetic acid and was suitable for the contactless conductivity detection employed. The system was optimized for the determination of cationic NH{sub 4}{sup +} and anionic NO{sub 3}{sup −} and NO{sub 2}{sup −}, and linear calibration curves from about 20 μM up to about 1.5 mM were obtained for these ions. In a test run over 8 h, the reproducibility for the peak areas was within ±7%. For demonstration, the instrument was successfully applied to the concurrent monitoring of the concentrations of the three ions during the biological removal of ammonium from contaminated groundwater in a sequencing batch reactor, where NO{sub 3}{sup −} and NO{sub 2}{sup −} are formed as intermediate products.

  7. Fracture resistance of inter-joined zirconia abutment of dental implant system with injection molding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Ke; Liu, Guangyuan; Wang, Dashan

    2013-11-01

    Zirconia powder in nanometers can be fabricated into inter-joined abutment of dental implant system with the injection shaping technique. This study was to detect the resistance of inter-joined zirconia abutment with different angle loading for clinical applications. The inter-joined abutments were shaped with the technique of injection of zirconia powder in nanometers. Sixty Osstem GSII 5 × 10 mm implants were used with 30 zirconia abutments and 30 Osstem GSII titanium abutments for fixation using 40 N torque force. The loading applications included 90°, 30°, and 0° formed by the long axis of abutments and pressure head of universal test machine. The fracture resistances of zirconia and titanium abutments were documented and analyzed. The inter-joined zirconia abutments were assembled to the Osstem GSII implants successfully. In the 90° loading mode, the fracture resistance of zirconia abutment group and titanium abutment group were 301.5 ± 15.4 N and 736.4 ± 120.1 N, respectively. And those in the 30° groups were 434.7 ± 36.1 N and 1073.1 ± 74 N, correspondingly. Significant difference in the two groups was found using t-test and Wilcoxon test. No damage on the abutments of the two groups but S-shaped bending on the implants was found when the 0° loading was 1300-2000 N. Through the assembly of Zirconia abutments and implants, all the components presented sufficient resistance acquired for the clinical application under loadings with different angle. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Intra-Articular, Single-Shot Hylan G-F 20 Hyaluronic Acid Injection Compared with Corticosteroid in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammachote, Nattapol; Kanitnate, Supakit; Yakumpor, Thanasak; Panichkul, Phonthakorn

    2016-06-01

    The treatment of knee osteoarthritis with hyaluronic acid or corticosteroid injection has been widely used. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (hylan G-F 20) with triamcinolone acetonide as a single intra-articular injection for knee osteoarthritis. This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Participants with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis were recruited. They were randomized to receive a single-shot, intra-articular injection of either 6 mL of hylan G-F 20 or 6 mL of a solution comprising 1 mL of 40-mg triamcinolone acetonide and 5 mL of 1% lidocaine with epinephrine. The primary outcomes were knee pain severity, knee function, and range of motion at 6 months. Ninety-nine patients were assessed before injection and underwent a 6-month follow-up. Patients and evaluators were blinded. Multilevel regression models were used to estimate differences between the groups. At the 6-month follow-up, compared with patients who took hylan G-F 20, patients who took triamcinolone acetonide had similar improvement in knee pain, knee function, and range of motion. The difference in mean outcome scores between groups was, with regard to knee pain, a visual analog scale (VAS) score of 3 points (95% confidence interval [95% CI], -6 to 11 points); with regard to knee function, a modified Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score of 0 points (95% CI, -8 to 6 points); and, with regard to range of motion, flexion of -1° (95% CI, -5° to 2°) and extension of 0° (95% CI, -0.5° to 0.5°). However, patients who took triamcinolone acetonide had better pain improvement from 24 hours until 1 week after injection; the mean difference between groups with regard to the VAS score was 12 points (95% CI, 5 to 20 points; p = 0.002) at 24 hours and 9 points (95% CI, 1 to 15 points; p = 0.018) at 1 week. At 2 weeks after injection, patients who took triamcinolone acetonide also had better knee

  9. New apparatus of single particle trap system for aerosol visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Hidenori; Fujioka, Tomomi; Endo, Tetsuo; Kitayama, Chiho; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio

    2014-08-01

    Control of transport and deposition of charged aerosol particles is important in various manufacturing processes. Aerosol visualization is an effective method to directly observe light scattering signal from laser-irradiated single aerosol particle trapped in a visualization cell. New single particle trap system triggered by light scattering pulse signal was developed in this study. The performance of the device was evaluated experimentally. Experimental setup consisted of an aerosol generator, a differential mobility analyzer (DMA), an optical particle counter (OPC) and the single particle trap system. Polystylene latex standard (PSL) particles (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μm) were generated and classified according to the charge by the DMA. Singly charged 0.5 and 1.0 μm particles and doubly charged 2.0 μm particles were used as test particles. The single particle trap system was composed of a light scattering signal detector and a visualization cell. When the particle passed through the detector, trigger signal with a given delay time sent to the solenoid valves upstream and downstream of the visualization cell for trapping the particle in the visualization cell. The motion of particle in the visualization cell was monitored by CCD camera and the gravitational settling velocity and the electrostatic migration velocity were measured from the video image. The aerodynamic diameter obtained from the settling velocity was in good agreement with Stokes diameter calculated from the electrostatic migration velocity for individual particles. It was also found that the aerodynamic diameter obtained from the settling velocity was a one-to-one function of the scattered light intensity of individual particles. The applicability of this system will be discussed.

  10. Cell turnover in the odontogenic organ of the rat incisor as visualized by graphic reconstructions following a single injection of 3H-thymidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C E

    1980-07-01

    Turnover of cells within the odontogenic organ was studied in three dimensions by preparing serial sections of incisors from young male rats killed at various times following a single intraperitoneal injection of 1 muCi/g body weight of 3H-thymidine. Radioautographs showed that at 1 hour after injection labeled cells were present in all cell layers throughout the entire depth of the odontogenic organ. They were encountered frequently within the inner dental epithelium and stratum intermedium but appeared less abundant within the stellate reticulum and outer dental epithelium. With time, the frequency of labeled cells in each layer declined progressively, and more rapidly at the anterior and labial side of the odontogenic organ than toward its posterior and lingual side. Hence labeled cells were observed over the longest time interval in regions where cell layers were in closest proximity to the opening of the apical foramen, that is, near the apical and cervical loops. By 32 days after injection, numerous labeled cells could still be identified within the outer dental epithelium and stellate reticulum near the apical loop (bulbous part of the odontogenic organ) and the outer dental epithelium near the cervical loops ("U"-shaped part of the odontogenic organ). These findings support the hypothesis that cells originate within the bulbous part of the odontogenic organ and migrate anteriorly through the "U"-shaped and root sheath parts of the odontogenic organ during renewal of the incisor. It appears that individual stem cell compartments may be maintained for surface (outer/inner dental epithelium) and intermediate layers (stellate reticulum/stratum intermedium) in the odontogenic epithelium.

  11. Reagent-free determination of amikacin content in amikacin sulfate injections by FTIR derivative spectroscopy in a continuous flow system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Ovalles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative estimation of amikacin (AMK in AMK sulfate injection samples is reported using FTIR-derivative spectrometric method in a continuous flow system. Fourier transform of mid-IR spectra were recorded without any sample pretreatment. A good linear calibration (r>0.999, %RSD<2.0 in the range of 7.7–77.0 mg/mL was found. The results showed a good correlation with the manufacturer's and overall they all fell within acceptable limits of most pharmacopoeial monographs on AMK sulfate. Keywords: Amikacin, FTIR derivative spectrometry, Continuous flow system, Pharmaceutical preparation, Injection, Sulfate

  12. SNS Injection and Extraction Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Raparia, Deepak

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a second generation pulsed neutron source (1.5 MW) and is presently in the sixth year of a seven-year construction cycle at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operation of the facility will begin in 2006. The most stringent requirement for the SNS accelerator complex is to allow hands-on maintenance. Operational experiences show that the most losses occur in the injection and extraction. SNS accumulator ring injection and extraction has been design with grate care to reduce uncontrolled losses. Injection systems consist of fast programmable kicker magnets and DC dump magnets to paint the beam in transverse phase space. Extraction systems consist of fast kicker magnets and a Lamberton magnet to extract beam in single turn. Paper will discuss design, construction and testing of these devices.

  13. Detection of active alveolar bone destruction in human periodontal disease by analysis of radiopharmaceutical uptake after a single injection of 99m-Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffcoat, M.K.; Williams, R.C.; Holman, B.L.; English, R.; Goldhaber, P.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that, following a single injection of 99m-Tc-MDP, measurement of bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake can detect ''active'' alveolar bone loss due to periodontal disease in beagle dogs, as determined by radiographs taken at the time of, and several months after, the nuclear medicine procedure. The efficacy of this diagnostic test, however, had not been assessed in human periodontal disease. The ability of a single boneseeking radiopharmaceutical uptake examination to detect ''active'' alveolar bone loss due to periodontal disease in human patients was assessed by comparing a single uptake measurement to the rate of bone loss determined from serial radiographs taken over a 6-month period. Uptake was expressed as a ratio of the cpm from the alveolar bone divided by the cpm from the non-tooth supporting bone of the nuchal crest. High uptake ratios were associated with ''active'' loss and low uptake ratios were associated with little if any change in alveolar bone height (p<0.001). The nuclear medicine examination was an accurate detector of periodontal disease activity in nearly 80% of the individual teeth studied. These data indicate that high bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake ratios may be pathognomonic of active bone loss in human periodontal disease. (author)

  14. CT-guided single high-dose percutaneous acetic acid injection for small hepatocellular carcinoma: A long-term follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Heng; Liu Jing; Liu Fengli

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term outcome of CT-guided single high-dose percutaneous acetic acid injection (PAI) for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma (SHCC). Materials and methods: Sixty-eight consecutive patients (37 men and 31 women; age 52 ± 16 years) with SHCC have undergone CT-guided single high-dose PAI therapy since December 2000. Complications of high-dose PAI were recorded. Tumour survival and recurrence rates were assessed. Results: All PAI therapies were successful and no severe complications developed. The average follow-up period was 46 ± 18 months. The overall survival rates at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years were 93%, 82%, 68%, 59% and 51%, respectively. The cumulative local recurrence rates for the main tumour at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years were 18%, 22%, 25%, 28% and 28%, respectively. The cumulative new tumour recurrence rates at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years were 24%, 40%, 43%, 60% and 62%, respectively. Conclusion: CT-guided single high-dose PAI is safe and effective for the treatment of SHCC after long-term follow-up.

  15. Image analysis driven single-cell analytics for systems microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balomenos, Athanasios D; Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Aspridou, Zafiro; Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P; Manolakos, Elias S

    2017-04-04

    Time-lapse microscopy is an essential tool for capturing and correlating bacterial morphology and gene expression dynamics at single-cell resolution. However state-of-the-art computational methods are limited in terms of the complexity of cell movies that they can analyze and lack of automation. The proposed Bacterial image analysis driven Single Cell Analytics (BaSCA) computational pipeline addresses these limitations thus enabling high throughput systems microbiology. BaSCA can segment and track multiple bacterial colonies and single-cells, as they grow and divide over time (cell segmentation and lineage tree construction) to give rise to dense communities with thousands of interacting cells in the field of view. It combines advanced image processing and machine learning methods to deliver very accurate bacterial cell segmentation and tracking (F-measure over 95%) even when processing images of imperfect quality with several overcrowded colonies in the field of view. In addition, BaSCA extracts on the fly a plethora of single-cell properties, which get organized into a database summarizing the analysis of the cell movie. We present alternative ways to analyze and visually explore the spatiotemporal evolution of single-cell properties in order to understand trends and epigenetic effects across cell generations. The robustness of BaSCA is demonstrated across different imaging modalities and microscopy types. BaSCA can be used to analyze accurately and efficiently cell movies both at a high resolution (single-cell level) and at a large scale (communities with many dense colonies) as needed to shed light on e.g. how bacterial community effects and epigenetic information transfer play a role on important phenomena for human health, such as biofilm formation, persisters' emergence etc. Moreover, it enables studying the role of single-cell stochasticity without losing sight of community effects that may drive it.

  16. Cyano-substituted oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) single-crystal with balanced hole and electron injection and transport for ambipolar field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Tang, Jia; Xu, Yuanxiang; Liu, Liqun; Wang, Yan; Xie, Zengqi; Ma, Yuguang

    2015-02-07

    High and balanced hole and electron mobilities were achieved in OFETs based on the high photoluminescence of a 1,4-bis(2-cyano-2-phenylethenyl)benzene single-crystal with symmetric electrodes. For electron and hole, the operation voltage in the OFETs based on symmetric gold electrodes was 30 and -20 V, respectively. The accumulation threshold voltage is low enough for the OFETs to operate in an ambipolar model with the source/drain voltage (Vds) around 50 V despite the high injection barrier. The highest electron and hole mobility was 0.745 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 0.239 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and the current density reached 90.7 and 27.4 A cm(-2), respectively with an assumed 10 nm accumulation layer. The high mobility comes from the strong π-π interactions. In addition, the highly ordered hydrogen bonding matrix may create an efficient route to pump the charge to the inner layer which can improve the injection ability.

  17. Immersed single-drop microextraction interfaced with sequential injection analysis for determination of Cr(VI) in natural waters by electrothermal-atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, Francisco; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Single-drop microextraction (SDME) and sequential injection analysis have been hyphenated for ultratrace metal determination by Electrothermal-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETAAS). The novel method was targeted on extraction of the Cr(VI)-APDC chelate and encompasses the potential of SDME as a miniaturized and virtually solvent-free preconcentration technique, the ability of sequential injection analysis to handle samples and the versatility of furnace autosamplers for introducing microliter samples in ETAAS. The variables influencing the microextraction of Cr(VI) onto an organic solvent drop, i.e., type of organic solvent, microextraction time, stirring rate of the sample solution, drop volume, immersion depth of the drop, salting-out effect, temperature of the sample, concentration of the complexing agent and pH of the sample solution were fully investigated. For a 5 and 20 min microextraction time, the preconcentration factors were 20 and 70, respectively. The detection limit was 0.02 μg/L of Cr(VI) and the repeatability expressed as relative standard deviation was 7%. The SDME-SIA-ETAAS technique was validated against BCR CRM 544 (lyophilized solution) and applied to ultrasensitive determination of Cr(VI) in natural waters

  18. Effects of local microwave diathermy on shoulder pain and function in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy in comparison to subacromial corticosteroid injections: a single-blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabini, Alessia; Piazzini, Diana B; Bertolini, Carlo; Deriu, Laura; Saccomanno, Maristella F; Santagada, Domenico A; Sgadari, Antonio; Bernabei, Roberto; Fabbriciani, Carlo; Marzetti, Emanuele; Milano, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    Single-blind randomized clinical trial, with a follow-up of 24 weeks. To determine the effects of hyperthermia via localized microwave diathermy on pain and disability in comparison to subacromial corticosteroid injections in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Hyperthermia improves symptoms and function in several painful musculoskeletal disorders. However, the effects of microwave diathermy in rotator cuff tendinopathy have not yet been established. Ninety-two patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy and pain lasting for at least 3 months were recruited from the outpatient clinic of the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University Hospital, Rome, Italy. Participants were randomly allocated to either local microwave diathermy or subacromial corticosteroids. The primary outcome measure was the short form of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (QuickDASH). Secondary outcome measures were the Constant-Murley shoulder outcome score and a visual analog scale for pain assessment. At the end of treatment and at follow-up, both treatment groups experienced improvements in all outcome measures relative to baseline values. Changes over time in QuickDASH, Constant-Murley, and visual analog scale scores were not different between treatment arms. In patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy, the effects of localized microwave diathermy on disability, shoulder function, and pain are equivalent to those elicited by subacromial corticosteroid injections.

  19. Single-system ureteroceles in infants and children: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerin, J.M.; Baker, D.R. [Dept. of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Casale, J.A. [Dept. of Urology, Indiana University Medical Center, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the clinical and imaging findings in children who have single-system ureteroceles.Materials and methods. We reviewed the urology records and imaging studies in 32 consecutive infants and children who were diagnosed in our department with single-system ureteroceles.Results. There were 35 ureteroceles in the 32 patients - 29 were unilateral (14 right-sided, 15 left-sided) and 3 were bilateral. Twenty-five patients were boys (78 %) and 7 girls. Mean age at presentation was 0.7 years (0-9.2 years). Prenatally detected hydronephrosis or cystic renal dysplasia was the most common presentation (24 patients). Four presented with urinary infection, 2 with abdominal mass, 1 had myelomeningocele, and 1 had hypospadias. Three patients also had multiple non-urologic, congenital anomalies. Thirty-three ureteroceles were intravesical, and 2 were ectopic to the bladder neck. Twenty-four ureteroceles were associated with ipsilateral hydroureteronephrosis and 10 with ipsilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney. One patient had a normal ipsilateral kidney and a contralateral multicystic dysplastic kidney. The ureterocele was identified on at least one imaging study in each patient. Sixteen ureteroceles (47 %) everted at VCUG, mimicking paraureteral diverticula. Other variations included ureterocele prolapse and inadvertent ureterocele catheterization (1 each).Conclusions. Single-system ureterocele is an important, although uncommon cause of hydronephrosis and renal dysplasia in infants and children. Single-system ureterocele is distinguished clinically from the more common duplex-system ureterocele by its frequent occurrence in boys and its association with multicystic dysplastic kidney. Because these ureteroceles are frequently small and have a propensity to evert at VCUG, they can be mistaken for paraureteral diverticula. (orig.)

  20. Concentration-dependent optical properties of TGA stabilized CdTe Quantum dots synthesized via the single injection hydrothermal method in the ambient environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jai Kumar, B.; Mahesh, H. M.

    2017-04-01

    Thioglycolic acid (TGA) stabilized aqueous CdTe Quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized using a facile, cost efficient Single Injection Hydrothermal (SIH) method. The complete preparation of precursors and growth of QDs was carried out in the ambient environment without inter gas protection. The Cadmium and Tellurium precursors were prepared from cadmium nitrate and elemental tellurium powder with sodium borohydride as reducing agent respectively. A systematic investigation was carried out in order to study the effect of 0.04M and 0.08M TGA concentration on ease synthesis, stability and size-tunable optical absorbance, bandgap, photoluminescence (PL) and Quantum yield (QY) of CdTe QDs. The Structure of QDs was verified by XRD and optical properties by absorbance and PL spectra. Experimental results revealed that the 0.08M TGA QDs possess good chemical and optical stability with high luminescence and decent QY, ready to use in optoelectronics, photovoltaic and biological application.

  1. Investigation of ecological parameters of four-stroke SI engine, with pneumatic fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, W.; Śliwiński, K.

    2016-09-01

    The publication presents the results of tests to determine the impact of using waste fuels, alcohol, to power the engine, on the ecological parameters of the combustion engine. Alternatively fuelled with a mixture of iso- and n-butanol, indicated with "X" and "END, and gasoline and a mixture of fuel and alcohol. The object of the study was a four-stroke engine with spark ignition designed to work with a generator. Motor power was held by the modified system of pneumatic injection using hot exhaust gases developed by Prof. Stanislaw Jarnuszkiewicz, controlled by modern mechatronic systems. Tests were conducted at a constant speed for the intended use of the engine. The subject of the research was to determine the control parameters such as ignition timing, mixture composition and the degree of exhaust gas recirculation on the ecological parameters of the engine. Tests were carried out using partially quality power control. In summary we present the findings of this phase of the study.

  2. Operating characteristics of a new ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; Chang, Doo-Hee; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang-Ryul

    2014-02-01

    A new positive ion source for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research neutral beam injection (KSTAR NBI-1) system was designed, fabricated, and assembled in 2011. The characteristics of the arc discharge and beam extraction were investigated using hydrogen and helium gas to find the optimum operating parameters of the arc power, filament voltage, gas pressure, extracting voltage, accelerating voltage, and decelerating voltage at the neutral beam test stand at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in 2012. Based on the optimum operating condition, the new ion source was then conditioned, and performance tests were primarily finished. The accelerator system with enlarged apertures can extract a maximum 65 A ion beam with a beam energy of 100 keV. The arc efficiency and optimum beam perveance, at which the beam divergence is at a minimum, are estimated to be 1.0 A/kW and 2.5 uP, respectively. The beam extraction tests show that the design goal of delivering a 2 MW deuterium neutral beam into the KSTAR Tokamak plasma is achievable.

  3. Assessment of infection control practices for interventional techniques: a best evidence synthesis of safe injection practices and use of single-dose medication vials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Falco, Frank J E; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Caraway, David L; Helm Ii, Standiford; Wargo, Bradley W; Hansen, Hans; Parr, Allan T; Singh, Vijay; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2012-01-01

    It is universally accepted that transmission of bloodborne pathogens during health care procedures continues to occur because of the use of unsafe and improper injection, infusion, and medication administration practices by health care professionals in various clinical settings. This resulted in development of multiple guidelines based on case reports; however, these case reports are confounded by multiple factors without causal relationship to a single factor. Even then, single-dose vials used for multiple patients have been singled out and became the focus of infection control policies resulting in inordinate expenses for practices without improving patient safety. The cost of implementation of single dose vial policy in interventional pain management for drugs alone may cost $750 million, whereas with single use radional gloves may exceed $1 billion per year. Best evidence synthesis. To critically appraise and synthesize the literature on infection control practices for interventional techniques, including safe injection and medication vial utilization. The available literature on infection control practices was reviewed. Due to the nature of the studies involved, with the majority being case reports, and a few prospective evaluations, quality assessment and clinical relevance criteria were not applied. Data sources included relevant literature identified through searches of PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 through June 2012, literature from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles. The primary outcome measure was correlating infection to a breach of standards in infection control practices. The secondary objective was to assess the contribution of single-dose vials independently for infection. A total of 60 reports met inclusion criteria, with 16 reports related to pain management and other procedures, of which 9 reports were

  4. An Experimental Investigation of Self-Excited Combustion Dynamics in a Single Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejji, Rohan M.

    The management of combustion dynamics in gas turbine combustors has become more challenging as strict NOx/CO emission standards have led to engine operation in a narrow, lean regime. While premixed or partially premixed combustor configurations such as the Lean Premixed Pre-vaporized (LPP), Rich Quench Lean burn (RQL), and Lean Direct Injection (LDI) have shown a potential for reduced NOx emissions, they promote a coupling between acoustics, hydrodynamics and combustion that can lead to combustion instabilities. These couplings can be quite complex, and their detailed understanding is a pre-requisite to any engine development program and for the development of predictive capability for combustion instabilities through high-fidelity models. The overarching goal of this project is to assess the capability of high-fidelity simulation to predict combustion dynamics in low-emissions gas turbine combustors. A prototypical lean-direct-inject combustor was designed in a modular configuration so that a suitable geometry could be found by test. The combustor comprised a variable length air plenum and combustion chamber, air swirler, and fuel nozzle located inside a subsonic venturi. The venturi cross section and the fuel nozzle were consistent with previous studies. Test pressure was 1 MPa and variables included geometry and acoustic resonance, inlet temperatures, equivalence ratio, and type of liquid fuel. High-frequency pressure measurements in a well-instrumented metal chamber yielded frequencies and mode shapes as a function of inlet air temperature, equivalence ratio, fuel nozzle placement, and combustor acoustic resonances. The parametric survey was a significant effort, with over 105 tests on eight geometric configurations. A good dataset was obtained that could be used for both operating-point-dependent quantitative comparisons, and testing the ability of the simulation to predict more global trends. Results showed a very strong dependence of instability amplitude on

  5. Performance analysis of a small regenerative gas turbine system adopting steam injection and side-wall in finned tube evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Soo Young; Lee, Jong Jun; Kim, Tong Seop

    2009-01-01

    Small gas turbines in power range of several MWs are quite suitable for application in distributed generation as well as Community Energy Systems (CES). Humidification is an effective way to improve gas turbine performance, and steam injection is the most general and practically feasible method. This study intended to examine the effect of steam injection on the performance of several MW class gas turbines. A primary concern is given to the regenerative cycle gas turbine. The steam injection effect on the performance of a system without the regenerator (i.e. a simple cycle) is also examined. In addition, the influence of bypass of some of the exhaust gas on the performance of the gas turbine, especially the regenerative cycle gas turbine, is evaluated.

  6. Fault Severity Evaluation and Improvement Design for Mechanical Systems Using the Fault Injection Technique and Gini Concordance Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fault injection and Gini concordance based method has been developed for fault severity analysis for multibody mechanical systems concerning their dynamic properties. The fault tree analysis (FTA is employed to roughly identify the faults needed to be considered. According to constitution of the mechanical system, the dynamic properties can be achieved by solving the equations that include many types of faults which are injected by using the fault injection technique. Then, the Gini concordance is used to measure the correspondence between the performance with faults and under normal operation thereby providing useful hints of severity ranking in subsystems for reliability design. One numerical example and a series of experiments are provided to illustrate the application of the new method. The results indicate that the proposed method can accurately model the faults and receive the correct information of fault severity. Some strategies are also proposed for reliability improvement of the spacecraft solar array.

  7. A single intraperitoneal injection of bovine fetuin-A attenuates bone resorption in a murine calvarial model of particle-induced osteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Heidrun; Polan, Christina; Wedemeyer, Christian; Hilken, Gero; Schlepper, Rüdiger; Bachmann, Hagen Sjard; Grabellus, Florian; Dudda, Marcel; Jäger, Marcus; Kauther, Max Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Particle-induced osteolysis, which by definition is an aseptic inflammatory reaction to implant-derived wear debris eventually leading to local bone destruction, remains the major reason for long-term failure of orthopedic endoprostheses. Fetuin-A, a 66kDa glycoprotein with diverse functions, is found to be enriched in bone. Besides being an important inhibitor of ectopic calcification, it has been described to influence the production of mediators of inflammation. Furthermore, a regulatory role in bone metabolism has been assigned. In the present study, the influence of a single dose of bovine fetuin-A, intraperitoneally injected in mice subjected to particle-induced osteolysis of the calvaria, was analyzed. Twenty-eight male C57BL/6 mice, twelve weeks of age, were randomly divided into four groups. Groups 2 and 4 were subjected to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles placed on their calvariae while groups 1 and 3 were sham-operated. Furthermore, groups 3 and 4 received a single intraperitoneal injection of 20mg bovine fetuin-A while groups 1 and 2 were treated with physiologic saline. After 14days calvarial bone was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed using microcomputed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometrical approaches. Application of fetuin-A led to a reduction of particle-induced osteolysis in terms of visible osteolytic lesions and eroded bone surface. The reduction of bone thickness and bone volume, as elicited by UHMWPE, was alleviated by fetuin-A. In conclusion, fetuin-A was found to exert an anti-resorptive effect on particle-induced osteolysis in-vivo. Thus, fetuin-A could play a potentially osteoprotective role in the treatment of bone metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Model Based Control of Single-Phase Marine Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    these systems. Traditionally, control for this type of cooling system has been limited to open-loop control of pumps combined with a couple of local PID controllers for bypass valves to keep critical temperatures within design limits. This research considers improvements in a retrofit framework to the control...... linearization, an H∞-control design is applied to the resulting linear system. Disturbance rejection capabilities and robustness of performance for this control design methodology is compared to a baseline design derived from classical control theory. This shows promising results for the nonlinear robust design......This thesis is concerned with the problem of designing model-based control for a class of single-phase marine cooling systems. While this type of cooling system has been in existence for several decades, it is only recently that energy efficiency has become a focus point in the design and operation...

  9. Development of a Single-Axis Edge Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanshaw, R.A.

    2000-02-18

    A SIP (Societe Genevoise d'Instruments de Physique) Trioptic coordinate measuring machine was modified for calibration of high quality single-axis glass standards to an uncertainty of {+-}0.000020 inch. The modification was accomplished through the addition of a frame grabber board, vision software, a high-resolution camera, stepper motors, a two-axis motor controller, and an HP-IB interface card. An existing temperature system (hygrometer, barometer, laser interferometer system, and optics) was retained as part of the system. An existing Hewlett Packard computer was replaced with a personal computer to accommodate the frame grabber board. Each component was integrated into the existing system using Visual Basic. The system was automated for unattended measurements by creating a machine programming language, which is recognized within the main program.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Electric Controlled Injection Device Equipped on Gas Fuel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Wenqing Ge; Yanjun Zhao; Bo Li; Binbin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Since there exist the problems of engine temping and combustion instability on the heavy-duty gas fuel engine based on single-point injection system, an electronically controlled multi-point injection system utilizing moving-coil electromagnetic linear actuator and mushrooms type valve structure was developed. The influence mechanism to gas fuel intake and mixing process caused by injection pulse width and installation site of the injection device was determined by the established CFD numeric...

  11. Development of an air heating system for single family housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Gunner, Amalie; Nikolaisen, Christian Grønborg

    2017-01-01

    The initial objective of the project was to break with common thinking about Space heating and to document that air heating can be used as the sole source of heating in a single Family house. The basic idea is that the ventilation must be installed in any case and it may equally well form the heat...... source of the house - Thus the waterborne heating system can be eliminated....

  12. On the origin of nonclassicality in single systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravinda, S; Srikanth, R; Pathak, Anirban

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of certain general probability theories of single systems, we identify various nonclassical features such as incompatibility, multiple pure-state decomposability, measurement disturbance, no-cloning and the impossibility of certain universal operations, with the non-simpliciality of the state space. This is shown to naturally suggest an underlying simplex as an ontological model. Contextuality turns out to be an independent nonclassical feature, arising from the intransitivity of compatibility. (paper)

  13. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  14. Design of steam-hexane injection wells for gravity drainage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, M.E. [Fractical Solutions Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Recovery of bitumen from the Athabasca Oil Sands region has involved using the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. However, concerns with the method have been expressed because of the relatively high use of energy represented in high steam oil ratios. Several studies and field trials have investigated the addition of solvents to steam in order to reduce energy consumption levels. One of the most promising substances has been the use of hexane or a similar commercial grade naphtha mixture as a solvent, as it would match the vapor pressure curve of steam and would tend to flow and condense with the steam. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the implications of the addition of hexane to steam with respect to the design of SAGD/solvent injection wells. It reviewed the design of a typical steam-hexane injection well by first determining the expected range of injection conditions and then calculating the performance of the well. The paper also discussed specification of injection well design rates as well as the detailed injection well design. It was concluded that injection wells for steam-hexane SAGD would require the same diameter wellbores as for conventional SAGD injection wells. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  15. Introduction of a single chip TLD system for patient dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hranitzky, C.; Halda, M.; Mueller, G.; Stadtmann, H.; Obryk, B.

    2008-01-01

    A thermoluminescence dosimetry system with single detector chips was developed for patient dosimetry applications. LiF:Mg,Cu,P detector chips, dosimetry protocol, calibration, and dose calculation were prepared for measurements inside phantoms for determining organ and effective doses in medical diagnostic examinations. The first step was optimizing the readout time-temperature-profile for reaching a well resolved dosimetric peak and stability of the glow curves. A number of parameters was varied for the optimization process, e.g. preheating and heating rate. Individual chip sensitivities, residual dose and dose linearity were studied for establishing a reliable and accurate TL dosimetry system. (author)

  16. Synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems using a single transmission channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yong; Yu Xinghuo; Sun Lixia

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust sliding mode observer for synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems with multi-nonlinearities. A new control strategy is proposed for the construction of the robust sliding mode observer, which can avoid the strict conditions in the design process of Walcott-Zak observer. A new method of multi-dimensional signal transmission via single transmission channel is proposed and applied to chaos synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems with multi-nonlinearities. The simulation results are presented to validate the method

  17. MO-FG-BRA-01: Development of An Image-Guided Dosimetric Planning System for Injectable Brachytherapy Using ELP Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafata, K [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Schaal, J; Liu, W [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Cai, J [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    injection placement, and an injection volume-tapering technique, could be used to achieve D95% target coverage. Conclusion: We have preliminarily developed a novel planning framework for ELP brachytherapy. Its dosimetry accuracy has been validated against Monte Carlo, and we have started to investigate the potential advantages of injection-based planning. This system, once fully developed, will serve as the technical foundation for our novel approach.

  18. Development of a Sequential Injection Analysis System for the Determination of Saccharin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Wibowotomo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Saccharin is a powerfully sweet nonnutritive sweetener that has been approved for food-processing applications within the range of 100–1200 mg/kg. A simple, rapid, and cost-effective sequential injection analysis (SIA technique was developed to determine the saccharin level. This method is based on the reaction of saccharin with p-chloranil in an ethanol medium with a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 acceleration, and the resultant violet-red compound was detected using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at λmax = 420 nm. To ascertain the optimal conditions for the SIA system, several parameters were investigated, including buffer flow rate and volume, p-chloranil concentration, and reactant volumes (saccharin, p-chloranil, and H2O2. The optimum setup of the SIA system was achieved with a buffer flow rate, buffer volume, and draw-up time of 1.2 mL/min, 2900 µL, and ~145 s, respectively. The optimal p-chloranil concentration is 30 mM, and the best reactant volumes, presented in an ordered sequence, are as follows: 30 µL of H2O2, 450 µL of saccharin, and 150 µL of p-chloranil. The optimized SIA configuration produced a good linear calibration curve with a correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9812 in the concentration range of 20–140 mg/L and with a detection limit of 19.69 mg/L. Analytical applications in different food categories also showed acceptable recovery values in the range of 93.1–111.5%. This simple and rapid SIA system offers great feasibility for the saccharin quality control in food-product processing.

  19. Development of a Sequential Injection Analysis System for the Determination of Saccharin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowotomo, Budi; Eun, Jong-Bang; Rhee, Jong Il

    2017-12-12

    Saccharin is a powerfully sweet nonnutritive sweetener that has been approved for food-processing applications within the range of 100-1200 mg/kg. A simple, rapid, and cost-effective sequential injection analysis (SIA) technique was developed to determine the saccharin level. This method is based on the reaction of saccharin with p-chloranil in an ethanol medium with a hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) acceleration, and the resultant violet-red compound was detected using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at λ max = 420 nm. To ascertain the optimal conditions for the SIA system, several parameters were investigated, including buffer flow rate and volume, p-chloranil concentration, and reactant volumes (saccharin, p-chloranil, and H₂O₂). The optimum setup of the SIA system was achieved with a buffer flow rate, buffer volume, and draw-up time of 1.2 mL/min, 2900 µL, and ~145 s, respectively. The optimal p-chloranil concentration is 30 mM, and the best reactant volumes, presented in an ordered sequence, are as follows: 30 µL of H₂O₂, 450 µL of saccharin, and 150 µL of p-chloranil. The optimized SIA configuration produced a good linear calibration curve with a correlation coefficient (R² = 0.9812) in the concentration range of 20-140 mg/L and with a detection limit of 19.69 mg/L. Analytical applications in different food categories also showed acceptable recovery values in the range of 93.1-111.5%. This simple and rapid SIA system offers great feasibility for the saccharin quality control in food-product processing.

  20. Calculation of injection and extraction orbits for the IPCR SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, A.; Yano, Y.; Kishida, N.; Nakanishi, N.; Wada, T.

    1982-01-01

    Calculations of beam trajectories in the injection and extraction systems for the IPCR SSC were done and the characteristics of those elements were determined. Beam centering for single turn extraction by use of first harmonic fields were also studied. The rather simple conditions at the injection point for a well-centered acceleration orbit are also discussed