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Sample records for single subject study

  1. SSDOnt: An Ontology for Representing Single-Subject Design Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berges, Idoia; Bermúdez, Jesus; Illarramendi, Arantza

    2018-02-01

    Single-Subject Design is used in several areas such as education and biomedicine. However, no suited formal vocabulary exists for annotating the detailed configuration and the results of this type of research studies with the appropriate granularity for looking for information about them. Therefore, the search for those study designs relies heavily on a syntactical search on the abstract, keywords or full text of the publications about the study, which entails some limitations. To present SSDOnt, a specific purpose ontology for describing and annotating single-subject design studies, so that complex questions can be asked about them afterwards. The ontology was developed following the NeOn methodology. Once the requirements of the ontology were defined, a formal model was described in a Description Logic and later implemented in the ontology language OWL 2 DL. We show how the ontology provides a reference model with a suitable terminology for the annotation and searching of single-subject design studies and their main components, such as the phases, the intervention types, the outcomes and the results. Some mappings with terms of related ontologies have been established. We show as proof-of-concept that classes in the ontology can be easily extended to annotate more precise information about specific interventions and outcomes such as those related to autism. Moreover, we provide examples of some types of queries that can be posed to the ontology. SSDOnt has achieved the purpose of covering the descriptions of the domain of single-subject research studies. Schattauer GmbH.

  2. Studies Using Single-Subject Designs in Sport Psychology: 30 Years of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G. L.; Thompson, K.; Regehr, K.

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we…

  3. Effectiveness of standing frame on constipation in children with cerebral palsy: a single-subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivi, Elena; Filippi, Mariacristina; Fornasari, Elisa; Mascia, Maria Teresa; Ferrari, Adriano; Costi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) and quadriplegia or severe diplegia suffer from highly reduced mobility and consequent constipation. Clinicians recommend standing frames to exercise the support reaction in this population, sharing the opinion that the upright position may facilitate intestinal transit, although no evidence supports this assumption. We conducted this study to determine the effects of the standing frame on spontaneous evacuation in children with CP. Moreover, we studied its effects on the frequency of induction of evacuation, the characteristics of the stool and the pain suffered by the child due to constipation and/or evacuation. We implemented a single-subject research design in one chronically constipated child with CP and quadriplegia, Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. To monitor the effects of the standing frame, we measured the outcome of interest throughout the study using a daily diary and the Bristol Stool Scale. This study was approved by the local Ethics Committee. This study has several limitation; primarily, the use of a single-subject research design only makes possible the visual analysis of data obtained from a unique patient. So, by themselves, data obtained do not allow us any generalization for the target population. Future research should verify our results collecting more data and also investigating the effect of the standing-frame on respiratory functions. Although the standing frame did not affect the frequency of evacuations or the characteristics of the stool, its employment reduced the inductions of evacuation and the related pain suffered by the child. However, this study has several limitations, such as the lack of generalization due to the fact that we studied a unique patient and the overall brevity of the study due to external circumstances. Therefore, we suggest future research to verify our results, also investigating the effect of the standing frame on respiratory functions. Relevance to clinical

  4. Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Jörg; Grote, Karsten; Luchtefeld, Maren; Heuer, Wieland; Schuett, Harald; Divchev, Dimitar; Scherer, Ralph; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Langfeldt, Daniela; Stumpp, Nico; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Schieffer, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike

    2013-01-01

    We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, Pgingivitis. Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL: http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Default.aspx.

  5. Improving Treatment Plan Implementation in Schools: A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, George H.; Gansle, Kristin A.; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Knox, R. Maria; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Dahir, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-nine peer-reviewed journal articles that analyzed intervention implementation in schools using single-case experimental designs were meta-analyzed. These studies reported 171 separate data paths and provided 3,991 data points. The meta-analysis was accomplished by fitting data extracted from graphs in mixed linear growth models. This…

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF ROCABADO'S TECHNIQUE FOR SUBJECTS WITH TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION - A SINGLE BLIND STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niha Siraj Mulla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:A temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction or TMD is a group of conditions characterized by pain in the muscles of mastication, the temporo-mandiblar joint or both. Rocabado has described techniques includes the Rocabado’s manipulation and Rocabado’s exercises which have both been individually advocated for treatment of TMD. The purpose of study is to determine the effectiveness of Rocabado’s techniques on TMJ dysfunction symptoms, pain, TMJ Range of Motion (ROM and jaw functional limitation for subjects with temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. Method: Pre to post test experimental study design, subjects with temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction randomized into two groups with 15 subjects into each group with total of 30 subjects in Study and control group, respectively. The study group received the Rocabado’s technique which consisted of Rocabado’s non-thrust TMJ manipulation and Rocabado’s exercises along with conventional TMJ exercises and the control group received only conventional TMJ exercises. The exercises were performed for 6 times per each session, six times in a day, one session under supervision and remaining five sessions by the subject at home for 6 days in a week for duration of 2 weeks. The outcome measurements such as VAS for pain, TMJ ROM, Fonseca’s questionnaire rating for TMJ dysfunction symptoms and jaw function limitation score (JFLS was measured before and after two weeks of intervention. Results: Comparative analysis, using Independent ‘t’ test and Mann Whitney U- test found that the means of VAS, TMJ ROM, Fonseca’s questionnaire and JFLS scores showed statistically significant difference (p <0.05 when the pre-intervention means and post-intervention means were compared between two groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that Rocabado’s technique found to have statistically and clinically significant added effect with conventional TMJ exercises shown greater percentage of improvements obtained

  7. Picture Exchange Communication System with Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephanie L.; Banda, Devender R.

    2010-01-01

    Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a picture-based communication strategy used to teach communication skills to persons with developmental disabilities including autism. This article systematically reviews 13 published single-subject studies to examine the effectiveness of PECS, the effects of PECS on speech and problem behaviors,…

  8. Whispering--a single-subject study of glottal configuration and aerodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Johan; Scherer, Ronald; Hess, Markus; Müller, Frank

    2010-09-01

    Whisper productions were produced by a single adult male subject over a wide range of subglottal pressures, glottal areas, and glottal flows. Dimensional measurements were made of these three variables, including glottal perimeter. Subglottal pressure was directly obtained by a pressure transducer in a tracheal catheter, and wide-band flow with a pneumotach mask. Four types of whispers were used-hyperfunctional, hypofunctional, neutral, and postphonation-in addition to three levels of loudness (soft, medium, loud). Sequences of the /pae/ syllable were used. Video recordings of the larynx were made. The glottis was outlined by hand with extrapolation for unseen parts, and area and perimeter were obtained through image analysis software. The whisper tokens resulted in the following wide ranges: subglottal pressure: 1.3-17 cm H2O; glottal flow: 0.9-1.71 L/s; glottal area: 0.065-1.76 m2; and glottal perimeter: 1.09-6.55 cm. Hyperfunctional whisper tended to have higher subglottal pressures and lower areas and flows than hypofunctional whisper, with neutral and postphonation whisper values in between. An important finding is that glottal flow changed more for small changes of area when the area was already small, and did not create much flow change when area was changed for already larger areas; that is, whisper is "more sensitive" to airflow changes for smaller glottal areas. A general equation for whisper aerodynamics was obtained, namely, P (subglottal pressure [cm H2O])=C X F (glottal flow [cm(3)/s]), where C = 0.052 x A(4) - 0.1913 x A(3) + 0.2577 x A(2) - 0.1523 x A+0.0388, where A is the glottal area (cm(2)). Another general equation for nondimensional terms (pressure coefficient vs Reynolds number) also is offered. Implications for whisper flow resistance and aerodynamic power are given. These results give insight into whisper aerodynamics and offer equations relevant to speech synthesis. Copyright © 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  9. Decreasing Excessive Media Usage while Increasing Physical Activity: A Single-Subject Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larwin, Karen H.; Larwin, David A.

    2008-01-01

    The Kaiser Family Foundation released a report entitled "Kids and Media Use" in the United States that concluded that children's use of media--including television, computers, Internet, video games, and phones--may be one of the primary contributor's to the poor fitness and obesity of many of today's adolescents. The present study examines the…

  10. Volumetric Analysis from a Harmonized Multisite Brain MRI Study of a Single Subject with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, R T; Oh, J; Nair, G; Calabresi, P A; Davatzikos, C; Doshi, J; Henry, R G; Kim, G; Linn, K A; Papinutto, N; Pelletier, D; Pham, D L; Reich, D S; Rooney, W; Roy, S; Stern, W; Tummala, S; Yousuf, F; Zhu, A; Sicotte, N L; Bakshi, R

    2017-08-01

    MR imaging can be used to measure structural changes in the brains of individuals with multiple sclerosis and is essential for diagnosis, longitudinal monitoring, and therapy evaluation. The North American Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis Cooperative steering committee developed a uniform high-resolution 3T MR imaging protocol relevant to the quantification of cerebral lesions and atrophy and implemented it at 7 sites across the United States. To assess intersite variability in scan data, we imaged a volunteer with relapsing-remitting MS with a scan-rescan at each site. All imaging was acquired on Siemens scanners (4 Skyra, 2 Tim Trio, and 1 Verio). Expert segmentations were manually obtained for T1-hypointense and T2 (FLAIR) hyperintense lesions. Several automated lesion-detection and whole-brain, cortical, and deep gray matter volumetric pipelines were applied. Statistical analyses were conducted to assess variability across sites, as well as systematic biases in the volumetric measurements that were site-related. Systematic biases due to site differences in expert-traced lesion measurements were significant ( P 90% of the variation (range, 13.0-16.4 mL in T1 and 15.9-20.1 mL in T2) in lesion volumes. Site also explained >80% of the variation in most automated volumetric measurements. Output measures clustered according to scanner models, with similar results from the Skyra versus the other 2 units. Even in multicenter studies with consistent scanner field strength and manufacturer after protocol harmonization, systematic differences can lead to severe biases in volumetric analyses. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  11. Handbook of statistical methods single subject design

    CERN Document Server

    Satake, Eiki; Maxwell, David L

    2008-01-01

    This book is a practical guide of the most commonly used approaches in analyzing and interpreting single-subject data. It arranges the methodologies used in a logical sequence using an array of research studies from the existing published literature to illustrate specific applications. The book provides a brief discussion of each approach such as visual, inferential, and probabilistic model, the applications for which it is intended, and a step-by-step illustration of the test as used in an actual research study.

  12. Assessment of paraspinal muscle hardness in subjects with a mild single scoliosis curve: a preliminary myotonometer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Barbosa-Romero, Alejandro; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Jesús; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Tejero-García, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hardness of the paraspinal muscles in the convexity and concavity of patients with scoliosis curvatures and in the upper trapezius (UT) muscle in subjects with mild idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and to observe the correlation between the myotonometer (MYO) measurements and the value of body mass index (BMI) and the Cobb angle. The sample included 13 patients with a single-curve mild IS (Risser sign ≤ 4) at thoracic, lumbar, or thoracolumbar level (mean Cobb angle of 11.53º). Seven females and 6 males were recruited, with a mean age of 12.84 ± 3.06 (9-18) years. A MYO was used to examine the differences in muscle hardness on both sides of the scoliosis curvature at several points: (a) apex of the curve, (b) upper and lower limits of the curve, and (c) the midpoint between the apex and the upper limit and between the apex and the lower limit. The UT was also explored. Although the MYO recorded lower values in all points on the concave side of the scoliosis, there were no significant differences in the comparison between sides (P > .05). No association was observed between BMI and MYO values, whereas the Cobb angle negatively correlated with muscle hardness only at 2 points on the convex side. The preliminary findings show that, in subjects with a single-curve mild IS, muscular hardness in the UT and paraspinal muscles, as assessed using a MYO, was not found to differ between the concave and the convex sides at different reference levels. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Can Air Seat Cushions and Ball Chairs Improved Classroom Behaviors of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Single Subject Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Matin Sadr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Classroom behaviorsare disturbed in autistic students because of their repetitive, restlessness, and disruptive behaviors. This study aimed to examine the impacts of sitting on a ball, cushion, and/or common chair on classroom behavior of four students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Methods: Four children with Autism participated in this single-subject study. Students’ behaviors were video recorded in three phases: Sitting on their common chairs during phase A, air-sit cushioned in phase B, and ball chairs in phase C. Sitting times and on-task/off-task behaviors were quantified by momentary time sampling (every 10 seconds and compared during different phases for important changes. Social validity was taken by the teacher at the end of the research as well. Results: The findings demonstrated increases in on-task and in-seat behaviors in four students when seated on air sit cushioned chairs. Despite rises of ontask behaviors for all students, only two of the students showed enhanced inseat behaviors when seated on therapy balls. Social validity findings indicated that the teacher preferred the use of the balls and air-cushioned chairs for her students. Conclusion: Therapy balls/cushioned chairs for students with ASD may facilitate in-seat and on-task behavior.

  14. The Utility of Single Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle D.

    2016-01-01

    Single subject design (SSD) research is a quantitative approach used to investigate basic and applied research questions. It has been used for decades to examine issues of social importance such as those related to general and special education strategies, therapeutic approaches in mental health, community health practices, safety, and business…

  15. COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF SPENCER TECHNIQUE VERSUS MULLIGANS TECHNIQUE FOR SUBJECTS WITH FROZEN SHOULDER A SINGLE BLIND STUDY

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    P. Khyathi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among many interventions for subjects with frozen shoulder, mobilization techniques are the important techniques of intervention. However the opinions about efficacy of mobilization techniques differ. Hence, the purpose of this study to compare the effectiveness of Mulligan’s mobilization with movement with that of Spencer technique on improving pain, abduction and external rotation ROM and functional disability in subjects with frozen shoulder. Method: An experimental study design, 40 subjects with unilateral frozen shoulder were randomized into 2 groups with 20 subjects each in Mulligan and in Spencer group. Subjects in Mulligan group received Mulligan mobilization with movement (MWM and subjects in Spencer group received Spencer technique and conventional exercises was given for both the groups. The duration of intervention was one treatment sessions per day for five days. Outcome measurements such as pain using VAS, shoulder abduction and external rotation ROM using goniometer and functional disability using SPADI were measured before and after five days of intervention. Results: Analysis using paired ‘t’ test and wilcoxon signed rank test found that there is a statistically significant improvement (p<0.05 in pain, shoulder mobility and functional disability within the groups. Comparative analysis using independent ‘t’ test and Mann Whitney U test found that there is no statistically significant difference in improving pain between MWM and Spencer group. However MWM group found significantly greater improvement in shoulder mobility and functional disability comparative with Spencer technique. Conclusion: It is concluded that both MWM and Spencer technique are shown to have short term effect on improving pain, shoulder mobility and functional disability. However, MWM was found clinically more effective with greater percentage of improvement on improving shoulder abduction, external rotation ROM and functional disability

  16. Soothing and anti-itch effect of quercetin phytosome in human subjects: a single-blind study

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    Maramaldi G

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Giada Maramaldi,1 Stefano Togni,1 Ivan Pagin,1 Luca Giacomelli,2 Roberta Cattaneo,3 Roberto Eggenhöffner,2 Samuele E Burastero4 1Indena S.p.A, Milan, 2Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics, School of Medicine, Genova University, Genoa, 3Abich Srl, Verbania, 4San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, ItalyBackground: We evaluated the ability of quercetin, a natural antioxidant formulated in a specific delivery system, to reduce skin inflammation induced by a variety of stimuli, including UV radiation, stimulation with a histamine solution, or contact with chemical irritants. In particular, we tested the soothing and anti-itch effect of Quercevita®, 1% cream for external use, a formulation characterized by a phospholipids-based delivery system.Patients and methods: The study was a monocentric, single blind trial that enrolled a group of 30 healthy volunteers. The back of each subject was examined to identify four quadrants with no previous skin damage or naevi that were treated in order to induce a controlled and reversible form of skin stress. The areas were treated as follows: no product; Quercevita® 1% cream, 2 mg/cm2; placebo; positive control (a commercially available topical formulation containing 1% dexchlorpheniramine.Results: Only quercetin phospholipids 1% and dexchlorpheniramine 1% achieved a significant reduction in erythema with comparable results: (–10.05% [P=0.00329] for quercetin phospholipids 1% vs –14.05% [P=0.00046] for the positive control. Moreover, quercetin phospholipids 1% and dexchlorpheniramine 1% were both associated with a significant decrease in mean wheal diameter: (–13.25% and –12.23% for dexchlorpheniramine 1%, respectively. Similar findings were reported for the other tested parameters.Conclusion: Quercetin has a skin protective effect against damage caused by a variety of insults, including UV radiation, histamine, or contact with toxic chemical compounds. Indeed, quercetin is able

  17. Single- and Multiple-Dose Study To Determine the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Ceftaroline Fosamil in Combination with Avibactam in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Riccobene, Todd A.; Su, Sheng Fang; Rank, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of intravenous doses of ceftaroline fosamil administered in combination with the novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam in healthy adults. In the single-dose, open-label arm, 12 subjects received single 1-h intravenous infusions of ceftaroline fosamil alone (600 mg), avibactam alone (600 mg), and ceftaroline fosamil in combination with avibactam (600/600 mg) separated by 5-day washout periods. In ...

  18. Evidence-Based Communication Practices for Children with Visual Impairments and Additional Disabilities: An Examination of Single-Subject Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Amy T.; Grimmett, Eric S.; Summers, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This review examines practices for building effective communication strategies for children with visual impairments, including those with additional disabilities, that have been tested by single-subject design methodology. The authors found 30 studies that met the search criteria and grouped intervention strategies to align any evidence of the…

  19. An electrocorticographic BCI using code-based VEP for control in video applications: A single-subject study

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    Christoph eKapeller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A brain-computer-interface (BCI allows the user to control a device or software with brain activity. Many BCIs rely on visual stimuli with constant stimulation cycles that elicit steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP in the electroencephalogram (EEG. This EEG response can be generated with a LED or a computer screen flashing at a constant frequency, and similar EEG activity can be elicited with pseudo-random stimulation sequences on a screen (code-based BCI. Using electrocorticography (ECoG instead of EEG promises higher spatial and temporal resolution and leads to more dominant evoked potentials due to visual stimulation. This work is focused on BCIs based on visual evoked potentials (VEP and its capability as a continuous control interface for augmentation of video applications. One 35 year old female subject with implanted subdural grids participated in the study. The task was to select one out of four visual targets, while each was flickering with a code sequence. After a calibration run including 200 code sequences, a linear classifier was used during an evaluation run to identify the selected visual target based on the generated code-based VEPs over 20 trials. Multiple ECoG buffer lengths were tested and subject reached a mean online classification accuracy of 99.21 % for a window length of 3.15 s. Finally, the subject performed an unsupervised free run in combination with visual feedback of the current selection. Additionally, an algorithm was implemented that allowed to suppress false positive selections and this allowed the subject to start and stop the BCI at any time. The code-based BCI system attained very high online accuracy, which makes this approach very promising for control applications where a continuous control signal is needed.

  20. The Effect of Isomaltulose Together with Green Tea on Glycemic Response and Antioxidant Capacity: A Single-Blind, Crossover Study in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Suraphad, Passakorn; Suklaew, Phim On; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai; M?kynen, Kittana

    2017-01-01

    Isomaltulose, a naturally-occurring isomer of sucrose, is commonly used as an alternative sweetener in foods and beverages. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of isomaltulose together with green tea on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentration, as well as antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 15 healthy subjects (eight women and seven men; ages 23.5 ? 0.7 years; with body mass index of 22.6 ? 0.4 kg/m2) consumed f...

  1. Safety and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple intravenous bolus doses of diclofenac sodium compared with oral diclofenac potassium 50 mg: A randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in healthy subjects.

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    Munjal, Sagar; Gautam, Anirudh; Okumu, Franklin; McDowell, James; Allenby, Kent

    2016-01-01

    In a randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in 42 healthy adults, the safety and pharmacokinetic parameters of an intravenous formulation of 18.75 and 37.5 mg diclofenac sodium (DFP-08) following single- and multiple-dose bolus administration were compared with diclofenac potassium 50 mg oral tablets. Mean AUC0-inf values for a 50-mg oral tablet and an 18.75-mg intravenous formulation were similar (1308.9 [393.0]) vs 1232.4 [147.6]). As measured by the AUC, DFP-08 18.75 mg and 37.5 mg demonstrated dose proportionality for extent of exposure. One subject in each of the placebo and DFP-08 18.75-mg groups and 2 subjects in the DFP-08 37.5-mg group reported adverse events that were considered by the investigator to be related to the study drug. All were mild in intensity and did not require treatment. Two subjects in the placebo group and 1 subject in the DFP-08 18.75-mg group reported grade 1 thrombophlebitis; no subjects reported higher than grade 1 thrombophlebitis after receiving a single intravenous dose. The 18.75- and 37.5-mg doses of intravenous diclofenac (single and multiple) were well tolerated for 7 days. Additional efficacy and safety studies are required to fully characterize the product. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  2. Single-Subject Research Methodology: An Underutilized Tool in the Field of Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Anderson, Glenn

    1986-01-01

    Single-subject research methods are simple, powerful, and very applicable to selected study of deafness. This article considers group versus single-subject designs; an example of withdrawal single-subject design; and an example of the multiple baseline single-subject design. (CB)

  3. Functional aspects of treatment with implant-supported single crowns: a quality control study in subjects with tooth agenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goshima, Kenichi; Lexner, Michala O; Thomsen, Carsten Eckhart

    2010-01-01

    after implant placement shortly before crown cementation, and again 1 month after cementation. It consisted of questionnaires [including Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49)] and functional examination with plastic strips, the Dental Prescale Film and the Occluzer system, Xylitol color-changeable gum......BACKGROUND: No comprehensive patient-centered and clinical evaluations of the functional effect of treatment with implant-supported single crowns (ISSC) have been reported previously. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether and how treatment with ISSC affects masticatory function and Oral Health...

  4. Single- and multiple-dose study to determine the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of ceftaroline fosamil in combination with avibactam in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccobene, Todd A; Su, Sheng Fang; Rank, Douglas

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of intravenous doses of ceftaroline fosamil administered in combination with the novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam in healthy adults. In the single-dose, open-label arm, 12 subjects received single 1-h intravenous infusions of ceftaroline fosamil alone (600 mg), avibactam alone (600 mg), and ceftaroline fosamil in combination with avibactam (600/600 mg) separated by 5-day washout periods. In the multiple-dose, placebo-controlled, double-blind arm, 48 subjects received intravenous infusions of ceftaroline fosamil/avibactam at 600/600 mg every 12 h (q12h), 400/400 mg q8h, 900/900 mg q12h, 600/600 mg q8h, or placebo for 10 days. Ceftaroline and avibactam levels in plasma and urine were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. No significant differences in systemic exposure of ceftaroline or avibactam were observed when the drugs were administered alone versus concomitantly, indicating that there was no apparent pharmacokinetic interaction between ceftaroline fosamil and avibactam administered as a single dose. No appreciable accumulation of either drug occurred with multiple intravenous doses of ceftaroline fosamil/avibactam, and pharmacokinetic parameters for ceftaroline and avibactam were similar on days 1 and 10. Infusions of ceftaroline fosamil/avibactam were well tolerated at total daily doses of up to 1,800 mg of each compound, and all adverse events (AEs) were mild to moderate in severity. Infusion-site reactions were the most common AEs reported with multiple dosing. The pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of ceftaroline fosamil/avibactam demonstrate that the 2 drugs can be administered concomitantly to provide an important broad-spectrum antimicrobial treatment option.

  5. Monitoring driver fatigue using a single-channel electroencephalographic device: A validation study by gaze-based, driving performance, and subjective data.

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    Morales, José M; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Rieiro, Héctor; Roca-González, Joaquín; Romero, Samuel; Catena, Andrés; Fuentes, Luis J; Di Stasi, Leandro L

    2017-12-01

    Driver fatigue can impair performance as much as alcohol does. It is the most important road safety concern, causing thousands of accidents and fatalities every year. Thanks to technological developments, wearable, single-channel EEG devices are now getting considerable attention as fatigue monitors, as they could help drivers to assess their own levels of fatigue and, therefore, prevent the deterioration of performance. However, the few studies that have used single-channel EEG devices to investigate the physiological effects of driver fatigue have had inconsistent results, and the question of whether we can monitor driver fatigue reliably with these EEG devices remains open. Here, we assessed the validity of a single-channel EEG device (TGAM-based chip) to monitor changes in mental state (from alertness to fatigue). Fifteen drivers performed a 2-h simulated driving task while we recorded, simultaneously, their prefrontal brain activity and saccadic velocity. We used saccadic velocity as the reference index of fatigue. We also collected subjective ratings of alertness and fatigue, as well as driving performance. We found that the power spectra of the delta EEG band showed an inverted U-shaped quadratic trend (EEG power spectra increased for the first hour and half, and decreased during the last thirty minutes), while the power spectra of the beta band linearly increased as the driving session progressed. Coherently, saccadic velocity linearly decreased and speeding time increased, suggesting a clear effect of fatigue. Subjective data corroborated these conclusions. Overall, our results suggest that the TGAM-based chip EEG device is able to detect changes in mental state while performing a complex and dynamic everyday task as driving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of a telmisartan/rosuvastatin fixed-dose combination: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study in healthy Korean subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Dong Woo; Son, Mijeong; Kim, Yukyung; Son, Hankil; Jang, Seong Bok; Seo, Jeong Min; Nam, Su Youn; Park, Kyungsoo

    2015-10-01

    As hypertension and dyslipidemia are frequent comorbidities, antihypertensive drugs and lipid-lowering agents are often prescribed together for their treatment. Telmisartan and rosuvastatin are widely used together to treat hypertension and dyslipidemia. A combination formulation of these two drugs would improve patient compliance due to ease of dosing. The purpose of this study was to assess bioequivalence of single-dose administration of a newly-developed fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet containing telmisartan/rosuvastatin 80/20 mg (test treatment) and coadministration of a telmisartan 80-mg tablet and a rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet (reference treatment) in healthy Korean male volunteers. This was a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study enrolling healthy males aged 20 - 50 years with BMI between 18.5 and 25 kg/m2. Each subject received a single dose of the reference and test treatments with a 14-day washout period. Blood sampling was performed at prespecified intervals for up to 72 hours after dosing. Primary pharmacokinetic parameters were Cmax, AUClast, and AUC0-∞ of telmisartan, rosuvastatin, and N-desmethyl rosuvastatin. Bioequivalence was assessed by determining whether the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios (test treatment/reference treatment) of these parameters were within the standard range of 80% to 125%. Adverse events were monitored via regular interviews with the subjects and by physical examinations. 60 subjects were enrolled and 55 completed the study. The 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios of Cmax, AUClast, and AUC00-∞ were 0.9262-1.1498, 0.9294-1.0313, and 0.9312-1.0320 for telmisartan, 0.9041-1.0428, 0.9262-1.0085, and 0.9307-1.0094 for rosuvastatin, and 0.8718-1.0022, 0.8901-0.9904, and 0.8872-0.9767 for N-desmethyl rosuvastatin, respectively. There was no statistical difference in the incidence of adverse events (AEs) (all of which were mild or moderate) between the reference and test

  7. The Effect of Isomaltulose Together with Green Tea on Glycemic Response and Antioxidant Capacity: A Single-Blind, Crossover Study in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraphad, Passakorn; Suklaew, Phim On; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Mäkynen, Kittana

    2017-05-06

    Isomaltulose, a naturally-occurring isomer of sucrose, is commonly used as an alternative sweetener in foods and beverages. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of isomaltulose together with green tea on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentration, as well as antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 15 healthy subjects (eight women and seven men; ages 23.5 ± 0.7 years; with body mass index of 22.6 ± 0.4 kg/m²) consumed five beverages: (1) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL water; (2) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of water; (3) 400 mL of green tea; (4) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL of green tea; and (5) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of green tea. Incremental area under postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were determined during 120 min of administration. Following the consumption of isomaltulose, the incremental 2-h area under the curve (AUC 0-2 h ) indicated a higher reduction of postprandial glucose (43.4%) and insulin concentration (42.0%) than the consumption of sucrose. The addition of green tea to isomaltulose produced a greater suppression of postprandial plasma glucose (20.9%) and insulin concentration (37.7%). In accordance with antioxidant capacity, consumption of sucrose (40.0%) and isomaltulose (28.7%) caused the reduction of green tea-induced postprandial increases in FRAP. A reduction in postprandial MDA after drinking green tea was attenuated when consumed with sucrose (34.7%) and isomaltulose (17.2%). In conclusion, green tea could enhance the reduction of postprandial glucose and insulin concentration when consumed with isomaltulose. In comparison with sucrose, isomaltulose demonstrated less alteration of plasma antioxidant capacity after being consumed with green tea.

  8. Yield and energy absorption in single and multi-phase glassy polymers subjected to multiaxial stress states: Theoretical and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Ramaswamy

    This thesis investigates the macroscopic yield behavior and microscopic energy absorption mechanisms in single and multiphase polymers. One unique aspect is the evaluation of polymers under multiaxial loading conditions. This is important because in many applications polymers are subjected to complex loading conditions and hence optimal design requires experimental evaluation and modeling of behavior under multiaxial stress states. This work has resulted in a more quantitative understanding of yield and energy absorption in the different polymers considered. Multiaxial stress states are achieved using thin-walled hollow cylinder specimens. The hollow tubes are simultaneously subjected to internal pressure and axial load, leading to biaxial stress states. Stress states ranging from uniaxial compression to equibiaxial tension are interrogated using the same specimen geometry, a procedure uncovering true material behavior. In the first part of this study, a generalized model for the yield behavior of single-phase polymers is evaluated for a polycarbonate system. The generalized model accounts not only accounts for viscoelasticity (i.e., rate and temperature dependence) but also the effect of pressure on yield behavior. The effects of physical aging on the behavior of amorphous polycarbonate are also highlighted. For rubber-modified polymers, existing models for both macroscopic yield behavior and the onset of microscopic damage (e.g., cavitation) are evaluated under multiaxial conditions (chapter 3). Serious discrepancies are found for both cases, prompting an investigation into the nature of energy absorption mechanisms in the materials. Apart from the chosen rubber-modified systems, a toughening mechanism in the form of overlapping parallel cracks is identified to be generic to a range of polymers (chapter 4). The last part of the thesis (chapter 5) involves a quantitative investigation of interactions in overlapping crack patterns. This effort is vital, because for

  9. Esophageal transit and in vivo disintegration of branded risedronate sodium tablets and two generic formulations of alendronic acid tablets: a single-center, single-blind, six-period crossover study in healthy female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Alan C; Blackshaw, P Elaine; Hay, Peter D; Lawes, Simon C; Atherton, Clare T; Dansereau, Richard J; Wagner, Leigh K; Schnell, Dan J; Spiller, Robin C

    2008-05-01

    Delayed esophageal transit or disintegration of oral bisphosphonate tablets before they enter the stomach may be of concern with respect to iatrogenic complications among patients receiving longterm treatment. Different formulations of generic bisphosphonate tablets meeting regulatory requirements may have substantial differences in pharmaceutical attributes from the branded product that may result in different characteristics during esophageal transit. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate and compare esophageal transit times and in vivo disintegration of 3 bisphosphonate formulations, one branded and the others generic, that are commercially available in Canada and the United Kingdom. This was a single-center, randomized, singleblind, 6-period crossover study in healthy postmenopausal women aged >50 years. Each subject received a single oral dose of a branded risedronate sodium 35-mg tablet and 2 generic formulations of alendronic acid 70-mg tablets (Novopharm Limited, Toronto, Canada, and Teva UK Limited, Morley, United Kingdom) in both the erect and semisupine (45 degrees ) positions. Although the products are labeled to be taken in the erect position, the semisupine position was included to simulate dosing in bedridden patients. Subjects took tablets with 30 mL of water in the morning after an overnight fast. The tablets were radiolabeled with technetium-99m ion-exchange resins to enable visualization and measurement of esophageal transit time and disintegration using a gamma camera. Dynamic scintigraphic images were obtained for a total of 10 minutes: 2 images per second for the first 30 seconds and 1 image every 15 seconds for 9.5 minutes. This was a mechanistic study and tolerability was not assessed. The study was conducted in 20 healthy white female subjects with a mean age of 62 years (range, 51-77 years). The effect of body position was statistically significant (P = 0.043), with the estimated hazard ratio (HR) of 0.74 indicating longer

  10. Exploring the Effects of Using an Oral Appliance to Reduce Movement Dysfunction in an Individual With Parkinson Disease: A Single-Subject Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Hillary; Rose, Lindsey E; Woodbrey, Megan; Arghavani, David; Lawrence, Michael; Cavanaugh, James T

    2017-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest that wearing an oral appliance can improve the gait and balance of an individual with Parkinson disease (PD). Our primary purpose was to systematically explore this effect using a single-subject study design and quantitative motion analysis. Secondarily, we sought to examine the quality-of-life outcomes following 1-month of routine oral appliance wear. The participant was a 73-year-old ambulatory man with mid-stage PD. Using an A-B-A design, for which a custom-made oral appliance served as the intervention, kinematic and kinetic data were captured during performance of Four Square Step Test, serpentine walk, and tandem walk tasks. Grip strength was quantified with a dynamometer. Quality-of-life outcomes were collected after 1 month of appliance wear using the Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39). Perceived changes in balance, mobility, and quality of life were captured from the participant using an 11-point Global Rate of Change (GRC) scale. Changes in mobility, postural control, and grip strength during appliance wear were suggestive of reduced movement dysfunction. The PDQ-39 revealed a significant improvement in quality of life, primarily related to increased emotional well-being, decreased stigma, and increased communication. GRC scores indicated a clinically significant improvement in ease of movement in the community (+3), ease of movement during the performance of activities of daily living (+4), and in standing balance while performing activities of daily living (+4). Study findings provided quantitative evidence supporting the effectiveness of oral appliance wear for reducing movement dysfunction in a patient with mid-stage PD.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A155).

  11. AHSG tag single nucleotide polymorphisms associate with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia: studies of metabolic traits in 7,683 white Danish subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gitte; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Sparsø, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    been largely successful. We related seven frequent AHSG tag single nucleotide polymorphisms to a range of metabolic traits, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The polymorphisms were genotyped in 7,683 white Danish subjects using Taqman allelic...... with dyslipidemia (P = 0.003 and P(corr) = 0.009). Thr248Met (rs4917) tended to associate with lower fasting and post-oral glucose tolerance test serum insulin release (P = 0.02, P(corr) = 0.1 for fasting and P = 0.04, P(corr) = 0.2 for area under the insulin curve) and improved insulin sensitivity estimated...

  12. Integrating Language, Pragmatics, and Social Intervention in a Single-Subject Case Study of a Child With a Developmental Social Communication Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny

    2015-10-01

    This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of individualized therapy activities and in close liaison with families. The study used an enhanced AB single-subject design in which an 8-year-old child with an SCD participated in 20 therapy sessions with a specialist speech-language pathologist. A procedure of matching assessment findings to intervention choices was followed to construct an individualized treatment program. Examples of intervention content and the embedded structure of SCIP are illustrated. Observational and formal measurements of receptive and expressive language, conversation, and parent-teacher ratings of social communication were completed before therapy, after therapy, and at a 6-month follow-up session. Outcomes revealed change in total and receptive language scores but not in expressive language. Conversation showed marked improvement in responsiveness, appreciation of listener knowledge, turn taking, and adaptation of discourse style. Teacher-reported outcomes included improved classroom behavior and enhanced literacy skills. Parent-reported outcomes included improved verbal interactions with family members and personal narratives. This clinical focus article demonstrates the complexity of needs in a child with an SCD and how these can be addressed in individualized intervention. Findings are discussed in relation to the essential nature of language support including pragmatic therapy for children with SCDs. Discussion of the role of formal and functional outcome measurement as well as the proximity of chosen outcomes to the intervention is included.

  13. Effects of low-dose dobutamine on left ventricular function in normal subjects as assessed by gated single-photon emission tomography myocardial perfusion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everaert, H.; Vanhove, C.; Franken, P.R. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Free University of Brussels (Belgium)

    1999-10-01

    Electrocardiography gated single-photon emission tomography (gated SPET) allows the assessment of regional perfusion and function simultaneously and in full spatial congruency. In this study changes in global and regional left ventricular function in response to dobutamine infusion were assessed in ten healthy volunteers using sequential gated SPET myocardial perfusion acquisitions. Four consecutive gated SPET images were recorded 60 min after injection of 925 MBq technetium-99m tetrofosmin on a three-head camera equipped with focussing collimators. Two acquisitions were made at rest (baseline 1 and 2), and the third and fourth acquisitions were started 5 min after the beginning of the infusion of 5 and 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} min{sup -1} dobutamine, respectively. Systolic wall thickening (WT) was quantified using a method based on circumferential profile analysis. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and volumes were calculated automatically using the Cedars-Sinai program. Nine of the ten subjects presented a definite increase in WT during dobutamine infusion. WT increased on average from 46%{+-}14% at baseline to 71%{+-}23% (range: 37%-106%; P<0.05) during 5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} min{sup -1} dobutamine infusion and to 85%{+-}25% (range: 62%-123%; P<0.05 with respect to WT at 5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} min{sup -1}) during 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} min{sup -1} dobutamine infusion. Apical segments showed the largest WT at baseline. The average WT response to dobutamine was similar for all parts of the myocardium. It is concluded that changes in WT induced by infusion of low-dose dobutamine can be assessed by sequential gated SPET myocardial perfusion studies. The ''stress gated SPET'' protocol proposed in this study might be helpful to distinguish viable from scar tissue in patients with coronary artery disease, by demonstrating a preserved inotropic response in hypoperfused myocardium. (orig.)

  14. Microarray expression profiling of human dental pulp from single subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tete, Stefano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Scioletti, Anna Paola; Tranasi, Michelangelo; Raicu, Florina; Paolantonio, Michele; Stuppia, Liborio; Vinci, Raffaele; Gherlone, Enrico; Ciampoli, Cristian; Sberna, Maria Teresa; Conti, Pio

    2008-01-01

    Microarray is a recently developed simultaneous analysis of expression patterns of thousand of genes. The aim of this research was to evaluate the expression profile of human healthy dental pulp in order to find the presence of genes activated and encoding for proteins involved in the physiological process of human dental pulp. We report data obtained by analyzing expression profiles of human tooth pulp from single subjects, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA. Experiments were performed on a high-density array able to analyse about 21,000 oligonucleotide sequences of about 70 bases in duplicate, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA from the pulp of a single tooth. Obtained data were analyzed using the S.A.M. system (Significance Analysis of Microarray) and genes were merged according to their molecular functions and biological process by the Onto-Express software. The microarray analysis revealed 362 genes with specific pulp expression. Genes showing significant high expression were classified in genes involved in tooth development, protoncogenes, genes of collagen, DNAse, Metallopeptidases and Growth factors. We report a microarray analysis, carried out by extraction of total RNA from specimens of healthy human dental pulp tissue. This approach represents a powerful tool in the study of human normal and pathological pulp, allowing minimization of the genetic variability due to the pooling of samples from different individuals.

  15. Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Residual Symptoms in Bipolar Disorder Type II: A Single-Subject Design Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holländare, Fredrik; Eriksson, Annsofi; Lövgren, Lisa; Humble, Mats B; Boersma, Katja

    2015-04-23

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition with recurring episodes that often lead to suffering, decreased functioning, and sick leave. Pharmacotherapy in the form of mood stabilizers is widely available, but does not eliminate the risk of a new depressive or (hypo)manic episode. One way to reduce the risk of future episodes is to combine pharmacological treatment with individual or group psychological interventions. However, access to such interventions is often limited due to a shortage of trained therapists. In unipolar depression there is now robust evidence of the effectiveness of Internet-based psychological interventions, usually comprising psychoeducation and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Internet-based interventions for persons suffering from bipolar disorder could increase access to psychological treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of an Internet-based intervention, as well as its effect on residual depressive symptoms in persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II (BP-II). The most important outcomes were depressive symptoms, treatment adherence, and whether the patient perceived the intervention as helpful. A total of 7 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II at a Swedish psychiatric outpatient clinic were offered the opportunity to participate. Of the 7 patients, 3 (43%) dropped out before treatment began, and 4 (57%) were treated by means of an online, Internet-based intervention based on CBT (iCBT). The intervention was primarily aimed at psychoeducation, treatment of residual depressive symptoms, emotion regulation, and improved sleep. All patients had ongoing pharmacological treatment at recruitment and established contact with a psychiatrist. The duration of BP-II among the treated patients was between 6 and 31 years. A single-subject design was used and the results of the 4 participating patients were presented individually. Initiating treatment was perceived as too demanding under current life

  16. Creating single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R; Jackson, James W; Small, Stacey L; Horner-King, Mollie J; Lik, Nicholas Mui Ker; Garcia, Yors; Rosales, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the publication of Carr and Burkholder's (1998) technical article on how to construct single-subject graphs using Microsoft Excel. Over the course of the past decade, the Excel program has undergone a series of revisions that make the Carr and Burkholder paper somewhat difficult to follow with newer versions. The present article provides task analyses for constructing various types of commonly used single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007. The task analyses were evaluated using a between-subjects design that compared the graphing skills of 22 behavior-analytic graduate students using Excel 2007 and either the Carr and Burkholder or newly developed task analyses. Results indicate that the new task analyses yielded more accurate and faster graph construction than the Carr and Burkholder instructions.

  17. Estimating Intervention Effects across Different Types of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: Empirical Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M.; Onghena, Patrick; Heyvaert, Mieke; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the multilevel meta-analysis of results from single-subject experimental designs of different types, including AB phase designs, multiple-baseline designs, ABAB reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs. Current methodological work on the meta-analysis of single-subject experimental designs…

  18. The Intelence aNd pRezista Once A Day Study (INROADS): a multicentre, single-arm, open-label study of etravirine and darunavir/ritonavir as dual therapy in HIV-1-infected early treatment-experienced subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, P J; Brinson, C; Ramgopal, M; Ryan, R; Coate, B; Cho, M; Kakuda, T N; Anderson, D

    2015-05-01

    Following antiretroviral therapy failure, patients are often treated with a three-drug regimen that includes two nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors [N(t)RTIs]. An alternative two-drug nucleoside-sparing regimen may decrease the pill burden and drug toxicities associated with the use of N(t)RTIs. The Intelence aNd pRezista Once A Day Study (INROADS; NCT01199939) evaluated the nucleoside-sparing regimen of etravirine 400 mg with darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once-daily in HIV-1-infected treatment-experienced subjects or treatment-naïve subjects with transmitted resistance. In this exploratory phase 2b, single-arm, open-label, multicentre, 48-week study, the primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects who achieved HIV-1 RNA treatment-experienced subjects or treatment-naïve subjects with transmitted resistance was virologically efficacious and well tolerated. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  19. The evaluation of modified foot orthosis on muscle activity and kinetic in a subject with flexible flat foot : single case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Hassan; Mousavi, Mohammad E; Majddoleslam, Basir; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Aminian, Gholamreza; Tabatabai Ghomshe, Farhad; Movahedi Yeganeh, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    Due to blocking of pronation/dorsiflexion in flexible flat foot and restriction of these movements in using the University of California Berkeley Laboratory orthosis, provided pressures in sole by the orthosis were increased. Therefore, this article describes the evaluation of modified foot orthosis with flexible structure in the management of individuals with flexible flat foot. CASE DESCRIPTION AND METHOD: The patient was a 21-year-old male who had symptomatic flat foot. The modified foot orthosis included movable surface and the outside structure. The modified foot orthosis was evaluated by standing foot X-ray, comfort rate, electromyography of leg muscle and vertical ground reaction force during walking. The modified foot orthosis improved the foot alignment and decreased the symptoms of flat foot with more comfort. Subtalar position by sub-maximum supination had higher position than neutral in sagittal plane. It may increase the muscle activity of peroneus longus by 7% compared to barefoot, and there was a decrease of 11% ground reaction force in mid stance. The result of this single case evaluation only proposed the feasibility of this modified insole as the orthotic treatment in flexible flat foot. Clinical relevance The modified foot orthosis, which is mobile in the midfoot, is an orthosis for walking and standing in subjects with flexible flat foot.

  20. A new approach to assessing intra-subject variability in single-subject designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Borodkin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Aim: One of the methodological challenges of single-subject designs is accounting for intra-individual variability in performance, which is commonly assessed by applying the same testing materials on multiple sessions (McReynolds & Thompson, 1986. This approach might be less feasible in some individuals, such as bilingual speakers with aphasia, who would need to be tested, using the same materials, on several occasions within as well as across languages. Repetitive exposure to the same testing materials can increase practice effects and further reduce the validity of the testing. In the present study, we explored an alternative approach to measuring stability in performance by comparing the use of identical vs. different (but comparable testing materials. Method: Participants were five monolinguals with non-fluent aphasia following a single left CVA. Participants performed an action-naming task and two narrative tasks: a picture sequence and a personal narrative. There were two testing times, several weeks apart using identical materials. Each testing time included three consecutive sessions, using different materials. Action-naming performance was assessed by the number of correct verbs produced. The verbal output in the narrative tasks was scored for amount (number of utterances, grammaticality (percentage of grammatical sentences, and verb diversity (number of different verbs. Pearson correlation coefficients (r were computed to establish the intra-subject variability across testing times and across sessions. The magnitude of the correlations was evaluated using published guidelines (Strauss, Sherman, & Spreen, 2006. Results: For action naming, the correlations ranged from high to very high (.87 to .98 across testing times and from adequate to very high across sessions (.74 to .96. For the narrative tasks, the correlations between the number of utterances across testing times ranged from adequate to very high (.76 to .97 and from low

  1. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses the r...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory.......Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...

  2. Effectiveness of ACT-Based Parenting Training to Mothers on the Depression of Children with Cleft Lip and Palate: A Single Subject Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمد صالح فقیهی

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Parenting Training based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT to mothers on the depression of children with cleft lip and palate. The research method was based on a single case and individual intervention study. The sample was constituted of 65 Isfahanian children with cleft lip and palate. Parenting skills based on ACT were taught to five mothers of children with cleft lip and palate who achieved the minimum score in screening. After three baseline sessions for each child, ACT parenting skills were taught to their mothers in 8 individual sessions companied with testing the child’s depression in every session. Three follow-up sessions after 15 days, 1 month and 3 months were set to evaluate children’s depression. The Kovacs Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI was used to test the children’s depression. The results were analyzed with visual analysis and descriptive statistics. This particular intervention was effective on depression. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that ACT parenting training to mothers of children with cleft lips and palates was effective on reducing depression and that an on-time intervention can improve these children's depression.

  3. Comparison of the urinary excretion of quercetin glycosides from red onion and aglycone from dietary supplements in healthy subjects: a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuanlu; Williamson, Gary

    2015-05-01

    Some intervention studies have shown that quercetin supplementation can regulate certain biomarkers, but it is not clear how the doses given relate to dietary quercetin (e.g. from onion). We conducted a two-period, two-sequence crossover study to compare the bioavailability of quercetin when administered in the form of a fresh red onion meal (naturally glycosylated quercetin) or dietary supplement (aglycone quercetin) under fasting conditions. Six healthy, non-smoking, adult males with BMI 22.7 ± 4.0 kg m(-2) and age 35.3 ± 12.3 y were grouped to take the two study meals in random order. In each of the 2 study periods, one serving of onion soup (made from 100 g fresh red onion, providing 156.3 ± 3.4 μmol (47 mg) quercetin) or a single dose of a quercetin dihydrate tablet (1800 ± 150 μmol (544 mg) of quercetin) were administered following 3 d washout. Urine samples were collected up to 24 h, and after enzyme deconjugation, quercetin was quantified by LC-MS. The 24 h urinary excretion of quercetin (1.69 ± 0.79 μmol) from red onion in soup was not significantly different to that (1.17 ± 0.44 μmol) for the quercetin supplement tablet (P = 0.065, paired t-test). This means that, in practice, 166 mg of quercetin supplement would be comparable to about 10 mg of quercetin aglycone equivalents from onion. These data allow intervention studies on quercetin giving either food or supplements to be more effectively compared.

  4. A Study of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the SLC19A1/RFC1 Gene in Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Al Mahmuda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders with complex genetic etiology. Recent studies have indicated that children with ASD may have altered folate or methionine metabolism, suggesting that the folate–methionine cycle may play a key role in the etiology of ASD. SLC19A1, also referred to as reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1, is a member of the solute carrier group of transporters and is one of the key enzymes in the folate metabolism pathway. Findings from multiple genomic screens suggest the presence of an autism susceptibility locus on chromosome 21q22.3, which includes SLC19A1. Therefore, we performed a case-control study in a Japanese population. In this study, DNA samples obtained from 147 ASD patients at the Kanazawa University Hospital in Japan and 150 unrelated healthy Japanese volunteers were examined by the sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction method pooled with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. p < 0.05 was considered to represent a statistically significant outcome. Of 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs examined, a significant p-value was obtained for AA genotype of one SNP (rs1023159, OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.16–0.91, p = 0.0394; Fisher’s exact test. Despite some conflicting results, our findings supported a role for the polymorphism rs1023159 of the SLC19A1 gene, alone or in combination, as a risk factor for ASD. However, the findings were not consistent after multiple testing corrections. In conclusion, although our results supported a role of the SLC19A1 gene in the etiology of ASD, it was not a significant risk factor for the ASD samples analyzed in this study.

  5. Safety and tolerability of an anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody, MEDI-551, in subjects with systemic sclerosis: a phase I, randomized, placebo-controlled, escalating single-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiopu, Elena; Chatterjee, Soumya; Hsu, Vivien; Flor, Armando; Cimbora, Daniel; Patra, Kaushik; Yao, Wenliang; Li, Jing; Streicher, Katie; McKeever, Kathleen; White, Barbara; Katz, Eliezer; Drappa, Jorn; Sweeny, Sarah; Herbst, Ronald

    2016-06-07

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a clinically heterogeneous, life-threatening disease characterized by fibrosis, microvasculopathy, and autoimmunity. Extensive nonclinical and clinical data implicate B cells in the pathogenesis of SSc. MEDI-551 is an investigational humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the B cell surface antigen CD19 and mediates antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity of B cells. This clinical study evaluated the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of MEDI-551 in subjects with SSc. This phase I multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single escalating dose study enrolled adult subjects with either limited or diffuse cutaneous SSc. A single intravenous dose of MEDI-551 was administered, and safety and tolerability were evaluated. MEDI-551 pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics, and immunogenicity were also assessed. Safety assessments included the incidence of adverse events and changes in clinical and laboratory results. MEDI-551 serum concentrations, effects on circulating and tissue B cells and plasma cells (PCs), and antidrug antibodies were analyzed. Modified Rodnan skin score (MRSS) and pulmonary function tests were used to explore the clinical effect of MEDI-551. The study enrolled 28 subjects with SSc (mean age, 47.3 years; 67.9 % female). Twenty-four received a single dose of MEDI-551 (0.1-10.0 mg/kg) and four received placebo. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) occurred in 95.8 % of subjects in the MEDI-551 group and in 75.0 % of subjects in the placebo group; the majority of TEAEs were mild or moderate in severity. Two serious adverse events were considered possibly related to the study drug. One death, deemed not related to the study drug, occurred in a MEDI-551-treated subject. MEDI-551 exhibited linear PK in the dose range of 1.0 to 10.0 mg/kg, and more rapid clearance at lower doses. Dose-dependent depletion of circulating B cells and plasma cells was observed. MRSS

  6. A systematic study on the influencing parameters and improvement of quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker method using notoginseng as research subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Qun; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2015-03-01

    A new quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker (QAMS) method for 11 saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rg2, Rh1, Rf, Re and Rd; notoginsenosides R1, R4, Fa and K) in notoginseng was established, when 6 of these saponins were individually used as internal referring substances to investigate the influences of chemical structure, concentrations of quantitative components, and purities of the standard substances on the accuracy of the QAMS method. The results showed that the concentration of the analyte in sample solution was the major influencing parameter, whereas the other parameters had minimal influence on the accuracy of the QAMS method. A new method for calculating the relative correction factors by linear regression was established (linear regression method), which demonstrated to decrease standard method differences of the QAMS method from 1.20%±0.02% - 23.29%±3.23% to 0.10%±0.09% - 8.84%±2.85% in comparison with the previous method. And the differences between external standard method and the QAMS method using relative correction factors calculated by linear regression method were below 5% in the quantitative determination of Rg1, Re, R1, Rd and Fa in 24 notoginseng samples and Rb1 in 21 notoginseng samples. And the differences were mostly below 10% in the quantitative determination of Rf, Rg2, R4 and N-K (the differences of these 4 constituents bigger because their contents lower) in all the 24 notoginseng samples. The results indicated that the contents assayed by the new QAMS method could be considered as accurate as those assayed by external standard method. In addition, a method for determining applicable concentration ranges of the quantitative components assayed by QAMS method was established for the first time, which could ensure its high accuracy and could be applied to QAMS methods of other TCMs. The present study demonstrated the practicability of the application of the QAMS method for the quantitative analysis of multi

  7. The Use of Single-Subject Research to Identify Evidence-Based Practice in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Robert H.; Carr, Edward G.; Halle, James; McGee, Gail; Odom, Samuel; Wolery, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Single-subject research plays an important role in the development of evidence-based practice in special education. The defining features of single-subject research are presented, the contributions of single-subject research for special education are reviewed, and a specific proposal is offered for using single-subject research to document…

  8. The effect of phonation into a straw on the vocal tract adjustments and formant frequencies. A preliminary MRI study on a single subject completed with acoustic results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laukkanen, A. M.; Horáček, Jaromír; Krupa, P.; Švec, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2012), s. 50-57 ISSN 1746-8094 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : vocal exercises * semi-occlusions * vocal tract setting Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.074, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1746809411000097

  9. Pharmacokinetic comparison of controlled-release and immediate-release oral formulations of simvastatin in healthy Korean subjects: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, single- and multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seong Bok; Lee, Yoon Jung; Lim, Lay Ahyoung; Park, Kyung-Mi; Kwon, Bong-Ju; Woo, Jong Soo; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Min Soo; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Park, Kyungsoo

    2010-01-01

    A controlled-release (CR) formulation of simvastatin was recently developed in Korea. The formulation is expected to yield a lower C(max) and similar AUC values compared with the immediate-release (IR) formulation. The goal of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of the new CR formulation and an IR formulation of simvastatin after single- and multiple-dose administration in healthy Korean subjects. This study was developed as part of a product development project at the request of the Korean regulatory agency. This was a randomized, open-label, parallelgroup, 2-part study. Eligible subjects were healthy male or female volunteers between the ages of 19 and 55 years and within 20% of their ideal weight. In part I, each subject received a single dose of the CR or IR formulation of simvastatin 40 mg orally (20 mg x 2 tablets) after fasting. In part II, each subject received the same dose of the CR or IR formulation for 8 consecutive days. Blood samples were obtained for 48 hours after the dose in part I and after the first and the last dose in part II. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for both simvastatin (the inactive prodrug) and simvastatin acid (the active moiety). An adverse event (AE) was defined as any unfavorable sign (including an abnormal laboratory finding) or symptom, regardless of whether it had a causal relationship with the study medication. Serious AEs were defined as any events that are considered life threatening, require hospitalization or prolongation of existing hospitalization, cause persistent or significant disability or incapacity, or result in congenital abnormality, birth defect, or death. AEs were determined based on patient interviews and physical examinations. Twenty-four healthy subjects (17 men, 7 women; mean [SD] age, 29 [7] years; age range, 22-50 years) were enrolled in part I, and 29 subjects (17 men, 12 women; mean age, 33 [9] years; age range, 19-55 years) were enrolled in part II. For simvastatin acid, C

  10. Social antecedents of children's eyewtness testimony a single-subject experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepke, Karla J; Henderson, Angela L; Critchfield, Thomas S

    2003-01-01

    In a laboratory simulation, a single-subject design was used to examine the effects of two types of social influence on children's eyewitness testimony, which has not been the subject of systematic behavioral analyses. This study replicates and extends findings from group-comparison studies, and shows that a topic of pressing social importance is amenable to analysis at the individual level, and therefore, potentially, to a behavioral analysis.

  11. Comparative bioavailability of ferrous succinate tablet formulations without correction for baseline circadian changes in iron concentration in healthy Chinese male subjects: a single-dose, randomized, 2-period crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guo-Ying; Li, Ke-Xin; Jin, Peng-Fei; Yue, Xiang-Yang; Yang, Chen; Hu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Ferrous succinate is used for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Determining the bioavailability of iron products is a challenge, because iron is naturally present in the blood and some tissues. Therefore, bioequivalence evaluation of ferrous formulations can be affected by the presence of endogenous iron species. Little information regarding the pharmacokinetics of ferrous supplements is available in the healthy Chinese population. The aim of the study was to assess the comparative bioavailability of 200-mg of a test (ferrous succinate,100 mg × 2, Hunan Huana Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Hunan, China) and reference (Sulifei, 100 mg × 2, Nanjing Jinling Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Nanjing, China) formulation in healthy Chinese male subjects. The study was conducted to meet Chinese State Food and Drug Administration regulatory requirements for approval of a generic formulation of ferrous succinate. This study utilized a single-dose randomized, 2-period, crossover design with alternate assignment of subjects to treatment (a single 200-mg [100 mg × 2]) or reference formulation groups. Both groups underwent a 4-day diet equilibration before 2 days of treatment and, finally, a 4-day washout period for the bioequivalence study. Blood samples were collected at 8:00 am on every diet equilibration day, 0 (baseline), 1, 2, 3, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 hours after drug administration. Iron concentrations were determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Subjects in both groups were given a standardized diet, with known amounts of iron and calories. The formulations were assumed to be bioequivalent if the 90% CI ratios for C(max) were within 70% to 143% and AUC(0-last) were within 80% to 125%-criteria established by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration. Tolerability was monitored throughout the study by assessing clinical parameters (vital signs, chemistry laboratory) and subject reports. Twenty healthy Han Chinese male subjects (mean age, 26

  12. Subjective health status of single homeless people in Sheffield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, L; George, S L

    1994-03-01

    A census of single homeless people was carried out over a single 12-hour period in Sheffield. Places of residence of homeless people were identified by local workers with homeless people. Participants completed a questionnaire designed to provide data relating to their demography, employment history, contact with welfare agencies, social status, prison history, past and family medical history, contact with health services, perceived health status as measured by the Nottingham Health Profile, and anxiety and depression measured using the Foulds Delusions Symptoms States Inventory/State of Anxiety and Depression DSSI/sAD. Three hundred and seventy-nine single homeless individuals were contacted. Reliable data were available on 340. The population was heterogeneous with respect to perceived health status, but it was significantly worse than a standard London population on all dimensions. Those with a self-reported history of psychiatric illness had a significantly worse perceived health status on all dimensions than those without such a history. Those reporting a history of admission to psychiatric hospital had a significantly worse status in two dimensions: mobility, reflecting greater age, and more significantly social isolation, consistent with findings in other de-institutionalised populations. Anxiety and depression, measured using the Foulds sAD scale, was raised in all groups in the study, but did not differentiate between those with and without a self-reported psychiatric history, or between those with and without a self-reported history of psychiatric admission. This suggests that these symptoms are a result rather than a cause of homelessness, and that a broad social solution to mental illness in homeless people is needed in addition to specific medical interventions.

  13. Pharmacokinetic comparison of sustained- and immediate-release oral formulations of cilostazol in healthy Korean subjects: a randomized, open-label, 3-part, sequential, 2-period, crossover, single-dose, food-effect, and multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghwan; Lim, Lay Ahyoung; Jang, Seong Bok; Lee, Yoon Jung; Chung, Jae Yong; Choi, Jong Rak; Kim, Kiyoon; Park, Jin Woo; Yoon, Hosang; Lee, Jaeyong; Park, Min Soo; Park, Kyungsoo

    2011-12-01

    A sustained-release (SR) formulation of cilostazol was recently developed in Korea and was expected to yield a lower C(max) and a similar AUC to the immediate-release (IR) formulation. The goal of the present study was to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of a newly developed SR formulation and an IR formulation of cilostazol after single- and multiple-dose administration and to evaluate the influence of food in healthy Korean subjects. This study was developed as part of a product development project at the request of the Korean regulatory agency. This was a randomized, 3-part, sequential, open-label, 2-period crossover study. Each part consisted of different subjects between the ages of 19 and 55 years. In part 1, each subject received a single dose of SR (200 mg × 1 tablet, once daily) and IR (100 mg × 2 tablets, BID) formulations of cilostazol orally 7 days apart in a fasted state. In part 2, each subject received a single dose of the SR (200 mg × 1 tablet, once daily) formulation of cilostazol 7 days apart in a fasted and a fed state. In part 3, each subject received multiple doses of the 2 formulations for 8 consecutive days 21 days apart. Blood samples were taken for 72 hours after the dose. Cilostazol pharmacokinetics were determined for both the parent drug and its metabolites (OPC-13015 and OPC-13213). Adverse events were evaluated through interviews and physical examinations. Among the 92 enrolled subjects (66 men, 26 women; part 1, n = 26; part 2, n = 26; part 3, n = 40), 87 completed the study. In part 1, all the primary pharmacokinetic parameters satisfied the criterion for assumed bioequivalence both in cilostazol and its metabolites, yielding 90% CI ratios of 0.9624 to 1.2323, 0.8873 to 1.1208, and 0.8919 to 1.1283 for C(max) and 0.8370 to 1.0134, 0.8204 to 0.9807, and 0.8134 to 0.9699 for AUC(0-last) of cilostazol, OPC-13015, and OPC-13213, respectively. In part 2, food intake increased C(max) and AUC significantly (P food and 23 with a high

  14. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  15. Pharmacokinetic Effects of Antidrug Antibodies Occurring in Healthy Subjects After a Single Dose of Intravenous Infliximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenpreis, Eli D

    2017-12-01

    Infliximab pharmacokinetic studies have been performed in patients receiving chronic infliximab therapy. In these patients, infliximab antidrug antibodies (ADAs) increase infliximab clearance and decrease serum levels and drug efficacy. This study analyzed the pharmacokinetic effect of infliximab ADAs in healthy subjects receiving a single dose of intravenous infliximab. Data were obtained from a single-blind, parallel-group, single-dose study of healthy subjects receiving 5 mg/kg of intravenous SB2 (infliximab biosimilar), EU-sourced Remicade (EU-IFX) or US-sourced Remicade (US-IFX). Serum infliximab was measured at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h and at 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 70 days after administration. ADAs were measured pre-dose and at 29 and 71 days. Data from the first ten subjects randomized to each treatment arm were utilized for this study. A two-compartment model of the serum infliximab vs. time curve was developed using nonlinear regression. At 10 weeks, 11 subjects (37%) developed ADAs. ADAs were detected in four subjects after SB2, one subject after EU-IFX, and six subjects after US-IFX infusion. Of these, neutralizing antibodies occurred in one subject after SB2, in no subjects after EU-IFX, and in three subjects after US-IFX infusion. Infliximab clearance was increased in subjects with ADAs vs. those without ADAs (12.89 ± 2.69 vs. 9.90 ± 1.74 ml/h; p ADAs (282.4 ± 56.4 vs. 343.3 ± 61.9 h; p ADAs are common in healthy subjects after a single intravenous dose of infliximab and result in faster infliximab clearance, shorter elimination time, and lower serum infliximab levels. These data confirm that ADAs are common with biologic therapy and significantly impact the efficacy of these drugs.

  16. The Significance of Experiences of Nature for People with Parkinson’s Disease, with Special Focus on Freezing of Gait—The Necessity for a Biophilic Environment. A Multi-Method Single Subject Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosson, Johan; Lavesson, Lillian; Pinzke, Stefan; Grahn, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Freezing of Gait (FOG) is a common condition in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). FOG entails suddenly experiencing difficulties moving or feeling that one’s feet are as glued to the ground. It is triggered, e.g., when passing through doorways. Earlier studies suggest that being in natural environments affects FOG in a positive way. Five subjects were recruited to serve as five single subject cases. We used interviews, observations, questionnaires and collected gait pattern data with aid of an accelerometer. A special designed outdoor setting was used, where we investigated whether passing through hedge openings with or without built elements triggered FOG. We found that no one experienced a FOG reaction when they passed through hedge openings without built elements. However, FOG was triggered when a doorframe was inserted into a hedge opening, and/or when peripheral vision was blocked. We interpret the results such that the doorframe triggered a phobic reflex, causing a freezing reaction. Passing through hedge openings does not trigger FOG, which we interpret as a biophilic reaction. Our results, if repeated in future studies, may have significance to everyday lives of PD patients, who could get a simpler life by consciously prioritizing stays in natural surroundings. PMID:26132480

  17. My mind is as clear as it used to be: A pilot study illustrating the difficulties of employing a single-item subjective screen to detect cognitive impairment in outpatients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibiger, Gail; Kirsh, Kenneth L; Wall, Jacqueline R; Passik, Steven D

    2003-08-01

    Oncology patients often complain that their "mind does not seem to be clear." This subjective perception, sometimes referred to as "chemo brain," may be due to situational stressors, psychological disorders, organic factors, or effects of neurotoxic medications. Cognitive decline cannot only diminish quality of life, but can also interfere with a patient's ability to make decisions regarding complex treatment issues. The current study investigated the utility of using item 11 of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Screen (ZSDS) as a cognitive screen. A sample of 61 ambulatory cancer patients completed this study. Participants were recruited from four sites of Community Cancer Care, Inc., in Indiana. A battery of cognitive instruments and psychosocial inventories was administered in a standardized order. The sample had a mean age of 58.6 years and comprised 57.4% (n=35) women and 42.6% (n=26) men. Item 11 of the ZSDS was not significantly correlated to the cognitive measures. Correlates of the perception of cognitive impairment were the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) Attention Scale (r=-0.26, PStroop test (F=19.8, Pspecificity indicated that the single-item screen used in this study is not an accurate means for identifying oncology patients with actual cognitive impairment. We conclude that while the perception of cognitive impairment is common in cancer patients, there may be problems in interpreting the nature of these complaints, particularly in separating them from depressive preoccupation.

  18. Speech intelligibility and subjective benefit in single-sided deaf adults after cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Mareike; Strauß-Schier, Angelika; Kludt, Eugen; Büchner, Andreas; Illg, Angelika

    2017-05-01

    Treatment with cochlear implants (CIs) in single-sided deaf individuals started less than a decade ago. CIs can successfully reduce incapacitating tinnitus on the deaf ear and allow, so some extent, the restoration of binaural hearing. Until now, systematic evaluations of subjective CI benefit in post-lingually single-sided deaf individuals and analyses of speech intelligibility outcome for the CI in isolation have been lacking. For the prospective part of this study, the Bern Benefit in Single-Sided Deafness Questionnaire (BBSS) was administered to 48 single-sided deaf CI users to evaluate the subjectively perceived CI benefit across different listening situations. In the retrospective part, speech intelligibility outcome with the CI up to 12 month post-activation was compared between 100 single-sided deaf CI users and 125 bilaterally implanted CI users (2nd implant). The positive median ratings in the BBSS differed significantly from zero for all items suggesting that most individuals with single-sided deafness rate their CI as beneficial across listening situations. The speech perception scores in quiet and noise improved significantly over time in both groups of CI users. Speech intelligibility with the CI in isolation was significantly better in bilaterally implanted CI users (2nd implant) compared to the scores obtained from single-sided deaf CI users. Our results indicate that CI users with single-sided deafness can reach open set speech understanding with their CI in isolation, encouraging the extension of the CI indication to individuals with normal hearing on the contralateral ear. Compared to the performance reached with bilateral CI users' second implant, speech reception threshold are lower, indicating an aural preference and dominance of the normal hearing ear. The results from the BBSS propose good satisfaction with the CI across several listening situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of dopamine D3 and D2 receptor occupancies by a single dose of blonanserin in healthy subjects: A positron emission tomography study with [11C]-(+)-PHNO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Amane; Sakayori, Takeshi; Kim, Woo-Chan; Honjo, Kazuyoshi; Nakayama, Haruo; Arakawa, Ryosuke; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2018-01-13

    Blockade of D3 receptor, a member of the dopamine D2-like receptor family, has been suggested as a possible medication for schizophrenia. Blonanserin has high affinity in vitro for D3 as well as D2 receptors. We investigated whether a single dose of 12 mg blonanserin, which was within the daily clinical dose range (i.e., 8-24 mg) for the treatment of schizophrenia, occupies D3 as well as D2 receptors in healthy subjects. Six healthy males (mean 35.7±7.6 years) received two positron emission tomography scans, the first prior to taking blonanserin, and the second 2 hours after the administration of a single dose of 12 mg blonanserin. Dopamine receptor occupancies by blonanserin were evaluated by [11C]-(+)-PHNO. Occupancy of each region by 12 mg blonanserin was: caudate (range 64.3-81.5%; mean±SD, 74.3±5.6%), putamen (range 60.4-84.3%; mean±SD, 73.3±8.2%), ventral striatum (range 40.1-88.2%; mean±SD, 60.8±17.1%), globus pallidus (range 65.8-87.6%; mean±SD, 75.7±8.6%), and substantia nigra (range 56.0-88.7%; mean±SD, 72.4±11.0%). Correlation analysis between plasma concentration of blonanserin and receptor occupancy in D2-rich (caudate and putamen) and D3-rich (globus pallidus and substantia nigra) regions showed that EC50 for D2-rich region was 0.39 ng/mL (r=0.43) and EC50 for D3-rich region was 0.40 ng/mL (r=0.79). A single dose of 12 mg blonanserin occupied D3 receptor to the same degree as D2 receptor in vivo. Our results were consistent with previous studies that reported that some of the pharmacological effect of blonanserin is mediated via D3 receptor antagonism.

  20. Comparisons of the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of fixed-dose combinations of amlodipine besylate/losartan and amlodipine camsylate/losartan in healthy subjects: a randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Y

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available YoonJung Choi,1 SeungHwan Lee,2 Sang-Min Cho,3 Won-Ho Kang,3 Kyu-Yeol Nam,4 In-Jin Jang,1 Kyung-Sang Yu1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 2Clinical Trials Center, Seoul National University Hospital, 3Research Institute, 4Global R&D, Korea United Pharm Inc., Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: A fixed-dose combination (FDC of amlodipine and losartan has been used to reduce blood pressure in patients whose hypertension is not sufficiently controlled with either drug alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK characteristics and tolerability of an FDC of 6.94 mg amlodipine besylate (5 mg as amlodipine/50 mg losartan potassium compared to an FDC of 5 mg amlodipine camsylate/50 mg losartan potassium in healthy subjects. Subjects and methods: A randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover study was conducted on 46 healthy male subjects. Blood concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Blood samples were collected up to 144 hours post dose for each period. PK parameters were calculated in each treatment group using a noncompartmental method. The 90% confidence intervals (CIs of the geometric mean ratios of the two treatments for the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and the area under the concentration curve from time zero to the last quantifiable time point (AUC0–t were estimated. Tolerability assessments were performed for all subjects who received the drug at least once. Results: The PK profiles of the two treatments were similar. For amlodipine, the geometric mean ratios (90% CIs of amlodipine besylate to amlodipine camsylate for the Cmax and AUC0–t were 0.98 (0.94-1.01 and 0.97 (0.93-1.01, respectively. The corresponding values for losartan were 0.91 (0.81-1.02 and 1.05 (0.98-1.12, respectively. The incidence of adverse events was not significantly different between the two

  1. Single-Subject Designs and Action Research in the K-12 Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sean A.; Ross, Margaret E.; Chesser, Svetlana S.

    2011-01-01

    In as much as educational research is concerned with individual student assessment and development, it is surprising that single-subject designs are not more readily utilized in classroom-based action research. The purpose of this article is to emphasize benefits of single-subject research in the K-12 setting, given that teachers teach and assess…

  2. Tracheobronchial calcification in adult health study subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuya, Tatsuro; Mihara, Futoshi; Kudo, Sho; Russell, W.J.; Delongchamp, R.R.; Vaeth, M.; Hosoda, Yutaka.

    1988-04-01

    Tracheobronchial calcification is reportedly more frequent in women than in men. Ten cases of extensive tracehobronchial calcification were identified on chest radiographs of 1,152 consecutively examined Adult Health Study subjects, for a prevalence of 0.87 %. An additional 51 subjects having this coded diagnosis were identified among 11,758 members of this fixed population sample. Sixty of the 61 subjects were women. The manifestations and extent of this type of calcification and its correlations with clinical and histopathologic features, which have not been previously reported, are described here. (author)

  3. A single dose of dark chocolate increases parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Machado DUARTE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of a single dose of dark chocolate (70% cocoa on blood pressure and heart rate variability. Methods: Thirty-one healthy subjects (aged 18-25 years; both sexes were divided into two groups: 10 subjects in the white chocolate (7.4 g group and 21 in the dark chocolate (10 g group; measurements were performed at the university's physiology lab. An electrocardiogram measured the sympathovagal balance by spectral and symbolic analysis. Results: A single dose of dark chocolate significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate. After consuming 10 g of dark chocolate, significant increases were observed for heart rate variability, standard deviation of RR intervals standard deviation of all NN intervals, square root of the mean squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals root mean square of successive differences, and an increase in the high frequency component in absolute values, representing the parasympathetic modulation. Conclusion: In conclusion the importance of our results lies in the magnitude of the response provoked by a single dose of cocoa. Just 10 g of cocoa triggered a significant increase in parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability. These combined effects can potentially increase life expectancy because a reduction in heart rate variability is associated with several cardiovascular diseases and higher mortality.

  4. Interleukin 2-regulated in vitro antibody production following a single spinal manipulative treatment in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorczyk-Injeyan Julita A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our recent investigations have demonstrated that cell cultures from subjects, who received a single spinal manipulative treatment in the upper thoracic spine, show increased capacity for the production of the key immunoregulatory cytokine, interleukin-2. However, it has not been determined if such changes influence the response of the immune effector cells. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether, in the same subjects, spinal manipulation-related augmentation of the in vitro interleukin-2 synthesis is associated with the modulation of interleukin 2-dependent and/or interleukin-2-induced humoral immune response (antibody synthesis. Methods A total of seventy-four age and sex-matched healthy asymptomatic subjects were studied. The subjects were assigned randomly to: venipuncture control (n = 22, spinal manipulative treatment without cavitation (n = 25 or spinal manipulative treatment associated with cavitation (n = 27 groups. Heparinized blood samples were obtained from the subjects before (baseline and then at 20 minutes and 2 hours post-treatment. Immunoglobulin (antibody synthesis was induced in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by stimulation with conventional pokeweed mitogen or by application of human recombinant interleukin-2. Determinations of the levels of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M production in culture supernatants were performed by specific immunoassays. Results The baseline levels of immunoglobulin synthesis induced by pokeweed mitogen or human recombinant interleukin-2 stimulation were comparable in all groups. No significant changes in the production of pokeweed mitogen-induced immunoglobulins were observed during the post-treatment period in any of the study groups. In contrast, the production of interleukin-2 -induced immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M was significantly increased in cultures from subjects treated with spinal manipulation. At 20 min post

  5. Mild hallux valgus angle affects single-limb postural stability in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çınar-Medeni, Özge; Atalay Guzel, Nevin; Basar, Selda

    2016-01-01

    Single-limb postural stability is a key component of lower extremity functional status. Factors affecting postural stability should be well defined to prevent injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the hallux valgus angle on postural stability in asymptomatic subjects. A total of 19 subjects were included in the study. The hallux valgus angle and postural stability were assessed. Participants were assigned to two groups according to whether the hallux valgus angle was pathological or not. A hallux valgus angle greater than 15 degrees was accepted as pathological. The relationship between the hallux valgus angle and postural stability, and the differences in postural stability scores between the two groups were analyzed. Postural stability was assessed with a stabilometer. The test was performed with the eyes open. We found a significant correlation between the hallux valgus angle and mediolateral and overall stability index (r= 0.484, p= 0.036; r = 0.463, p= 0.046 respectively). Subjects with a pathological mild hallux valgus angle had greater stability index scores than normal subjects (phallux valgus angle has negative effects on postural stability as a forefoot deformity. This deformity should be taken into account for injury prevention strategies in pain-free younger adults.

  6. Enhancement of in vitro interleukin-2 production in normal subjects following a single spinal manipulative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Glen M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence supports somato-visceral effects of manual therapies. We have previously demonstrated that a single spinal manipulative treatment (SMT accompanied by audible release has an inhibitory effect on the production of proinflammatory cytokines in asymptomatic subjects. The purpose of this study is to report on SMT-related changes in the production of the immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2 and to investigate whether such changes might differ with respect to the treatment approach related to the presence or absence of an audible release (joint cavitation. Methods Of 76 asymptomatic subjects, 29 received SMT with cavitation (SMT-C, 23 were treated with SMT without cavitation (SMT-NC and 24 comprised the venipuncture control (VC group. The SMT-C and SMT-NC subjects received a single, similar force high velocity low amplitude manipulation, in the upper thoracic spine. However, in SMT-NC subjects, positioning and line of drive were not conducive to cavitation. Blood and serum samples were obtained before and then at 20 and 120 min post-intervention. The production of IL-2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures was induced by activation for 48 hr with Staphylococcal protein A (SPA and, in parallel preparations, with the combination of phorbol ester (TPA and calcium ionophore. The levels of IL-2 in culture supernatants and serum were assessed by specific immunoassays. Results Compared with VC and their respective baselines, SPA-induced secretion of IL-2 increased significantly in cultures established from both SMT-C and SMT-NC subjects at 20 min post-intervention. At 2 hr post-treatment, significant elevation of IL-2 synthesis was still apparent in preparations from SMT-treated groups though it became somewhat attenuated in SMT-NC subjects. Conversely, IL-2 synthesis induced by TPA and calcium ionophore was unaltered by either type of SMT and was comparable to that in VC group at all time points. No

  7. Comparison of the benefits of cochlear implantation versus contra-lateral routing of signal hearing aids in adult patients with single-sided deafness: study protocol for a prospective within-subject longitudinal trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with a unilateral severe-to-profound hearing loss, or single-sided deafness, report difficulty with listening in many everyday situations despite having access to well-preserved acoustic hearing in one ear. The standard of care for single-sided deafness available on the UK National Health Service is a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid which transfers sounds from the impaired ear to the non-impaired ear. This hearing aid has been found to improve speech understanding in noise when the signal-to-noise ratio is more favourable at the impaired ear than the non-impaired ear. However, the indiscriminate routing of signals to a single ear can have detrimental effects when interfering sounds are located on the side of the impaired ear. Recent published evidence has suggested that cochlear implantation in individuals with a single-sided deafness can restore access to the binaural cues which underpin the ability to localise sounds and segregate speech from other interfering sounds. Methods/Design The current trial was designed to assess the efficacy of cochlear implantation compared to a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid in restoring binaural hearing in adults with acquired single-sided deafness. Patients are assessed at baseline and after receiving a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid. A cochlear implant is then provided to those patients who do not receive sufficient benefit from the hearing aid. This within-subject longitudinal design reflects the expected care pathway should cochlear implantation be provided for single-sided deafness on the UK National Health Service. The primary endpoints are measures of binaural hearing at baseline, after provision of a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid, and after cochlear implantation. Binaural hearing is assessed in terms of the accuracy with which sounds are localised and speech is perceived in background noise. The trial is also designed to measure the impact of

  8. Pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole and its main metabolites after single intravenous doses in healthy Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Yang, Man; Liu, Man; Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Xue; Liu, Huichen

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of lansoprazole (LPZ) and its main metabolites 5'-hydroxy lansoprazole (HLPZ) and lansoprazole sulphone (LPZS) after single intravenous (i.v.) doses of LPZ in healthy Chinese subjects, and the relationship between the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 phenotypes and the plasma concentrations of LPZS at the time-points in the elimination phase of LPZ. Twelve subjects were given lansoprazole by i.v. infusion. Blood samples were collected at designated time points up to 24 h. Plasma concentrations of LPZ, HLPZ and LPZS were quantified by a selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. After single i.v. doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg LPZ, C(max) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-t)) of LPZ were 725 ± 151, 1480 ± 190, 3130 ± 480 µg · L(-1) and 1690 ± 1210, 3630 ± 2530, 8080 ± 4550 µg · h · L(-1), respectively. LPZ was generally well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects, and displayed linear PK in the range of 15-60 mg. There were significant differences in the elimination of LPZ and the formation of LPZS between the single CYP2C19 poor metabolizer (PM) and the CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers (EM). The concentration of LPZS at the time-points in the elimination phase of LPZ could be monitored for CYP2C19 phenotyping. As a probe drug for CYP2C19 phenotyping, LPZ for injection might be more suitable than LPZ oral formulations.

  9. Introduction to the DISRUPT postprandial database: subjects, studies and methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Kim G.; Clarke, Dave T.; Murray, Peter; Lovegrove, Julie A.; O’Malley, Brendan; Minihane, Anne M.; Williams, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism in the postprandial state are recognised as important risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to create a comprehensive, standardised database of postprandial studies to provide insights into the physiological factors that influence postprandial lipid and glucose responses. Data were collated from subjects (n = 467) taking part in single and sequential meal postprandial studies conducted by...

  10. Brace modification improves aerobic performance in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J; Walsh, A; Frontera, W

    2001-08-01

    Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) can lower energy expenditure in patients with hemiplegia by 10%-13%. Review of the lower motor injury literature reveals insufficient physiologic evidence supporting the use or modification of AFOs in patients with lower motor neuron injury and, specifically, progressive conditions such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. We sought to test the hypothesis that optimal AFOs would improve submaximal aerobic performance and submaximal perceived exertion, while producing no change in maximal aerobic capacity. In an individual with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a single-subject design study was used. An A-B-A design was used, with "A" corresponding to use of the patient's old AFOs and "B" corresponding to the newly prescribed AFOs. The subject underwent treadmill exercise tolerance testing using a modified Balke protocol. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure oxygen consumption per unit time (VO2), and the Borg scale was used to measure perceived exertion. At the same submaximal exercise intensities, VO2, rate-pressure product, and perceived exertion were all reduced when using the modified AFOs. Additionally, these conditions allowed the subject to conduct the treadmill exercise test 20% longer. Maximal VO2 remained constant under all conditions. Optimizing the AFO prescription in a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease can enhance physiologic performance and perceived exertion at submaximal activity levels. Larger controlled trials are necessary to further demonstrate such benefits in patients with progressive neuropathy and other causes of lower motor neuron injury.

  11. Effects of aquatic aerobic exercise for a child with cerebral palsy: single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retarekar, Runzun; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Townsend, Elise L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an aquatic aerobic exercise program for a child with cerebral palsy. A 5-year-old girl with spastic diplegia classified at level III on the Gross Motor Function Classification System participated in this single-subject A-B-A design study. The aquatic aerobic exercise intervention was carried out 3 times per week for 12 weeks at an intensity of 50% to 80% of heart rate reserve. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Gross Motor Function Measure, and 6-minute walk test were used as outcomes. Statistically significant improvements were found in the participation, activity, and body function components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model. Improvements in functional abilities and walking endurance and speed were recorded. These findings suggest that an aquatic aerobic exercise program was effective for this child with cerebral palsy and support the need for additional research in this area.

  12. Self-Management Interventions on Students with Autism: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Monica E.; Moore, Dennis W.; Anderson, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Self-management interventions aimed at skill acquisition and/or improving behavior of students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders were examined. Twenty-three single-subject research design studies met inclusion criteria. Quality assessment of these studies was conducted using the What Works Clearinghouse guidelines, and treatment effect…

  13. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  14. Subjective and Objective Quality Assessment of Single-Channel Speech Separation Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Saeidi, Rahim; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on performance evaluation of single-channel speech separation (SCSS) algorithms mostly focused on automatic speech recognition (ASR) accuracy as their performance measure. Assessing the separated signals by different metrics other than this has the benefit that the results...... are expected to carry on to other applications beyond ASR. In this paper, in addition to conventional speech quality metrics (PESQ and SNRloss), we also evaluate the separation systems output using different source separation metrics: blind source separation evaluation (BSS EVAL) and perceptual evaluation...... that PESQ and PEASS quality metrics predict well the subjective quality of separated signals obtained by the separation systems. From the results it is observed that the short-time objective intelligibility (STOI) measure predict the speech intelligibility results....

  15. Always single and single again women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K G; Moon, S

    1997-04-01

    What is it like to be a single woman today? Are the experiences of women who have always been single different from those who find themselves single again after having been married? How can family therapists promote the development of single women both individually and relationally? The purpose of this phenomenological, multiple-case study was to investigate perceptions of being single among heterosexual single women between the ages of 30 and 65. Nine focus group interviews and a semistructured, mailed questionnaire were used to collect the data. Constant comparative analyses were used to develop the findings. The findings were organized around the most salient theme that emerged from the analyses: single women have unresolved or unrecognized ambivalences about being single. This overarching theme was supported by three subassertions: (a) single women are aware of both the advantages and the drawbacks of being single; (b) single women are ambivalent about the reasons for their singleness; (c) although content with being single, many women simultaneously experience feelings of loss and grief. Implications for the clinical practice of family therapy and future research on single women are discussed.

  16. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmus, Micha Mm; Hay, Justin L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Okkerse, Pieter; Perdrieu, Christelle; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Schmitt, Jeroen; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Silber, Beata Y

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male ( n=41) and female ( n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test. Effects on mood and fatigue were analysed using Bond and Lader and Caffeine Research visual analogue scales, and Samn-Perelli questionnaire. Saliva sampling was performed for both compliance and caffeine pharmacokinetic analysis. Administration of a 60 mg caffeine dose resulted in a significant improvement in sustained attention compared with the placebo. Also a significantly improved peak saccadic velocity and reaction time performance was found, and decreased error rate. Significantly increased feelings of alertness, contentment and overall mood after caffeine treatment compared with placebo were observed. This study demonstrated that in healthy adult subjects oral administration of a single 60 mg caffeine dose elicited a clear enhancement of sustained attention and alertness, measured both in multiple objective performances and in subjective scales.

  17. Bioequivalence study between a fixed-dose single-pill formulation of nebivolol plus hydrochlorothiazide and separate formulations in healthy subjects using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespasiano, Celso Francisco Pimentel; Laurito, Tiago Luders; Iwamoto, Renan Donomae; Moreno, Ronilson Agnaldo; Mendes, Gustavo D; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2017-05-01

    Systemic arterial hypertension is a major risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. Therefore, adequate control of blood pressure is of enormous importance. One of the many fixed-dose single-pill antihypertensive formulations available on the market is the combination of nebivolol and hydrochlorothiazide. The objective of this study was to develop two distinct high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry methods to simultaneously quantify nebivolol and hydrochlorothiazide in human plasma. The methods were employed in a bioequivalence study, the first assay involving a nebivolol fixed-dose single-pill formulation based on healthy Brazilian volunteers. Nebilet HCT™ (nebivolol 5 mg + hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg tablet, manufactured by Menarini) was the test formulation. The reference formulations were Nebilet™ (nebivolol 5 mg tablet, manufactured by Menarini) and Clorana™ (hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg tablet, manufactured by Sanofi). For both analytes, liquid-liquid extraction was employed for sample preparation and the chromatographic run time was 3.5 min. The limits of quantification validated were 0.02 ng/mL for nebivolol and 1 ng/mL for hydrochlorothiazide. Since the 90% CI for C max , AUC (0-last) and AUC (0-inf) individual test/reference ratios were within the 80-125% interval indicative of bioequivalence, it was concluded that Nebilet HCT™ is bioequivalent to Nebilet™ and Clorana™. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Comparative Effects of Four Single Leg Squat Exercises in Subjects with Gluteus Medius Weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hae-Rim; Yi, Chung-Hwi; You, Sung-Hyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Lim, One-Bin; Son, Jae-Ik

    2017-07-17

    Of the weight bearing exercises, single leg squat (SLS) represents one of the most commonly used hip strengthening exercises that require more gluteus medius (GMED) activity. To date, no studies have investigated how the four SLS exercises affects muscle imbalance of GMED, tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and adductor longus (AL), and kinematics of hip. To investigate the hip muscle activities, onset time, and kinematics during four different SLS exercises (unilateral squat, unilateral wall-squat, lateral step-down, and front step-down) in subjects with GMED weakness. Repeated-measures experimental design. Research laboratory. Twenty-two subjects (11 males and 11 females) participated in this study and were compared using one-way repeated analysis of variance. Surface electromyography was used to measure the muscle activities and onset time of the GMED, TFL, and AL, and 3-dimensional motion tracking system was used to measure the hip adduction and internal/external rotation angles during SLS exercises. One-way repeated analysis of variance was used at a significance level of p<0.05. The unilateral wall-squat produced higher GMED/TFL activity ratio and lower GMED/TFL onset time ratio than in the other three exercises (p<0.05). No difference in GMED/AL activity ratio and GMED/AL onset time ratio was observed. The hip adduction angle was greater in unilateral wall-squat than in the other three exercises (p<0.05). As for the hip internal/external rotation, lateral step-down exhibited higher hip internal rotation angle than front step-down (p<0.05). The unilateral wall-squat may be recommended as an effective exercise for the subjects with GMED weakness, but they should take care to avoid excessive hip adduction during the exercise.

  19. Creating Single-Subject Design Graphs in Microsoft Excel[TM] 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Jackson, James W.; Small, Stacey L.; Horner-King, Mollie J.; Mui Ker Lik, Nicholas; Garcia, Yors; Rosales, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the publication of Carr and Burkholder's (1998) technical article on how to construct single-subject graphs using Microsoft Excel. Over the course of the past decade, the Excel program has undergone a series of revisions that make the Carr and Burkholder paper somewhat difficult to follow with newer versions. The…

  20. A correlative study of polymorphisms of CYP2C19 and MDR1 C3435T with the pharmacokinetic profiles of lansoprazole and its main metabolites following single oral administration in healthy adult Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Yin; Zhang, Jun; Chu, Ji-Hong; Xu, Mei-Juan; Ju, Wen-Zheng; Liu, Fang; Jian-Dong, Zou

    2014-06-01

    Considering that the genotypes of CYP2C19 and MDRI C3435T are two major factors attributed to the inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability of lansoprazole (LSZ), the aim of the study was to simultaneously elucidate the effects of CYP2C19 and MDRI C3435T polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics difference of LSZ and its metabolites 5'-hydroxy lansoprazole (HLSZ) and lansoprazole sulphone (LSZS) following oral administration of LSZ tablets in healthy Chinese subjects. Plasma concentration of LSZ, HLSZ and LSZS were quantified by a sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method, while the genotypes of CYP2C19 and MDRI C3435T for each subject were identified by a direct sequencing method. Statistical analysis was performed in the pharmacokinetic parameters including Cmax, t1/2, Tmax, MRTo_-, AUCO-2 and AUCo_r among different genotype groups of CYP2C 19 and MDRI C3435T. Compared to the CYP2Cl9 EMs, the CYP2C 19 PM group showed slower elimination and betteroral bioavailability of LSZ, much higher plasma concentrations of LSZS and lower concentrations of HLSZ with statistically significance. Despite a tendency of more favorable absorption and rapid elimination of LSZ in wild genotype, no significant pharmacokinetics difference was observed between the wild genotype of MDR1 C3435T and its mutant types. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetics of MDRI C3435T.

  1. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and safety of single and multiple ceftaroline fosamil infusions in healthy Chinese and Western subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Sunzel, Maria; Xu, Peng; Edeki, Timi; Wilson, David; Li, Jianguo; Li, Haiyan

    2015-08-01

    Two phase I studies in healthy Chinese (NCT01458743) and Western (NCT01612507) subjects evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of single and multiple ceftaroline fosamil 600 mg infusions administered every 8 or 12 hours (q8h or q12h). Each study enrolled subjects sequentially into 1 of 2 cohorts (cohort 1: 60-minute infusions; cohort 2: 120-minute infusions). All subjects in the Chinese (n = 26) study received open label ceftaroline fosamil; in the Western study, subjects (n = 41) in each cohort were randomized 3 : 1 to ceftaroline fosamil or placebo infusions. Single infusions were administered on days 1 and 8. On days 2 - 7 (3 - 7 for Chinese study, cohort 1) subjects received q12h or q8h infusions. Plasma and urine were collected on days 1 and 8 for PK analysis. Ceftaroline PK was linear and time-independent following single and multiple doses of ceftaroline fosamil. The magnitude and timing of peak plasma concentrations of ceftaroline (active metabolite), ceftaroline fosamil (prodrug), and ceftaroline M-1 (inactive metabolite) varied according to the ceftaroline fosamil dosing schedule (q12h or q8h) and infusion duration (60 minutes or 120 minutes), but overall plasma ceftaroline exposures within the respective dosing intervals were broadly similar across cohorts. The most frequent adverse events were rash/drug eruption, most of which were of mild-moderate intensity and considered related to treatment. Ceftaroline PK was broadly similar in healthy Chinese and Western subjects receiving equivalent dose regimens. The tolerability profile of ceftaroline fosamil in Chinese and Western subjects was consistent with previous clinical trials.

  2. The reliability of puff topography and subjective responses during ad lib smoking of a single cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Karelitz, Joshua L; Giedgowd, Grace E; Conklin, Cynthia A

    2012-04-01

    Acute smoking behavior (i.e., puff topography) and subjective responses during the ad lib smoking of a single cigarette in the laboratory may provide useful measures of smoking reinforcement and reward, respectively. However, the reliability of such measures is not clear, leaving uncertain the utility of a single assessment of smoking behavior as an individual difference measure. Dependent smokers (N = 94) smoked normally prior to each of 4 laboratory sessions during which they were instructed to smoke 1 cigarette of their preferred brand in ad libitum and unblinded fashion and then rate it for subjective effects. Puff topography (puff number, total volume, and maximum volume) was assessed via portable Clinical Research Support System device. Subjective reward and perception were assessed by visual analog scales of "liking" and "how strong," respectively. The reliability of puff topography and subjective measures was determined across days by intra-class correlations (ICCs). Differences due to sex and nicotine dependence (high and low Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score) were also examined. Reliability was highly significant for each measure. ICCs were .70 for total puff volume, .60 for maximum puff volume, .73 for puff number, .64 for liking, and .78 for how strong. Reliability generally did not differ by sex or dependence, but absolute values for total volume and maximum puff volume were greater in men and in high dependent smokers. Liking was also greater in high dependent smokers. Puff topography and subjective measures during the ad lib smoking of a single cigarette are highly reliable. Smoking responses during a single ad lib smoking session may be useful in identifying stable individual differences in smoking reinforcement and reward.

  3. Rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and n-of-1 trials: introducing the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Robyn L; McDonald, Skye; Perdices, Michael; Togher, Leanne; Schultz, Regina; Savage, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    Rating scales that assess methodological quality of clinical trials provide a means to critically appraise the literature. Scales are currently available to rate randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, but there are none that assess single-subject designs. The Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale was developed for this purpose and evaluated for reliability. Six clinical researchers who were trained and experienced in rating methodological quality of clinical trials developed the scale and participated in reliability studies. The SCED Scale is an 11-item rating scale for single-subject designs, of which 10 items are used to assess methodological quality and use of statistical analysis. The scale was developed and refined over a 3-year period. Content validity was addressed by identifying items to reduce the main sources of bias in single-case methodology as stipulated by authorities in the field, which were empirically tested against 85 published reports. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using a random sample of 20/312 single-subject reports archived in the Psychological Database of Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (PsycBITE). Inter-rater reliability for the total score was excellent, both for individual raters (overall ICC = 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92) and for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (overall ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95). Item reliability was fair to excellent for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (range k = 0.48 to 1.00). The results were replicated with two independent novice raters who were trained in the use of the scale (ICC = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.95). The SCED Scale thus provides a brief and valid evaluation of methodological quality of single-subject designs, with the total score demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability using both individual and consensus ratings. Items from the scale can also be used as a checklist in the design, reporting and critical

  4. Can Constraint Induced Movement Therapy Improve In-Hand Manipulation Skills: A Single Subject Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Kavousipor

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study describes a single subject design (ABA that shows the effective use of constraint induced movement therapy in improvement of quality and performance of in-hand manipulation skills for a 10 year old boy and a 9 years old girl with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, as Dickerson (2007 showed it in arm movement and function. Methods: To determine the effectiveness of CIMT by the use of C-statistic analysis and visual analysis. Approach: The first step was to design a child friendly group activity and home based intervention program through occupation. The possible effectiveness of CIMT was evaluated by daily measurements and video recording of 6 sub skills of in-hand manipulation according to Pont category (2009 in defined activity. Results: For making the treatment more cost effective, families can produce a simple clinical setting at home and participate in their child treatment plan actively. Discussion: A client center intervention will facilitate the use and quality of fingers and hand motion. Also a group activity can motivate participants to participate more and better.

  5. Subjective Quantitative Studies of Human Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkire, Sabina

    2005-01-01

    Amartya Sen's writings have articulated the importance of human agency, and identified the need for information on agency freedom to inform our evaluation of social arrangements. Many approaches to poverty reduction stress the need for empowerment. This paper reviews "subjective quantitative measures of human agency at the individual level." It…

  6. Melainomania: a study on 100 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannaccone, A; Iurassich, S; Massimo, C; Del Vecchio, M

    2011-10-01

    The melainomania is a psychological and skin syndrome and it expresses the obsessive need of tanned skin in a complete and constant way. We searched for the psycho-patogenetic factors of the syndrome and the psychological and skin ends point useful to evaluate the psychic and skin damages. Seventy-two women and 28 men, aged 38-56 years, who were used to a constant photo exposure have been examined. We have considered the psychosocial damages by Rorschach e Machover tests and by psychologist-subject interviews, skin damages by Glogau signs and by echography. Furthermore, the subjects have been submitted to a psychotherapeutic treatment. The tests and the interviews have underlined obsessive lines, dependence, bodily misperception, low index of reality. The Spearman correlations among clinical signs and echographic findings shows high significance. The psychotherapy has reduced the uneasiness in 66 women and 24 men. Each event that produces uneasiness requires a rationalization process that individualizes in successive phases logical justifications for the lived uneasiness and for the perceived consequences. The rational psycho mechanics is a new method that has identified the phase of the thought-deviation and it has planned the corrective therapy. The psychological tests, the interviews, the clinical signs and the ultrasound have allowed us to appraise the psychic and skin damages, while the method of the rational psycho mechanics seems to have brought a satisfactory therapeutic result.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole and its main metabolites after single and multiple intravenous doses in healthy Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Man; Wang, Xiaolin; Yang, Man; Han, Jing; Liu, Huichen

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole (LPZ) and its main metabolites, 5'-hydroxy lansoprazole (HLPZ) and lansoprazole sulfone (LPZS), after single and multiple intravenous (i.v.) doses of LPZ in healthy Chinese subjects. Twelve subjects (six males and six females) were given a single dose of LPZ by i.v. infusion on day 1, and multiple doses from day 2 to day 6. Blood samples were collected at designated time points for analysis of plasma concentrations of LPZ, HLPZ and LPZS by an LC-MS/MS method. LPZ was generally well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects. After single and multiple i.v. doses of 30 mg LPZ, the C max values of LPZ, HLPZ and LPZS were 1490 ± 290 and 1450 ± 280, 175 ± 71 and 154 ± 56, and 51.3 ± 82.9 and 74.1 ± 158.7 ng/mL, with the AUC0-t values 3280 ± 2550 and 4260 ± 3880, 381 ± 128 and 389 ± 111, and 389 ± 1204 and 700 ± 2255 ng h/mL, respectively. The t 1/2 and CL values of LPZ after single and multiple i.v. doses were 1.48 ± 1.03 and 2.19 ± 1.03 h, and 11.67 ± 4.49 and 9.56 ± 4.08 L/h, respectively. Compared with the pharmacokinetics of LPZ after a single dose, t 1/2 increased markedly, CL decreased significantly and AUC increased by over 20 % after multiple doses. The results indicated that there was drug accumulation of LPZ after multiple i.v. doses, and there was no gender-related difference in pharmacokinetics of LPZ and its two metabolites.

  8. Effect of Single Administration of Coffee on Pupil Size and Ocular Wavefront Aberration Measurements in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Bardak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available No study has so far evaluated the impact of coffee drinking on ocular wavefront aberration (OWA measurements. This study presents novel findings regarding the OWA of the eye following coffee intake. We aimed to evaluate the acute changes in pupil size and OWA of the eye after single administration of coffee. A total of 30 otherwise healthy participants were included in this prospective study. All subjects drank a cup of coffee containing 57 mg caffeine. Measurements of pupil size, total coma (TC, total trefoil (TF, total spherical aberration (TSA, and total higher order aberration (HOA were performed before and at 5 minutes, at 30 minutes, and at 4 hours after coffee drinking using a wavefront aberrometer device (Irx3, Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France. The mean age of the study population was 20.30 ± 2.74 years. Pupil size did not show a significant change during the measurements (p>0.05. A significant increase was observed in TF and HOA measurements following coffee intake (p=0.029 and p=0.009, resp.. Single administration of coffee results in significant increase in TF and total HOAs in healthy subjects without any effect on pupil diameter. Ultrastructural changes in the cornea following coffee intake might be of relevance to the alterations in ocular aberrations in healthy subjects.

  9. Effect of Single Administration of Coffee on Pupil Size and Ocular Wavefront Aberration Measurements in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardak, Handan; Gunay, Murat; Mumcu, Ugur; Bardak, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    No study has so far evaluated the impact of coffee drinking on ocular wavefront aberration (OWA) measurements. This study presents novel findings regarding the OWA of the eye following coffee intake. We aimed to evaluate the acute changes in pupil size and OWA of the eye after single administration of coffee. A total of 30 otherwise healthy participants were included in this prospective study. All subjects drank a cup of coffee containing 57 mg caffeine. Measurements of pupil size, total coma (TC), total trefoil (TF), total spherical aberration (TSA), and total higher order aberration (HOA) were performed before and at 5 minutes, at 30 minutes, and at 4 hours after coffee drinking using a wavefront aberrometer device (Irx3, Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France). The mean age of the study population was 20.30 ± 2.74 years. Pupil size did not show a significant change during the measurements (p > 0.05). A significant increase was observed in TF and HOA measurements following coffee intake (p = 0.029 and p = 0.009, resp.). Single administration of coffee results in significant increase in TF and total HOAs in healthy subjects without any effect on pupil diameter. Ultrastructural changes in the cornea following coffee intake might be of relevance to the alterations in ocular aberrations in healthy subjects.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Tedizolid after Single and Multiple Intravenous/Oral Sequential Administrations in Healthy Chinese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Shen, Kai; Chang, Xinying; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Li, Li; Hu, Pei

    2016-08-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a new antibacterial agent under investigation for the treatment of Gram-positive infections in China. This study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, oral bioavailability, and safety of once daily tedizolid phosphate 200 mg in Chinese subjects to support its further clinical development in China. This Phase I single-center study, conducted in 16 healthy Chinese male subjects, consisted of a single-dose administration, 1:1 randomized, two-way, intravenous (IV)/oral (PO) crossover of tedizolid phosphate 200 mg (Part 1) and, after a 7-day washout, a nonrandomized, multiple-dose, 7-day tedizolid phosphate 200 mg once daily administration (IV for 3 days, PO for 4 days; Part 2). Blood samples were collected for up to 72 hours after single dosing and for up to 2 hours on Day 3 and 72 hours on Day 7 of multiple dosing to determine PK parameters. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the entire study. The Cmax and AUC of tedizolid (the active moiety of tedizolid phosphate) were 3.02 µg/mL and 30.50 µg • h/mL after single IV dosing of tedizolid phosphate, and 2.25 µg/mL and 26.10 µg • h/mL after single PO dosing, respectively, and the mean half-life was 10.1 hours for both administration routes. The oral bioavailability of tedizolid was 85.5%. PK parameters of tedizolid were similar after single and multiple dosing of tedizolid phosphate, indicating no time dependency. Only minor accumulation of tedizolid was observed after multiple dosing (expressed as accumulation ratios RAAUC: 1.18 for PO dosing, and RACmax: 1.16 and 1.05 for IV and PO dosing, respectively). Steady state of tedizolid was reached after about 3 days, and trough concentrations remained constant when switching from IV to PO dosing. Tedizolid phosphate was well tolerated with 6 subjects (37.5%) in Part 1 and 5 subjects (31.3%) in Part 2 experiencing an AE; all AEs but one were related to the study drug assessed by the investigator. All AEs were of

  11. Pharmacokinetics of a Single Oral Dose of the MEK1/2 Inhibitor Selumetinib in Subjects With End-Stage Renal Disease or Varying Degrees of Hepatic Impairment Compared With Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Angela W; Martin, Paul; So, Karen; Huang, Yifan; Severin, Paul; Holmes, Victoria; Mariani, Gabriella; Marbury, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Two phase I open-label studies were conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of single oral doses of selumetinib in subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis and subjects with varying degrees of hepatic impairment; both studies included a matched control group comprised of healthy individuals. In the renal impairment study, subjects received single doses of selumetinib 50 mg; those with ESRD received selumetinib before and after dialysis (with a between-treatment washout period of ≥7 days). In the hepatic impairment study, subjects received varying single doses of selumetinib (20-50 mg) depending on liver dysfunction (mild, moderate, or severe as per Child-Pugh classification). PK, safety, and tolerability data were collected from both studies. Overall, 24 subjects were included in the renal impairment study (ESRD, N = 12; healthy subjects, N = 12). Selumetinib exposure (AUC and C max ) was not increased in the ESRD group vs healthy subjects. Selumetinib exposure was lower when selumetinib was dosed before vs after dialysis, although individual exposure was variable. Overall, 32 subjects were included in the hepatic impairment study (mild, moderate, and severe impairment, N = 8 per group; healthy subjects, N = 8). Generally, dose-normalized total selumetinib exposure was increased by 25% to 59% in subjects with moderate and severe hepatic impairment compared with healthy subjects. Increasing Child-Pugh score, decreasing serum albumin, and increasing prothrombin time correlated with increasing unbound selumetinib exposure. In both studies, selumetinib was well tolerated with no new safety concerns. These studies will inform dose adjustment considerations in patients. © 2016, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  12. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Tedizolid Phosphate After Single-dose Administration in Healthy Korean Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun; Kim, Anhye; Lee, SeungHwan; Choi, Sung-Hak; Lee, Dae Young; Song, Ji-Su; Lee, Howard; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2017-09-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a next-generation oxazolidinone prodrug that is transformed into the active moiety tedizolid. Its indication is acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by gram-positive species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Although tedizolid phosphate has been marketed in Korea, no data on the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties or tolerability of tedizolid phosphate in Korean subjects are available. This study was designed to evaluate the PK properties, oral bioavailability, and tolerability with a single-dose oral and intravenous administration of tedizolid phosphate in healthy Korean male subjects. A block-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose study was conducted in 3 groups (200, 400, and 600 mg; 10 subjects in each group). In the second part of the study, subjects from the 200-mg group received administration orally and intravenously (1-hour infusion) via 2-way crossover for the evaluation of absolute bioavailability. There was a 7-day washout period between treatments in the absolute bioavailability part of the study. Serial blood samples for PK analysis were collected for up to 72 hours. Tolerability was assessed by analysis of adverse events. Thirty healthy Korean subjects completed the study and were included in the PK and tolerability analyses. Tedizolid phosphate was rapidly converted into tedizolid. After a single oral dose, the T max of tedizolid was observed to be 1.5 to 2.5 hours, and the plasma concentration-time curve of tedizolid showed a 2-phase elimination pattern, with a half-life of ~11 hours. Dose-dependent increases were observed in the AUC last value (29,441-78,062 μg · h/L) and in the C max value ( 2679-6980 μg/L) with the administration of tedizolid phosphate 200 to 600 mg PO. The absolute bioavailability of tedizolid was 95.2% (90% CI, 92.7%-97.8%) in the 200-mg administration group. There were no serious adverse events or clinically significant changes in the

  13. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of a Single Oral Dose of Mirogabalin in Japanese Subjects With Varying Degrees of Renal Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Manabu; Tajima, Naoyuki; Shimizu, Takako; Sugihara, Masahiro; Furihata, Kenichi; Harada, Kazuhiro; Ishizuka, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    Mirogabalin (DS-5565) is a novel preferentially selective α 2 δ-1 ligand being developed for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain and postherpetic neuralgia. The current multicenter open-label study determined the effect of varying degrees of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics and safety of a single dose of mirogabalin 5 mg in Japanese subjects. A total of 30 subjects (6 subjects per renal function category [normal, mild, moderate, or severe impairment; and end-stage renal disease (ESRD)]) were enrolled and completed the study. The AUC last increased with severity of renal impairment; the geometric least-squares mean ratios of AUC last compared with subjects with normal renal function were 1.3, 1.9, 3.6, and 5.3 for patients with mild, moderate, and severe impairment and ESRD, respectively. In accordance with this AUC last increase, apparent total body clearance (CL/F), renal clearance (CLr), and the cumulative percentage of mirogabalin dose excreted into urine all decreased with severity of renal impairment. There were no deaths and no severe treatment-related adverse events (TEAEs), serious TEAEs, or TEAEs resulting in study discontinuation. Mirogabalin was well tolerated in Japanese subjects with normal renal function and those with mild to severe renal impairment. It was also tolerated in subjects with ESRD but with a higher incidence of TEAEs. The most frequently reported TEAEs were dizziness (ESRD, n = 3), somnolence (ESRD, n = 2), and vomiting (ESRD, n = 2). Based on these data, a mirogabalin dose adjustment will be considered in Japanese subjects with moderate to severe renal impairment and those with ESRD. © 2017, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  14. The influence of the design matrix on treatment effect estimates in the quantitative analyses of single-subject experimental design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-09-01

    The quantitative methods for analyzing single-subject experimental data have expanded during the last decade, including the use of regression models to statistically analyze the data, but still a lot of questions remain. One question is how to specify predictors in a regression model to account for the specifics of the design and estimate the effect size of interest. These quantitative effect sizes are used in retrospective analyses and allow synthesis of single-subject experimental study results which is informative for evidence-based decision making, research and theory building, and policy discussions. We discuss different design matrices that can be used for the most common single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs), namely, the multiple-baseline designs, reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs, and provide empirical illustrations. The purpose of this article is to guide single-subject experimental data analysts interested in analyzing and meta-analyzing SSED data. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Electrophysiological studies in healthy subjects involving caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Mamede de; Marcelino, Erica; Mendonça, Alexandre de

    2010-01-01

    Copyright ©2012 IOS Press All rights reserved. We review the electrophysiological studies concerning the effects of caffeine on muscle, lower and upper motor neuron excitability and cognition. Several different methods have been used, such as electromyography, recruitment analysis, H-reflex, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), electroencephalography and event-related potentials. The positive effect of caffeine on vigilance, attention, speed of reaction, information processing and arou...

  16. Electrophysiological studies in healthy subjects involving caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Mamede; Marcelino, Erica; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    We review the electrophysiological studies concerning the effects of caffeine on muscle, lower and upper motor neuron excitability and cognition. Several different methods have been used, such as electromyography, recruitment analysis, H-reflex, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), electroencephalography and event-related potentials. The positive effect of caffeine on vigilance, attention, speed of reaction, information processing and arousal is supported by a number of electrophysiological studies. The evidence in favor of an increased muscle fiber resistance is not definitive, but higher or lower motor neuron excitability can occur as a consequence of a greater excitation of the descending input from the brainstem and upper motor neurons. TMS can address the influence of caffeine on the upper motor neuron. Previous studies showed that cortico-motor threshold and intracortical excitatory and inhibitory pathways are not influenced by caffeine. Nonetheless, our results indicate that cortical silent period (CSP) is reduced in resting muscles after caffeine consumption, when stimulating the motor cortex with intensities slightly above threshold. We present new data demonstrating that this effect is also observed in fatigued muscle. We conclude that CSP can be considered a surrogate marker of the effect of caffeine in the brain, in particular of its central ergogenic effect.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and safety of single doses of tabalumab in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcher, Jennifer; Fleischmann, Roy; Chindalore, Vishala L; Hansen, Ryan J; Hu, Leijun; Radtke, David; Voelker, James; Gomez, Elisa; McColm, Juliet

    2016-05-01

    Two phase 1 studies evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and biological activity of tabalumab, a human monoclonal antibody against B-cell activating factor (BAFF), administered intravenously (i.v.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In study A, subjects with RA (n = 23) or SLE (n = 6) received a single i.v. dose of tabalumab (RA 0.01, 0.04, 0.125, 0.5, 2.0, and 8.0 mg kg(-1) and SLE 0.125 or 2.0 mg kg(-1) ) or placebo. In study B, subjects with RA received a single tabalumab dose i.v. (10 mg) (n = 12) or s.c. (20 mg) (n = 12). Serum tabalumab and CD20+ B cells were evaluated and safety was assessed throughout both studies. Tabalumab PK were non-linear across the 0.01 to 8.0 mg kg(-1) dose range. Clearance (CL) decreased from 2.9 to 0.1 l day(-1) and terminal half-life (t1/2 ) increased from about 1.6 to 25 days. Subjects with RA or SLE had similar PK. After s.c. dosing, tabalumab time to maximal concentration (tmax ) was 5.5 days. Absolute bioavailability (F) was approximately 62%. Following tabalumab dosing, CD20+ B cells transiently increased from baseline followed by a progressive decrease below baseline. A single tabalumab dose administered i.v. or s.c. was well tolerated and had non-linear CL over the dose range investigated in subjects with RA and SLE. The non-linearity likely reflects target-mediated CL due to binding to BAFF. Tabalumab showed biological activity based on changes in peripheral CD20+ lymphocyte numbers in both subjects with RA and SLE. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Inactivation of single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator by thrombin in human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, E. A.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Bos, R.; Haverkate, F.; Lassen, M. R.; de Maat, M. P.; Rijken, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    Thrombin cleaves single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) into a virtually inactive two-chain form (tcu-PA/T), a process that may protect a blood clot from early fibrinolysis. It is not known under what circumstances tcu-PA/T can be generated in vivo. We have studied the occurrence

  19. Terapia de movimento induzido pela restrição na hemiplegia: um estudo de caso único Constraint-induced movement therapy in hemiplegia: a single-subject study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Virgínia Vaz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A terapia de movimento induzido por restrição (TMIR tem mostrado resultados positivos em indivíduos hemiparéticos após acidente vascular cerebral; consiste na contenção do membro superior não-afetado e treinamento intensivo do membro afetado. Este estudo visou documentar longitudinalmente os efeitos da TMIR na funcionalidade do membro superior de um indivíduo com hemiparesia esquerda crônica. Neste estudo de caso único tipo ABA, as fases linha de base (A duraram duas semanas e a intervenção (B compreendeu a contenção do membro sadio com um splint e cinco sessões semanais de 3 horas de treino do membro superior afetado, durante duas semanas. As medidas de funcionalidade Action Research Arm (ARA e de qualidade de movimento e destreza Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT foram coletadas cinco vezes por semana, e a medida de qualidade e freqüência de uso do membro superior, Motor Activity Log (MAL, uma vez por semana por seis semanas. Os dados coletados foram tratados estatisticamente. Os resultados mostram ganhos significativos na qualidade de movimento (WMFT durante a intervenção (p0,05. Quanto à destreza (WMFT e funcionalidade (ARA, foram detectadas tendências significativas de ganho durante as quatro primeiras semanas; após a intervenção, houve estabilização do desempenho (pConstraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT consists of restraining movement of the non-affected arm while providing intensive training of the affected upper extremity. Positive results have been reported after CIMT in individuals with hemiparesis due to stroke. This study is a longitudinal, ABA-design documentation of the effects of CIMT on upper extremity function of an individual with chronic left hemiparesis. Baseline phases (A lasted two weeks and intervention (B involved restrain of the non-affected arm with a splint and five three-hour weekly sessions of training of the affected arm, for two weeks. During the six study weeks upper extremity function

  20. Visual Analysis of Single-Subject Studies by School Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Michael J.; Wampold, Bruce E.

    1981-01-01

    To guide the unbiased process of visual inference, a four-step model is presented for the assessment of reliability, intervention effect, meaningfulness, and generalizability. A Visual Inference Checklist (VIC) systematizes this assessment process. (Author)

  1. Results of single-staged rotational osteotomy in a child with congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis: subjective and objective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingade, Viraj U; Shingade, Rashmi V; Ughade, Suresh N

    2014-01-01

    For congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis, both conservative and operative treatments have been described. Most of the studies describing surgical interventions are based on subjective evaluation of the forearm function and have used severe degree of forearm pronation as an indication for surgery. This study describes a single-staged rotational osteotomy of the proximal third ulna and distal third radius. The aim of the study was to assess the utility of the described surgical procedure by subjective and objective evaluations of the forearm function. Forty-eight children with congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis were evaluated by subjective and objective assessments and were followed up prospectively. Subjective evaluation consisted of a set of 12 questions regarding the basic activities of life. Objective evaluation was made using the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test and a classification system used by Failla and colleagues for 15 tasks described by Morrey and colleagues. Eleven children were treated conservatively. Thirty-six children underwent a single-staged rotational osteotomy of the proximal third ulna and distal third radius. After surgery, the evaluations were repeated. The mean age at surgery was 8.6±3.7 years, and the mean postoperative follow-up period was 54±13 months. All operated forearms showed a statistically significant improvement in functioning after surgery as per the subjective and objective evaluations. The mean time taken to carry out all activities before surgery was 47.7+10.0 seconds, which significantly reduced to 33.3+6.6 seconds after surgery (P=0.0001) as per the results of the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test. All good (n=19) and fair (n=11) results were converted to excellent (n=30) after surgery as per the modified Failla classification. There were no neurovascular injuries as compared with other published techniques. Only 1 child had delayed union, and 1 had persistent dorsal angulation at the radial osteotomy site. For

  2. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following single- and multiple-dosing of oral artesunate in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsch Lee E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population pharmacokinetics of artesunate (AS and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA were studied in healthy subjects receiving single- or multiple-dosing of AS orally either in combination with pyronaridine (PYR or as a monotherapy with or without food. Methods Data from 118 concentration-time profiles arising from 91 healthy Korean subjects were pooled from four Phase I clinical studies. Subjects received 2-5 mg/kg of single- and multiple-dosing of oral AS either in combination with PYR or as a monotherapy with or without food. Plasma AS and DHA were measured simultaneously using a validated liquid chromatography- mass spectrometric method with a lower limit of quantification of 1 ng/mL for both AS and DHA. Nonlinear mixed-effect modelling was used to obtain the pharmacokinetic and variability (inter-individual and residual variability parameter estimates. Results A novel parent-metabolite pharmacokinetic model consisting of a dosing compartment, a central compartment for AS, a central compartment and a peripheral compartment for DHA was developed. AS and DHA data were modelled simultaneously assuming stoichiometric conversion to DHA. AS was rapidly absorbed with a population estimate of absorption rate constant (Ka of 3.85 h-1. The population estimates of apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V2/F for AS were 1190 L/h with 36.2% inter-individual variability (IIV and 1210 L with 57.4% IIV, respectively. For DHA, the population estimates of apparent clearance (CLM/F and central volume of distribution (V3/F were 93.7 L/h with 28% IIV and 97.1 L with 30% IIV, respectively. The population estimates of apparent inter-compartmental clearance (Q/F and peripheral volume of distribution (V4/F for DHA were 5.74 L/h and 18.5 L, respectively. Intake of high-fat and high-caloric meal prior to the drug administration resulted in 84% reduction in Ka. Body weight impacted CLM/F, such that a unit change in

  3. Microscale consolidation analysis of relaxation behavior of single living chondrocytes subjected to varying strain-rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Dung; Oloyede, Adekunle; Singh, Sanjleena; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-09-01

    Besides the elastic stiffness, the relaxation behavior of single living cells is also of interest of various researchers when studying cell mechanics. It is hypothesized that the relaxation response of the cells is governed by both intrinsic viscoelasticity of the solid phase and fluid-solid interactions mechanisms. There are a number of mechanical models have been developed to investigate the relaxation behavior of single cells. However, there is lack of model enable to accurately capture both of the mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, the porohyperelastic (PHE) model, which is an extension of the consolidation theory, combined with inverse Finite Element Analysis (FEA) technique was used at the first time to investigate the relaxation response of living chondrocytes. This model was also utilized to study the dependence of relaxation behavior of the cells on strain-rates. The stress-relaxation experiments under the various strain-rates were conducted with the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results have demonstrated that the PHE model could effectively capture the stress-relaxation behavior of the living chondrocytes, especially at intermediate to high strain-rates. Although this model gave some errors at lower strain-rates, its performance was acceptable. Therefore, the PHE model is properly a promising model for single cell mechanics studies. Moreover, it has been found that the hydraulic permeability of living chondrocytes reduced with decreasing of strain-rates. It might be due to the intracellular fluid volume fraction and the fluid pore pressure gradients of chondrocytes were higher when higher strain-rates applied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. STATSLAB: An open-source EEG toolbox for computing single-subject effects using robust statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campopiano, Allan; van Noordt, Stefon J R; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2018-03-21

    Research on robust statistics during the past half century provides concrete evidence that classical hypothesis tests that rely on the sample mean and variance are problematic. Even seemingly minor departures from normality are now known to create major problems in terms of increased error rates and decreased power. Fortunately, numerous robust estimation techniques have been developed that circumvent the need for strict assumptions of normality and equal variances, leading to increased power and accuracy when testing hypotheses. Two robust methods that have been shown to have practical value across a wide range of applied situations are the trimmed mean and percentile bootstrap test. To facilitate the uptake of robust methods into the behavioural sciences, especially when dealing with trial-based data such as EEG, we introduce STATSLAB: An open-source EEG toolbox for computing single-subject effects using robust statistics. With the STATSLAB toolbox users can apply the percentile bootstrap test, with trimmed means, to a variety of neural signals including voltages, global field amplitude, and spectral features for both scalp channels and independent components. The toolbox offers a range of analytical strategies and is packaged with a fully functional graphical user interface that includes documentation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Using virtual reality to distinguish subjects with multiple- but not single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Kargar, Mahmoud; Hesami, Ehsan

    2018-03-01

    Spatial disorientation is a hallmark of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease. Our aim was to use virtual reality to determine the allocentric and egocentric memory deficits of subjects with single-domain aMCI (aMCIsd) and multiple-domain aMCI (aMCImd). For this purpose, we introduced an advanced virtual reality navigation task (VRNT) to distinguish these deficits in mild Alzheimer's disease (miAD), aMCIsd, and aMCImd. The VRNT performance of 110 subjects, including 20 with miAD, 30 with pure aMCIsd, 30 with pure aMCImd, and 30 cognitively normal controls was compared. Our newly developed VRNT consists of a virtual neighbourhood (allocentric memory) and virtual maze (egocentric memory). Verbal and visuospatial memory impairments were also examined with Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, respectively. We found that miAD and aMCImd subjects were impaired in both allocentric and egocentric memory, but aMCIsd subjects performed similarly to the normal controls on both tasks. The miAD, aMCImd, and aMCIsd subjects performed worse on finding the target or required more time in the virtual environment than the aMCImd, aMCIsd, and normal controls, respectively. Our findings indicated the aMCImd and miAD subjects, as well as the aMCIsd subjects, were more impaired in egocentric orientation than allocentric orientation. We concluded that VRNT can distinguish aMCImd subjects, but not aMCIsd subjects, from normal elderly subjects. The VRNT, along with the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, can be used as a valid diagnostic tool for properly distinguishing different forms of aMCI. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  6. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of a new 30 mg modified-release tablet formulation of metoclopramide for once-a-day administration versus 10 mg immediate-release tablets: a single and multiple-dose, randomized, open-label, parallel study in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo-Escudero, Roberto; Alonso-Campero, Rosalba; Francisco-Doce, María Teresa de Jesús; Cortés-Fuentes, Myriam; Villa-Vargas, Miriam; Angeles-Uribe, Juan

    2012-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the pharmacokinetics of a new, modified-release metoclopramide tablet, and compare it to an immediate-release tablet. A single and multiple-dose, randomized, open-label, parallel, pharmacokinetic study was conducted. Investigational products were administered to 26 healthy Hispanic Mexican male volunteers for two consecutive days: either one 30 mg modified-release tablet every 24 h, or one 10 mg immediate-release tablet every 8 h. Blood samples were collected after the first and last doses of metoclopramide. Plasma metoclopramide concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Safety and tolerability were assessed through vital signs measurements, clinical evaluations, and spontaneous reports from study subjects. All 26 subjects were included in the analyses [mean (SD) age: 27 (8) years, range 18-50; BMI: 23.65 (2.22) kg/m², range 18.01-27.47)]. Peak plasmatic concentrations were not statistically different with both formulations, but occurred significantly later (p 0.05)]. One adverse event was reported in the test group (diarrhea), and one in the reference group (headache). This study suggests that the 30 mg modified-release metoclopramide tablets show features compatible with slow-release formulations when compared to immediate-release tablets, and is suitable for once-a-day administration.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of solithromycin (CEM-101) after single or multiple oral doses and effects of food on single-dose bioavailability in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, J Gordon; Schranz, Jennifer; Degenhardt, Thorsten P; Scott, Drusilla; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Gutierrez, Maria J; Clark, Kay

    2011-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics of orally administered solithromycin (CEM-101), a novel fluoroketolide, were evaluated in healthy subjects in three phase 1 studies. In two randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled studies, escalating single oral doses of solithromycin (50 to 1,600 mg) or seven oral daily doses (200 to 600 mg) of solithromycin were administered. A third study evaluated the effects of food on the bioavailability of single oral doses (400 mg) of solithromycin. Following single doses, the median time to peak concentration (Tmax) ranged from 1.5 h to 6 h. The mean maximum measured plasma concentration (Cmax) ranged from 0.0223 μg/ml to 19.647 μg/ml, and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve from time zero to time t (AUC0-t) ranged from 0.0402 μg·h/ml to 28.599 μg·h/ml. There was no effect of high-fat food on the oral bioavailability of solithromycin. In the multiple-dose study, after 7 days, the mean maximum measured plasma solithromycin concentration at steady-state (Cmax,ss) ranged from 0.248 to 1.50 μg/ml, and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve over the final dosing interval (AUCτ) ranged from 2.310 to 18.41 μg·h/ml. These values indicate a greater than proportional increase in exposure at 200 and 400 mg but a proportional exposure at 600 mg. Median Tmax values remained constant between day 1 and day 7. Moderate accumulation ratios of solithromycin were observed after 7 days of dosing. All dose regimens of solithromycin were well tolerated, and no discontinuations due to an adverse event occurred. The human pharmacokinetic profile and tolerability of solithromycin, combined with its in vitro potency and efficacy in animal models against a broad spectrum of pathogens, support further development of solithromycin.

  8. Performance pinned down: studying subjectivity and the language of performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, C.; Keegan, A.

    2010-01-01

    We draw on Lacan’s notion of language to study employee subjectivity in a public sector organization (Publica) in the Netherlands. Our main contribution lies in using Lacan’s theorization of language and subjectivity as a basis for a detailed textual analysis of how local organizational discourses

  9. A Phenomenological Study of College Students Subjected to Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKennie, Stephanie Williams

    2017-01-01

    Currently cyberbullying is a behavior that is discussed worldwide. Within the discussion, there is a need to know about the lived experiences of college students subjected to cyberbullying. The purpose of this hermeneutic (interpretive) phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of ten college students subjected to bullying in…

  10. Pharmacokinetics of betamethasone after single-dose intramuscular administration of betamethasone phosphate and betamethasone acetate to healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Isam I; Najib, Naji M

    2012-01-01

    Betamethasone is used for its antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects in disorders of many organ systems. However, the pharmacokinetic properties of betamethasone in plasma after intramuscular injection of betamethasone sodium phosphate and betamethasone acetate dual-acting suspension need further investigation. The main aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of betamethasone, betamethasone acetate, and betamethasone phosphate after the administration of a single intramuscular dose of the dual-acting suspension to healthy human volunteers. Two different studies were conducted in healthy males. Volunteers were judged healthy based on their medical history, physical examination, and laboratory test results. Before confinement, all volunteers were tested for freedom from alcohol and drugs of abuse. Following a 10-hour overnight fasting, a single dose of 1 mL of the dual-acting suspension containing 3 mg of betamethasone phosphate and 3 mg of betamethasone acetate was administered by intramuscular injection. Blood sampling covered 48 hours. The plasma samples obtained in the second study were stabilized to enable pharmacokinetic profiling of betamethasone esters. Twenty-four healthy males with mean (SD) age of 27 (6.62) years participated in each study. No incidences of serious adverse events were recorded during the studies. Six mild adverse events were reported in 2 subjects in the second study. One subject suffered from pain at the injection site and insomnia, and another subject complained of heartburn and drowsiness. Betamethasone phosphate appeared to be readily absorbed with a mean AUC(0-t) of 96.01 ng/h/mL and an AUC(0-∞) of 97.96 (23.38) ng/h/mL. Betamethasone peak plasma concentration reached a mean t(½) of 12.92 hours. Betamethasone acetate was not detected in the volunteers' plasma in either study (total of 2208 plasma samples). The observed pharmacokinetic parameters suggested that the acetate ester, and not the

  11. Subjective study of preferred listening conditions in Italian Catholic churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellotta, Francesco

    2008-10-01

    The paper describes the results of research aimed at investigating the preferred subjective listening conditions inside churches. The effect of different musical motifs (spanning Gregorian chants to symphonic music) was investigated and regression analysis was performed in order to point out the relationship between subjective ratings and acoustical parameters. In order to present realistic listening conditions to the subjects a small subset of nine churches was selected among a larger set of acoustic data collected in several Italian churches during a widespread on-site survey. The subset represented different architectural styles and shapes, and was characterized by average listening conditions. For each church a single source-receiver combination with fixed relative positions was chosen. Measured binaural impulse responses were cross-talk cancelled and then convolved with five anechoic motifs. Paired comparisons were finally performed, asking a trained panel of subjects their preference. Factor analysis pointed out a substantially common underlying pattern characterizing subjective responses. The results show that preferred listening conditions vary as a function of the musical motif, depending on early decay time for choral music and on a combination of initial time delay and lateral energy for instrumental music.

  12. Composite Estimation for Single-Index Models with Responses Subject to Detection Limits

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Yanlin

    2017-11-03

    We propose a semiparametric estimator for single-index models with censored responses due to detection limits. In the presence of left censoring, the mean function cannot be identified without any parametric distributional assumptions, but the quantile function is still identifiable at upper quantile levels. To avoid parametric distributional assumption, we propose to fit censored quantile regression and combine information across quantile levels to estimate the unknown smooth link function and the index parameter. Under some regularity conditions, we show that the estimated link function achieves the non-parametric optimal convergence rate, and the estimated index parameter is asymptotically normal. The simulation study shows that the proposed estimator is competitive with the omniscient least squares estimator based on the latent uncensored responses for data with normal errors but much more efficient for heavy-tailed data under light and moderate censoring. The practical value of the proposed method is demonstrated through the analysis of a human immunodeficiency virus antibody data set.

  13. An evaluation of the stimulus equivalence paradigm to teach single-subject design to distance education students via Blackboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brooke D; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the degree to which instruction based on stimulus equivalence procedures could be used to teach single-subject design methodology to graduate-level professionals through a Web-based course management system known as Blackboard (see http://www.blackboard.com). Specifically, we used the stimulus equivalence paradigm to teach relations among the names, definitions, graphical representations of the designs, and two practical scenarios of when it would be appropriate to implement each design. Most participants demonstrated the emergence of untaught relations, and some participants showed generalization to novel vignettes and graphs. Relations largely were not maintained at follow-up but were retaught.

  14. Long-term subjective benefit with a bone conduction implant sound processor in 44 patients with single-sided deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Jolien; Wouters, Kristien; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Studies that investigate the subjective benefit from a bone conduction implant (BCI) sound processor in patients with single-sided sensorineural deafness (SSD) have been limited to examining short- and mid-term benefit. In the current study, we performed a survey among 44 SSD BCI users with a median follow-up time of 50 months. Forty-four experienced SSD BCI users participated in the survey, which consisted of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit, the Single-Sided Deafness Questionnaire, the Short Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults, and a self-made user questionnaire. For patients with tinnitus, the Tinnitus Questionnaire was also completed. The results of the survey were correlated with contralateral hearing loss, age at implantation, duration of the hearing loss at the time of implantation, duration of BCI use, and the presence and burden of tinnitus. In total, 86% of the patients still used their sound processor. The Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit and the Short Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults show a statistically significant overall improvement with the BCI. The Single-Sided Deafness Questionnaire and the user questionnaire showed that almost 40% of the patients reported daily use of the sound processor. However, the survey of daily use reveals benefit only in certain circumstances. Speech understanding in noisy situations is rated rather low, and 58% of all patients reported that their BCI benefit was less than expected. The majority of the patients reported an overall improvement from using their BCI. However, the number of users decreases during a longer follow-up time and patients get less enthusiastic about the device after an extended period of use, especially in noisy situations. However, diminished satisfaction because of time-related reductions in processor function could not be ruled out.

  15. Evaluation of the single radiosensitivity in patients subjected to medical exposure that show severe skin reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Portas, M.; Perez, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    The Burnt Hospital of the Buenos Aires City Government (HQGCBA) it is a hospital of reference of the Net of Medical Responses in Radiological Emergencies of the Argentine Republic. In the mark of an agreement among the HQGCBA and the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN), it is in execution a study protocol for the one boarding diagnoses and therapeutic of radioinduced cutaneous leisure. They exist individual variations that can condition the response to the ionizing radiations (IR), so much in accidental exposures as having programmed (radiotherapy, radiology interventionist). In this context, the individual radiosensitivity is evaluated in the patients signed up in this protocol that presented sharp or late cutaneous reactions, with grades of severity 3-4 (approaches EORTC/RTOG). The capacity of repair of the DNA was evaluated in outlying blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro (2 Gy, gamma of Co-60) by means of the micronucleus techniques and comet essay in alkaline conditions. In this work two cases in those that is applied this study protocol, the therapeutic answer and its correlate with the discoveries of the radiosensitivity tests is presented. Case 1: patient of feminine sex, subjected to external radiotherapy by a breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma; developed sharp cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 3 (confluent humid epithelitis) that motivate the interruption of the treatment. Case 2: patient of masculine sex, subjected to a coronary angioplasty (interventionist radiology); developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 4 (ulceration in dorsal region). Both patients were treated with topical trolamine associated to systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and antioxidants. The therapeutic answer is evaluated by means of clinical pursuit, photographic serial register and complementary exams (thermography and ultrasonography of high frequency). In the case 1 the answer was very favorable, with precocious local improvement and complete remission of symptoms and

  16. Hepatic insulin sensitivity in healthy and prediabetic subjects: from a dual- to a single-tracer oral minimal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Roberto; Dalla Man, Chiara; Basu, Rita; Basu, Ananda; Rizza, Robert A; Cobelli, Claudio

    2015-07-15

    Recently, a model was proposed to assess hepatic insulin sensitivity during a meal, i.e., the ability of insulin to suppress glucose production (EGP), SI (P). The model was developed on EGP data obtained from a triple-tracer meal and the tracer-to-tracee clamp technique and validated against the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. The aim of this study was to assess whether SI (P) can be obtained from plasma concentrations measured after a single-tracer meal by incorporating the above EGP model into the oral glucose minimal model by describing both glucose production and disposal (OMM(PD)). Triple-tracer meal data of two databases (20 healthy and 60 healthy and prediabetic subjects) were used. Virtually model-independent EGP estimates were calculated. OMM(PD) was identified on exogenous and endogenous glucose concentrations, providing indices of SI (P), disposal insulin sensitivity (SI (D)), and EGP. The model fitted the data well, and SI (P) and SI (D) were estimated with precision in both databases (SI (P) = 5.48 ± 0.54 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml and SI (D) = 9.93 ± 2.18 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml in healthy; SI (P) = 5.41 ± 3.55 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml and SI (D) = 5.34 ± 6.17 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml, in healthy and prediabetic subjects). Estimated SI (P) and that derived from the triple-tracer EGP model were very similar on average. Moreover, the time course of EGP normalized to basal EGP (EGPb), and EGP/EGPb agreed with the results obtained using the triple-tracer method. In this study, we have demonstrated that SI (P), SI (D), and EGP/EGPb time course can be estimated reliably from a single-tracer meal protocol in both healthy and prediabetic subjects. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Single molecule Studies of DNA Mismatch Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erie, Dorothy A.; Weninger, Keith R.

    2015-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair involves is a widely conserved set of proteins that is essential to limit genetic drift in all organisms. The same system of proteins plays key roles in many cancer related cellular transactions in humans. Although the basic process has been reconstituted in vitro using purified components, many fundamental aspects of DNA mismatch repair remain hidden due in part to the complexity and transient nature of the interactions between the mismatch repair proteins and DNA substrates. Single molecule methods offer the capability to uncover these transient but complex interactions and allow novel insights into mechanisms that underlie DNA mismatch repair. In this review, we discuss applications of single molecule methodology including electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, particle tracking, FRET, and optical trapping to studies of DNA mismatch repair. These studies have led to formulation of mechanistic models of how proteins identify single base mismatches in the vast background of matched DNA and signal for their repair. PMID:24746644

  18. Test-retest reliability of single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, A M; Haag, A; Duddek, C; Balkenhol, K; Bugiel, H; Bauer, S; Mylius, V; Menzler, K; Rosenow, F

    2016-03-15

    To determine the influence of different factors on test-retest reliability of frequently used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) parameters while controlling for potential confounders in healthy subjects. TMS was applied in 93 healthy volunteers (61% male) twice (mean retest interval of 34.0 ± 25.6 (SD) days) between 7 am and 2 pm by four investigators (sessions n investigator A=47, investigator B=95, investigator C=28, investigator D=16). Women were assessed in their follicular phase. Test stimulus (TS), resting motor threshold (RMT), short latency intracortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF) and cortical silent period (SCP) were analyzed. Good test-retest reliabilities were observed for TS (r=.880) and RMT (r=.826), moderate for visual and automated analyzed CSP durations (resp. r=.466, r=.486), and poor for ICF (r=-.159). Reliable change indexes are reported. Gender (e.g. automated CSP women: r=.538 vs. men: r=.422), re-test interval and method of CSP-analysis did not influence reliabilities. In a large sample of healthy volunteers we found good to moderate test-retest reliabilities in all but one TMS-parameter. Automated analysis of the CSP did not prove to be more reliable than visual determination. This study contains analyses of re-test reliability in TMS considering several confounding factors. For the first time it presents reliable change indices for all frequently used TMS parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modelling single-trial ERP reveals modulation of bottom-up face visual processing by top-down task constraints (in some subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume A Rousselet

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied how task constraints modulate the relationship between single-trial ERPs and image noise. Thirteen subjects performed two interleaved tasks: on different blocks, they saw the same stimuli, but they discriminated either between two faces or between two colours. Stimuli were two pictures of red or green faces that contained from 10% to 80% of phase noise, with 10% increments. Behavioural accuracy followed a noise dependent sigmoid in the identity task but was high and independent of noise level in the colour task. EEG data recorded concurrently were analyzed using a single-trial ANCOVA: we assessed how changes in task constraints modulated ERP noise sensitivity while regressing out the main ERP differences due to identity, colour and task. Single-trial ERP sensitivity to image phase noise started at about 95-110 ms post-stimulus onset. Group analyses showed a significant reduction in noise sensitivity in the colour task compared to the identity task from about 140 ms to 300 ms post-stimulus onset. However, statistical analyses in every subject revealed different results: significant task modulation occurred in 8/13 subjects, one showing an increase and 7 showing a decrease in noise sensitivity in the colour task. Onsets and durations of effects also differed between group and single-trial analyses: at any time point only a maximum of 4 subjects (31% showed results consistent with group analyses. We provide detailed results for all 13 subjects, including a shift function analysis that revealed asymmetric task modulations of single-trial ERP distributions. We conclude that, during face processing, bottom-up sensitivity to phase noise can be modulated by top-down task constraints, in a broad window around the P2, at least in some subjects.

  20. Giftedness and Subjective Well-Being: A Study with Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…

  1. Subject Teachers as Educators for Sustainability: A Survey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Uitto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability education (SE is included in school curricula to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development (SD into all education. This study investigates lower secondary school subject teachers as educators for sustainability. A survey was used to study the perceptions of 442 subject teachers from 49 schools in Finland. There were significant differences between the subject teachers’ perceptions of their SE competence, and the frequency with which they used different dimensions of SE (ecological, economic, social, well-being, cultural in their teaching varied. Teachers’ age had a small effect, but gender, school, and its residential location were nonsignificant factors. Teachers could be roughly classified into three different subgroups according to their perceptions of the role of SE in their teaching; those who considered three SE dimensions rather often and used holistic sustainability approaches in their teaching (biology, geography, history; those who considered two or three dimensions often but were not active in holistic teaching (mother tongue, religion, visual arts, crafts, music, physical and health education, and home economics and those who used one SE dimension or consider only one holistic approach in their teaching (mathematics, physics, chemistry and language. Subject teachers’ awareness of their SE competence is important to encourage them to plan and implement discipline-based and interdisciplinary SE in their teaching. The specific SE expertise of subject teachers should be taken into account in teacher training and education.

  2. Effect of Vibrations on Lifetime of Ni Base Single Crystals Subjected to Tensile Stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Mintách, Rastislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 567-568, - (2008), s. 293-296 ISSN 0255-5476. [MSMF /5./. Brno, 27.06.2007-29.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/05/2112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : high-cycle fatigue * CMSX-4 * CM186LC Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  3. Motion Correction of Single-Voxel Spectroscopy by Independent Component Analysis Applied to Spectra From Nonanesthetized Pediatric Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nijs, Robin; Miranda, Maria J.; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2009-01-01

    the influence of physiologic motion such as cardiac and respiratory motion on the data is limited, it can be compensated for without data loss. Individual acquisitions hampered by subject movements, on the other hand, need to be rejected if no correction or compensation is possible. If the individual......For single-voxel spectroscopy, the acquisition of the spectrum is typically repeated n times and then combined with a factor in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. In practice, the acquisitions are not only affected by random noise but also by physiologic motion and subject movements. Since...

  4. Subject Didactic Studies of Research Training in Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybeck, Leif

    1984-01-01

    The objectives and design of a 3-year study of research training and supervision in biology and physics are discussed. Scientific problems arising from work on the thesis will be a focus for the postgraduate students and their supervisors. Attention will be focused on supervisors' and students' conceptions of science, subject range, research,…

  5. Chemical Physics: A Subject for Study at University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmur, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Traces development of chemical physics as a distinct discipline and reviews its position as a subject for study in United Kingdom universities. Reports results of a survey of chemical physics courses and graduates (1975-1980), including employment data on these graduates. (Author/JN)

  6. A comparative study of EEG abnormalities among subjects with inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Electrophysiological investigation is an integral part in the management of neuropsychiatric disorders; but this is rare in developing countries including Nigeria. Objectives: The study aims to determine EEG abnormalities among subjects with inter-ictal psychosis in comparison to those with schizophrenia.

  7. Studies of mindset of Tuvans and the subjectivity trend in academic knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Chimiza K. Lamazhaa

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a historiographic review of studies of mindset (understood as an array of beliefs, directives, views and tempers) of Tuvans since late 19th century to present day. We single out three groups of studies and analyze them in terms of: social conditions, evolution of science, and subjectivity of researchers. The first group comprises the works written by foreign researchers in late 19th – early 20th centuries. They had been studying Tuvans during the Russian settlement in...

  8. Study of Subjective Life Quality in Young People with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtanova Yu.E.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of subjective life quality in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers. The study sample comprised 62 women aged 14 to 18 years. The experimental study group consisted of 30 students of grades VIII-XI of Secondary School of home-based learning № 1673 "Support". The control group included 32 student of grades VIII-XI of School № 1222 with in-depth study of the German language. The methods used were: Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36, M. Kuhn test "Who am I" (M. Kuhn, T. McPartland; modification by T.V. Rumjantseva, Method and diagnosis of health, activity and mood, projective technique "Picture of the actual self" and "Picture of the desired self" with questions. We formulated conclusions about the features of the subjective assessment of the quality of life in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers.

  9. AN ELASTIC STRESS ANALYSIS FOR A POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE CANTILEVER BEAM SUBJECTED TO A SINGLE TRANSVERSE FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla TEKİN

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, elasto-plastic stress analysis is carried out in a polymer matrix composite cantilever beam of arbitrary fiber orientation subjected to a single transverse force applied to the free end by using the anisotropic elasticity theory. The residual stress component of ?x and yield points are determined for 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° fiber orientation angles. The yielding begins for 0° and 90° fiber orientation angles at the upper and lower surfaces of the beam at the same distances from the free end. It is seen that the yielding begins for 30°, 45° and 60° fiber orientation angles at the upper surface of the beam. The intensity of the residual stress component of ?x is maximum at the upper and lower surfaces of the beam. In this study, the residual stress component of ?x obtained for the polymer matrix composite thermoplastic cantilever beam reinforced by reinforced unidirectional fibers is compared with that of the thermoplastic cantilever beam reinforced by woven Cr-Ni steel fibers.

  10. Single-molecule studies using magnetic traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionnet, Timothée; Allemand, Jean-François; Revyakin, Andrey; Strick, Terence R; Saleh, Omar A; Bensimon, David; Croquette, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, techniques have been developed to study and manipulate single molecules of DNA and other biopolymers. In one such technique, the magnetic trap, a single DNA molecule is bound at one end to a glass surface and at the other to a magnetic microbead. Small magnets, whose position and rotation can be controlled, pull on and rotate the microbead. This provides a simple method to stretch and twist the molecule. The system allows one to apply and measure forces ranging from 10(-3) to >100 pN. In contrast to other techniques, the force measurement is absolute and does not require calibration of the sensor. In this article, we describe the principle of the magnetic trap, as well as its use in the measurement of the elastic properties of DNA and the study of DNA-protein interactions.

  11. The Observation and Execution of Actions Share Motor and Somatosensory Voxels in all Tested Subjects : Single-Subject Analyses of Unsmoothed fMRI Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    Many neuroimaging studies of the mirror neuron system (MNS) examine if certain voxels in the brain are shared between action observation and execution (shared voxels, sVx). Unfortunately, finding sVx in standard group analyses is not a guarantee that sVx exist in individual subjects. Using

  12. Single and multi-subject clustering of flow cytometry data for cell-type identification and anomaly detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyan, Maziyar Baran; Jindal, Vasu; Birjandtalab, Javad; Nourani, Mehrdad

    2016-08-10

    Measurement of various markers of single cells using flow cytometry has several biological applications. These applications include improving our understanding of behavior of cellular systems, identifying rare cell populations and personalized medication. A common critical issue in the existing methods is identification of the number of cellular populations which heavily affects the accuracy of results. Furthermore, anomaly detection is crucial in flow cytometry experiments. In this work, we propose a two-stage clustering technique for cell type identification in single subject flow cytometry data and extend it for anomaly detection among multiple subjects. Our experimentation on 42 flow cytometry datasets indicates high performance and accurate clustering (F-measure > 91 %) in identifying main cellular populations. Furthermore, our anomaly detection technique evaluated on Acute Myeloid Leukemia dataset results in only <2 % false positives.

  13. Schizophrenia and common sense: study of 3 single cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, J; Azorin, J; Mishara, A L; Wiggins, O P; Schwartz, M

    2000-01-01

    There is new interest in subjective experiences of schizophrenia. This kind of analysis emphasizes the subjective stories of patients, and the methods do not pretend to have the objectivity of science. However, the plausibility and the empathetic resonance of the single case may bring subjective confirmation to the validity of an insight and indicate new directions of research. Following this line, the authors present a study of 3 single cases of 'reflexive' residual type of schizophrenia. The methods for selecting the cases and the philosophical groundings of the concept of 'reflexive schizophrenia' are explained. The analysis of the single cases revealed that (1) schizophrenic persons' cognitive deficit is related to the constitution of common sense; (2) some schizophrenics cope with the cognitive deficit by creating a theoretical corpus of axioms stemming from common sense, namely the 'axioms of everyday life'; (3) this mechanism of coping is described as an inflexible attachment to 'axioms of everydayness', and (4) this attachment to common sense releases the patient from all personal investment of self in the process of anchoring in the living world and, on this basis, allows a relatively solid, although distant, attachment to reality. The nature of deficit in schizophrenia is also discussed by confronting the phenomenological point of view and the neuropsychological, that is the so-called 'theory of mind'. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Experimental Setups for Single Event Effect Studies

    OpenAIRE

    N. H. Medina; V. A. P. Aguiar; N. Added; F. Aguirre; E. L. A. Macchione; S. G. Alberton; M. A. G. Silveira; J. Benfica; F. Vargas; B. Porcher

    2016-01-01

    Experimental setups are being prepared to test and to qualify electronic devices regarding their tolerance to Single Event Effect (SEE). A multiple test setup and a new beam line developed especially for SEE studies at the São Paulo 8 UD Pelletron accelerator were prepared. This accelerator produces proton beams and heavy ion beams up to 107Ag. A Super conducting Linear accelerator, which is under construction, may fulfill all of the European Space Agency requirements to qualify electronic...

  15. Subjective wellbeing and longevity: a co-twin control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadler, Michael E; Miller, Christopher J; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    . The favorable effects associated with SWB have prompted new research aimed at raising happiness and wellbeing through individual interventions and public health initiatives. Standard observational studies of individual-level associations, however, are subject to potential confounding of exposure and outcome......Mental health is increasingly defined not only by the absence of illness but by the presence of subjective well-being (SWB). Previous cohort studies have consistently shown that indicators of SWB predict favorable life outcomes, including better mental and somatic health, and longevity...... by shared genes and environment. The present study explored the association between SWB and increased longevity, using twin pair analyses to determine whether the association is consistent with causality or is due to genetic or environmental confounding. The study sample of 3,966 twins aged 70 or older...

  16. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng on Cardiovascular Risks in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome: a Double-blind Randomized Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Byoung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Ree; Jung, Dong-Hyuk; Na, Ha-Young; Kim, Hong-Bae; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG) supplementation on metabolic parameters, inflammatory markers, and arterial stiffness in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center study in 60 subjects who were not taking drugs that could affect metabolic and vascular functions. Subjects were randomized into either a KRG (4.5 g/d) group or a placebo group for a 12-week study. We collected anthr...

  17. Photoelectric studies of gallium monosulfide single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, G. A.; Azad, M. I.

    2005-10-01

    Photoconductivity studies were carried out on GaS single crystals prepared from melt by directional solidification. We studied the effect of light intensity, applied voltage on both the photoconductivity and the lifetime of carriers. The V-I characteristics and the absorption spectra were checked for different sample thickness. The present investigation was extended to study the spectral distribution of the photocurrent for GaS. It was found that the photocurrent curves are practically independent on the bias voltage. The energy gap for GaS was found to be 2.5 eV.

  18. Students attitude towards calculus subject: Bumiputera case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Noorehan; Ilias, Mohd Rijal; Che Hussain, Wan Siti Esah; Mokhtar, Siti Fairus

    2013-04-01

    Mathematics has always become the most dislike subject among other subjects in school. Study showed that attitudes of students in science subjects such as mathematics were closely related to how they solve problems, accessing ideas and making a right decision. According to another study on mathematics achievement of eighth grade students in Malaysia, mathematics grades among bumiputera students was lower when compared to other races such as Chinese and Indians. The poor performance was due to their attitude and pre-conceived ideas towards the subject. Therefore, this study was designed todetermine the criteria and subcriteria that were considered important in measuring students' attitude toward mathematics among the bumiputeras. Factor analysis was carried out to identify the groups among criterion. Instrument used to measure mathematics attitude was Test of Mathematics Related Attitude (TOMRA) which measured student attitudes in four criteria: normality of mathematics, attitudes towards mathematics inquiry, adoption of mathematics attitude and enjoyment of mathematics lessons. The target population of this study was all computer science and quantitative science students who enrolled Calculus subject in UiTM Kedah. Findings shows that there are two criteria that influenced students attitude toward mathematics namely normality of mathematics with eleven subcriteria and enjoyment of mathematics with eight subcriteria. From the analysis it shows that the total percentage of variation explained is 35.071% with 0.837 Cronbach's alpha reliability test. The findings will help the lecturers, parents and society to consider what action should be taken to install interest and positive attitude of bumiputera students towards mathematics and thus improve their achievement.

  19. How many subjects do I need to power my study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio R. Muñoz Navarro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a tool that helps answer the question “How many subjects do I need to power my study? We show how to determine sample size in observational epidemiological studies and provide examples of application using the statistical package Epidat, which is a shareware program developed under the auspices of the Pan American Health Organization, the Galician Board of Health and the University CES of Colombia. Examples of calculation of sample size for prevalence studies (cross-sectional, case-control studies and cohort studies are given.

  20. Study of Subjective Life Quality in Young People with Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtanova Yu.E.,; Bondar O.V.,

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of subjective life quality in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers. The study sample comprised 62 women aged 14 to 18 years. The experimental study group consisted of 30 students of grades VIII-XI of Secondary School of home-based learning № 1673 "Support". The control group included 32 student of grades VIII-XI of School № 1222 with in-depth study of the German language. The methods used were: Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short Form Health Sur...

  1. Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Single and Multiple Oral Doses of an Omega-3-Carboxylic Acid Formulation in Healthy Male Japanese Subjects: A Phase 1 Single-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yoshinori; Nilsson, Catarina; Shimada, Hitoshi; Kim, Hyosung; Lundström, Torbjörn; Yajima, Toshitaka

    2018-02-01

    OM3-CA (omega-3-carboxylic acids) is a complex mixture of omega-3 carboxylic acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is approved in the United States for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. As part of its clinical development in Japan, we performed a phase 1 study to investigate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics after single and multiple doses of OM3-CA in healthy male Japanese subjects. Eighteen Japanese subjects were allocated to receive 2 or 4 g/day OM3-CA, or placebo (n = 6 per group). In addition, 6 white subjects received 4 g/day OM3-CA. The primary objective was to determine the safety and tolerability of OM3-CA. Plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA were adjusted for baseline values for pharmacokinetic analysis. Overall, OM3-CA was well tolerated in healthy Japanese subjects. Two Japanese subjects in each group and 5 white subjects experienced adverse events (AEs). Alanine aminotransferase increase was the most common AE in Japanese subjects, also seen with placebo, and diarrhea was the most common AE in white subjects. The maximum plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA were observed 5-6 hours postdose. The pharmacokinetic profiles of EPA and DHA after administration of OM3-CA were comparable between Japanese and white subjects. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  2. Efficacy of single dose antihistamine vs. single dose valerian-hops in subjective sleep measures among war refugees: a comparison trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Salem Gammoh

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many sedatives and anxiolytics are used in single dose or chronically to aid sleep. Clinically important sedatives include valerian-hops and antihistamines as they are used over the counter and are highly accessible and safe agents. Objectives To evaluate and compare a single dose of chlorpheniramine versus valerian-hops combination in modulating subjective sleep measures in insomniac war refugees. Methods Insomnia among refugees was screened using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI. Insomniac subjects were randomized to received a single dose valerian-hops (320/80 mg (n = 65, or chlorpheneramine (4 mg (n = 50 or placebo (n = 76 two hours prior sleeping. Participants were instructed to complete Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ, visual analogue scales of anxiety and sedation. Also sleep latency, total hours slept and self-rated improvement were obtained. Results Almost 75% of screened refugees had insomnia. Chlorpheneramine reduced sleep latency and anxiety significantly, however it resulted in poor sleep quality. Valerian-hops group showed marked anxiolysis one hour after dosing, a sleep quality similar to placebo and better than chlorpheneramine, and better alertness compared to placebo. Participants satisfaction was higher with chlorpheneramine and there was no difference in the total hours slept. Discussion Valerian-hops combination may provide better sleep quality than antihistamines.

  3. Performance evaluation of a piezoactuator-based single-stage valve system subjected to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Han, Chulhee; Ung Chung, Jye; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single-stage valve system activated by a piezostack actuator is proposed and experimentally evaluated at both room temperature (20 °C) and high temperature (100 °C) conditions. A hinge-lever displacement amplifier is adopted in the valve system to magnify the displacement generated from the piezostack actuator. After explaining the operating principle of the proposed piezostack-driven single-stage valve system, the geometric dimensions and mechanical properties of the valve components are discussed in details. An experimental apparatus is then manufactured to evaluate the performances of the valve system such as flow rate. The experimental apparatus consists of a heat chamber, which can regulate the temperature of the valve system and oil, pneumatic-hydraulic cylinders, a hydraulic circuit, a pneumatic circuit, electronic devices, an interface card, and a high voltage amplifier. The pneumatic-hydraulic cylinder transforms the pneumatic pressure into hydraulic pressure. The performances of the valve system regarding spool response, pressure drop, and flow rate are evaluated and presented. In addition, the performance of the valve system under high temperature condition is compared with that under room temperature condition. The experimental results are plotted in both frequency and time domains. (paper)

  4. Postural stability during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Janssens, Luc; Luyckx, Thomas; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan; Staes, Filip F

    2015-03-01

    An anterior cruciate ligament injury may lead to deteriorations in postural stability. The goal of this study was to evaluate postural stability during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance of both legs in anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects and non-injured control subjects with a standardized methodology. Fifteen control subjects and 15 anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects (time after injury: mean (SD)=1.4 (0.7) months) participated in the study. Both groups were similar for age, gender, height, weight and body mass index. Spatiotemporal center of pressure outcomes of both legs of each subject were measured during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Movement speed was standardized. The center of pressure displacement after a new stability point was reached during the single-leg stance phase was significantly increased in the anterior cruciate ligament injured group compared to the control group in the eyes closed condition (Plegs within both groups (P>.05). No significant differences were found during the transition itself (P>.05). The anterior cruciate ligament injured group showed postural stability deficits during the single-leg stance phase compared to the non-injured control group in the eyes closed condition. Using the non-injured leg as a normal reference when evaluating postural stability of the injured leg may lead to misinterpretations, as no significant differences were found between the injured and non-injured leg of the anterior cruciate ligament injured group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Saturation analysis studies of corticosteroid levels in normal Greek subjects and in subjects with haemolytic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyzantiadis, A.

    1975-07-01

    Between 1970 and 1974 a saturation analysis for cortisol in plasma and free cortisol in urine, and a radioimmunoassay method for aldosterone in plasma and urine were developed. In order to permit a comparative evaluation it was necessary to study corticosteroids, diurnal rhythm and the probable effect of a siesta on this rhythm both in normal subjects and in patients suffering from hemic diseases, in particular from sickle-cell anemia. Saturation assay for cortisol, using serum from pregnant women as source of transcortin, and radioimmunoassay for aldosterone were the basic methods used. Serum cortisol was estimated twice a day (8-9 a.m. and 5-6 p.m.). Cortisol and aldosterone were also estimated in serum and in urine before and after adrenalin stimulation with ACTH. No significant influence of a siesta on the diurnal rhythm of cortisol was observed, nor did the levels of serum cortisol or the diurnal rhythm appear affected in congenital hemolytic anemias, following adrenalin stimulation. The report lists experimental results briefly and refers to a paper in which these are published in more detail

  6. Effects of food and grapefruit juice on single-dose pharmacokinetics of blonanserin in healthy Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, De-Wei; Wang, Zhan-Zhang; Hu, Hai-Tang; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Ni, Xiao-Jia; Lu, Hao-Yang; Zhang, Ming; Hu, Jin-Qing; Qiu, Chang; Peng, Huan; Shen, Ling-Fang; Wen, Yu-Guan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effects of a meal and grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of blonanserin and its metabolite N-desethyl blonanserin in healthy Chinese volunteers. This was a single-centre, open-label, fixed-sequence study, where 12 healthy Chinese volunteers received a single dose of 8 mg blonanserin after an overnight fast in period 1 (reference), a high-fat meal during period 2 and with co-administration of 250 mL of grapefruit juice in period 3. The washout period was 7 days. Series of plasma samples were collected after each dose to determine concentrations of blonanserin and its metabolite N-desethyl blonanserin using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by non-compartmental analysis and compared between periods by standard average bioequivalence ANOVA. Adverse events were monitored throughout the study. All subjects completed the study. High-fat meals significantly increased blonanserin exposure (AUC t ) 2.58-fold (90% CI 2.21, 3.02), relative to the reference period. Co-administration of blonanserin with grapefruit juice remarkably prolonged elimination half-life of blonanserin (from 9.7 to 21.4 h) and significantly increased exposures to blonanserin and N-desethyl blonanserin by 5.82-fold (90% CI 4.57, 7.42) and 1.81-fold (90% CI 1.65, 1.98), respectively. These results suggested that blonanserin was largely metabolised in the intestinal tract before becoming systemically available, and both food and grapefruit juice enhanced exposure to blonanserin and N-desethyl blonanserin. Grapefruit juice increased bioavailability and may have reduced systemic clearance of blonanserin. Further intestinal CYP3A4 and hepatic CYP3A4 might be postulated to explain the delayed elimination of blonanserin. Dose adjustment of blonanserin is needed on the basis of co-intake of known strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Patients taking high-dose blonanserin also need to be cautious about

  7. Implementation of Subjective Cognitive Decline criteria in research studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinuevo, José L; Rabin, Laura A.; Amariglio, Rebecca; Buckley, Rachel; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Ewers, Michael; Hampel, Harald; Klöppel, Stefan; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Saykin, Andrew J.; Sikkes, Sietske; Smart, Colette M.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) manifesting prior to clinical impairment could serve as a target population for early intervention trials in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A working group, the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I), published SCD research criteria in the context of preclinical AD. To successfully apply them, a number of issues regarding assessment and implementation of SCD needed to be addressed. METHODS Members of the SCD-I met to identify and agree upon topics relevant to SCD criteria operationalization in research settings. Initial ideas and recommendations were discussed with other SCD-I working group members and modified accordingly. RESULTS Topics included SCD inclusion and exclusion criteria, together with the informant’s role in defining SCD presence and the impact of demographic factors. DISCUSSION Recommendations for the operationalization of SCD in differing research settings, with the aim of harmonization of SCD measurement across studies are proposed, to enhance comparability and generalizability across studies. PMID:27825022

  8. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO EARTHQUAKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soubirou, A.

    1967-12-31

    The object of the study was the investigation of the behaviour of structures subject to earthquakes. After .describing and analysing seismic movements, useful concepts for earthquake-proofing structures are lintroduced. Then, the dynamic behaviour of systems with n degrees of freedom was studied in order to evolve the theoretical computation of seismic behaviour, a typical application being reticulated structures. The next stage was showing the computational procedure for seismic spectra and the natural frequencies of buildings, an attempt being made to define earthquake-proofing criteria for a special type of reinforced-concrete construction. . The last matter dealt with is elastoplastic behaviour of structures, a study of increasingly growing importance.

  9. Single-dose, randomized crossover comparisons of different-strength imatinib mesylate formulations in healthy Korean male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ah; Park, Shin Jung; Kim, Chin; Park, Ji-Young

    2013-10-01

    Imatinib mesylate is used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia and advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of 2 different strengths of the imatinib formulation containing 100 mg (reference) and 400 mg (test) to satisfy the regulatory requirement for marketing. A single-center, randomized, single-dose, open-label, 2-period, 2-sequence, comparative crossover study with a 14-day washout period was conducted in 30 healthy male volunteers. Plasma samples for the drug analysis were collected up to 72 hours after drug treatment. Participants received either the reference (4 tablets of 100-mg imatinib) or the test (1 tablet of 400-mg imatinib) formulation during the first period and the alternative formulation during the second period. The safety profiles and tolerability of the 2 formulations were also assessed based on physical examinations, laboratory tests, a 12-lead ECG, and vital signs. Thirty participants were initially enrolled; their mean (SD) age, height, weight, and body mass index were 24.9 (2.0) years (range, 23-30 years), 174 (5) cm (range, 164-185 cm), 69.9 (2.0) kg (range, 54.1-87.4 kg), and 23.0 (2.0) kg/m(2) (range, 18.5-26.9 kg/m(2)); 28 healthy participants completed both treatment periods. Two subjects did not complete the study because they withdrew consent for personal reasons. The observed mean (SD) Cmax, AUC0-last, and AUC0-∞ values for the reference formulation were 1792 (357) ng/mL, 28,485 (6274) ng · h/mL, and 29,079 (6371) ng · h/mL, respectively. Corresponding values for the test formulation were 1710 (312) ng/mL, 27,222 (4624) ng · h/mL , and 27,872 (4751) ng · h/mL. The geometric mean ratios (90% CIs) between the 2 formulations at the 400-mg dose of imatinib were 0.9579 (0.9054-1.0136) for Cmax, 0.9652 (0.9174-1.0155) for AUC0-last, and 0.9679 (0.9203-1.0179) for AUC0-∞, respectively. During the study period, 6 adverse events (3 for the reference and 3 for the test

  10. Thermoresponsive micropatterned substrates for single cell studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Mandal

    Full Text Available We describe the design of micropatterned surfaces for single cell studies, based on thermoresponsive polymer brushes. We show that brushes made of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide grafted at high surface density display excellent protein and cell anti-adhesive properties. Such brushes are readily patterned at the micron scale via deep UV photolithography. A proper choice of the adhesive pattern shapes, combined with the temperature-dependent swelling properties of PNIPAM, allow us to use the polymer brush as a microactuator which induces cell detachment when the temperature is reduced below [Formula: see text]C.

  11. NMR studies of single crystal chromium diboride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michioka, C. [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)]. E-mail: michioka@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Itoh, Y. [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yoshimura, K. [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Watabe, Y. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8558 (Japan); Kousaka, Y. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8558 (Japan); Ichikawa, H. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8558 (Japan); Akimitsu, J. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8558 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    We report {sup 11}B NMR studies of a single crystal CrB{sub 2}. From the temperature dependence of the Fourier-transformed NMR spectra in the paramagnetic state, the hyperfine coupling constants are estimated to be A{sub Cr-B} = -0.64,-0.74 and -0.71kOe/{mu}{sub B} for H parallel c, H parallel a and H parallel [210], respectively. In the magnetically ordered state, the spectra in H parallel a and H parallel [210] consist of superposition of a broad hump and five peaks, which correspond to the incommensurate and commensurate spin structures.

  12. Investigating Neuroanatomical Features in Top Athletes at the Single Subject Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Marco; Wenzel, Uwe; Draganski, Bogdan; Kiebel, Stefan J.; Ragert, Patrick; Krug, Jürgen; Villringer, Arno

    2015-01-01

    In sport events like Olympic Games or World Championships competitive athletes keep pushing the boundaries of human performance. Compared to team sports, high achievements in many athletic disciplines depend solely on the individual’s performance. Contrasting previous research looking for expertise-related differences in brain anatomy at the group level, we aim to demonstrate changes in individual top athlete’s brain, which would be averaged out in a group analysis. We compared structural magnetic resonance images (MRI) of three professional track-and-field athletes to age-, gender- and education-matched control subjects. To determine brain features specific to these top athletes, we tested for significant deviations in structural grey matter density between each of the three top athletes and a carefully matched control sample. While total brain volumes were comparable between athletes and controls, we show regional grey matter differences in striatum and thalamus. The demonstrated brain anatomy patterns remained stable and were detected after 2 years with Olympic Games in between. We also found differences in the fusiform gyrus in two top long jumpers. We interpret our findings in reward-related areas as correlates of top athletes’ persistency to reach top-level skill performance over years. PMID:26079870

  13. Studies of the calcium metabolism of subjects with renal dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    In order to perform a detailed study of calcium metabolism, it is necessary to differentiate between intestinal absorption and its subsequent behaviour in terms of either uptake onto the bone or excretion. The measurement of calcium absorption involved two separate intakes of the tracer 47 Ca. Each subject ingested a known activity. Measurements on blood samples were made after 5 hours and a smoothed curve describing the appearance of the activity in the plasma was determined. About 4 weeks after oral ingestion a known activity was injected into the subject and the procedure repeated. A curve describing the differential transfer of calcium from the intestine to the blood stream was derived by performing a deconvolution procedure on the two curves

  14. Assessment of body composition in subjects with metabolic syndrome comparing single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and bioelectrical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloetens, Lieselotte; Johansson-Persson, Anna; Helgegren, Hannah; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Uusitupa, Matti; Åkesson, Björn; Önning, Gunilla

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the agreement between body composition measurements made with two methods-single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (SF-BIA) and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS). The body composition measurements using SF-BIA and BIS were performed seven times during 6 months on 41 patients (13 men and 28 women) with metabolic syndrome who were taking part in a dietary intervention study. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] fat mass (FM) and median [interquartile range (IQR)] FM% measured with SF-BIA were 32.7 (6.7) kg and 36.3 (30.3-39.3)%, respectively, compared with 38.2 (8.7) kg and 40.9 (35.5-45.6)%, respectively, using BIS. The median (IQR) fat-free mass (FFM) was 60.0 (53.3-73.5) kg according to SF-BIA and 55.4 (48.8-66.5) kg according to BIS. These results obtained with the two methods were significantly different (P<0.001). Still highly significant correlations were found between the results obtained with SF-BIA and BIS for FM and FFM (all r≥0.89, P<0.001). Using Bland-Altman analysis, the bias was found to be -5.4 (4.1) kg for FM, -5.5 (3.7)% for FM%, and 5.4 (4.1) kg for FFM. Rather wide limits of agreement were found for FM, FM%, and FFM. Body composition data obtained using SF-BIA and BIS in subjects with metabolic syndrome were highly correlated but not interchangeable. FM was systematically lower when using SF-BIA than when using BIS.

  15. Fundamental study of single biomass particle combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, M.

    2013-06-01

    This thesis is a comprehensive study of single biomass particle combustion. The effect of particle shape and size and operating conditions on biomass conversion characteristics were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experimental samples were divided in two groups: particles with regular shapes (spheres and cylinders) and particles with irregular shapes (almost flake-like). A CAMSIZER analyser (Retsch Technology GMBH) was used to determine the size and shape of the particles via Dynamical Digital Image Processing. The experiments were performed in a single particle reactor under well-defined conditions, and the complete combustion processes were recorded as video sequences by a CCD camera installed in the set-up. One of the project objectives is to simulate conditions reasonably close to the conditions in a power plant boiler, i.e., reasonably high temperatures (up to 1600 deg. C) and varying oxygen concentrations in the 5 to 20% range. A one-dimensional mathematical model was used to simulate all the intraparticle conversion processes (drying, recondensation, devolatilisation, char gasification/oxidation and heat/mass/momentum transfer) within single particles of different shapes and size under various conditions. The model also predicts the flame layer domain of a single particle. The model was validated by experimental results under different conditions; good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental data was observed. Both the experimental and modelling results showed that cylindrical particles lose mass faster than spherical particles of a similar volume (mass) and that the burnout time is reduced by increasing the particle aspect ratio (surface area to volume ratio). Very similar conversion times were observed for cylindrical particles with nearly identical surface area to volume ratios. Similar conversion times were also observed for two size classes of pulverised particles (with irregular shapes) made from the same type of

  16. Mass balance, metabolic disposition, and pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of regorafenib in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerisch, Michael; Hafner, Frank-Thorsten; Lang, Dieter; Radtke, Martin; Diefenbach, Konstanze; Cleton, Adriaan; Lettieri, John

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the mass balance, metabolic disposition, and pharmacokinetics of a single dose of regorafenib in healthy volunteers. In addition, in vitro metabolism of regorafenib in human hepatocytes was investigated. Four healthy male subjects received one 120 mg oral dose of regorafenib containing approximately 100 µCi (3.7 MBq) [ 14 C]regorafenib. Plasma concentrations of parent drug were derived from HPLC-MS/MS analysis and total radioactivity from liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Radiocarbon analyses used HPLC with fraction collection followed by LSC for all urine samples, plasma, and fecal homogenate extracts. For the in vitro study, [ 14 C]regorafenib was incubated with human hepatocytes and analyzed using HPLC-LSC and HPLC-HRMS/MS. Regorafenib was the major component in plasma, while metabolite M-2 (pyridine N-oxide) was the most prominent metabolite. Metabolites M-5 (demethylated pyridine N-oxide) and M-7 (N-glucuronide) were identified as minor plasma components. The mean concentration of total radioactivity in plasma/whole blood appeared to plateau at 1-4 h and again at 6-24 h post-dose. In total, 90.5% of administered radioactivity was recovered in the excreta within a collection interval of 12 days, most of which (71.2%) was eliminated in feces, while excretion via urine accounted for 19.3%. Regorafenib (47.2%) was the most prominent component in feces and was not excreted into urine. Excreted metabolites resulted from oxidative metabolism and glucuronidation. Regorafenib was eliminated predominantly in feces as well as by hepatic biotransformation. The multiple biotransformation pathways of regorafenib decrease the risk of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions.

  17. Bioeconomic study of a multispecies pest subjected to a pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, K.

    1986-07-01

    The paper deals with a community of two ecologically independent insect species subjected to a combined spray of insecticides. The growth equations for the community are constructed taking breeding into account and assuming the presence of some sexually sterile males in the populations. The dynamical behaviour of the community is explained at length. A bioeconomic analysis of the spraying programme is undertaken and the existence of a bionomic equilibrium is proved. The optimal spraying policy is studied with the help of Pontryagin's maximum principle. Lastly, the principal results are summarized. (author)

  18. Effectiveness of Play Therapy on Problem Behaviors of Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Single Subject Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Karrie L.

    2011-01-01

    A growing disparity between the mental health needs of children and their lack of treatment served as the basis of this study. To address this existent gap, I proposed that child-centered play therapy (CCPT), a holistic treatment that fosters children's emotional, developmental, and social growth would serve as a viable treatment. The purpose of…

  19. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of DW1029M, a Botanical Drug for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy, Following Single Doses in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunjeong; Jeon, Ji-Young; Kim, Eun-Young; Lim, Cheol-Hee; Jang, Hwan Bong; Kim, Min-Gul

    2017-09-01

    DW1029M is a botanical extract of Morus albalinne root bark and Puerariae radix that is used for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. This study evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics of DW1029M following its administration in healthy Korean subjects. We conducted a randomized, open-label, single-dose, crossover phase 1 clinical study. During each period, subjects received 300, 600, or 1200 mg oral doses of DW1029M. Plasma concentrations of puerarin, daidzin, and daidzein were analyzed using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Six healthy male subjects completed the study. The maximum concentration of the drug in the plasma (C max ) and area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve to the last measurable concentration (AUC last ) for puerarin, daidzin, and daidzein were assessed after oral administration of DW1029M. No serious adverse events or clinically or statistically significant adverse events associated with any of the drug levels were observed. The results of the measurement of vital signs, electrocardiogram, laboratory tests, and physical examinations indicated that no clinically significant changes occurred during this study. The DW1029M tablet was safe and well tolerated over a single dose range of 300-1200 mg. This pharmacokinetic study of a botanical drug may aid in the development of DW1029M. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphism profiling across the methotrexate pathway in normal subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Prabha; Culverhouse, Robert; Marsh, Sharon; Ahluwalia, Ranjeet; Shannon, William D; Eisen, Seth; McLeod, Howard L

    2004-07-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is a commonly used disease-modifying antirheumatic drug in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Polymorphisms occur in several genes encoding key enzymes in the folic acid pathway, which is influenced by MTX, but have not been evaluated in patients with RA. The effect of race on allele frequency has also not been evaluated. In this study, the allele frequencies of polymorphisms in six key enzymes in the MTX-folate pathway in patients with RA and healthy controls, including several common racial groups were studied. European- and African-American patients with RA and European and African healthy controls were genotyped for 22 genetic loci in six genes in the MTX cellular pathway. Differences in genotype distributions between the different racial groups were evaluated using chi(2) tests. Allele frequencies were significantly different (p racial differences exist between the allele frequencies of several polymorphisms in enzymes in the MTX-folate pathway in patients with RA and healthy controls. Whether such differences contribute to a differential response to MTX in patients with RA deserves to be investigated.

  1. Study of Spirituality in Elderly With Subjective Memory Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Surbhi C; Subramanyam, Alka A; Kamath, Ravindra M; Pinto, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints are very common among elderly. They can be due to depression, cognitive decline, or be a part of normal aging process. Spirituality is another important dimension in elderly, and it is believed to help them cope with various adversities. This study was done to find out whether any relation exists between these 2 variables in elderly. A total of 120 elderly individuals, presenting with subjective memory complaints, were divided into 3 groups - controls, elderly with depression, and elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Spirituality in them was studied by dividing it into the subdomains of self-transcendence, presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, and locus of control. Spirituality was the highest in controls, followed by MCI group, and then depression group. Spirituality had a direct negative relationship with severity of depression, while relationship of spirituality with severity of cognitive decline was more complex. Relationship of spirituality with mental health status in elderly patients seemed bidirectional, that is, cause as well as effect relationship. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Roflumilast and Its Active Metabolite Roflumilast N-Oxide in Healthy Chinese Subjects After Single and Multiple Oral Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yiya; Liu, Lingye; Ma, Pengcheng; Ding, Li

    2017-06-01

    Roflumilast is a selective, oral phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor approved for the treatment of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide in healthy Chinese subjects, and the effects of gender and food on their respective pharmacokinetic profiles. 36 healthy Chinese subjects were recruited in a randomized, single-center, open-label, parallel group study and assigned to 0.25-, 0.375-, and 0.5-mg dose groups. The single-dose pharmacokinetic studies in fasting condition were carried out in all groups. Moreover, the food effect study and multiple-dose study were conducted in 0.375-mg dose group. Serial blood samples were collected over 168 h after dosing, and plasma concentrations of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide were determined using a validated LC-MS/MS method. After oral administration of single doses of 0.25, 0.375 and 0.5 mg of roflumilast under fasting condition, the mean AUC 0-72h for roflumilast was 21.7 ± 8.3, 29.8 ± 8.3 and 54.2 ± 21.3 ng·h/mL, respectively. Meanwhile the mean AUC 0-168h for roflumilast N-oxide was 290 ± 103, 385 ± 107 and 673 ± 245 ng·h/mL, respectively. In the steady state after the multi-dose administration, the exposure to roflumilast in the subjects increased 20-40 %, and the exposure to roflumilast N-oxide increased about 169 %, compared to the single-dose administration. No statistically significant effect of gender on the disposition of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide was observed. Food had no effect on systemic exposure to roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide in the subjects, but delayed the T max of roflumilast by 0.9 h and reduced the C max of roflumilast by approximately 20 %. Based upon between-study comparison, peak and systemic exposure of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide were higher in Chinese than that in Caucasian subjects after oral administration of the same dose (i.e., 0.25 and 0.5

  3. The reproducibility of binocular pattern reversal visual evoked potentials: a single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellow, Tessa B; Liasis, Alki; Lyons, Ruth; Thompson, Dorothy A

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the within-participant variability over time of both amplitude and peak latency measures of pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (pVEPs). As a large number of factors are known to contribute to the variability of the pVEPs (such as fixation instability and drowsiness), testing was conducted in controlled conditions with two co-operative participants. PVEPs were recorded during 24 sessions, over an eight-week period using the same equipment and recording settings. The participants viewed a plasma monitor binocularly from a distance of 1 meter. High contrast (97%), black and white checks of side subtense 50', 25', and 12.5' pattern reversed 3/s in a 28 degree test field. The different sized checks were presented in a pseudo-random order. Three runs, each of 100 trials, were acquired to each stimulus from an active electrode placed at Oz referred to aFz. The amplitude of N80-P100 and the latency of P100 were measured. P100 amplitude and latency were stable across sessions and did not depend upon the order of check size presentation. As expected, variation in amplitude was greater than peak latency. The coefficients of variation for different check sizes and participants were 9-14% for pVEP amplitude, but only 1-2% for P100 latency.

  4. Randomized pharmacokinetic and drug-drug interaction studies of ceftazidime, avibactam, and metronidazole in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shampa; Li, Jianguo; Armstrong, Jon; Learoyd, Maria; Edeki, Timi

    2015-10-01

    We assessed pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of ceftazidime-avibactam administered ± metronidazole, and whether drug-drug interactions exist between ceftazidime and avibactam, or ceftazidime-avibactam and metronidazole. The first study (NCT01430910) involved two cohorts of healthy subjects. Cohort 1 received ceftazidime-avibactam (2000-500 mg) as a single infusion or as multiple intravenous infusions over 11 days to evaluate ceftazidime-avibactam pharmacokinetics. Cohort 2 received ceftazidime, avibactam, or ceftazidime-avibactam over 4 days to assess drug-drug interaction between ceftazidime and avibactam. The second study (NCT01534247) assessed interaction between ceftazidime-avibactam and metronidazole in subjects receiving ceftazidime-avibactam (2000-500 mg), metronidazole (500 mg), or metronidazole followed by ceftazidime-avibactam over 4 days. In all studies, subjects received a single-dose on the first and final days, and multiple-doses every 8 h on intervening days. Concentration-time profiles for ceftazidime and avibactam administered as single- or multiple-doses separately or together with/without metronidazole were similar. There was no evidence of time-dependent pharmacokinetics or accumulation. In both interaction studies, 90% confidence intervals for geometric least squares mean ratios of area under the curve and maximum plasma concentrations for each drug were within the predefined interval (80-125%) indicating no drug-drug interaction between ceftazidime and avibactam, or ceftazidime-avibactam and metronidazole. There were no safety concerns. In conclusion, pharmacokinetic parameters and safety of ceftazidime, avibactam, and metronidazole were similar after single and multiple doses with no observed drug-drug interaction between ceftazidime and avibactam, or ceftazidime-avibactam and metronidazole.

  5. Randomized pharmacokinetic and drug–drug interaction studies of ceftazidime, avibactam, and metronidazole in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shampa; Li, Jianguo; Armstrong, Jon; Learoyd, Maria; Edeki, Timi

    2015-01-01

    We assessed pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of ceftazidime–avibactam administered ± metronidazole, and whether drug–drug interactions exist between ceftazidime and avibactam, or ceftazidime-avibactam and metronidazole. The first study (NCT01430910) involved two cohorts of healthy subjects. Cohort 1 received ceftazidime–avibactam (2000–500 mg) as a single infusion or as multiple intravenous infusions over 11 days to evaluate ceftazidime–avibactam pharmacokinetics. Cohort 2 received ceftazidime, avibactam, or ceftazidime–avibactam over 4 days to assess drug–drug interaction between ceftazidime and avibactam. The second study (NCT01534247) assessed interaction between ceftazidime–avibactam and metronidazole in subjects receiving ceftazidime–avibactam (2000–500 mg), metronidazole (500 mg), or metronidazole followed by ceftazidime–avibactam over 4 days. In all studies, subjects received a single-dose on the first and final days, and multiple-doses every 8 h on intervening days. Concentration-time profiles for ceftazidime and avibactam administered as single- or multiple-doses separately or together with/without metronidazole were similar. There was no evidence of time-dependent pharmacokinetics or accumulation. In both interaction studies, 90% confidence intervals for geometric least squares mean ratios of area under the curve and maximum plasma concentrations for each drug were within the predefined interval (80–125%) indicating no drug–drug interaction between ceftazidime and avibactam, or ceftazidime–avibactam and metronidazole. There were no safety concerns. In conclusion, pharmacokinetic parameters and safety of ceftazidime, avibactam, and metronidazole were similar after single and multiple doses with no observed drug–drug interaction between ceftazidime and avibactam, or ceftazidime–avibactam and metronidazole. PMID:26516584

  6. Variability of sleep duration is related to subjective sleep quality and subjective well-being: an actigraphy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemola, Sakari; Ledermann, Thomas; Friedman, Elliot M

    2013-01-01

    While there is a large body of evidence that poor subjective sleep quality is related to lower subjective well-being, studies on the relation of objective sleep measures and subjective well-being are fewer in number and less consistent in their findings. Using data of the Survey of Mid-Life in the United States (MIDUS), we investigated whether duration and quality of sleep, assessed by actigraphy, were related to subjective well-being and whether this relationship was mediated by subjective sleep quality. Three hundred and thirteen mainly white American individuals from the general population and 128 urban-dwelling African American individuals between 35 and 85 years of age were studied cross-sectionally. Sleep duration, variability of sleep duration, sleep onset latency, and time awake after sleep onset were assessed by actigraphy over a period of 7 days. Subjective sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, positive psychological well-being and symptoms of psychological distress were assessed with the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire. In both white and African Americans high day-to-day variability in sleep duration was related to lower levels of subjective well-being controlling age, gender, educational and marital status, and BMI. By contrast, sleep duration, sleep onset latency, and time awake after sleep onset were not related to subjective well-being controlling covariates and other sleep variables. Moreover, the relationship between variability in sleep duration and well-being was partially mediated by subjective sleep quality. The findings show that great day-to-day variability in sleep duration--more than average sleep duration--is related to poor subjective sleep quality and poor subjective well-being.

  7. Parametric study of cantilever walls subjected to seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comina, Cesare; Foti, Sebastiano; Lancellotta, Renato; Leuzzi, Francesco; Pettiti, Alberto; Corigliano, Mirko; Lai, Carlo G.; Nicosia, Giovanni Li Destri; Psarropoulos, Prodromos N.; Paolucci, Roberto; Zanoli, Omar

    2008-01-01

    The design of flexible earth retaining structures under seismic loading is a challenging geotechnical problem, the dynamic soil-structure interaction being of paramount importance for this kind of structures. Pseudo-static approaches are often adopted but do not allow a realistic assessment of the performance of the structure subjected to the seismic motions. The present paper illustrates a numerical parametric study aimed at estimating the influence of the dynamic soil-structure interaction in the design. A series of flexible earth retaining walls have been preliminary designed according to the requirements of Eurocode 7 and Eurocode 8--Part 5; their dynamic behaviour has been then evaluated by means of dynamic numerical simulations in terms of bending moments, accelerations and stress state. The results obtained from dynamic analyses have then been compared with those determined using the pseudo-static approach

  8. Pharmacological toxicological studies on certain drugs subjected to radiation or used radioprotective agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    The present study represents two main subjects. The first encounters the effect of radiosterilization of certain pharmaceretical preparations such as antihistaminics (cimetidine), anticonvulsants (diazepam), beta and calcium channel blacker (propranolol and verapamil) on their pharmacological activity. Results of this study revealed that the previously mentioned drugs can be effectively and safely sterilized by gamma irradiation without deleterious effect on their pharmacological activity. The other subject presented in this study is essentially a pharmacological subject encountering toxicological problems. Data of this study demonstrated that chemical radiation protection has been successfully reported using single drug administration has been successfully reported using single drug administration such as imidazole, and Sh-bearing compounds. In the present work, the radioprotective effect of imidazole was demonstrated on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Furthermore, combined drug administration was found to exert more protective action with less toxicity and therefore minimize the side effects of the radioprotective drugs. Thus, combination of imidazole and serotonin showed potential protective effect on blood gases was also reported. In addition, combination of cysteine and vitamin E afforded a better protection on adrenocortical function in rats than either agent alone. 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Lower extremity muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Janssens, Luc; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan; Staes, Filip F

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies mainly focused on muscles at the operated knee after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, less on muscles around other joints of the operated and non-operated leg. The aim of this study was to investigate muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects. Lower extremity muscle activation onset times of both legs of 20 fully returned to sport anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects and 20 non-injured control subjects were measured during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate differences between groups and differences between legs within both groups, while controlling for peak center of pressure velocity. Significantly delayed muscle activation onset times were found in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group compared to the control group for gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, vastus medialis obliquus, medial hamstrings, lateral hamstrings and gastrocnemius in both eyes open and eyes closed conditions (Panterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group, no significant different muscle activation onset times were found between the operated and non-operated leg (P>.05). Despite completion of rehabilitation and full return to sport, the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group showed neuromuscular control deficits that were not limited to the operated knee joint. Clinicians should focus on relearning multi-segmental anticipatory neuromuscular control strategies after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of single oral doses of duloxetine, reboxetine, and midodrine on the urethral pressure in healthy female subjects, using urethral pressure reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Niels; Cerneus, Dirk; Sawyer, William

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the effect on urethral pressure of reference drugs known to reduce stress urinary incontinence symptoms by different effect size and mechanisms of action on urethral musculature under four test conditions in healthy female subjects using urethral pressure reflectometry. METHODS......: Healthy females aged 18-55 years were recruited by advertising for this phase 1, single site, placebo-controlled, randomized, four-period, crossover study. The interventions were single oral doses of 10 mg Midodrine, 80 mg Duloxetine, 12 mg Reboxetine, and placebo. The endpoints were the opening urethral...... pressure measured in each period at four time points (predose and 2, 5.5, and 9 h after dosing). RESULTS: Twenty-nine females were enrolled; 25 randomized and 24 completed the study. The opening urethral pressure was higher in all measurements with filled bladder compared with empty bladder, and during...

  11. Application of single photon ECT for dynamic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, T.; Ishii, Y.; Tamaki, N.

    1982-01-01

    Feasibility of dynamic study in a form of ECT using a rotating gamma camera was evaluated. Since it takes longer one around time sampling, application for the dynamic study is limited under following conditions; 1) physiological gated process, 2) slow clearance process, 3) physiological steady state process. The gated study was applicated for heart pumping action synchronized with ECG. The ECG gated heart ECT either of blood pool or myocardium was useful to reveal a subtle wall motion abnormalities in a tomographic plane, even when a planar imaging failed to reveal it. As for slow dynamic process of tracer, an excretion process of hepatobiliary agent, was subjected to be analyzed in order to calculate clearance rate at each pixel. As for steady state process, an ECT of regional celebral blood flow (rCBF) was investigated during continuous infusion into intracarotid artery. All of these technique were proved to have a clinical feasibility and to potentiate usefulness of the single photon ECT (SPECT)

  12. Discrepancies between Skinned Single Muscle Fibres and Whole Thigh Muscle Function Characteristics in Young and Elderly Human Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunseok Jee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to analyse the mechanical properties of skinned single muscle fibres derived from the vastus lateralis (VL muscle in relation to those of the whole intact thigh muscle and to compare any difference between young and older adults. Sixteen young men (29.25±4.65 years, 11 older men (71.45±2.94 years, 11 young women (29.64±4.88 years, and 7 older women (67.29±1.70 years were recruited. In vivo analyses were performed for mechanical properties such as isokinetic performance, isometric torque, and power. Specific force and maximum shortening velocity (Vo were measured with single muscle fibres. Sex difference showed greater impact on the functional properties of both the whole muscle (p<0.01 and single muscle fibres than aging (p<0.05. Sex difference, rather than aging, yielded more remarkable differences in gross mechanical properties in the single muscle fibre study in which significant differences between young men and young women were found only in the cross-sectional area and Vo (p<0.05. Age and sex differences reflect the mechanical properties of both single muscle fibres and whole thigh muscle, with the whole muscle yielding more prominent functional properties.

  13. Controlling the formation of wrinkles in a single layer graphene sheet subjected to in-plane shear

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Wen Hui

    2011-08-01

    The initiation and development of wrinkles in a single layer graphene sheet subjected to in-plane shear displacements are investigated. The dependence of the wavelength and amplitude of wrinkles on the applied shear displacements is explicitly obtained with molecular mechanics simulations. A continuum model is developed for the characteristics of the wrinkles which show that the wrinkle wavelength decreases with an increase in shear loading, while the amplitude of the wrinkles is found to initially increase and then become stable. The propagation and growth process of the wrinkles in the sheet is elucidated. It is expected that the research could promote applications of graphenes in the transportation of biological systems, separation science, and the development of the fluidic electronics. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Comparative Study of Subject Specialisation at the University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The University of Botswana Library and the Rand University Library have both adopted subject specialisation approach in the delivery of their services. The article seeks to establish ... It concludes by highlighting the importance of customer services, which are inherent in subject specialisation. (African Journal of Library, ...

  15. Uso de órtese para abdução do polegar no desempenho funcional de criança portadora de paralisia cerebral: estudo de caso único Use of abduction thumb orthosis in functional performance of a child with cerebral palsy: a single-subject study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Valladão N. Rodrigues

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: documentar o impacto do uso da órtese de abdução do polegar no desempenho funcional de uma criança hemiparética com leve espasticidade. MÉTODOS: foi utilizado um desenho experimental de caso-único do tipo AB. A fase A consistiu na coleta de dados durante um período sem intervenção (condição controle. A fase B incluiu o uso de órtese de abdução do polegar como procedimento terapêutico associado ao atendimento de terapia ocupacional tradicional. A fase A teve a duração de seis semanas e a fase subseqüente de oito semanas. A criança foi avaliada semanalmente quanto à amplitude ativa de movimento de extensão e flexão de punho, abdução e oponência do polegar e quanto à função manual. A análise dos dados foi realizada através dos métodos estatísticos Celeration Line e Banda de Dois Desvios-Padrão, assim como da Análise Visual. RESULTADOS: a criança apresentou melhora significativa na amplitude de movimento do punho e polegar (ADM ativa. Com relação à função manual observou-se redução do tempo para realização das tarefas, porém não significativa, exceto para a tarefa de empilhar blocos. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados sugerem que o uso da órtese de abdução do polegar pode ser útil no tratamento de crianças com paralisia cerebral espástica para a melhoria da ADM ativa da mão, podendo ser utilizada como adjuvante a outras terapêuticas.OBJECTIVE: to investigate the impact of a thumb abduction orthosis on functional skills of a child with hemiparetic cerebral palsy and mild spasticity. METHODS: an AB single-subject design was used in this study. Baseline A consisted of data collected during a period without intervention (control conditions. The intervention phase B included the use of a thumb abduction orthosis in association with traditional occupational therapy. The baseline lasted six weeks and the intervention period eight weeks. Assessments were performed once a week throughout the study and

  16. Gonadotropins studies in female egyptian subjects under different physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.; Megahed, Y.M.; Ibrahim, M.

    2002-01-01

    This study is concerned with the role of the hypothalamic hypophyseal regulatory hormonal mechanisms in the control of gonadal secretions in a selected normal egyptian female subjects with varying ages under different physiological conditions. The study allowed precise definition of the modulator influence of a number of key factors triggering appropriate alteration in circulating serum levels of FSH and LH determined by IRMA technique in pre-pubertal female children (9-11), post-pubertal adolescents females (13-16). Adult married females (27-33) and post-menopausal (58-63). The levels of FSH and LH were increased markedly with age but children less than 11 years old had only nocturnal increase in levels of FSH (p.O.I) and LH(P< 0.001). post-pubertal aged girls had significant nocturnal elevation only of LH levels (P< 0.001), adult married females did not exhibit significant difference in gonadotropin concentrations. whereas significant elevation in FSH and LH levels (P<0.001) in post-menopausal females were observed

  17. Finite element modelling of plastic collapse of metallic single mitred pipe bends subject to in-plane bending moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochekseraii, Sadegh Babaii

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical analysis based on the finite element (FE) method for plastic collapse of metallic single mitred pipe bends of various geometries, subject to in-plane bending moment, were carried out using both ABAQUS and ANSYS structural FE programs covering both linear small displacement and non-linear large displacement analysis. Parametric surveys presented interesting features including an increase in plastic collapse in-plane bending moments after mitre angles of around 40 deg. . Results obtained using either ANSYS or ABAQUS could not be compared against any available experimental data as they differ significantly in areas like strain hardening and other features of a real material that did not exist in the FE modelling. However, single case comparison with the only reported experimental work, known to the author, showed that large displacement FE analysis led to more realistic predictions. It is, therefore, concluded that despite complex behaviour of a real material as compared to material models available in FE analysis, effective plastic collapse moments can be predicted using the small displacement FE analysis

  18. Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Rufinamide Following Single and Multiple Oral Doses and Effect of Food on Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Chinese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingzhen; Ni, Yang; Zhou, Ying; He, Xiaomeng; Li, Huqun; Chen, Hui; Li, Weiyong

    2016-10-01

    Rufinamide is a triazole derivative that is structurally unrelated to currently marketed antiepileptic medications for add-on treatment of seizures in the setting of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients from the age of 4 years. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic and safety profile of single and multiple doses of rufinamide in healthy Chinese subjects. The effects of food and gender on the pharmacokinetic properties of rufinamide were also evaluated. In the single-dose study, volunteers were randomly assigned to 4 dose groups and received a single dose of 200, 400, 800, 1200 mg rufinamide tablets under fasting condition. Ten subjects in the 200-mg dose group were randomly assigned to either a high-fat or non-high-fat breakfast group in each study period. The drug administration was separated by a washout period of 7 calendar days. In the multiple-dose study, 10 subjects were administered on an empty stomach rufinamide 200 mg twice daily for 6 consecutive days. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was applied to determine plasma concentration of rufinamide. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including the maximum plasma concentration (C max), the time to peak concentration (t max), the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-t ) and from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞), terminal elimination half-life (t 1/2), apparent volume of distribution (V d), apparent clearance (CL), average residence time (MRT), area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration at steady state (AUCss), peak concentration (C max,ss) and trough level concentration (C min,ss) at steady state were calculated using non-compartmental models. Tolerability was assessed based on investigator inquiries, spontaneous reports and clinical evaluations. Rufinamide displayed a dose-dependent, but sub-proportional increase in exposure

  19. Pilot Study of Topical Copper Chlorophyllin Complex in Subjects With Facial Acne and Large Pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas J; McCook, John P; Herndon, James H

    2015-06-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the most common skin diseases treated by dermatologists. Salts of copper chlorophyllin complex are semi-synthetic naturally-derived compounds with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity that have not been previously tested topically in the treatment of acne-prone skin with enlarged pores. This single-center pilot study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of a liposomal dispersion of topically applied sodium copper chlorophyllin complex in subjects with mild-moderate acne and large, visible pores over a course of 3 weeks. Subjects were supplied with the test product, a topical gel containing a liposomal dispersion of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex (0.1%) with directions to apply a small amount to the facial area twice daily. Clinical assessments were performed at screening/baseline and at week 3. VISIA readings were taken and self-assessment questionnaires were conducted. 10 subjects were enrolled and completed the 3-week study. All clinical efficacy parameters showed statistically significant improvements over baseline at week 3. The study product was well tolerated. Subject questionnaires showed the test product was highly rated. In this pilot study, a topical formulation containing a liposomal dispersion of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex was shown to be clinically effective and well tolerated for the treatment of mild-moderate acne and large, visible pores when used for 3 weeks.

  20. Study on cylindrical specimen subjected to oligocyclic thermal fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesari, F.; Battistella, P.; Quaranta, S.; Arduino, M.

    1993-01-01

    During the last years the development in the analysis of the thermal fatigue phenomenon was remarkable in particularly in industry. This improvement was more and more evident on the specific power of the engines, involving a general rise in the working temperature and in the stress level of oligocyclic thermal fatigue due to the start /stop of the engine. As far as this is concerned, the theoretical capabilities of the LIN (Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of Montecuccolino) has been requested in the frame of a collaboration with the IVECO Spa of Turin in view of verifying experimental data. The investigation of the thermal fatigue consequences has been undertaken by analyzing a cylindrical sample; its material was similar to that of the engine's head. Its was axially clamped in the two extremes and subjected to repeated thermal cycles. Beginning from the first experimental results supplied by IVECO, a theoretical - numerical campaign has been started in order to attempt a correct interpretation of the experimental behavior. The computer codes adopted in this study are mainly two typical FE programs (CASTEM and ANSYS) which have been carried out in parallel. First, both the physical and mechanical experimental conditions have been accurately reproduced in the model prepared for structural analysis. Second, several runs of calculations ware worked out to obtain a stress-strain description during some load - unload cycles. The material law is obviously non-linear because the strong variations in the temperature distributions cause high stress levels well above the yielding point

  1. Methodic of practical study teaching on subject 'Characteristic mechanical oscillations'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenchurina, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    In this article the methodic of the undertaking the practical lesson for subject 'the own mechanical vibrations' is considered and offered the algorithm of the problem decision the finding of the vibration period for the different mechanical systems. (author)

  2. Effect of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics of ebastine after single and repeated dosing in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatagi, S; Gillen, M; Aubeneau, M; Jan, C; Pandit, B; Jensen, B K; Rhodes, G

    2001-03-01

    Ebastine is a potent and selective H1-receptor antagonist indicated for allergic rhinitis which undergoes extensive first pass metabolism by CYP3A4 to form an active metabolite, carebastine. The purpose of the study was to determine age- and gender-related differences in the pharmacokinetics of ebastine and carebastine. The upper recommended oral dose of 20 mg once daily was administered to 12 healthy young (22 to 38 years) and 12 healthy elderly (50 to 92 years; 8 m and 4 f) subjects for 5 days. Plasma concentrations of ebastine and carebastine were determined for 24 hours following the initial dose on Day 1 and for 72 hours following the dose on Day 5 using a sensitive LC/MS/MS assay. The minimum quantifiable limit (MQL) for the assay was 0.05 ng/ml and 1.0 ng/ml for ebastine and carebastine, respectively. Mean area under the curve and Cmax values on Day 1 and Day 5 were similar for ebastine but approximately doubled for carebastine due to its longer half-life. Mean carebastine concentrations were approximately 10 to 20 fold higher than mean ebastine concentrations. For young subjects, the mean (%CV) ebastine t(1/2) was 5.76 (28.47) h and 20.38 (46.19) h on Day 1 and Day 5, respectively. Similarily, for young subjects, the mean (%CV) for carebastine t(1/2) was 7.03 (23.21) h and 26.12 (23.39) h on Day 1 and Day 5, respectively. This apparent prolongation of t(1/2) was probably due to lack of proper estimation of terminal half-life on Day 1 as fewer samples were collected for a shorter duration on Day 1. Using a multicomparison test for Cmin values, it was determined that steady state conditions were achieved by Day 5 for both age groups for ebastine and in young subjects for carebastine. The variability in ebastine pharmacokinetic parameters was higher than carebastine. A 50% increase in ebastine AUC(0-24) and Cmax values in elderly subjects, with no changes in t(1/2), could be explained by either increased absorption of ebastine in elderly subjects or due to a

  3. N-of-1-pathways MixEnrich: advancing precision medicine via single-subject analysis in discovering dynamic changes of transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qike; Schissler, A Grant; Gardeux, Vincent; Achour, Ikbel; Kenost, Colleen; Berghout, Joanne; Li, Haiquan; Zhang, Hao Helen; Lussier, Yves A

    2017-05-24

    Transcriptome analytic tools are commonly used across patient cohorts to develop drugs and predict clinical outcomes. However, as precision medicine pursues more accurate and individualized treatment decisions, these methods are not designed to address single-patient transcriptome analyses. We previously developed and validated the N-of-1-pathways framework using two methods, Wilcoxon and Mahalanobis Distance (MD), for personal transcriptome analysis derived from a pair of samples of a single patient. Although, both methods uncover concordantly dysregulated pathways, they are not designed to detect dysregulated pathways with up- and down-regulated genes (bidirectional dysregulation) that are ubiquitous in biological systems. We developed N-of-1-pathways MixEnrich, a mixture model followed by a gene set enrichment test, to uncover bidirectional and concordantly dysregulated pathways one patient at a time. We assess its accuracy in a comprehensive simulation study and in a RNA-Seq data analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). In presence of bidirectionally dysregulated genes in the pathway or in presence of high background noise, MixEnrich substantially outperforms previous single-subject transcriptome analysis methods, both in the simulation study and the HNSCCs data analysis (ROC Curves; higher true positive rates; lower false positive rates). Bidirectional and concordant dysregulated pathways uncovered by MixEnrich in each patient largely overlapped with the quasi-gold standard compared to other single-subject and cohort-based transcriptome analyses. The greater performance of MixEnrich presents an advantage over previous methods to meet the promise of providing accurate personal transcriptome analysis to support precision medicine at point of care.

  4. Overview of ESO Large Single Dish Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testi, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    In this talk I will briefly summarize the motivation, methodology and outcome of the ESO Submm Single Dish Strategy WG. The WG was established by the ESO Director for Science and completed its work at the end of 2015. I will summarize the status of the report recommendations, which, among other things, led to the organization of the AtLAST workshop.

  5. A clinicopathological study of dyspeptic subjects in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladi Hameed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The clinicopathological and endoscopic features of dyspepsia have not been well studied in Nigeria due to the high cost of gastroscopes and lack of the relevant expertise. This study was designed to highlight these features and possible risk factors. This prospective study was conducted on adult dyspeptic patients who fulfilled the study criteria from November 2007 to December 2008 at a University hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Demographic and clinical presentation including possible risk factors were obtained through a questionnaire administered by an interviewer followed by an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and gastric biopsy. Of the 123 subjects who took part in the study, 100 gave their consent to an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy. The male:female ratio was 1:1, mean age was 44.98 (SD 15.4 years and the modal age group was 38-47years. The prevalence of dyspepsia was 29% and epigastric pain was the most common presentation. Endoscopic findings were superficial mucosal lesion (21%, peptic ulcer (16%, features of gastroesophageal reflux disease (10%, and gastric cancer (2%, as well normal findings (44%. Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID use as a risk factor had a significant association with positive endoscopic findings; relative risk for development of positive endoscopic findings was 1.5% (P =0.03. Histology showed rates of chronic gastritis to be 91% and normal values 9%. The most common type of gastritis was the non-specific form (59.3%, followed by H. Pylori-associated gastritis (36.3%. The topography of gastritis was mainly pangastritis (68.1% and antral predominant in 23.1%. The prevalence of H. pylori by histology was 41%. The presence of H. pylori was not associated with severity, location or duration of symptoms. H. pylori was, however, found to be a significant contributor to the development of positive endoscopic findings (P=0.01; OR 2.92 95% CI 1.50-3.17. Alarm symptoms were found to be important markers of

  6. Pharmacokinetic Study of Frusemide in Healthy and Cirrhotic Indian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yuvrajsing Dhunnoo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver cirrhosis is associated with various complications such as ascites and fluid retention, progressing to development of hepatorenal syndrome, further compromising fluid elimination. Frusemide, a loop diuretic is normally administered to relieve fluid retentions. The kinetics of frusemide has not been conclusively reported in the three types of cirrhosis and among Indian subjects. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the kinetics of frusemide among healthy and Child’s A, B and C cirrhosis and compare with earlier data. 24 cirrhotic were selected and classified according to the Child’s-Pugh classification. 12 healthy male volunteers were screened and included in the study. 40 mg of frusemide was administered orally to both groups and blood samples were withdrawn at various intervals of time for a duration of 8 hrs. The amount of frusemide present in plasma was analyzed using HPLC. The volumes of distribution (Vd, area under curve (AUC, systemic clearance (CL, maximum concentration (Cmax, time for maximum concentration (tmax in healthy volunteers were respectively 4.56 ± 0.15 L, 2258 ± 530.7, 4.97 ± 1.67 L/h, 892 ± 49.4 ng/ml, 85.20± 7.49 mins. Corresponding values in Group A were 5.00 ± 0.31 L, 2471 ± 228.6, 6.60 ± 2.90L/h, 1021 ± 47.97 ng/ml and 88.25 V 2.12 mins; in Group B 7.73 ± 1.10 L, 4038 ± 154.7, 8.84 ± 0.45 L/h, 1448 ± 43.20 ng/ml and 120 ± 1.89 mins; In group C cirrhosis 9.69 ± 1.32 L, 4085 ± 131.75, 3.49 ± 1.40 L/h, 1551± 59.02 ng/ml and 185.7 ± 2.68 mins respectively. Significant differences at 1% and 5% were observed among the cirrhotic groups and between healthy v/s cirrhotic patients. Data from current study do not correlate with earlier reports, carried mainly in Western population, due to possibly differences in instrumentation, etc but a possible genetic interplay should not be ruled out. Data from cirrhotic patients could not be effectively compared with earlier studies as kinetics of frusemide

  7. L5 pedicle length is increased in subjects with spondylolysis: an anatomic study of 1072 cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Navkirat S; Toy, Jason O; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2012-11-01

    In spondylolisthesis, it is believed that as L5 slips on S1, the pedicle may become elongated in response to the instability in an attempt to bridge the defect. Whether patients with spondylolysis, which is largely developmental, also develop elongation of the pedicles is unknown. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and quantify the increase in L5 pedicle length in subjects with spondylolysis as compared with normal healthy subjects. Nine hundred fifty-two human cadaveric specimens without spondylolysis and 120 specimens with spondylolysis from the Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection were examined by a single examiner. Baseline data, including age, sex, and race of specimens, were collected. Digital calipers were used to measure the pedicle lengths at the L5 level. Linear regression analysis was performed to compare the L5 pedicle lengths in healthy patients and patients with spondylolysis. Linear regression showed a significant association of increased L5 pedicle length in subjects with spondylolysis. The average L5 pedicle length in subjects with spondylolysis was greater compared with subjects without spondylolysis. In spondylolytic specimens, pedicles start to elongate after the age of 40 years. The pedicle lengths increase progressively from 5.6 mm at 40 years to 6.7 mm at 80 years with a 1% to 3% increment every decade. The pedicle lengths showed little variation in specimens from healthy subjects. In spondylolytic specimens, there is progressive elongation of L5 pedicle length after the third decade. An increase in L5 pedicle length in all age groups compared with the specimens from healthy subjects suggests that pathologic changes occur in bony anatomy of L5 vertebrae as early as adolescence when the condition develops.

  8. Supervising and Controlling Unmanned Systems: A Multi-Phase Study with Subject Matter Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Talya; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Rottem-Hovev, Michal; Silbiger, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation in the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) in civil and military operations has presented a multitude of human factors challenges; from how to bridge the gap between demand and availability of trained operators, to how to organize and present data in meaningful ways. Utilizing the Design Research Methodology (DRM), a series of closely related studies with subject matter experts (SMEs) demonstrate how the focus of research gradually shifted from "how many systems can a single operator control" to "how to distribute missions among operators and systems in an efficient way". The first set of studies aimed to explore the modal number, i.e., how many systems can a single operator supervise and control. It was found that an experienced operator can supervise up to 15 UASs efficiently using moderate levels of automation, and control (mission and payload management) up to three systems. Once this limit was reached, a single operator's performance was compared to a team controlling the same number of systems. In general, teams led to better performances. Hence, shifting design efforts toward developing tools that support teamwork environments of multiple operators with multiple UASs (MOMU). In MOMU settings, when the tasks are similar or when areas of interest overlap, one operator seems to have an advantage over a team who needs to collaborate and coordinate. However, in all other cases, a team was advantageous over a single operator. Other findings and implications, as well as future directions for research are discussed.

  9. Supervising and Controlling Unmanned Systems: A Multi-Phase Study with Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Talya; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Rottem-Hovev, Michal; Silbiger, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation in the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) in civil and military operations has presented a multitude of human factors challenges; from how to bridge the gap between demand and availability of trained operators, to how to organize and present data in meaningful ways. Utilizing the Design Research Methodology (DRM), a series of closely related studies with subject matter experts (SMEs) demonstrate how the focus of research gradually shifted from “how many systems can a single operator control” to “how to distribute missions among operators and systems in an efficient way”. The first set of studies aimed to explore the modal number, i.e., how many systems can a single operator supervise and control. It was found that an experienced operator can supervise up to 15 UASs efficiently using moderate levels of automation, and control (mission and payload management) up to three systems. Once this limit was reached, a single operator's performance was compared to a team controlling the same number of systems. In general, teams led to better performances. Hence, shifting design efforts toward developing tools that support teamwork environments of multiple operators with multiple UASs (MOMU). In MOMU settings, when the tasks are similar or when areas of interest overlap, one operator seems to have an advantage over a team who needs to collaborate and coordinate. However, in all other cases, a team was advantageous over a single operator. Other findings and implications, as well as future directions for research are discussed. PMID:27252662

  10. The diuretic effect in human subjects of an extract of Taraxacum officinale folium over a single day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Bevin A; Conroy, Richard S; Spelman, Kevin

    2009-08-01

    Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber (Asteraceae) has been extensively employed as a diuretic in traditional folk medicine and in modern phytotherapy in Europe, Asia, and the Americas without prior clinical trial substantiation. In this pilot study, a high-quality fresh leaf hydroethanolic extract of the medicinal plant T. officinale (dandelion) was ingested by volunteers to investigate whether an increased urinary frequency and volume would result. Volume of urinary output and fluid intake were recorded by subjects. Baseline values for urinary frequency and excretion ratio (urination volume:fluid intake) were established 2 days prior to dandelion dosing (8 mL TID) and monitored throughout a 1-day dosing period and 24 hours postdosing. For the entire population (n = 17) there was a significant (p officinale ethanolic extract shows promise as a diuretic in humans. Further studies are needed to establish the value of this herb for induction of diuresis in human subjects.

  11. The Subjective Sensation of Synchrony: An Experimental Study

    KAUST Repository

    Llobera, Joan

    2016-02-12

    People performing actions together have a natural tendency to synchronize their behavior. Consistently, people doing a task together build internal representations not only of their actions and goals, but also of the other people performing the task. However, little is known about which are the behavioral mechanisms and the psychological factors affecting the subjective sensation of synchrony, or “connecting” with someone else. In this work, we sought to find which factors induce the subjective sensation of synchrony, combining motion capture data and psychological measures. Our results show that the subjective sensation of synchrony is affected by performance quality together with task category, and time. Psychological factors such as empathy and negative subjective affects also correlate with the subjective sensation of synchrony. However, when people estimate synchrony as seen from a third person perspective, their psychological factors do not affect the accuracy of the estimation. We suggest that to feel this sensation it is necessary to, first, have a good joint performance and, second, to assume the existence of an attention monitoring mechanism that reports that the attention of both participants (self and other) is focused on the task.

  12. Inhalation of a dry powder ciprofloxacin formulation in healthy subjects: a phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stass, Heino; Nagelschmitz, Johannes; Willmann, Stefan; Delesen, Heinz; Gupta, Abhishek; Baumann, Sybille

    2013-06-01

    Oral and intravenous formulations of ciprofloxacin have established efficacy and safety profiles in respiratory infections. A dry powder for inhalation (DPI) that uses Novartis' PulmoSphere™ technology has been developed to deliver high concentrations of ciprofloxacin to the lung with low systemic exposure using a portable and convenient passive dry powder inhaler (Novartis' T-326 inhaler). The primary objective was to investigate the safety and tolerability of ciprofloxacin DPI in healthy male subjects, with a secondary objective to investigate the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin after ciprofloxacin DPI administration. This was a phase I, single-dose, single-site, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study conducted in the hospital setting. Subjects were followed up for safety for approximately 2 weeks. Six healthy male subjects, aged 27-42 years with no history of pulmonary disease, repeated bronchitis or respiratory allergies were enrolled. In randomized order and separated by a 1-week washout period, subjects inhaled a single dose of ciprofloxacin DPI 32.5 mg or placebo from the T-326 inhaler. Primary safety parameters included vital signs, electrocardiogram, laboratory tests, adverse events and lung function (total specific resistance, thoracic gas volume and forced expiratory volume in 1 s). Plasma concentration-time data were used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Ciprofloxacin DPI was well tolerated with no clinically relevant adverse effects on lung function. Estimates of lung deposition derived from physiology-based pharmacokinetic modelling suggest that approximately 40 % of the total dose of ciprofloxacin DPI reached the trachea/bronchi and alveolar space. Systemic ciprofloxacin was detected soon after inhalation [peak concentration in plasma (C(max)) 56.42 μg/L, median time to C max 0.625 h], but total systemic exposure was minimal (area under the plasma concentration-time curve 354.4 μg·h/L). Terminal elimination half

  13. Absence of QTc-interval-prolonging or hemodynamic effects of a single dose of bitter-orange extract in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Bokyung; Cios, Deborah; Kluger, Jeffrey; White, C Michael

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the hemodynamic and electrocardiographic effects of a single dose of commercially available bitter-orange dried-fruit extract, which is increasingly being used in dietary supplements. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. University of Connecticut, Storrs Campus. Eighteen healthy volunteers aged 18 years or older. Subjects were given either placebo or bitter-orange dried-fruit extract (450 mg standardized to 27 mg of m- or p-synephrine) in phase 1. The opposite treatment was given during phase 2 after a washout period of at least 7 days. The rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval and blood pressure were measured before dosing and at 1, 3, 5, and 8 hours after dosing. Mean+/-SD values of the maximum postdose values were compared between groups. Subjects receiving bitter-orange extract versus those receiving placebo had similar postdose QTc intervals (402+/-29 vs 403+/-24 msec, p=0.653), systolic blood pressure (114+/-10 vs 115+/-8 mm Hg, p=0.686) and diastolic blood pressure (68+/-9 vs 68+/-8, p=0.879). Bitter-orange dried-fruit extract standardized to m- or p-synephrine 27 mg did not significantly alter the QTc interval or blood pressure after a single dose was administered. Future studies are necessary to ensure the safety of this herbal product with multiple doses.

  14. Single session imaging of cerebellum at 7 Tesla: obtaining structure and function of multiple motor subsystems in individual subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Batson

    Full Text Available The recent increase in the use of high field MR systems is accompanied by a demand for acquisition techniques and coil systems that can take advantage of increased power and accuracy without being susceptible to increased noise. Physical location and anatomical complexity of targeted regions must be considered when attempting to image deeper structures with small nuclei and/or complex cytoarchitechtonics (i.e. small microvasculature and deep nuclei, such as the brainstem and the cerebellum (Cb. Once these obstacles are overcome, the concomitant increase in signal strength at higher field strength should allow for faster acquisition of MR images. Here we show that it is technically feasible to quickly and accurately detect blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal changes and obtain anatomical images of Cb at high spatial resolutions in individual subjects at 7 Tesla in a single one-hour session. Images were obtained using two high-density multi-element surface coils (32 channels in total placed beneath the head at the level of Cb, two channel transmission, and three-dimensional sensitivity encoded (3D, SENSE acquisitions to investigate sensorimotor activations in Cb. Two classic sensorimotor tasks were used to detect Cb activations. BOLD signal changes during motor activity resulted in concentrated clusters of activity within the Cb lobules associated with each task, observed consistently and independently in each subject: Oculomotor vermis (VI/VII and CrusI/II for pro- and anti-saccades; ipsilateral hemispheres IV-VI for finger tapping; and topographical separation of eye- and hand- activations in hemispheres VI and VIIb/VIII. Though fast temporal resolution was not attempted here, these functional patches of highly specific BOLD signal changes may reflect small-scale shunting of blood in the microvasculature of Cb. The observed improvements in acquisition time and signal detection are ideal for individualized investigations such as

  15. A Study of Anti-Sperm Antibodies among Infertile Subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) can interfere with sperm functions and fertility and may be found in the blood, lymph or local secretions such as seminal and cervico-vaginal fluids in both men and women. Objective: to evaluate the contribution of ASA to infertility in male and female subjects investigated for ...

  16. Directional patterns of muscle activation at the lower limb in subjects with hemiparesis and in healthy subjects: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiatrault, J; Bourbonnais, D; Gauthier, J; Gravel, D; Arsenault, A B

    1992-01-01

    This article reports the results of a comparative study on directional patterns of muscle activation at the lower limb in 15 subjects with hemiparesis and 18 healthy subjects. Subjects were required to exert static hip and knee torques using multidirectional and biarticular dynamometers designed for the lower limbs. Hip torques were performed in abduction, adduction, flexion, extension, and in combined directions (e.g., hip flexion and abduction) and knee torques were exerted in flexion and extension. The required torque levels corresponded to approximately 5% of the maximal voluntary contraction of healthy subjects. Electromyographic (EMG) activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gracilis, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, tibialis anterior, and soleus were recorded during these torques. The descriptive analysis involved comparison between either the polar plots (for hip tasks) or the histograms (for knee tasks) representing the mean muscle activity obtained across subjects during torques exerted in each direction for the three groups of muscles analyzed (normal, paretic, and nonparetic muscles). Ciucular statistics were also used to characterize directional patterns of activation in each muscle during hip tasks while linear statistics permitted one to analyze these patterns during knee tasks. In general, the results of both the descriptive and inferential statistical analyses indicated that directional patterns of muscle activation during hip and knee torques are not altered in subjects with hemiparesis. These results are in contrast to the disturbances observed previously in a study of directional patterns of muscle activation at the upper extremity in this population. It is suggested that the contrast between the present results and those obtained at the upper limb in subjects with hemiparesis may reflect the difference in the motor recovery of upper and lower paretic limbs or in the severity of spasticity in the muscles involved at

  17. Fibromyalgia Symptom Reduction by Online Behavioral Self-monitoring, Longitudinal Single Subject Analysis and Automated Delivery of Individualized Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinge, William; Yarnold, Paul; Soltysik, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex chronic pain condition that is difficult to treat. The prevailing approach is an integration of pharmacological, psycho-educational, and behavioral strategies. Information technology offers great potential for FM sufferers to systemically monitor symptoms as well as potential impacts of various management strategies. This study aimed to evaluate effects of a web-based, self-monitoring and symptom management system (SMARTLog) that analyzes personal self-monitoring data and delivers data-based feedback over time. Subjects were self-referred, anonymous, and recruited via publicity on FM advocacy websites. Standardized instruments assessed health status, self-efficacy, and locus of control at baseline and monthly during participation. Subjects were encouraged to complete the SMARTLog several times weekly. Within-subject, univariate, and multivariate analyses were used to derive classification trees for each user associating specific behavior variables with symptom levels over time. Moderate use (3 times weekly x 3 months) increased likelihood of clinically significant improvements in pain, memory, gastrointestinal problems, depression, fatigue, and concentration; heavy use (4.5 times weekly x five months) produced the above plus improvement in stiffness and sleep difficulties. Individualized, web-based behavioral self-monitoring with personally-tailored feedback can enable FM sufferers to significantly reduce symptom levels over time.

  18. The effect of a motor-based, social skills intervention for adolescents with high-functioning autism: two single-subject design cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Sharon A; Raphael, Emily I; Ceder, Leila M; Khan, Arshi; Timp, Katherine M; Salvant, Sabrina

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a motor-based, social skills intervention for two adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA) using single-subject design. A description of the intervention is provided as a first step in the manualization process. The intervention was provided as a 7-week after-school program, once weekly to the paired participants. Intervention consisted of role-play methods in which motor behaviours were linked with their cognitive and emotional meanings. Baseline, intervention and 3-month probe data collection periods were carried out and then compared using visual inspection of graphed data, paired t-tests and a three-standard-deviation-band approach. Both participants displayed a statistically significant increase in targeted social skills behaviours from baseline to intervention and maintained this level at a 3-month post-intervention probe. These single-subject design cases illustrate that motor-based, social skills interventions may be effective for adolescents with HFA and warrant further testing. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Subjective logic operators in trust assessment: an empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Cerutti, Federico; Kaplan, Lance M.; Norman, Timothy J.; Oren, Nir; Toniolo, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Computational trust mechanisms aim to produce trust ratings from both direct and indirect information about agents’ behaviour. Subjective Logic (SL) has been widely adopted as the core of such systems via its fusion and discount operators. In recent research we revisited the semantics of these operators to explore an alternative, geometric interpretation. In this paper we present principled desiderata for discounting and fusion operators in SL. Building upon this we present operators that sat...

  20. Subjective Logic Operators in Trust Assessment: an Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cerutti, Federico; Toniolo, Alice; Oren, Nir; Norman, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Computational trust mechanisms aim to produce trust ratings from both direct and indirect information about agents' behaviour. Subjective Logic (SL) has been widely adopted as the core of such systems via its fusion and discount operators. In recent research we revisited the semantics of these operators to explore an alternative, geometric interpretation. In this paper we present a principled desiderata for discounting and fusion operators in SL. Building upon this we present operators that s...

  1. Bulk study of a DyNiAl single crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prchal, J.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Javorský, P.; Honda, F.; Jurek, Karel

    272-276, - (2004), e419-e420 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/02/0943 Keywords : rare-earth * DyNiAl * magnetic anisotropy * single crystal Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2004

  2. Using (10)CO2 for single subject characterization of the stimulus frequency dependence in visual cortex: a novel positron emission tomography tracer for human brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, I; Jensen, M; Holm, S; Nickles, R J; Paulson, O B

    2001-08-01

    Carbon-10-labeled carbon dioxide ((10)CO2) with a half-life of 19.3 seconds offers almost ideal characteristics as a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for assessment of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution, enabling multiple independent measurements at short intervals. To appraise the feasibility of (10)CO2 for localizing and characterizing human brain function in single subjects, the authors chose a well-characterized activation paradigm. In 6 healthy volunteers, 50 to 64 independent PET scans of the rCBF distribution were acquired while viewing an annular reversing checkerboard presented at 10 reversal frequencies between 0.03 and 30 Hz. Changes in regional cerebral activity as a function of reversal frequency were modeled in every subject using a set of polynomial basis functions, which, as predicted, showed highly significant second or third order relations located in the striatal cortex. Correlation coefficients (R2) ranged from 0.46 to 0.63. The average intersubject maximal response relative to the 0.03 Hz condition was 8.0% +/- 1.7% SD occurring at stimulus contrast reversal frequencies between 6 and 15 Hz with an average of 11.8 +/- 3.8 (SD) Hz. From the qualitative and quantitative replication of previous results it is concluded that (10)CO2 PET is a feasible technique for human brain mapping studies and a great improvement compared with the existing oxygen-15-labeled water (H(2)(15)O) PET method, particularly for single subject studies and parametric design.

  3. Study of Temporal Effects on Subjective Video Quality of Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampis, Christos George; Zhi Li; Moorthy, Anush Krishna; Katsavounidis, Ioannis; Aaron, Anne; Bovik, Alan Conrad

    2017-11-01

    HTTP adaptive streaming is being increasingly deployed by network content providers, such as Netflix and YouTube. By dividing video content into data chunks encoded at different bitrates, a client is able to request the appropriate bitrate for the segment to be played next based on the estimated network conditions. However, this can introduce a number of impairments, including compression artifacts and rebuffering events, which can severely impact an end-user's quality of experience (QoE). We have recently created a new video quality database, which simulates a typical video streaming application, using long video sequences and interesting Netflix content. Going beyond previous efforts, the new database contains highly diverse and contemporary content, and it includes the subjective opinions of a sizable number of human subjects regarding the effects on QoE of both rebuffering and compression distortions. We observed that rebuffering is always obvious and unpleasant to subjects, while bitrate changes may be less obvious due to content-related dependencies. Transient bitrate drops were preferable over rebuffering only on low complexity video content, while consistently low bitrates were poorly tolerated. We evaluated different objective video quality assessment algorithms on our database and found that objective video quality models are unreliable for QoE prediction on videos suffering from both rebuffering events and bitrate changes. This implies the need for more general QoE models that take into account objective quality models, rebuffering-aware information, and memory. The publicly available video content as well as metadata for all of the videos in the new database can be found at http://live.ece.utexas.edu/research/LIVE_NFLXStudy/nflx_index.html.

  4. Postural stability deficits during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Janssens, Luc; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan; Staes, Filip F

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate postural stability during the transition from double-leg stance (DLS) to single-leg stance (SLS) in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACLR) (n=20) and non-injured control subjects (n=20). All ACLR subjects had fully returned to their pre-injury sport participation. Both groups were similar for age, gender, height, weight, body mass index and activity level. Spatiotemporal center of pressure outcomes of both legs of each subject were measured during the transition from DLS to SLS in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Movement speed was standardized. The center of pressure displacement after a new stability point was reached during the SLS phase was significantly increased in the ACLR group compared to the control group in the eyes closed condition (P=.001). No significant different postural stability outcomes were found between the operated and non-operated legs. In conclusion, the ACLR group showed postural stability deficits, indicating that these persons may have a decreased ability to stabilize their body after the internal postural perturbation created by the transition from DLS to SLS. The non-operated leg may not be the best reference when evaluating postural stability of the operated leg after ACLR, as no differences were found between legs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single doses of empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, in healthy Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarashina, Akiko; Koiwai, Kazuki; Seman, Leo J; Yamamura, Norio; Taniguchi, Atsushi; Negishi, Takahiro; Sesoko, Shogo; Woerle, Hans J; Dugi, Klaus A

    2013-01-01

    This randomized, placebo-controlled within dose groups, double-blind, single rising dose study investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 1 mg to 100 mg doses of empagliflozin in 48 healthy Japanese male subjects. Empagliflozin was rapidly absorbed, reaching peak levels in 1.25 to 2.50 h; thereafter, plasma concentrations declined in a biphasic fashion, with mean terminal elimination half-life ranging from 7.76 to 11.7 h. Increase in empagliflozin exposure was proportional to dose. Oral clearance was dose independent and ranged from 140 to 172 mL/min. In the 24 h following 100 mg empagliflozin administration, the mean (%CV) amount of glucose excreted in urine was 74.3 (17.1) g. The amount and the maximum rate of glucose excreted via urine increased with dose of empagliflozin. Nine adverse events, all of mild intensity, were reported by 8 subjects (7 with empagliflozin and 1 with the placebo). No hypoglycemia was reported. In conclusion, 1 mg to 100 mg doses of empagliflozin had a good safety and tolerability profile in healthy Japanese male subjects. Exposure to empagliflozin was dose proportional. The amount and rate of urinary glucose excretion were higher with empagliflozin than with the placebo, and increased with empagliflozin dose.

  6. Assessment of cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography in normal subjects and in patients with Alzheimer's disease: effects of region of interest selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.J.; Harskamp, F. van; Breteler, M.M.B.; Krenning, E.P.; Cammen, T.J.M. van der; Hofman, A.; Hasan, D.

    1994-01-01

    We compared three different ROIs in a SPET study with 60 controls and in 48 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease diagnosed according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was assessed with SPET using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO), normalized to the mean activity in a cerebellar reference slice. The three different ROIs were: a multi-slice and a single-slice ROI with reference to the normal brain anatomy (using an anatomical atlas), and a rectangular (2x4 pixels) ROI in the frontal, temporal, temporoparietal and occipital cortices. No differences were observed for the means of rCBF values between the single-slice and multi-slice ROI's with reference to the normal anatomy, but some variability was present for individual comparisons. In contrast, significantly higher mean rCBF values were obtained with the single-slice rectangular ROIs in all four regions for both patients and controls and considerable variability was shown for individual subjects. After analysis with multivariate logistic regression and receiver operator characteristic curves, the ability of SPET to discriminate between controls and Alzheimer patients was similar in the three methods for mild and moderate Alzheimer patients (Global Deterioration Scale = GDS of 3 and 4). However, with increasing dementia severity (GDS>4) the rectangular ROIs showed lower ability to discriminate between groups compared to the single-slice and multi-slice anatomically defined ROIs. This study suggests that results of rCBF assessment with SPET using 99m Tc-HMPAO in patients with severe Alzheimer's disease are influenced by the shape and size of the ROI. (orig.)

  7. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Safety of Rasagiline Transdermal Patch: A Preliminary Study in Healthy Chinese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjia; Lv, Chengzhe; Zhang, Quanying; Zong, Shunlin; Wang, Meng

    2018-02-01

    Rasagiline tablet is an oral MAO-B inhibitor applied in early or advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, when patients with PD cannot take their usual oral medications, a rasagiline transdermal patch can be used as a way to offer continuous rasagiline while avoiding plasma concentration peaks and troughs. The objectives of this study were to investigate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of the rasagiline transdermal patch in healthy Chinese subjects. This single-dose, open-label, randomized, parallel-group study was conducted in 15 healthy subjects. Fasted subjects received a single dose of rasagiline (either by transdermal patch-1.25 mg/24 h, 1.25 mg/48 h, 2.5 mg/48 h, or 2.5 mg/72 h, or orally-in the form of a 1-mg tablet) and were monitored over a 168-h observation period to assess pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety. After administration of a single-dose rasagiline transdermal patch, the mean terminal elimination half-life (t 1/2 ) was 6.06-9.41 h, which was longer than with the 1-mg tablet dose (2.32 ± 0.28 h). The mean dose-normalized maximum plasma concentration (C max,norm(dose) ) of the 1-mg tablet dose was twofold higher than that of the transdermal patch groups. The mean dose-normalized areas under the concentration-time curve (AUC norm(dose) ) of 1.25 and 2.5 mg for the rasagiline transdermal patch doses were fourfold and sevenfold higher than that of the 1-mg tablet dose, respectively. Cumulative urinary excretion was about 0.2% of the total dose. Inhibition of MAO-B activity was dose dependent, and the maximal inhibition was 73.9-94.1% at doses ranging from 1.25 to 2.5 mg. The reported adverse events were mild or moderate. The prolonged t 1/2 , increased AUC 0-t , and more stable plasma drug concentration of the rasagiline patch may permit a longer dosing interval compared to the oral tablet. The rasagiline transdermal patch was safe and well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects.

  8. The Subjectivity Problem: Improving Triangulation Approaches in Metaphor Analysis Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya L. Armstrong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metaphor analysis procedures for uncovering participant conceptualizations have been well-established in qualitative research settings since the early 1980s; however, one common criticism of metaphor analysis is the trustworthiness of the findings. Namely, accurate determination of the conceptual metaphors held by participants based on the investigation of linguistic metaphors has been identified as a methodological issue because of the subjectivity involved in the interpretation; that is, because they are necessarily situated in specific social and cultural milieus, meanings of particular metaphors are not universally constructed nor understood. In light of these critiques, this article provides examples of two different triangulation methods that can be employed to supplement the trustworthiness of the findings when metaphor analysis methodologies are used.

  9. Efficient numerical method for investigating diatomic molecules with single active electron subjected to intense and ultrashort laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Gellért Zsolt; Borbély, Sándor; Nagy, Ladislau

    2017-12-01

    We have presented here an efficient numerical approach for the ab initio numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger Equation describing diatomic molecules, which interact with ultrafast laser pulses. During the construction of the model we have assumed a frozen nuclear configuration and a single active electron. In order to increase efficiency our system was described using prolate spheroidal coordinates, where the wave function was discretized using the finite-element discrete variable representation (FE-DVR) method. The discretized wave functions were efficiently propagated in time using the short-iterative Lanczos algorithm. As a first test we have studied here how the laser induced bound state dynamics in H2+ is influenced by the strength of the driving laser field.

  10. The Impact of Vocal Cool-down Exercises: A Subjective Study of Singers' and Listeners' Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Kari

    2016-11-01

    Using subjective measures, this study investigated singers' and listeners' perceptions of changes in voice condition after vocal cool-down exercises. A single-subject crossover was designed to evaluate whether there were discernible differences in either singer or listener perceptions from pre (no vocal cool downs) to post (with cool downs) test. Subjective questionnaires were completed throughout the study. Twenty classically trained female singers documented self-ratings and perceptual judgments through the Evaluation of the Ability to Sing Easily survey, the Singing Voice Handicap Index, and Self-Perceptual Questionnaires after a 60-minute voice load. Recordings were made and assessed by four expert listeners. The assessed data from the Singing Voice Handicap Index, the Evaluation of the Ability to Sing Easily, and Daily Perceptual Questionnaires show 68%, 67%, and 74% of singers reported improvement, respectively. However, because of significant variability in the underlying scores, the amount of improvement was not deemed to be statistically significant. Expert listeners correctly identified the cool-down week 46% of the time. Singers strongly perceived positive impact from the cool-down exercises on both their speaking and singing voices. Even though the objective data were statistically insignificant, the singers' subjective data clearly indicates a perceived sense of vocal well-being after utilizing the vocal cool-down protocol. The variability in the daily life of a singer (eg, stress, menses, reflux, vocal load, and vocal hygiene) makes it difficult to objectively quantify the impact of vocal cool downs. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical studies of cerebral arteriosclerosis in diabetic subjects. Analysis with brain MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Makoto; Tanahashi, Hideo; Nomura, Makoto; Yamada, Yoshio; Abe, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    In order to investigate the clinical characteristics of cerebral arteriosclerosis in diabetic subjects, brain MRI studies were conducted in diabetic patients and healthy subjects. The subjects were 93 diabetic patients without symptoms and signs of cerebral infarction (49 males and 44 females) with a mean age of 59 years and 73 healthy subjects (43 males and 30 females) with a mean age of 57 years. The MRI studies were performed on a General Electric 1.5-T signa system. The spin-echo technique (T2-weighted image) was used with a pulse repetition time (TR) of 2,500 msec and echo time (TE) of 80 msec. The quantitative evaluation of cerebral infarction was assessed using personal computer and image-scanner. By MRI, the incidence of cerebral infarction in diabetic patients was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (30.1% vs. 13.7%, respectively, p<0.05). The mean age of the diabetic patients with cerebral infarctions was higher than that of those without cerebral infarctions. Hypertension and diabetic nephropathy were present more frequently in the subjects with cerebral infarctions. These data suggest that it is important to delay the onset and slow the progression of cerebral infarction in diabetic patients by strict blood glucose control and management of blood pressure. (author)

  12. A randomized, single-blind, Phase I trial (INVICTAN-1) assessing the bioequivalence and safety of BI 695502, a bevacizumab biosimilar candidate, in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettema, Willem; Wynne, Christopher; Lang, Benjamin; Altendorfer, Mario; Czeloth, Niklas; Lohmann, Ragna; Athalye, Sandeep; Schliephake, Dorothee

    2017-08-01

    This Phase I trial (INVICTAN®-1) evaluated three-way bioequivalence and safety of BI 695502 a bevacizumab biosimilar candidate, and reference product bevacizumab from two sources (US-approved Avastin®, Genentech; EU-approved Avastin, Roche). Healthy male subjects (N = 91) were randomized 1:1:1 to receive a single intravenous infusion of 1 mg/kg of BI 695502 or US- or EU-approved Avastin. An interim analysis was planned when ~50% of subjects were evaluable for the primary end point to determine if the prespecified criteria for bioequivalence were achieved; if demonstrated, the study could be stopped early. The primary end point was area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of the analyte in plasma from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC 0-∞ ). Other pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters, safety, and in vitro binding affinity were also evaluated. The interim analysis demonstrated three-way bioequivalence for all comparisons. The confidence intervals around the geometric mean ratios of the primary and secondary PK parameters were within the predefined acceptance ranges. Study drugs were well tolerated with no clinically relevant differences in safety. BI 695502 and US- and EU-approved Avastin showed three-way bioequivalence with similar safety profile. NCT01608087.

  13. Exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy for irritable bowel syndrome. A single-case experimental design across 13 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Katja; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Edebol-Carlman, Hanna; Schrooten, Martien; Linton, Steven J; Brummer, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent disorder with a significant impact on quality of life. The presence of psychological symptoms in IBS patients such as catastrophic worry and behavioral avoidance suggests the possible efficacy of cognitive behavioral interventions. Exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven to be a promising approach but has only been investigated in a few studies and mainly via the Internet. Therefore, the aims of this study were to extend and replicate previous findings and to evaluate whether an individual, face-to-face, exposure-based CBT leads to improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, avoidance behavior and quality of life in IBS patients. Thirteen patients with IBS according to Rome III criteria participated in a single-case experimental study using a five-week baseline and a subsequent twelve-session intervention phase focusing on psycho-education, mindfulness and in vivo exposure. Standardized measurement of gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, avoidance behavior and quality of life was conducted weekly during baseline as well as intervention phase and at six-month follow-up. Results showed that over 70% of patients improved significantly on gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, and quality of life. Effects on avoidance behavior were modest. These results strengthen and extend earlier findings and provide further support for the efficacy of exposure-based strategies for IBS.

  14. Connection and Disconnection: Value of the Analyst’s Subjectivity in Elucidating Meaning in a Psychoanalytic Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hueso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on pivotal concepts of psychoanalytic practice and theory, applied to a single case study to create new meanings. Drawing from the concepts of transference, countertransference, and projective identification, the author presents the notion that the researcher’s subjective reactions are created and induced by the subject of study precisely because this is one, and sometimes the only way available to the subject to communicate something that is out of its full awareness. In essence, some unconscious material can be expressed nonverbally by the subject by means of provoking visceral and bodily reactions in the researcher, or in some cases, psychic imagery such as dreams or fantasies. The material can be meaningfully interpreted by the researcher by receiving, containing, and sorting through these inchoate emotional reactions within self.

  15. Safety and immunogenicity of a single intramuscular dose of a tetanus-diphtheria toxoid (Td) vaccine (BR-TD-1001) in healthy Korean adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Taegon; Chung, Yong-Ju; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Ik-Hwan; Choe, Yong-Kyung; Lee, Jongtae; Jeon, Sangil; Han, Seunghoon; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    BR-TD-1001 was developed as a booster for the immunity maintenance of diphtheria and tetanus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of BR-TD-1001 (test vaccine) in comparison with placebo and an active comparator in healthy Korean adults. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active comparator, phase I clinical trial was conducted. Fifty subjects were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups in a ratio of 2:2:1, and were administered a single intramuscular dose of test vaccine, active comparator, or placebo, respectively. All subjects were monitored for 4 weeks after injection. The antibody titers of the patients 2 and 4 weeks after vaccination were compared with the baseline. The frequencies of all adverse events including adverse drug reactions in the test group were not statistically different from those of the other treatment groups (P = 0.4974, 0.3061). No serious adverse event occurred, and no subject was withdrawn from the study for safety. The seroprotection rates against both tetanus and diphtheria at 4 weeks after vaccination were over 0.95. For anti-tetanus antibody, the geometric mean titer in the test group was significantly higher than those of the other groups (P = 0.0364, 0.0033). The geometric mean titer of anti-diphtheria antibody in the test group was significantly higher than the value of the placebo (P = 0.0347) while it was not for the value of the active comparator (P = 0.8484). In conclusion, BR-TD-1001 was safe, well-tolerated, and showed sufficient immunogenicity as a booster for diphtheria and tetanus.

  16. Embedding Academic Writing Instruction into Subject Teaching: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Ursula; Andon, Nick; Cogo, Alessia

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of embedding the teaching of writing into the curriculum have been advocated by educators and researchers. However, there is currently little evidence of embedded writing instruction in the UK's higher education context. In this article, we present a case study in which we report the design, implementation and evaluation of an…

  17. Study of liquid hydrocarbons subjected to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grob, Robert.

    1977-01-01

    This work is a study of liquid hydrocarbons (especially alkanes and cycloalkanes), ionized and excited by low L.E.T. high energy radiation. An analysis of radiolytical products shows a definite correlation between radiochemical yields and bond energies. The study of the influence of scavengers has been carried out and the methods for the determination of α parameters are discussed. Ionic recombination has been fully investigated: theoretical studies, based on a phenomenological model, on primary and (in presence of solute) secondary charge recombination have been performed. Secondary species were observed by use of kinetic optical absorption spectrophotometry. A good agreement with theory is obtained only when the electron scavenging before thermalization is negligible. Electron mobility in hydrocarbons has been measured and the electron scavenging rate constants have been determined using the pulse conductivity technique. Conformational analysis calculations show a correlation between the electron mobility and the electronic structure. The rate of formation of a radiolytic product and the rate of decay of its precursor have been studied for solutions of hydrocarbons and electron scavengers [fr

  18. Studies of Grain Boundaries in Materials Subjected to Diffusional Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbygaard, Thomas

    Grain boundaries in crystalline Cu(2%Ni) creep specimens have been studied by use of scanning and transmission electron microscopy in order to establish the mechanism of deformation. Creep rate measurements and dependencies were found to fit reasonably well with the model for diffusional creep...

  19. A single-blind placebo-controlled investigation into the analgesic effects of interferential currents on experimentally induced ischaemic pain in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I; Tabasam, Ghazala

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this single-blind placebo-controlled study was to examine the analgesic effects of interferential currents (IFC) on experimentally induced ischaemic pain. Ischaemic pain was induced using the submaximal effort tourniquet technique (SETT) and pain intensity was recorded using a visual analogue scale at 1-min intervals was used as the primary outcome measure. Following baseline recordings 30 healthy volunteers received either active IFC, sham IFC, or no treatment (10 subjects per group). Data were analysed by calculating the mean change in pain intensity at each 1-min interval by subtracting data during treatment from the baseline data. IFC was administered throughout the duration of the ischaemic pain test via four electrodes (quadripolar application) on the forearm. Active IFC delivered electrical currents at a 'strong but comfortable' intensity. A 'dummy' stimulator that delivered no current was used as sham IFC. Subjects in the no treatment control group were informed that the IFC device was not switched on. There were significant effects for Groups (P=0.04) which were attributed to a significant reduction in pain intensity for the IFC group when compared with sham and no-treatment control (P< or =0.05). There were no significant effects for Time (P=0.69) or Group-Time interaction (P=0.45). In conclusion, IFC produced significantly greater analgesia than sham and no-treatment control groups under the present experimental conditions.

  20. Applying Subject Matter Expertise (SME) Elicitation Techniques to TRAC Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    in different ways. In the first case, CPR Analisys , we use the measures as way to derive effectiveness and uncertainty. In the second approach...shortfalls are classified as capability gaps while the missions are considered requirements . Once these gaps have been identified, the Army explores...the study objective was defined “To provide a recommendation to the CSA that reduces TWV requirements in TOE units to an acceptable level such that

  1. Imagining class : A study into material social class position, subjective identification, and voting behavior across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Hooge, L.; Achterberg, P.H.J.; Reeskens, T.

    2018-01-01

    The traditional approach to class voting has largely ignored the question whether material class positions coincide with subjective class identification. Following Sosnaud et al. (2013), this study evaluates party preferences when Europeans’ material and subjective social class do not coincide.

  2. The Immediate Effects of Conventional Physical Therapy on the Knee Joint Load in Subjects with Moderate Knee Osteoarthritis; A Preliminary Single Blinded Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fattahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subjects with knee osteoarthritis typically have higher knee adduction moment. Current research efforts are mainly focused on therapeutic procedures that potentially may modify disease progression. This preliminary study was designed as a single blind (examiner randomized control trial to investigate the impact of conventional physical therapy on pain, and knee joint load in subjects with moderate knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Twelve participants diagnosed with moderate knee OA were randomly assigned into control and intervention groups. Three-dimensional knee kinematic and kinetic data were recorded during the gait before and after 10 sessions of conventional physical therapy. In addition, pain intensity was evaluated by visual analog scale and pain subscale of KOOS questionnaire. The control group did not receive any intervention during the same period. Gait parameters were analyzed within and between groups using nonparametric tests. Results: There was a significant difference between groups in baseline KOOS-pain Score and ML knee force (P=0.048 and P=0.01. Immediately after ten sessions of physical therapy the initial (first peak of knee adduction moment was significantly (P=0.03 lower than that of the control group while the first and second peak of knee AP velocity were significantly (P=0.02, P=0.01 respectively higher. In the intervention group, the second peaks of vertical and anteroposterior (AP knee forces were strongly correlated with the pretest KOOS-pain Score (r=0.99 and r=0.98, P<0.001. Therefore a multivariate general linear model was adopted with adjustment to baseline KOOS-pain. By this adjustment, 51% alleviation of VAS pain score and 81% decrement of first peak of knee adduction moment in comparison to control group was statistically significant (P=0.02, P=0.03 respectively. Conclusion: It seems that ten sessions of conventional physical therapy may modify knee joint load in subjects with moderate knee

  3. Effectiveness of a perceptual - proprioceptive training with virtual visual feedback in healthy subjects: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vando

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether proprioceptive-motor training using the Wii Balance Board (WBB might improve postural sway in healthy subjects.Methods: twenty-five healthy subjects were trained for six weeks (two sessions per week with 5 “video games”: Wii Fit Plus (WFP program. Before and after training: Basic Balance, Single-leg Balance, Agility, Stability and Motion (lower limb: right-left and both leg were measured using the Wii Balance Board.Results: the Wilcoxon Test showed improvements at the end of the training program compared to the baseline conditions. Basic Balance increased during the WFP (33.33% and was associated with a 19.92% decrease in center of pressure (COP lenght. The Single-leg Balance results incremented after the WFP (left 29.09% vs. right 47.92% and accompanied by a decrement in COP (left 28.71% vs. right 30.45%. The values for the Agility test increased both in WFP and COP (28.57% and 58.57%, respectively. The Stability test scores increased in the WFP (66.67% along with a consequent decrease in COP (10.53%. Finally, the Motion test values increased in the WFP (73.17%, whilst COP for this test decreased (12.02%. These results indicate that 6 weeks of virtual training produced a good adaptability. Younger participants (<20 years demonstrated to be more responsive to dynamic stimulation with respect to those >20 years.Conclusions: significant improvements in all participants were observed, indicating that virtual training can influence posture and balance in healthy people. Because of its characteristics of low cost and easy availability, a portable system for balance training for everyone offers the possibility to more readily measure motor skill and to gauge improvement.

  4. Impact of iterative reconstructions on objective and subjective emphysema assessment with computed tomography: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Steve P.; Gariani, Joanna; Hachulla, Anne-Lise; Botsikas, Diomidis; Becker, Christoph D.; Montet, Xavier [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Radiology, Department of Imaging and Medical Information Sciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Adler, Dan [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Pneumology, Department of Internal Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Karenovics, Wolfram [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-07-15

    To prospectively evaluate the impact of iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms on pulmonary emphysema assessment as compared to filtered back projection (FBP). One hundred ten unenhanced chest CT examinations were obtained on two different scanners. Image reconstructions from a single acquisition were done with different levels of IR and compared with FBP on the basis of the emphysema index (EI), lung volume and voxel densities. Objective emphysema assessment was performed with 3D software provided by each manufacturer. Subjective assessment of emphysema was performed as a blinded evaluation. Quantitative and subjective values were compared using repeated ANOVA analysis, Bland-Altman analysis and Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W). Lung volumes are stable on both units, throughout all IR levels (P ≥ 0.057). EI significantly decreases on both units with the use of any level of IR (P < 0.001). The highest levels of IR are responsible for a decrease of 33-36 % of EI. Significant differences in minimal lung density are found between the different algorithms (P < 0.003). Intra- and inter-reader concordance for emphysema characterisation is generally good (W ≥ 0.77 and W ≥ 0.86, respectively). Both commercially available IR algorithms used in this study significantly changed EI but did not alter visual assessment compared to standard FBP reconstruction at identical radiation exposure. (orig.)

  5. The excretion of hexavalent uranium following intravenous administration. II, Studies on human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, S.H.; Frankel, A.; Cedars, N.; VanAlstine, H.; Waterhouse, C.; Cusson, K.

    1948-06-25

    Tracer studies employing uranium enriched in the isotopes U{sup 234}, U{sup 235} have been carried out in six human subjects; four males and two females. The uranium, 6 micrograms to 70 micrograms per kilogram of body weight was given intravenously in the hexavalent state as uranyl nitrate. Each individual of the series received a single injection of the metal except for one who was given two widely spaced doses. The first of these was when his condition was normal and the second after an acidosis had been produced by ingestion of ammonium chloride. Renal function tests including urinary catalase, protein, amino N to Creatinine N ratio and clearances of mannitol and p-aminohippurate were done before and after administration of uranium. Only at the 70 microgram per kilogram level in Subject 6 was there a slight rise in urinary catalase and protein suggesting that tolerance had been reached. The excretion of uranium was mainly in the urine, where from 70 to 85% of the administered dose appeared in the first twenty-four hours. Urine of the second twenty-four hours contained about 4% and the third twenty-four hour urine, 1.5% of the administered dose. Detectable amounts were excreted for at least two weeks.

  6. Airway responses and inflammation in subjects with asthma after four days of repeated high-single-dose allergen challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Johannes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both standard and low-dose allergen provocations are an established tool in asthma research to improve our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanism of allergic asthma. However, clinical symptoms are less likely to be induced. Therefore, we designed a protocol for repetitive high-dose bronchial allergen challenges to generate clinical symptoms and airway inflammation. Methods A total of 27 patients aged 18 to 40 years with positive skin-prick tests and mild asthma underwent repetitive high-dose allergen challenges with household dust mites for four consecutive days. Pulmonary function and exhaled NO were measured at every visit. Induced sputum was analysed before and after the allergen challenges for cell counts, ECP, IL-5, INF-γ, IL-8, and the transcription factor Foxp3. Results We found a significant decrease in pulmonary function, an increased use of salbutamol and the development of a late asthmatic response and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, as well as a significant induction of eNO, eosinophils, and Th-2 cytokines. Repeated provocation was feasible in the majority of patients. Two subjects had severe adverse events requiring prednisolone to cope with nocturnal asthma symptoms. Conclusions Repeated high-dose bronchial allergen challenges resulted in severe asthma symptoms and marked Th-2-mediated allergic airway inflammation. The high-dose challenge model is suitable only in an attenuated form in diseased volunteers for proof-of-concept studies and in clinical settings to reduce the risk of severe asthma exacerbations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.govNCT00677209

  7. Mechanical performance of a screw-type veterinary suture anchor subjected to single load to failure and cyclic loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balara, Jason M; McCarthy, Robert J; Boudrieau, Randy J; Kraus, Karl H

    2004-01-01

    To characterize the mechanical performance of a veterinary bone anchor under static and cyclic loads. Mechanical testing study. Cadaveric canine humeri. Humeri (6 pairs) were collected from skeletally mature dogs (mean [+/-SD] age, 17.2+/-2.1 months; weight, 20.8+/-1.5 kg). Bone anchors were inserted in the proximal metaphysis using nylon, and were longitudinally extracted. For the opposite humerus, anchors were subjected to longitudinal cyclic load (50% of the load at failure of their pair) for 1200 cycles then longitudinally loaded to failure. Anchors were then installed in a similar and adjacent area of these 2(nd) humeri with nylon and cyclically tested perpendicular to the axis of anchor insertion (100% of the longitudinal holding power of their pair) for 1200 cycles, then perpendicularly loaded to failure. Paired t-tests were used to compare holding power before and after longitudinal cyclic testing. Longitudinal holding power of the screw-type anchor in the proximal humerus was 385+/-30 N. Anchor pullout was the only mode of failure. Anchors in the paired humeri did not fail after 1200 cycles of 50% longitudinal loading, and post-cycle holding strength was not different (335+/-87 N; P=.32). Perpendicularly loaded anchors did not fail after 1200 cycles of 100% of opposite longitudinal holding strength, and had post-cycle perpendicular holding strengths of 514+/-72 N. Suture breakage was the mode of failure. Bone anchor holding strength is dependent on orientation of suture load. Screw-type bone anchor holding strength was not affected by longitudinal cyclic loading, and holding strengths of approximately 385 N can be expected in metaphyseal bone of large-breed mature dogs. Perpendicularly loaded anchors have higher failure loads, and holding strength of approximately 514 N can be expected in metaphyseal bone of the proximal humerus.

  8. Experimental study of single event burnout and single event gate rupture in power MOSFETs and IGBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Benqi; Wang Yanping; Geng Bin

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to determine the single event burnout and single event gate rupture sensitivities in power MOSFETs and IGBT which were exposed to heavy ions from 252 Cf source. The test method, test results, a description of observed burnout current waveforms and a discussion of a possible failure mechanism were presented. Current measurements have been performed with a specially designed circuit. The test results include the observed dependence upon applied drain or gate to source bias and versus with external capacitors and limited resistors

  9. Gender and Subject Choice: An Empirical Study on Undergraduate Students' Majors in Phnom Penh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dom, Vannak; Yi, Gihong

    2018-01-01

    The empirical study on 610 undergraduate students between the age of 16 to 25 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, was set to examine the relationship of gender and subject choice. The findings have revealed that women were overrepresented in non-science subjects and their gender identity has strong connection with subject choice (*** p < 0.001). The study…

  10. Striatal dopamine release in reading and writing measured with [123I]iodobenzamide and single photon emission computed tomography in right handed human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommartz, B; Larisch, R; Vosberg, H; Müller-Gärtner, H M

    2000-09-29

    Competition between endogenous dopamine and a radioligand for postsynaptic dopamine D(2) receptor binding was examined in two groups of eight subjects each who had to read or write off a text, respectively, and in a control group. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and the ligand [(123)I]iodobenzamide (IBZM) were used for in vivo imaging. Subjects commenced reading or writing immediately before IBZM injection and continued for 30min thereafter. SPECT images were acquired 60min later. Striatum-to-parietal-cortex IBZM uptake ratios were lower in subjects who wrote off the text than in controls indicating competition of IBZM and dopamine. There was no difference between subjects who read the text and controls. Thus, dopamine release occurs as a consequence of the motoric activity involved in writing rather than of cognitive functions necessary for reading the text.

  11. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Xiong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG. In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes, our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes, blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI.

  12. Noise Elimination Study for a Single Station Magnetotelluric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengül, Ebru; Uǧur Ulugergerli, Emin; Göktaş, Hilal

    2010-05-01

    Five components of the natural electromagnetic field relating to underground conductivity distribution on Earth are measured as a time series in the Magnetotelluric (MT) method. E (Ex, Ey) and H (Hx, Hy, Hz) components of the electromagnetic field suffers from noise contamination. The noise, in general, can be classified as random and systematic noise. Random noise disrupts the pattern of data such as sudden signal peaks and/or step structures called impulsive effect. This type of noise usually is dominant in some parts of the time series. The sources of random noise vary; some of the sources are instrumental problems and atmospheric events. On the other hand, systematic noise occurs at certain frequencies and is added to the data. Industrial activities cause such type of the noise and can corrupt all the data set. The estimation of the impedance tensor from single-station MT data is subject to this study. The proposed method uses statistical approaches focused on the noise elimination techniques. Noise elimination from MT time series is very important particularly to achieve repeatable impedance values using single station MT data. The conventional impedance estimation technique requires solution of a linear equation system (E = ZH) based on Gaussian statistical model which requires the noise of electric channels should obey Gaussian distribution and magnetic channels should be noise free. In fact, measured data never provides this ideal condition. Therefore, noise elimination techniques are very important step in data processing works in MT method. Random noise such as spikes makes deviations in impedance values, resistivity and phase curves. Random noise should be eliminated to correct of these deviations in the data. For this purpose firstly, all data are divided into time windows. Each window consists of 512 values. After that, spikes are removed and missing data are regenerated by using interpolation technique for each window in time domain. Then, data are

  13. Genome wide association study (GWAS) of Chagas cardiomyopathy in Trypanosoma cruzi seropositive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xutao; Sabino, Ester C; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Ribeiro, Antonio L; Ianni, Barbara; Mady, Charles; Busch, Michael P; Seielstad, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Familial aggregation of Chagas cardiac disease in T. cruzi-infected persons suggests that human genetic variation may be an important determinant of disease progression. To perform a GWAS using a well-characterized cohort to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes associated with cardiac outcomes. A retrospective cohort study was developed by the NHLBI REDS-II program in Brazil. Samples were collected from 499 T. cruzi seropositive blood donors who had donated between 1996 and 2002, and 101 patients with clinically diagnosed Chagas cardiomyopathy. In 2008-2010, all subjects underwent a complete medical examination. After genotype calling, quality control filtering with exclusion of 20 cases, and imputation of 1,000 genomes variants; association analysis was performed for 7 cardiac and parasite related traits, adjusting for population stratification. The cohort showed a wide range of African, European, and modest Native American admixture proportions, consistent with the recent history of Brazil. No SNPs were found to be highly (P<10(-8)) associated with cardiomyopathy. The two mostly highly associated SNPs for cardiomyopathy (rs4149018 and rs12582717; P-values <10(-6)) are located on Chromosome 12p12.2 in the SLCO1B1 gene, a solute carrier family member. We identified 44 additional genic SNPs associated with six traits at P-value <10(-6): Ejection Fraction, PR, QRS, QT intervals, antibody levels by EIA, and parasitemia by PCR. This GWAS identified suggestive SNPs that may impact the risk of progression to cardiomyopathy. Although this Chagas cohort is the largest examined by GWAS to date, (580 subjects), moderate sample size may explain in part the limited number of significant SNP variants. Enlarging the current sample through expanded cohorts and meta-analyses, and targeted studies of candidate genes, will be required to confirm and extend the results reported here. Future studies should also include exposed seronegative controls to investigate

  14. Exploring inter-task transfer following a CO-OP approach with four children with DCD: A single subject multiple baseline design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capistran, Julie; Martini, Rose

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach has been shown to be effective for improving the performance of tasks worked on in therapy and the use of cognitive strategies. No study to date seems to have explored its effectiveness for improving performance of untrained tasks (inter-task transfer) in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). This study aimed to determine whether CO-OP leads to improved performance in an untrained task. A single-subject design with multiple baselines across skills was adopted, with three replications. Four children with DCD (7-12years) received 10 sessions of CO-OP intervention where each child worked on three tasks during therapy sessions and a fourth task was identified, but not worked on, to verify inter-task transfer. Task performance was rated over four phases (baseline, intervention, post-intervention, follow-up) using the Performance Quality Rating Scale (PQRS-OD). Graphed data was statistically analyzed using a two or three standard deviation band method. Significant improvement was obtained for 11 of 12 tasks worked on during therapy and for two of the four untrained tasks. These results indicate that the effectiveness of CO-OP to improve untrained tasks in children merit further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of TV-1380, a novel mutated butyrylcholinesterase treatment for cocaine addiction, after single and multiple intramuscular injections in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Barak, Orit; Wildeman, Jacqueline; van de Wetering, Jeroen; Hettinga, Judith; Schuilenga-Hut, Petra; Gross, Aviva; Clark, Shane; Bassan, Merav; Gilgun-Sherki, Yossi; Mendzelevski, Boaz; Spiegelstein, Ofer

    2015-05-01

    Human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) contributes to cocaine metabolism and has been considered for use in treating cocaine addiction and cocaine overdose. TV-1380 is a recombinant protein composed of the mature form of human serum albumin fused at its amino terminus to the carboxy-terminus of a truncated and mutated BChE. In preclinical studies, TV-1380 has been shown to rapidly eliminate cocaine in the plasma thus forestalling entry of cocaine into the brain and heart. Two randomized, blinded phase I studies were conducted to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of TV-1380, following single and multiple administration in healthy subjects. TV-1380 was found to be safe and well tolerated with a long half-life (43-77 hours) and showed a dose-proportional increase in systemic exposure. Consistent with preclinical results, the ex vivo cocaine hydrolysis, TV-1380 activity clearly increased upon treatment in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, there was a direct relationship between ex vivo cocaine hydrolysis (kel ) and TV-1380 serum concentrations. There was no evidence that TV-1380 affected heart rate, the uncorrected QT interval, or the heart-rate-corrected QTcF interval. TV-1380, therefore, offers a safe once-weekly therapy to increase cocaine hydrolysis. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  16. Efficacy of behavioral interventions for reducing problem behavior in persons with autism: an updated quantitative synthesis of single-subject research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Saenen, Lore; Campbell, Jonathan M; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    Problem or challenging behaviors are highly prevalent among persons with autism and bring along major risks for the individual with autism and his/her family. In order to reduce the problem behavior, several behavioral interventions are used. We conducted a quantitative synthesis of single-subject studies to examine the efficacy of behavioral interventions for reducing problem behavior in persons with autism. Two hundred and thirteen studies representing 358 persons with autism met the inclusion criteria and were included in the statistical analyses. Overall, we found that behavioral interventions were on average effective in reducing problem behavior in individuals with autism, but some interventions were significantly more effective than others. The results further showed that the use of positive (nonaversive) behavioral interventions was increasing over time. The behavioral interventions were on average equally effective regardless of the type of problem behavior that was targeted. Interventions preceded by a functional analysis reduced problem behavior significantly more than interventions not preceded by a functional analysis. Finally, treatment and experimental characteristics, but not participant characteristics, were statistically significant moderators of the behavioral treatment effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Single and Multiple Dose Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Safety of the Novel Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Enzyme Inhibitor Darapladib in Healthy Chinese Subjects: An Open Label Phase-1 Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Hu

    Full Text Available Darapladib is a lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 inhibitor. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of darapladib in healthy Chinese subjects.Twenty-four subjects received darapladib 160 mg orally, approximately 1 hour after a standard breakfast, as a single dose and once daily for 28 days. Non-compartmental methods were used to determine the single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of darapladib and its metabolite SB-553253. Repeat dose Lp-PLA2 activity and safety were evaluated.Systemic exposure (AUC(0-T, Cmax geometric mean (CVb% of darapladib was higher after multiple-dosing (519 ng.h/mL (33.3%, 34.4 ng/mL (49.9% compared to single-dose administration (153 ng.h/mL (69.0%, 17.9 ng/mL (55.2%. The steady-state accumulation ratio was less than unity (Rs = 0.80, indicating time-dependent pharmacokinetics of darapladib. Darapladib steady-state was reached by Day 14 of once daily dosing. Systemic exposure to SB-553253 was lower than darapladib with median (SB-553253: darapladib ratios for AUC(0-τ of 0.0786 for single dose and 0.0532 for multiple dose administration. On Day 28, pre-dose and maximum inhibition of Lp-PLA2 activity was approximately 70% and 75% relative to the baseline value, respectively and was dependent of darapladib concentration. The most common adverse events (≥ 21% subjects were abnormal faeces, abnormal urine odour, diarrhoea and nasopharyngitis.Darapladib 160 mg single and repeat doses were profiled in healthy Chinese subjects. Single dose systemic exposure to darapladib in healthy Chinese subjects was consistent with that observed previously in Western subjects whereas steady-state systemic exposure was approximately 65% higher in Chinese than Western subjects. The Lp-PLA2 activity and adverse event profile were similar in healthy Chinese and previous reports in Western subjects. Ethnic-specific dose adjustment of darapladib is not considered necessary for the Chinese

  18. Genome-wide association study of body mass index in subjects with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimanti, Renato; Zhang, Huiping; Smith, Andrew H; Zhao, Hongyu; Farrer, Lindsay A; Kranzler, Henry R; Gelernter, Joel

    2017-03-01

    Outcomes related to disordered metabolism are common in alcohol dependence (AD). To investigate alterations in the regulation of body mass that occur in the context of AD, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of body mass index (BMI) in African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs) with AD. Subjects were recruited for genetic studies of AD or drug dependence and evaluated using the Semi-structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism. We investigated a total of 2587 AAs and 2959 EAs with DSM-IV AD diagnosis. In the stage 1 sample (N = 4137), we observed three genome-wide significant (GWS) single-nucleotide polymorphism associations, rs200889048 (P = 8.98 * 10 -12 ) and rs12490016 (P = 1.44 * 10 -8 ) in EAs and rs1630623 (P = 5.14 * 10 -9 ) in AAs and EAs meta-analyzed. In the stage 2 sample (N = 1409), we replicated 278, 253 and 168 of the stage 1 suggestive loci (P stress in relation to birth size; rs1630623-a regulatory variant related to ALDH1A1, a gene involved in alcohol metabolism and adipocyte plasticity. These loci offer molecular insights regarding the regulatory mechanisms of body mass in the context of AD. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Spin and charge transport study in single crystal organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Karthik V.; Mulder, Carlijn L.; Baldo, Marc A.; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.

    2009-03-01

    Spin transport studies in amorphous rubrene films have shown exciting and promising results [1]. A large spin diffusion length in these amorphous films has increased the motivation to perform spin transport study in high purity single crystal rubrene. This will provide the fundamental understanding on the spin transport behavior in OS; not influenced by defects or traps. We will present work on small channel single crystal rubrene FET device with magnetic electrodes. For example, our preliminary studies have show mobility for FET with Co electrode to be 0.014cm^2/V-s. A study on the spin and charge transport properties in single crystals of OS with magnetic electrodes is being done and the results will be reported. The influence of gate voltage and applied magnetic field on the transport properties will be discussed. [1] J.H. Shim et al., PRL 100, 226603 (2008)

  20. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors Between Subjects With and Without Diabetes Mellitus: An Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular Disease (CVD is developing treacherously along industrialization and development of urbanization Objectives The aim of this study was to compare cardiovascular risk factors between subjects with and without diabetes mellitus in the Minoodar district of Qazvin. Patients and Methods This analytical study was conducted on 100 subjects with diabetes and 140 subjects without diabetes in Qazvin from September 2010 to April 2011. Standardized measurements were available for waist circumference (WC, blood pressure (BP, fasting serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, and triglycerides (TGs. Cardiovascular risk factors were defined according to the diagnostic criteria proposed by the national cholesterol education program. Data were analyzed using the t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Chi-square test. Results Overall, 12% of subjects with diabetes and 17.9% of subjects without diabetes were smokers (P = 0.277. The WC, TGs, systolic and diastolic BP were significantly higher in subjects with diabetes compared to subjects without diabetes. The prevalence of high WC, high BP, low HDL, and high TGs were significantly higher in subjects with diabetes compared to subjects without diabetes. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk factors were higher in subjects with diabetes compared to subjects without diabetes. Lifestyle intervention programs should be focused on community education about reduction of CVD risk factors in patients with diabetes.

  1. Discrepancies between Skinned Single Muscle Fibres and Whole Thigh Muscle Function Characteristics in Young and Elderly Human Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Hyunseok Jee; Jae-Young Lim

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to analyse the mechanical properties of skinned single muscle fibres derived from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle in relation to those of the whole intact thigh muscle and to compare any difference between young and older adults. Sixteen young men (29.25 ? 4.65 years), 11 older men (71.45 ? 2.94 years), 11 young women (29.64 ? 4.88 years), and 7 older women (67.29 ? 1.70 years) were recruited. In vivo analyses were performed for mechanical properties such as isokinetic performance, ...

  2. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng on Cardiovascular Risks in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome: a Double-blind Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Ree; Jung, Dong-Hyuk; Na, Ha-Young; Kim, Hong-Bae; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG) supplementation on metabolic parameters, inflammatory markers, and arterial stiffness in subjects with metabolic syndrome. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center study in 60 subjects who were not taking drugs that could affect metabolic and vascular functions. Subjects were randomized into either a KRG (4.5 g/d) group or a placebo group for a 12-week study. We collected anthropometric measurements, blood for laboratory testing, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) at the initial (week 0) and final (week 12) visits. A total of 48 subjects successfully completed the study protocol. Oral administration of KRG did not significantly affect blood pressure, oxidative or inflammatory markers, or baPWV. We found no evidence that KRG had an effect on blood pressure, lipid profile, oxidized low density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, or arterial stiffness in subjects with metabolic syndrome. These findings warrant subsequent longer-term prospective clinical investigations with a larger population. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00976274.

  3. Subjective perception of cocaine reward in mice assessed by a single exposure place preference (sePP) paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runegaard, Annika H.; Jensen, Kathrine Louise; Dencker, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    Background The potential of abused drugs to induce addiction and compulsive drug-related behavior is associated with their ability to alter dopamine signaling. Dopamine plays a key role in reward signaling and it has been of great interest to investigate how various drugs of abuse alter reward....... The sePP protocol allows further dissection of the mechanism and influence of initial cocaine exposure on subsequent drug-related behaviors by including extinction and reinstatement. The lack of sePP in female mice may reflect a biologically relevant sex difference in the initial subjective perception...

  4. Neuropsychological Performance and Subjective Symptom Reporting in Military Service Members With a History of Multiple Concussions: Comparison With a Single Concussion, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Orthopedic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Douglas B; Curtiss, Glenn; Armistead-Jehle, Patrick; Belanger, Heather G; Tate, David F; Reid, Matthew; Bowles, Amy O; Velez, Carmen S; Kennedy, Jan E; Vanderploeg, Rodney D

    To examine differences in objective neurocognitive performance and subjective cognitive symptoms in individuals with a history of a single concussion, multiple concussions, orthopedic injuries, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants included 116 military service members who sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) during combat deployment. Subjects were subdivided into groups based on concussion frequency: a single concussion (n = 42), 2 concussions (n = 21), and 3 or more concussions (n = 53). Eighty-one subjects sustained an orthopedic injury (n = 60) during deployment or were diagnosed with PTSD (n = 21), but had no history of mTBI. Subjects completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and self-report measures of postconcussive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and psychopathology. No differences were found among the concussion groups on a composite neuropsychological measure. The PTSD group had the highest number of symptom complaints, with the 2-concussion and 3-plus-concussion groups being most similar to the PTSD group. The concussion groups showed a nonsignificant pattern of increasing distress with increasing number of concussions. The current findings are consistent with meta-analytic results showing no differential effect on neuropsychological functioning due to multiple concussions. Results also support the burden of adversity hypothesis suggesting increasing symptom levels with increasing psychological or physically traumatic exposures.

  5. A Comparison of Single-Gender Classes and Traditional, Coeducational Classes on Student Academic Achievement, Discipline Referrals, and Attitudes toward Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Debra Messenger

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in single gender education. Emerging science has proven that boys and girls learn differently. This study compared fifth grade single-gender classes to fifth grade traditional, coeducational classes in the same urban middle school. The following were compared: students' academic achievement;…

  6. A single session of perturbation-based gait training with the A-TPAD improves dynamic stability in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Dario; Kang, Jiyeon; Agrawal, Sunil K

    2017-07-01

    Gait and balance disorders are among the most common causes of falls in older adults. Most falls occur as a result of unexpected hazards while walking. In order to improve the effectiveness of current fall-prevention programs, new balance training paradigms aim to strengthen the control of the compensatory responses required after external perturbations. The aim of this study was to analyze the adaptions of reactive and proactive strategies to control stability after repeated exposures to waist-pull perturbations delivered while walking. Eight healthy young subjects participated in a single training session with the Active Tethered Pelvic assisted Device (A-TPAD). Participants were exposed to repeated multi-directional perturbations of increasing intensity. The Antero-Posterior (AP) and Medio-Lateral (ML) Base of Support (BoS) and Margin of Stability (MoS) during the response to diagonal perturbations were compared before and after the training. Results showed that participants adapted both the reactive and proactive strategies to control walking balance by significantly increasing their pre- and post-perturbation stability. The changes were principally accounted for by an increment of the AP BoS and MoS and a reduction of ML BoS. This improved their ability to react to a diagonal perturbation. We envision that this system can be used to develop a perturbation-based gait training aimed at improving balance and control of stability during walking, thus reducing fall risk.

  7. Comparison of forward versus backward walking using body weight supported treadmill training in an individual with a spinal cord injury: a single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, Gabriele; Pathare, Neeti; Cirone, Cono; Pastore, Danielle; Shears, Dacia; Sulehri, Sahira

    2014-01-01

    Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) is a task-specific intervention that promotes functional locomotion. There is no research evaluating the effect of backward walking (BW) using BWSTT in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this single subject design was to examine the differences between forward walking (FW) and BW training using BWSTT in an individual with quadriparesis. The participant was a 57-year-old male with incomplete C3-C6 SCI. An ABABAB design (A = BW; B = FW; each phase = 3 weeks of biweekly sessions) was utilized. Outcome measures included: gait parameters; a timed 4-meter walk; the 5-repetition sit-to-stand test (STST); tandem stance time; and 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Data was analyzed with split level method of trend estimation. Improvements in gait parameters, on the timed 4-meter walk, 6MWT, tandem balance and aerobic endurance were similar with FW and BW training. The only difference between FW and BW training was that BW training resulted in greater improvements in the STST. The results of this study suggest that in this individual backward walking training was advantageous, resulting in improved ability to perform the 5-repetition STST. It is suspected that these changes can be attributed to the differences in muscle activation and task difficulty between FW and BW.

  8. Comparative study of analgesic effectiveness of single doses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: This study employed the visual analogue scale to measure the effectiveness of single doses of ibuprofen and paracetamol over a six-hour period, following a third molar surgery in a homogenous study population, matched for age, body mass index (BMI) and gender. Alarms were set to remind patients to score pain ...

  9. Cumulative glycemia and microangiopathy in subjects with impaired glucose regulation in the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Larsen, Michael; Kessel, Line

    2011-01-01

    .8% (CI(95) 6.8-17.1%) in subjects with screen-detected diabetes compared to normoglycemic subjects, adjusted for age, sex, and smoking. The prevalences of microalbuminuria and retinopathy were significantly increased in subjects with screen-detected diabetes after adjusting for age, sex and systolic...... in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism, most prominently in subjects with IFG+IGT and in subjects with screen-detected diabetes. These results provide the first objective evidence that cumulative glycemic load is increased at the earliest stage of impaired glucose regulation.......AIMS: To assess cumulative glycemia, microvascular characteristics, and associated risk factors for diabetes in subjects with impaired glucose regulation. METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based study comprising systemic characteristics in 6487 participants and ocular characteristics in 970...

  10. Factors associated with subjective quality of life in Korean patients with depressive disorders: the CRESCEND study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Eun; Seo, Ho-Jun; Song, Hoo Rim; Woo, Young Sup; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Sung, Hyung-Mo; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn

    2012-08-01

    A number of studies suggest that depression is associated with the significant disability and the poorer subjective quality of life (QOL). We aimed to assess subjective QOL in Korean patients with depression and explore the factors (sociodemographic characteristics and clinical features) associated with subjective QOL. We obtained the data from 808 depressive patients who entered the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study and evaluated the relationship between subjective QOL and personal sociodemographics, and various clinical features, including depressive severity, and subjective QOL. We assessed subjective QOL using the 26-item abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument. Decrements in patients' physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment domains of subjective QOL were all strongly associated with the greater depressive symptom severity. After controlling for age and depressive symptom severity, the lower subjective QOL was independently related to being divorced or separated, the less monthly household income, and having no religious practices. Our results suggest the importance of sociodemographic characteristics in addition to symptoms for the understanding of subjective QOL in depressed patients. The prospective studies to compare the different treatments' effects on various subjective QOL domains are needed.

  11. Pharmacokinetic study of single- and multiple-dosing with metolazone tablets in healthy Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueqing; Wang, Rutao; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yun; Zheng, Heng; Feng, Yabo; Zhao, Na; Geng, Hongbin; Zhang, Wanzhi; Wen, Aidong

    2017-11-16

    Metolazone is a diuretic, saluretic and antihypertensive chemical compound from the quinazoline category that possesses medicinal features similar to those of other thiazide diuretic drugs. However, the pharmacokinetics of metolazone in the Chinese population has rarely been studied. This study aimed to examine the pharmacokinetic characteristics, safety characteristic, and tolerability of metolazone in healthy Chinese subjects after single and multiple doses taken orally as well as the effects that food and gender have on oral metolazone pharmacokinetic parameters. An open-label, randomized, and single- and multiple-dosing investigation was performed in healthy Chinese subjects. The investigation included 3 study groups: the 0.5 mg, 1 mg and 2 mg dose groups were the single-dose study groups in the first stage. Eligible volunteers were randomly and orally administered a single 0.5 mg, 1 mg, or 2 mg metolazone tablet. The 0.5 mg dose group was also part of the multiple-dose study group, and the 1 mg dose group was the food-effect study group in the second stage. Human plasma samples were gathered pre-dosing and up to 48 h after dosing. The human plasma sample concentration of metolazone was quantified using a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic data were calculated by a noncompartmental analysis method using WinNonlin version 6.4. Tolerability was evaluated based on adverse events, medical examination, 12-lead ECG, and other clinical laboratory exams. Thirty eligible subjects (15 men and 15 women) were registered in our investigation and completed all of the study stages. The AUC and C max showed dose proportionality after a single dose based on the linear-regression analysis. A comparison of the pharmacokinetic data revealed that the differences between the male and female groups were not statistically significant. The t max of metolazone was increased by approximately 100% in the fed condition. Metolazone was

  12. Impaired Fat-induced Thermogenesis in Obese Subjects: The NUGENOB Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, E.E.; Hul, G.; Verdich, C.; Stich, V.; Martinez, J.A.; Petersen, M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Patel, K.; Oppert, J.M.; Barbe, P.; Tourbro, S.; Polak, J.; Anderson, I.; Astrup, A.; Macdonald, I.; Langin, D.; Sorensen, T.; Saris, W.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To study energy expenditure before and 3 hours after a high-fat load in a large cohort of obese subjects (n=701) and a lean reference group (n = 113). Research Methods and Procedures: Subjects from seven European countries underwent a 1-day clinical study with a liquid test meal

  13. Stress in closed thin-walled tubes of single box subjected by shear forces and application to airfoils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebbiche Toufik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented work is to develop a numerical computation program to determine the distribution of the shear stress to shear in closed tubes with asymmetric single thin wall section with a constant thickness and applications to airfoils and therefore determining the position and value of the maximum stress. In the literature, there are exact analytical solutions only for some sections of simple geometries such as circular section. Hence our interest is focused on the search of approximate numerical solutions for more complex sections used in aeronautics. In the second stage the position of the shear center is determined so that the section does not undergo torsion. The analytic function of the boundary of the airfoil is obtained by using the cubic spline interpolation since it is given in the form of tabulated points.

  14. Single-cell technologies to study the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proserpio, Valentina; Mahata, Bidesh

    2016-02-01

    The immune system is composed of a variety of cells that act in a coordinated fashion to protect the organism against a multitude of different pathogens. The great variability of existing pathogens corresponds to a similar high heterogeneity of the immune cells. The study of individual immune cells, the fundamental unit of immunity, has recently transformed from a qualitative microscopic imaging to a nearly complete quantitative transcriptomic analysis. This shift has been driven by the rapid development of multiple single-cell technologies. These new advances are expected to boost the detection of less frequent cell types and transient or intermediate cell states. They will highlight the individuality of each single cell and greatly expand the resolution of current available classifications and differentiation trajectories. In this review we discuss the recent advancement and application of single-cell technologies, their limitations and future applications to study the immune system. © 2015 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Comparison of mobility and user satisfaction between a microprocessor knee and a standard prosthetic knee: a summary of seven single-subject trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Charla L; Wallace, Chris; Perry, Bonnie; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2018-03-01

    Insufficient evidence of the benefits provided by costlier microprocessor knees (MPKs) over nonmicroprocessor knees (NMPKs) often causes concern when considering MPK prescription. Thus, more studies are needed to demonstrate differences between MPKs and NMPKs and define sensitive outcomes to guide MPK prescription. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of switching from NMPK to MPK on measures of mobility and preference. Seven long-term NMPK users (all men, ages 50-84, 3-64 years postamputation) participated in this study, which use a single-subject design (ABA or BAB; A=NMPK, B=MPK). Mobility was assessed with the Amputee Mobility Predictor, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), L-Test, 6-Min Walk Test (6MWT) with Physiological Cost Index, and self-selected normal and very fast gait speeds. The preference between NMPK and MPK was evaluated by the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ) and the visual analog scale. Mobility improved with the MPK in six of seven participants, which was most often captured with BBS (median: +6 points) and 6MWT (median: +63 m). These improvements typically exceeded minimal clinically important difference or minimal detectable change thresholds. Most participants scored the MPK higher on the PEQ (median: +20 points) and six of seven expressed a global preference toward MPK. In the BAB group, the Amputee Mobility Predictor and BBS correlated with perception of change on several PEQ domains (Ρ≥0.59). In conclusion, MPKs may provide better outcomes and user satisfaction, particularly in those with lower mobility function. BBS and 6MWT were found to be the most sensitive measures to capture changes in mobility while using MPK for several weeks.

  16. Bioequivalence study of two formulations of candesartan cilexetil tablet in healthy subjects under fasting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandrawinata RR

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Raymond R Tjandrawinata,1 Effi Setiawati,2 Danang Agung Yunaidi,2 Ronal Simanjuntak,2 Iwan Dwi Santoso,2 Liana W Susanto1 1Dexa Laboratories of Biomolecular Sciences (DLBS, Cikarang, Indonesia; 2Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Laboratory, PT Equilab International, Jakarta, Indonesia Introduction: The present study was conducted to compare the bioavailability of two candesartan cilexetil 16 mg tablet formulations (test and reference formulations. Materials and methods: This study was a randomized, single- blind, two-period, cross-over study which included 24 healthy adult male and female subjects under fasting conditions. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined based on the concentrations of candesartan (CAS 139481-59-7, using ultra-pressure high-performance liquid chromatography with a tandem mass spectrometer detector. In each of the two study periods (separated by a washout period of 1 week, a single dose of test or reference product was administered. The pharmacokinetic parameters assessed were area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC from time 0 hours to 24 hours, AUC from time zero to infinity, the peak plasma concentration of the drug (Cmax, time to achieve the Cmax, and the elimination half-life. Results: The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval of the test drug/reference drug for candesartan were 100.92% (92.15%–110.52% for the AUC from 0 hours to 24 hours, 100.24% (92.24%–108.95% for the AUC from time zero to infinity, and 106.71% (93.20%–122.18% for the Cmax. The differences between the test and reference product in the time to achieve Cmax values and elimination half-life values were not statistically significant (P > 0.05. The 90% confidence intervals of the test/reference AUC ratio and Cmax ratio of candesartan were within the acceptance range for bioequivalence. There was no adverse event encountered during this bioequivalence study. Conclusion: It was concluded that the two candesartan tablet

  17. A qualitative single case study of parallel processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2007-01-01

    Parallel process in psychotherapy and supervision is a phenomenon manifest in relationships and interactions, that originates in one setting and is reflected in another. This article presents an explorative single case study of parallel processes based on qualitative analyses of two successive...

  18. Single crystal neutron diffraction study of triglycine sulphate revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In order to get the exact hydrogen-bonding scheme in triglycine sulphate. (TGS), which is an important hydrogen bonded ferroelectric, a single crystal neutron diffraction study was undertaken. The structure was refined to an R-factor of R[F2] = 0.034. Earlier neutron structure of TGS was reported with a very limited ...

  19. Microhardness studies on nonlinear optical L-alanine single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sci., Vol. 36, No. 3, June 2013, pp. 471–474. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Microhardness studies on nonlinear optical L-alanine single crystals. R HANUMANTHARAO† and S KALAINATHAN‡,∗ ... ter to the area of the impression left on the specimen. Both ... where P is the applied load in kg, d is in mm and Hv is in kg mm.

  20. An RNA toolbox for single-molecule force spectroscopy studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilfan, I.D.; Kamping, W.; Van den Hout, M.; Candelli, A.; Hage, S.; Dekker, N.H.

    2007-01-01

    Precise, controllable single-molecule force spectroscopy studies of RNA and RNA-dependent processes have recently shed new light on the dynamics and pathways of RNA folding and RNAenzyme interactions. A crucial component of this research is the design and assembly of an appropriate RNA construct.

  1. High-resolution photoluminescence studies of single semiconductor quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Østergaard, John Erland; Jensen, Jacob Riis

    2000-01-01

    developed in the study of single quantum dots, characterized by sharp atomic-like transition lines revealing their zero-dimensional density of states. Substantial information about the fundamental properties of individual quantum dots, as well as their interactions with other dots and the host lattice, can...

  2. Ellipsometric studies of ErMnO3 single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babonas, G.-J.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Reza, A.

    2007-01-01

    Ellipsometric studies of ErMnO3 single crystals have been carried out in the spectral range of 1-5 eV by means of photometric ellipsometers. Experimental ellipsometric data were analysed in the uniaxial crystal model. For the first time, the components of dielectric function of ErMnO3 were...

  3. Single visit root canal treatment: A prospective study | Edionwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teeth having irreversible pulpitis, pulp necrosis or periapical periodontitis were included in the study. RCT and obturation was done at a single visit. The patients were monitored over 6 months. Results: Forty.five teeth were treated in 21 females and 24 males, aged 18.56 years (34.4+/.12.7). Preoperatively, pain was present ...

  4. Single crystal neutron diffraction study of triglycine sulphate revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    atom positions in TGS crystals, neutron diffraction study on TGS was once again undertaken, since neutron diffraction is known to be the only method, which gives exact hydrogen atom position. 2. Experiment. A clear rectangular single crystal of TGS of dimension 3×3.5×3 mm was loaded on a goniometer, which was then ...

  5. Photoluminescence studies of single InGaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are considered a promising material system for future optical devices and quantum computers. We have studied the low-temperature photoluminescence properties of single InGaAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs. The high spatial resolution required for resolving single dots...... to resolve luminescence lines from individual quantum dots, revealing an atomic-like spectrum of sharp transition lines. A parameter of fundamental importance is the intrinsic linewidth of these transitions. Using high-resolution spectroscopy we have determined the linewidth and investigated its dependence...... on temperature, which gives information about how the exciton confined to the quantum dot interacts with the surrounding lattice....

  6. Clinical and socioeconomic features of subjects with red cedar asthma. A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marabini, A; Dimich-Ward, H; Kwan, S Y; Kennedy, S M; Waxler-Morrison, N; Chan-Yeung, M

    1993-09-01

    A follow-up study of 128 subjects with red cedar asthma was conducted to evaluate the clinical and socioeconomic impact of the disease in determining the working status of the subjects after the diagnosis was made. The results suggest that the severity of asthma is not the main determinant of working status. Comparing the data at diagnosis and at follow-up examination, we found that the persistence of exposure resulted in a deterioration in the asthma despite the use of more medications. Subjects who were working were younger and had a larger number of dependents than the subjects who were not working at the time of the follow-up examination. We conclude that the socioeconomic factors are important in determining the working status of subjects with red cedar asthma. To prevent severe impairment and disability, there should be more economic incentives for these subjects to choose other jobs.

  7. Single Molecule Study of Photoconversion and Spectral Heterogeneities of Fluorophores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Zhiyu

    of conformational changes and dynamics. The photophysical properties of organic dyes directly determine the quality of the experiments. So the better understanding of the photophysical properties of organic dyes, the better we are able to design the experiments and interpret the data, especially in single molecule...... 104 single molecule measurements. A simple and practical method is introduced to study the characteristics of the photoproducts at the ensemble level. Control experiments reveal that the reaction leading to photobleaching is oxygen related, but the composition of the photoproducts remains inconclusive...... stimulate new pathways in engineering and designing photoconvertible fluorophores, based on the reaction with oxygen or other chemicals. Besides, this results show that dyes that convert into other emissive species could give problems when interpreting single molecule FRET systems. The revealed mechanism...

  8. Behavioral treatment of challenging behavior in individuals with mild mental retardation: A meta-analysis of single subject research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Oorsouw, W.M.W.J. van; Sturmey, P.

    2006-01-01

    A meta-analytic study on effectiveness of behavioral and psychotherapeutic treatments for challenging behaviors in individuals with mild mental retardation is reported. Eighty articles were examined. For each comparison, several study variables and two effect sizes (percentage of nonoverlapping

  9. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in South East Nigeria: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attama, CM; Uwakwe, R; Onyeama, GM; Igwe, MN

    2015-01-01

    Background: Skin, which is the largest organ in the body, carries immense psychological significance. Disfiguring skin disorders may impact negatively on the mental health of individuals. Aim: This study compared the psychiatric morbidity of subjects with leprosy and albinism. Subjects and Methods: One hundred subjects with leprosy and 100 with albinism were interviewed. Sociodemographic questionnaire and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) assessed the sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric morbidity, respectively. GHQ positive cases and 10% of noncases for each group were interviewed with Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory for specific ICD-10 diagnoses. Results: Fifty-five percent (55/100) subjects with leprosy were GHQ positive cases while 41% (41/100) with albinism were GHQ positive cases. The risk of developing psychiatric morbidity was significantly higher in subjects with leprosy than in subjects with albinism (OR = 1.76, CI = 1.00 – 3.08, P = 0.04). The prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders among subjects with leprosy were depression 49% (49/100), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) 18% (18/100), alcohol/drug abuse 16% (16/100), whereas in albinism depression was 51% (51/100), GAD 27% (27/100), and alcohol/drug abuse 7% (7/100). Male, married and uneducated subjects with leprosy had significantly higher psychiatric morbidity than the male, married and uneducated subjects with albinism, respectively. Conclusion: Psychiatric morbidity was higher in subjects with leprosy than in subjects with albinism. Male, married and uneducated subjects with leprosy significantly had higher morbidity than male, married and uneducated subjects with albinism respectively. PMID:26097762

  10. Single visit nonsurgical endodontic therapy for periapical cysts: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipsita Maity

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of single sitting root canal treatment (RCT of asymptomatic teeth with periapical cysts. Materials and Methods: Ten maxillary anterior teeth showing periapical lesion on the radiograph was further screened by ultrasound with color power Doppler (CPD for confirmation of a cyst. The average dimension of the lesions ranged from 1.3 to 1.9 cm. Single sitting RCT was performed on all the selected teeth. Postoperative healing was monitored at regular interval of 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year by using subjective feedback, radiograph, and ultrasound with CPD study. Results: Eight among the ten cases showed either signs of complete healing or healing in progress by the end of 6-12 months. Conclusions: It was observed that single sitting nonsurgical endodontic management of asymptomatic teeth with periapical cyst confirmed by ultrasound was successful in selected cases.

  11. Single visit nonsurgical endodontic therapy for periapical cysts: A clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Ipsita; Meena, N.; Kumari, R. Anitha

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of single sitting root canal treatment (RCT) of asymptomatic teeth with periapical cysts. Materials and Methods: Ten maxillary anterior teeth showing periapical lesion on the radiograph was further screened by ultrasound with color power Doppler (CPD) for confirmation of a cyst. The average dimension of the lesions ranged from 1.3 to 1.9 cm. Single sitting RCT was performed on all the selected teeth. Postoperative healing was monitored at regular interval of 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year by using subjective feedback, radiograph, and ultrasound with CPD study. Results: Eight among the ten cases showed either signs of complete healing or healing in progress by the end of 6-12 months. Conclusions: It was observed that single sitting nonsurgical endodontic management of asymptomatic teeth with periapical cyst confirmed by ultrasound was successful in selected cases. PMID:24963246

  12. Study of nociceptive flexion reflex in healthy subjects and patients with chronic neuropathic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, S A; Turbina, L G; Zus'man, A A; Posokhov, S I

    2012-12-01

    Nociceptive flexion reflex was measured in healthy subjects and patients with chronic neuropathic pain (diabetic distal symmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy). The study of nociceptive flexion reflex revealed reduction of subjective pain threshold and reflex threshold in patients compared with healthy persons reflecting deficit of descending antinociceptive influences in the CNS.

  13. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of CEP-26401, a high-affinity histamine-3 receptor antagonist, following single and multiple dosing in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelstein, Ofer; Stevens, Jasper; Van Gerven, Joop; Nathan, Pradeep J; Maynard, James P; Mayleben, David W; Hellriegel, Edward; Yang, Ronghua

    2016-10-01

    CEP-26401 is a novel orally active, brain-penetrant, high-affinity histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonist, with potential therapeutic utility in cognition enhancement. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose escalation studies with single (0.02 to 5 mg) or multiple administration (0.02 to 0.5 mg once daily) of CEP-26401 were conducted in healthy subjects. Plasma and urine samples were collected to investigate CEP-26401 pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamic endpoints included a subset of tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and nocturnal polysomnography. Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling was conducted on one CANTAB and one polysomnography parameter of interest. CEP-26401 was slowly absorbed (median tmax range 3-6 hours) and the mean terminal elimination half-life ranged from 24-60 hours. Steady-state plasma concentrations were achieved within six days of dosing. CEP-26401 exhibits dose- and time-independent pharmacokinetics, and renal excretion is a major elimination pathway. CEP-26401 had a dose-dependent negative effect on sleep, with some positive effects on certain CANTAB cognitive parameters seen at lower concentrations. The derived three compartment population pharmacokinetic model, with first-order absorption and elimination, accurately described the available pharmacokinetic data. CEP-26401 was generally well tolerated up to 0.5 mg/day with most common treatment related adverse events being headache and insomnia. Further clinical studies are required to establish the potential of low-dose CEP-26401 in cognition enhancement. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Considerations in Writing About Single-Case Experimental Design Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolasky, Richard L

    2016-12-01

    Single-case experimental design (SCED) studies are particularly useful for examining the processes and outcomes of psychological and behavioral studies. Accurate reporting of SCED studies is critical in explaining the study to the reader and allowing replication. This paper outlines important elements that authors should cover when reporting the results of a SCED study. Authors should provide details on the participant, independent and dependent variables under examination, materials and procedures, and data analysis. Particular emphasis should be placed on justifying the assumptions made and explaining how violations of these assumptions may alter the results of the SCED study.

  15. Vertical dynamics of a single-span beam subjected to moving mass-suspended payload system with variable speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the vertical dynamics of a simply supported Euler-Bernoulli beam subjected to a moving mass-suspended payload system of variable velocities. A planar theoretical model of the moving mass-suspended payload system of variable speeds is developed based on several assumptions: the rope is massless and rigid, and its length keeps constant; the stiffness of the gantry beam is much greater than the supporting beam, and the gantry beam can be treated as a mass particle traveling along the supporting beam; the supporting beam is assumed as a simply supported Bernoulli-Euler beam. The model can be degenerated to consider two classical cases-the moving mass case and the moving payload case. The proposed model is verified using both numerical and experimental methods. To further investigate the effect of possible influential factors, numerical examples are conducted covering a range of parameters, such as variable speeds (acceleration or deceleration), mass ratios of the payload to the total moving load, and the pendulum lengths. The effect of beam flexibility on swing response of the payload is also investigated. It is shown that the effect of a variable speed is significant for the deflections of the beam. The accelerating movement tends to induce larger beam deflections, while the decelerating movement smaller ones. For accelerating or decelerating movements, the moving mass model may underestimate the deflections of the beam compared with the presented model; while for uniform motion, both the moving mass model and the moving mass-payload model lead to same beam responses. Furthermore, it is observed that the swing response of the payload is not sensitive to the stiffness of the beam for operational cases of a moving crane, thus a simple moving payload model can be employed in the swing control of the payload.

  16. Back muscle strength and fatigue in healthy and chronic low back pain subjects: a comparative study of 3 assessment protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rubens A; Arsenault, A Bertrand; Gravel, Denis; Larivière, Christian; de Oliveira, Eros

    2005-04-01

    To compare the sensitivity of 3 different back test protocols in measuring differences in strength and fatigue between subjects with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP). Descriptive study using a repeated-measures design. A research laboratory within a rehabilitation center. Eighteen healthy subjects and 13 subjects with CLBP were assessed in a single session to compare the 3 protocols. The protocols were an upright position test (UPP), a semicrouched lifting test (LIF), and the Sorensen fatigue test. Not applicable. Moments of force and surface electromyography were recorded bilaterally from 4 homologous back muscles while the subjects performed static trunk extension efforts for each protocol. Fatigue was quantified by the slopes of the linear regression of electromyography time-series. The back muscle fatigue and strength scores did not differ significantly for the 2 subject groups for any of the 3 protocols. The electromyography fatigue indices revealed that the Sorensen fatigue test and UPP produced more fatigue in the back muscles than the LIF. It was impossible to specify which protocol is more sensitive to low back status because no between-group difference was observed for any of the 3 tests.

  17. A multicenter study on objective and subjective benefits with a transcutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Dan Dupont; Boldsen, Soren Kjaergaard; Jensen, Anne Marie

    2017-01-01

    Examination of objective as well as subjective outcomes with a new transcutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid device. The study was designed as a prospective multicenter consecutive case-series study involving tertiary referral centers at two Danish University Hospitals. A total of 23 patients were...... implanted. Three were lost to follow-up. Patients had single-sided deafness, conductive or mixed hearing loss. Intervention: Rehabilitative. Aided and unaided sound field hearing was evaluated objectively using (1) pure warble tone thresholds, (2) pure-tone average (PTA4), (3) speech discrimination score...... (SDS) in quiet, and (4) speech reception threshold 50% at 70 dB SPL noise level (SRT50%). Subjective benefit was evaluated by three validated questionnaires: (1) the IOI-HA, (2) the SSQ-12, and (3) a questionnaire evaluating both the frequency and the duration of hearing aid usage. The mean aided PTA4...

  18. Quality Control of Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX Measurements in 6 Muscles in a Single-Subject "Round-Robin" Setup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Neuwirth

    Full Text Available Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX is a neurophysiological measure that provides an index of the number of lower motor neurons in a muscle. Its performance across centres in healthy subjects and patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS has been established, but inter-rater variability between multiple raters in one single subject has not been investigated.To assess reliability in a set of 6 muscles in a single subject among 12 examiners (6 experienced with MUNIX, 6 less experienced and to determine variables associated with variability of measurements.Twelve raters applied MUNIX in six different muscles (abductor pollicis brevis (APB, abductor digiti minimi (ADM, biceps brachii (BB, tibialis anterior (TA, extensor dig. brevis (EDB, abductor hallucis (AH twice in one single volunteer on consecutive days. All raters visited at least one training course prior to measurements. Intra- and inter-rater variability as determined by the coefficient of variation (COV between different raters and their levels of experience with MUNIX were compared.Mean intra-rater COV of MUNIX was 14.0% (±6.4 ranging from 5.8 (APB to 30.3% (EDB. Mean inter-rater COV was 18.1 (±5.4 ranging from 8.0 (BB to 31.7 (AH. No significant differences of variability between experienced and less experienced raters were detected.We provide evidence that quality control for neurophysiological methods can be performed with similar standards as in laboratory medicine. Intra- and inter-rater variability of MUNIX is muscle-dependent and mainly below 20%. Experienced neurophysiologists can easily adopt MUNIX and adequate teaching ensures reliable utilization of this method.

  19. Analytic study of the Tadoma method: language abilities of three deaf-blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, C

    1986-09-01

    This study reports on the linguistic abilities of 3 adult deaf-blind subjects. The subjects perceive spoken language through touch, placing a hand on the face of the speaker and monitoring the speaker's articulatory motions, a method of speechreading known as Tadoma. Two of the subjects, deaf-blind since infancy, acquired language and learned to speak through this tactile system; the third subject has used Tadoma since becoming deaf-blind at age 7. Linguistic knowledge and productive language are analyzed, using standardized tests and several tests constructed for this study. The subjects' language abilities prove to be extensive, comparing favorably in many areas with hearing individuals. The results illustrate a relatively minor effect of limited language exposure on eventual language achievement. The results also demonstrate the adequacy of the tactile sense, in these highly trained Tadoma users, for transmitting information about spoken language sufficient to support the development of language and learning to produce speech.

  20. Assessment of the Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Safety of Single Doses of TV-1106, a Long-Acting Growth Hormone, in Healthy Japanese and Caucasian Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Barak, Orit; Barkay, Hadas; Rasamoelisolo, Michele; Butler, Kathleen; Yamada, Kazumasa; Bassan, Merav; Yoon, Esther; Spiegelstein, Ofer

    2017-07-01

    TV-1106 is a human serum albumin genetically fused to recombinant human growth hormone, designed to provide a long-acting alternative to daily growth hormone (GH) injections in patients with GH deficiency. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of single subcutaneous doses of TV-1106 (7.5, 15, 50, and 100 mg) in Japanese (n = 44) and caucasian (n = 44) healthy subjects. TV-1106 pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were comparable in Japanese and caucasian populations. TV-1106 demonstrated relatively slow absorption (median t max , 10-30 hours) and a mean elimination half-life of 26-36 hours. Apparent clearance and volume of distribution decreased with increasing TV-1106 doses in both populations and appeared to increase more than dose proportionality across the tested doses. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) increased in a dose-related manner, with maximum responses observed at 33-96 and 42-109 hours, respectively. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 returned to baseline values at 168 hours following 7.5 and 15 mg of TV-1106, and 336 hours following 50 and 100 mg of TV-1106. TV-1106 appeared safe in both populations. There was no evidence of differences in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, or safety of TV-1106 between Japanese and caucasian populations. The data also demonstrate long-acting growth hormone properties of TV-1106 and support its potential for once-weekly dosing. © 2016, The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  1. Associations between Subjective Happiness and Dry Eye Disease: A New Perspective from the Osaka Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Importance Dry eye disease has become an important health problem. A lack of concordance between self-reported symptoms and the outcome of dry eye examinations has raised questions about dry eye disease. Objective To explore the association between subjective happiness and objective and subjective symptoms of dry eye disease. Design The study adopted a cross-sectional design. Setting All the employees of a company in Osaka, Japan. Participants 672 Japanese office workers using Visual Display Terminals (age range: 26–64 years). Methods The dry eye measurement tools included the Schirmer test, conjunctivocorneal staining, the tear film break-up time, as well as the administration of a dry eye symptoms questionnaire. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale. Main Outcome Measures Dry eye examination parameters, dry eye symptoms questionnaires, and the Subjective Happiness Scale score. Results Of the 672 workers, 561 (83.5%) completed the questionnaires and examinations. The mean Subjective Happiness Scale score was 4.91 (SD = 1.01). This score was inversely correlated with the dry eye symptom score (r = -0.188, p subjective happiness was the lowest in the group without objective results, but reported subjective symptoms of dry eyes (p subjective happiness and self-reported symptoms of dry eyes. Findings of this study revealed a new perspective on dry eye disease, including the potential for innovative treatments of a specific population with dry eye disease. PMID:25830665

  2. Sex differences in subjective and actigraphic sleep measures: A population-based study of elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.F. van den; Miedema, H.M.E.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Hofman, A.; Neven, A.K.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate and explain sex differences in subjective and actigraphic sleep parameters in community-dwelling elderly persons. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-six

  3. A Single-Subject Study of a Technology-Based Self-Monitoring Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelgesang, Kari L.; Bruhn, Allison L.; Coghill-Behrends, William L.; Kern, Amanda M.; Troughton, Leonard C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Students with ADHD often struggle with self-regulation skills. One strategy demonstrating considerable success in helping these students regulate their behavior is self-monitoring. Although there is an abundance of research on self-monitoring, research on the use of technology for self-monitoring is only beginning to emerge. The primary goal of…

  4. Short term memory for single surface features and bindings in ageing: A replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isella, Valeria; Molteni, Federica; Mapelli, Cristina; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    In the present study we replicated a previous experiment investigating visuo-spatial short term memory binding in young and older healthy individuals, in the attempt to verify the pattern of impairment that can be observed in normal elderly for short term memory for single items vs short term memory for bindings. Assessing a larger sample size (25 young and 25 older subjects), using a more appropriate measure of accuracy for a change detection task (A'), and adding the evaluation of speed of performance, we confirmed that old normals show a decline in short term memory for bindings of shape and colour that is of comparable extent, and not major, to the decline in memory for single shapes and single colours. The absence of a specific deficit of short term memory for conjunctions of surface features seems to distinguish cognitive ageing from Alzheimer's Disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of Biological Pigments by Single Specimen Derivative Spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jack M.

    1970-01-01

    The single specimen derivative (SSD) method provides an absolute absorption spectrum of a substance in the absence of a suitable reference. Both a reference and a measuring monochromatic beam pass through a single sample, and the specimen itself acts as its own reference. The two monochromatic beams maintain a fixed wavelength difference upon scanning, and the difference in absorbance of the two beams is determined. Thus, the resulting spectrum represents the first derivative of the conventional type absorption spectrum. Tissues and cell fractions have been examined at room and liquid N2 temperature and chromophoric molecules such as the mitochondrial cytochromes and blood pigments have been detectable in low concentrations. In the case of isolated cellular components, the observed effects of substrates and inhibitors confirm similar studies by conventional spectrophotometry. The extension of the SSD concept to the microscopic level has permitted the study of the tissue compartmentalization and function of cytochromes and other pigments within layered tissue. PMID:4392452

  6. Single Particle Orientation and Rotational Tracking (SPORT) in biophysical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan; Ha, Ji Won; Augspurger, Ashley E.; Chen, Kuangcai; Zhu, Shaobin; Fang, Ning

    2013-10-01

    The single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) techniques have seen rapid development in the past 5 years. Recent technical advances have greatly expanded the applicability of SPORT in biophysical studies. In this feature article, we survey the current development of SPORT and discuss its potential applications in biophysics, including cellular membrane processes and intracellular transport.The single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) techniques have seen rapid development in the past 5 years. Recent technical advances have greatly expanded the applicability of SPORT in biophysical studies. In this feature article, we survey the current development of SPORT and discuss its potential applications in biophysics, including cellular membrane processes and intracellular transport. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Three supplementary movies and an experimental section. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02254d

  7. The Effect of a Novel form of Extended-Release Gabapentin on Pain and Sleep in Fibromyalgia Subjects: An Open-Label Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, James M; Hong, Kyung-Soo J; Rauck, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    We assessed the efficacy and safety of extended-release gabapentin in a 15-week, open-label, single-arm, single-center study in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Subjects with documented diagnosis of FM were allowed to participate in the study. We opened enrollment to those who have tried and failed gabapentinoids such as gabapentin or pregabalin due to side effects. Subjects with autoimmune conditions, and or taking opioids for management of their FM pain, were excluded from the study. Subjects were given an extended-release gabapentin starter pack and treated for total of 12 weeks. The primary study endpoint of pain relief was measured using Numeric Pain Rating System (NPRS) scores, and secondary study endpoints were measured with Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Patient's Global Impression of Change (PGIC), and Medical Outcome Sleep questionnaires (MOS). A total of 34 subjects were enrolled and 29 subjects completed the starter pack (85%). Patients reported significant pain relief on NPRS by end of 4 weeks (P pain symptoms and improved quality-of-life for the FM subjects studied. Subjects reported improvements in both quantity and quality of sleep. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  8. Single particle studies of black liquor gasification under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M.; Backman, P.; Ek, P.; Hulden, S.T.; Kullberg, M.; Sorvari, V.

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide experimental data relevant to pressurized black liquor gasification concepts. Specifically, the following two goals will be achieved: Data on swelling, char yields and component release during pressurized pyrolysis of small samples of black liquor will be obtained. The reactivity and physical behavior of single black liquor droplets during simultaneous pyrolysis and gasification will be investigated. The structure and composition of black liquor char during formation and conversion will be studied. (orig.)

  9. Body mass index and subjective well-being in young adults: a twin population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linna, Milla S; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raevuori, Anu; Sihvola, Elina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Rissanen, Aila

    2013-03-16

    Body mass index (BMI) is associated with subjective well-being. Higher BMI is believed to be related with lower well-being. However, the association may not be linear. Therefore, we investigated whether a nonlinear (U-shaped) trend would better describe this relationship, and whether eating disorders might account for the association in young adults. FinnTwin16 study evaluated multiple measures of subjective well-being, including life satisfaction, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20), satisfaction with leisure time, work, and family relationships, and satisfaction with sex life in young adulthood in the 1975-79 birth cohorts of Finnish twins (n=5240). We studied the relationship between indicators of subjective well-being and BMI both in full birth cohorts and in subgroups stratified by lifetime DSM-IV eating disorders. We found an inverse U-shaped relationship between all indicators of subjective well-being and BMI in men. There was no overall association between BMI and subjective well-being in women. However, there was an inverse U-shaped relationship between BMI and indicators of subjective well-being in women with a lifetime eating disorder and their healthy female co-twins. Subjective well-being was optimal in the overweight category. Both underweight and obesity are associated with impaired subjective well-being in young men. The BMI reflecting optimal subjective well-being of young men may be higher than currently recognized. Categorization of body weight in terms of BMI may need to be reassessed in young men. BMI and subjective well-being are related in women with a lifetime eating disorder, but not in the general population of young women.

  10. Prevalence of signs of temporomandibular joint dysfunction in asymptomatic edentulous subjects: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Rajesh

    2010-06-01

    Patients having complete dentures with reduced vertical dimension generally do not manifest Temporomandibular Joint problems. It is not understood as to why the closure of jaws in dentulous individuals can predispose to Temporomandibular Joint problems, while the same etiology in edentulous subjects does not cause any concern. This study was planned to find out the prevalence of various Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction signs in subjects who were edentulous for a period of 6 months to 2 year. The various signs were obtained from a population of 100 healthy asymptomatic edentulous subjects by a questionnaire and then were clinically examined for the presence or absence of signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction. 59% of the subjects exhibited one or more signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction, 41% of the subjects did not show any signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction. 56.6% of males reported signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction when compared with females which was 62.5%. 43.3% of males did not show any signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction when compared with those of the females which was 37.5%. The number of subjects who showed two signs was 29%, subjects who had only one sign was 25%. It was found that dysfunction was prevalent among both men and women in more than half of the asymptomatic subjects examined. 59% had one or as many as three signs of Temporomandibular dysfunction. The most commonly seen Joint dysfunction was the joint sounds which was 47%

  11. New tools to study biophysical properties of single molecules and single cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio S. Rocha

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a review on two new tools to study biophysical properties of single molecules and single cells. A laser incident through a high numerical aperture microscope objective can trap small dielectric particles near the focus. This arrangement is named optical tweezers. This technique has the advantage to permit manipulation of a single individual object. We use optical tweezers to measure the entropic elasticity of a single DNA molecule and its interaction with the drug Psoralen. Optical tweezers are also used to hold a kidney cell MDCK away from the substrate to allow precise volume measurements of this single cell during an osmotic shock. This procedure allows us to obtain information about membrane water permeability and regulatory volume increase. Defocusing microscopy is a recent technique invented in our laboratory, which allows the observation of transparent objects, by simply defocusing the microscope in a controlled way. Our physical model of a defocused microscope shows that the image contrast observed in this case is proportional to the defocus distance and to the curvature of the transparent object. Defocusing microscopy is very useful to study motility and mechanical properties of cells. We show here the application of defocusing microscopy to measurements of macrophage surface fluctuations and their influence on phagocytosis.Apresentamos uma revisão de duas novas técnicas para estudar propriedades biofísicas de moléculas únicas e células únicas. Um laser incidindo em uma objetiva de microscópio de grande abertura numérica é capaz de aprisionar pequenas partículas dielétricas na região próxima ao foco. Este aparato é chamado de pinça óptica. Esta técnica tem a grande vantagem de permitir a manipulação de um objeto individual. Usamos a pinça óptica para medir a elasticidade entrópica de uma molécula única de DNA em sua interação com o fármaco Psoralen. A pinça óptica também é usada para segurar

  12. Implant-supported single-tooth restorations. A 12-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Mauro; Ekestubbe, Annika; Lindhe, Jan; Wennström, Jan L

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the 12-year outcome of implant-supported single-tooth restorations. Originally 45 self-tapping Astra Tech TiOblast ® ST-implants were installed by a two-stage protocol in 40 subjects requiring single-tooth prosthetic replacement for a missing tooth. Clinical and radiologic examinations were performed at completion of the prosthetic treatment 4-7 months after implant installation surgery and after 5 and 12 years in function. At 12 years 31 patients and 35 implants were available for evaluation. The overall failure rate after 12 years was 10.3% on the subject level and 9.1% on the implant level. The mean bone loss amounted to 0.67 mm (SD 2.20) on a subject level and 0.47 mm (1.72) on an implant level. Three subjects (10%) and three implants (8.6%) were diagnosed with peri-implantitis. Five subjects had experienced technical complications; three incidences of loosening of the abutment retention screw during the first 5 years and two minor porcelain fracture of the crown (two patients) between 5- and 12-years of follow-up. The findings reported in this 12-year prospective case series suggest that the use of the Astra Tech dental implants may be a valid treatment alternative for single-tooth replacement prostheses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Studies of mindset of Tuvans and the subjectivity trend in academic knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimiza K. Lamazhaa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a historiographic review of studies of mindset (understood as an array of beliefs, directives, views and tempers of Tuvans since late 19th century to present day. We single out three groups of studies and analyze them in terms of: social conditions, evolution of science, and subjectivity of researchers. The first group comprises the works written by foreign researchers in late 19th – early 20th centuries. They had been studying Tuvans during the Russian settlement in Uriankhai region. Ethnographers and geographers had been defining the ethnic mindset of terms of “temper” and “moral everyday life” which were believed to be endemic to ethnos and could be revealed by external observation and interpretation. The article quotes D. Carruthers and refers to his controversy with G.G. Grumm-Grzhimaylo regarding the temper of Uriankhs (Tuvans. Also cited are the observations made by D.A. Klements, E.K. Yakovlev, A.V. Adrianov and A.M. Afrikanov. All of these works contain a significant number of inaccurate and superficial ideas of Tuvan mores. The second group includes works by Soviet ethnographers of mid- and the latter half of 20th century (S.I. Vainshtein, L.P. Potapov, E.D. Prokofieva, N.A. Serdobov, etc.. Written under political commission of the Soviet government, they treated specific details of Tuvan life as merely a form of culture. Their ethnographic works on traditional way of living in Tuva still preserve their value, but for these authors the ethnic mindset never was an objective in itself, and is only mentioned in passim. Finally, the third group brings together contemporary studies that have appeared since 1990s. This time, the social commission comes from the regional authorities and is linked with the process of national revival, which determined the scholar’ interest in studying the culture of a dominant ethnic group. The mindset of Tuvans, as well as the entire Tuvan culture, is recognized as valuable

  14. A single night of sleep loss impairs objective but not subjective working memory performance in a sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rångtell, Frida H; Karamchedu, Swathy; Andersson, Peter; Liethof, Lisanne; Olaya Búcaro, Marcela; Lampola, Lauri; Schiöth, Helgi B; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Benedict, Christian

    2018-01-31

    Acute sleep deprivation can lead to judgement errors and thereby increases the risk of accidents, possibly due to an impaired working memory. However, whether the adverse effects of acute sleep loss on working memory are modulated by auditory distraction in women and men are not known. Additionally, it is unknown whether sleep loss alters the way in which men and women perceive their working memory performance. Thus, 24 young adults (12 women using oral contraceptives at the time of investigation) participated in two experimental conditions: nocturnal sleep (scheduled between 22:30 and 06:30 hours) versus one night of total sleep loss. Participants were administered a digital working memory test in which eight-digit sequences were learned and retrieved in the morning after each condition. Learning of digital sequences was accompanied by either silence or auditory distraction (equal distribution among trials). After sequence retrieval, each trial ended with a question regarding how certain participants were of the correctness of their response, as a self-estimate of working memory performance. We found that sleep loss impaired objective but not self-estimated working memory performance in women. In contrast, both measures remained unaffected by sleep loss in men. Auditory distraction impaired working memory performance, without modulation by sleep loss or sex. Being unaware of cognitive limitations when sleep-deprived, as seen in our study, could lead to undesirable consequences in, for example, an occupational context. Our findings suggest that sleep-deprived young women are at particular risk for overestimating their working memory performance. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Mental health morbidity among people subject to immigration detention in the UK: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, P; Arugnanaseelan, J; Connell, E; Katona, C; Khan, A A; Moran, P; Robjant, K; Slade, K; Tan, J; Widyaratna, K; Youd, J; Forrester, A

    2017-06-22

    The UK has one of the largest systems of immigration detention in Europe.. Those detained include asylum-seekers and foreign national prisoners, groups with a higher prevalence of mental health vulnerabilities compared with the general population. In light of little published research on the mental health status of detainees in immigration removal centres (IRCs), the primary aim of this study was to explore whether it was feasible to conduct psychiatric research in such a setting. A secondary aim was to compare the mental health of those seeking asylum with the rest of the detainees. Cross-sectional study with simple random sampling followed by opportunistic sampling. Exclusion criteria included inadequate knowledge of English and European Union nationality. Six validated tools were used to screen for mental health disorders including developmental disorders like Personality Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Intellectual Disability, as well as for needs assessment. These were the MINI v6, SAPAS, AQ-10, ASRS, LDSQ and CANFOR. Demographic data were obtained using a participant demographic sheet. Researchers were trained in the use of the screening battery and inter-rater reliability assessed by joint ratings. A total of 101 subjects were interviewed. Overall response rate was 39%. The most prevalent screened mental disorder was depression (52.5%), followed by personality disorder (34.7%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (20.8%). 21.8% were at moderate to high suicidal risk. 14.9 and 13.9% screened positive for ASD and ADHD, respectively. The greatest unmet needs were in the areas of intimate relationships (76.2%), psychological distress (72.3%) and sexual expression (71.3%). Overall presence of mental disorder was comparable with levels found in prisons. The numbers in each group were too small to carry out any further analysis. It is feasible to undertake a psychiatric morbidity survey in an IRC

  16. Sitting movement in elderly subjects with and without Parkinson's disease: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Valdeci Carlos; de Biagi Curtarelli, Mônica; Sande de Souza, Luciane Aparecida Pascucci

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare kinetic, kinematic, and electromyographic variables during the sitting movement between healthy elderly and in those with Parkinson's disease (PD) with moderate involvement. We hypothesized that subjects with PD would show difficulty in selecting the muscles for the task and that this could be related to the co-activation pattern and would be reflected in the behavior of some biomechanical variables. Fifteen subjects participated in this study, seven healthy subjects (NN group) and eight with Parkinson's disease. Electromyography (EMG) activity of the tibialis anterior (TA), soleus (SO), vastus medialis oblique (VMO), biceps femoris (BF), and erector spinae (ES) were recorded, and biomechanical variables were calculated, during four phases of the sitting movement. Compared to healthy subjects, the subjects with PD showed more flexion at the ankle, knee, and hip joints in the initial position and lower joint velocity. However, the EMG activity and hip, knee, and ankle joint torques were not different during all phases of movement. The sitting movement in PD subjects with moderate involvement generates EMG activity and joint torques similar to healthy elderly subjects. Only a reduced movement velocity was found in PD patients during the sitting task. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary School Teachers’ Opinions on Teaching the Environmental Studies Subject Outside of the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koprivnik Minka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the curriculum reform of the basic school in the Republic of Slovenia, the experiential learning and conducting classes outside the classroom become one of the more important starting points for the subject of Environmental Studies, which is taught in the first three years. With the empirical study, we wanted to research which location is most often selected by educators for Environmental Studies outside the classroom, how often they conduct such activities, which work methods they use, how many hours out of total subject hours for Environmental Studies they dedicate to teaching outside the classroom, and in what form they wish to acquire additional knowledge on this subject. We discovered that educators, when teaching the subject of Environmental Studies outside the classroom, most often use an area located in direct vicinity of the school, and that the largest percentage of participants very often teaches the subject of Environmental Studies outside the classroom once per month. Both analyses showed certain statistically significant differences regarding the location of the school and the educator’s years of employment. The results showed that educators, when teaching the subject of Environmental Studies outside the classroom, most often use the method of direct observation, while the least used methods are work with texts and learning resources. Predominantly, educators dedicate up to 30% of total planned hours of the subject of Environmental Studies to conducting class outside the classroom. The analysis showed that educators want to obtain additional information, knowledge, and competence for teaching Environmental Studies outside the classroom primarily by examples of good practices.

  18. Bioanalytical tools for single-cell study of exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shencheng; Koseoglu, Secil; Haynes, Christy L

    2010-08-01

    Regulated exocytosis is a fundamental biological process used to deliver chemical messengers for cell-cell communication via membrane fusion and content secretion. A plethora of cell types employ this chemical-based communication to achieve crucial functions in many biological systems. Neurons in the brain and platelets in the circulatory system are representative examples utilizing exocytosis for neurotransmission and blood clotting. Single-cell studies of regulated exocytosis in the past several decades have greatly expanded our knowledge of this critical process, from vesicle/granule transport and docking at the early stages of exocytosis to membrane fusion and to eventual chemical messenger secretion. Herein, four main approaches that have been widely used to study single-cell exocytosis will be highlighted, including total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, capillary electrophoresis, single-cell mass spectrometry, and microelectrochemistry. These techniques are arranged in the order following the route of a vesicle/granule destined for secretion. Within each section, the basic principles and experimental strategies are reviewed and representative examples are given revealing critical spatial, temporal, and chemical information of a secretory vesicle/granule at different stages of its lifetime. Lastly, an analytical chemist's perspective on potential future developments in this exciting field is discussed.

  19. Rheumatoid Arthritis - Neuropsychology, Depression and Anxiety. A case - control study -120 Portuguese Female subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Maia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Impact of Rheumatoid Arthritis in cognitive functions has not been well acknowledged in Portugal. With this original article we intended to elucidate this problem in this specific country. Methods: We measured the results of 60 Rheumatoid Arthritis female patients (study group), comparing every patient in a case control paired plan (years in school and age), with control subjects (n = 60, in a total of 120 subjects). All participants were evaluated with Paced Auditory Selective At...

  20. Body mass index and subjective well-being in young adults: a twin population study

    OpenAIRE

    Linna, Milla S; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raevuori, Anu; Sihvola, Elina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Rissanen, Aila

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) is associated with subjective well-being. Higher BMI is believed to be related with lower well-being. However, the association may not be linear. Therefore, we investigated whether a nonlinear (U-shaped) trend would better describe this relationship, and whether eating disorders might account for the association in young adults. Methods FinnTwin16 study evaluated multiple measures of subjective well-being, including life satisfaction, General Health Questionna...

  1. Qualitative methodology in a psychoanalytic single case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte

    This study concerns the systematic integration of qualitative research strategies in a psychoanalytic single case study of a child who had suffered early abuse and neglect. A systematic exploration of core features of the therapeutic relationship was carried out, possible links between such core...... with Interpretational Phenomenological Analysis were applied on recorded session notes and other case-file material from a concluded child psychotherapy case as well as on transcripts from follow-up interviews with the child’s birth and foster parents. The case material analyzed in three steps; principles...

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire with Turkish Adolescents: A Generalizability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Tyler L.; Arslan, Gökmen

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports on the first investigation of the generalizability of the psychometric properties of the Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (SSWQ) beyond the original development and replication studies. Previous studies tested an English version of the SSWQ with urban, mostly Black/African American, low socioeconomic status,…

  3. Single-molecule studies of unconventional motor protein myosin VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyeongJun

    Myosin VI is one of the myosin superfamily members that are actin-based molecular motors. It has received special attention due to its distinct features as compared to other myosins, such as its opposite directionality and a much larger step size than expected given the length of its "leg". This dissertation presents the author.s graduate work of several single-molecule studies on myosin VI. Special attention was paid to some of myosin VI.s tail domains that consist of proximal tail (PT), medial tail (MT), distal tail (DT) domains and cargo-binding domain (CBD). The functional form of myosin VI in cells is still under debate. Although full length myosin VI proteins in cytosolic extracts of cells were monomers from earlier studies, there are several reasons why it is now believed that myosin VI could exist as a dimer. If this is true and dimerization occurs, the next logical question would be which parts of myosin VI are dimerization regions? One model claimed that the CBD is the sole dimerization region. A competing model claimed that there must be another region that could be involved in dimerization, based on their observation that a construct without the CBD could still dimerize. Our single-molecule experiment with progressively truncated myosin VI constructs showed that the MT domain is a dimerization region, supporting the latter model. Additional single-molecule experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation done with our collaborators suggest that electrostatic salt bridges formed between positive and negative amino acid residues are mainly responsible for the MT domain dimerization. After resolving this, we are left with another important question which is how myosin VI can take such a large step. Recent crystal structure showed that one of the tail domains preceding the MT domain, called the PT domain, is a three-helix bundle. The most easily conceivable way might be an unfolding of the three-helix bundle upon dimerization, allowing the protein to

  4. Diet in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome: A cross-sectional study in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligaarden Solveig C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS often relate symptoms to the intake of certain foods. This study assesses differences in diet in subjects with and without IBS. Methods The cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Norway in 2001. Out of 11078 invited subjects, 4621 completed a survey about abdominal complaints and intake of common food items. IBS and IBS subgroups were classified according to Rome II criteria. Results IBS was diagnosed in 388 subjects (8.4% and, of these, 26.5% had constipation-predominant IBS (C-IBS, 44.8% alternating IBS (A-IBS, and 28.6% diarrhoea-predominant IBS (D-IBS. Low intake of dairy products (portions/day (Odds Ratio 0.85 [CI 0.78 to 0.93], p = 0.001 and high intake of water (100 ml/day (1.08 [1.02 to 1.15], p = 0.002, tea (1.05 [1.01 to 1.10], p = 0.019 and carbonated beverages (1.07 [1.01 to 1.14], p = 0.023 were associated with IBS. A lower intake of dairy products and a higher intake of alcohol and carbonated beverages were associated with D-IBS and a higher intake of water and tea was associated with A-IBS. In subjects with IBS the severity of symptoms was associated with a higher intake of vegetables and potatoes in subjects with C-IBS, with a higher intake of vegetables in subjects with A-IBS, and with a higher intake of fruits and berries, carbonated beverages and alcohol in subjects with D-IBS. Conclusions In this study, the diet differed in subjects with and without IBS and between IBS subgroups and was associated with the severity of symptoms.

  5. Single molecule study of a processivity clamp sliding on DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, T A; Kwon, Y; Johnson, A; Hollars, C; O?Donnell, M; Camarero, J A; Barsky, D

    2007-07-05

    Using solution based single molecule spectroscopy, we study the motion of the polIII {beta}-subunit DNA sliding clamp ('{beta}-clamp') on DNA. Present in all cellular (and some viral) forms of life, DNA sliding clamps attach to polymerases and allow rapid, processive replication of DNA. In the absence of other proteins, the DNA sliding clamps are thought to 'freely slide' along the DNA; however, the abundance of positively charged residues along the inner surface may create favorable electrostatic contact with the highly negatively charged DNA. We have performed single-molecule measurements on a fluorescently labeled {beta}-clamp loaded onto freely diffusing plasmids annealed with fluorescently labeled primers of up to 90 bases. We find that the diffusion constant for 1D diffusion of the {beta}-clamp on DNA satisfies D {le} 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}/s, much slower than the frictionless limit of D = 10{sup -10} cm{sup 2}/s. We find that the {beta} clamp remains at the 3-foot end in the presence of E. coli single-stranded binding protein (SSB), which would allow for a sliding clamp to wait for binding of the DNA polymerase. Replacement of SSB with Human RP-A eliminates this interaction; free movement of sliding clamp and poor binding of clamp loader to the junction allows sliding clamp to accumulate on DNA. This result implies that the clamp not only acts as a tether, but also a placeholder.

  6. The FDA's role in medical device clinical studies of human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviola, James

    2005-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of the United States Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) role as a regulatory agency in medical device clinical studies involving human subjects. The FDA's regulations and responsibilities are explained and the device application process discussed. The specific medical device regulatory authorities are described as they apply to the development and clinical study of retinal visual prosthetic devices. The FDA medical device regulations regarding clinical studies of human subjects are intended to safeguard the rights and safety of subjects. The data gathered in pre-approval clinical studies provide a basis of valid scientific evidence in order to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of a medical device. The importance of a working understanding of applicable medical device regulations from the beginning of the device development project is emphasized particularly for novel, complex products such as implantable visual prosthetic devices.

  7. Associations between subjective happiness and dry eye disease: a new perspective from the Osaka study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye disease has become an important health problem. A lack of concordance between self-reported symptoms and the outcome of dry eye examinations has raised questions about dry eye disease. To explore the association between subjective happiness and objective and subjective symptoms of dry eye disease. The study adopted a cross-sectional design. All the employees of a company in Osaka, Japan. 672 Japanese office workers using Visual Display Terminals (age range: 26-64 years). The dry eye measurement tools included the Schirmer test, conjunctivocorneal staining, the tear film break-up time, as well as the administration of a dry eye symptoms questionnaire. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale. Dry eye examination parameters, dry eye symptoms questionnaires, and the Subjective Happiness Scale score. Of the 672 workers, 561 (83.5%) completed the questionnaires and examinations. The mean Subjective Happiness Scale score was 4.91 (SD = 1.01). This score was inversely correlated with the dry eye symptom score (r = -0.188, p happiness was the lowest in the group without objective results, but reported subjective symptoms of dry eyes (p happiness and self-reported symptoms of dry eyes. Findings of this study revealed a new perspective on dry eye disease, including the potential for innovative treatments of a specific population with dry eye disease.

  8. Implant-supported single-tooth restorations: a 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennström, Jan L; Ekestubbe, Annika; Gröndahl, Kerstin; Karlsson, Stig; Lindhe, Jan

    2005-06-01

    Comparatively few studies are available reporting at least 5 years of follow-up data of implant-supported single-tooth replacements. To evaluate prospectively the 5-year outcome of implant-supported single-tooth prosthetic restorations. Forty subjects (mean age 41 years), 23 males and 17 females, who required single-tooth prosthetic replacement for a missing tooth were recruited. A total of 45 self-tapping implants (Astra Tech ST-implants)--40 in the maxilla and five in the mandible--were installed in a two-stage procedure. Abutment connection was performed 3-6 months after implant installation. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed at the completion of the prosthetic treatment and once a year during a 5-year follow-up period. The analysis of peri-implant bone level alteration was performed on subject and implant levels and by the use of analysis of variance and binary logistic regression. Three patients were lost during the 5 years of follow-up. One implant was lost after 2.5 years in function and another four implants could not be accounted for at the 5-year follow-up examination. The overall failure rate at 5 years was 2.6% (subject level) and 2.3% (implant level). The mean loss of marginal bone at the implants during the first year in function was 0.06 mm (SD 0.67) on the subject level and 0.02 mm (0.65) on the implant level. During the subsequent 4 years the annual change in peri-implant bone level amounted to -0.02 mm (0.22) on both subject and implant levels. Thus, the mean total bone level change over the 5-year interval was -0.14 mm (1.04) on subject level and -0.11 mm (1.00) on the implant level of analysis (p>0.05). The frequency of implants with a 5-year bone loss of > or =1 mm was 13%. Approximately 50% of the implants demonstrated no bone loss. The present clinical trial on single-tooth replacements with the Astra Tech implant system demonstrated that the bone loss during the first year of function as well as annually thereafter was

  9. Associations between subjective happiness and dry eye disease: a new perspective from the Osaka study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Kawashima

    Full Text Available Dry eye disease has become an important health problem. A lack of concordance between self-reported symptoms and the outcome of dry eye examinations has raised questions about dry eye disease.To explore the association between subjective happiness and objective and subjective symptoms of dry eye disease.The study adopted a cross-sectional design.All the employees of a company in Osaka, Japan.672 Japanese office workers using Visual Display Terminals (age range: 26-64 years.The dry eye measurement tools included the Schirmer test, conjunctivocorneal staining, the tear film break-up time, as well as the administration of a dry eye symptoms questionnaire. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale.Dry eye examination parameters, dry eye symptoms questionnaires, and the Subjective Happiness Scale score.Of the 672 workers, 561 (83.5% completed the questionnaires and examinations. The mean Subjective Happiness Scale score was 4.91 (SD = 1.01. This score was inversely correlated with the dry eye symptom score (r = -0.188, p < 0.001, but was not associated with objective findings which include conjunctivocorneal staining, low Schirmer test score, or low tear film break-up time. The level of subjective happiness was the lowest in the group without objective results, but reported subjective symptoms of dry eyes (p < 0.05.There is evidence of the relationship between subjective happiness and self-reported symptoms of dry eyes. Findings of this study revealed a new perspective on dry eye disease, including the potential for innovative treatments of a specific population with dry eye disease.

  10. Twenty-year follow-up of metal-ceramic single crowns: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näpänkangas, Ritva; Raustia, Aune

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this clinical retrospective study was to evaluate the survival and success of single metal-ceramic crowns after 20 years. The biologic and technical complications as well as patient satisfaction were recorded. Fifty patients treated with 100 single metal-ceramic crowns attended the clinical 20-year follow-up examination. The mean follow-up time was 18.8 years (17.5 to 20.5 years). Twenty-one teeth with single crowns were extracted because of root fractures or esthetic or periodontal reasons. Ninety-seven percent of the subjects had no complaints about the esthetics of the crowns. The most common clinical findings were supragingival crown margins caused by gingival recessions, gingival bleeding on probing, and occlusal wear in opposing teeth. The success of the crowns after 20 years was 75%, and the survival was 78%. In the 20-year follow-up of single metal-ceramic crowns, there were few biologic and technical complications, and patients were satisfied with the crowns. Crown removal was in most cases the result of root fractures in single crowns with endodontic posts.

  11. A pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study of Contiflo ICON 400 µg tablets in healthy Indian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monif, T; Arora, V; Madan, S; Arora, R; Balaji, A; Jha, D; Thudi, N R

    2010-12-01

    Tamsulosin, an alpha1 adrenoceptor blocking agent, exhibits selectivity for alpha1 receptors in human prostate. Blockade of these adrenoceptors can cause smooth muscles in the bladder neck and prostate to relax, resulting in an improvement in urine flow rate and a reduction in symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy. A new formulation Contiflo ICON 400 µg has been developed by Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited, India similar to Flomaxtra XL 400 µg of Astellas Pharma Limited, United Kingdom. This product is specifically designed to achieve a more consistent plasma concentration over a period of 24-h, a lower maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and an independence of pharmacokinetics (PKs) on food intake. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of the new formulation Contiflo ICON 400 µg of Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited, India and Flomaxtra XL 400 µg prolonged release tablets (containing tamsulosin hydrochloride prolonged release 400 µg) of Astellas Pharma Limited, United Kingdom. Study was conducted as an open label, balanced, randomized, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, cross over, single-dose bioequivalence study in 32 adult male human subjects under fed conditions. The mean (range) age, weight and height of the study subjects were 27.03 years (19 - 40 years), 57.19 kg (48 - 72 kg) and 166.81 cm (154 - 181 cm) respectively. Blood samples were collected at pre-dose and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 h post dose in each period. Plasma samples were analyzed for tamsulosin by using validated liquid chromatographic mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The Mean ± SD of pharmacokinetic parameters tmax, Cmax, AUC24, AUClast and AUCinf for Tamsulosin were 11.741 ± 4.7201 and 12.155 ± 6.3077 h, 10.7614 ± 4.76709 and 10.4954 ± 5.08979 ng/ml, 171.4674 ± 77.39695 and 160.6738 ± 77.98628 ng.h/ml, 262.7771 ± 150.21432 and 250.6854 ± 156.75581 ng

  12. Joint physical custody, turning to parents for emotional support, and subjective health: A study of adolescents in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låftman, Sara Brolin; Bergström, Malin; Modin, Bitte; Östberg, Viveca

    2014-07-01

    Among children with separated parents, the arrangement of joint physical custody, i.e. children living equally much in both parents' homes, has increased substantially during the last decades in Sweden. To date, empirical research on the living conditions of this group is limited. This study analyses family type differences in turning to parents for emotional support and in subjective health among adolescents. The focus of the study is adolescents in joint physical custody, who are compared with those living with two original parents in the same household; those living (only) in a single-parent household; and those living (only) in a reconstituted family. The data come from the Stockholm School Survey of 2004, a total population survey of students in grade 9 (15-16 years) in Stockholm (n=8,840). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions were conducted. Turning to both parents about problems is most commonly reported by adolescents in intact families, followed by those in joint physical custody. Adolescents in non-traditional family types report worse subjective health than adolescents in intact families, but the difference is smaller for those in joint physical custody than for those living with a single parent. The slightly poorer health of adolescents in joint physical custody than those in intact families is not explained by their lower use of parents as a source of emotional support. The study suggests that joint physical custody is associated with a higher inclination to use parents as a source of emotional support and better subjective health than other post-divorce family types. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  13. Single Event Upset Studies Using the ATLAS SCT

    CERN Document Server

    Weidberg, A R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Single Event Upsets (SEU) are expected to occur during high luminosity running of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). The SEU cross sections were measured in pion beams with momenta in the range 200 to 465 MeV/c and proton test beams at 24 GeV/c but the extrapolation to LHC conditions is non-trivial because of the range of particle types and momenta. The SEUs studied occur in the \\emph{p-i-n} photodiode and the registers in the ABCD chip. Comparisons between predicted SEU rates and those measured from ATLAS data are presented. The implications for ATLAS operation are discussed.

  14. Single Event Upset Studies Using the ATLAS SCT

    CERN Document Server

    Dafinca, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Weidberg, A R

    2014-01-01

    Single Event Upsets (SEU) are expected to occur during high luminosity running of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). The SEU cross sections were measured in pion beams with momenta in the range 200 to 465 MeV/c and proton test beams at 24 GeV/c but the extrapolation to LHC conditions is non-trivial because of the range of particle types and momenta. The SEUs studied occur in the p-i-n photodiode and the registers in the ABCD chip. Comparisons between predicted SEU rates and those measured from ATLAS data are presented. The implications for ATLAS operation are discussed

  15. Study of single nucleon transfer in α + 12C reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, R.; Rana, T.K.; Dey, A.; Bhattacharya, C.; Kundu, S.; Banerjee, K.; Mukherjee, G.; Ghosh, T.K.; Meena, J.K.; Pai, H.; Gohil, M.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biswas, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleon transfer reactions are of great significance for understanding the nuclear structure both for direct reaction studies as well as for production of nuclear states. Transfer reactions are simplest to interpret when either the initial and final state of the target nucleus has spin zero and when the conditions are such that the transition from the initial and final states occurs to a good approximation in a single step. In this paper, the measurement of angular momentum distribution and calculation of the spectroscopic factor for one nucleon transfer reaction in α + 12 C reaction have been reported

  16. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulut, A.; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Koeksal, F.

    2000-01-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C 2 H 7 NO 3 S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of 32 SO - 2 and 33 SO - 2 radicals. The hyperfine values of 33 SO - 2 radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites

  17. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulut, A. E-mail: abulut@samsun.omu.edu.tr; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Koeksal, F

    2000-04-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C{sub 2}H{sub 7}NO{sub 3}S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of {sup 32}SO{sup -}{sub 2} and {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radicals. The hyperfine values of {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites.

  18. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, A.; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Köksal, F.

    2000-04-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C 2H 7NO 3S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of 32ṠO -2 and 33ṠO -2 radicals. The hyperfine values of 33ṠO -2 radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites.

  19. Study on the dimensional instability of metallic uranium subject to thermal alternation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, E.F.

    1976-01-01

    Methalographic properties of metallic uranium submitted to a thermal cycle are studied. Microstructures heat treatment and methods utilized are presented. Dimensional instability of uranium is the main subject of the study and it is seen that it is strongly reduced in the presence of molybdenum [pt

  20. Human studies of prepulse inhibition of startle: normal subjects, patient groups, and pharmacological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, D L; Geyer, M A; Swerdlow, N R

    2001-07-01

    , blepharospasm, temporal lobe epilepsy with psychosis, enuresis, and perhaps posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several pharmacological manipulations have been examined for their effects on PPI in healthy human subjects. In some cases, the alterations in PPI produced by these drugs in animals correspond to similar effects in humans. Specifically, dopamine agonists disrupt and nicotine increases PPI in at least some human studies. With some other compounds, however, the effects seen in humans appear to differ from those reported in animals. For example, the PPI-increasing effects of the glutamate antagonist ketamine and the serotonin releaser MDMA in humans are opposite to the PPI-disruptive effects of these compounds in rodents. Considerable evidence supports a high degree of homology between measures of PPI in rodents and humans, consistent with the use of PPI as a cross-species measure of sensorimotor gating. Multiple investigations of PPI using a variety of methods and parameters confirm that deficits in PPI are evident in schizophrenia-spectrum patients and in certain other disorders in which gating mechanisms are disturbed. In contrast to the extensive literature on clinical populations, much more work is required to clarify the degree of correspondence between pharmacological effects on PPI in healthy humans and those reported in animals.

  1. Symptomatic response to blocked and unblocked pentagastrin stimulation in functional dyspepsia - Comparison of responders and non-responders to omeprazole identified in a single-subject trial model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L.G.; Bytzer, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The role of acid in functional dyspepsia is controversial and drug treatment trials indicate that only a subset of patients has acid-related symptoms. A novel single-subject trial design, the Random Starting Day trial (RSD trial), was developed to identify acid-related symptoms. We...... was expected not to be influenced by gastric acid stimulation or type of treatment. Methods: Nineteen patients were evaluated. Symptomatic response to pentagastrin (6 mu g/kg) was assessed twice in each patient following placebo and omeprazole (40 mg bid) treatment in a randomized, double-blind, cross......-over design. Epigastric pain was assessed every 15 for 90 min after stimulation using a 5-graded Likert scale and a VAS scale. A positive acid provocation test was defined as an increase of the Likert score of epigastric pain by at least one grade after pentagastrin stimulation during placebo treatment...

  2. A multicenter study on objective and subjective benefits with a transcutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid device: first Nordic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard, Dan Dupont; Boldsen, Soren Kjaergaard; Jensen, Anne Marie; Hansen, Soren; Thomassen, Per Cayé

    2017-08-01

    Examination of objective as well as subjective outcomes with a new transcutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid device. The study was designed as a prospective multicenter consecutive case-series study involving tertiary referral centers at two Danish University Hospitals. A total of 23 patients were implanted. Three were lost to follow-up. Patients had single-sided deafness, conductive or mixed hearing loss. Rehabilitative. Aided and unaided sound field hearing was evaluated objectively using (1) pure warble tone thresholds, (2) pure-tone average (PTA4), (3) speech discrimination score (SDS) in quiet, and (4) speech reception threshold 50% at 70 dB SPL noise level (SRT50%). Subjective benefit was evaluated by three validated questionnaires: (1) the IOI-HA, (2) the SSQ-12, and (3) a questionnaire evaluating both the frequency and the duration of hearing aid usage. The mean aided PTA4 was lowered by 14.7 dB. SDS was increased by 37.5% at 50 dB SPL, SRT50% in noise improved 1.4 dB. Aided thresholds improved insignificantly at frequencies above 2 kHz. 52.9% of the patients used their device every day, and 76.5% used the device at least 5 days a week. Mean IOI-HA score was 3.4, corresponding to a good benefit. In SSQ-12, "quality of hearing" scored especially high. Patients with a conductive and/or mixed hearing loss benefitted the most. This device demonstrates a significant subjective hearing benefit 8 month post surgery. In patients with conductive and/or mixed hearing losses, patient satisfaction and frequency of use were high. Objective gain measures showed less promising results especially in patients with single-sided deafness (SSD) compared to other bone conduction devices.

  3. A comparative study of simple auditory reaction time in blind (congenitally) and sighted subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Pritesh Hariprasad; Gokhale, Pradnya A; Mehta, H B; Shah, C J

    2013-07-01

    Reaction time is the time interval between the application of a stimulus and the appearance of appropriate voluntary response by a subject. It involves stimulus processing, decision making, and response programming. Reaction time study has been popular due to their implication in sports physiology. Reaction time has been widely studied as its practical implications may be of great consequence e.g., a slower than normal reaction time while driving can have grave results. To study simple auditory reaction time in congenitally blind subjects and in age sex matched sighted subjects. To compare the simple auditory reaction time between congenitally blind subjects and healthy control subjects. STUDY HAD BEEN CARRIED OUT IN TWO GROUPS: The 1(st) of 50 congenitally blind subjects and 2(nd) group comprises of 50 healthy controls. It was carried out on Multiple Choice Reaction Time Apparatus, Inco Ambala Ltd. (Accuracy±0.001 s) in a sitting position at Government Medical College and Hospital, Bhavnagar and at a Blind School, PNR campus, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India. Simple auditory reaction time response with four different type of sound (horn, bell, ring, and whistle) was recorded in both groups. According to our study, there is no significant different in reaction time between congenital blind and normal healthy persons. Blind individuals commonly utilize tactual and auditory cues for information and orientation and they reliance on touch and audition, together with more practice in using these modalities to guide behavior, is often reflected in better performance of blind relative to sighted participants in tactile or auditory discrimination tasks, but there is not any difference in reaction time between congenitally blind and sighted people.

  4. Review of procedures for protecting human subjects in recent clinical studies of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Gail; Patterson, Jacqueline

    2003-10-01

    Arguments have been made for and against the regulatory use of data from human subjects on both scientific and ethical grounds. One argument against the use of data from human clinical studies involving pesticides asserts that such data are obtained from studies that do not follow the Common Rule (40 CFR 26), which provides procedures for protecting human subjects in studies funded by federal agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). Although privately conducted studies using human subjects are not legally subject to or required to comply with the Common Rule, the protections of the Declaration of Helsinki and the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) Good Clinical Practice are commonly followed. We sought to answer the question of whether recent human clinical studies with insecticides performed according to Good Clinical Practice provided volunteers with the same protections as the Common Rule. All three sets of guidance have in common the intent to protect volunteer human subjects by providing standards for the conduct of studies in which they participate. This analysis compares the elements of the Common Rule with comparable elements from the Declaration of Helsinki and Good Clinical Practice to evaluate similarities and differences in procedural requirements. It then evaluates the documentation from 15 recent human studies of twelve insecticides conducted at four clinical laboratories in order to determine whether the conduct of those studies is consistent with the protections of the Common Rule. There were some cases for which we could not verify compliance with certain Common Rule elements; however, based on our evaluation it is apparent that the studies we reviewed were conducted in a manner substantially consistent with the fundamental protections of the Common Rule-voluntary participation, informed consent, and review by an ethical committee or institutional review board.

  5. Diffusion-weighted MRI of the cervical spinal cord using a single-shot fast spin-echo technique: findings in normal subjects and in myelomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Katase, S.; Fujikawa, A.; Hachiya, J. [Department of Radiology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, 181-8611, Tokyo (Japan); Kanazawa, H. [Toshiba Corporation, 1-1-1 Shibaura, Minato-ku, 105-8001, Tokyo (Japan); Yodo, K. [Toshiba Medical Systems, 3-26-5 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, 113-8456, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    We have implemented a new diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) sequence based on the single-shot fast spin-echo technique. We hypothesised that this would add information to conventional MRI for diagnosis of lesions of the cervical spinal cord. DWI was performed using a technique in which echo collection after the application of motion-probing gradients was done in the same manner as in the single-shot fast spin-echo technique. We first imaged six healthy volunteers to demonstrate the cervical spinal cord using the sequence. Then we applied the sequence to 12 patients with cervical myelomalacia due to chronic cord compression. The spinal cord was well seen in all subjects without the distortion associated with echo-planar DWI. In the patients, lesions appeared as areas of low- or isointense signal on DWI. Calculated apparent diffusion coefficients of the lesions (3.30{+-}0.38 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) were significantly higher than those of normal volunteers (2.26{+-}0.08 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s). Increased diffusion in areas of cervical myelomalacia, suggesting irreversible damage, can be detected using this technique. (orig.)

  6. Positioning effects on lung ventilation in older normal subjects: a technegas study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, S.; McCarren, B.; Alison, J.; Cowell, S.F.; Leiper, C.; Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital, Sydney, NSW; El Zein, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: While the effects of positioning on the distribution of ventilation in the lungs of younger subjects has been relatively well investigated, this is not so in the older age group. Known age-associated changes in the respiratory system are proposed to alter the distribution of ventilation in the lungs of older people. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the effects of positioning on the distribution of ventilation in the lungs of older normal subjects. The distribution of ventilation in upright sitting and right side lying was measured in ten subjects using Technegas lung ventilation during tidal breathing. In the upright sitting position ventilation was preferentially distributed to the middle and basal regions (dependent regions). Right side lying ventilation was preferentially distributed to the right lung (dependent region). These results suggest that preferential distribution of ventilation to the dependent lung regions in older subjects is mainly due to the gravity-dependent gradient in pleural pressure. It is proposed that this distribution may partly result from loss of elasticity in the lungs with ageing. Predominantly, the distribution of ventilation in the lungs of older normal subjects in our study is similar to that previously described in younger subjects (Amis et al., 1984, Kaneko et al, 1966, Milic-Emili et al, 1966. This suggests that a similar pleural pressure gradient may exist in the lungs of older and younger subjects. This is an important implication as the majority of patients that physiotherapists treat with cardiopulmonary dysfunction are in the older age group. Further research is required to determine the effects of positioning on the distribution of ventilation in older patients with cardiopulmonary dysfunction to enable direct clinical implications to be made. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  7. Reciprocal relations between physical disability, subjective health, and atrial fibrillation: the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienstra, Michiel; Lyass, Asya; Murabito, Joanne M; Magnani, Jared W; Lubitz, Steven A; Massaro, Joseph M; Ellinor, Patrick T; Benjamin, Emelia J

    2013-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF)-related symptoms and physical performance are relied upon to guide therapeutic management of patients with AF. We sought to understand whether AF predisposes to or is a result of physical disability and poor subjective health in the community. We studied relations between physical disability (Rosow-Breslau Functional Health Scale), subjective health (self-report) and incident AF, and the converse, in the Framingham Heart Study. In 3,609 participants (age 73 ± 8 years, 59% women), a subset of 861 participants (24%) had prevalent physical disability at baseline. During 5.8 ± 1.8 years of follow-up, 555 participants (10-year age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate 13%) developed incident AF. Prevalent physical disability was related to incident AF (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.02-1.54, P = .03). In 3,525 participants, prevalent poor subjective health (n = 333) also was related to incident AF (n = 552, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio 1.31, 95% CI 1.00-1.70, P = .048). Conversely, in 2,080 participants (age 69 ± 6 years, 55% women), interim AF (n = 106) was associated with newly reported physical disability (n = 573) at a follow-up examination (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.31, P = .01). In 1,954 participants, interim AF (n = 96) likewise was related to newly reported poor subjective health (n = 224, multivariable-adjusted odds ratio 1.83, 95% CI 1.10-3.02, P = .02). Physical disability and poor subjective health were related to incident AF in a community-based cohort. Conversely, interim AF was related to newly reported physical disability and poor subjective health. Because AF guidelines incorporate symptoms, it is essential to clarify the temporality and mechanisms linking physical disability, subjective health, and AF. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of food on the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine and losartan after single-dose of its compound tablets in healthy chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, C; Wei, C; Wang, X; Yao, H; Li, R; Wang, B; Guo, R

    2014-05-01

    We aim to identify the effects of food on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of amlodipine, losartan and losartan's active metabolite (EXP3174) after oral administration of the Compound Amlodipine Tablets with single dose in healthy Chinese subjects. 12 subjects took the compounds (10 mg/100 mg, amlodipine/losartan) at the conditions of a high-fat breakfast and an overnight fast with a washout period of 14 days. Plasma samples were obtained at scheduled time, and determined by HPLC-MS/MS for the concentrations of amlodipine and HPLC-MS for the concentrations of losartan and EXP3174, respectively. PK parameters were calculated using Software Drug and Statistics (Version 2.0). When tablets were co-administered with food, there was no significant difference of AUC for amlodipine and losartan, but the AUC of EXP3174 was reduced by 19.1%. Meanwhile, the Cmax of amlodipine, losartan and EXP3174 were reduced by 11.4%, 20.0% and 41.4%, and the Tmax of losartan and EXP3174 were 1.3 and 1.8 h longer, respectively. No significant difference was found at t1/2 following food intake. In conclusion, the Compound Amlodipine Tablets, are affected by food administration by reducing the AUC of EXP3174. It is thus suggested that the Compound Amlodipine Tablets should be administered 1 h before or 2 h after meal. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Interventions to Support Social Interaction in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review of Single Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuna, Jennifer; Mavridis, Alexis; Hott, Brittany L.

    2015-01-01

    Social interaction is a core deficit in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, parents and teachers need effective interventions to support students with ASD. This synthesis provides a quantitative analysis of single-subject studies that examine interventions to support social interactions in children with ASD. Results suggest…

  10. Beyond Clinical Case Studies in Psychoanalysis: A Review of Psychoanalytic Empirical Single Case Studies Published in ISI-Ranked Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Krivzov, Juri; Notaerts, Liza

    2017-01-01

    Single case studies are at the origin of both theory development and research in the field of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. While clinical case studies are the hallmark of psychoanalytic theory and practice, their scientific value has been strongly criticized. To address problems with the subjective bias of retrospective therapist reports and uncontrollability of clinical case studies, systematic approaches to investigate psychotherapy process and outcome at the level of the single case have been developed. Such empirical case studies are also able to bridge the famous gap between academic research and clinical practice as they provide clinically relevant insights into how psychotherapy works. This study presents a review of psychoanalytic empirical case studies published in ISI-ranked journals and maps the characteristics of the study, therapist, patient en therapies that are investigated. Empirical case studies increased in quantity and quality (amount of information and systematization) over time. While future studies could pay more attention to providing contextual information on therapist characteristics and informed consent considerations, the available literature provides a basis to conduct meta-studies of single cases and as such contribute to knowledge aggregation. PMID:29046660

  11. Voluntary control of corticomuscular coherence through neurofeedback: a proof-of-principle study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Carlowitz-Ghori, K; Bayraktaroglu, Z; Waterstraat, G; Curio, G; Nikulin, V V

    2015-04-02

    Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) relates to synchronization between activity in the motor cortex and the muscle activity. The strength of CMC can be affected by motor behavior. In a proof-of-principle study, we examined whether independent of motor output parameters, healthy subjects are able to voluntarily modulate CMC in a neurofeedback paradigm. Subjects received visual online feedback of their instantaneous CMC strength, which was calculated between an optimized spatial projection of multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) in an individually defined target frequency range. The neurofeedback training consisted of either increasing or decreasing CMC strength using a self-chosen mental strategy while performing a simple motor task. Evaluation of instantaneous coherence showed that CMC strength was significantly larger when subjects had to increase than when to decrease CMC; this difference between the two task conditions did not depend on motor performance. The exclusion of confounding factors such as motor performance, attention and task complexity in study design provides evidence that subjects were able to voluntarily modify CMC independent of motor output parameters. Additional analysis further strengthened the assumption that the subjects' response was specifically shaped by the neurofeedback. In perspective, we suggest that CMC-based neurofeedback could provide a therapeutic approach in clinical conditions, such as motor stroke, where CMC is altered. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Case Study of Student Judgements of Interest in A Subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They studied the six cues in each profile and then judged their own personal levels of interest on a scale from) (no interest) to 9 (very high interest) based on the information contained each profile. Profiles (N=15) were repeated to determine consistency of judgement of interests. Results were analysed using a single lens ...

  13. Estimation of single crystal elastic constants using ultrasonic testing - a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phani Kumar, K.K.; Rentala, Vamsi Krishna; Gautam, Jaiprakash; Mylavarapu, Phani

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of single crystal elastic constants (SCEC) of metallic materials is of paramount importance in the development of crystal plasticity based models as well as for studying the effect of microstructure on wave propagation. SCEC are usually determined destructively by tensile and shear loading a single crystal specimen. These constants can also be estimated non-destructively, using X-ray diffraction measurements on a polycrystalline specimen. However, the aforementioned procedures have a limitation of either the sample size (in case of X-ray diffraction) or, availability of single crystal (in case of destructive testing). Hence, in this study, an effort has been undertaken to estimate SCEC by subjecting polycrystalline specimens to ultrasonic testing. Ultrasonic longitudinal and shear velocities, longitudinal attenuation coefficient and ultrasonic backscattered grain noise will be measured on pure Cu specimen. Further, these parameters will also be calculated analytically using existing relationships involving, elastic constants, grain size probability level, ultrasonic longitudinal and shear wave velocities, attenuation coefficient and backscattered grain noise. By minimizing the difference between experimentally measured and analytically calculated ultrasonic parameters, an attempt will be made to estimate single crystal elastic constants. (author)

  14. Variability of writing disorders in Wernicke's aphasia underperforming different writing tasks: A single-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozintseva, Elena; Skvortsov, Anatoliy

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our study was to evolve views on writing disorders in Wernicke's agraphia by comparing group data and analysis of a single patient. We showed how a single-case study can be useful in obtaining essential results that can be hidden by averaging group data. Analysis of a single patient proved to be important for resolving contradictions of the "holistic" and "elementaristic" paradigms of psychology and for the development of theoretical knowledge with the example of a writing disorder. The implementation of a holistic approach was undertaken by presenting the tasks differing in functions in which writing had been performed since its appearance in human culture (communicative, mnestic, and regulatory). In spite of the identical composition of involved psychological components, these differences were identified when certain types of errors were analyzed in the single subject. The results are discussed in terms of used writing strategy, resulting in a way of operation of involved components that lead to qualitative and quantitative changes of writing errors within the syndrome of Wernicke's agraphia. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Single Minute Exchange of Die. A Case Study Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Carrizo Moreira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED, a process-based innovation originally published in the mid 1980s, involves the separation and conversion of internal setup operations into external ones. Although very important in increasing productivity SMED experiences are not very widespread in Ibero-America. Accordingly, this article has as its main objective to contribute to the literature addressing this less studied topic: SMED. A case study was put forward emphasizing a process-based view. The main finding is that by implementing SMED techniques the firm managed to eliminate wastefulness and non-added value activities worth around 360 000€, which is about 2% of the firm’s sales volume.

  16. Spectrum of interstitial lung diseases at a tertiary center in a developing country: A study of 803 subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahajal Dhooria

    Full Text Available The spectrum of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs have mainly been reported from the developed countries; data from developing countries is sparse and conflicting. The aim of this study is to describe the distribution of various ILDs from a developing country.This is an analysis of prospectively collected clinical, radiological and histological data of consecutive subjects (age >12 years with ILDs from a single tertiary care medical center. The diagnosis of the specific subtype of ILD was made according to standard criteria for various ILDs.A total of 803 subjects (mean age, 50.6 years; 50.2% women were enrolled between March 2015 to February 2017 of which 566 (70.5% were diagnosed during the study period (incident cases. Sarcoidosis (42.2%, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, 21.2%, connective tissue disease (CTD-related ILDs (12.7%, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (10.7%, and non-IPF idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (9.2% were the most common ILDs. The spectrum of ILDs was not significantly different (p = 0.87 between incident and prevalent cases. A histopathological specimen was obtained in 49.9% of the subjects yielding a histologically confirmed diagnosis in 40.6%. A diagnostic procedure was not performed in 402 subjects; the most common reasons were presence of definite usual interstitial pneumonia pattern on high resolution computed tomography and patients' unwillingness to undergo the procedure.Sarcoidosis, IPF and CTD-ILDs were the most common ILDs seen at a tertiary center in northern India similar to the spectrum reported from developed countries. More studies are required from developing countries to ascertain the spectrum of ILDs in different geographic locales.

  17. A study of the relationship between health and subjective well-being in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubí-Mollá, Patricia; de Vries, Jane; Devlin, Nancy

    2014-06-01

    Governments are turning their attention to evidence on subjective measures of well-being to inform policy decisions. In the context of health, there is, therefore, growing interest in understanding how measures of health-related quality of life relate to subjective well-being and whether subjective well-being could provide a basis for resource allocation decisions in the future. This study investigates the relationship between health-related quality of life, as measured by the EuroQol five-dimensional (EQ-5D) questionnaire, and subjective well-being in Parkinson's disease. A paper questionnaire including the EQ-5D questionnaire, four key subjective well-being questions taken from the Integrated Household Survey in England, and other demographic details was distributed to people with Parkinson's disease in the United Kingdom. Responses were used to estimate multiple regression models explaining subjective well-being using the EQ-5D questionnaire index (UK weights), EQ-5D questionnaire dimensions and the visual analogue scale, and patients' sociodemographic characteristics. A total of 199 responses were received. Combining visual analogue scale and EQ-5D questionnaire dimensions, especially anxiety/depression and, to a lesser extent, mobility, yielded the best-fitting models (adjusted R(2) range 0.36-0.53). Patients with Parkinson's disease living in care homes report lower levels of subjective well-being than do those living alone. These effects are not captured by the health-related quality-of-life measures in the analysis. Usual health-related quality-of-life measures can partially explain different well-being dimensions, yet they fail to capture part of the broader impact of disease on subjective well-being. Further empirical research into the relationship between subjective well-being and the EQ-5D Parkinson's disease longitudinally, and in different disease areas, is required, and further standardization of subjective well-being measures is recommended

  18. Cultural Specific Effects on the Recognition of Basic Emotions: A Study on Italian Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Anna; Riviello, Maria Teresa; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    The present work reports the results of perceptual experiments aimed to investigate if some of the basic emotions are perceptually privileged and if the cultural environment and the perceptual mode play a role in this preference. To this aim, Italian subjects were requested to assess emotional stimuli extracted from Italian and American English movies in the single (either video or audio alone) and the combined audio/video mode. Results showed that anger, fear, and sadness are better perceived than surprise, happiness in both the cultural environments (irony instead strongly depend on the language), that emotional information is affected by the communication mode and that language plays a role in assessing emotional information. Implications for the implementation of emotionally colored interactive systems are discussed.

  19. A thorough QT study to assess the effects of tbo-filgrastim on cardiac repolarization in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adar L

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Liat Adar,1 Noa Avisar,1 Andreas Lammerich,2 Robert B Kleiman,3 Ofer Spiegelstein1 1R&D, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Netanya, Israel; 2Biosimilars Clinical Development, CPP Teva ratiopharm, Merckle GmbH, Ulm, Germany; 3Global Cardiology, eResearch Technology Inc, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Tbo-filgrastim is a recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to reduce the duration of severe neutropenia in patients with nonmyeloid malignancies receiving myelosuppressive anticancer drugs associated with a clinically significant incidence of febrile neutropenia. We assessed the effect of tbo-filgrastim on cardiac conduction and repolarization in healthy subjects. A three-arm, parallel-group, active- and placebo-controlled, double-blind study randomized healthy adults to a single 5 µg/kg intravenous tbo-filgrastim infusion, a single intravenous placebo infusion, or a single 400 mg moxifloxacin oral dose. The primary end point was placebo-corrected time-matched change from baseline in QT interval corrected using a QT individual correction (QTcI method. Secondary end points included heart rate, PR interval, QRS duration, change in electrocardiogram patterns, correlation between QTcI change from baseline (milliseconds and tbo-filgrastim serum concentrations, and safety variables. A total of 145 subjects were enrolled (50 tbo-filgrastim, 50 placebo, 45 moxifloxacin. Peak placebo-corrected change from baseline for QTcI with tbo-filgrastim was 3.5 milliseconds, with a two-sided 95% upper confidence interval of 7.2 milliseconds, demonstrating no signal for any tbo-filgrastim effect on QTc. Concentration-effect modeling showed no evidence of an effect of tbo-filgrastim on cardiac repolarization. Tbo-filgrastim produced no clinically significant changes in other electrocardiogram parameters. Tbo-filgrastim was well tolerated. Keywords: tbo-filgrastim, electrocardiogram, QT interval

  20. A thorough QT study to assess the effects of tbo-filgrastim on cardiac repolarization in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adar, Liat; Avisar, Noa; Lammerich, Andreas; Kleiman, Robert B; Spiegelstein, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    Tbo-filgrastim is a recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to reduce the duration of severe neutropenia in patients with nonmyeloid malignancies receiving myelosuppressive anticancer drugs associated with a clinically significant incidence of febrile neutropenia. We assessed the effect of tbo-filgrastim on cardiac conduction and repolarization in healthy subjects. A three-arm, parallel-group, active- and placebo-controlled, double-blind study randomized healthy adults to a single 5 μg/kg intravenous tbo-filgrastim infusion, a single intravenous placebo infusion, or a single 400 mg moxifloxacin oral dose. The primary end point was placebo-corrected time-matched change from baseline in QT interval corrected using a QT individual correction (QTcI) method. Secondary end points included heart rate, PR interval, QRS duration, change in electrocardiogram patterns, correlation between QTcI change from baseline (milliseconds) and tbo-filgrastim serum concentrations, and safety variables. A total of 145 subjects were enrolled (50 tbo-filgrastim, 50 placebo, 45 moxifloxacin). Peak placebo-corrected change from baseline for QTcI with tbo-filgrastim was 3.5 milliseconds, with a two-sided 95% upper confidence interval of 7.2 milliseconds, demonstrating no signal for any tbo-filgrastim effect on QTc. Concentration-effect modeling showed no evidence of an effect of tbo-filgrastim on cardiac repolarization. Tbo-filgrastim produced no clinically significant changes in other electrocardiogram parameters. Tbo-filgrastim was well tolerated. PMID:26028962

  1. In vivo knee laxity in flexion and extension: a radiographic study in 30 older healthy subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesterbeek, P.J.C.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Wymenga, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine how "tight" a total knee prosthesis should be implanted, it is important to know the amount of laxity in a healthy knee. The objective of this study was to determine knee laxity in extension and flexion in healthy, non-arthritic knees of subjects similar in age to patients

  2. A Comparative Study Of Nerve Conduction Velocity Between Left And Right Handed Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anup; Mehta, Anju

    2012-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocity is being used as a widespread measure of diagnosis of nerve function abnormalities. Dependence of nerve conduction parameters on intrinsic factors like age and sex, as well as extrinsic factors like temperature is well known. Lateralization of various cerebral functions like speech, language, visuospatial relations, analysis of face, recognition of musical themes and use of hand for fine motor movements have also been studied. Some differences have been noted between left and right hander for nerve conduction. The aim of this study is to compare the nerve conduction velocity between left handed and right handed subjects using median nerve and find out whether there is any difference in nerve conduction velocity (motor or sensory) with handedness. The study was carried out in students of B J Medical College by the use of standard 2 channel physiograph. Comparison of motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity between left and right handed subjects was done under paired-t test. Hemispheric specialization is primarily responsible for difference of dexterity. Some skills like music, sports activities are also due to hemispheric difference. On comparison of nerve conduction velocity between left and right handed persons the study shows that there is significant difference in sensory nerve conduction velocity between left and right handed subjects. From the results we can conclude that there should be different set of standards for sensory nerve conduction velocity of left and right handed subjects.

  3. Study of the meta-subject competencies cluster of teachers working ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relevance of the studied problem is based on the insufficient information on the professional development of teachers working with gifted children and youth. It also comes from the low level of their meta-subject competencies formedness, which reduces the efficiency of their work. The purpose of this article is to ...

  4. Reciprocal relations between physical disability, subjective health, and atrial fibrillation : The Framingham Heart Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Michiel; Lyass, Asya; Murabito, Joanne M; Magnani, Jared W; Lubitz, Steven A; Massaro, Joseph M; Ellinor, Patrick T; Benjamin, Emelia J

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF)-related symptoms and physical performance are relied upon to guide therapeutic management of patients with AF. We sought to understand whether AF predisposes to or is a result of physical disability and poor subjective health in the community. METHODS: We studied

  5. Echolocation: A Study of Auditory Functioning in Blind and Sighted Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated the peripheral and central auditory functioning (and thus the potential to perceive obstacles through reflected sound) of eight totally blind persons and eight sighted persons. The blind subjects were able to process auditory information faster than the control group. (Author/DB)

  6. Assessment of abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects: an fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagga, Deepika; Singh, Namita; Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Kumar, Pawan; Bhattacharya, D.; Garg, Mohan L.; Khushu, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse has been traditionally associated with impaired cognitive abilities. The deficits are most evident in higher order cognitive functions, such as abstract reasoning, problem solving and visuospatial processing. The present study sought to increase current understanding of the neuropsychological basis of poor abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An abstract reasoning task-based fMRI study was carried out on alcohol-dependent subjects (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 18) to examine neural activation pattern. The study was carried out using a 3-T whole-body magnetic resonance scanner. Preprocessing and post processing was performed using SPM 8 software. Behavioral data indicated that alcohol-dependent subjects took more time than controls for performing the task but there was no significant difference in their response accuracy. Analysis of the fMRI data indicated that for solving abstract reasoning-based problems, alcohol-dependent subjects showed enhanced right frontoparietal neural activation involving inferior frontal gyrus, post central gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and occipito-temporal gyrus. The extensive activation observed in alcohol dependents as compared to controls suggests that alcohol dependents recruit additional brain areas to meet the behavioral demands for equivalent task performance. The results are consistent with previous fMRI studies suggesting decreased neural efficiency of relevant brain networks or compensatory mechanisms for the execution of task for showing an equivalent performance. (orig.)

  7. Assessment of abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects: an fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagga, Deepika; Singh, Namita; Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Kumar, Pawan [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India); Bhattacharya, D. [Base Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Delhi Cantt (India); Garg, Mohan L. [Panjab University, Department of Biophysics, Chandigarh (India); Khushu, Subash [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India); INMAS, DRDO, NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India)

    2014-01-15

    Chronic alcohol abuse has been traditionally associated with impaired cognitive abilities. The deficits are most evident in higher order cognitive functions, such as abstract reasoning, problem solving and visuospatial processing. The present study sought to increase current understanding of the neuropsychological basis of poor abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An abstract reasoning task-based fMRI study was carried out on alcohol-dependent subjects (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 18) to examine neural activation pattern. The study was carried out using a 3-T whole-body magnetic resonance scanner. Preprocessing and post processing was performed using SPM 8 software. Behavioral data indicated that alcohol-dependent subjects took more time than controls for performing the task but there was no significant difference in their response accuracy. Analysis of the fMRI data indicated that for solving abstract reasoning-based problems, alcohol-dependent subjects showed enhanced right frontoparietal neural activation involving inferior frontal gyrus, post central gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and occipito-temporal gyrus. The extensive activation observed in alcohol dependents as compared to controls suggests that alcohol dependents recruit additional brain areas to meet the behavioral demands for equivalent task performance. The results are consistent with previous fMRI studies suggesting decreased neural efficiency of relevant brain networks or compensatory mechanisms for the execution of task for showing an equivalent performance. (orig.)

  8. Understanding the Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR): An electromyographic study in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, H.; Meijer, O.G.; Bruijn, S.M.; Strijers, R.L.M.; Nanayakkara, P.W.B.; van Royen, B.J.; Wu, W; Xia, C.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR) is an important test in diagnosing pelvic girdle pain (PGP). It is difficult to understand what happens normally during the ASLR, let alone why it would be impaired in PGP. In the present study, healthy subjects performed the ASLR under normal conditions, with

  9. [Enterobiasis in pediatric subjects in north-western Italy: a study of home remedies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, M; Montù, D; Raineri, G

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the most common home remedies in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy currently used in the treatment of pediatric enterobiasis, commonly known as pinworm infection. The remedies in question, typically based on popular beliefs and as such are nearly useless, were noted through interviews with subjects who had come to the local Hygiene and Public Health Services offices for information about pinworm prevention and treatment. Analysis of replies by the subjects clearly indicates that local families are ill-prepared to recognize the symptoms this parasitic infection; often it is confused with pediatric ketosis, therefore leading to inappropriate treatment which at times may be potentially harmful to the patient.

  10. Crystal plasticity study of single crystal tungsten by indentation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Weizhi

    2012-01-01

    Owing to its favorable material properties, tungsten (W) has been studied as a plasma-facing material in fusion reactors. Experiments on W heating in plasma sources and electron beam facilities have shown an intense micro-crack formation at the heated surface and sub-surface. The cracks go deep inside the irradiated sample, and often large distorted areas caused by local plastic deformation are present around the cracks. To interpret the crack-induced microscopic damage evolution process in W, one needs firstly to understand its plasticity on a single grain level, which is referred to as crystal plasticity. In this thesis, the crystal plasticity of single crystal tungsten (SCW) has been studied by spherical and Berkovich indentation tests and the finite element method with a crystal plasticity model. Appropriate values of the material parameters included in the crystal plasticity model are determined by fitting measured load-displacement curves and pile-up profiles with simulated counterparts for spherical indentation. The numerical simulations reveal excellent agreement with experiment. While the load-displacement curves and the deduced indentation hardness exhibit little sensitivity to the indented plane at small indentation depths, the orientation of slip directions within the crystals governs the development of deformation hillocks at the surface. It is found that several factors like friction, indentation depth, active slip systems, misoriented crystal orientation, misoriented sample surface and azimuthal orientation of the indenter can affect the indentation behavior of SCW. The Berkovich indentation test was also used to study the crystal plasticity of SCW after deuterium irradiation. The critical load (pop-in load) for triggering plastic deformation under the indenter is found to depend on the crystallographic orientation. The pop-in loads decrease dramatically after deuterium plasma irradiation for all three investigated crystallographic planes.

  11. Cardiovagal modulation, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular risk factors in prehypertensive subjects: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Ramkumar; Pal, Pravati; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Bobby, Zachariah; Das, Ashok Kumar; Trakroo, Madanmohan

    2013-07-01

    Hypertension, one of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), is known to be associated with increased oxidative stress and reduced cardiovagal modulation. Similar to hypertension, prehypertension is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular (CV) events. We planned this study to find the association between prehypertension, cardiovagal modulation, oxidative stress, and associated CV risk factors. We recruited 178 subjects through hypertension screening camps conducted in Puducherry, India. Subjects were grouped into prehypertensive (n = 97) and normotensive (n = 81) groups. They were further subdivided, based on age, as young (20-39 years) and middle-aged (40-60 years) adults. We measured basal physiological parameters, heart rate variability, oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)), and CV risk factors. We found significant increase in oxidative stress in prehypertensive subjects of both age groups but the cardiovagal modulation decreased significantly in young prehypertensive subjects when compared with normotensive subjects. Correlation of TAC with root mean square of the sum of successive R wave to R wave (RR) interval differences (RMSSD), a cardiovagal modulation parameter (r = 0. 437; P risk factors. The correlation between MAP and RMSSD (r = 0.199; P = 0.009) was reduced after adjusting for CV risk factors. Prehypertension in young adults is associated with increased oxidative stress and altered cardiovagal modulation. The risk factors for CVDs in prehypertensive young adults were found to be equivalent to that of middle-aged adults who are in the twilight zone for developing CV dysfunctions.

  12. The management of subjective quality of life by short-stay hospital patients: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlinski Evelyn

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study tested the homeostatic model of subjective quality of life in a group of 47 short stay patients as they progressed through the stages of hospitalization for surgery. Method Participants completed a questionnaire measuring subjective quality of life, positive and negative affect, self-esteem, optimism and cognitive flexibility, the day prior to admission (T1, two days post-operation (T2 and one week after discharge (T3. Neuroticism and Extroversion were measured at Time 1. Results All variables remained stable across the three times, apart from positive affect, which dropped significantly post-operation but returned to its previous level post discharge. Conclusion Although the homeostatic model of subjective quality of life was supported at Time 1, the analyses raise doubts about the stability of personality. This finding is consistent with recent discussions of personality.

  13. [Exploratory population study of overweight and obese subjects' perceptions: Searching for improved management practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutze, C; Pétré, B; Dardenne, N; Donneau, A-F; Streel, S; Albert, A; Scheen, A; Husson, E; Guillaume, M

    2017-06-01

    Overweight and obesity are major public health problems of growing concern. Few studies have investigated the representations and perceptions of subjects with overweight and obesity, especially in the general population, as compared to people in a medical weight loss process. The objective of this study was to fill this gap by enabling participants to express their feelings and experience about their overweight, and to assess the extent of the body mass index (BMI) as a determinant of these perceptions. A total of 4155 persons participated in an exploratory study conducted in Wallonia (Belgium). Data were collected by means of a web-based questionnaire. This study investigated the following parameters: sociodemographic and anthropometric factors, perceived health, quality of life, diet perception, enrolment in a weight loss process and weight loss target. The influence of BMI was considered, on one hand, looking at how the above variables evolve according to BMI category, secondly, as a mediation factor in the relationship between socioeconomic level and these same variables. A large majority (87.5%) of subjects were overweight (32.2%) or obese (obese class I 29.9%, class II 14.8%, class III 10.6%). Perceived health was found to deteriorate with the BMI (Pobese class III had a 5.9-fold risk to present bad perceived health compared to subjects with normal weight. The physical and psychological quality of life reported by the subjects decreased significantly with the BMI (Poverweight subjects and obese class III subjects, weight loss target increased from 13% to 34% of the initial weight. The majority of subjects judged that diet represents "aggressiveness", "weight gain" and "impossibility". A partial mediation role of BMI was identified in the relationship between social status and the variables of interest. This study focused on a sample of people from the general population. It confirmed previous results of others studies. All results gave a feeling of

  14. Decreased muscle mass in Korean subjects with intracranial arterial stenosis: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ho-Jung; Jung, Hwanseok; Lee, Taeyoung; Kim, Jongho; Park, Jongsin; Kim, Hacsoo; Cho, Junghwan; Lee, Won-Young; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Hyung-Geun

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is a common cause of ischemic stroke in Asians. Decreased muscle mass is one of the major causes of chronic disease in adults. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between muscle mass and ICAS in Korean adults. For this study, we selected a total of 10,530 participants (mean age, 43.3 years; 8558 men) in a health screening program, for whom transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound was used to detect >50% ICAS based on criteria modified from the stroke outcomes and neuroimaging of intracranial atherosclerosis trial. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated with muscle mass/weight (kg) * 100. Among the total patient population, 322 (3.1%) subjects had ICAS. Subjects with ICAS were older, and had higher mean values for fasting glucose, body mass index and blood pressure compared with those without ICAS. Subjects with ICAS had significantly lower muscle mass, SMI and higher percent body fat compared with those without ICAS. In logistic regression analysis, the subjects in the highest tertile of muscle mass had the lowest odds ratio for ICAS with the lowest tertile group of muscle mass as the reference group even after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, sex, smoking and exercise (OR 0.650, 95% CI 0.442-0.955). Subjects with ICAS had significantly decreased muscle mass compared with those without ICAS in Korean adults. The risk for ICAS was lower in subjects with higher muscle mass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between hypoalbuminemia and mortality among subjects treated with ertapenem versus other carbapenems: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusman, O; Farbman, L; Tredler, Z; Daitch, V; Lador, A; Leibovici, L; Paul, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether ertapenem, being highly protein bound, is less effective than other carbapenems in the presence of hypoalbuminemia. In a prospective cohort study, we included adults with clinically and microbiologically documented infections caused by carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae who were hospitalized in a tertiary medical center from March 2010 to September 2012. We tested whether hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin carbapenem drug and the interaction between albumin and the carbapenem. Of 279 individual subjects included, 173 were treated with ertapenem and 106 with I/M. The odds ratio (OR) for 30-day mortality with hypoalbuminemia was 4.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-10.1) among subjects with ertapenem versus 1.2 (95% CI 0.5-2.70) with I/M (p = 0.02 for difference between groups). In the regression model, the interaction between carbapenem type and albumin levels was significant (p = 0.03); for ertapenem lower albumin levels were associated with increased 30-day mortality (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.19-5.05), while for I/M the change was not significant (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.31-1.41). The model suggests that the risk of death for ertapenem-treated subjects quintupled when albumin was 2 g/dL compared to 4 g/dL. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with mortality significantly more among subjects treated with ertapenem compared to subjects treated with I/M. The effectiveness of current dosing schemes of ertapenem in subjects with significant hypoalbuminemia should be revisited. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Eligibility for Statin Treatment in Korean Subjects with Reduced Renal Function: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Sub Moon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between statin eligibility and the degree of renal dysfunction using the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III and the American College of Cardiology (ACC/American Heart Association (AHA guidelines in Korean adults.MethodsRenal function was assessed in 18,746 participants of the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study from January 2011 to December 2012. Subjects were divided into three groups according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR: stage 1, eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2; stage 2, eGFR 60 to 89 mL/min/1.73 m2; and stages 3 to 5, eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Statin eligibility in these groups was determined using the ATP III and ACC/AHA guidelines, and the risk for 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS and Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE.ResultsThere were 3,546 (18.9% and 4,048 (21.5% statin-eligible subjects according to ATP III and ACC/AHA guidelines, respectively. The proportion of statin-eligible subjects increased as renal function deteriorated. Statin eligibility by the ACC/AHA guidelines showed better agreement with the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO recommendations compared to the ATP III guidelines in subjects with stage 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD (κ value, 0.689 vs. 0.531. When the 10-year ASCVD risk was assessed using the FRS and PCE, the mean risk calculated by both equations significantly increased as renal function declined.ConclusionsThe proportion of statin-eligible subjects significantly increased according to worsening renal function in this Korean cohort. ACC/AHA guideline showed better agreement for statin eligibility with that recommended by KDIGO guideline compared to ATP III in subjects with CKD.

  17. Study of time-frequency characteristics of single snores: extracting new information for sleep apnea diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Escario, Y.; Blanco Almazan, D.; Camara Vazquez, M.A.; Jane Campos, R.

    2016-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent chronic disease, especially in elderly and obese population. Despite constituting a huge health and economic problem, most patients remain undiagnosed due to limitations in current strategies. Therefore, it is essential to find cost-effective diagnostic alternatives. One of these novel approaches is the analysis of acoustic snoring signals. Snoring is an early symptom of OSA which carries pathophysiological information of high diagnostic value. For this reason, the main objective of this work is to study the characteristics of single snores of different types, from healthy and OSA subjects. To do that, we analyzed snoring signals from previous databases and developed an experimental protocol to record simulated OSA-related sounds and characterize the response of two commercial tracheal microphones. Automatic programs for filtering, downsampling, event detection and time-frequency analysis were built in MATLAB. We found that time-frequency maps and spectral parameters (central, mean and peak frequency and energy in the 100-500 Hz band) allow distinguishing regular snores of healthy subjects from non-regular snores and snores of OSA subjects. Regarding the two commercial microphones, we found that one of them was a suitable snoring sensor, while the other had a too restricted frequency response. Future work shall include a higher number of episodes and subjects, but our study has contributed to show how important the differences between regular and non-regular snores can be for OSA diagnosis, and how much clinically relevant information can be extracted from time-frequency maps and spectral parameters of single snores. (Author)

  18. Generational association studies of dopaminergic genes in reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) subjects: selecting appropriate phenotypes for reward dependence behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Chen, Amanda L C; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Chen, Thomas J H; Lubar, Joel; White, Nancy; Lubar, Judith; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Braverman, Eric; Schoolfield, John; Waite, Roger L; Downs, Bernard W; Madigan, Margaret; Comings, David E; Davis, Caroline; Kerner, Mallory M; Knopf, Jennifer; Palomo, Tomas; Giordano, John J; Morse, Siobhan A; Fornari, Frank; Barh, Debmalya; Femino, John; Bailey, John A

    2011-12-01

    Abnormal behaviors involving dopaminergic gene polymorphisms often reflect an insufficiency of usual feelings of satisfaction, or Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). RDS results from a dysfunction in the "brain reward cascade," a complex interaction among neurotransmitters (primarily dopaminergic and opioidergic). Individuals with a family history of alcoholism or other addictions may be born with a deficiency in the ability to produce or use these neurotransmitters. Exposure to prolonged periods of stress and alcohol or other substances also can lead to a corruption of the brain reward cascade function. We evaluated the potential association of four variants of dopaminergic candidate genes in RDS (dopamine D1 receptor gene [DRD1]; dopamine D2 receptor gene [DRD2]; dopamine transporter gene [DAT1]; dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene [DBH]). We genotyped an experimental group of 55 subjects derived from up to five generations of two independent multiple-affected families compared to rigorously screened control subjects (e.g., N = 30 super controls for DRD2 gene polymorphisms). Data related to RDS behaviors were collected on these subjects plus 13 deceased family members. Among the genotyped family members, the DRD2 Taq1 and the DAT1 10/10 alleles were significantly (at least p < 0.015) more often found in the RDS families vs. controls. The TaqA1 allele occurred in 100% of Family A individuals (N = 32) and 47.8% of Family B subjects (11 of 23). No significant differences were found between the experimental and control positive rates for the other variants. Although our sample size was limited, and linkage analysis is necessary, the results support the putative role of dopaminergic polymorphisms in RDS behaviors. This study shows the importance of a nonspecific RDS phenotype and informs an understanding of how evaluating single subset behaviors of RDS may lead to spurious results. Utilization of a nonspecific "reward" phenotype may be a paradigm shift in future association

  19. [Changes in the subjective perception of the quality of life. Retrospective study of patients treated at the Thalassa House].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Agnes; Szabolcs, Zsuzsanna; Valkó, Lili; Tarján, Adám; Simon, Dávid; Zalka, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    Quality of life and psychosocial functioning are considered important factors both in psychiatric and psychotherapeutic rehabilitation; similarly they are useful outcome measures in prospective studies. In this paper we present a retrospective study conducted with patients treated in Thalassa Haz Psychiatric and Psychotherapeutic Rehabilitation Center (TH). 1. Non-systematic review of the literature concerning quality of life and social functioning measures 2. Patients discharged form TH between 01. 01. 2008 and 31. 12. 2008 were included in the study. A semi-structured, patient reported instrument was used to assess psychosocial functioning, including single questions and an open-ended questions. Statistical analysis and manual content analysis were performed. 208 patients were contacted, 84 completed questionnaires were sent back and analysed. Less than 31% of the patients were rehospitalized within six months with the same problem. Subjective evaluation showed that 72% of the patients suffer less from the problem, with which they were treated in TH. The majority reported positive effect on interpersonal relations (67%) and autonomy (70%) due to the treatment. There is a significant correlation between treatment satisfaction and duration of treatment. The content analysis revealed significant negative correlation between generalisational content frequencies and treatment satisfaction. Psychosocial functioning improved after treatment in the TH. Correlation was identified between treatment satisfaction and satisfaction with life, thus quality of life and duration of treatment. Combination of objective and subjective methods, as well as content analysis are useful measures in the effectiveness studies of therapeutic communities.

  20. Conoscopic study of strontium-barium niobate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Aleksandr; Grechishkin, Rostislav; Malyshkina, Olga; Malyshkin, Yury; Dec, Jan; Łukasiewicz, Tadeusz; Ivanova, Aleksandra

    2013-12-01

    Optically transparent single crystals of strontium-barium niobate, SrxBa1-xNb2O6, of different compositions (x = 0.26...0.7) were examined with the aid of conoscopic light interference figures. A regular change of the isochrome concentric ring number and diameters consistent with the temperature variation of the value of birefringence is demonstrated by direct observations of polar cuts of optically uniaxial samples. Anomalous violations of the conventional (uniaxial) interference patterns occur occasionaly in some samples being indicative of the existence of biaxial trait in their behaviour even though no voltage is applied. These features may depend on annealing treatments at elevated temperatures. The results of the study show that conoscopic images may serve as a sensitive indicator of the structural state of SBN crystals related to the effects of stress-induced change of optical anisotropy and temperature dependent birefringence parameters.

  1. A series of pharmacokinetic studies of ceftaroline fosamil in select populations: normal subjects, healthy elderly subjects, and subjects with renal impairment or end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccobene, Todd; Jakate, Abhijeet; Rank, Doug

    2014-07-01

    Ceftaroline fosamil is a parenteral cephalosporin indicated for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Ceftaroline, the active component of ceftaroline fosamil, exhibits broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as common gram-negative pathogens. The objective of the studies presented herein was to establish the pharmacokinetic profile of ceftaroline in healthy subjects and special populations of interest, such as elderly subjects, subjects with renal impairment, or subjects with end-stage renal disease on intermittent hemodialysis. The mean half-life of ceftaroline in healthy subjects was approximately 2.6 hours, and urinary excretion was the primary route of elimination. Ceftaroline Cmax and AUC values increased in proportion to dose increases within the range of 50-1000 mg, demonstrating an approximately linear pharmacokinetic profile following intravenous infusion. The pharmacokinetic parameters of ceftaroline were modestly altered in elderly subjects compared with younger adults, which was attributed to decreased renal function in elderly subjects. Ceftaroline pharmacokinetic parameters varied with different degrees of renal impairment, resulting in recommended dosage adjustments for patients with moderate to severe impairment. Ceftaroline fosamil was generally well tolerated regardless of age or severity of renal impairment. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  2. A Comparative Study of Simple Auditory Reaction Time in Blind (Congenitally) and Sighted Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Pritesh Hariprasad; Gokhale, Pradnya A.; Mehta, H. B.; Shah, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reaction time is the time interval between the application of a stimulus and the appearance of appropriate voluntary response by a subject. It involves stimulus processing, decision making, and response programming. Reaction time study has been popular due to their implication in sports physiology. Reaction time has been widely studied as its practical implications may be of great consequence e.g., a slower than normal reaction time while driving can have grave results. Objective:...

  3. Robotic single-port transumbilical total hysterectomy: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sang Wun; Lee, Maria; Yim, Ga Won; Paek, Ji Heum; Lee, San Hui; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Jae Wook; Kim, Young Tae

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of robotic single-port transumbilical total hysterectomy using a home-made surgical glove port system. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent robotic single-port transumbilical total hysterectomy between January 2010 and July 2010. All surgical procedures were performed through a single 3-4-cm umbilical incision, with a multi-channel system consisting of a wound retractor, a surgical glove, and two 10/12-mm and t...

  4. Multicenter study of subjective acceptance during magnetic resonance imaging at 7 and 9.4 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenberg, Jaane; Nagel, Armin M; Ladd, Susanne C; Theysohn, Jens M; Ladd, Mark E; Möller, Harald E; Trampel, Robert; Turner, Robert; Pohmann, Rolf; Scheffler, Klaus; Brechmann, André; Stadler, Jörg; Felder, Jörg; Shah, N Jon; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the subjective discomfort and sensory side effects during ultrahigh field (UHF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations in a large-scale study and to evaluate differences between magnetic resonance (MR) sites. Four MR sites with a 7-T MR system and 2 MR sites with a 9.4-T MR system participated in this multicenter study with a total number of 3457 completed questionnaires on causes of discomfort and sensations during the examination. For a pooled retrospective analysis of the results from the partially different questionnaires, all data were adapted to an answer option with a 4-point scale (0 = no discomfort/side effect, 3 = very unpleasant/very strong sensation). To differentiate effects evoked by the low-frequency time-varying magnetic fields due to movement through the static magnetic field, most questionnaires separated the manifestation of sensory side effects during movement on the patient table from manifestation while lying still in the isocenter. In general, a high acceptance of UHF examinations was found, where in 82% of the completed questionnaires, the subjects stated the examination to be at least tolerable. Although in 7.6% of the questionnaires, subjects felt discomfort during the examination, only 0.9% of the image acquisitions had to be terminated prematurely. No adverse events occurred in any of the examinations. Only 1% of the subjects were unwilling to undergo further UHF MRI examinations. Examination duration was the most complained cause of discomfort, followed by acoustic noise and lying still. All magnetic-field-related sensations were more pronounced when moving the patient table versus the isocenter position (19%/2% of the subjects felt unpleasant vertigo during the moving/stationary state). In general, vertigo was the most often stated sensory side effect and was more pronounced at 9.4 T compared with 7 T. However, the results varied substantially among the different sites. The high levels

  5. The risk of subjective symptoms in mobile phone users in Poland – An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Szyjkowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the type and incidence of subjective symptoms related to the use of mobile phones in Polish users. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in 2005 using a questionnaire survey. Although it has been quite a long time, up to now, no such data have been published for Poland. The questionnaire consisted of 53 questions concerning sex, age, education, general health, characteristics of a mobile phone (hand-held, loud-speaking unit as well as the habits associated with its use (frequency and duration of calls, text messages, etc. and complaints associated with using a mobile phone. Results: As many as 1800 questionnaires were sent. The response was obtained from 587 subjects aged 32.6±11.3 (48.9% women, 51.1% men; the age did not differ significantly between men and women. The subjects owned a cell phone for an average of 3 years. Majority of the respondents used the phone intensively, i.e. daily (74% or almost daily (20%. Headaches were reported significantly more often by the people who talked frequently and long in comparison with other users (63.2% of the subjects, p = 0.0029, just like the symptoms of fatigue (45%, p = 0.013. Also, the feeling of warmth around the ear and directly to the auricle was reported significantly more frequently by the intensive mobile phone users, compared with other mobile phone users (47.3%, p = 0.00004 vs. 44.6%, p = 0.00063, respectively. Most symptoms appeared during or immediately after a call and disappeared within 2 h after the call. Continuous headache, persisting for longer than 6 h since the end of a call, was reported by 26% of the subjects. Conclusions: Our results show that the mobile phone users may experience subjective symptoms, the intensity of which depends on the intensity of use of mobile phones.

  6. Usual Care Physiotherapy During Acute Hospitalization in Subjects Admitted to the ICU: An Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Haines, Kimberley J; Berney, Sue; Warrillow, Stephen; Harrold, Meg; Denehy, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Physiotherapists play an important role in the provision of multidisciplinary team-based care in the ICU. No studies have reported usual care respiratory management or usual care on the wards following ICU discharge by these providers. This study aimed to investigate usual care physiotherapy for ICU subjects during acute hospitalization. One hundred subjects were recruited for an observational study from a tertiary Australian ICU. The frequency and type of documented physiotherapist assessment and treatment were extracted retrospectively from medical records. The sample had median (interquartile range) APACHE II score of 17 (13-21) and was mostly male with a median (interquartile range) age of 61 (49-73) y. Physiotherapists reviewed 94% of subjects in the ICU (median of 5 [3-9] occasions, median stay of 4.3 [3-7] d) and 89% of subjects in acute wards (median of 6 [2-12] occasions, median stay of 13.3 [6-28] d). Positioning, ventilator lung hyperinflation, and suctioning were the most frequently performed respiratory care activities in the ICU. The time from ICU admission until ambulation from the bed with a physiotherapist had a median of 5 (3-8) d. The average ambulation distance per treatment had a median of 0 (0-60) m in the ICU and 44 (8-78) m in the acute wards. Adverse event rates were 3.5% in the ICU and 1.8% on the wards. Subjects received a higher frequency of physiotherapy in the ICU than on acute wards. Consensus is required to ensure consistency in data collection internationally to facilitate comparison of outcomes. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  7. Diagnostic inaccuracy and subject exclusions render placebo and observational studies of acute otitis media inconclusive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, Michael E; Casey, Janet R

    2008-11-01

    Diagnostic accuracy and appropriate inclusion/exclusion criteria representative of children at greatest risk is of paramount importance in trials to evaluate placebo or observation as an option for acute otitis media (AOM) management. Twelve observational studies spanning the time frame 1958-2005 and 13 natural history studies spanning the time frame 1968-2006 were evaluated for the diagnostic criteria, inclusion criteria, and exclusion criteria applied within the study design. Although a bulging or full tympanic membrane (TM) with effusion is the best indication of a diagnosis of bacterial AOM based on tympanocentesis findings, few observational and natural history studies required a bulging TM. Examination of subject inclusion criteria showed that many subjects did not have AOM but rather had no middle ear disease at all or they had otitis media with effusion. Exclusion criteria of subjects were also remarkable. Frequently children bias in exclusion criteria among placebo/natural history trials in AOM. The current data favoring observation of children with AOM should be reconsidered until better studies are conducted.

  8. Alcohol drinking patterns and habits among a sample of PONS study subjects: preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewoźniak, Krzysztof; Łobaszewski, Jakub; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Bylina, Jerzy; Mańczuk, Marta; Zatoński, Witold A

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol drinking is a major contributing factor to death, disease, injury and social problems such as violence or child neglect and abuse, especially in Eastern Europe. To preliminary evaluate the prevalence and social and behavioural patterns of alcohol drinking in a pilot group of the Polish-Norwegian Study (PONS study) subjects. Open-ended prospective cohort study conducted in Świetokrzyskie province. A pilot group of subjects aged 45-64 years has been examined. Data on alcohol drinking were collected for 3,845 respondents with the use of the Health State Questionnaire administered by the CAPI method. In males, 72.3% drank alcohol currently, 22.7% were former drinkers, and only 5% never drinkers. Among females, the percentage of current alcohol drinkers was significantly lower than in males, while the percentages of former and never drinkers was higher (50.3%, 35.4% and 14.6%, respectively). 7.4% of males and 0.8% of females drank alcohol daily or almost daily, and weekly alcohol drinking was respectively at level of 32.2% and 15.7%. Males drank mainly vodka (or other spirits) and beer, females grape wine and vodka. PONS study includes interesting dataset for assessing prevalence and patterns of alcohol drinking at population level. Alcohol drinking seems to be common among PONS subjects. Comparison with nation-wide surveys shows on higher number of alcohol abstainers and lower number of binge drinkers among PONS study subjects. On the other hand, frequency and social patterns of alcohol drinking seem to be consistent with data found in national studies.

  9. MD1228: Validation of Single Bunch Stability Threshold & MD1751: Instability Studies with a Single Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Carver, Lee Robert; Biancacci, Nicolo; Buffat, Xavier; Iadarola, Giovanni; Lasocha, Kacper; Li, Kevin Shing Bruce; Levens, Tom; Metral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit; Tambasco, Claudia; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    Instabilities were being routinely observed in B1V during ADJUST. The timing of the instabilities has been localised to shortly after the TOTEM bump has been implemented. The result is emittance blowup which can negatively effect the luminosity output of the fill. This MD aimed to rule out possible sources of the instability (i.e. beam-beam effects or electron cloud) by only taking one single beam to 6.5TeV and going through the full machine cycle. After the implementation of the TOTEM bump, a reduction of the octupole current was performed in order to determine if there was a discrepancy in the threshold between simulations and measurement. As a precursor, the results of the End of Fill MD: Validation of Single Bunch Stability Threshold will also be described.

  10. The feasibility of single port laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a pilot study of 20 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Prashanth P.; Bhagwat, Sonali M.; Rane, Abhay; Rao, Pradeep P.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the gold standard for symptomatic cholelithiasis 1. Traditionally done through four ports, three and two port surgeries have been described. We present a novel technique of single port cholecystectomy using the R-PortR (Advanced Surgical Concepts). Materials and methods. The R-PortR is a Tri-port that allows the ingress of three 5 mm instruments through a single port. Twenty patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis were subjected to single...

  11. Theoretical and experimental study of single particle tracking in extreme conditions: single photon imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajgfinger, T.

    2012-10-01

    This manuscript presents my thesis on the high frame rate (500 frames / second) single-photon detector electron-bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). The first section compares three ultra-sensitive detectors and their methods for improving photon sensitivity: the CMOS low noise (sCMOS), the electron-multiplying CCD (emCCD) with signal multiplication by pixel and the ebCMOS with amplification by applied electric field. The method developed to detect single photon impacts with intra-pixel resolution on the ebCMOS sensor is presented. The second section compares the localization accuracy of these detectors in extreme conditions of very low photon flux (<10 photons/frame). First the theoretical limit is calculated using the Cramer-Rao lower bound for significant parameter sets. An experimental comparison of the detectors is then described. The setup provides one or more point sources controlled in position, signal and background noise. The results allow a comparison of the experimental effectiveness, purity and localization accuracy. The last section describes two experiments with the ebCMOS camera. The first aims at tracking hundreds of quantum dots simultaneously at the Nanoptec center. The second focuses on the swimming of bacteria at the surface at the Joliot Curie Institute. The point sources tracking algorithm using single photons and the Kalman filter implementation developed for these experiments is also described. (author)

  12. Insulin resistance is accompanied by increased von Willebrand factor levels in nondiabetic women: a study of offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects compared to offspring of nondiabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Anne-Catherine; Vestbo, Else; Frøland, Anders

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine whether levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF), fibrinogen and fibronectin are related to a parental history of type 2 diabetes and to determine possible explanatory factors for high versus low vWF and fibrinogen. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS, MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE...

  13. A comparative study of Multiple versus Single infection doses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    auratus) were compared with those of single exposure. Multiple infections with low doses of the parasite did not seem to be protective, as suggested by; more worms, worse gross and histopathology in multiple low dose group compared to single high dose group. Most probably there is an antigenic threshold, which needs ...

  14. The study about physical activity for subjects with prevention of benign prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Won; Kim, Shin Ah; Nam, Ji Won; Kim, Mi Kyung; Choi, Bo Youl; Moon, Hong Sang

    2014-09-01

    The number of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) subjects has been increasing worldwide, and many studies have been conducted to determine the treatment that can delay drug therapy or surgery. Subsequently, most of these studies involved physical activity (PA) and associated factors. Therefore, we aimed to determine factors associated with BPH prevalence based on a review of past and present studies and to investigate the effect of a healthy lifestyle as a protective factor of BPH occurrence. We selected 582 subjects aged ≥40 years from an initial 779 subjects recruited from Gyeonggi, Yangpyeong, South Korea, during August 2009 to August 2011. Trained investigators surveyed International Prostate Symptom Score and demographic information, including PA and lifestyle questionnaire during face-to-face interviews; further, they performed digital rectal examination, rectal ultrasonography, and measured prostate-specific antigen levels. The statistical association between PA and BPH was analyzed by logistic regression analysis using multivariable regression models which use categorical variables by the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test and continuous variables by the general linear model. Seven statistically significant variables for PA were selected. Regular exercise, frequency of exercise, sedentary time, nonsedentary time, leisure time PA (metabolic equivalent, hr/wk) were not statistically associated with prostate volume but sedentary time (hr/day) was the only factor that showed a significant association in the multivariable model, including a linear effect relationship. Subjects with lower levels of sedentary time (4.5-7.0 hr/day) had a significantly lower risk of BPH (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52-1.67) than those with a higher sedentary time (>7 hr/day) (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 0.96-3.09) (P for trend=0.05). Our study showed that reducing sedentary time could have a protective effect and reduce the prevalence of BPH. Further prospective studies

  15. Predictive modeling of human perception subjectivity: feasibility study of mammographic lesion similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songhua; Hudson, Kathleen; Bradley, Yong; Daley, Brian J.; Frederick-Dyer, Katherine; Tourassi, Georgia

    2012-02-01

    The majority of clinical content-based image retrieval (CBIR) studies disregard human perception subjectivity, aiming to duplicate the consensus expert assessment of the visual similarity on example cases. The purpose of our study is twofold: i) discern better the extent of human perception subjectivity when assessing the visual similarity of two images with similar semantic content, and (ii) explore the feasibility of personalized predictive modeling of visual similarity. We conducted a human observer study in which five observers of various expertise were shown ninety-nine triplets of mammographic masses with similar BI-RADS descriptors and were asked to select the two masses with the highest visual relevance. Pairwise agreement ranged between poor and fair among the five observers, as assessed by the kappa statistic. The observers' self-consistency rate was remarkably low, based on repeated questions where either the orientation or the presentation order of a mass was changed. Various machine learning algorithms were explored to determine whether they can predict each observer's personalized selection using textural features. Many algorithms performed with accuracy that exceeded each observer's self-consistency rate, as determined using a cross-validation scheme. This accuracy was statistically significantly higher than would be expected by chance alone (two-tailed p-value ranged between 0.001 and 0.01 for all five personalized models). The study confirmed that human perception subjectivity should be taken into account when developing CBIR-based medical applications.

  16. Original article Entitlement and subjective well-being: a three-nations study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The current study investigated the role of three facets of entitlement (active, passive and revenge in various forms of subjective well-being (SWB: hedonistic and two facets of eudaimonic well-being (social and psychological. Social well-being was based on Keyes’ model (1998 and psychological well-being on Ryff’s model (1989. Participants and procedure The study was performed in three nations (Poland, Puerto Rico and Vietnam on student samples (Poland, n = 245, Vietnam, n = 115, and Puerto Rico, n = 300. To assess entitlement level the Entitlement Questionnaire was used. The level of hedonistic well-being was measured with the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, and eudaimonic well-being by the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC-SF. Results Active entitlement was positively related to all aspects of SWB. Revenge entitlement was negatively related to hedonistic and psychological SWB in all samples and negatively related to social well-being only in Poland. Passive entitlement was unrelated to SWB. Conclusions The current study shows cross-cultural similarities in relationships of entitlement with hedonistic and psychological well-being and cross-cultural differences in the relationship of entitlement with social well-being. Additionally, the study indicates positive meaning of healthy aspects of entitlement for subjective well-being and negative meaning of dysfunctional aspects of entitlement for subjective well-being.

  17. Imagining class: A study into material social class position, subjective identification, and voting behavior across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hooge, Lorenzo; Achterberg, Peter; Reeskens, Tim

    2018-02-01

    The traditional approach to class voting has largely ignored the question whether material class positions coincide with subjective class identification. Following Sosnaud et al. (2013), this study evaluates party preferences when Europeans' material and subjective social class do not coincide. Seminal studies on voting behavior have suggested that members of lower classes are more likely to vote for the economic left and cultural right and that higher classes demonstrate the opposite pattern. Yet, these studies have on the one hand overlooked the possibility that there is a mismatch between the material class people can be classified in and the class they think they are part of, and on the other hand the consequences of this discordant class identification on voting behavior. Analyzing the 2009 wave of the European Elections Study, we find that the majority of the Europeans discordantly identify with the middle class, whereas only a minority of the lower and higher classes concordantly identify with their material social class. Further, material class only seems to predict economic voting behavior when it coincides with subjective class; for instance, individuals who have an inflated class identification are more likely to vote for the economic left, even when they materially can be classified as middle or high class. We conclude this paper with a discussion on scholarly debates concerning class and politics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Single Molecule Study of DNA Organization and Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Botao

    We have studied five projects related to DNA organization and recombination using mainly single molecule force-spectroscopy and statistical tools. First, HU is one of the most abundant DNA-organizing proteins in bacterial chromosomes and participates in gene regulation. We report experiments that study the dependence of DNA condensation by HU on force, salt and HU concentration. A first important result is that at physiological salt levels, HU only bends DNA, resolving a previous paradox of why a chromosome-compacting protein should have a DNA-stiffening function. A second major result is quantitative demonstration of strong dependencies of HU-DNA dissociation on both salt concentration and force. Second, we have used a thermodynamic Maxwell relation to count proteins driven off large DNAs by tension, an effect important to understanding DNA organization. Our results compare well with estimates of numbers of proteins HU and Fis in previous studies. We have also shown that a semi-flexible polymer model describes our HU experimental data well. The force-dependent binding suggests mechano-chemical mechanisms for gene regulation. Third, the elusive role of protein H1 in chromatin has been clarified with purified H1 and Xenopus extracts. We find that H1 compacts DNA by both bending and looping. Addition of H1 enhances chromatin formation and maintains the plasticity of the chromatin. Fourth, the topology and mechanics of DNA twisting are critical to DNA organization and recombination. We have systematically measured DNA extension as a function of linking number density from 0.08 to -2 with holding forces from 0.2 to 2.4 pN. Unlike previous proposals, the DNA extension decreases with negative linking number. Finally, DNA recombination is a dynamic process starting from enzyme-DNA binding. We report that the Int-DBD domain of lambda integrase binds to DNA without compaction at low Int-DBD concentration. High concentration of Int-DBD loops DNA below a threshold force

  19. Role of sulfite additives in wine induced asthma: single dose and cumulative dose studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vally, H; Thompson, P J

    2001-10-01

    Wine appears to be a significant trigger for asthma. Although sulfite additives have been implicated as a major cause of wine induced asthma, direct evidence is limited. Two studies were undertaken to assess sulfite reactivity in wine sensitive asthmatics. The first study assessed sensitivity to sulfites in wine using a single dose sulfited wine challenge protocol followed by a double blind, placebo controlled challenge. In the second study a cumulative dose sulfited wine challenge protocol was employed to establish if wine sensitive asthmatics as a group have an increased sensitivity to sulfites. In study 1, 24 asthmatic patients with a strong history of wine induced asthma were screened. Subjects showing positive responses to single blind high sulfite (300 ppm) wine challenge were rechallenged on separate days in a double blind, placebo controlled fashion with wines of varying sulfite levels to characterise their responses to these drinks. In study 2, wine sensitive asthmatic patients (n=12) and control asthmatics (n=6) were challenged cumulatively with wine containing increasing concentrations of sulfite in order to characterise further their sensitivity to sulfites in wine. Four of the 24 self-reporting wine sensitive asthmatic patients were found to respond to sulfite additives in wine when challenged in a single dose fashion (study 1). In the double blind dose-response study all four had a significant fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) (>15% from baseline) following exposure to wine containing 300 ppm sulfite, but did not respond to wines containing 20, 75 or 150 ppm sulfite. Responses were maximal at 5 minutes (mean (SD) maximal decline in FEV(1) 28.7 (13)%) and took 15-60 minutes to return to baseline levels. In the cumulative dose-response study (study 2) no significant difference was observed in any of the lung function parameters measured (FEV(1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), mid phase forced expiratory flow (FEF(25-75))) between wine

  20. Studies on the behavior of Reinforced Concrete Short Column subjected to fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneesha Balaji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the axial capacity of reinforced columns exposed to fire. The simplified method namely 500 °C isotherm method explained in Eurocode 2 is used to assess the capacity of the column. Finite element software ANSYS is used to perform the thermal analysis. A set of numerical studies were carried out to quantify the effect of various parameters on short columns subjected to fire. The study is performed on columns of different cross-sections to investigate the effect of eight parameters, namely the thermal boundary conditions, grades of concrete, grades of steel, types of aggregate, distribution of reinforcement on column faces, concrete cover, load eccentricity and support conditions. The fire ratings based on various failure criteria are determined, and minimum rating is accepted as design fire rating. A simplified interaction curve to predict the failure of columns under fire subjected to axial load and uniaxial moment for square cross-sections was also developed.

  1. A Comparative Study of the Empirical Relationship in Student Performance between Physics and Other STEM Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Maricela

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) advocated by the National Research Council emphasize the connections among Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. By design, NGSS is expected to replace the previous science education standards to enhance the quality of STEM education across the nation. To support this initiative, this investigation was conducted to fill a void in the research literature by developing an empirical indicator for the relationship of student performance across STEM subjects using a large-scale database from the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). In particular, an innovative approach has been taken in this study to support the canonical correlation analysis of student plausible scores between physics and other STEM subjects at different grade levels and in a cross-country context. Results from this doctoral research revealed the need to strengthen the alignment between the intended, implemented, and attained curricula to support the integration of STEM disciplines in the United States.

  2. Study of DNA uptake locations in single E. coli cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C. Shan; Meadow Anderson, L.; Yang, Haw

    2006-03-01

    Artificial gene transfer of bacteria, such as E. coli, has become the main stream technique in genetic engineering and molecular cell biology studies. In spite of the great improvements in transformation efficiency, some fundamental questions remained to be answered. For instance, what are the DNA uptake channels and how do they form and function under external stimuli? Furthermore, where are these channels located on the cell membrane? Here we report a study aimed at DNA uptake locations in the two widely used gene transformation techniques: electroporation and heat shock. A direct visualization of the settling location of single DNA molecules inside individual E. coli cells was obtained by fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy. Electroporation and heat shock exhibit two distinct characteristics of DNA uptake locations. A preferential distribution toward cell poles during electroporation is consistent with earlier experiments and previously proposed models. However, the result from heat shock is unanticipated in which the majority of DNA enters the cell near the center. Such observation suggests that uptake channels form preferentially where newly-synthesized membrane is located under cation and low temperature treatment

  3. Hemodynamic mechanisms of the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Neves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the hemodynamic mechanisms responsible for the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after exercise, 26 healthy sedentary individuals (age 29 ± 8 years underwent the Stroop color-word test before and 60 min after a bout of maximal dynamic exercise on a treadmill. A subgroup (N = 11 underwent a time-control experiment without exercise. Blood pressure was continuously and noninvasively recorded by infrared finger photoplethysmography. Stroke volume was derived from pressure signals, and cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance were calculated. Perceived mental stress scores were comparable between mental stress tests both in the exercise (P = 0.96 and control (P = 0.24 experiments. After exercise, the blood pressure response to mental stress was attenuated (pre: 10 ± 13 vs post: 6 ± 7 mmHg; P 0.05. In conclusion, a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise attenuates the blood pressure response to mental stress in healthy subjects, along with lower stroke volume and cardiac output, denoting an acute modulatory action of exercise on the central hemodynamic response to mental stress.

  4. Effect of fluoxetine on the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole: a two-treatment period study in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlase, Laurian; Popa, Adina; Neag, Maria; Muntean, Dana; Leucuta, Sorin E

    2011-10-01

    Fluoxetine is an inhibitor of the main metabolizing enzymes of lansoprazole and could influence the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole. The changes in lansoprazole pharmacokinetics could have clinical significance concerning the safety of the therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic interaction between fluoxetine and lansoprazole in healthy subjects. A dose of lansoprazole 30 mg, alone or in combination with fluoxetine 60 mg, was administered to 18 healthy male subjects in a two-treatment study design, separated by an 8-day period in which fluoxetine alone was administered as a single oral daily dose. Plasma concentrations of lansoprazole were determined during a 12-hour period following drug administration. Lansoprazole plasma concentrations were determined by a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of lansoprazole were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. In the two periods of treatment, the mean maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) values were 817 ng/mL (lansoprazole alone) and 1370 ng/mL (lansoprazole in combination with fluoxetine after pre-treatment with fluoxetine for 8 days) [p lansoprazole and suggest that the observed interaction may be clinically significant, although its clinical relevance has yet to be confirmed.

  5. New biomarkers of coffee consumption identified by the non-targeted metabolomic profiling of cohort study subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A Rothwell

    Full Text Available Coffee contains various bioactives implicated with human health and disease risk. To accurately assess the effects of overall consumption upon health and disease, individual intake must be measured in large epidemiological studies. Metabolomics has emerged as a powerful approach to discover biomarkers of intake for a large range of foods. Here we report the profiling of the urinary metabolome of cohort study subjects to search for new biomarkers of coffee intake. Using repeated 24-hour dietary records and a food frequency questionnaire, 20 high coffee consumers (183-540 mL/d and 19 low consumers were selected from the French SU.VI.MAX2 cohort. Morning spot urine samples from each subject were profiled by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Partial least-square discriminant analysis of multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data clearly distinguished high consumers from low via 132 significant (p-value<0.05 discriminating features. Ion clusters whose intensities were most elevated in the high consumers were annotated using online and in-house databases and their identities checked using commercial standards and MS-MS fragmentation. The best discriminants, and thus potential markers of coffee consumption, were the glucuronide of the diterpenoid atractyligenin, the diketopiperazine cyclo(isoleucyl-prolyl, and the alkaloid trigonelline. Some caffeine metabolites, such as 1-methylxanthine, were also among the discriminants, however caffeine may be consumed from other sources and its metabolism is subject to inter-individual variation. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis showed that the biomarkers identified could be used effectively in combination for increased sensitivity and specificity. Once validated in other cohorts or intervention studies, these specific single or combined biomarkers will become a valuable alternative to assessment of coffee intake by dietary survey and finally lead to a better understanding of

  6. Further Study on Strain Growth in Spherical Containment Vessels Subjected to Internal Blast Loading

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Strain growth is a phenomenon observed in the elastic response of containment vessels subjected to internal blast loading, which is featured by the increased vibration amplitude of the vessel in a later stage. Previous studies attributed the strain growth in spherical containment vessels to the beating between two close vibration modes, the interactions between the vessel vibration and the reflected shock waves and the structural perturbation. In this paper, it is shown th...

  7. Subjective memory complaints, mood and MCI: a follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, Jennifer A.; Clare, Linda; Woods, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are common in older people and previous research has shown an association with mood problems, such as depression and anxiety. SMC form part of the criteria for many definitions of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but there is controversy over whether they should be included as they may be related more strongly to mood than to objective cognitive impairment. This study aims to clarify the relationship between mood and SMC in people with MCI. Metho...

  8. An experimental controlled study on postural sway and therapeutic exercise in subjects with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuukkanen, T M; Mälkiä, E A

    2000-04-01

    To describe postural sway and its associations to background factors, low back pain and functional capacity. To evaluate the changes in postural sway after three months of therapeutic exercise in the gym or at home. A one-year randomized experimental trial evaluated postural sway in three study groups: intensive training, home exercise and control group. Subjects were recruited from seven local occupational health care centres in Central Finland and were examined at Central Finland Hospital by medical doctors. Measurements and therapeutic exercise programmes were carried out in the Research Laboratory of Sport and Health Sciences at Jyväskylä University. Initially, 49 male and 41 female subjects (aged 20-55 years) with nonspecific and subacute low back pain were examined. Postural sway using a force platform, the Oswestry Index, as well as a measure of low back pain intensity were measured at the initial stage of the study, directly after interventions, as well as at three and nine months after the interventions. The background variables were not strongly correlated with postural sway. No changes occurred in the amplitude of sway during the study, but the sway velocity of the home exercise group increased. Postural sway measurements with a force platform may be suitable for detecting impairments of balance performance among subjects with pronounced functional or activity limitations and severe low back pain problems. In order to enhance balance performance, specific and customized exercise programmes are required.

  9. High frequency of ultrasonographic effusion in interphalangeal joints of healthy subjects: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Carole; Arrestier, Stéphanie; Etchepare, Fabien; Fautrel, Bruno; Rozenberg, Sylvie; Bourgeois, Pierre

    2009-05-01

    To describe echographic abnormalities on the proximal (PIP) and distal (DIP) interphalangeal joints of healthy subjects. Healthy asymptomatic volunteers under forty were enrolled. Ultrasonography was performed on PIP and DIP 2-5 in the presence of two operators. In B mode, synovial hypertophy and effusion were defined with the OMERACT criteria. In power Doppler mode, the inflammatory activity was evaluated. 46 subjects were enrolled: mean age 25.5 years, 89% right handed. 368 PIPs and DIPs were scanned. Effusion was found in 19.6% of dominant PIPs versus 22.3% of non-dominant PIPs (p>0.05). Effusion could be uni- or bilateral. DIP effusion was less frequent (3% DIPs). Average size of effusion was 0.83+/-0.25 mm for PIP and 0.72+/-0.16 mm for DIP. Our study proposes a descriptive analysis of the PIP and the DIP joints. It confirms, with a bigger number of studied joints, the possible existence of a physiological effusion of the PIP of healthy subjects. It is the first descriptive study of the normal DIP where the presence of an effusion is very rare.

  10. Tolerable pain reduces gastric fundal accommodation and gastric motility in healthy subjects: a crossover ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasuo, Hideaki; Kusunoki, Hiroaki; Kanbara, Kenji; Abe, Tetsuya; Yunoki, Naoko; Haruma, Ken; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2017-01-01

    Obstacles to pain management include patients' reluctance to inform healthcare provides about their pain, and differences in the pain management aims between patients and healthcare providers. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether tolerable pain influences gastric fundal accommodation and gastric motility in healthy subjects. We undertook a crossover comparison study to evaluate gastric fundal accommodation and gastric motility in 74 healthy subjects in the presence or absence of tolerable pain. The intensity of tolerable pain was defined as the upper limit of pain compatible with comfortable daily life. Pain was generated by clipping a clothes pin to the ear lobe, and the intensity of pain was adjusted by inserting the gauze between the ear lobe and the pin. Gastric fundal accommodation and gastric motility were assessed by external ultrasonography. The cross-sectional area of the proximal stomach was measured after subjects had taken 100 mL-liquid meals four times, then the amplitude and frequency of antral contractions were measured. The median numerical rating scale of tolerable pain was 3 (interquartile rang 2-4). Gastric fundal accommodation, gastric motility and gastric emptying were all significantly impaired by tolerable pain ( P  < 0.001 for all comparisons). Even tolerable pain can reduce gastric fundal accommodation and gastric motility, which could result in anorexia or decreased quality of life. Our findings provide important insights into pain management education for patients tolerating pain and healthcare providers encouraging patients to tolerate pain. This study was registered retrospectively.

  11. Physical exercise, sickness absence and subjective employability: An 8-year longitudinal observational study among musculoskeletal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Vera; Paech, Juliane; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-06-13

    Physical exercise recommendations become particularly effective when embedded into medical rehabilitation. However, little is known about long-term behaviour maintenance and its effect on sickness absence and subjective employability. The current longitudinal observational study investigated self-reported physical exercise, sickness absence and subjective employability over a period of 8 years. A total of 601 (T0) outpatients (mean age 45.14 years; standard deviation 10.73 years, age range 18-65 years) with different orthopaedic disorders were recruited during their 3-week medical rehabilitation in Germany. Of these, 61.7% (n = 371) were female. Follow-ups were carried out at 6 months (T1, n = 495), 12 months (T2, n = 340), 3 years (T3, n = 296) and 8 years (T4, n = 142) after baseline. Patient characteristics, exercise status, social-cognitive variables, sickness absence and subjective employability were obtained via self-report questionnaires. SPSS hierarchical regression models were used for data analysis, controlling for baseline measures and sociodemographic variables. Physical exercise status 6 months after rehabilitation treatment (T1) predicted sickness absence at 12 months (T2). Inactive people were 3.28 times more likely to be on sick leave at T2. In addition, physical exercise at T1 predicted subjective employability 12 months (T2) and 3 years (T3) later. Those who met the recommendations to be physically active for at least 40 min a week were more likely to feel able to work. Exercise appears to play an important role in reducing sickness absence and subjective employability and should be promoted within and after rehabilitation treatment.

  12. Immediate Loading of Single Implants: A 2-Year Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Carlo; Raes, Filiep; Lenzi, Carolina; Eccellente, Tammaro; Ortolani, Michele; Luongo, Giuseppe; Mangano, Francesco

    The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to evaluate the outcomes of single implants subjected to immediate functional loading. Inclusion criteria were single-tooth placement in postextraction sockets or fully healed sites, and sufficient bone height and width to place an implant of at least 3.5 × 10.0 mm. All implants were functionally loaded immediately after placement and followed for 2 years. Outcome measures were implant survival, complications, and peri-implant marginal bone loss (MBL). A total of 57 implants (38 maxilla, 19 mandible) were placed in 46 patients (23 men, 23 women, aged 18-73 years). Of these, 10 implants were placed in postextraction sockets. One implant failed, in a healed site, giving a patient-based overall 2-year survival rate of 97.6%. The incidence of biologic complications was 1.8%; prosthetic complications amounted to 7.5%. The peri-implant MBL was 0.37 ± 0.22 mm (healed sites: 0.4 mm ± 0.22; postextraction sockets: 0.3 mm ± 0.22). The immediate functional loading of single implants seems to represent a safe and successful procedure. Long-term follow-up studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these results.

  13. Case definitions of knee osteoarthritis in 4,151 unselected subjects: relevance for epidemiological studies : The Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxafoss, Erling; Jacobsen, Steffen; Gosvig, Kasper K

    2010-01-01

    -morphological change over age in individuals without radiological features of OA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study - COS is a substudy of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a longitudinal regional health survey. From the third inclusion of the CCHS (1992-1994) 4,151 subjects were selected...

  14. Tracing the fate of dietary fatty acids: metabolic studies of postprandial lipaemia in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Barbara

    2011-08-01

    Most postprandial studies have investigated the response of a single meal, yet the ingestion of sequential meals is more typical in a Western society. The aim of this review is to explain how natural and stable isotope tracers of fatty acids have been used to investigate the metabolism of dietary fat after single and multiple meals, with a focus on in vivo measurements of adipose tissue metabolism. When stable isotope tracers are combined with arteriovenous difference measurements, very specific measurements of metabolic flux across tissues can be made. We have found that adipose tissue is a net importer of dietary fat for 5 h following a single test meal and for most of the day during a typical three-meal eating pattern. When dietary fat is cleared from plasma, some fatty acids 'spillover' into the plasma and contribute up to 50% of postprandial plasma NEFA concentrations. Therefore, plasma NEFA concentrations after a meal reflect the balance between intracellular and extracellular lipolysis in adipose tissue. This balance is altered after the acute ingestion of fructose. The enzyme lipoprotein lipase is a key modulator of fatty acid flux in adipose tissue and its rate of action is severely diminished in obese men. In conclusion, in vivo studies of human metabolism can quantify the way that adipose tissue fatty acid trafficking modulates plasma lipid concentrations. This has implications for the flux of fatty acids to tissues that are susceptible to ectopic fat deposition such as the liver and muscle.

  15. Longitudinal growth changes in subjects with open-bite tendency: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Angie; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano; Darendeliler, M Ali; McNamara, James A

    2014-01-01

    This study was a cephalometric evaluation of the growth changes in untreated subjects with minimal overbite at 4 time points during 4 developmental stages from the early mixed dentition to the permanent dentition, as well as from the prepubertal phase to young adulthood. A sample of 24 untreated subjects with minimal overbite (<1.5 mm) was selected retrospectively from the University of Michigan Growth Study and the Denver Child Growth Study. The sample was followed longitudinally from about 9 years of age through 17 years of age. Dentofacial changes at the 4 times (T1-T4), defined by the cervical vertebral maturation method, were analyzed on lateral cephalograms. Nonparametric statistical analysis was used for comparisons. Overbite on average increased by 2.3 mm during the overall observation period. Improvement occurred during the prepubertal interval (T1-T2; 2.4 mm), whereas no significant changes occurred in the pubertal and postpubertal stages. From prepubertal ages to young adulthood, the open-bite tendency improved in 91% of the subjects, with self-correction in 75%. Logistic regression analysis on the cephalometric variables at T1 with the value of overbite at T4 did not show a statistically significant correlation. Subjects with an open-bite tendency show improvement of their occlusal condition during the prepubertal stage, but there is no significant improvement after this. These results provide useful indications for appropriate orthodontic treatment timing for patients with an open-bite tendency. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Baru almond improves lipid profile in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects: a randomized, controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, A P N; Cominetti, C; Simões Filho, A; Naves, M M V

    2014-12-01

    The usual consumption of nuts reduces cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk by improving serum lipids and oxidation status. Baru almonds (Dipteryxalata Vog.), a native species of Brazilian Savannah, have considerable contents of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), dietary fiber, vitamin E and zinc, which could exert positive effects in serum lipids and markers of oxidation. However, there is no study about the effect of their consumption on human health. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of baru almonds supplementation on lipid profile and oxidation of mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. A randomized, crossover, placebo controlled study was performed with 20 mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects (total cholesterol (TC) mean ±SEM = 5.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L). The assay had 2 periods of 6 weeks each and a 4-week washout period between the treatments. Subjects were randomly allocated in alternated periods receiving the following treatments per period: supplementation with 20 g/day of baru almonds or placebo (1 corn starch capsule/day). Compared to placebo, supplementation of baru almonds reduced TC (-8.1 ± 2.4%, P = 0.007), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (-9.4 ± 2.4%, P = 0.006) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-c) (-8.1 ± 3.0%, P = 0.013). There were no significant changes on the oxidation biomarkers evaluated. Dietary supplementation of mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects with baru almonds improved serum lipid parameters, so that this food might be included in diets for reducing the CVD risk. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC) (website: http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br). Register number: RBR-4zdy9p. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Working With People With Autistic Spectrum Conditions: A Single Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Roncaglia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the work undertaken to support a young person with autistic spectrum conditions (ASC over a period of 6 years and to discuss the results of a holistic intervention strategy which addressed a range of difficulties experienced both in school and in the community. A brief overview of common approaches in the education and care support for individuals with ASC is presented. The discussion highlights and suggests that a holistic approach might be more suitable and effective in achieving a range of positive outcomes in an educational and social context. A mixed method single-subject design was adopted. Several data measurements at three age points were collated to demonstrate progress in the following three areas: (1 Positive Behavior Management, (2 Access to Curriculum Lessons and Community Based Activities (3 Level of Staff Support. Adopting a holistic, person-centered and highly individualized approach where opportunities for choice and control are nurtured and fostered suggests that in the long-term more durable and meaningful outcomes are achieved. The results of this single-subject case study have implications for future design, delivery and implementation of educational and care programs.

  18. Tourette's syndrome in a special education population: a pilot study involving a single school district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlan, R; Whitmore, D; Irvine, C; McDermott, M P; Como, P G

    1994-04-01

    To determine whether children requiring special education represent a high-risk group for identifying Tourette's syndrome (TS), we performed direct examinations for the presence of tics in 35 special education and 35 regular classroom students from a single school district. Of the special education students, nine (26%) had definite or probable tics as compared with only two (6%) of the regular classroom students. About one-third of the students with tics currently meet diagnostic criteria for TS and probably more will do so in the future. About one-half of the subjects with tics have evidence of obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB) or an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). For three randomly selected students with definite tics, direct examinations of first-degree relatives revealed the presence of tics in all families. Subjects to the limitations of this pilot study, we conclude that TS and related tic disorders are commonly associated with the need for special education in this single school district. TS might also be an important contributor to school problems in the childhood population at large and may be a highly prevalent condition. In addition, we conclude that childhood tics are associated with OCB and ADHD, are genetically determined, and are part of the TS clinical spectrum.

  19. Comparative assessment of different methods for the estimation of gait temporal parameters using a single inertial sensor: application to elderly, post-stroke, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojaniello, Diana; Ravaschio, Andrea; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Cereatti, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    The estimation of gait temporal parameters with inertial measurement units (IMU) is a research topic of interest in clinical gait analysis. Several methods, based on the use of a single IMU mounted at waist level, have been proposed for the estimate of these parameters showing satisfactory performance when applied to the gait of healthy subjects. However, the above mentioned methods were developed and validated on healthy subjects and their applicability in pathological gait conditions was not systematically explored. We tested the three best performing methods found in a previous comparative study on data acquired from 10 older adults, 10 hemiparetic, 10 Parkinson's disease and 10 Huntington's disease subjects. An instrumented gait mat was used as gold standard. When pathological populations were analyzed, missed or extra events were found for all methods and a global decrease of their performance was observed to different extents depending on the specific group analyzed. The results revealed that none of the tested methods outperformed the others in terms of accuracy of the gait parameters determination for all the populations except the Parkinson's disease subjects group for which one of the methods performed better than others. The hemiparetic subjects group was the most critical group to analyze (stride duration errors between 4-5 % and step duration errors between 8-13 % of the actual values across methods). Only one method provides estimates of the stance and swing durations which however should be interpreted with caution in pathological populations (stance duration errors between 6-14 %, swing duration errors between 10-32 % of the actual values across populations). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of single implants placed in the posterior mandibular area under immediate loading: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, L G C; Monnazzi, M S; Piveta, A C G; Gabrielli, M A C; Gabrielli, M F R; Pereira Filho, V A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of single dental implants subjected to immediate function. Twelve patients with edentulous areas in the posterior mandible were included in the study. All received at least one regular platform dental implant (3.75mm×11mm or 3.75mm×13mm). Clinical and radiographic parameters were evaluated. The survival rate after 12 months was 83.3%. The implants showed no clinical mobility, had implant stability quotient values (ISQ; Osstell) around 70, bone loss of up to 2mm, and a probing depth of ≤3mm. Although the posterior mandible is an area in which the immediate loading of dental implants should be performed with caution, this treatment presented a good success rate in the present study sample. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies of Single Biomolecules, DNA Conformational Dynamics, and Protein Binding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanke, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    ... may open up spontaneously due to thermal activation. By rising the ambient temperature, titration, or by external forces in single molecule setups bubbles proliferate until full denaturation of the DNA...

  2. A one-year longitudinal study of subjective well-being in elderly home care recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars; Povlsen, Thomas Kaalby; Mortensen, Steen Lee

    , it was earlier in life, despite age-related stressors. However, when these stressors cause loss of independence and a permanent need for help, it could be a different matter. Objectives: This study attempted to answer the following questions: How large a proportion of home care recipients had well-being levels......A one-year longitudinal study of subjective well-being in elderly home care recipients Larsen, L, Povlsen, T.K., Mortensen, S.L. & Christoffersen, M. Background: Old age is not a risk factor per se when it comes to low well-being. In most old people well-being is as high as, or higher than...... indicating stress and risk of depression? Did the overall level of subjective well-being change during a one-year period? How did subjective well-being in elderly home care recipients compare to the national Danish average? Sample: 759 home care recipients 65 years or older in The Municipality of Aarhus...

  3. A comparative study of frequency of postnatal depression among subjects with normal and caesarean deliveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganraj Bhat Sankapithilu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of postnatal depression (PND is 12-15%. Recent studies are equivocal about the earlier inference that PND is higher among caesarian than normal delivery. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of PND among the Indian women and the association between the mode of delivery and PND. Material and method: Fifty subjects each; having delivered normally and by caesarian section was chosen. All the women were within 3 months post delivery and could understand Kannada language. Those who consented were asked to complete the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Those found to have scores suggestive of depression on EPDS were assessed for depression according to ICD-10. The data was analyzed using paired t test and chi square test. Result and conclusion: Among Post caesarean subjects, depression was diagnosed in 20% (n=10 as compared to 16% (n=8 in subjects that delivered normally. However there was no significant difference in the frequency of depression among the two groups. Due to the small sample size the results cannot be generalized.

  4. Subjective memory impairment in a rural population with low education in the Amazon rainforest: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi; Nitrini, Ricardo

    2009-02-01

    The high prevalence of subjective memory impairment (SMI) in the elderly living in developed countries may be partly dependent on greater demand placed on them by new technologies. As part of a comprehensive study on cognitive impairment in a population living in the Amazon rainforest, we evaluated the prevalence of SMI and investigated the features associated with it. We evaluated 163 subjects (82 females) with a mean age of 62.3 years (50-94 years), 110 of whom were illiterate, using the answer to a single question "Do you have memory problems?" to classify them into groups with or without SMI. The assessment involved application of the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE), delayed recall from the Brief Cognitive Battery designed for the evaluation of low educated and illiterate individuals, the Patient Questionnaire (PQ) of the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD), and the Happiness Analogical Scale. A very high prevalence of SMI (70%) was observed, exceeding rates reported by similar studies conducted in developed countries. SMI was more frequent in women, whereas age and education did not impact on prevalence. Subjects with SMI had significantly more somatic and psychiatric symptoms on the PQ, as well as lower means on the MMSE, but not on the delayed recall test. Multiple logistic regressions showed that the most important factor associated with the presence of SMI was a high score on the PQ (OR: 3.84, p = 0.011). Psychological and somatic symptoms may be the principal cause of SMI in this population.

  5. Paradoxical embolism as a cause of silent brain infarctions in healthy subjects: the ICONS study (Identification of the Cause of Silent Cerebral Infarction in Healthy Subjects).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S J; Shin, H Y; Ha, Y S; Kim, J W; Kang, K W; Na, D L; Bang, O Y

    2013-02-01

    In healthy elderly people, silent brain infarctions (SBIs) have been recognized as common lesions. In this study, we evaluated the association between SBI located outside the perforating artery territory (PAT) and paradoxical embolism detected by agitated saline transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring in healthy subjects. This was a prospective observational study undertaken by a university health promotion center for healthy subjects and by a university stroke center for acute stroke patients. We defined SBI as evidence on fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of one or more infarcts, without history of corresponding stroke or transient ischaemic attack. We also evaluated in all subjects the neuroimaging indicator of microangiopathy leukoaraiosis (LA). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01429948. Amongst 1103 consecutive healthy adults who underwent MRI, 347 (31%) had one or more SBIs located outside the PAT, suggesting embolism. Amongst them, 253 subjects underwent agitated saline TCD monitoring and 128 (51%) had right-to-left shunts (RLS). The prevalence of RLS was similar to cryptogenic embolic stroke (62.0%, P = 0.056), but higher than in patients with other stroke subtypes (36.2%, P = 0.021). Amongst subjects with SBI, absence of LA was the only factor associated with RLS (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.01-3.14; P = 0.046). Our results suggest that paradoxical embolism may play an important role in the development of SBI outside the PAT in apparently healthy adults. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  6. An Experimental Study of a Midbroken 2-Bay 6-Storey Reinforced Concrete Frame subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Taskin, B.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    1997-01-01

    A 2-bay, 6-storey model test reinforced concrete frame (scale 1:5) subjected to sequential earthquakes of increasing magnitude is considered in this paper. The frame was designed with a weak storey, in which the columns are weakened by using thinner and weaker reinforcement bars. The aim of the w......A 2-bay, 6-storey model test reinforced concrete frame (scale 1:5) subjected to sequential earthquakes of increasing magnitude is considered in this paper. The frame was designed with a weak storey, in which the columns are weakened by using thinner and weaker reinforcement bars. The aim...... of the work is to study global response to a damaging strong motion earthquake event of such buildings. Special emphasis is put on examining to what extent damage in the weak storey can be identified from global response measurements during an earthquake where the structure survives, and what level...

  7. [Population genetic study of Russian cosmonauts and test subjects: genetic demographic parameters and immunogenetic markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatova, O L; Pobedonostseva, E Iu; Prokhorovskaia, V D; Kholod, O N; Evsiukov, A N; Bogomolov, V V; Voronkov, Iu I; Filatova, L M; Larina, O N; Sidorenko, L A; Morgun, V V; Kasparanskiĭ, R R; Altukhov, Iu P

    2006-10-01

    Genetic demographic characteristics and immunogenetic markers (blood groups ABO, Rhesus, MNSs, P, Duffy, Kidd, and Kell) have been studied in a group of 132 Russian cosmonauts and test subjects (CTSG). Analysis of pedigrees has shown a high exogamy in the preceding generations: almost half of the subjects have mixed ethnic background. According to the results of genetic demographic analysis, a sample from the Moscow population was used as control group (CG). Comparison between the CTSG and CG has demonstrated significant differences in genotype frequencies for several blood group systems. The CTSG is characterized by a decreased proportion of rare interlocus genotypic combinations and an increased man heterozygosity. Analysis of the distributions of individual heterozygosity for loci with codominant expression of alleles has shown that highly heterozygous loci are more frequent in the CTSG. Taking into account that the CTSG has been thoroughly selected from the general population, it is concluded that heterozygosity is related to successful adaptation to a space flight.

  8. Relationship between ocular surface temperature and peripheral vasoconstriction in healthy subjects: A thermographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara; Vannetti, Federica; Finocchio, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    increasing temperature at t0 for P1 = 0.12 C 6 0.13 C). Therefore, these results suggest a response of the ocular hemodynamic to the peripheral vasoconstriction. The ocular surface temperature may represent a cheap, non-invasive and non-time-consuming test to evaluate ocular vaso-regulation.......An impairment of ocular blood flow regulation is commonly considered one of the main pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of several eye diseases, like glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an alteration of ocular blood supply induced by peripheral...... vasoconstriction might be detected by measuring the ocular surface temperature. The ocular surface temperature was evaluated in a group of 38 healthy young subjects (28 males and 10 females; mean age: 25.4 6 4.1 years) by infrared thermography. For each subject, the experimental procedure consisted of two...

  9. The Impact of Oxytocin on Food Intake and Emotion Recognition in Patients with Eating Disorders: A Double Blind Single Dose Within-Subject Cross-Over Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Eom, Jin-Sup; Yang, Jae-Won; Kang, Jiwon; Treasure, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Social difficulties and problems related to eating behaviour are common features of both anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The aim of this study was to examine the impact of intranasal oxytocin on consummatory behaviour and emotional recognition in patients with AN and BN in comparison to healthy controls. A total of 102 women, including 35 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), 34 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 33 healthy university students of comparable age and intelligence, participated in a double-blind, single dose placebo-controlled cross-over study. A single dose of intranasal administration of oxytocin (40 IU) (or a placebo) was followed by an emotional recognition task and an apple juice drink. Food intake was then recorded for 24 hours post-test. Oxytocin produced no significant change in appetite in the acute or 24 hours free living settings in healthy controls, whereas there was a decrease in calorie consumption over 24 hours in patients with BN. Oxytocin produced a small increase in emotion recognition sensitivity in healthy controls and in patients with BN, In patients with AN, oxytocin had no effect on emotion recognition sensitivity or on consummatory behaviour. The impact of oxytocin on appetite and social cognition varied between people with AN and BN. A single dose of intranasal oxytocin decreased caloric intake over 24 hours in people with BN. People with BN showed enhanced emotional sensitivity under oxytocin condition similar to healthy controls. Those effects of oxytocin were not found in patients with AN. ClinicalTrials.gov KCT00000716.

  10. The Impact of Oxytocin on Food Intake and Emotion Recognition in Patients with Eating Disorders: A Double Blind Single Dose Within-Subject Cross-Over Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Eom, Jin-Sup; Yang, Jae-Won; Kang, Jiwon; Treasure, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Social difficulties and problems related to eating behaviour are common features of both anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The aim of this study was to examine the impact of intranasal oxytocin on consummatory behaviour and emotional recognition in patients with AN and BN in comparison to healthy controls. Materials A total of 102 women, including 35 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), 34 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 33 healthy university students of comparable age and intelligence, participated in a double-blind, single dose placebo-controlled cross-over study. A single dose of intranasal administration of oxytocin (40 IU) (or a placebo) was followed by an emotional recognition task and an apple juice drink. Food intake was then recorded for 24 hours post-test. Results Oxytocin produced no significant change in appetite in the acute or 24 hours free living settings in healthy controls, whereas there was a decrease in calorie consumption over 24 hours in patients with BN. Oxytocin produced a small increase in emotion recognition sensitivity in healthy controls and in patients with BN, In patients with AN, oxytocin had no effect on emotion recognition sensitivity or on consummatory behaviour. Conclusions The impact of oxytocin on appetite and social cognition varied between people with AN and BN. A single dose of intranasal oxytocin decreased caloric intake over 24 hours in people with BN. People with BN showed enhanced emotional sensitivity under oxytocin condition similar to healthy controls. Those effects of oxytocin were not found in patients with AN. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov KCT0000716 PMID:26402337

  11. The Impact of Oxytocin on Food Intake and Emotion Recognition in Patients with Eating Disorders: A Double Blind Single Dose Within-Subject Cross-Over Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youl-Ri Kim

    Full Text Available Social difficulties and problems related to eating behaviour are common features of both anorexia nervosa (AN and bulimia nervosa (BN. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of intranasal oxytocin on consummatory behaviour and emotional recognition in patients with AN and BN in comparison to healthy controls.A total of 102 women, including 35 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN, 34 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN, and 33 healthy university students of comparable age and intelligence, participated in a double-blind, single dose placebo-controlled cross-over study. A single dose of intranasal administration of oxytocin (40 IU (or a placebo was followed by an emotional recognition task and an apple juice drink. Food intake was then recorded for 24 hours post-test.Oxytocin produced no significant change in appetite in the acute or 24 hours free living settings in healthy controls, whereas there was a decrease in calorie consumption over 24 hours in patients with BN. Oxytocin produced a small increase in emotion recognition sensitivity in healthy controls and in patients with BN, In patients with AN, oxytocin had no effect on emotion recognition sensitivity or on consummatory behaviour.The impact of oxytocin on appetite and social cognition varied between people with AN and BN. A single dose of intranasal oxytocin decreased caloric intake over 24 hours in people with BN. People with BN showed enhanced emotional sensitivity under oxytocin condition similar to healthy controls. Those effects of oxytocin were not found in patients with AN.ClinicalTrials.gov KCT00000716.

  12. Single molecule studies of DNA packaging by bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Derek Nathan

    The DNA packaging dynamics of bacteriophages φ29, gamma, and T4 were studied at the single molecule level using a dual trap optical tweezers. Also, a method for producing long DNA molecules by PCR for optical tweezers studies of protein DNA interactions is presented and thoroughly characterized. This DNA preparation technique provided DNA samples for the φ29 and T4 studies. In the studies of φ29, the role of charge was investigated by varying the ionic conditions of the packaging buffer. Ionic conditions in which the DNA charge was highly screened due to divalent and trivalent cations showed the lowest resistance to packaging of the DNA to high density. This confirmed the importance of counterions in shielding the DNA interstrand repulsion when packaged to high density. While the ionic nature of the packaging buffer had a strong effect on packaging velocities, there was no clear trend between the counterion-screened charge of the DNA and the maximum packaging velocity. The packaging studies of lambda and T4 served as systems for comparative studies with φ29. Each system showed similarities to the φ29 system and unique differences. Both the lambda and T4 packaging motors were capable of generating forces in excess of 50 pN and showed remarkably high processivity, similar to φ29. However, dynamic structural transitions were observed with lambda that are not observed with φ29. The packaging of the lambda genome showed capsid expansion at approximately 30 percent of the genome packaged and capsid rupture at 90 percent of the genome packaged in the absence of capsid stabilizing protein gpD. Unique to the T4 packaging motor, packaging dynamics showed a remarkable amount of variability in velocities. This variability was seen both within individual packaging phages and from one phage to the next. This is possibly due to different conformational states of the packaging machinery. Additionally, lambda and T4 had average packaging velocities under minimal load of 600

  13. Linking health states to subjective well-being: an empirical study of 5854 rural residents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Jia, X; Zhu, M; Chen, J

    2015-06-01

    Despite a maturing literature on the association between subjective well-being (SWB) and health status of the general population in Western countries, little is known regarding the happiness-health relation in China, and rural populations in particular. This study was aimed to explore the correlation between SWB and health states of China's rural residents. Cross-sectional survey. Data derived from a household survey conducted in 2010 with 5854 rural residents included. The single-item self-reported happiness measure used in the World Values Survey was employed to measure SWB. EQ-5D dimensions and visual analogue scale (VAS) were applied to measure subjective health status. The number of chronic diseases was used as proxy of objective health status. OLS regressions were performed to estimate the variation in SWB by health status and β coefficients were employed as effect size measures. Among EQ-5D dimensions, anxiety/depression had the strongest negative effect on SWB. Having severe anxiety/depression problems could reduce SWB by 1.65 on a scale 1-4. Reporting severe problems in pain/discomfort could also reduce SWB by 0.41, while the impact of other dimensions was insignificant. The coefficient on VAS implied a difference in SWB of 1.60 between the worst health state and the best health state. And suffering from three chronic diseases could reduce SWB by 0.62, but the effect turned insignificant when all measures of subjective health status were entered in the regression. The results from this study verify the strongly negative effect of the mental health dimension on SWB in the context of rural China. And suffering from chronic diseases has substantial negative effect on SWB even after subjective health status is controlled for. But the impact of chronic diseases on SWB could be fully captured when all measures of subjective health status are taken into account. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic correlates of general cognitive function in nondemented elderly subjects: an FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Kwak, Young Bin; Lee, Eun Ju; Ryu, Chang Hyung; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun

    2004-01-01

    While many studies examined the neural correlates of individual cognitive functions, few made efforts to identify the neural networks associated with general cognitive function. General cognitive function decline in the elderly population is not infrequent. This study examined the brain areas associated with general cognitive function in the elderly subjects. Community-dwelling 116 elderly subjects without dementing illnesses (age, 71±5 y; 13 males and 103 females) participated. General cognitive ability was assessed with the Dementia Rating Scale (K-DRS), which is composed of five subtests of attention, initiation and perseveration, construction, conceptualization, and memory. The EVLT (Elderly Verbal Learning Test), a nine-word list learning test, was used for general memory assessment. Brain FDG PET scans were acquired in all subjects. Brain regions where metabolic levels are correlated with the total scores of K-DRS and EVLT were examined using SPM99. There was a significant positive correlation (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k=100) between the total score of K-DRS and glucose metabolism in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri, bilateral inferior frontal gyri, left caudate, left inferior parietal lobule, right precuneus, bilateral unci, right parahippocampal gyrus, and right anterior cingulate gyrus. A significant positive correlation between the total score of EVLT and glucose metabolism was shown in the right precuneus, right posterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, left anterior cingulate gyrus, left caudate, right inferior frontal gyrus (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k=100). Our data showed the brain regions that are associated with general cognitive function in the elderly. Those regions may serve as the neural substrated of cognitive dysfunction associated with neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases in elderly subjects

  15. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool...... to understanding, especially but not exclusively in observational and interview-based studies. Psychodynamic or psychoanalytic approaches to research add an emphasis on unconscious motivational processes in both researchers and research participants that impact research experience and data. Building upon Anglo......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  16. Influence of shoes and foot orthoses on lower extremity muscle activation onset times in healthy subjects during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, B; Peeraer, L; Deschamps, K; Fieuws, S; Janssens, L; Staes, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of shoes and foot orthoses on lower extremity muscle activation patterns in healthy subjects during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance. Eight male and seven female young asymptomatic adults who wear foot orthoses were recruited. Muscle activation onset times of 9 lower extremity muscles were recorded using surface electromyography during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance, performed with eyes open and with eyes closed. This was tested in 4 experimental conditions: 1) barefoot (BF); 2) shoes only (SO); 3) shoes with standardized FO (SSFO); and 4) shoes with customized FO (SCFO). Based on a four-way (condition-region-leg-vision) linear model for repeated measures, we found a significant condition effect (P=0.025). Differences between conditions did not depend on the leg and/or the vision condition, but on the region (ankle-knee-hip). Based on a two-way (condition-muscle) linear model within each region, only significant differences between conditions for peroneus longus (P=0.003) were found. The onset times of peroneus longus were significantly earlier in SO (P=0.029) and SCFO (P=0.001) compared to BF. These results indicate that SO and SCFO can accelerate peroneus longus muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance. Further research is required to determine how these adaptations may develop over time.

  17. Effects of a virtual reality and treadmill training on gait of subjects with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzzi, Agnese; Cereatti, Andrea; Della Croce, Ugo; Mirelman, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Gait and cognitive deficits are common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and are negatively affected during dual-task walking. Treadmill (TM) training has been previously used to preserve locomotor activity in MS. Virtual reality (VR) engages the user in cognitive and motor activities simultaneously. A training combining TM and VR has been successfully adopted in several neurological diseases, but not in MS. This study aims at investigating the feasibility of a VR-based TM training program on gait of subjects with MS. Eight persons with relapsing-remitting MS were recruited to participate in a six-week VR-based TM training program. Gait analysis was performed both in single and dual task conditions. Clinical tests were used to assess walking endurance and obstacle negotiation. All the evaluations were performed before, immediately and one month after the training. Gait speed and stride length improved in dual task post-intervention and were retained at follow-up. An improved ability in negotiating obstacles was found across the evaluations. VR-based TM training program is feasible and safe for MS subjects with moderate disabilities and may positively affect gait under complex conditions, such as dual tasking and obstacle negotiation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Effect of Oral Coadministration of Ascorbic Acid with Ling Zhi Preparation on Pharmacokinetics of Ganoderic Acid A in Healthy Male Subjects: A Randomized Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawasri, Patcharanee; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Tharatha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-phase crossover study was to determine the effect of ascorbic acid on pharmacokinetics of ganoderic acid A, an important biologically active triterpenoid compound with anticancer activities, following oral administration of water extract of fruiting bodies of Ling Zhi in 12 healthy male subjects. Each subject was randomized to receive either one of the two regimens: (1) a single dose of 3,000 mg of the Ling Zhi preparation or (2) a single dose of 3,000 mg of the Ling Zhi preparation in combination with 2,500 mg of ascorbic acid. After a washout period of at least two weeks, subjects were switched to receive the alternate regimen. Blood samples were collected in each phase immediately before dosing and at specific time points for 8 hours after dosing. Plasma ganoderic acid A concentrations were quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The pharmacokinetic parameters analyzed were maximal plasma concentration (C max), time to reach peak concentration (T max), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), and half-life (t 1/2). An oral coadministration of ascorbic acid with Ling Zhi preparation did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetic parameters of ganoderic acid A in healthy male subjects. PMID:27747224

  19. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

  20. Are dentists happy? A study among dental practitioners in coastal Andhra Pradesh using subjective happiness scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar Kaipa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of dental professionals in the society is vital. This profession allows the flexibility to balance a professional and personal life. Practice of dentistry at times is quite stressful, and stress impedes happiness and subjective well-being. Several studies have reported about stress among dental professionals and their various effects; however, studies evaluating the level of happiness (happiness index among dentists are few and lack in this geographic region. Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the subjective happiness level among dental professionals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 194 dentists in Andhra Pradesh, India. A questionnaire measuring dimensions of professional satisfaction by Subjective Happiness Scale was used to assess the happiness level. The results were expressed in percentages, means, and mean rank. Independent samples nonparametric tests (Mann–Whitney U-test and Kruskal–Wallis test and multivariable analyses were used to assess the determinants of happiness. Results: The mean happiness index of the respondents was 21.71 (0.26 standard error. Overall 67% of the respondents had an above average happiness score. Higher happiness score was found to be significantly associated with age, postgraduate degree, male gender, type of professional attachment, duration of practice, urban location of practice, and spouse employment status in univariate analysis. However, multivariable analysis showed association with type of professional attachment only. Conclusion: Although dentistry has been recognized as a stressful profession, majority of the dentists under study had a happiness score above the mean, and the level of satisfaction was influenced by various sociodemographic factors.

  1. A phase I study to assess the single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of THC/CBD oromucosal spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, C G; White, L; Wright, S; Wilbraham, D; Guy, G W

    2013-05-01

    A Phase I study to assess the single and multipledose pharmacokinetics (PKs) and safety and tolerability of oromucosally administered Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) spray, an endocannabinoid system modulator, in healthy male subjects. Subjects received either single doses of THC/CBD spray as multiple sprays [2 (5.4 mg THC and 5.0 mg CBD), 4 (10.8 mg THC and 10.0 mg CBD) or 8 (21.6 mg THC and 20.0 mg CBD) daily sprays] or multiple doses of THC/CBD spray (2, 4 or 8 sprays once daily) for nine consecutive days, following fasting for a minimum of 10 h overnight prior to each dosing. Plasma samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for CBD, THC, and its primary metabolite 11-hydroxy-THC, and various PK parameters were investigated. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD were rapidly absorbed following single-dose administration. With increasing single and multiple doses of THC/CBD spray, the mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) increased for all analytes. There was evidence of dose-proportionality in the single but not the multiple dosing data sets. The bioavailability of THC was greater than CBD at single and multiple doses, and there was no evidence of accumulation for any analyte with multiple dosing. Inter-subject variability ranged from moderate to high for all PK parameters in this study. The time to peak plasma concentration (Tmax) was longest for all analytes in the eight spray group, but was similar in the two and four spray groups. THC/CBD spray was well-tolerated in this study and no serious adverse events were reported. The mean Cmax values (<12 ng/mL) recorded in this study were well below those reported in patients who smoked/inhaled cannabis, which is reassuring since elevated Cmax values are linked to significant psychoactivity. There was also no evidence of accumulation on repeated dosing.

  2. Experimental study of moisture uptake of polyurethane foam subjected to a heat sink below 30 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. B.; Chen, J. Y.; Gan, Z. H.; Qiu, L. M.; Zhang, K. H.; Yang, R. P.; Ma, X. J.; Liu, Z. H.

    2014-01-01

    Rigid closed-cell foam is widely used to thermally insulate liquid hydrogen and oxygen tanks of space launch vehicles due to its lightweight, mechanical strength and thermal-insulating performance. Up to now, little information is available on the intrusion of moisture into the foam that subjects one side to liquid hydrogen temperatures and the other side to room temperatures and high relative humidity. A novel cryogenic moisture uptake apparatus has been designed and fabricated to measure the moisture uptake into the polyurethane foam. For safety and convenience, two identical single-stage pulse tube cryocoolers instead of liquid hydrogen are used to cool one side of the foam specimen to the lowest temperature of 26 K. Total of eight specimens in three groups, according to whether there is a butt-joint or weathering period, are tested respectively for both 5 h and 9 h. The additional weight due to moisture uptake of the foam for the 26 K cases is compared to previous measurements at 79 K. The results are instructive for the applications of foam to the insulation of liquid hydrogen tanks in space launch vehicles.

  3. Assessment of the paraspinal muscles of subjects presenting an idiopathic scoliosis: an EMG pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larivière Christian

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that the back muscles of scoliotic subjects present abnormalities in their fiber type composition. Some researchers have hypothesized that abnormal fiber composition can lead to paraspinal muscle dysfunction such as poor neuromuscular efficiency and muscle fatigue. EMG parameters were used to evaluate these impairments. The purpose of the present study was to examine the clinical potential of different EMG parameters such as amplitude (RMS and median frequency (MF of the power spectrum in order to assess the back muscles of patients presenting idiopathic scoliosis in terms of their neuromuscular efficiency and their muscular fatigue. Methods L5/S1 moments during isometric efforts in extension were measured in six subjects with idiopathic scoliosis and ten healthy controls. The subjects performed three 7 s ramp contractions ranging from 0 to 100% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC and one 30 s sustained contraction at 75% MVC. Surface EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from the paraspinal muscles at L5, L3, L1 and T10. The slope of the EMG RMS/force (neuromuscular efficiency and MF/force (muscle composition relationships were computed during the ramp contractions while the slope of the EMG RMS/time and MF/time relationships (muscle fatigue were computed during the sustained contraction. Comparisons were performed between the two groups and between the left and right sides for the EMG parameters. Results No significant group or side differences between the slopes of the different measures used were found at the level of the apex (around T10 of the major curve of the spine. However, a significant side difference was seen at a lower level (L3, p = 0.01 for the MF/time parameter. Conclusion The EMG parameters used in this study could not discriminate between the back muscles of scoliotic subjects and those of control subject regarding fiber type composition, neuromuscular efficiency and muscle fatigue at the level

  4. Comparative study of heart rate variability between healthy human subjects and healthy dogs, rabbits and calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, A; Ootaki, Y; Ootaki, C; Kamohara, K; Fukamachi, K

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have been performed to assess heart rate variability (HRV) in several species such as humans, dogs, pigs, calves, rabbits and rats. However, haemodynamic parameters are totally different in each animal, and optimal animal models for studying HRV corresponding to human HRV are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess HRV in human subjects and to compare those HRV data with canine, bovine and rabbit HRV data. The heart rate in the human subjects (62.8 +/- 7.4 bpm) was significantly lower than that in dogs (124.2 +/- 18.8 bpm, P 217.3 +/- 21.5 bpm, P Hz) and high-frequency waves (HF) (33.8 +/- 49.1 ms(2)/Hz) in rabbits were significantly lower than human LF (1216.3 +/- 1220.7 ms(2)/Hz, P Hz, P Hz and 547.0 +/- 256.9 ms(2)/Hz, respectively), HF (702.1 +/- 394.1 ms(2)/Hz and 601.0 +/- 666.6 ms(2)/Hz, respectively) and LF/HF (2.0 +/- 1.3 and 2.5 +/- 1.9, respectively) when compared with the human data. The present study shows that dogs and calves revealed similar HRV values as those which relate to humans. Large deviation of the HRV values in rabbits compared with humans might be considered when conducting animal studies using those animals to reflect human clinical situations.

  5. Students as subjects in food advertising studies. An appraisal of appropriateness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojoon; Reid, Leonard N

    2014-10-01

    Considerable knowledge on food advertising has been generated by research on consumers' psychological reactions to food advertising messaging using either students or nonstudents as subjects. Building on past research, this article investigates the methodological question of whether students are appropriate surrogates for nonstudents in food advertising studies. Following exposure to print advertisements featuring healthy and unhealthy foods with two different nutrient attribute-based message appeals, student and nonstudent subjects were asked to complete five standard evaluative response measures to the food ads: claim believability, attitude-toward-the ad, attitude-toward-the-product, attitude-toward-the-brand, and purchase intention. Among the findings, students were found to react differently and more negatively to identical food advertisements than nonstudents. Overall, the message sent to health communication researchers, policy officials, and practicing professionals is - unless certain criteria are satisfied - students should be considered inadequate subjects to represent all age groups of the general population in food advertising research. Thus, conclusions drawn from student-based research about advertising processing and effects should be questioned and broad generalizations avoided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of Insulin Resistance on Silent and Ongoing Myocardial Damage in Normal Subjects: The Takahata Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Narumi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Insulin resistance (IR is part of the metabolic syndrome (Mets that develops after lifestyle changes and obesity. Although the association between Mets and myocardial injury is well known, the effect of IR on myocardial damage remains unclear. Methods and Results. We studied 2200 normal subjects who participated in a community-based health check in the town of Takahata in northern Japan. The presence of IR was assessed by homeostasis model assessment ratio, and the serum level of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP was measured as a maker of silent and ongoing myocardial damage. H-FABP levels were significantly higher in subjects with IR and Mets than in those without metabolic disorder regardless of gender. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that the presence of IR was independently associated with latent myocardial damage (odds ratio: 1.574, 95% confidence interval 1.1–2.3 similar to the presence of Mets. Conclusions. In a screening of healthy subjects, IR and Mets were similarly related to higher H-FABP levels, suggesting that there may be an asymptomatic population in the early stages of metabolic disorder that is exposed to myocardial damage and might be susceptible to silent heart failure.

  7. Enacted Sexual Stigma, Stigma Consciousness, and Subjective Happiness Scale Adaptation: A Two-Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizzi, Jenna; Fernández-Agis, Inmaculada; Parrón-Carreño, Tesifon; Alarcón-Rodríguez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Violence against people due to their sexual orientation is a phenomenon that exists within a framework of sexual stigma and sexual prejudice that can result in enacted stigma. The present study primarily aimed to validate the Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS; for lesbian, gay, and bisexual [LGB] populations) in the Spanish context by using samples from two countries (Spain [N = 157] and the United States [N = 83]). Also, to examine how the construct of stigma consciousness correlates with anti-LGBQ (anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer) hate crime victimization and violent incidents, as well as examine whether the former influences subjective happiness. The population from the United States reported higher stigma consciousness and received more anti-LGBQ threats and insults. Hate crime victimization was the same across the two samples and positively correlated with violent incidents in both samples. Subjective happiness was negatively correlated with SCQ, although its subscales it did not correlate with enacted stigma measures. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. [Subjective family image in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in adolescence: a controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwautz, A; Haidvogl, M; Wagner, G; Nobis, G; Wöber-Bingöl, C; Friedrich, M H

    2002-11-01

    The family environments of patients with eating disorders have been studied extensively in recent decades. The "Subjective Family Image Test" is an instrument developed especially to measure differential perceptions by family members. Assessments of subjective family image in families of adolescents by means of this test have been carried out in only a few samples. We aimed first to investigate subjective perceptions by adolescents of their family relations in a larger clinical sample of female adolescents (n = 118) suffering from anorexia nervosa of either subtype or from bulimia nervosa and to compare these perceptions with those of healthy controls (n = 96). Second we investigated intra-familial differences in perception. The main findings were that bulimia nervosa patients perceived lower individual autonomy and lower emotional connectedness than all other groups, the adolescents with bulimia perceived significantly lower autonomy and emotional connectedness within the family than their fathers, and the restrictive anorexia nervosa patients perceived higher connectedness than their fathers. The relevance of these findings for understanding family dynamics are discussed.

  9. Muscle activation patterns related to diabetic neuropathy in elderly subjects: A Functional Reach Test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranesi, E; Di Nardo, F; Rabini, R A; Ghetti, G G; Burattini, L; Mercante, O; Fioretti, S

    2016-02-01

    This study was designed to assess, in healthy elderly, non-neuropathic and neuropathic diabetic subjects, the activation patterns of the main muscles involved in the Functional Reach Test, a well-recognized method to identify elderly subjects at risk of balance impairments. Surface electromyographic analysis of Sternocleidomastoideus, Rectus Abdominis, Erectores Spinae at L4 level, Rectus Femoris, Hamstrings, Tibialis Anterior and Soleus was performed in 10 healthy, 10 diabetic non-neuropathic and 10 diabetic neuropathic subjects. Results showed that in every group the first motor is Tibialis Anterior, that is recruited before the start of the test. An earlier activation of Tibialis Anterior (Pmovement timing and to compensate for the delay in the recruitment of the motor units. This anticipation might be involved in the altered postural control with increased balance impairment detected in diabetic neuropathic patients, and thereby it might also be proposed as an index of neuropathy, evidenced in a simple and non-invasive manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sitting bodily configuration: a study investigating the intra-tester reliability of positioning subjects into a predetermined sitting posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korakakis, Vasileios; Sideris, Vasilis; Giakas, Giannis

    2014-06-01

    Sitting posture predominates in lifestyle and workplace, but quantitative postural designation is limited due to divergence of methodology used in the studies. To date, no study has investigated the upper body's habitual or a predetermined sitting posture in healthy individuals assessing together pelvis, spine and head. The objectives were (i) assessment of intra-rater reliability of positioning subjects to a lordotic sitting posture and (ii) comparison of habitual sitting posture (HSP) with the lordotic posture. Another objective was to synthesize and propose an improved 3D model for pelvis, trunk and head to assess quantitatively the postural sagittal configuration. A single session test-retest design was employed. After power calculations 25 subjects were recruited. A repeated measure ANOVA revealed significant differences between HSP and the predetermined posture used in the study. Intra-rater reliability was analysed used the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and also standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest real difference (SRD) were calculated. The ICC values for all angles ranged from 0.85 to 0.98 indicating almost perfect agreement. The SEMs for all angles ranged in degrees from 0.65 to 1.50 and the SRDs from 1.80 to 4.16. This study provides the most specific sagittal measurement of surface spinal curves, head and pelvis position, in reference to a lordotic seated posture. The clinical significance of this study is reinforced by the fact that postural assessment is conducted by body surface evaluation. The results regarding reliability and SEMs established that healthy individuals can be reliably positioned in an upright lordotic sitting posture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure of fatty acids after a single oral administration of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) and sunflower oil in human adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla; Villegas, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) is a potential oilseed crop because it is rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA) (omega-3 fatty acid). To evaluate the exposure of fatty acids after a single oral administration of sacha inchi or sunflower oil in healthy volunteers. Plasma fatty acids concentrations were assayed by Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector in 18 adult subjects. After fasting, blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after ingestion of 10 or 15 ml of sacha inchi oil or sunflower oil. The proportion ALA/linoleic acid was 1.37 in sacha inchi oil and 0.01 in sunflower oil. ALA, lauric acid, palmitic acid, linolelaidic acid, cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid, cis-13,16-docosadienoic acid and cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels changed over time after sacha inchi oil ingestion but not with sunflower oil. The time at maximal concentration (tmax) for ALA was 2 h after sacha inchi oil ingestion. No ALA in plasma was observed after sunflower oil consumption. The maximal concentration of ALA was 2.84 ± 0.36 mg/ml in women and 0.94 ± 0.57 mg/ml in men, p  0.05). There is a trend for higher plasma ALA levels with 15 ml sacha inchi oil. After 2 h of consumption, plasma delta triacylglycerol were reduced with sunflower oil but slightly increased with sacha inchi oil. A reduction in plasma delta triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein cholesterol was observed with both oils. Consumption of sacha inchi oil increased ALA and DHA in plasma.

  12. Glycemic markers and relation with arterial stiffness in Caucasian subjects of the MARK study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ortiz, Luis; Patino-Alonso, Maria C.; Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I.; Feuerbach, Natalia; Marti, Ruth; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; Maderuelo-Fernandez, Jose A.; Ramos, Rafel; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Effect of prediabetes and normal glucose on arterial stiffness remains controversial. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial glucose (PG) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) in Caucasian adults. The secondary aim was to analyse this relationship by glycaemic status. Methods Cross-sectional study. Setting: Primary care. Participants: 2,233 subjects, 35–74 years. Measures: FPG (mg/dL) and HbA1c (%) of all subjects were measured using standard automated enzymatic methods. PG (mg/dL) was self-measured at home two hours after meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) for one day using an Accu-chek ® glucometer. CAVI was measured using a VaSera VS-1500® device (Fukuda Denshi), and baPWV was calculated using a validated equation. Results CAVI and baPWV values were significantly higher in subjects with diabetes mellitus than in glucose normal and prediabetes groups (p<0.001). FPG, PG and HbA1c were positively associated with CAVI and baPWV. The β regression coefficient for: HbA1c was 0.112 (CI 95% 0.068 to 0.155) with CAVI, 0.266 (CI 95% 0.172 to 0.359) with baPWV; for PG was 0.006 (CI 95% 0.004 to 0.009 and for FPG was 0.005 (CI 95% 0.002 to 0.008) with baPWV; and for PG was 0.002 (CI 95% 0.001 to 0.003) and 0.003 (CI 95% 0.002 to 0.004) with CAVI (p<0.01 in all cases). When analysing by hyperglycaemic status, FPG, PG and HbA1c were positively associated with CAVI and baPWV in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion FPG, PG and HbA1c show a positive association with CAVI and baPWV, in Caucasian adults with intermediate cardiovascular risk factors. When analysing by hyperglycaemic status, the association is only maintained in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01428934. Registered 2 September 2011. Retrospectively registered. Last

  13. Thyroid disorders in polycystic ovarian syndrome subjects: A tertiary hospital based cross-sectional study from Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, the most common endocrinopathy of women in the reproductive age group seems to be adversely affected by associated thyroid dysfunction. Both pose independent risks of ovarian failure and pregnancy related complications. Aims: The present study from Eastern India is, therefore, aimed to investigate the prevalence and etiology of different thyroid disorders in PCOS subjects. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional hospital based survey-single centre observational case-control study. Materials and Methods: This prospective single-center study recruited 106 female patients with hypertrichosis and menstrual abnormality among which 80 patients were defined as having PCOS according to the revised 2003 Rotterdam criteria and comprised the study population. Another 80 age-matched female subjects were studied as the control population. Thyroid function and morphology were evaluated by measurement of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxine levels (free T3 and free T4, anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (anti-TPO Ab, clinical examination and ultrasound (USG of thyroid gland. Statistical Analysis Used: It was done by Student′s t-test and Chi-square test using appropriate software (SPSS version 19. Results: This case-control study revealed statistically significant higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis, detected in 18 patients (22.5% vs. 1.25% of control as evidenced by raised anti-TPO antibody levels (means 28.037 ± 9.138 and 25.72 ± 8.27 respectively; P = 0.035. PCOS patients were found to have higher mean TSH level than that of the control group (4.547 ± 2.66 and 2.67 ± 3.11 respectively; P value < 0.05. There was high prevalence of goiter among PCOS patients (27.5% vs. 7.5% of control, P value < 0.001. On thyroid USG a significantly higher percentage of PCOS patients (12.5%; controls 2.5% had hypoechoic USG pattern also compatible with the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis. Conclusions: High

  14. Familiar trespassers in histopathology: An obstacle in diagnosis? A single-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Shashikala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histopathologists encounter strange structures in tissue sections that appear unrelated to tissues, and these artifacts may be misinterpreted and misdiagnosed as pathological lesions. These substances may either be present within the tissues or can get implanted into tissue during biopsy procedure or laboratory handling or processing. Aims: The aim of this study is to observe the microscopic appearance of different abnormal structures like commonly implanted food particles or easily incorporated substances during tissue processing with their probable histological misdiagnosis. Materials and Methods: Certain food particles, suture materials, wood pieces, insects, and filter paper were intentionally introduced in the tissue specimens of uterus and lung. Following routine processing and hematoxylin and eosin staining, the slides were subjected to single-blind study and viewed under light and polarizing microscope. Results: The vivid appearances of these structures lead to histological misdiagnosis. Conclusion: Knowledge and familiarity of these commonly encountered extraneous substances will help to prevent misinterpretation.

  15. Using a single question to assess physical activity in older adults: a reliability and validity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Dawn P

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-item physical activity questions provide a quick approximation of physical activity levels. While recall questionnaires provide a more detailed picture of an individual's level of physical activity, single-item questions may be more appropriate in certain situations. The aim of this study was to evaluate two single-item physical activity questions (one absolute question and one relative question for test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity, in a sample of older adults. Methods Data was obtained from the Project to Prevent Falls in Veterans, a fall risk-factor screening and modification trial. One question measured absolute physical activity (seldom, moderately, vigorously active and one measured relative physical activity (more, about as, less active than peers. Test-retest reliability was examined using weighted Kappa statistics (κ in a sample of 43 subjects. Validity was assessed using correlation coefficients (r in participants who received clinical assessments (n = 159. Results The absolute physical activity question was more reliable than the relative physical activity question (κ = 0.75 vs. κ = 0.56. Convergent validity, however, was stronger for the relative physical activity question (r = 0.28 to 0.57 vs. r = 0.10 to 0.33. Discriminant validity was similar for both questions. For the relative physical activity question, there was moderate agreement when this question was re-administered seven days later, fair to moderate/good associations when compared with indicators of physical function, and little to no associations when compared with measures hypothesized to be theoretically not related to physical activity. Conclusions The relative physical activity question had the best combination of test-retest reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity. In studies requiring a measure of physical activity, where physical activity is not the primary focus and more

  16. Nurse leaders' perceptions of the ethical recruitment of study subjects in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Sanna-Maria; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Kangasniemi, Mari; Halkoaho, Arja

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe nurse leaders' perceptions of ethical recruitment in clinical research. Nurse leaders are expected to get involved in clinical research, but there are few studies that focus on their role, particularly the ethical issues. Qualitative data were collected from ten nurse leaders using thematic one-to-one interviews and analysed with content analysis. Nurse leaders considered clinical research at their workplace in relation to the key issues that enabled ethical recruitment of study subjects in clinical research. These were: early information and collaboration for incorporating clinical research in everyday work, an opportune and peaceful recruitment moment and positive research culture. Getting involved in clinical research is part of the nurse leader's professional responsibility in current health care. They have an essential role to play in ensuring that recruitment is ethical and that the dignity of study subjects is maintained. The duty of nurse leaders is to maintain good contact with other collaborators and to ensure good conditions for implementing clinical research at their site. This requires a comprehensive understanding of the overall situation on their wards. Implementing clinical research requires careful planning, together with educating, supporting and motivating nursing staff. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser for Keratosis Pilaris: A Single-Blind, Randomized, Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanop Vachiramon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Keratosis pilaris (KP is a common condition which can frequently be cosmetically disturbing. Topical treatments can be used with limited efficacy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of fractional carbon dioxide (CO2 laser for the treatment of KP. Patients and Methods. A prospective, randomized, single-blinded, intraindividual comparative study was conducted on adult patients with KP. A single session of fractional CO2 laser was performed to one side of arm whereas the contralateral side served as control. Patients were scheduled for follow-up at 4 and 12 weeks after treatment. Clinical improvement was graded subjectively by blinded dermatologists. Patients rated treatment satisfaction at the end of the study. Results. Twenty patients completed the study. All patients stated that the laser treatment improved KP lesions. At 12-week follow-up, 30% of lesions on the laser-treated side had moderate to good improvement according to physicians’ global assessment (p=0.02. Keratotic papules and hyperpigmentation appeared to respond better than the erythematous component. Four patients with Fitzpatrick skin type V developed transient pigmentary alteration. Conclusions. Fractional CO2 laser treatment may be offered to patients with KP. Dark-skinned patients should be treated with special caution.

  18. Acupuncture in subjects with cold hands sensation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung-Chul; Lee, Hyun-jong; Kwak, Min-Ah; Park, Sung-Hoon; Shin, ImHee; Yun, Woo-Sung; Park, Kihyuk

    2014-09-04

    Cold hands sensation is a common disorder within the Korean population. Many Korean family physicians believe that it is a mild early manifestation of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), or may be related to RP. RP is characterized by reversible digital vasospasm provoked by cold temperatures and/or emotional stress, and doctors often prescribe medications that are used in treatment of RP for subjects with cold hands. However, this has not shown a clear benefit, and these medications can cause unwanted side effects. It is also reported that traditional Korean medicine, including acupuncture, is widely used to treat cold hands, although the current level of evidence for this approach is also poor and to date, there have been no published randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for cold hands. We have therefore designed a pilot RCT to obtain information for the design of a further full-scale trial. The proposed study is a five-week pilot RCT. A total of 14 subjects will be recruited and randomly allocated to two groups: an acupuncture plus medication group (experimental group) and a medication-only group (control group). All subjects will take nifedipine (5 mg once daily) and beraprost (20 mg three times daily) for three weeks. The experimental group will receive additional treatment with three acupuncture sessions per week for three weeks (nine sessions total). The primary outcome will be measured using a visual analogue scale. Secondary outcomes will be measured by blood perfusion in laser Doppler perfusion imaging of the hands, frequency and duration of episodes of cold hands, and heart rate variability. Assessments will be made at baseline and at one, three, and five weeks thereafter. This study will provide an indication of the feasibility and a clinical foundation for a future large-scale trial. This study was registered at Korean Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS) registry on 5 August 2013 with the

  19. Single- and multi-photon ionization studies of organosulfur species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Yu -San [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-02-12

    Accurate ionization energies (IE`s) for molecular species are used for prediction of chemical reactivity and are of fundamental importance to chemists. The IE of a gaseous molecule can be determined routinely in a photoionization or a photoelectron experiment. IE determinations made in conventional photoionization and photoelectron studies have uncertainties in the range of 3--100 meV (25--250 cm-1). In the past decade, the most exciting development in the field of photoionization and photoelectron spectroscopy has been the availability of high resolution, tunable ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser sources. The laser pulsed field ionization photoelectron (PFI-PE) scheme is currently the state-of-the-art photoelectron spectroscopic technique and is capable of providing photoelectron energy resolution close to the optical resolution. The author has focused attention on the photoionization processes of some sulfur-containing species. The studies of the photoionization and photodissociation on sulfur-containing compounds [such as CS2, CH3SH, CH3SSCH3, CH3CH2SCH2CH3, HSCH2CH2SH and C4H4S (thiophene) and sulfur-containing radicals, such as HS, CS, CH3S, CH3CH2S and CH3SS], have been the major subjects in the group because sulfur is an important species contributing to air pollution in the atmosphere. The modeling of the combustion and oxidation of sulfur compounds represents important steps for the control of both the production and the elimination of sulfur-containing pollutants. Chapter 1 is a general introduction of the thesis. Chapters 2 and 6 contain five papers published in, or accepted for publication in, academic periodicals. In Chapter 7, the progress of the construction in the laboratory of a new vacuum ultraviolet laser system equipped with a reflectron mass

  20. Resilience and a Sense of Ibasho in adulthood : A study to female college subjects

    OpenAIRE

    芝﨑, 美和; 吉村, 淳子

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether comprehension of “ibasho” (a Japanese term describing a sense of belonging) had a causal influence on the resilience of female college students. We viewed “ibasho” from two perspectives, “sense of authenticity” and “sense of self-usefulness,” and examined the relationships between these two elements of “ibasho” and positive emotions with family, college friends, and friends outside college that influenced the resilience of the subjects. The results indicated that f...

  1. A study of Latchup phenomenon induced in integrated circuits subject to an radiation field environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merabtine, Nadjim; Sadaoui, Djaouida; Benslama, Malek

    2007-01-01

    [Text of English abstract is entered here]. The electronic equipment operated in hostile environment can undergo beside failures due to the normal component aging, degradation due to the environmental conditions of functioning. The interaction of the particles composing a radiation environment with materials within an integrated circuit can induce failures perturbing its functioning or eventually its destruction. The study of the radiation effects on integrated circuits particularly of the Latchup effect aims at evaluating the reliability of electronic systems subject to radiation. The objective of this work will be focused especially upon the Latchup phenomenon induced in the implied components. (authors) [fr

  2. Study of dopamine reactivity on platinum single crystal electrode surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumillas, Sara; Figueiredo, Marta C.; Climent, Víctor; Feliu, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine is the biological molecule responsible, among other functions, of the heart beat and blood pressure regulation. Its loss, in the human body, can result in serious diseases such as Parkinson's, schizophrenia or depression. Structurally, this molecule belongs to the group of catecholamines, together with epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). The hydroquinone moiety of the molecule can be easily oxidized to quinone, rendering the electrochemical methods a convenient approach for the development of dopamine biosensors. The reactivity of similar aromatic molecules, such as catechol and hydroquinone, at well-ordered platinum surfaces, has recently been investigated in our group. In this paper, we extend these studies to the structurally related molecule dopamine. The study has been performed in neutral pH, since this is closer to the natural conditions for these molecules in biological media. Cyclic voltammetry and in situ infra-red spectroscopy have been combined to extract information about the behavior of this molecule on well-defined platinum surfaces. Dopamine appears to be electrochemically active and reveals interesting adsorption phenomena at low potentials (0.15–0.25 V vs RHE), sensitive to the single crystal orientation. The adsorption of dopamine on these surfaces is very strong, taking place at much lower potentials than the electron transfer from solution species. Specifically, the voltammetry of Pt(1 1 1) and Pt(1 0 0) in dopamine solutions shows an oxidation peak at potentials close to the onset of hydrogen evolution, which is related to the desorption of hydrogen and the adsorption of dopamine. On the other hand, adsorption on Pt(1 1 0) is irreversible and the surface appears totally blocked. Spectroscopic results indicate that dopamine is adsorbed flat on the surface. At potentials higher than 0.6 V vs RHE the three basal planes show a common redox process. The initial formation of the quinone moiety is followed by a

  3. Who can benefit from virtual reality to reduce experimental pain? A crossover study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, N; Josman, N; Eisenberg, E; Pud, D

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify predicting factors affecting experimental pain stimuli reduction by using 'EyeToy', which is an Immersive Virtual Reality System (IVRS). Sixty-two healthy subjects (31 M, 31 F) underwent a battery of pain tests to determine each participant's baseline sensitivity to nociceptive. The battery included thermal pain tests (hot and cold) as well as a paradigm to induce conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Later on, each subject participated in two study conditions in random order: (1) An exposure to tonic heat stimulation (46.5 °C/135 s) to the ankle while participating in VR environment which included an activity requiring limb movements; (2) Same heat stimulation with no exposure to VR. Six pain measures were taken during each study condition (baseline, test 1-5). An interaction of time × treatment was found (RM ANOVA, F(5, 305)  = 24.33, p manipulation for pain reduction in individuals with efficient CPM and in women. These findings constitute a promising platform for future research and hold potential for the improvement and facilitation of clinical treatment. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  4. Single Molecule Study of Cellulase Hydrolysis of Crystalline Cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.-S.; Luo, Y.; Baker, J. O.; Zeng, Y.; Himmel, M. E.; Smith, S.; Ding, S.-Y.

    2009-12-01

    This report seeks to elucidate the role of cellobiohydrolase-I (CBH I) in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose. A single-molecule approach uses various imaging techniques to investigate the surface structure of crystalline cellulose and changes made in the structure by CBH I.

  5. Interictal "patchy" regional cerebral blood flow patterns in migraine patients. A single photon emission computerized tomographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Olesen, J; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    1994-01-01

    In 92 migraine patients and 44 healthy control subjects we recorded regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computerized tomography and (133) Xe inhalation or with i.v. (99m) Tc-HMPAO. Migraine patients were studied interictally. A quantitated analysis of right-left asymme......In 92 migraine patients and 44 healthy control subjects we recorded regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computerized tomography and (133) Xe inhalation or with i.v. (99m) Tc-HMPAO. Migraine patients were studied interictally. A quantitated analysis of right...... rCBF images is insufficient to pick up abnormalities; (2) almost 50% of the migraine sufferers had abnormal rCBF/asymmetries. However, these are discrete compared with those typically seen during the aura phase of a migraine attack. One explanation to the patchy rCBF patterns might...

  6. Development of a teaching tool to encourage high school students to study aerospace technical subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Anita; Edwards, Dick

    1998-01-01

    This report details the efforts to develop a design competition aimed at high school students which will encourage them to study aerospace technical subjects. It has been shown that such competitions - based on an industry simulation game - are valuable ways to energize high school students to study in this area. Under the grant, a new competition scenario was developed, in keeping with NASA-Dryden's mission to develop aircraft and foster knowledge about aeronautics. Included are preliminary background materials and information which, if the grant is continued, would form the basis of a national competition for high school students, wherein they would design an Aerospaceport in a future year, taking into consideration the requirements of aircraft, spacecraft- ground transportation systems, passengers who use the facility, and employees who operate it. Many of the Competition methods were studied and tested during two existing local competitions in the disadvantaged communities of Lancaster and Victorville, California.

  7. Generational Association Studies of Dopaminergic Genes in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS Subjects: Selecting Appropriate Phenotypes for Reward Dependence Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Fornari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal behaviors involving dopaminergic gene polymorphisms often reflect an insufficiency of usual feelings of satisfaction, or Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS. RDS results from a dysfunction in the “brain reward cascade,” a complex interaction among neurotransmitters (primarily dopaminergic and opioidergic. Individuals with a family history of alcoholism or other addictions may be born with a deficiency in the ability to produce or use these neurotransmitters. Exposure to prolonged periods of stress and alcohol or other substances also can lead to a corruption of the brain reward cascade function. We evaluated the potential association of four variants of dopaminergic candidate genes in RDS (dopamine D1 receptor gene [DRD1]; dopamine D2 receptor gene [DRD2]; dopamine transporter gene [DAT1]; dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene [DBH]. Methodology: We genotyped an experimental group of 55 subjects derived from up to five generations of two independent multiple-affected families compared to rigorously screened control subjects (e.g., N = 30 super controls for DRD2 gene polymorphisms. Data related to RDS behaviors were collected on these subjects plus 13 deceased family members. Results: Among the genotyped family members, the DRD2 Taq1 and the DAT1 10/10 alleles were significantly (at least p < 0.015 more often found in the RDS families vs. controls. The TaqA1 allele occurred in 100% of Family A individuals (N = 32 and 47.8% of Family B subjects (11 of 23. No significant differences were found between the experimental and control positive rates for the other variants. Conclusions: Although our sample size was limited, and linkage analysis is necessary, the results support the putative role of dopaminergic polymorphisms in RDS behaviors. This study shows the importance of a nonspecific RDS phenotype and informs an understanding of how evaluating single subset behaviors of RDS may lead to spurious results. Utilization of a nonspecific

  8. Photoelectron diffraction studies of small adsorbates on single crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Mathieu

    2002-01-01

    The structural determination of small molecules adsorbed on single crystal surfaces has been investigated using scanned energy mode photoelectron diffraction (PhD). The experimental PhD data were compared to theoretical models using a simulation program based on multiple scattering calculations. Three adsorption systems have been examined on Ag(110), Cu(110) and Cu(111) crystals. The structure of the (2x1)-O adsorption phase on Ag(110) revealed that the O atoms occupied the long bridge site and are almost co-planar with the top layer of Ag atoms. The best agreement between multiple scattering theory and experiment has been obtained for a missing-row (or equivalently an 'added- row') reconstruction. Alternative buckled-row and unreconstructed surface models can be excluded. The adsorption of the benzoate species on Cu(110) has been found to occur via the carboxylate group. The molecules occupy short bridge sites with the O atoms being slightly displaced from atop sites and are aligned along the close-packed azimuth. The tilt of the molecule with respect to the surface and the degree to which the surface is relaxed have also been investigated. The adsorption of methyl on Cu(111) was studied using either azomethane or methyl iodide to prepare the surface layers. At saturation coverage the preferred adsorption site is the fcc threefold hollow site, whereas at half saturation coverage ∼ 30 % of the methyl species occupy the hop threefold hollow sites. Best agreement between theory and experiment corresponded to a methyl group adsorbed with C 3v symmetry. The height of the C above the surface in a pure methyl layer was 1.66 ± 0.02 A, but was reduced to 1.62 ± 0.02 A in the presence of co-adsorbed iodine, suggesting that iodine increases the strength of adsorption. Iodine was also found to occupy the fee threefold hollow sites with a Cu-l bondlength of 2.61 ± 0.02 A. (author)

  9. The brain and the subjective experience of time. A voxel based symptom-lesion mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojano, Luigi; Caccavale, Michelina; De Bellis, Francesco; Crisci, Claudio

    2017-06-30

    The aim of the study was to identify the anatomical bases involved in the subjective experience of time, by means of a voxel based symptom-lesion mapping (VLSM) study on patients with focal brain damage. Thirty-three patients (nineteen with right-hemisphere lesions -RBD, and fourteen with left lesion- LBD) and twenty-eight non-neurological controls (NNC) underwent the semi-structured QUEstionnaire for the Subjective experience of Time (QUEST) requiring retrospective and prospective judgements on self-relevant time intervals. All participants also completed tests to assess general cognitive functioning and two questionnaires to evaluate their emotional state. Both groups of brain-damaged patients achieved significantly different scores from NNC on the time performance, without differences between RBD and LBD. VLSM showed a cluster of voxels located in the right inferior parietal lobule significantly related to errors in the prospective items. The lesion subtraction analysis revealed two different patterns possibly associated with errors in the prospective items (the right inferior parietal cortex, rolandic operculum and posterior middle temporal gyrus) and in the retrospective items (superior middle temporal gyrus, white matter posterior to the insula). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cerebellar activation in verb generation. Activation study with positron emission tomography in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Eriko [Inst. for Rehabilitation and Mental Health, Kyowa, Akita (Japan); Kanno, Iwao; Sadato, Norihiro; Senda, Michio; Fujita, Hideaki; Nagata, Ken

    1999-06-01

    To investigate the role of cerebellum in language function, we used the silent verb generation task in PET activation study. Subjects were 11 right-handed, healthy men with the mean age of 24.3. We used two experimental conditions, resting state and verb generation, and measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) alternately and repeatedly, three times for each condition. In the verb generation task, the subject was asked to silently think of as many verbs associated with auditorily given noun as he could. The subtraction image between verb generation and resting state showed activation foci at the left inferior to middle frontal lobe as well as temporal lobe in the supratentorium, consistent with previous studies. In the infratentorium, there were significant foci at bilateral cerebellar hemisphere and brain stem, which was predominantly seen over the right cerebellum. Activations were seen in the superior-lateral part of the right cerebellar hemisphere including the right dentate nucleus, and in the inferior-lateral part of the left cerebellar hemisphere. The amount of CBF increase by the task as compared with the resting condition in the upper cerebellum showed an increasing trend from the first to the third measurement. The present results suggest specific roles of the cerebellum in word retrieval as well as the practice-related changes during verbal learning. (author)

  11. Cerebellar activation in verb generation. Activation study with positron emission tomography in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Eriko; Kanno, Iwao; Sadato, Norihiro; Senda, Michio; Fujita, Hideaki; Nagata, Ken

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the role of cerebellum in language function, we used the silent verb generation task in PET activation study. Subjects were 11 right-handed, healthy men with the mean age of 24.3. We used two experimental conditions, resting state and verb generation, and measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) alternately and repeatedly, three times for each condition. In the verb generation task, the subject was asked to silently think of as many verbs associated with auditorily given noun as he could. The subtraction image between verb generation and resting state showed activation foci at the left inferior to middle frontal lobe as well as temporal lobe in the supratentorium, consistent with previous studies. In the infratentorium, there were significant foci at bilateral cerebellar hemisphere and brain stem, which was predominantly seen over the right cerebellum. Activations were seen in the superior-lateral part of the right cerebellar hemisphere including the right dentate nucleus, and in the inferior-lateral part of the left cerebellar hemisphere. The amount of CBF increase by the task as compared with the resting condition in the upper cerebellum showed an increasing trend from the first to the third measurement. The present results suggest specific roles of the cerebellum in word retrieval as well as the practice-related changes during verbal learning. (author)

  12. Effects of Bedtime Periocular Warming on Sleep Status in Adult Female Subjects: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Sakamoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that suitable manipulation of human skin or body temperature can lead to improved sleep. To clarify the effect of skin warming on human sleep, 38 female subjects, who occasionally had difficulty with falling asleep, were studied. The participants underwent two experimental sessions, which were carried out in two consecutive follicular phases and randomly crossed over. The participants wore hot or sham eye masks in one 14-day session. The first half of each 14-day session was designated the baseline period (BL without any interventions and the later half was designated the intervention period (INT, in which they wore either the hot or sham eye mask for 10 minutes at bedtime. All the participants were instructed to keep a sleep diary every morning for the BL and INT. The results showed that the hot eye mask was significantly preferred over the sham one with respect to comfort and that feelings of restfulness and being refreshed upon wakening in the morning were significantly better with the hot eye mask than with the sham. These results suggest that bedtime periocular warming has favorable effects on subjective well-being on awakening, possibly due to the sense of comfort experienced at bedtime.

  13. Do subjective cognitive complaints correlate with cognitive impairment in systemic lupus erythematosus? A Danish outpatient study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, A; Bhattacharya, S; Larsen, J L

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of cognitive impairment and its association with depressive symptoms and self-reported cognitive complaints in Danish outpatients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Fifty-seven consecutive female SLE-outpatients were examined with a comprehensive neuropsyc......This study examined the prevalence of cognitive impairment and its association with depressive symptoms and self-reported cognitive complaints in Danish outpatients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Fifty-seven consecutive female SLE-outpatients were examined with a comprehensive...... impaired patients only 18.2% had significantly higher PDQ scores than the normal range. PDQ scores were highly correlated to depressive symptoms (r = 0.67, p subjective cognitive complaints. When these variables and self......-rated depression score were entered into a regression model both depression score and Symbol Digit Modalities Test performances were significantly associated with the PDQ score. In conclusion, cognitive impairments were common in this group of (mild) SLE outpatients, but the level of significant subjective...

  14. Study of creep collapse of tubes subject to external pressure at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takikawa, N.

    1982-01-01

    Intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) tubes of VHTR form the boundary between the primary and secondary coolants of the reactor. The tubes are subject to external pressures at a postulated secondary coolant depressurization accident, which might lead to creep collapse. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure the integrity against creep collapse by analysis. The objective of this work is to study a simplified analytical method for predicting collapse time of a curved tube subjected to an external pressure. The study is made based on the comparison of experimental collapse time of curved and straight tubes. Creep collapse tests were conducted under an elevated temperature and an external pressure. Test results showed that curved tubes had longer collapse time than straight tubes with the same cross sectional ovality. The simplified analytical method for a curved tube is proposed in this report, which is to compute collapse time of a straight tube with the same ovality. And in this method the computed time is considered as collapse time of the curved tube. The above test results show that this simplified method gives the conservative collapse time. And it is confirmed by additional IHX tube tests that the method is applicable to creep collapse analysis of IHX tubes

  15. A pilot study of subjective well-being in colorectal cancer patients and their caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Janet Graham,1 Pavlina Spiliopoulou,1 Rob Arbuckle,2 Julie Ann Bridge,3 James Cassidy1 1Department of Medical Oncology, Beatson, West of Scotland Cancer Center, Glasgow, UK, 2Adelphi Values, Adelphi Mill Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK; 3Eli Lilly Pty Ltd., West Ryde, NSW, Australia Background: Traditional endpoints in oncology are based on measuring the tumor size and combining this with a time factor. Current studies with immunotherapy show that even when median survival is unaltered, a significant proportion of patients can achieve prolonged survival. Objective tumor response does not always mean “overall” improvement, especially if toxicity is harsh. Novel agents are significantly expensive, and it is therefore crucial to measure the impact on “quality” of life, in addition to “quantity”.Materials and methods: We studied the preferences and experiences of cancer patients and their caregivers, measuring subjective well-being (SWB ratings, EQ5D descriptions and time trade-off preferences.Results: We studied 99 patients and 88 caregivers. Life satisfaction ratings were similar between the two groups, but daily mood was significantly lower in caregivers (P<0.1. Anxiety/depression affected SWB, while pain and mobility did not. Positive thoughts about health were associated with better daily moods in both groups, and stage IV cancer was associated with lower life satisfaction. Cancer in remission was associated with better daily moods, but, interestingly, not with patient life satisfaction. Patients with better daily mood and positive thoughts about family were less willing to “trade-off” life years.Conclusion: Caregivers are as anxious or depressed as patients, and report similar levels of life satisfaction but lower daily mood. A focus on SWB could provide a valid assessment of treatment benefit. Given the interesting results of this pilot study, we suggest a larger study should be conducted, measuring SWB over time. Keywords

  16. Nasal hyperresponders and atopic subjects report different symptom intensity to air quality: a climate chamber study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, L; Andersson, K; Bønløkke, J H; Mølhave, L; Kjaergaard, S K; Stridh, G; Juto, J-E; Sigsgaard, T

    2009-06-01

    Short-term exposure to dust and dust added with beta-(1,3)-d-glucan or aldehydes may cause sensory reactions. In random order, we exposed 36 volunteers in a climate chamber to clean air, office dust, dust with glucan, and dust with aldehydes. Three groups of subjects were exposed, eleven were non-atopic with nasal histamine hyperreactivity, 13 were non-atopic, and 12 were atopic. Subjective ratings of symptoms and general health were registered four times during four 6-h exposure sessions. Six symptom intensity indices were constructed. The nasal hyperreactive group had a high and time-dependent increase of mucous membrane irritations, whereas the atopic group had a low and stable rate of irritations with exposure time, close to the reference group (P = 0.02 for differences between the groups with respect to time under exposure for Weak Inflammatory Responses and P = 0.05 for Irritative Body Perception, significance mainly because of the nasal hyperreactive group). Exposure to dust, with or without glucan or aldehydes, showed increased discomfort measured by the index for Constant Indoor Climate, and dust with glucan had a similar effect for the index for Lower Respiratory Effects. For Psychological and Neurological Effects these were dependent on group affiliation, thus preventing a uniform statement of exposure effects for all three investigated groups. Opportunities for identifying persons with high or low sensitivity to low-level exposures are important in preventive medicine and will reduce intra-group variability and thus increase the power of experimental and epidemiological studies searching for correlations between exposures and health effects. The contrast between nasal hyperreactive on one side and atopic and reference subjects on the other side is particularly important. The atopic group indicated a non-homogenous reaction depending on their hyperreactive status, a finding that could be important but needs further confirmation.

  17. Single crystal studies of platinum alloys for oxygen reduction electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrikkeholm, Elisabeth Therese

    the behavior of bulk single crystals, deposition of yttrium and gadolinium on a clean, annealed Pt(111) crystal were investigated in UHV. PtxY and PtxGd alloys terminated with a single atomic layer of platinum were formed after annealing to 500 °C in UHV. These alloys will be referred to as Y/Pt(111) and Gd.......89×1.89 structure, and the Gd/Pt(111) sample has formed a 1.90×1.90 structure compared to pure platinum. From the XPS measurements, it is most likely that alloys with the Pt5Y and Pt5Gd stoichiometry have been formed. The reactivity of the surfaces were probed using TPD. These measurements showed sharp desorption...

  18. Transformer ratio studies for single bunch plasma wakefield acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massimo, F., E-mail: francesco.massimo@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento SBAI, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Marocchino, A. [Dipartimento SBAI, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Chiadroni, E.; Ferrario, M. [INFN-LNF, Frascati (Italy); Mostacci, A. [Dipartimento SBAI, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome (Italy); INFN-LNF, Frascati (Italy); Musumeci, P. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles (United States); Palumbo, L. [Dipartimento SBAI, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome (Italy); INFN-LNF, Frascati (Italy)

    2014-03-11

    In Plasma Wakefield Acceleration (PWFA) plasma oscillations are driven by ultra relativistic electron beams. The ratio of the maximum accelerating field behind the driving beam (bunch) and the maximum decelerating field inside the driving beam (bunch) is defined as Transformer Ratio, a key parameter that determines the energy gain in particle acceleration. We investigate the transformer ratio for different shapes of a single driving bunch. One dimensional, fluid, relativistic, cold plasma equations have been numerically solved. A complete map of the transformer ratio is obtained by varying: bunch shape, bunch length and density ratio. It is found that the transformer ratio critically depends on the bunch shape and on the density ratio. Moreover both in the linear as well as in the non-linear regime the theoretical limit of 2 for the transformer ratio of a single symmetric bunch can be exceeded using asymmetric bunches in the linear regime as well as symmetric bunches in nonlinear regime.

  19. The Notion of Subject in South Asian Languages. South Asian Studies Publication Series, Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Manindra K., Ed.

    The following papers on subject in South Asian languages are compiled here: (1) "Subject in Sanskrit" by George Cardona; (2) "Is Sinhala a Subject Language? (or, How Restricted is Your PNP?)" by James W. Gair; (3) "Some Syntactic Reflexes of Sub-Categories of Agent in Hindi" by Peter Edwin Hook; (4) "The Notion…

  20. Study of diffusion of Ag in Cu single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, R

    2002-01-01

    4.0 MeV sup 7 Li sup + sup + RBS and AES were used for investigations of thermal diffusion of Ag in Cu single crystals. The annealing of samples was carried out in vacuum in the temperature range from 498 to 613 K. The element depth concentration profiles transformed from RBS spectra indicate that the diffusion of Ag into Cu is a typical volume diffusion. The Arrhenius parameters corresponding to the diffusion were obtained.

  1. Preliminary study of impact fragility to RC wall subjected to aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Shup; Hahm, Dae Gi; Choi, In Kil

    2012-01-01

    International experience has shown that internal and external hazards such as fires, earthquakes, and aircraft impacts can be significant safety contributors to the risk to infrastructures such as nuclear power plants. Since the aircraft accident at the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, an aircraft impact problem has been increasingly of the interest and is one of important categories of an unexpected external hazard field. To date, aircraft impact analyses has most focused on the response analysis to the target structures. However, this preliminary study carried out an impact fragility analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) wall subjected to an aircraft impact. The aircraft velocity is used as the important variable of this study. The impact analysis of the applied Ri era's forcing function is used by Abaqus/Explicit

  2. Preliminary study of impact fragility to RC wall subjected to aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Shup; Hahm, Dae Gi; Choi, In Kil [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    International experience has shown that internal and external hazards such as fires, earthquakes, and aircraft impacts can be significant safety contributors to the risk to infrastructures such as nuclear power plants. Since the aircraft accident at the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, an aircraft impact problem has been increasingly of the interest and is one of important categories of an unexpected external hazard field. To date, aircraft impact analyses has most focused on the response analysis to the target structures. However, this preliminary study carried out an impact fragility analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) wall subjected to an aircraft impact. The aircraft velocity is used as the important variable of this study. The impact analysis of the applied Ri era's forcing function is used by Abaqus/Explicit.

  3. Students attitude towards calculus subject: A case-study using structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Noorehan; Hamid, Nur Nadiah Abd.

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the attitude of Bumiputera students towards mathematics. The instrument used to measure the attitude was Test of Mathematics Related Attitude (TOMRA). This test measures students' attitudes in four criteria: normality of mathematics (N), attitudes towards mathematics inquiry (I), adoption of mathematics attitude (A) and enjoyment of mathematics lessons (E). The target population of this study was all computer science and quantitative science students who enrolled in a Calculus subject at UiTM Negeri Sembilan. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was carried out and the inter-relationship among the four criteria was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. The students scored high in E, moderately in A and relatively low in N and I.

  4. Concentrations of garenoxacin in plasma, bronchial mucosa, alveolar macrophages and epithelial lining fluid following a single oral 600 mg dose in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J; Honeybourne, D; Jevons, G; Boyce, M; Wise, R; Bello, A; Gajjar, D

    2003-03-01

    A microbiological assay was used to measure concentrations of garenoxacin (BMS-284756) in plasma, bronchial mucosa (BM), alveolar macrophages (AM) and epithelial lining fluid (ELF), following a single 600 mg oral dose. Twenty-four healthy subjects were allocated into four nominal time intervals after the dose, 2.5-3.5, 4.5-5.5, 10.5-11.5 and 23.5-24.5 h. Mean concentrations in plasma, BM, AM and ELF, respectively, for the four nominal time windows were for 2.5-3.5 h 10.0 mg/L (S.D. 2.8), 7.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.3), 106.1 mg/L (S.D. 60.3) and 9.2 mg/L (S.D. 3.6); 4.5-5.5 h 8.7 mg/L (S.D. 2.2), 6.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.9), 158.6 mg/L (S.D. 137.4) and 14.3 mg/L (S.D. 8.2); 10.5-11.5 h 6.1 mg/L (S.D. 1.9), 4.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.4), 76.0 mg/L (S.D. 47.7) and 7.9 mg/L (S.D. 4.6); and 23.5-24.5 h 2.1 mg/L (S.D. 0.5), 1.7 mg/kg (S.D. 0.7), 30.7 mg/L (S.D. 12.9) and 3.3 mg/L (S.D. 2.3). Concentrations at all sites exceeded MIC(90)s for the common respiratory pathogens Haemophilus influenzae (0.03 mg/L), Moraxella catarrhalis (0.015 mg/L) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (0.06 mg/L). These data suggest that garenoxacin should be effective in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  5. Effects of regularly consuming dietary fibre rich soluble cocoa products on bowel habits in healthy subjects: a free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarriá Beatriz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibre is both preventive and therapeutic for bowel functional diseases. Soluble cocoa products are good sources of dietary fibre that may be supplemented with this dietary component. This study assessed the effects of regularly consuming two soluble cocoa products (A and B with different non-starch polysaccharides levels (NSP, 15.1 and 22.0% w/w, respectively on bowel habits using subjective intestinal function and symptom questionnaires, a daily diary and a faecal marker in healthy individuals. Methods A free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention was carried out in 44 healthy men and women, between 18-55 y old, who had not taken dietary supplements, laxatives, or antibiotics six months before the start of the study. In the four-week-long intervention stages, separated by a three-week-wash-out stage, two servings of A and B, that provided 2.26 vs. 6.60 g/day of NSP respectively, were taken. In each stage, volunteers' diet was recorded using a 72-h food intake report. Results Regularly consuming cocoa A and B increased fibre intake, although only cocoa B significantly increased fibre intake (p Conclusions Regular consumption of the cocoa products increases dietary fibre intake to recommended levels and product B improves bowel habits. The use of both objective and subjective assessments to evaluate the effects of food on bowel habits is recommended.

  6. Initial evaluation of 123I-5-I-R91150, a selective 5-HT2Aligand for single-photon emission tomography, in healthy human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busatto, G.F.; Pilowsky, L.S.; Costa, D.C.; Mertens, J.; Terriere, D.; Ell, P.J.; Mulligan, R.; Travis, M.J.; Leysen, J.E.; Lui, D.; Gacinovic, S.; Waddington, W.; Lingford-Hughes, A.; Kerwin, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    The mapping of 5-HT 2 receptors in the brain using functional imaging techniques has been limited by a relative lack of selective radioligands. Iodine-123 labelled 4-amino-N-[1-[3-(4-fluorophenoxy)propyl]-4-methyl-4-piperidinyl]-5-iodo-2-methox ybenzamide ( 123 I-5-I-R91150 or 123 I-R93274) is a new ligand for single-photon emission tomography (SPET), with high affinity and selectivity for 5-HT 2A receptors. This study reports on preliminary 123 I-5-I-R91150 SPET, whole-body and blood distribution findings in five healthy human volunteers. Maximal brain uptake was approximately 2% of total body counts at 180 min post injection (p.i.). Dynamic SPET sequences were acquired with the brain-dedicated, single-slice multi-detector system SME-810 over 200 min p.i. Early peak uptake (at 5 min p.i.) was seen in the cerebellum, a region free from 5HT 2A receptors. In contrast, radioligand binding in the frontal cortex increased steadily over time, up to a peak at approximately 100-120 min p.i. Frontal cortex-cerebellum activity ratios reached values of 1.4, and remained stable from approximately 100 min p.i. onwards. Multi-slice SPET sequences showed a pattern of regional variation of binding compatible with the autoradiographic data on the distribution of 5-HT 2A receptors in humans (cerebral cortex >striatum >cerebellum). These findings suggest that 123 I-5-I-R91150 may be used for the imaging of 5-HT 2A receptors in the living human brain with SPET. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Caries risk assessment among subjects with periodontal disease using cariogram study model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hari Krishnam Raju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Root caries (RC is considered a serious problem affecting the long-term prognosis of both treated and untreated periodontally involved teeth and has become a major public health problem among adults. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess RC risk among subjects with periodontal disease using the cariogram study model. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 220 participants aged ≥35 years who were categorized as cases and controls based on inclusion criteria. Data were collected using the specially designed pro forma. The clinical oral examination was carried out for recording plaque scores (Silness and Loe, periodontal status, and dental caries experience (World Health Organization 1997. The salivary profile was generated by recording stimulated salivary flow rate, buffering capacity, and microbiological status and risk assessment done using the cariogram study model. Results: Cariogram model revealed 39% and 51% chance of avoiding caries for cases and controls, respectively. Mean coronal caries experience among cases and controls was 14.38± 5.52 and 10.88±5.70, and for root caries was 0.87±1.04 and 0.38±9.85 respectively. Subjects categorized as high risk, according to cariogram had higher mean decayed, missed, filled tooth (DMFT (16.79 ± 4.58 and root decayed, filled tooth (1.47 ± 1.27 than other risk groups. Active periodontal disease and past caries experience were significantly associated with RC through logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: Cariogram can be a useful tool to illustrate caries risk profiles among periodontal disease patients. Along with baseline RC experience, active periodontal disease, plaque, lactobacilli, and mutans streptococci were identified as major risk factors associated with RC.

  8. Magnetization study of a URhSi single crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andreev, Alexander V.; Honda, F.; Sechovský, V.; Prokeš, K.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2003), s. 1437-1440 ISSN 0587-4254. [International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 02). Cracow, 10.07.2002-13.07.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0739 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : URhSi * ferromagnetism * magnetic measurements Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2003

  9. B-cell depletion is protective against anti-AAV capsid immune response: a human subject case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Corti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy strategies for congenital myopathies may require repeat administration of adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors due to aspects of the clinical application, such as: (i administration of doses below therapeutic efficacy in patients enrolled in early phase clinical trials; (ii progressive reduction of the therapeutic gene expression over time as a result of increasing muscle mass in patients treated at a young age; and (iii a possibly faster depletion of pathogenic myofibers in this patient population. Immune response triggered by the first vector administration, and to subsequent doses, represents a major obstacle for successful gene transfer in young patients. Anti-capsid and anti-transgene product related humoral and cell-mediated responses have been previously observed in all preclinical models and human subjects who received gene therapy or enzyme replacement therapy (ERT for congenital myopathies. Immune responses may result in reduced efficacy of the gene transfer over time and/or may preclude for the possibility of re-administration of the same vector. In this study, we evaluated the immune response of a Pompe patient dosed with an AAV1-GAA vector after receiving Rituximab and Sirolimus to modulate reactions against ERT. A key finding of this single subject case report is the observation that B-cell ablation with rituximab prior to AAV vector exposure results in non-responsiveness to both capsid and transgene, therefore allowing the possibility of repeat administration in the future. This observation is significant for future gene therapy studies and establishes a clinically relevant approach to blocking immune responses to AAV vectors.

  10. A comparison of subjective and objective measures of physical activity from the Newcastle 85+ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innerd, Paul; Catt, Michael; Collerton, Joanna; Davies, Karen; Trenell, Michael; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Jagger, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about physical activity (PA) in the very old, the fastest growing age group in the population. We aimed to examine the convergent validity of subjective and objective measures of PA in adults aged over 85 years. A total of 484 participants aged 87-89 years recruited to the Newcastle 85+ study completed a purpose-designed physical activity questionnaire (PAQ), which categorised participants as mildly active, moderately active and very active. Out of them, 337 participants wore a triaxial, raw accelerometer on the right wrist over a 5-7-day period to obtain objective measures of rest/activity, PA intensity and PA type. Data from subjective and objective measurement methods were compared. Self-reported PA was significantly associated with objective measures of the daily sedentary time, low-intensity PA and activity type classified as sedentary, activities of daily living and walking. Objective measures of PA were significantly different when low, moderate and high self-reported PA categories were compared (all P PAQ demonstrated convergent validity with objective measures of PA. Our findings suggest that this PAQ can be used in the very old to rank individuals according to their level of total PA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  11. Persian version of the Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale: psychometric study among subjects with physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajati, Fatemeh; Ghanbari, Masoud; Hasandokht, Tolou; Hosseini, Seyed Younes; Akbarzadeh, Rasool; Ashtarian, Hossein

    2017-11-01

    Self-efficacy plays a key role in varying areas of human conditions which can be measured by different scales. The present study was aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES) in Iranian Subjects with Physical Disability (SWPD). Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and self-report surveys from 214 subjects. The face and content validity, and reliability were evaluated. Discriminates were evaluated between the sub-groups of disability levels, physical activity, and health condition levels. The concurrent, convergent, divergent, and construct validity were assessed by short form health survey scale (SF-36), general self-efficacy scale (GSES), hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), respectively. Replaceable exploratory factor analysis was evaluated. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. There were acceptable face and content validity, and reliability. Furthermore, significant correlation was found between PSES and SF-36 (p disability levels (p = 0.02), physical activity levels (p disability problems. Implications for rehabilitation Psychometric properties of the Persian version of self-Efficacy scale (PSES) appear to be similar to original, English version. The PSES has been shown to have validity and reliability in Persian physical disables and can be used for patients with more different types of physical disability than individuals suffering from only Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). The PSES can be used in clinical practice and research work to evaluate the patients' confidence in performing daily activities.

  12. Relationship between ocular surface temperature and peripheral vasoconstriction in healthy subjects: a thermographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannetti, Federica; Matteoli, Sara; Finocchio, Lucia; Lacarbonara, Francesco; Sodi, Andrea; Menchini, Ugo; Corvi, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    An impairment of ocular blood flow regulation is commonly considered one of the main pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of several eye diseases, like glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an alteration of ocular blood supply induced by peripheral vasoconstriction might be detected by measuring the ocular surface temperature. The ocular surface temperature was evaluated in a group of 38 healthy young subjects (28 males and 10 females; mean age: 25.4 ± 4.1 years) by infrared thermography. For each subject, the experimental procedure consisted of two thermographic acquisitions both lasting 10 s, recorded before and during the immersion of both hands in a mixture of ice and water (1.6 °C ± 0.4 °C). Specifically, the second acquisition began 20 s after the hand immersion. Analysis of variance was used to compare the ocular surface temperature of the two profiles. The analysis of infrared images was carried out every 2 s: at the eye opening (t(0)) until 10 s (t(5)), for both profiles. Data showed that ocular surface temperature increased significantly (p-value temperature at t(0) for P(1) = 0.12 °C ± 0.13 °C). Therefore, these results suggest a response of the ocular hemodynamic to the peripheral vasoconstriction. The ocular surface temperature may represent a cheap, non-invasive and non-time-consuming test to evaluate ocular vaso-regulation.

  13. Basic Teaching Skill Quality of Teacher Candidates in Microteaching Study Subject of Department of Biology Education, Pasir Pengaraian University

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Afifah

    2017-01-01

    This research purposed on knowing basic teaching skill quality of teacher candidates in study subject Microteaching of Department of Biology Education, Pasir Pengaraian University, academic year 2016/2016. This research is qualitative research. This research has been done in February to June 2015. The subject of this research is all of the 6th semester students who are taking the Microteaching Study Subject. The instruments of this research including syllabus, teaching plans, and questionnair...

  14. Study of clone forming cells (CFC) in blood and bone marrow of subjects with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

    Int