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Sample records for single subject design

  1. The Utility of Single Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle D.

    2016-01-01

    Single subject design (SSD) research is a quantitative approach used to investigate basic and applied research questions. It has been used for decades to examine issues of social importance such as those related to general and special education strategies, therapeutic approaches in mental health, community health practices, safety, and business…

  2. Handbook of statistical methods single subject design

    CERN Document Server

    Satake, Eiki; Maxwell, David L

    2008-01-01

    This book is a practical guide of the most commonly used approaches in analyzing and interpreting single-subject data. It arranges the methodologies used in a logical sequence using an array of research studies from the existing published literature to illustrate specific applications. The book provides a brief discussion of each approach such as visual, inferential, and probabilistic model, the applications for which it is intended, and a step-by-step illustration of the test as used in an actual research study.

  3. Creating single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R; Jackson, James W; Small, Stacey L; Horner-King, Mollie J; Lik, Nicholas Mui Ker; Garcia, Yors; Rosales, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the publication of Carr and Burkholder's (1998) technical article on how to construct single-subject graphs using Microsoft Excel. Over the course of the past decade, the Excel program has undergone a series of revisions that make the Carr and Burkholder paper somewhat difficult to follow with newer versions. The present article provides task analyses for constructing various types of commonly used single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007. The task analyses were evaluated using a between-subjects design that compared the graphing skills of 22 behavior-analytic graduate students using Excel 2007 and either the Carr and Burkholder or newly developed task analyses. Results indicate that the new task analyses yielded more accurate and faster graph construction than the Carr and Burkholder instructions.

  4. SSDOnt: An Ontology for Representing Single-Subject Design Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berges, Idoia; Bermúdez, Jesus; Illarramendi, Arantza

    2018-02-01

    Single-Subject Design is used in several areas such as education and biomedicine. However, no suited formal vocabulary exists for annotating the detailed configuration and the results of this type of research studies with the appropriate granularity for looking for information about them. Therefore, the search for those study designs relies heavily on a syntactical search on the abstract, keywords or full text of the publications about the study, which entails some limitations. To present SSDOnt, a specific purpose ontology for describing and annotating single-subject design studies, so that complex questions can be asked about them afterwards. The ontology was developed following the NeOn methodology. Once the requirements of the ontology were defined, a formal model was described in a Description Logic and later implemented in the ontology language OWL 2 DL. We show how the ontology provides a reference model with a suitable terminology for the annotation and searching of single-subject design studies and their main components, such as the phases, the intervention types, the outcomes and the results. Some mappings with terms of related ontologies have been established. We show as proof-of-concept that classes in the ontology can be easily extended to annotate more precise information about specific interventions and outcomes such as those related to autism. Moreover, we provide examples of some types of queries that can be posed to the ontology. SSDOnt has achieved the purpose of covering the descriptions of the domain of single-subject research studies. Schattauer GmbH.

  5. Estimating Intervention Effects across Different Types of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: Empirical Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M.; Onghena, Patrick; Heyvaert, Mieke; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the multilevel meta-analysis of results from single-subject experimental designs of different types, including AB phase designs, multiple-baseline designs, ABAB reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs. Current methodological work on the meta-analysis of single-subject experimental designs…

  6. A new approach to assessing intra-subject variability in single-subject designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Borodkin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Aim: One of the methodological challenges of single-subject designs is accounting for intra-individual variability in performance, which is commonly assessed by applying the same testing materials on multiple sessions (McReynolds & Thompson, 1986. This approach might be less feasible in some individuals, such as bilingual speakers with aphasia, who would need to be tested, using the same materials, on several occasions within as well as across languages. Repetitive exposure to the same testing materials can increase practice effects and further reduce the validity of the testing. In the present study, we explored an alternative approach to measuring stability in performance by comparing the use of identical vs. different (but comparable testing materials. Method: Participants were five monolinguals with non-fluent aphasia following a single left CVA. Participants performed an action-naming task and two narrative tasks: a picture sequence and a personal narrative. There were two testing times, several weeks apart using identical materials. Each testing time included three consecutive sessions, using different materials. Action-naming performance was assessed by the number of correct verbs produced. The verbal output in the narrative tasks was scored for amount (number of utterances, grammaticality (percentage of grammatical sentences, and verb diversity (number of different verbs. Pearson correlation coefficients (r were computed to establish the intra-subject variability across testing times and across sessions. The magnitude of the correlations was evaluated using published guidelines (Strauss, Sherman, & Spreen, 2006. Results: For action naming, the correlations ranged from high to very high (.87 to .98 across testing times and from adequate to very high across sessions (.74 to .96. For the narrative tasks, the correlations between the number of utterances across testing times ranged from adequate to very high (.76 to .97 and from low

  7. Studies Using Single-Subject Designs in Sport Psychology: 30 Years of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G. L.; Thompson, K.; Regehr, K.

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we…

  8. Single-Subject Designs and Action Research in the K-12 Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sean A.; Ross, Margaret E.; Chesser, Svetlana S.

    2011-01-01

    In as much as educational research is concerned with individual student assessment and development, it is surprising that single-subject designs are not more readily utilized in classroom-based action research. The purpose of this article is to emphasize benefits of single-subject research in the K-12 setting, given that teachers teach and assess…

  9. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  10. Brace modification improves aerobic performance in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J; Walsh, A; Frontera, W

    2001-08-01

    Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) can lower energy expenditure in patients with hemiplegia by 10%-13%. Review of the lower motor injury literature reveals insufficient physiologic evidence supporting the use or modification of AFOs in patients with lower motor neuron injury and, specifically, progressive conditions such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. We sought to test the hypothesis that optimal AFOs would improve submaximal aerobic performance and submaximal perceived exertion, while producing no change in maximal aerobic capacity. In an individual with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a single-subject design study was used. An A-B-A design was used, with "A" corresponding to use of the patient's old AFOs and "B" corresponding to the newly prescribed AFOs. The subject underwent treadmill exercise tolerance testing using a modified Balke protocol. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure oxygen consumption per unit time (VO2), and the Borg scale was used to measure perceived exertion. At the same submaximal exercise intensities, VO2, rate-pressure product, and perceived exertion were all reduced when using the modified AFOs. Additionally, these conditions allowed the subject to conduct the treadmill exercise test 20% longer. Maximal VO2 remained constant under all conditions. Optimizing the AFO prescription in a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease can enhance physiologic performance and perceived exertion at submaximal activity levels. Larger controlled trials are necessary to further demonstrate such benefits in patients with progressive neuropathy and other causes of lower motor neuron injury.

  11. Effects of aquatic aerobic exercise for a child with cerebral palsy: single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retarekar, Runzun; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Townsend, Elise L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an aquatic aerobic exercise program for a child with cerebral palsy. A 5-year-old girl with spastic diplegia classified at level III on the Gross Motor Function Classification System participated in this single-subject A-B-A design study. The aquatic aerobic exercise intervention was carried out 3 times per week for 12 weeks at an intensity of 50% to 80% of heart rate reserve. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Gross Motor Function Measure, and 6-minute walk test were used as outcomes. Statistically significant improvements were found in the participation, activity, and body function components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model. Improvements in functional abilities and walking endurance and speed were recorded. These findings suggest that an aquatic aerobic exercise program was effective for this child with cerebral palsy and support the need for additional research in this area.

  12. Rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and n-of-1 trials: introducing the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Robyn L; McDonald, Skye; Perdices, Michael; Togher, Leanne; Schultz, Regina; Savage, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    Rating scales that assess methodological quality of clinical trials provide a means to critically appraise the literature. Scales are currently available to rate randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, but there are none that assess single-subject designs. The Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale was developed for this purpose and evaluated for reliability. Six clinical researchers who were trained and experienced in rating methodological quality of clinical trials developed the scale and participated in reliability studies. The SCED Scale is an 11-item rating scale for single-subject designs, of which 10 items are used to assess methodological quality and use of statistical analysis. The scale was developed and refined over a 3-year period. Content validity was addressed by identifying items to reduce the main sources of bias in single-case methodology as stipulated by authorities in the field, which were empirically tested against 85 published reports. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using a random sample of 20/312 single-subject reports archived in the Psychological Database of Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (PsycBITE). Inter-rater reliability for the total score was excellent, both for individual raters (overall ICC = 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92) and for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (overall ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95). Item reliability was fair to excellent for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (range k = 0.48 to 1.00). The results were replicated with two independent novice raters who were trained in the use of the scale (ICC = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.95). The SCED Scale thus provides a brief and valid evaluation of methodological quality of single-subject designs, with the total score demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability using both individual and consensus ratings. Items from the scale can also be used as a checklist in the design, reporting and critical

  13. Can Constraint Induced Movement Therapy Improve In-Hand Manipulation Skills: A Single Subject Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Kavousipor

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study describes a single subject design (ABA that shows the effective use of constraint induced movement therapy in improvement of quality and performance of in-hand manipulation skills for a 10 year old boy and a 9 years old girl with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, as Dickerson (2007 showed it in arm movement and function. Methods: To determine the effectiveness of CIMT by the use of C-statistic analysis and visual analysis. Approach: The first step was to design a child friendly group activity and home based intervention program through occupation. The possible effectiveness of CIMT was evaluated by daily measurements and video recording of 6 sub skills of in-hand manipulation according to Pont category (2009 in defined activity. Results: For making the treatment more cost effective, families can produce a simple clinical setting at home and participate in their child treatment plan actively. Discussion: A client center intervention will facilitate the use and quality of fingers and hand motion. Also a group activity can motivate participants to participate more and better.

  14. Creating Single-Subject Design Graphs in Microsoft Excel[TM] 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Jackson, James W.; Small, Stacey L.; Horner-King, Mollie J.; Mui Ker Lik, Nicholas; Garcia, Yors; Rosales, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the publication of Carr and Burkholder's (1998) technical article on how to construct single-subject graphs using Microsoft Excel. Over the course of the past decade, the Excel program has undergone a series of revisions that make the Carr and Burkholder paper somewhat difficult to follow with newer versions. The…

  15. The influence of the design matrix on treatment effect estimates in the quantitative analyses of single-subject experimental design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-09-01

    The quantitative methods for analyzing single-subject experimental data have expanded during the last decade, including the use of regression models to statistically analyze the data, but still a lot of questions remain. One question is how to specify predictors in a regression model to account for the specifics of the design and estimate the effect size of interest. These quantitative effect sizes are used in retrospective analyses and allow synthesis of single-subject experimental study results which is informative for evidence-based decision making, research and theory building, and policy discussions. We discuss different design matrices that can be used for the most common single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs), namely, the multiple-baseline designs, reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs, and provide empirical illustrations. The purpose of this article is to guide single-subject experimental data analysts interested in analyzing and meta-analyzing SSED data. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Improving Treatment Plan Implementation in Schools: A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, George H.; Gansle, Kristin A.; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Knox, R. Maria; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Dahir, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-nine peer-reviewed journal articles that analyzed intervention implementation in schools using single-case experimental designs were meta-analyzed. These studies reported 171 separate data paths and provided 3,991 data points. The meta-analysis was accomplished by fitting data extracted from graphs in mixed linear growth models. This…

  17. An evaluation of the stimulus equivalence paradigm to teach single-subject design to distance education students via Blackboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brooke D; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the degree to which instruction based on stimulus equivalence procedures could be used to teach single-subject design methodology to graduate-level professionals through a Web-based course management system known as Blackboard (see http://www.blackboard.com). Specifically, we used the stimulus equivalence paradigm to teach relations among the names, definitions, graphical representations of the designs, and two practical scenarios of when it would be appropriate to implement each design. Most participants demonstrated the emergence of untaught relations, and some participants showed generalization to novel vignettes and graphs. Relations largely were not maintained at follow-up but were retaught.

  18. Evidence-Based Communication Practices for Children with Visual Impairments and Additional Disabilities: An Examination of Single-Subject Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Amy T.; Grimmett, Eric S.; Summers, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This review examines practices for building effective communication strategies for children with visual impairments, including those with additional disabilities, that have been tested by single-subject design methodology. The authors found 30 studies that met the search criteria and grouped intervention strategies to align any evidence of the…

  19. Exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy for irritable bowel syndrome. A single-case experimental design across 13 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Katja; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Edebol-Carlman, Hanna; Schrooten, Martien; Linton, Steven J; Brummer, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent disorder with a significant impact on quality of life. The presence of psychological symptoms in IBS patients such as catastrophic worry and behavioral avoidance suggests the possible efficacy of cognitive behavioral interventions. Exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven to be a promising approach but has only been investigated in a few studies and mainly via the Internet. Therefore, the aims of this study were to extend and replicate previous findings and to evaluate whether an individual, face-to-face, exposure-based CBT leads to improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, avoidance behavior and quality of life in IBS patients. Thirteen patients with IBS according to Rome III criteria participated in a single-case experimental study using a five-week baseline and a subsequent twelve-session intervention phase focusing on psycho-education, mindfulness and in vivo exposure. Standardized measurement of gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, avoidance behavior and quality of life was conducted weekly during baseline as well as intervention phase and at six-month follow-up. Results showed that over 70% of patients improved significantly on gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, and quality of life. Effects on avoidance behavior were modest. These results strengthen and extend earlier findings and provide further support for the efficacy of exposure-based strategies for IBS.

  20. The effect of a motor-based, social skills intervention for adolescents with high-functioning autism: two single-subject design cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Sharon A; Raphael, Emily I; Ceder, Leila M; Khan, Arshi; Timp, Katherine M; Salvant, Sabrina

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a motor-based, social skills intervention for two adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA) using single-subject design. A description of the intervention is provided as a first step in the manualization process. The intervention was provided as a 7-week after-school program, once weekly to the paired participants. Intervention consisted of role-play methods in which motor behaviours were linked with their cognitive and emotional meanings. Baseline, intervention and 3-month probe data collection periods were carried out and then compared using visual inspection of graphed data, paired t-tests and a three-standard-deviation-band approach. Both participants displayed a statistically significant increase in targeted social skills behaviours from baseline to intervention and maintained this level at a 3-month post-intervention probe. These single-subject design cases illustrate that motor-based, social skills interventions may be effective for adolescents with HFA and warrant further testing. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Single-Subject Research Methodology: An Underutilized Tool in the Field of Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Anderson, Glenn

    1986-01-01

    Single-subject research methods are simple, powerful, and very applicable to selected study of deafness. This article considers group versus single-subject designs; an example of withdrawal single-subject design; and an example of the multiple baseline single-subject design. (CB)

  2. Comparison of forward versus backward walking using body weight supported treadmill training in an individual with a spinal cord injury: a single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, Gabriele; Pathare, Neeti; Cirone, Cono; Pastore, Danielle; Shears, Dacia; Sulehri, Sahira

    2014-01-01

    Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) is a task-specific intervention that promotes functional locomotion. There is no research evaluating the effect of backward walking (BW) using BWSTT in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this single subject design was to examine the differences between forward walking (FW) and BW training using BWSTT in an individual with quadriparesis. The participant was a 57-year-old male with incomplete C3-C6 SCI. An ABABAB design (A = BW; B = FW; each phase = 3 weeks of biweekly sessions) was utilized. Outcome measures included: gait parameters; a timed 4-meter walk; the 5-repetition sit-to-stand test (STST); tandem stance time; and 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Data was analyzed with split level method of trend estimation. Improvements in gait parameters, on the timed 4-meter walk, 6MWT, tandem balance and aerobic endurance were similar with FW and BW training. The only difference between FW and BW training was that BW training resulted in greater improvements in the STST. The results of this study suggest that in this individual backward walking training was advantageous, resulting in improved ability to perform the 5-repetition STST. It is suspected that these changes can be attributed to the differences in muscle activation and task difficulty between FW and BW.

  3. Exploring inter-task transfer following a CO-OP approach with four children with DCD: A single subject multiple baseline design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capistran, Julie; Martini, Rose

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach has been shown to be effective for improving the performance of tasks worked on in therapy and the use of cognitive strategies. No study to date seems to have explored its effectiveness for improving performance of untrained tasks (inter-task transfer) in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). This study aimed to determine whether CO-OP leads to improved performance in an untrained task. A single-subject design with multiple baselines across skills was adopted, with three replications. Four children with DCD (7-12years) received 10 sessions of CO-OP intervention where each child worked on three tasks during therapy sessions and a fourth task was identified, but not worked on, to verify inter-task transfer. Task performance was rated over four phases (baseline, intervention, post-intervention, follow-up) using the Performance Quality Rating Scale (PQRS-OD). Graphed data was statistically analyzed using a two or three standard deviation band method. Significant improvement was obtained for 11 of 12 tasks worked on during therapy and for two of the four untrained tasks. These results indicate that the effectiveness of CO-OP to improve untrained tasks in children merit further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring the Effects of Using an Oral Appliance to Reduce Movement Dysfunction in an Individual With Parkinson Disease: A Single-Subject Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Hillary; Rose, Lindsey E; Woodbrey, Megan; Arghavani, David; Lawrence, Michael; Cavanaugh, James T

    2017-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest that wearing an oral appliance can improve the gait and balance of an individual with Parkinson disease (PD). Our primary purpose was to systematically explore this effect using a single-subject study design and quantitative motion analysis. Secondarily, we sought to examine the quality-of-life outcomes following 1-month of routine oral appliance wear. The participant was a 73-year-old ambulatory man with mid-stage PD. Using an A-B-A design, for which a custom-made oral appliance served as the intervention, kinematic and kinetic data were captured during performance of Four Square Step Test, serpentine walk, and tandem walk tasks. Grip strength was quantified with a dynamometer. Quality-of-life outcomes were collected after 1 month of appliance wear using the Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39). Perceived changes in balance, mobility, and quality of life were captured from the participant using an 11-point Global Rate of Change (GRC) scale. Changes in mobility, postural control, and grip strength during appliance wear were suggestive of reduced movement dysfunction. The PDQ-39 revealed a significant improvement in quality of life, primarily related to increased emotional well-being, decreased stigma, and increased communication. GRC scores indicated a clinically significant improvement in ease of movement in the community (+3), ease of movement during the performance of activities of daily living (+4), and in standing balance while performing activities of daily living (+4). Study findings provided quantitative evidence supporting the effectiveness of oral appliance wear for reducing movement dysfunction in a patient with mid-stage PD.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A155).

  5. Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Residual Symptoms in Bipolar Disorder Type II: A Single-Subject Design Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holländare, Fredrik; Eriksson, Annsofi; Lövgren, Lisa; Humble, Mats B; Boersma, Katja

    2015-04-23

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition with recurring episodes that often lead to suffering, decreased functioning, and sick leave. Pharmacotherapy in the form of mood stabilizers is widely available, but does not eliminate the risk of a new depressive or (hypo)manic episode. One way to reduce the risk of future episodes is to combine pharmacological treatment with individual or group psychological interventions. However, access to such interventions is often limited due to a shortage of trained therapists. In unipolar depression there is now robust evidence of the effectiveness of Internet-based psychological interventions, usually comprising psychoeducation and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Internet-based interventions for persons suffering from bipolar disorder could increase access to psychological treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of an Internet-based intervention, as well as its effect on residual depressive symptoms in persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II (BP-II). The most important outcomes were depressive symptoms, treatment adherence, and whether the patient perceived the intervention as helpful. A total of 7 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II at a Swedish psychiatric outpatient clinic were offered the opportunity to participate. Of the 7 patients, 3 (43%) dropped out before treatment began, and 4 (57%) were treated by means of an online, Internet-based intervention based on CBT (iCBT). The intervention was primarily aimed at psychoeducation, treatment of residual depressive symptoms, emotion regulation, and improved sleep. All patients had ongoing pharmacological treatment at recruitment and established contact with a psychiatrist. The duration of BP-II among the treated patients was between 6 and 31 years. A single-subject design was used and the results of the 4 participating patients were presented individually. Initiating treatment was perceived as too demanding under current life

  6. The Impact of Oxytocin on Food Intake and Emotion Recognition in Patients with Eating Disorders: A Double Blind Single Dose Within-Subject Cross-Over Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Eom, Jin-Sup; Yang, Jae-Won; Kang, Jiwon; Treasure, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Social difficulties and problems related to eating behaviour are common features of both anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The aim of this study was to examine the impact of intranasal oxytocin on consummatory behaviour and emotional recognition in patients with AN and BN in comparison to healthy controls. A total of 102 women, including 35 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), 34 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 33 healthy university students of comparable age and intelligence, participated in a double-blind, single dose placebo-controlled cross-over study. A single dose of intranasal administration of oxytocin (40 IU) (or a placebo) was followed by an emotional recognition task and an apple juice drink. Food intake was then recorded for 24 hours post-test. Oxytocin produced no significant change in appetite in the acute or 24 hours free living settings in healthy controls, whereas there was a decrease in calorie consumption over 24 hours in patients with BN. Oxytocin produced a small increase in emotion recognition sensitivity in healthy controls and in patients with BN, In patients with AN, oxytocin had no effect on emotion recognition sensitivity or on consummatory behaviour. The impact of oxytocin on appetite and social cognition varied between people with AN and BN. A single dose of intranasal oxytocin decreased caloric intake over 24 hours in people with BN. People with BN showed enhanced emotional sensitivity under oxytocin condition similar to healthy controls. Those effects of oxytocin were not found in patients with AN. ClinicalTrials.gov KCT00000716.

  7. The Impact of Oxytocin on Food Intake and Emotion Recognition in Patients with Eating Disorders: A Double Blind Single Dose Within-Subject Cross-Over Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Eom, Jin-Sup; Yang, Jae-Won; Kang, Jiwon; Treasure, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Social difficulties and problems related to eating behaviour are common features of both anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The aim of this study was to examine the impact of intranasal oxytocin on consummatory behaviour and emotional recognition in patients with AN and BN in comparison to healthy controls. Materials A total of 102 women, including 35 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), 34 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 33 healthy university students of comparable age and intelligence, participated in a double-blind, single dose placebo-controlled cross-over study. A single dose of intranasal administration of oxytocin (40 IU) (or a placebo) was followed by an emotional recognition task and an apple juice drink. Food intake was then recorded for 24 hours post-test. Results Oxytocin produced no significant change in appetite in the acute or 24 hours free living settings in healthy controls, whereas there was a decrease in calorie consumption over 24 hours in patients with BN. Oxytocin produced a small increase in emotion recognition sensitivity in healthy controls and in patients with BN, In patients with AN, oxytocin had no effect on emotion recognition sensitivity or on consummatory behaviour. Conclusions The impact of oxytocin on appetite and social cognition varied between people with AN and BN. A single dose of intranasal oxytocin decreased caloric intake over 24 hours in people with BN. People with BN showed enhanced emotional sensitivity under oxytocin condition similar to healthy controls. Those effects of oxytocin were not found in patients with AN. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov KCT0000716 PMID:26402337

  8. The Impact of Oxytocin on Food Intake and Emotion Recognition in Patients with Eating Disorders: A Double Blind Single Dose Within-Subject Cross-Over Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youl-Ri Kim

    Full Text Available Social difficulties and problems related to eating behaviour are common features of both anorexia nervosa (AN and bulimia nervosa (BN. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of intranasal oxytocin on consummatory behaviour and emotional recognition in patients with AN and BN in comparison to healthy controls.A total of 102 women, including 35 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN, 34 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN, and 33 healthy university students of comparable age and intelligence, participated in a double-blind, single dose placebo-controlled cross-over study. A single dose of intranasal administration of oxytocin (40 IU (or a placebo was followed by an emotional recognition task and an apple juice drink. Food intake was then recorded for 24 hours post-test.Oxytocin produced no significant change in appetite in the acute or 24 hours free living settings in healthy controls, whereas there was a decrease in calorie consumption over 24 hours in patients with BN. Oxytocin produced a small increase in emotion recognition sensitivity in healthy controls and in patients with BN, In patients with AN, oxytocin had no effect on emotion recognition sensitivity or on consummatory behaviour.The impact of oxytocin on appetite and social cognition varied between people with AN and BN. A single dose of intranasal oxytocin decreased caloric intake over 24 hours in people with BN. People with BN showed enhanced emotional sensitivity under oxytocin condition similar to healthy controls. Those effects of oxytocin were not found in patients with AN.ClinicalTrials.gov KCT00000716.

  9. Single liner shipping service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José

    2014-01-01

    The design of container shipping networks is an important logistics problem, involving assets and operational costs measured in billions of dollars. To guide the optimal deployment of the ships, a single vessel round trip is considered by minimizing operational costs and flowing the best paying...... demand under commercially driven constraints. This paper introduces the Single Liner Shipping Service Design Problem. Arc-flow and path-flow models are presented using state-of-the-art elements from the wide literature on pickup and delivery problems. A Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm is proposed...

  10. Effect of a motor-based role-play intervention on the social behaviors of adolescents with high-functioning autism: multiple-baseline single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Sharon A; Raphael-Greenfield, Emily I; Rao, Ashwini K

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We examined the effect of a motor-based role-play intervention on the social skills of adolescents with high-functioning autism. METHOD. An ABA multiple-baseline design with three 3-mo phases occurring over 12 mo was used with 7 participants. Frequency of targeted verbal and nonverbal behaviors was tallied in each phase. Frequency data were analyzed using repeated-measures analyses of variance with post hoc comparisons to examine differences in targeted behaviors over the three phases. RESULTS. Three participants completed all three study phases, 2 completed Phase 2, and 2 completed Phase 1. All participants (N = 7) demonstrated improved social skill use in Phase 1. Participants completing Phase 2 (n = 5) further improved social skill use. Additional improvements were observed among participants (n = 3) who completed Phase 3. CONCLUSION. The intervention helped participants improve targeted social skill use. Further testing with larger samples and intervention modifications is warranted. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  11. Single wire drift chamber design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krider, J.

    1987-03-30

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 ..mu..m rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles.

  12. A comparison of the effects of visual deprivation and regular body weight support treadmill training on improving over-ground walking of stroke patients: a multiple baseline single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kang, Sun-Young; Jeon, Hye-Seon

    2015-01-01

    The body-weight-support treadmill (BWST) is commonly used for gait rehabilitation, but other forms of BWST are in development, such as visual-deprivation BWST (VDBWST). In this study, we compare the effect of VDBWST training and conventional BWST training on spatiotemporal gait parameters for three individuals who had hemiparetic strokes. We used a single-subject experimental design, alternating multiple baselines across the individuals. We recruited three individuals with hemiparesis from stroke; two on the left side and one on the right. For the main outcome measures we assessed spatiotemporal gait parameters using GAITRite, including: gait velocity; cadence; step time of the affected side (STA); step time of the non-affected side (STN); step length of the affected side (SLA); step length of the non-affected side (SLN); step-time asymmetry (ST-asymmetry); and step-length asymmetry (SL-asymmetry). Gait velocity, cadence, SLA, and SLN increased from baseline after both interventions, but STA, ST-asymmetry, and SL-asymmetry decreased from the baseline after the interventions. The VDBWST was significantly more effective than the BWST for increasing gait velocity and cadence and for decreasing ST-asymmetry. VDBWST is more effective than BWST for improving gait performance during the rehabilitation for ground walking.

  13. Social antecedents of children's eyewtness testimony a single-subject experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepke, Karla J; Henderson, Angela L; Critchfield, Thomas S

    2003-01-01

    In a laboratory simulation, a single-subject design was used to examine the effects of two types of social influence on children's eyewitness testimony, which has not been the subject of systematic behavioral analyses. This study replicates and extends findings from group-comparison studies, and shows that a topic of pressing social importance is amenable to analysis at the individual level, and therefore, potentially, to a behavioral analysis.

  14. The Use of Single-Subject Research to Identify Evidence-Based Practice in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Robert H.; Carr, Edward G.; Halle, James; McGee, Gail; Odom, Samuel; Wolery, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Single-subject research plays an important role in the development of evidence-based practice in special education. The defining features of single-subject research are presented, the contributions of single-subject research for special education are reviewed, and a specific proposal is offered for using single-subject research to document…

  15. Microarray expression profiling of human dental pulp from single subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tete, Stefano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Scioletti, Anna Paola; Tranasi, Michelangelo; Raicu, Florina; Paolantonio, Michele; Stuppia, Liborio; Vinci, Raffaele; Gherlone, Enrico; Ciampoli, Cristian; Sberna, Maria Teresa; Conti, Pio

    2008-01-01

    Microarray is a recently developed simultaneous analysis of expression patterns of thousand of genes. The aim of this research was to evaluate the expression profile of human healthy dental pulp in order to find the presence of genes activated and encoding for proteins involved in the physiological process of human dental pulp. We report data obtained by analyzing expression profiles of human tooth pulp from single subjects, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA. Experiments were performed on a high-density array able to analyse about 21,000 oligonucleotide sequences of about 70 bases in duplicate, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA from the pulp of a single tooth. Obtained data were analyzed using the S.A.M. system (Significance Analysis of Microarray) and genes were merged according to their molecular functions and biological process by the Onto-Express software. The microarray analysis revealed 362 genes with specific pulp expression. Genes showing significant high expression were classified in genes involved in tooth development, protoncogenes, genes of collagen, DNAse, Metallopeptidases and Growth factors. We report a microarray analysis, carried out by extraction of total RNA from specimens of healthy human dental pulp tissue. This approach represents a powerful tool in the study of human normal and pathological pulp, allowing minimization of the genetic variability due to the pooling of samples from different individuals.

  16. Subjective health status of single homeless people in Sheffield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, L; George, S L

    1994-03-01

    A census of single homeless people was carried out over a single 12-hour period in Sheffield. Places of residence of homeless people were identified by local workers with homeless people. Participants completed a questionnaire designed to provide data relating to their demography, employment history, contact with welfare agencies, social status, prison history, past and family medical history, contact with health services, perceived health status as measured by the Nottingham Health Profile, and anxiety and depression measured using the Foulds Delusions Symptoms States Inventory/State of Anxiety and Depression DSSI/sAD. Three hundred and seventy-nine single homeless individuals were contacted. Reliable data were available on 340. The population was heterogeneous with respect to perceived health status, but it was significantly worse than a standard London population on all dimensions. Those with a self-reported history of psychiatric illness had a significantly worse perceived health status on all dimensions than those without such a history. Those reporting a history of admission to psychiatric hospital had a significantly worse status in two dimensions: mobility, reflecting greater age, and more significantly social isolation, consistent with findings in other de-institutionalised populations. Anxiety and depression, measured using the Foulds sAD scale, was raised in all groups in the study, but did not differentiate between those with and without a self-reported psychiatric history, or between those with and without a self-reported history of psychiatric admission. This suggests that these symptoms are a result rather than a cause of homelessness, and that a broad social solution to mental illness in homeless people is needed in addition to specific medical interventions.

  17. Design for subjective well-being in interior architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petermans, A.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Can interior environments engage people in pleasurable and meaningful experiences and thereby have a positive influence on their happiness? This paper discusses why and how interior architects might want to consider implementing ideas in relation to ‘design for subjective well-being’. Despite of

  18. Positive design : An introduction to design for subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.M.A.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how design can contribute to the happiness of individuals–to their subjective well-being. A framework for positive design is introduced that includes three main components of subjective well-being: pleasure, personal significance and virtue. Each component

  19. Self-Management Interventions on Students with Autism: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Monica E.; Moore, Dennis W.; Anderson, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Self-management interventions aimed at skill acquisition and/or improving behavior of students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders were examined. Twenty-three single-subject research design studies met inclusion criteria. Quality assessment of these studies was conducted using the What Works Clearinghouse guidelines, and treatment effect…

  20. Pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole and its main metabolites after single intravenous doses in healthy Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Yang, Man; Liu, Man; Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Xue; Liu, Huichen

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of lansoprazole (LPZ) and its main metabolites 5'-hydroxy lansoprazole (HLPZ) and lansoprazole sulphone (LPZS) after single intravenous (i.v.) doses of LPZ in healthy Chinese subjects, and the relationship between the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 phenotypes and the plasma concentrations of LPZS at the time-points in the elimination phase of LPZ. Twelve subjects were given lansoprazole by i.v. infusion. Blood samples were collected at designated time points up to 24 h. Plasma concentrations of LPZ, HLPZ and LPZS were quantified by a selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. After single i.v. doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg LPZ, C(max) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-t)) of LPZ were 725 ± 151, 1480 ± 190, 3130 ± 480 µg · L(-1) and 1690 ± 1210, 3630 ± 2530, 8080 ± 4550 µg · h · L(-1), respectively. LPZ was generally well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects, and displayed linear PK in the range of 15-60 mg. There were significant differences in the elimination of LPZ and the formation of LPZS between the single CYP2C19 poor metabolizer (PM) and the CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers (EM). The concentration of LPZS at the time-points in the elimination phase of LPZ could be monitored for CYP2C19 phenotyping. As a probe drug for CYP2C19 phenotyping, LPZ for injection might be more suitable than LPZ oral formulations.

  1. Component Analyses Using Single-Subject Experimental Designs: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Horner, John; Sturmey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A component analysis is a systematic assessment of 2 or more independent variables or components that comprise a treatment package. Component analyses are important for the analysis of behavior; however, previous research provides only cursory descriptions of the topic. Therefore, in this review the definition of "component analysis" is discussed,…

  2. Design of an Annular Disc Subject to Thermomechanical Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Alexandrov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two solutions to design a thin annular disc of variable thickness subject to thermomechanical loading are proposed. It is assumed that the thickness of the disc is everywhere sufficiently small for the stresses to be averaged through the thickness. The state of stress is plane. The initiation of plastic yielding is controlled by Mises yield criterion. The design criterion for one of the solutions proposed requires that the distribution of stresses is uniform over the entire disc. In this case there is a relation between optimal values of the loading parameters at the final stage. The specific shape of the disc corresponds to each pair of such parameters. The other solution is obtained under the additional requirement that the distribution of strains is uniform. This solution exists for the disc of constant thickness at specific values of the loading parameters.

  3. Program computes single-point failures in critical system designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program analyzes the designs of critical systems that will either prove the design is free of single-point failures or detect each member of the population of single-point failures inherent in a system design. This program should find application in the checkout of redundant circuits and digital systems.

  4. Comparative Effects of Four Single Leg Squat Exercises in Subjects with Gluteus Medius Weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hae-Rim; Yi, Chung-Hwi; You, Sung-Hyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Lim, One-Bin; Son, Jae-Ik

    2017-07-17

    Of the weight bearing exercises, single leg squat (SLS) represents one of the most commonly used hip strengthening exercises that require more gluteus medius (GMED) activity. To date, no studies have investigated how the four SLS exercises affects muscle imbalance of GMED, tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and adductor longus (AL), and kinematics of hip. To investigate the hip muscle activities, onset time, and kinematics during four different SLS exercises (unilateral squat, unilateral wall-squat, lateral step-down, and front step-down) in subjects with GMED weakness. Repeated-measures experimental design. Research laboratory. Twenty-two subjects (11 males and 11 females) participated in this study and were compared using one-way repeated analysis of variance. Surface electromyography was used to measure the muscle activities and onset time of the GMED, TFL, and AL, and 3-dimensional motion tracking system was used to measure the hip adduction and internal/external rotation angles during SLS exercises. One-way repeated analysis of variance was used at a significance level of p<0.05. The unilateral wall-squat produced higher GMED/TFL activity ratio and lower GMED/TFL onset time ratio than in the other three exercises (p<0.05). No difference in GMED/AL activity ratio and GMED/AL onset time ratio was observed. The hip adduction angle was greater in unilateral wall-squat than in the other three exercises (p<0.05). As for the hip internal/external rotation, lateral step-down exhibited higher hip internal rotation angle than front step-down (p<0.05). The unilateral wall-squat may be recommended as an effective exercise for the subjects with GMED weakness, but they should take care to avoid excessive hip adduction during the exercise.

  5. Effectiveness of standing frame on constipation in children with cerebral palsy: a single-subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivi, Elena; Filippi, Mariacristina; Fornasari, Elisa; Mascia, Maria Teresa; Ferrari, Adriano; Costi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) and quadriplegia or severe diplegia suffer from highly reduced mobility and consequent constipation. Clinicians recommend standing frames to exercise the support reaction in this population, sharing the opinion that the upright position may facilitate intestinal transit, although no evidence supports this assumption. We conducted this study to determine the effects of the standing frame on spontaneous evacuation in children with CP. Moreover, we studied its effects on the frequency of induction of evacuation, the characteristics of the stool and the pain suffered by the child due to constipation and/or evacuation. We implemented a single-subject research design in one chronically constipated child with CP and quadriplegia, Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. To monitor the effects of the standing frame, we measured the outcome of interest throughout the study using a daily diary and the Bristol Stool Scale. This study was approved by the local Ethics Committee. This study has several limitation; primarily, the use of a single-subject research design only makes possible the visual analysis of data obtained from a unique patient. So, by themselves, data obtained do not allow us any generalization for the target population. Future research should verify our results collecting more data and also investigating the effect of the standing-frame on respiratory functions. Although the standing frame did not affect the frequency of evacuations or the characteristics of the stool, its employment reduced the inductions of evacuation and the related pain suffered by the child. However, this study has several limitations, such as the lack of generalization due to the fact that we studied a unique patient and the overall brevity of the study due to external circumstances. Therefore, we suggest future research to verify our results, also investigating the effect of the standing frame on respiratory functions. Relevance to clinical

  6. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  7. Pharmacokinetic Effects of Antidrug Antibodies Occurring in Healthy Subjects After a Single Dose of Intravenous Infliximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenpreis, Eli D

    2017-12-01

    Infliximab pharmacokinetic studies have been performed in patients receiving chronic infliximab therapy. In these patients, infliximab antidrug antibodies (ADAs) increase infliximab clearance and decrease serum levels and drug efficacy. This study analyzed the pharmacokinetic effect of infliximab ADAs in healthy subjects receiving a single dose of intravenous infliximab. Data were obtained from a single-blind, parallel-group, single-dose study of healthy subjects receiving 5 mg/kg of intravenous SB2 (infliximab biosimilar), EU-sourced Remicade (EU-IFX) or US-sourced Remicade (US-IFX). Serum infliximab was measured at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h and at 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 70 days after administration. ADAs were measured pre-dose and at 29 and 71 days. Data from the first ten subjects randomized to each treatment arm were utilized for this study. A two-compartment model of the serum infliximab vs. time curve was developed using nonlinear regression. At 10 weeks, 11 subjects (37%) developed ADAs. ADAs were detected in four subjects after SB2, one subject after EU-IFX, and six subjects after US-IFX infusion. Of these, neutralizing antibodies occurred in one subject after SB2, in no subjects after EU-IFX, and in three subjects after US-IFX infusion. Infliximab clearance was increased in subjects with ADAs vs. those without ADAs (12.89 ± 2.69 vs. 9.90 ± 1.74 ml/h; p ADAs (282.4 ± 56.4 vs. 343.3 ± 61.9 h; p ADAs are common in healthy subjects after a single intravenous dose of infliximab and result in faster infliximab clearance, shorter elimination time, and lower serum infliximab levels. These data confirm that ADAs are common with biologic therapy and significantly impact the efficacy of these drugs.

  8. Theory of factorial design single- and multi-stratum experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ching-Shui

    2013-01-01

    Bringing together both new and old results, Theory of Factorial Design: Single- and Multi-Stratum Experiments provides a rigorous, systematic, and up-to-date treatment of the theoretical aspects of factorial design. To prepare readers for a general theory, the author first presents a unified treatment of several simple designs, including completely randomized designs, block designs, and row-column designs. As such, the book is accessible to readers with minimal exposure to experimental design. With exercises and numerous examples, it is suitable as a reference for researchers and as a textbook

  9. Design, Construction and Measured Performance of a Single-Stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design philosophy, construction and measured performances of a single stage, single entry centrifugal pump demonstration unit are presented. In the construction, close-coupled induction motor drives the centrifugal pump, which draws fluid (water) from a water storage tank and delivers same through a flow control ...

  10. Speech intelligibility and subjective benefit in single-sided deaf adults after cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Mareike; Strauß-Schier, Angelika; Kludt, Eugen; Büchner, Andreas; Illg, Angelika

    2017-05-01

    Treatment with cochlear implants (CIs) in single-sided deaf individuals started less than a decade ago. CIs can successfully reduce incapacitating tinnitus on the deaf ear and allow, so some extent, the restoration of binaural hearing. Until now, systematic evaluations of subjective CI benefit in post-lingually single-sided deaf individuals and analyses of speech intelligibility outcome for the CI in isolation have been lacking. For the prospective part of this study, the Bern Benefit in Single-Sided Deafness Questionnaire (BBSS) was administered to 48 single-sided deaf CI users to evaluate the subjectively perceived CI benefit across different listening situations. In the retrospective part, speech intelligibility outcome with the CI up to 12 month post-activation was compared between 100 single-sided deaf CI users and 125 bilaterally implanted CI users (2nd implant). The positive median ratings in the BBSS differed significantly from zero for all items suggesting that most individuals with single-sided deafness rate their CI as beneficial across listening situations. The speech perception scores in quiet and noise improved significantly over time in both groups of CI users. Speech intelligibility with the CI in isolation was significantly better in bilaterally implanted CI users (2nd implant) compared to the scores obtained from single-sided deaf CI users. Our results indicate that CI users with single-sided deafness can reach open set speech understanding with their CI in isolation, encouraging the extension of the CI indication to individuals with normal hearing on the contralateral ear. Compared to the performance reached with bilateral CI users' second implant, speech reception threshold are lower, indicating an aural preference and dominance of the normal hearing ear. The results from the BBSS propose good satisfaction with the CI across several listening situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The reliability of puff topography and subjective responses during ad lib smoking of a single cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Karelitz, Joshua L; Giedgowd, Grace E; Conklin, Cynthia A

    2012-04-01

    Acute smoking behavior (i.e., puff topography) and subjective responses during the ad lib smoking of a single cigarette in the laboratory may provide useful measures of smoking reinforcement and reward, respectively. However, the reliability of such measures is not clear, leaving uncertain the utility of a single assessment of smoking behavior as an individual difference measure. Dependent smokers (N = 94) smoked normally prior to each of 4 laboratory sessions during which they were instructed to smoke 1 cigarette of their preferred brand in ad libitum and unblinded fashion and then rate it for subjective effects. Puff topography (puff number, total volume, and maximum volume) was assessed via portable Clinical Research Support System device. Subjective reward and perception were assessed by visual analog scales of "liking" and "how strong," respectively. The reliability of puff topography and subjective measures was determined across days by intra-class correlations (ICCs). Differences due to sex and nicotine dependence (high and low Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score) were also examined. Reliability was highly significant for each measure. ICCs were .70 for total puff volume, .60 for maximum puff volume, .73 for puff number, .64 for liking, and .78 for how strong. Reliability generally did not differ by sex or dependence, but absolute values for total volume and maximum puff volume were greater in men and in high dependent smokers. Liking was also greater in high dependent smokers. Puff topography and subjective measures during the ad lib smoking of a single cigarette are highly reliable. Smoking responses during a single ad lib smoking session may be useful in identifying stable individual differences in smoking reinforcement and reward.

  12. Reflective Subjects in Kant and Architectural Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawes, Peg

    2007-01-01

    In architectural design education, students develop drawing, conceptual, and critical skills which are informed by their ability to reflect upon the production of ideas in design processes and in the urban, environmental, social, historical, and cultural context that define architecture and the built environment. Reflective actions and thinking…

  13. Learning Layouts for Single-Page Graphic Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Peter; Agarwala, Aseem; Hertzmann, Aaron

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an approach for automatically creating graphic design layouts using a new energy-based model derived from design principles. The model includes several new algorithms for analyzing graphic designs, including the prediction of perceived importance, alignment detection, and hierarchical segmentation. Given the model, we use optimization to synthesize new layouts for a variety of single-page graphic designs. Model parameters are learned with Nonlinear Inverse Optimization (NIO) from a small number of example layouts. To demonstrate our approach, we show results for applications including generating design layouts in various styles, retargeting designs to new sizes, and improving existing designs. We also compare our automatic results with designs created using crowdsourcing and show that our approach performs slightly better than novice designers.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole and its main metabolites after single and multiple intravenous doses in healthy Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Man; Wang, Xiaolin; Yang, Man; Han, Jing; Liu, Huichen

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole (LPZ) and its main metabolites, 5'-hydroxy lansoprazole (HLPZ) and lansoprazole sulfone (LPZS), after single and multiple intravenous (i.v.) doses of LPZ in healthy Chinese subjects. Twelve subjects (six males and six females) were given a single dose of LPZ by i.v. infusion on day 1, and multiple doses from day 2 to day 6. Blood samples were collected at designated time points for analysis of plasma concentrations of LPZ, HLPZ and LPZS by an LC-MS/MS method. LPZ was generally well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects. After single and multiple i.v. doses of 30 mg LPZ, the C max values of LPZ, HLPZ and LPZS were 1490 ± 290 and 1450 ± 280, 175 ± 71 and 154 ± 56, and 51.3 ± 82.9 and 74.1 ± 158.7 ng/mL, with the AUC0-t values 3280 ± 2550 and 4260 ± 3880, 381 ± 128 and 389 ± 111, and 389 ± 1204 and 700 ± 2255 ng h/mL, respectively. The t 1/2 and CL values of LPZ after single and multiple i.v. doses were 1.48 ± 1.03 and 2.19 ± 1.03 h, and 11.67 ± 4.49 and 9.56 ± 4.08 L/h, respectively. Compared with the pharmacokinetics of LPZ after a single dose, t 1/2 increased markedly, CL decreased significantly and AUC increased by over 20 % after multiple doses. The results indicated that there was drug accumulation of LPZ after multiple i.v. doses, and there was no gender-related difference in pharmacokinetics of LPZ and its two metabolites.

  15. Structural Design of Two-Cylinder Single Overhead Camshaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuxia; Zhang, Kangsheng; Di, Jiejian

    2018-01-01

    Due to the higher performance demand, the camshaft is the key driving part in the engine. Because it is eccentric circular section part, it is very difficult to design and manufacture this kind of axial parts. Take two-cylinder single overhead camshaft for an example, the entire process of camshaft design is analyzed. The practice has proved that the method has simple, flexible and efficient advantages, and it can greatly shorten the design of artificial computing time.

  16. The analysis of graphic design subject and it's proffesional use

    OpenAIRE

    HEŘMANOVÁ, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    The theoretical part of the thesis deals with the concept of curriculum, the national education system of the Czech Republic and the creation of education programs. The practical outcome of this thesis is the comparison of school curriculum selected secondary schools and a survey on the topic ,,Employability of graduates in the field of graphic design in practice".

  17. DESIGN ENGINEERING OF PRESCHOOL SUBJECT-DEVELOPING ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Lilia Nikolaevna Latipova

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the problems associated with design-engineering of preschool developing environment. The copyrights (authors) technologies are considered as an intensive method of adaptation and preparation of children for school. Purpose is to publicize innovative educational project implementing of Yelabuga Institute of Kazan (Volga) Federal University International Laboratory “Innovative technologies in the field of multicultural education” with distributed participation. Meth...

  18. Designing Cartoon as a Supplementary Material for English Structure Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Nurawati; Putranti, Sulistini Dwi

    2015-01-01

    Cartoon comes from an Italian word "Cartone" meaning a large paper. It is designed not only as the media to describe daily activities, but also to entertain, criticize, provoke, and even to teach people. A lot of studies have been conducted regarding the implementation of cartoon in classroom or outside classroom context. It is proven…

  19. A new microcavity design for single molecule detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.; Schleifenbaum, F.; Stupperich, C.; Failla, A.V.; Hartschuh, A.; Meixner, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new microcavity design which allows for efficient detection of single molecules by measuring the molecular fluorescence emission coupled into a resonant cavity mode. The Fabry-Perot-type microresonator consists of two silver mirrors separated by a thin polymer film doped with dye molecules in ultralow concenctration. By slightly tilting one of the mirrors different cavity lengths can be selected within the same sample. Locally, on a μm scale, the microcavity still acts as a planar Fabry-Perot resonator. Using scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy, single emitters on resonance with a single mode of the microresonator can be spatially addressed. Our microcavity is demonstrated to be well-suited for investigating the coupling mechanism between single quantum emitters and single modes of the electromagnetic field. The microcavity layout could be integrated in a lab-on-a-microchip design for ultrasensitive microfluidic analytics and can be considered as an important improvement for single photon sources based on single molecules operating at room temperature

  20. Designing single-qutrit quantum gates via tripod adiabatic passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amniat-Talab

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique to implement single-qutrit quantum gates in tripod systems. It is shown by using the Morris-Shore (MS transformation, the six-state problem with 5 pulsed fields can be reduced to a basis that decouples two states from the others. This imposes three pulses not connected to the initial condition with have the same shape. Using this method, the six-state penta-pod system is reduced to a tripod system. We can design single-qutrit quantum gates by ignoring the fragile dynamical phase, and by suitable design of Rabi frequencies of the effective Hamiltonian

  1. Design and simulations of highly efficient single-photon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Mørk, Jesper

    The realization of the highly-efficient single-photon source represents not only an experimental, but also a numerical challenge. We will present the theory of the waveguide QED approach, the design challenges and the current limitations. Additionally, the important numerical challenges in the si......The realization of the highly-efficient single-photon source represents not only an experimental, but also a numerical challenge. We will present the theory of the waveguide QED approach, the design challenges and the current limitations. Additionally, the important numerical challenges...

  2. A single dose of dark chocolate increases parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Machado DUARTE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of a single dose of dark chocolate (70% cocoa on blood pressure and heart rate variability. Methods: Thirty-one healthy subjects (aged 18-25 years; both sexes were divided into two groups: 10 subjects in the white chocolate (7.4 g group and 21 in the dark chocolate (10 g group; measurements were performed at the university's physiology lab. An electrocardiogram measured the sympathovagal balance by spectral and symbolic analysis. Results: A single dose of dark chocolate significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate. After consuming 10 g of dark chocolate, significant increases were observed for heart rate variability, standard deviation of RR intervals standard deviation of all NN intervals, square root of the mean squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals root mean square of successive differences, and an increase in the high frequency component in absolute values, representing the parasympathetic modulation. Conclusion: In conclusion the importance of our results lies in the magnitude of the response provoked by a single dose of cocoa. Just 10 g of cocoa triggered a significant increase in parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability. These combined effects can potentially increase life expectancy because a reduction in heart rate variability is associated with several cardiovascular diseases and higher mortality.

  3. Design of the fast breeder reactor single wall inner vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terny, P.; Blaix, J.C.; Del Beccaro, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a fast breeder reactor single wall inner vessel. It describes first the studies that led to the optimization of the structure geometry with respect to stability behavior, and subsequently the analyses required to justify the equipment with respect to risks of fatigue, creep and progressive deformation. (orig.)

  4. Weighing Designs to Detect a Single Counterfeit Coin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 2. Weighing Designs to Detect a Single Counterfeit Coin. Jyotirmoy Sarkar Bikas K Sinha. General Article Volume 21 Issue 2 February 2016 pp 125-150. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Mild hallux valgus angle affects single-limb postural stability in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çınar-Medeni, Özge; Atalay Guzel, Nevin; Basar, Selda

    2016-01-01

    Single-limb postural stability is a key component of lower extremity functional status. Factors affecting postural stability should be well defined to prevent injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the hallux valgus angle on postural stability in asymptomatic subjects. A total of 19 subjects were included in the study. The hallux valgus angle and postural stability were assessed. Participants were assigned to two groups according to whether the hallux valgus angle was pathological or not. A hallux valgus angle greater than 15 degrees was accepted as pathological. The relationship between the hallux valgus angle and postural stability, and the differences in postural stability scores between the two groups were analyzed. Postural stability was assessed with a stabilometer. The test was performed with the eyes open. We found a significant correlation between the hallux valgus angle and mediolateral and overall stability index (r= 0.484, p= 0.036; r = 0.463, p= 0.046 respectively). Subjects with a pathological mild hallux valgus angle had greater stability index scores than normal subjects (phallux valgus angle has negative effects on postural stability as a forefoot deformity. This deformity should be taken into account for injury prevention strategies in pain-free younger adults.

  6. Interleukin 2-regulated in vitro antibody production following a single spinal manipulative treatment in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorczyk-Injeyan Julita A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our recent investigations have demonstrated that cell cultures from subjects, who received a single spinal manipulative treatment in the upper thoracic spine, show increased capacity for the production of the key immunoregulatory cytokine, interleukin-2. However, it has not been determined if such changes influence the response of the immune effector cells. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether, in the same subjects, spinal manipulation-related augmentation of the in vitro interleukin-2 synthesis is associated with the modulation of interleukin 2-dependent and/or interleukin-2-induced humoral immune response (antibody synthesis. Methods A total of seventy-four age and sex-matched healthy asymptomatic subjects were studied. The subjects were assigned randomly to: venipuncture control (n = 22, spinal manipulative treatment without cavitation (n = 25 or spinal manipulative treatment associated with cavitation (n = 27 groups. Heparinized blood samples were obtained from the subjects before (baseline and then at 20 minutes and 2 hours post-treatment. Immunoglobulin (antibody synthesis was induced in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by stimulation with conventional pokeweed mitogen or by application of human recombinant interleukin-2. Determinations of the levels of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M production in culture supernatants were performed by specific immunoassays. Results The baseline levels of immunoglobulin synthesis induced by pokeweed mitogen or human recombinant interleukin-2 stimulation were comparable in all groups. No significant changes in the production of pokeweed mitogen-induced immunoglobulins were observed during the post-treatment period in any of the study groups. In contrast, the production of interleukin-2 -induced immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M was significantly increased in cultures from subjects treated with spinal manipulation. At 20 min post

  7. Gestalt Theory in Visual Screen Design — A New Look at an old subject

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, D.; Dooley, L.; Tuovinen, J. E

    2002-01-01

    Although often presented as a single basis for educational visual screen design, Gestalt theory is not a single small set of visual principles uniformly applied by all designers. In fact, it appears that instructional visual design literature often deals with only a small set of Gestalt laws. In this project Gestalt literature was consulted to distil the most relevant Gestalt laws for educational visual screen design. Eleven laws were identified. They deal with balance/symmetry, continuation,...

  8. Evaluation procedures for single axis sinusoidal test to design spectrum requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, P.C.; Javid, A.

    1983-01-01

    Two simple procedures are provided in this paper for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of a single frequency single axis test. For the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of single frequency test to meet broad-band response spectrum requirements, the proposed procedure is based on the equivalence of maximum response of a dynamic system when it is subjected to either type of design input. The required information used for the evaluation is usually recorded and available in the test report. This procedure is applicable to systems with or without closely-spaced modes. When evaluating against broad-band design spectra and multi-axes requirements, an empirical procedure is proposed and it has been found conservative. These two proposed procedures provide a quick assessment on the adequacy of a single frequency test performed earlier. The use of these procedures may eliminate the need of expensive and time consuming equipment re-testing. (orig./HP)

  9. Enhancement of in vitro interleukin-2 production in normal subjects following a single spinal manipulative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Glen M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence supports somato-visceral effects of manual therapies. We have previously demonstrated that a single spinal manipulative treatment (SMT accompanied by audible release has an inhibitory effect on the production of proinflammatory cytokines in asymptomatic subjects. The purpose of this study is to report on SMT-related changes in the production of the immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2 and to investigate whether such changes might differ with respect to the treatment approach related to the presence or absence of an audible release (joint cavitation. Methods Of 76 asymptomatic subjects, 29 received SMT with cavitation (SMT-C, 23 were treated with SMT without cavitation (SMT-NC and 24 comprised the venipuncture control (VC group. The SMT-C and SMT-NC subjects received a single, similar force high velocity low amplitude manipulation, in the upper thoracic spine. However, in SMT-NC subjects, positioning and line of drive were not conducive to cavitation. Blood and serum samples were obtained before and then at 20 and 120 min post-intervention. The production of IL-2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures was induced by activation for 48 hr with Staphylococcal protein A (SPA and, in parallel preparations, with the combination of phorbol ester (TPA and calcium ionophore. The levels of IL-2 in culture supernatants and serum were assessed by specific immunoassays. Results Compared with VC and their respective baselines, SPA-induced secretion of IL-2 increased significantly in cultures established from both SMT-C and SMT-NC subjects at 20 min post-intervention. At 2 hr post-treatment, significant elevation of IL-2 synthesis was still apparent in preparations from SMT-treated groups though it became somewhat attenuated in SMT-NC subjects. Conversely, IL-2 synthesis induced by TPA and calcium ionophore was unaltered by either type of SMT and was comparable to that in VC group at all time points. No

  10. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Tedizolid Phosphate After Single-dose Administration in Healthy Korean Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun; Kim, Anhye; Lee, SeungHwan; Choi, Sung-Hak; Lee, Dae Young; Song, Ji-Su; Lee, Howard; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2017-09-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a next-generation oxazolidinone prodrug that is transformed into the active moiety tedizolid. Its indication is acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by gram-positive species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Although tedizolid phosphate has been marketed in Korea, no data on the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties or tolerability of tedizolid phosphate in Korean subjects are available. This study was designed to evaluate the PK properties, oral bioavailability, and tolerability with a single-dose oral and intravenous administration of tedizolid phosphate in healthy Korean male subjects. A block-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose study was conducted in 3 groups (200, 400, and 600 mg; 10 subjects in each group). In the second part of the study, subjects from the 200-mg group received administration orally and intravenously (1-hour infusion) via 2-way crossover for the evaluation of absolute bioavailability. There was a 7-day washout period between treatments in the absolute bioavailability part of the study. Serial blood samples for PK analysis were collected for up to 72 hours. Tolerability was assessed by analysis of adverse events. Thirty healthy Korean subjects completed the study and were included in the PK and tolerability analyses. Tedizolid phosphate was rapidly converted into tedizolid. After a single oral dose, the T max of tedizolid was observed to be 1.5 to 2.5 hours, and the plasma concentration-time curve of tedizolid showed a 2-phase elimination pattern, with a half-life of ~11 hours. Dose-dependent increases were observed in the AUC last value (29,441-78,062 μg · h/L) and in the C max value ( 2679-6980 μg/L) with the administration of tedizolid phosphate 200 to 600 mg PO. The absolute bioavailability of tedizolid was 95.2% (90% CI, 92.7%-97.8%) in the 200-mg administration group. There were no serious adverse events or clinically significant changes in the

  11. Design of subjects training on reactor simulator and feasibility study - toward the empirical evaluation of interface design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Furukawa, H.; Tanabe, F.

    1998-01-01

    On-going JAERI's project for empirical evaluation of the ecological interface design concept was first described. The empirical evaluation is planned to be proceeded through three consecutive steps; designing and actual implementation of the interface on reactor simulator, verification of the interface created, and the validation by the simulator experiment. For conducting the project, three different experimental resources are prerequisite, that are, data analysis method for identifying the operator's strategies, experimental facility including reactor simulator, and experimental subjects or subjects training method. Among the three experimental resources, subjects training method was recently designed and a simulator experiment was earned out in order to examine the feasibility of the designed training method. From the experiment and analysis of the experimental records, we could conclude that it is feasible that the experimental subjects having an appropriate technical basis can gain the sufficient competence for evaluation work of the interface design concept by using the training method designed. (author)

  12. The Single-Phase ProtoDUNE Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi, B. [Univ. of Padova (Italy); et al.

    2017-06-21

    ProtoDUNE-SP is the single-phase DUNE Far Detector prototype that is under construction and will be operated at the CERN Neutrino Platform (NP) starting in 2018. ProtoDUNE-SP, a crucial part of the DUNE effort towards the construction of the first DUNE 10-kt fiducial mass far detector module (17 kt total LAr mass), is a significant experiment in its own right. With a total liquid argon (LAr) mass of 0.77 kt, it represents the largest monolithic single-phase LArTPC detector to be built to date. It's technical design is given in this report.

  13. A Theory-Driven Approach to Subject Design in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zundans-Fraser, Lucia; Auhl, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The intent of this study was to examine how a theoretically-designed subject in an undergraduate teacher education course impacted on the learning and confidence of pre-service teachers in catering for the needs of students with diverse needs. The subject design utilised theoretical principles of self-organisation that were incorporated with the…

  14. Single-participant research design. Bringing science to managed care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D L; Morgan, R K

    2001-02-01

    The ongoing transition to managed health care continues to have repercussions for health care providers, perhaps the most important of which is an emphasis on accountability for demonstrating the usefulness of clinical interventions. This requirement places a premium on intervention research and highlights the historically strained relationship between psychological research and professional practice. In the midst of this challenge, researchers have increasingly criticized the logic and practice of traditional null hypothesis significance testing. This article describes the history, epistemology, and advantages of single-participant research designs for behavioral scientists and professionals in clinical settings. Although its lack of correspondence with the Fisherian tradition has precluded widespread adoption, the single-participant alternative features a design power and flexibility well suited to both basic science and applied research.

  15. Design of tracking photovoltaic systems with a single vertical axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E. [Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid (Spain). Instituto de Energeia Solar; Perez, M. [Pol Industrial La Nava, Naavarrsa (Spain). Alternativas Energeticas Solares; Ezpeleta, A. [Energia Hidroelectrica Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Acedo, J. [Ingeteam SA, Pamplona (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Solar tracking is used in large grid-connected photovoltaic plants to maximise solar radiation collection and, hence, to reduce the cost of delivered electricity. In particular, single vertical axis tracking, also called azimuth tracking, allows for energy gains up to 40%, compared with optimally tilted fully static arrays. This paper examines the theoretical aspects associated with the design of azimuth tracking, taking into account shadowing between different trackers and back-tracking features. Then, the practical design of the trackers installed at the 1.4 MW Tudela PV plant is presented and discussed. Finally, this tracking alternative is compared with the more conventional fully stationary approach. (author)

  16. Subjective and Objective Quality Assessment of Single-Channel Speech Separation Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Saeidi, Rahim; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on performance evaluation of single-channel speech separation (SCSS) algorithms mostly focused on automatic speech recognition (ASR) accuracy as their performance measure. Assessing the separated signals by different metrics other than this has the benefit that the results...... are expected to carry on to other applications beyond ASR. In this paper, in addition to conventional speech quality metrics (PESQ and SNRloss), we also evaluate the separation systems output using different source separation metrics: blind source separation evaluation (BSS EVAL) and perceptual evaluation...... that PESQ and PEASS quality metrics predict well the subjective quality of separated signals obtained by the separation systems. From the results it is observed that the short-time objective intelligibility (STOI) measure predict the speech intelligibility results....

  17. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmus, Micha Mm; Hay, Justin L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Okkerse, Pieter; Perdrieu, Christelle; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Schmitt, Jeroen; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Silber, Beata Y

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male ( n=41) and female ( n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test. Effects on mood and fatigue were analysed using Bond and Lader and Caffeine Research visual analogue scales, and Samn-Perelli questionnaire. Saliva sampling was performed for both compliance and caffeine pharmacokinetic analysis. Administration of a 60 mg caffeine dose resulted in a significant improvement in sustained attention compared with the placebo. Also a significantly improved peak saccadic velocity and reaction time performance was found, and decreased error rate. Significantly increased feelings of alertness, contentment and overall mood after caffeine treatment compared with placebo were observed. This study demonstrated that in healthy adult subjects oral administration of a single 60 mg caffeine dose elicited a clear enhancement of sustained attention and alertness, measured both in multiple objective performances and in subjective scales.

  18. Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Jörg; Grote, Karsten; Luchtefeld, Maren; Heuer, Wieland; Schuett, Harald; Divchev, Dimitar; Scherer, Ralph; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Langfeldt, Daniela; Stumpp, Nico; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Schieffer, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike

    2013-01-01

    We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, Pgingivitis. Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL: http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Default.aspx.

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF ROCABADO'S TECHNIQUE FOR SUBJECTS WITH TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION - A SINGLE BLIND STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niha Siraj Mulla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:A temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction or TMD is a group of conditions characterized by pain in the muscles of mastication, the temporo-mandiblar joint or both. Rocabado has described techniques includes the Rocabado’s manipulation and Rocabado’s exercises which have both been individually advocated for treatment of TMD. The purpose of study is to determine the effectiveness of Rocabado’s techniques on TMJ dysfunction symptoms, pain, TMJ Range of Motion (ROM and jaw functional limitation for subjects with temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. Method: Pre to post test experimental study design, subjects with temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction randomized into two groups with 15 subjects into each group with total of 30 subjects in Study and control group, respectively. The study group received the Rocabado’s technique which consisted of Rocabado’s non-thrust TMJ manipulation and Rocabado’s exercises along with conventional TMJ exercises and the control group received only conventional TMJ exercises. The exercises were performed for 6 times per each session, six times in a day, one session under supervision and remaining five sessions by the subject at home for 6 days in a week for duration of 2 weeks. The outcome measurements such as VAS for pain, TMJ ROM, Fonseca’s questionnaire rating for TMJ dysfunction symptoms and jaw function limitation score (JFLS was measured before and after two weeks of intervention. Results: Comparative analysis, using Independent ‘t’ test and Mann Whitney U- test found that the means of VAS, TMJ ROM, Fonseca’s questionnaire and JFLS scores showed statistically significant difference (p <0.05 when the pre-intervention means and post-intervention means were compared between two groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that Rocabado’s technique found to have statistically and clinically significant added effect with conventional TMJ exercises shown greater percentage of improvements obtained

  20. JEAB Research Over Time: Species Used, Experimental Designs, Statistical Analyses, and Sex of Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Zachary J; Watkins, Erin E; Poling, Alan

    2015-10-01

    We examined the species used as subjects in every article published in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (JEAB) from 1958 through 2013. We also determined the sex of subjects in every article with human subjects (N = 524) and in an equal number of randomly selected articles with nonhuman subjects, as well as the general type of experimental designs used. Finally, the percentage of articles reporting an inferential statistic was determined at 5-year intervals. In all, 35,317 subjects were studied in 3,084 articles; pigeons ranked first and humans second in number used. Within-subject experimental designs were more popular than between-subjects designs regardless of whether human or nonhuman subjects were studied but were used in a higher percentage of articles with nonhumans (75.4 %) than in articles with humans (68.2 %). The percentage of articles reporting an inferential statistic has increased over time, and more than half of the articles published in 2005 and 2010 reported one. Researchers who publish in JEAB frequently depart from Skinner's preferred research strategy, but it is not clear whether such departures are harmful. Finally, the sex of subjects was not reported in a sizable percentage of articles with both human and nonhuman subjects. This is an unfortunate oversight.

  1. Considerations in Writing About Single-Case Experimental Design Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolasky, Richard L

    2016-12-01

    Single-case experimental design (SCED) studies are particularly useful for examining the processes and outcomes of psychological and behavioral studies. Accurate reporting of SCED studies is critical in explaining the study to the reader and allowing replication. This paper outlines important elements that authors should cover when reporting the results of a SCED study. Authors should provide details on the participant, independent and dependent variables under examination, materials and procedures, and data analysis. Particular emphasis should be placed on justifying the assumptions made and explaining how violations of these assumptions may alter the results of the SCED study.

  2. Optimal Multitrial Prediction Combination and Subject-Specific Adaptation for Minimal Training Brain Switch Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, L.; Blokland, Y.M.; Farquhar, J.D.R.; Bruhn, J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems are traditionally designed by taking into account user-specific data to enable practical use. More recently, subject independent (SI) classification algorithms have been developed which bypass the subject specific adaptation and enable rapid use of the system.

  3. Optimal multitrial prediction combination and subject-specific adaptation for minimal training brain switch designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, L.; Blokland, Y.M.; Farquhar, J.D.R.; Bruhn, J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface systems are traditionally designed by taking into account user-specific data to enable practical use. More recently, subject independent (SI) classification algorithms have been developed which bypass the subject specific adaptation and enable rapid use of the system. A

  4. Towards sustainable design for single-use medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jacob J; Hitchcock, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Despite their sophistication and value, single-use medical devices have become commodity items in the developed world. Cheap raw materials along with large scale manufacturing and distribution processes have combined to make many medical devices more expensive to resterilize, package and restock than to simply discard. This practice is not sustainable or scalable on a global basis. As the petrochemicals that provide raw materials become more expensive and the global reach of these devices continues into rapidly developing economies, there is a need for device designs that take into account the total life-cycle of these products, minimize the amount of non-renewable materials consumed and consider alternative hybrid reusable / disposable approaches. In this paper, we describe a methodology to perform life cycle and functional analyses to create additional design requirements for medical devices. These types of sustainable approaches can move the medical device industry even closer to the "triple bottom line"--people, planet, profit.

  5. STATSLAB: An open-source EEG toolbox for computing single-subject effects using robust statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campopiano, Allan; van Noordt, Stefon J R; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2018-03-21

    Research on robust statistics during the past half century provides concrete evidence that classical hypothesis tests that rely on the sample mean and variance are problematic. Even seemingly minor departures from normality are now known to create major problems in terms of increased error rates and decreased power. Fortunately, numerous robust estimation techniques have been developed that circumvent the need for strict assumptions of normality and equal variances, leading to increased power and accuracy when testing hypotheses. Two robust methods that have been shown to have practical value across a wide range of applied situations are the trimmed mean and percentile bootstrap test. To facilitate the uptake of robust methods into the behavioural sciences, especially when dealing with trial-based data such as EEG, we introduce STATSLAB: An open-source EEG toolbox for computing single-subject effects using robust statistics. With the STATSLAB toolbox users can apply the percentile bootstrap test, with trimmed means, to a variety of neural signals including voltages, global field amplitude, and spectral features for both scalp channels and independent components. The toolbox offers a range of analytical strategies and is packaged with a fully functional graphical user interface that includes documentation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Using virtual reality to distinguish subjects with multiple- but not single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Kargar, Mahmoud; Hesami, Ehsan

    2018-03-01

    Spatial disorientation is a hallmark of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease. Our aim was to use virtual reality to determine the allocentric and egocentric memory deficits of subjects with single-domain aMCI (aMCIsd) and multiple-domain aMCI (aMCImd). For this purpose, we introduced an advanced virtual reality navigation task (VRNT) to distinguish these deficits in mild Alzheimer's disease (miAD), aMCIsd, and aMCImd. The VRNT performance of 110 subjects, including 20 with miAD, 30 with pure aMCIsd, 30 with pure aMCImd, and 30 cognitively normal controls was compared. Our newly developed VRNT consists of a virtual neighbourhood (allocentric memory) and virtual maze (egocentric memory). Verbal and visuospatial memory impairments were also examined with Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, respectively. We found that miAD and aMCImd subjects were impaired in both allocentric and egocentric memory, but aMCIsd subjects performed similarly to the normal controls on both tasks. The miAD, aMCImd, and aMCIsd subjects performed worse on finding the target or required more time in the virtual environment than the aMCImd, aMCIsd, and normal controls, respectively. Our findings indicated the aMCImd and miAD subjects, as well as the aMCIsd subjects, were more impaired in egocentric orientation than allocentric orientation. We concluded that VRNT can distinguish aMCImd subjects, but not aMCIsd subjects, from normal elderly subjects. The VRNT, along with the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, can be used as a valid diagnostic tool for properly distinguishing different forms of aMCI. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  7. Computing tools for implementing standards for single-case designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ting; Peng, Chao-Ying Joanne; Chen, Ming-E

    2015-11-01

    In the single-case design (SCD) literature, five sets of standards have been formulated and distinguished: design standards, assessment standards, analysis standards, reporting standards, and research synthesis standards. This article reviews computing tools that can assist researchers and practitioners in meeting the analysis standards recommended by the What Works Clearinghouse: Procedures and Standards Handbook-the WWC standards. These tools consist of specialized web-based calculators or downloadable software for SCD data, and algorithms or programs written in Excel, SAS procedures, SPSS commands/Macros, or the R programming language. We aligned these tools with the WWC standards and evaluated them for accuracy and treatment of missing data, using two published data sets. All tools were tested to be accurate. When missing data were present, most tools either gave an error message or conducted analysis based on the available data. Only one program used a single imputation method. This article concludes with suggestions for an inclusive computing tool or environment, additional research on the treatment of missing data, and reasonable and flexible interpretations of the WWC standards. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Pen needle design influences ease of insertion, pain, and skin trauma in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia A; Jensen, Morten L; Berg Madsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    subject and in random order. Penetration force (PF) through the skin, pain perception on 100 mm visual analog scale, and change in skin blood perfusion (SBP) were quantified after the insertions. RESULTS: Needle diameter was positively related to PF and SBP (ptrend relation...... of insertion, pain and skin trauma. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: 30 subjects with injection-treated type 2 diabetes and body mass index 25-35 kg/m(2) were included in the single-blinded study. Each subject received abdominal insertions with 18 different types of needles. All needles were tested twice per....... Lack of needle lubrication and small 'needle hooks' increased PF and SBP (pskin and in polyurethane rubber were linearly related, and pain outcome...

  9. POBE: A Computer Program for Optimal Design of Multi-Subject Blocked fMRI Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Maus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies, researchers can use multi-subject blocked designs to identify active brain regions for a certain stimulus type of interest. Before performing such an experiment, careful planning is necessary to obtain efficient stimulus effect estimators within the available financial resources. The optimal number of subjects and the optimal scanning time for a multi-subject blocked design with fixed experimental costs can be determined using optimal design methods. In this paper, the user-friendly computer program POBE 1.2 (program for optimal design of blocked experiments, version 1.2 is presented. POBE provides a graphical user interface for fMRI researchers to easily and efficiently design their experiments. The computer program POBE calculates the optimal number of subjects and the optimal scanning time for user specified experimental factors and model parameters so that the statistical efficiency is maximised for a given study budget. POBE can also be used to determine the minimum budget for a given power. Furthermore, a maximin design can be determined as efficient design for a possible range of values for the unknown model parameters. In this paper, the computer program is described and illustrated with typical experimental factors for a blocked fMRI experiment.

  10. Evaluation of the single radiosensitivity in patients subjected to medical exposure that show severe skin reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Portas, M.; Perez, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    The Burnt Hospital of the Buenos Aires City Government (HQGCBA) it is a hospital of reference of the Net of Medical Responses in Radiological Emergencies of the Argentine Republic. In the mark of an agreement among the HQGCBA and the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN), it is in execution a study protocol for the one boarding diagnoses and therapeutic of radioinduced cutaneous leisure. They exist individual variations that can condition the response to the ionizing radiations (IR), so much in accidental exposures as having programmed (radiotherapy, radiology interventionist). In this context, the individual radiosensitivity is evaluated in the patients signed up in this protocol that presented sharp or late cutaneous reactions, with grades of severity 3-4 (approaches EORTC/RTOG). The capacity of repair of the DNA was evaluated in outlying blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro (2 Gy, gamma of Co-60) by means of the micronucleus techniques and comet essay in alkaline conditions. In this work two cases in those that is applied this study protocol, the therapeutic answer and its correlate with the discoveries of the radiosensitivity tests is presented. Case 1: patient of feminine sex, subjected to external radiotherapy by a breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma; developed sharp cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 3 (confluent humid epithelitis) that motivate the interruption of the treatment. Case 2: patient of masculine sex, subjected to a coronary angioplasty (interventionist radiology); developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 4 (ulceration in dorsal region). Both patients were treated with topical trolamine associated to systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and antioxidants. The therapeutic answer is evaluated by means of clinical pursuit, photographic serial register and complementary exams (thermography and ultrasonography of high frequency). In the case 1 the answer was very favorable, with precocious local improvement and complete remission of symptoms and

  11. Whispering--a single-subject study of glottal configuration and aerodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Johan; Scherer, Ronald; Hess, Markus; Müller, Frank

    2010-09-01

    Whisper productions were produced by a single adult male subject over a wide range of subglottal pressures, glottal areas, and glottal flows. Dimensional measurements were made of these three variables, including glottal perimeter. Subglottal pressure was directly obtained by a pressure transducer in a tracheal catheter, and wide-band flow with a pneumotach mask. Four types of whispers were used-hyperfunctional, hypofunctional, neutral, and postphonation-in addition to three levels of loudness (soft, medium, loud). Sequences of the /pae/ syllable were used. Video recordings of the larynx were made. The glottis was outlined by hand with extrapolation for unseen parts, and area and perimeter were obtained through image analysis software. The whisper tokens resulted in the following wide ranges: subglottal pressure: 1.3-17 cm H2O; glottal flow: 0.9-1.71 L/s; glottal area: 0.065-1.76 m2; and glottal perimeter: 1.09-6.55 cm. Hyperfunctional whisper tended to have higher subglottal pressures and lower areas and flows than hypofunctional whisper, with neutral and postphonation whisper values in between. An important finding is that glottal flow changed more for small changes of area when the area was already small, and did not create much flow change when area was changed for already larger areas; that is, whisper is "more sensitive" to airflow changes for smaller glottal areas. A general equation for whisper aerodynamics was obtained, namely, P (subglottal pressure [cm H2O])=C X F (glottal flow [cm(3)/s]), where C = 0.052 x A(4) - 0.1913 x A(3) + 0.2577 x A(2) - 0.1523 x A+0.0388, where A is the glottal area (cm(2)). Another general equation for nondimensional terms (pressure coefficient vs Reynolds number) also is offered. Implications for whisper flow resistance and aerodynamic power are given. These results give insight into whisper aerodynamics and offer equations relevant to speech synthesis. Copyright © 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  12. Pen needle design influences ease of insertion, pain, and skin trauma in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Præstmark, Kezia A; Jensen, Morten L; Madsen, Nils B; Kildegaard, Jonas; Stallknecht, Bente M

    2016-01-01

    Pen needles used for subcutaneous injections have gradually become shorter, thinner and more thin walled, and thereby less robust to patient reuse. Thus, different needle sizes, alternative tip designs and needles resembling reuse were tested to explore how needle design influences ease of insertion, pain and skin trauma. 30 subjects with injection-treated type 2 diabetes and body mass index 25-35 kg/m 2 were included in the single-blinded study. Each subject received abdominal insertions with 18 different types of needles. All needles were tested twice per subject and in random order. Penetration force (PF) through the skin, pain perception on 100 mm visual analog scale, and change in skin blood perfusion (SBP) were quantified after the insertions. Needle diameter was positively related to PF and SBP (ptrend relation. Lack of needle lubrication and small 'needle hooks' increased PF and SBP (pskin and in polyurethane rubber were linearly related, and pain outcome was dependent of SBP increase. The shape and design of a needle and the needle tip affect ease of insertion, pain and skin trauma. Relations are seen across different data acquisition methods and across species, enabling needle performance testing outside of clinical trials. NCT02531776; results.

  13. Studies on Design Automation and Arithmetic Circuit Design for Single-Flux-Quantum Digital Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    小畑, 幸嗣; Obata, Koji

    2008-01-01

    Superconductive single-flux-quantum (SFQ) circuit technology attracts attention as a nextgeneration technology of integrated circuits because of its ultra-fast computation speedand low power consumption. In SFQ digital circuits, unlike CMOS digital circuits, apulse is used as a carrier of information and the representation of the logic values isdifferent from that in CMOS digital circuits. Therefore, design automation algorithms andstructure of arithmetic circuits suitable for SFQ digital cir...

  14. Picture Exchange Communication System with Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephanie L.; Banda, Devender R.

    2010-01-01

    Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a picture-based communication strategy used to teach communication skills to persons with developmental disabilities including autism. This article systematically reviews 13 published single-subject studies to examine the effectiveness of PECS, the effects of PECS on speech and problem behaviors,…

  15. CRISPR library designer (CLD): software for multispecies design of single guide RNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heigwer, Florian; Zhan, Tianzuo; Breinig, Marco; Winter, Jan; Brügemann, Dirk; Leible, Svenja; Boutros, Michael

    2016-03-24

    Genetic screens using CRISPR/Cas9 are a powerful method for the functional analysis of genomes. Here we describe CRISPR library designer (CLD), an integrated bioinformatics application for the design of custom single guide RNA (sgRNA) libraries for all organisms with annotated genomes. CLD is suitable for the design of libraries using modified CRISPR enzymes and targeting non-coding regions. To demonstrate its utility, we perform a pooled screen for modulators of the TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) pathway using a custom library of 12,471 sgRNAs. CLD predicts a high fraction of functional sgRNAs and is publicly available at https://github.com/boutroslab/cld.

  16. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and safety of single and multiple ceftaroline fosamil infusions in healthy Chinese and Western subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Sunzel, Maria; Xu, Peng; Edeki, Timi; Wilson, David; Li, Jianguo; Li, Haiyan

    2015-08-01

    Two phase I studies in healthy Chinese (NCT01458743) and Western (NCT01612507) subjects evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of single and multiple ceftaroline fosamil 600 mg infusions administered every 8 or 12 hours (q8h or q12h). Each study enrolled subjects sequentially into 1 of 2 cohorts (cohort 1: 60-minute infusions; cohort 2: 120-minute infusions). All subjects in the Chinese (n = 26) study received open label ceftaroline fosamil; in the Western study, subjects (n = 41) in each cohort were randomized 3 : 1 to ceftaroline fosamil or placebo infusions. Single infusions were administered on days 1 and 8. On days 2 - 7 (3 - 7 for Chinese study, cohort 1) subjects received q12h or q8h infusions. Plasma and urine were collected on days 1 and 8 for PK analysis. Ceftaroline PK was linear and time-independent following single and multiple doses of ceftaroline fosamil. The magnitude and timing of peak plasma concentrations of ceftaroline (active metabolite), ceftaroline fosamil (prodrug), and ceftaroline M-1 (inactive metabolite) varied according to the ceftaroline fosamil dosing schedule (q12h or q8h) and infusion duration (60 minutes or 120 minutes), but overall plasma ceftaroline exposures within the respective dosing intervals were broadly similar across cohorts. The most frequent adverse events were rash/drug eruption, most of which were of mild-moderate intensity and considered related to treatment. Ceftaroline PK was broadly similar in healthy Chinese and Western subjects receiving equivalent dose regimens. The tolerability profile of ceftaroline fosamil in Chinese and Western subjects was consistent with previous clinical trials.

  17. The Role of Subjective Well-Being in Co-Designing Open-Design Assistive Devices; design case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Couvreur, L.; Dejonghe, W.; Detand, J.; Goossens, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the role of subjective well-being within the process of making together a personalized assistive device. Through a process of social product adaptation, assistive artifacts become part of occupational therapy and co-evolve with clients. Personal digital fabrication tools

  18. Designing Infographics to support teaching complex science subject: A comparison between static and animated Infographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hesham Galal

    This thesis explores the proper principles and rules for creating excellent infographics that communicate information successfully and effectively. Not only does this thesis examine the creation of Infographics, it also tries to answer which format, Static or Animated Infographics, is the most effective when used as a teaching-aid framework for complex science subjects, and if compelling Infographics in the preferred format facilitate the learning experience. The methodology includes the creation of infographic using two formats (Static and Animated) of a fairly complex science subject (Phases Of The Moon), which were then tested for their efficacy as a whole, and the two formats were compared in terms of information comprehension and retention. My hypothesis predicts that the creation of an infographic using the animated format would be more effective in communicating a complex science subject (Phases Of The Moon), specifically when using 3D computer animation to visualize the topic. This would also help different types of learners to easily comprehend science subjects. Most of the animated infographics produced nowadays are created for marketing and business purposes and do not implement the analytical design principles required for creating excellent information design. I believe that science learners are still in need of more variety in their methods of learning information, and that infographics can be of great assistance. The results of this thesis study suggests that using properly designed infographics would be of great help in teaching complex science subjects that involve spatial and temporal data. This could facilitate learning science subjects and consequently impact the interest of young learners in STEM.

  19. Inactivation of single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator by thrombin in human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, E. A.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Bos, R.; Haverkate, F.; Lassen, M. R.; de Maat, M. P.; Rijken, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    Thrombin cleaves single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) into a virtually inactive two-chain form (tcu-PA/T), a process that may protect a blood clot from early fibrinolysis. It is not known under what circumstances tcu-PA/T can be generated in vivo. We have studied the occurrence

  20. Cost Optimal Design of a Single-Phase Dry Power Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Basak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Dry type transformers are preferred to their oil-immersed counterparts for various reasons, particularly because their operation is hazardless. The application of dry transformers was limited to small ratings in the earlier days. But now these are being used for considerably higher ratings.  Therefore, their cost-optimal design has gained importance. This paper deals with the design procedure for achieving cost optimal design of a dry type single-phase power transformer of small rating, subject to usual design constraints on efficiency and voltage regulation. The selling cost for the transformer has been taken as the objective function. Only two key variables have been chosen, the turns/volt and the height: width ratio of window, which affects the cost function to high degrees. Other variables have been chosen on the basis of designers’ experience. Copper has been used as conductor material and CRGOS as core material to achieve higher efficiency, lower running cost and compact design. The electrical and magnetic loadings have been kept at their maximum values without violating the design constraints. The optimal solution has been obtained by the method of exhaustive search using nested loops.

  1. Effect of Vibrations on Lifetime of Ni Base Single Crystals Subjected to Tensile Stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Mintách, Rastislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 567-568, - (2008), s. 293-296 ISSN 0255-5476. [MSMF /5./. Brno, 27.06.2007-29.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/05/2112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : high-cycle fatigue * CMSX-4 * CM186LC Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  2. Motion Correction of Single-Voxel Spectroscopy by Independent Component Analysis Applied to Spectra From Nonanesthetized Pediatric Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nijs, Robin; Miranda, Maria J.; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2009-01-01

    the influence of physiologic motion such as cardiac and respiratory motion on the data is limited, it can be compensated for without data loss. Individual acquisitions hampered by subject movements, on the other hand, need to be rejected if no correction or compensation is possible. If the individual......For single-voxel spectroscopy, the acquisition of the spectrum is typically repeated n times and then combined with a factor in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. In practice, the acquisitions are not only affected by random noise but also by physiologic motion and subject movements. Since...

  3. Design and Analysis of Single-Cell Sequencing Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grün, Dominic; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in single-cell sequencing hold great potential for exploring biological systems with unprecedented resolution. Sequencing the genome of individual cells can reveal somatic mutations and allows the investigation of clonal dynamics. Single-cell transcriptome sequencing can elucidate

  4. Single and multi-subject clustering of flow cytometry data for cell-type identification and anomaly detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyan, Maziyar Baran; Jindal, Vasu; Birjandtalab, Javad; Nourani, Mehrdad

    2016-08-10

    Measurement of various markers of single cells using flow cytometry has several biological applications. These applications include improving our understanding of behavior of cellular systems, identifying rare cell populations and personalized medication. A common critical issue in the existing methods is identification of the number of cellular populations which heavily affects the accuracy of results. Furthermore, anomaly detection is crucial in flow cytometry experiments. In this work, we propose a two-stage clustering technique for cell type identification in single subject flow cytometry data and extend it for anomaly detection among multiple subjects. Our experimentation on 42 flow cytometry datasets indicates high performance and accurate clustering (F-measure > 91 %) in identifying main cellular populations. Furthermore, our anomaly detection technique evaluated on Acute Myeloid Leukemia dataset results in only <2 % false positives.

  5. Rational design of single-molecule magnets: a supramolecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Thorsten

    2011-01-07

    Since the discovery that Mn(12)OAc acts as a single-molecule magnet (SMM), an increasing number of transition metal complexes have been demonstrated to behave as SMMs. The signature of a SMM is a slow relaxation of the magnetization at low temperatures accompanied by a magnetic hysteresis. The origin of SMM behaviour is the existence of an appreciable thermal barrier U for spin-reversal called magnetic anisotropy barrier which is related to the combination of a large total spin ground state (S(t)) and an easy-axis magnetic anisotropy. The extensive research on Mn(12)OAc and other SMMs has established more prerequisites for a rational development of new SMMs besides the high-spin ground state and the magnetic anisotropy: the symmetry should be at least C(3) to minimize the quantum tunneling of the magnetization through the anisotropy barrier but lower than cubic to avoid the cancellation of the local anisotropies upon projection onto the spin ground state. Based on these prerequisites, we have designed the ligand triplesalen which combines the phloroglucinol bridging unit for high spin ground states by the spin-polarization mechanism with a salen-like ligand environment for single-site magnetic anisotropies by a strong tetragonal ligand field. The C(3) symmetric, trinuclear complexes of the triplesalen ligand (talen(t-Bu(2)))(6-) exhibit a strong ligand folding resulting in an overall bowl-shaped molecular structure. This ligand folding preorganizes the axial coordination sites of the metal salen subunits for the complementary binding of three facial nitrogen atoms of a hexacyanometallate unit. This leads to a high driving force for the formation of heptanuclear complexes [M(t)(6)M(c)](n+) by the assembly of three molecular building blocks. Attractive van der Waals interactions of the tert-butyl phenyl units of two triplesalen trinuclear building blocks increase the driving force. In this respect, we have been able to synthesize the isostructural series [Mn(III)(6

  6. Man-Materiel Systems. Questionnaire and Interview Design (Subjective Testing Techniques). Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-25

    experimental design and statistical procedures to be employed. Mnally, a check must be made of all questions to insure complete and accurate coverage of all...provides a system- atic approach for the developaent of a valid and useful subjective test instruaent. The chapters which follow elaborate on each...check one or more) Ü Coffee n Water O Tea a Milk a Hot chocolate o Other o (b) Which of the following items of footwear did you wear with the

  7. AHSG tag single nucleotide polymorphisms associate with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia: studies of metabolic traits in 7,683 white Danish subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gitte; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Sparsø, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    been largely successful. We related seven frequent AHSG tag single nucleotide polymorphisms to a range of metabolic traits, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The polymorphisms were genotyped in 7,683 white Danish subjects using Taqman allelic...... with dyslipidemia (P = 0.003 and P(corr) = 0.009). Thr248Met (rs4917) tended to associate with lower fasting and post-oral glucose tolerance test serum insulin release (P = 0.02, P(corr) = 0.1 for fasting and P = 0.04, P(corr) = 0.2 for area under the insulin curve) and improved insulin sensitivity estimated...

  8. Microscale consolidation analysis of relaxation behavior of single living chondrocytes subjected to varying strain-rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Dung; Oloyede, Adekunle; Singh, Sanjleena; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-09-01

    Besides the elastic stiffness, the relaxation behavior of single living cells is also of interest of various researchers when studying cell mechanics. It is hypothesized that the relaxation response of the cells is governed by both intrinsic viscoelasticity of the solid phase and fluid-solid interactions mechanisms. There are a number of mechanical models have been developed to investigate the relaxation behavior of single cells. However, there is lack of model enable to accurately capture both of the mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, the porohyperelastic (PHE) model, which is an extension of the consolidation theory, combined with inverse Finite Element Analysis (FEA) technique was used at the first time to investigate the relaxation response of living chondrocytes. This model was also utilized to study the dependence of relaxation behavior of the cells on strain-rates. The stress-relaxation experiments under the various strain-rates were conducted with the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results have demonstrated that the PHE model could effectively capture the stress-relaxation behavior of the living chondrocytes, especially at intermediate to high strain-rates. Although this model gave some errors at lower strain-rates, its performance was acceptable. Therefore, the PHE model is properly a promising model for single cell mechanics studies. Moreover, it has been found that the hydraulic permeability of living chondrocytes reduced with decreasing of strain-rates. It might be due to the intracellular fluid volume fraction and the fluid pore pressure gradients of chondrocytes were higher when higher strain-rates applied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of single dose antihistamine vs. single dose valerian-hops in subjective sleep measures among war refugees: a comparison trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Salem Gammoh

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many sedatives and anxiolytics are used in single dose or chronically to aid sleep. Clinically important sedatives include valerian-hops and antihistamines as they are used over the counter and are highly accessible and safe agents. Objectives To evaluate and compare a single dose of chlorpheniramine versus valerian-hops combination in modulating subjective sleep measures in insomniac war refugees. Methods Insomnia among refugees was screened using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI. Insomniac subjects were randomized to received a single dose valerian-hops (320/80 mg (n = 65, or chlorpheneramine (4 mg (n = 50 or placebo (n = 76 two hours prior sleeping. Participants were instructed to complete Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ, visual analogue scales of anxiety and sedation. Also sleep latency, total hours slept and self-rated improvement were obtained. Results Almost 75% of screened refugees had insomnia. Chlorpheneramine reduced sleep latency and anxiety significantly, however it resulted in poor sleep quality. Valerian-hops group showed marked anxiolysis one hour after dosing, a sleep quality similar to placebo and better than chlorpheneramine, and better alertness compared to placebo. Participants satisfaction was higher with chlorpheneramine and there was no difference in the total hours slept. Discussion Valerian-hops combination may provide better sleep quality than antihistamines.

  10. Performance evaluation of a piezoactuator-based single-stage valve system subjected to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Han, Chulhee; Ung Chung, Jye; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single-stage valve system activated by a piezostack actuator is proposed and experimentally evaluated at both room temperature (20 °C) and high temperature (100 °C) conditions. A hinge-lever displacement amplifier is adopted in the valve system to magnify the displacement generated from the piezostack actuator. After explaining the operating principle of the proposed piezostack-driven single-stage valve system, the geometric dimensions and mechanical properties of the valve components are discussed in details. An experimental apparatus is then manufactured to evaluate the performances of the valve system such as flow rate. The experimental apparatus consists of a heat chamber, which can regulate the temperature of the valve system and oil, pneumatic-hydraulic cylinders, a hydraulic circuit, a pneumatic circuit, electronic devices, an interface card, and a high voltage amplifier. The pneumatic-hydraulic cylinder transforms the pneumatic pressure into hydraulic pressure. The performances of the valve system regarding spool response, pressure drop, and flow rate are evaluated and presented. In addition, the performance of the valve system under high temperature condition is compared with that under room temperature condition. The experimental results are plotted in both frequency and time domains. (paper)

  11. Optimum single modal and bimodal buckling design of symmetric laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, B.; Reiss, R.; Aung, W.

    1989-01-01

    Variational calculus is used to determine the design that maximizes the resistance of classical symmetric laminates against buckling. The orientations of the constituent orthotropic laminae with respect to the principal axes of the laminate are the design variables. It is shown that the optimal design may not be a point of analyticity of the buckling load. Local analytic extrema are obtained from the design derivatives of the buckling load. Nonanalytic extrema occur whenever the buckling load is a repeated eigenvalue. A novel approach, using a directional design derivative, is employed to determine nonanalytic extrema. Specific examples are presented for biaxial buckling for several different boundary conditions.

  12. Active Nozzle Control and Integrated Design Optimization of a Beam Subject to Fluid-Dynamic Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borglund, D.

    1999-02-01

    Active nozzle control is used to improve the stability of a beam subject to forces induced by fluid flow through attached pipes. The control system has a significant effect on the structural stability, making both flutter and divergence type of instabilities possible. The stability analysis is carried out using a state-variable approach based on a finite element formulation of the structural dynamics. The simultaneous design of the control system and the beam shape minimizing structural mass is performed using numerical optimization. The inclusion of the control system in the optimization gives a considerable reduction of the structural mass but results in an optimal design which is very sensitive to imperfections. Using a simple model of the control system uncertainties, a more robust design is obtained by solving a modified optimization problem. Throughout the study, the theoretical findings are verified by experiments.

  13. Design of Active Magnetic Bearing Controllers for Rotors Subjected to Gas Seal Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jonas Skjødt; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2018-01-01

    . Experimental and simulation results shows that significant performance can be achieved using the model based controllers compared to a reference decentralised Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller and robustness against large variations of pressure across the seal can be improved by use of robust......Proper design of feedback controllers is crucial for ensuring high performance of Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) supported rotor dynamic systems. Annular seals in those systems can contribute with significant forces, which, in many cases, are hard to model in advance due to complex geometries...... of the seal and multiphase fluids. Hence, it can be challenging to design AMB controllers that will guarantee robust performance for these kinds of systems. This paper demonstrates the design, simulation and experimental results of model based controllers for AMB systems, subjected to dynamic seal forces...

  14. Control Design of Active Magnetic Bearings for Rotors Subjected to Destabilising Seal Forces - Theory & Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jonas Skjødt

    -rotor model, ii) identification of dynamic seal forces, iii) implementation of AMB controllers to compensate for dynamic seal forces. The stability and performance of the designed controllers are examined and compared to a reference decentralised PID controller. Controllers based on identified nominal seal...... parameters, ii) closed loop identification of unknown stiffness and damping coefficients of a dynamicseal model and iii) the design of AMB controllers to handle dynamic seal forces. Controllers that can guarantee stability and performance in the presence of uncertainseal forces are of special interest....... The main original contribution of the thesis is the framework for design of model based controllers for AMB systems subjected to uncertainand changing dynamic seal forces. An identification method has been developed, and experimentally validated, to obtain precise models of Linear Fractional Transformation...

  15. Composite Estimation for Single-Index Models with Responses Subject to Detection Limits

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Yanlin

    2017-11-03

    We propose a semiparametric estimator for single-index models with censored responses due to detection limits. In the presence of left censoring, the mean function cannot be identified without any parametric distributional assumptions, but the quantile function is still identifiable at upper quantile levels. To avoid parametric distributional assumption, we propose to fit censored quantile regression and combine information across quantile levels to estimate the unknown smooth link function and the index parameter. Under some regularity conditions, we show that the estimated link function achieves the non-parametric optimal convergence rate, and the estimated index parameter is asymptotically normal. The simulation study shows that the proposed estimator is competitive with the omniscient least squares estimator based on the latent uncensored responses for data with normal errors but much more efficient for heavy-tailed data under light and moderate censoring. The practical value of the proposed method is demonstrated through the analysis of a human immunodeficiency virus antibody data set.

  16. Design features of the Diabetes and Periodontal Therapy Trial (DPTT): a multicenter randomized single-masked clinical trial testing the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in subjects with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, S; Gelato, M; Hyman, L; Michalowicz, B S; Schoenfeld, E

    2013-11-01

    Evidence suggests that periodontitis is associated with prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), raising the question of whether periodontitis treatment may improve glycemic control in patients with T2DM. Meta-analyses of mostly small clinical trials suggest that periodontitis treatment results in a modest reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb) A1c. The purpose of the Diabetes and Periodontal Therapy Trial (DPTT) was to determine if periodontal treatment reduces HbA1c in patients with T2DM and periodontitis. DPTT was a phase-III, single-masked, multi-center, randomized trial with a planned enrollment of 600 participants. Participants were randomly assigned to receive periodontal treatment immediately (Treatment Group) or after 6 months (Control Group). HbA1c values and clinical periodontal measures were determined at baseline and 3 and 6 months following randomization. Medication usage and dosing were assessed at each visit. Periodontal treatment consisted of scaling and root planing for a minimum of two 90-minute sessions, plus the use of an antibacterial mouth rinse for at least 32 days afterwards. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from baseline to 6 months and the trial was powered to detect a between-group difference of 0.6%. Secondary outcomes included changes in periodontal clinical measures, fasting plasma glucose, the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2) and the need for rescue diabetes or periodontal therapy. Dental and medical researchers collaborated to recruit, treat and monitor participants with two chronic diseases to determine if treatment of one condition affects the status of the other. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Design Features of the Diabetes and Periodontal Therapy Trial (DPTT): A Multicenter Randomized Single-Masked Clinical Trial Testing the Effect of Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy on Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) Levels in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that periodontitis is associated with prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), raising the question of whether periodontitis treatment may improve glycemic control in patients with T2DM. Meta-analyses of mostly small clinical trials suggest that periodontitis treatment results in a modest reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb) A1c. Purpose The purpose of the Diabetes and Periodontal Therapy Trial (DPTT) was to determine if periodontal treatment reduces HbA1c in patients with T2DM and periodontitis. Methods DPTT was a phase-III, single-masked, multi-center, randomized trial with a planned enrollment of 600 participants. Participants were randomly assigned to receive periodontal treatment immediately (Treatment Group) or after 6 months (Control Group). HbA1c values and clinical periodontal measures were determined at baseline and 3 and 6 months following randomization. Medication usage and dosing were assessed at each visit. Periodontal treatment consisted of scaling and root planing for a minimum of two 90-minute sessions, plus the use of an antibacterial mouth rinse for at least 32 days afterwards. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from baseline to 6 months and the trial was powered to detect a between-group difference of 0.6%. Secondary outcomes included changes in periodontal clinical measures, fasting plasma glucose, the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2) and the need for rescue diabetes or periodontal therapy. Conclusion Dental and medical researchers collaborated to recruit, treat and monitor participants with two chronic diseases to determine if treatment of one condition affects the status of the other. PMID:24080100

  18. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Tedizolid after Single and Multiple Intravenous/Oral Sequential Administrations in Healthy Chinese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Shen, Kai; Chang, Xinying; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Li, Li; Hu, Pei

    2016-08-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a new antibacterial agent under investigation for the treatment of Gram-positive infections in China. This study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, oral bioavailability, and safety of once daily tedizolid phosphate 200 mg in Chinese subjects to support its further clinical development in China. This Phase I single-center study, conducted in 16 healthy Chinese male subjects, consisted of a single-dose administration, 1:1 randomized, two-way, intravenous (IV)/oral (PO) crossover of tedizolid phosphate 200 mg (Part 1) and, after a 7-day washout, a nonrandomized, multiple-dose, 7-day tedizolid phosphate 200 mg once daily administration (IV for 3 days, PO for 4 days; Part 2). Blood samples were collected for up to 72 hours after single dosing and for up to 2 hours on Day 3 and 72 hours on Day 7 of multiple dosing to determine PK parameters. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the entire study. The Cmax and AUC of tedizolid (the active moiety of tedizolid phosphate) were 3.02 µg/mL and 30.50 µg • h/mL after single IV dosing of tedizolid phosphate, and 2.25 µg/mL and 26.10 µg • h/mL after single PO dosing, respectively, and the mean half-life was 10.1 hours for both administration routes. The oral bioavailability of tedizolid was 85.5%. PK parameters of tedizolid were similar after single and multiple dosing of tedizolid phosphate, indicating no time dependency. Only minor accumulation of tedizolid was observed after multiple dosing (expressed as accumulation ratios RAAUC: 1.18 for PO dosing, and RACmax: 1.16 and 1.05 for IV and PO dosing, respectively). Steady state of tedizolid was reached after about 3 days, and trough concentrations remained constant when switching from IV to PO dosing. Tedizolid phosphate was well tolerated with 6 subjects (37.5%) in Part 1 and 5 subjects (31.3%) in Part 2 experiencing an AE; all AEs but one were related to the study drug assessed by the investigator. All AEs were of

  19. N-of-1-pathways MixEnrich: advancing precision medicine via single-subject analysis in discovering dynamic changes of transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qike; Schissler, A Grant; Gardeux, Vincent; Achour, Ikbel; Kenost, Colleen; Berghout, Joanne; Li, Haiquan; Zhang, Hao Helen; Lussier, Yves A

    2017-05-24

    Transcriptome analytic tools are commonly used across patient cohorts to develop drugs and predict clinical outcomes. However, as precision medicine pursues more accurate and individualized treatment decisions, these methods are not designed to address single-patient transcriptome analyses. We previously developed and validated the N-of-1-pathways framework using two methods, Wilcoxon and Mahalanobis Distance (MD), for personal transcriptome analysis derived from a pair of samples of a single patient. Although, both methods uncover concordantly dysregulated pathways, they are not designed to detect dysregulated pathways with up- and down-regulated genes (bidirectional dysregulation) that are ubiquitous in biological systems. We developed N-of-1-pathways MixEnrich, a mixture model followed by a gene set enrichment test, to uncover bidirectional and concordantly dysregulated pathways one patient at a time. We assess its accuracy in a comprehensive simulation study and in a RNA-Seq data analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). In presence of bidirectionally dysregulated genes in the pathway or in presence of high background noise, MixEnrich substantially outperforms previous single-subject transcriptome analysis methods, both in the simulation study and the HNSCCs data analysis (ROC Curves; higher true positive rates; lower false positive rates). Bidirectional and concordant dysregulated pathways uncovered by MixEnrich in each patient largely overlapped with the quasi-gold standard compared to other single-subject and cohort-based transcriptome analyses. The greater performance of MixEnrich presents an advantage over previous methods to meet the promise of providing accurate personal transcriptome analysis to support precision medicine at point of care.

  20. Design of a single ion facility and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholewa, M.; Saint, A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The use of micro-irradiation techniques in radiobiology is not new; however, the current techniques take advantage of recent developments in particle delivery, focussing detection, image processing, cell recognition and computer control. These developments have generally come from other fields, for example microbeam elemental analysis techniques and single-event upset testing of semiconductor devices. Also in radiation biology there have been important advances in developments of individual cell assays, which allow a wide range of endpoints to be studied with good accuracy at low doses. Many of the studies that are planned involve following the responses of individual cells after a programmed exposure to charged-particle traversals. To probe the radiation sensitivity of a single cell and/or its constituents with a submicron resolution several developments are needed. The essential parameters of the proposed system can be summarised as follows: a focussed beam of ions of 300nm or less at the cell; a reliable (close to 100%) single ion detection; a fast beam switch to prevent second hits; a target holder adapted for the irradiation of wet cells and a fully automated system for cell recognition and single hits. 1 fig.

  1. Pet Bottle Design, Correlation Analysis Of Pet Bottle Characteristics Subjective Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Avramović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ability to predict consumer’s reaction to particular design solution of the product is very important. Gathering andanalysis of subjective judgments of particular characteristics, based on which the aesthetic of the product is judged,is one of predicting the consumer’s reaction in the future. Knowledge gathered this manner can serve as a referencefor further studies of determining factors for aesthetic results and design quality. There are two opposed opinionsregarding prediction of aesthetic impression. One opinion is that taste of individual cannot be discussed because itis extremely variable and the possibility of meaningful analysis of aesthetic impression is rejected. Other opinionstates that there is a consistent preference of certain aesthetic characteristics despite individual and group differences.Main goal of this paper is to examine the correlation between subjective judgments of certain PET bottlecharacteristics. Analysis showed meaningful correlation between some of the PET bottle characteristics while othercharacteristics showed less correlation. It can be concluded that not all of the characteristics have the same influenceon the aesthetics and design quality of the PET bottle form. Emphasizing the characteristics relative to aesthetics ofthe product can produce better market results, taking in to account that consumer’s buy the product they consider tobe more attractive if other parameters of the product are similar.

  2. Investigating Neuroanatomical Features in Top Athletes at the Single Subject Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Marco; Wenzel, Uwe; Draganski, Bogdan; Kiebel, Stefan J.; Ragert, Patrick; Krug, Jürgen; Villringer, Arno

    2015-01-01

    In sport events like Olympic Games or World Championships competitive athletes keep pushing the boundaries of human performance. Compared to team sports, high achievements in many athletic disciplines depend solely on the individual’s performance. Contrasting previous research looking for expertise-related differences in brain anatomy at the group level, we aim to demonstrate changes in individual top athlete’s brain, which would be averaged out in a group analysis. We compared structural magnetic resonance images (MRI) of three professional track-and-field athletes to age-, gender- and education-matched control subjects. To determine brain features specific to these top athletes, we tested for significant deviations in structural grey matter density between each of the three top athletes and a carefully matched control sample. While total brain volumes were comparable between athletes and controls, we show regional grey matter differences in striatum and thalamus. The demonstrated brain anatomy patterns remained stable and were detected after 2 years with Olympic Games in between. We also found differences in the fusiform gyrus in two top long jumpers. We interpret our findings in reward-related areas as correlates of top athletes’ persistency to reach top-level skill performance over years. PMID:26079870

  3. Test-retest reliability of single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, A M; Haag, A; Duddek, C; Balkenhol, K; Bugiel, H; Bauer, S; Mylius, V; Menzler, K; Rosenow, F

    2016-03-15

    To determine the influence of different factors on test-retest reliability of frequently used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) parameters while controlling for potential confounders in healthy subjects. TMS was applied in 93 healthy volunteers (61% male) twice (mean retest interval of 34.0 ± 25.6 (SD) days) between 7 am and 2 pm by four investigators (sessions n investigator A=47, investigator B=95, investigator C=28, investigator D=16). Women were assessed in their follicular phase. Test stimulus (TS), resting motor threshold (RMT), short latency intracortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF) and cortical silent period (SCP) were analyzed. Good test-retest reliabilities were observed for TS (r=.880) and RMT (r=.826), moderate for visual and automated analyzed CSP durations (resp. r=.466, r=.486), and poor for ICF (r=-.159). Reliable change indexes are reported. Gender (e.g. automated CSP women: r=.538 vs. men: r=.422), re-test interval and method of CSP-analysis did not influence reliabilities. In a large sample of healthy volunteers we found good to moderate test-retest reliabilities in all but one TMS-parameter. Automated analysis of the CSP did not prove to be more reliable than visual determination. This study contains analyses of re-test reliability in TMS considering several confounding factors. For the first time it presents reliable change indices for all frequently used TMS parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of a Single Oral Dose of Mirogabalin in Japanese Subjects With Varying Degrees of Renal Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Manabu; Tajima, Naoyuki; Shimizu, Takako; Sugihara, Masahiro; Furihata, Kenichi; Harada, Kazuhiro; Ishizuka, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    Mirogabalin (DS-5565) is a novel preferentially selective α 2 δ-1 ligand being developed for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain and postherpetic neuralgia. The current multicenter open-label study determined the effect of varying degrees of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics and safety of a single dose of mirogabalin 5 mg in Japanese subjects. A total of 30 subjects (6 subjects per renal function category [normal, mild, moderate, or severe impairment; and end-stage renal disease (ESRD)]) were enrolled and completed the study. The AUC last increased with severity of renal impairment; the geometric least-squares mean ratios of AUC last compared with subjects with normal renal function were 1.3, 1.9, 3.6, and 5.3 for patients with mild, moderate, and severe impairment and ESRD, respectively. In accordance with this AUC last increase, apparent total body clearance (CL/F), renal clearance (CLr), and the cumulative percentage of mirogabalin dose excreted into urine all decreased with severity of renal impairment. There were no deaths and no severe treatment-related adverse events (TEAEs), serious TEAEs, or TEAEs resulting in study discontinuation. Mirogabalin was well tolerated in Japanese subjects with normal renal function and those with mild to severe renal impairment. It was also tolerated in subjects with ESRD but with a higher incidence of TEAEs. The most frequently reported TEAEs were dizziness (ESRD, n = 3), somnolence (ESRD, n = 2), and vomiting (ESRD, n = 2). Based on these data, a mirogabalin dose adjustment will be considered in Japanese subjects with moderate to severe renal impairment and those with ESRD. © 2017, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  5. Effect of Single Administration of Coffee on Pupil Size and Ocular Wavefront Aberration Measurements in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Bardak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available No study has so far evaluated the impact of coffee drinking on ocular wavefront aberration (OWA measurements. This study presents novel findings regarding the OWA of the eye following coffee intake. We aimed to evaluate the acute changes in pupil size and OWA of the eye after single administration of coffee. A total of 30 otherwise healthy participants were included in this prospective study. All subjects drank a cup of coffee containing 57 mg caffeine. Measurements of pupil size, total coma (TC, total trefoil (TF, total spherical aberration (TSA, and total higher order aberration (HOA were performed before and at 5 minutes, at 30 minutes, and at 4 hours after coffee drinking using a wavefront aberrometer device (Irx3, Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France. The mean age of the study population was 20.30 ± 2.74 years. Pupil size did not show a significant change during the measurements (p>0.05. A significant increase was observed in TF and HOA measurements following coffee intake (p=0.029 and p=0.009, resp.. Single administration of coffee results in significant increase in TF and total HOAs in healthy subjects without any effect on pupil diameter. Ultrastructural changes in the cornea following coffee intake might be of relevance to the alterations in ocular aberrations in healthy subjects.

  6. Effect of Single Administration of Coffee on Pupil Size and Ocular Wavefront Aberration Measurements in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardak, Handan; Gunay, Murat; Mumcu, Ugur; Bardak, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    No study has so far evaluated the impact of coffee drinking on ocular wavefront aberration (OWA) measurements. This study presents novel findings regarding the OWA of the eye following coffee intake. We aimed to evaluate the acute changes in pupil size and OWA of the eye after single administration of coffee. A total of 30 otherwise healthy participants were included in this prospective study. All subjects drank a cup of coffee containing 57 mg caffeine. Measurements of pupil size, total coma (TC), total trefoil (TF), total spherical aberration (TSA), and total higher order aberration (HOA) were performed before and at 5 minutes, at 30 minutes, and at 4 hours after coffee drinking using a wavefront aberrometer device (Irx3, Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France). The mean age of the study population was 20.30 ± 2.74 years. Pupil size did not show a significant change during the measurements (p > 0.05). A significant increase was observed in TF and HOA measurements following coffee intake (p = 0.029 and p = 0.009, resp.). Single administration of coffee results in significant increase in TF and total HOAs in healthy subjects without any effect on pupil diameter. Ultrastructural changes in the cornea following coffee intake might be of relevance to the alterations in ocular aberrations in healthy subjects.

  7. Analysis of an adhesively bonded single lap joint subjected to eccentric loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyfantis, Konstantinos; Tsouvalis, N. G.

    2013-01-01

    A new experimental test is proposed, which allows the contribution of Mode I, II and III fracture modes to the failure of the adhesive layer of bonded joints aiming at achieving the realistic conditions often occurring during loading of practical joints. The main objective of this test is benchma......A new experimental test is proposed, which allows the contribution of Mode I, II and III fracture modes to the failure of the adhesive layer of bonded joints aiming at achieving the realistic conditions often occurring during loading of practical joints. The main objective of this test......, which correspond to Mode I, II and III loading and fracture. These tests were designed so that the metal substrates do not enter plasticity and the adhesive achieves a mode mixity ratio between Mode II and Mode III not lower than 0.5. The experiments were simulated in a 3-dimensional finite element...

  8. Developing an instrument model to assess teachers’ creativity in designing and teaching music subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udi Utomo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at developing an instrument model to assess teacher’s creativity in designing and teaching music at school. The study was conducted by adapting the approach of Research and Development (R&D from the model designed by Borg and Gall and the cycle model design developed by Cenamo & Kalk. The development comprises two stages; the model development and dissemination. The model development encompassed of model planning, model designing, as well as the try out. While, the dissemination stage was done by presenting the research result at a conference. At the end of the study, it was proven that the assessment instrument model used to assess teachers’ creativity in designing and teaching music subject at school had met with the research aim. It was shown from the try out test on the assessment instrument model development that: (1 the assessment material, assessment technique, rater criteria, assessment object, units of observation, competence test process, time allotment, observation process, measurement criteria, as well as the measurement rubric had been considered appropriate and had provenly matched from one to another so that it can be applied well; (2 the reliability of the assessment instrument based on Intraclass Correlation Coefficients/ICC test on consistency and absolute agreement definition type as well as the Generalizability Coefficient had met the criteria.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and safety of single doses of tabalumab in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcher, Jennifer; Fleischmann, Roy; Chindalore, Vishala L; Hansen, Ryan J; Hu, Leijun; Radtke, David; Voelker, James; Gomez, Elisa; McColm, Juliet

    2016-05-01

    Two phase 1 studies evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and biological activity of tabalumab, a human monoclonal antibody against B-cell activating factor (BAFF), administered intravenously (i.v.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In study A, subjects with RA (n = 23) or SLE (n = 6) received a single i.v. dose of tabalumab (RA 0.01, 0.04, 0.125, 0.5, 2.0, and 8.0 mg kg(-1) and SLE 0.125 or 2.0 mg kg(-1) ) or placebo. In study B, subjects with RA received a single tabalumab dose i.v. (10 mg) (n = 12) or s.c. (20 mg) (n = 12). Serum tabalumab and CD20+ B cells were evaluated and safety was assessed throughout both studies. Tabalumab PK were non-linear across the 0.01 to 8.0 mg kg(-1) dose range. Clearance (CL) decreased from 2.9 to 0.1 l day(-1) and terminal half-life (t1/2 ) increased from about 1.6 to 25 days. Subjects with RA or SLE had similar PK. After s.c. dosing, tabalumab time to maximal concentration (tmax ) was 5.5 days. Absolute bioavailability (F) was approximately 62%. Following tabalumab dosing, CD20+ B cells transiently increased from baseline followed by a progressive decrease below baseline. A single tabalumab dose administered i.v. or s.c. was well tolerated and had non-linear CL over the dose range investigated in subjects with RA and SLE. The non-linearity likely reflects target-mediated CL due to binding to BAFF. Tabalumab showed biological activity based on changes in peripheral CD20+ lymphocyte numbers in both subjects with RA and SLE. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Single service point: it's all in the design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradigan, Pamela S; Rodman, Ruey L

    2008-01-01

    "Design thinking" principles from a leading design firm, IDEO, were key elements in the planning process for a one-desk service model, the ASK Desk, at the John A. Prior Health Sciences Library. The library administration and staff employed the methodology to enhance customer experiences, meet technology challenges, and compete in a changing education environment. The most recent renovations demonstrate how the principles were applied. The concept of "continuous design thinking" is important in the library's daily operations to serve customers most effectively.

  11. Weighing Designs to Detect a Single Counterfeit Coin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Towards that end, let us take a closer look at the weighing design A3,12 shown in Section 3. Let us de- compose the weighing design A3,12 into several smaller components (each of which satisfy all four conditions of. Theorem 1) in two different ways: (a) three weighing de- signs with 3, 3, 6 coins, and (b) three weighing ...

  12. Optimum Design of FGX-CNT-Reinforced Reddy Pipes Conveying Fluid Subjected to Moving Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Vakili Tahami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The harmony search algorithm is applied to the optimum designs of functionally graded (FG-carbon nanotubes (CNTs-reinforced pipes conveying fluid which are subjected to a moving load. The structure is modeled by the Reddy cylindrical shell theory, and the motion equations are derived by Hamilton's principle. The dynamic displacement of the system is derived based on the differential quadrature method (DQM. Moreover, the length, thickness, diameter, velocity, and acceleration of the load, the temperature and velocity of the fluid, and the volume fraction of CNT are considered for the design variables. The results illustrate that the optimum diameter of the pipe is decreased by increasing the volume percentage of CNTs. In addition, by increasing the moving load velocity and acceleration, the FS is decreased.

  13. Symptomatic response to blocked and unblocked pentagastrin stimulation in functional dyspepsia - Comparison of responders and non-responders to omeprazole identified in a single-subject trial model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L.G.; Bytzer, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The role of acid in functional dyspepsia is controversial and drug treatment trials indicate that only a subset of patients has acid-related symptoms. A novel single-subject trial design, the Random Starting Day trial (RSD trial), was developed to identify acid-related symptoms. We...... was expected not to be influenced by gastric acid stimulation or type of treatment. Methods: Nineteen patients were evaluated. Symptomatic response to pentagastrin (6 mu g/kg) was assessed twice in each patient following placebo and omeprazole (40 mg bid) treatment in a randomized, double-blind, cross......-over design. Epigastric pain was assessed every 15 for 90 min after stimulation using a 5-graded Likert scale and a VAS scale. A positive acid provocation test was defined as an increase of the Likert score of epigastric pain by at least one grade after pentagastrin stimulation during placebo treatment...

  14. Results of single-staged rotational osteotomy in a child with congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis: subjective and objective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingade, Viraj U; Shingade, Rashmi V; Ughade, Suresh N

    2014-01-01

    For congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis, both conservative and operative treatments have been described. Most of the studies describing surgical interventions are based on subjective evaluation of the forearm function and have used severe degree of forearm pronation as an indication for surgery. This study describes a single-staged rotational osteotomy of the proximal third ulna and distal third radius. The aim of the study was to assess the utility of the described surgical procedure by subjective and objective evaluations of the forearm function. Forty-eight children with congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis were evaluated by subjective and objective assessments and were followed up prospectively. Subjective evaluation consisted of a set of 12 questions regarding the basic activities of life. Objective evaluation was made using the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test and a classification system used by Failla and colleagues for 15 tasks described by Morrey and colleagues. Eleven children were treated conservatively. Thirty-six children underwent a single-staged rotational osteotomy of the proximal third ulna and distal third radius. After surgery, the evaluations were repeated. The mean age at surgery was 8.6±3.7 years, and the mean postoperative follow-up period was 54±13 months. All operated forearms showed a statistically significant improvement in functioning after surgery as per the subjective and objective evaluations. The mean time taken to carry out all activities before surgery was 47.7+10.0 seconds, which significantly reduced to 33.3+6.6 seconds after surgery (P=0.0001) as per the results of the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test. All good (n=19) and fair (n=11) results were converted to excellent (n=30) after surgery as per the modified Failla classification. There were no neurovascular injuries as compared with other published techniques. Only 1 child had delayed union, and 1 had persistent dorsal angulation at the radial osteotomy site. For

  15. [Design of standard voice sample text for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-rang; Sun, Yan-yan; Xu, Wen

    2010-09-01

    To design a speech voice sample text with all phonemes in Mandarin for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders. The principles for design of a speech voice sample text are: The short text should include the 21 initials and 39 finals, this may cover all the phonemes in Mandarin. Also, the short text should have some meanings. A short text was made out. It had 155 Chinese words, and included 21 initials and 38 finals (the final, ê, was not included because it was rarely used in Mandarin). Also, the text covered 17 light tones and one "Erhua". The constituent ratios of the initials and finals presented in this short text were statistically similar as those in Mandarin according to the method of similarity of the sample and population (r = 0.742, P text were statistically not similar as those in Mandarin (r = 0.731, P > 0.05). A speech voice sample text with all phonemes in Mandarin was made out. The constituent ratios of the initials and finals presented in this short text are similar as those in Mandarin. Its value for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders need further study.

  16. COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF SPENCER TECHNIQUE VERSUS MULLIGANS TECHNIQUE FOR SUBJECTS WITH FROZEN SHOULDER A SINGLE BLIND STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Khyathi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among many interventions for subjects with frozen shoulder, mobilization techniques are the important techniques of intervention. However the opinions about efficacy of mobilization techniques differ. Hence, the purpose of this study to compare the effectiveness of Mulligan’s mobilization with movement with that of Spencer technique on improving pain, abduction and external rotation ROM and functional disability in subjects with frozen shoulder. Method: An experimental study design, 40 subjects with unilateral frozen shoulder were randomized into 2 groups with 20 subjects each in Mulligan and in Spencer group. Subjects in Mulligan group received Mulligan mobilization with movement (MWM and subjects in Spencer group received Spencer technique and conventional exercises was given for both the groups. The duration of intervention was one treatment sessions per day for five days. Outcome measurements such as pain using VAS, shoulder abduction and external rotation ROM using goniometer and functional disability using SPADI were measured before and after five days of intervention. Results: Analysis using paired ‘t’ test and wilcoxon signed rank test found that there is a statistically significant improvement (p<0.05 in pain, shoulder mobility and functional disability within the groups. Comparative analysis using independent ‘t’ test and Mann Whitney U test found that there is no statistically significant difference in improving pain between MWM and Spencer group. However MWM group found significantly greater improvement in shoulder mobility and functional disability comparative with Spencer technique. Conclusion: It is concluded that both MWM and Spencer technique are shown to have short term effect on improving pain, shoulder mobility and functional disability. However, MWM was found clinically more effective with greater percentage of improvement on improving shoulder abduction, external rotation ROM and functional disability

  17. Design and construction of a microcontroller based single axis solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar energy is rapidly gaining popularity as an important means of expanding renewable energy resources. As such, it is vital that those in engineering fields understand the technologies associated with this area. This paper presents the design and construction of a microcontroller-based solar panel tracking system. Solar ...

  18. design and operations challenges of a single toggle jaw crusher

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    hard rock to stress concentration and strain rate. According to Elisante [14], physical properties of materials such as: moisture content, structure, friability, density, hardness and crushing strength are important design criteria, as these affect both the life of the liners and power requirement. Olaleye [15] revealed that the.

  19. Single-arm phase II trial design under parametric cure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    The current practice of designing single-arm phase II survival trials is limited under the exponential model. Trial design under the exponential model may not be appropriate when a portion of patients are cured. There is no literature available for designing single-arm phase II trials under the parametric cure model. In this paper, a test statistic is proposed, and a sample size formula is derived for designing single-arm phase II trials under a class of parametric cure models. Extensive simulations showed that the proposed test and sample size formula perform very well under different scenarios. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Design, syntheses, characterization and single crystal X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Two multicomponent Zn-tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP) based building blocks, have been synthesized for designing microporous crystalline solids. Reactions between ZnTPP and 4,4¢-bipyridine (4,4¢-bpy) in two different molar ratios gave complexes. [{ZnTPP)3{m-4,4¢bpy}2] (1) and [{ZnTPP)2{m-4,4¢-bpy}] (II). Complexes I ...

  1. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following single- and multiple-dosing of oral artesunate in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsch Lee E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population pharmacokinetics of artesunate (AS and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA were studied in healthy subjects receiving single- or multiple-dosing of AS orally either in combination with pyronaridine (PYR or as a monotherapy with or without food. Methods Data from 118 concentration-time profiles arising from 91 healthy Korean subjects were pooled from four Phase I clinical studies. Subjects received 2-5 mg/kg of single- and multiple-dosing of oral AS either in combination with PYR or as a monotherapy with or without food. Plasma AS and DHA were measured simultaneously using a validated liquid chromatography- mass spectrometric method with a lower limit of quantification of 1 ng/mL for both AS and DHA. Nonlinear mixed-effect modelling was used to obtain the pharmacokinetic and variability (inter-individual and residual variability parameter estimates. Results A novel parent-metabolite pharmacokinetic model consisting of a dosing compartment, a central compartment for AS, a central compartment and a peripheral compartment for DHA was developed. AS and DHA data were modelled simultaneously assuming stoichiometric conversion to DHA. AS was rapidly absorbed with a population estimate of absorption rate constant (Ka of 3.85 h-1. The population estimates of apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V2/F for AS were 1190 L/h with 36.2% inter-individual variability (IIV and 1210 L with 57.4% IIV, respectively. For DHA, the population estimates of apparent clearance (CLM/F and central volume of distribution (V3/F were 93.7 L/h with 28% IIV and 97.1 L with 30% IIV, respectively. The population estimates of apparent inter-compartmental clearance (Q/F and peripheral volume of distribution (V4/F for DHA were 5.74 L/h and 18.5 L, respectively. Intake of high-fat and high-caloric meal prior to the drug administration resulted in 84% reduction in Ka. Body weight impacted CLM/F, such that a unit change in

  2. Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback Stress Relief Program for Depression A Replicated Single-Subject Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartogs, Bregje M. A.; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Van der Ploeg, Karen; Bos, Elske H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Depressive disorders often have a chronic course and the efficacy of evidence-based treatments may be overestimated. Objective: To examine the effectiveness of the Heart Rate Variability Stress Reduction Program (SRP) as a supplement to standard treatment in patients with depressive

  3. Effectiveness of Play Therapy on Problem Behaviors of Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Single Subject Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Karrie L.

    2011-01-01

    A growing disparity between the mental health needs of children and their lack of treatment served as the basis of this study. To address this existent gap, I proposed that child-centered play therapy (CCPT), a holistic treatment that fosters children's emotional, developmental, and social growth would serve as a viable treatment. The purpose of…

  4. The reproducibility of binocular pattern reversal visual evoked potentials: a single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellow, Tessa B; Liasis, Alki; Lyons, Ruth; Thompson, Dorothy A

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the within-participant variability over time of both amplitude and peak latency measures of pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (pVEPs). As a large number of factors are known to contribute to the variability of the pVEPs (such as fixation instability and drowsiness), testing was conducted in controlled conditions with two co-operative participants. PVEPs were recorded during 24 sessions, over an eight-week period using the same equipment and recording settings. The participants viewed a plasma monitor binocularly from a distance of 1 meter. High contrast (97%), black and white checks of side subtense 50', 25', and 12.5' pattern reversed 3/s in a 28 degree test field. The different sized checks were presented in a pseudo-random order. Three runs, each of 100 trials, were acquired to each stimulus from an active electrode placed at Oz referred to aFz. The amplitude of N80-P100 and the latency of P100 were measured. P100 amplitude and latency were stable across sessions and did not depend upon the order of check size presentation. As expected, variation in amplitude was greater than peak latency. The coefficients of variation for different check sizes and participants were 9-14% for pVEP amplitude, but only 1-2% for P100 latency.

  5. Design of a Single-Layer Microchannel for Continuous Sheathless Single-Stream Particle Inertial Focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Tang, Fei; Li, Weihua; Wang, Xiaohao

    2018-02-06

    High-throughput, high-precision single-stream focusing of microparticles has a potentially wide range of applications in biochemical analysis and clinical diagnosis. In this work, we develop a sheathless three-dimensional (3D) particle-focusing method in a single-layer microchannel. This novel microchannel consists of periodic high-aspect-ratio curved channels and straight channels. The proposed method takes advantage of both the curved channels, which induce Dean flow to promote particle migration, and straight channels, which suppress the remaining stirring effects of Dean flow to stabilize the achieved particle focusing. The 3D particle focusing is demonstrated experimentally, and the mechanism is analyzed theoretically. The effects of flow rate, particle size, and cycle number on the focusing performance were also investigated. The experimental results demonstrate that polystyrene particles with diameters of 5-20 μm can be focused into a 3D single file within seven channel cycles, with the focusing accuracy up to 98.5% and focusing rate up to 98.97%. The focusing throughput could reach up to ∼10 5 counts/min. Furthermore, its applicability to biological cells is also demonstrated by 3D focusing of HeLa and melanoma cells and bovine blood cells in the proposed microchannel. The proposed sheathless passive focusing scheme, featuring a simple channel structure, small footprint (9 mm × 1.2 mm), compact layout, and uncomplicated fabrication procedure, holds great promise as an efficient 3D focusing unit for the development of next-generation on-chip flow cytometry.

  6. Single-case research design in pediatric psychology: considerations regarding data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lindsey L; Feinstein, Amanda; Masuda, Akihiko; Vowles, Kevin E

    2014-03-01

    Single-case research allows for an examination of behavior and can demonstrate the functional relation between intervention and outcome in pediatric psychology. This review highlights key assumptions, methodological and design considerations, and options for data analysis. Single-case methodology and guidelines are reviewed with an in-depth focus on visual and statistical analyses. Guidelines allow for the careful evaluation of design quality and visual analysis. A number of statistical techniques have been introduced to supplement visual analysis, but to date, there is no consensus on their recommended use in single-case research design. Single-case methodology is invaluable for advancing pediatric psychology science and practice, and guidelines have been introduced to enhance the consistency, validity, and reliability of these studies. Experts generally agree that visual inspection is the optimal method of analysis in single-case design; however, statistical approaches are becoming increasingly evaluated and used to augment data interpretation.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of solithromycin (CEM-101) after single or multiple oral doses and effects of food on single-dose bioavailability in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, J Gordon; Schranz, Jennifer; Degenhardt, Thorsten P; Scott, Drusilla; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Gutierrez, Maria J; Clark, Kay

    2011-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics of orally administered solithromycin (CEM-101), a novel fluoroketolide, were evaluated in healthy subjects in three phase 1 studies. In two randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled studies, escalating single oral doses of solithromycin (50 to 1,600 mg) or seven oral daily doses (200 to 600 mg) of solithromycin were administered. A third study evaluated the effects of food on the bioavailability of single oral doses (400 mg) of solithromycin. Following single doses, the median time to peak concentration (Tmax) ranged from 1.5 h to 6 h. The mean maximum measured plasma concentration (Cmax) ranged from 0.0223 μg/ml to 19.647 μg/ml, and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve from time zero to time t (AUC0-t) ranged from 0.0402 μg·h/ml to 28.599 μg·h/ml. There was no effect of high-fat food on the oral bioavailability of solithromycin. In the multiple-dose study, after 7 days, the mean maximum measured plasma solithromycin concentration at steady-state (Cmax,ss) ranged from 0.248 to 1.50 μg/ml, and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve over the final dosing interval (AUCτ) ranged from 2.310 to 18.41 μg·h/ml. These values indicate a greater than proportional increase in exposure at 200 and 400 mg but a proportional exposure at 600 mg. Median Tmax values remained constant between day 1 and day 7. Moderate accumulation ratios of solithromycin were observed after 7 days of dosing. All dose regimens of solithromycin were well tolerated, and no discontinuations due to an adverse event occurred. The human pharmacokinetic profile and tolerability of solithromycin, combined with its in vitro potency and efficacy in animal models against a broad spectrum of pathogens, support further development of solithromycin.

  8. Designing linguistically flexible scaffolding for subject-specific academic literacy interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carstens, Adelia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of South African universities are faced with the challenge of teaching subject-specific academic literacy in English to linguistically diverse student groups, while the academic literacy lecturers themselves display a variety of first languages and linguistic repertoires. Over the past 50 years, a major consideration in L2 teaching has been whether to focus only on the target language (the L2, or to allow the first languages of the learners into the L2 classroom as linguistic and cognitive resources, while retaining the focus on the target language. This article departs from the premise that the language focus (either multi- or monolingual is not crucial, but rather how L2 learning is scaffolded. A scaffolding framework is derived from Van Lier’s (2004 model and Walqui’s (2006 socioculturally embedded strategies for improving the performance of students’ learning of subject content in their second language, namely modelling, bridging, building schema, contextualisation, re-presenting text and developing metacognition. In the article, I demonstrate that Walqui’s six techniques can be adapted to accommodate monolingual as well as bi-/multilingual dimensions of teaching an L2, and can be justified with reference to Van Lier's four-quadrant model. I conclude that a scaffolding approach to teaching language and content in an integrated way is part of any good language pedagogy. However, scaffolds should ideally be designed within a multisemiotic mindset and aimed at producing lasting cognitive gains.

  9. Design And Development Of An Automatic Single Phase Protective Device Using Ssr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of energy safety has been a paramount subject matter. This we can see in todays electrical systems where protective devices such as fuse and circuit breakers are used to prevent fire hazards resulting from overload overvoltage and short circuits. However with all the revolution in technology these options may be considered less smart since the fuse made with wire strands calculated for specific current capacity faults permanently when the specified current rating is exceeded. While the circuit breaker which is made up of mechanical switch fails as a result of carbon forming and the wearing away of the contacts because of arcing. As a means of improvement this paper presents the design and development of an automatic single phase protective device using solid state relay SSR. This study is to ensure automatic cut off from power supply in cases of overvoltage above 240 V AC or when overload and short circuit current above 8amps is detected without permanent damage of a fuse placed along current path. Also the design will ensure that there is an automatic close circuit whenever the trigger switch is momentary switch is closed. The system is achieved via the use of PIC micro-controller current sensor and other discrete components. The system is tested and works well inhibiting the frequent faulting of fuses. It also helps to prevent hazard as a result of overvoltage overload and short circuit and ensures a close circuit when the trigger switch is closed.

  10. Single mode optical fiber vibration sensor: design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanis-Carranza, L. E.; Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.; Perez-Sanchez, G. G.; Sierra-Calderon, A.; Rodriguez-Novelo, J. C.

    2016-09-01

    This work deals with the design and development of an SMF28-based vibration detector including the fiber segment, the data acquisition via an NI-USB-6212 card, the data processing code in Visual Basic and the signal spectrum obtained via Fourier analysis. The set-up consists of a regulated voltage source at 2.6V, 300mA, which serves as the power source for a 980nm semiconductor laser operating at 150mW which is fiber coupled into a 20m-piece of SMF-28 fiber. Perpendicular to such fiber the perturbations ranged from 1 to 100 kHz, coming from a DC motor at 12 Volts. At the detection stage, a simple analog filter and a commercial photo diode were employed for data acquisition, before a transimpedance amplification stage reconstructed the signal into the National Instruments data acquisition card. At the output, the signals Fourier transformation allows the signal to be displayed in a personal computer. The presentation will include a full electrical and optical characterization of the device and preliminary sensing results, which could be suitable for structural health monitoring applications.

  11. Controlling the formation of wrinkles in a single layer graphene sheet subjected to in-plane shear

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Wen Hui

    2011-08-01

    The initiation and development of wrinkles in a single layer graphene sheet subjected to in-plane shear displacements are investigated. The dependence of the wavelength and amplitude of wrinkles on the applied shear displacements is explicitly obtained with molecular mechanics simulations. A continuum model is developed for the characteristics of the wrinkles which show that the wrinkle wavelength decreases with an increase in shear loading, while the amplitude of the wrinkles is found to initially increase and then become stable. The propagation and growth process of the wrinkles in the sheet is elucidated. It is expected that the research could promote applications of graphenes in the transportation of biological systems, separation science, and the development of the fluidic electronics. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of paraspinal muscle hardness in subjects with a mild single scoliosis curve: a preliminary myotonometer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Barbosa-Romero, Alejandro; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Jesús; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Tejero-García, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hardness of the paraspinal muscles in the convexity and concavity of patients with scoliosis curvatures and in the upper trapezius (UT) muscle in subjects with mild idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and to observe the correlation between the myotonometer (MYO) measurements and the value of body mass index (BMI) and the Cobb angle. The sample included 13 patients with a single-curve mild IS (Risser sign ≤ 4) at thoracic, lumbar, or thoracolumbar level (mean Cobb angle of 11.53º). Seven females and 6 males were recruited, with a mean age of 12.84 ± 3.06 (9-18) years. A MYO was used to examine the differences in muscle hardness on both sides of the scoliosis curvature at several points: (a) apex of the curve, (b) upper and lower limits of the curve, and (c) the midpoint between the apex and the upper limit and between the apex and the lower limit. The UT was also explored. Although the MYO recorded lower values in all points on the concave side of the scoliosis, there were no significant differences in the comparison between sides (P > .05). No association was observed between BMI and MYO values, whereas the Cobb angle negatively correlated with muscle hardness only at 2 points on the convex side. The preliminary findings show that, in subjects with a single-curve mild IS, muscular hardness in the UT and paraspinal muscles, as assessed using a MYO, was not found to differ between the concave and the convex sides at different reference levels. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Finite element modelling of plastic collapse of metallic single mitred pipe bends subject to in-plane bending moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochekseraii, Sadegh Babaii

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical analysis based on the finite element (FE) method for plastic collapse of metallic single mitred pipe bends of various geometries, subject to in-plane bending moment, were carried out using both ABAQUS and ANSYS structural FE programs covering both linear small displacement and non-linear large displacement analysis. Parametric surveys presented interesting features including an increase in plastic collapse in-plane bending moments after mitre angles of around 40 deg. . Results obtained using either ANSYS or ABAQUS could not be compared against any available experimental data as they differ significantly in areas like strain hardening and other features of a real material that did not exist in the FE modelling. However, single case comparison with the only reported experimental work, known to the author, showed that large displacement FE analysis led to more realistic predictions. It is, therefore, concluded that despite complex behaviour of a real material as compared to material models available in FE analysis, effective plastic collapse moments can be predicted using the small displacement FE analysis

  14. Using (10)CO2 for single subject characterization of the stimulus frequency dependence in visual cortex: a novel positron emission tomography tracer for human brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, I; Jensen, M; Holm, S; Nickles, R J; Paulson, O B

    2001-08-01

    Carbon-10-labeled carbon dioxide ((10)CO2) with a half-life of 19.3 seconds offers almost ideal characteristics as a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for assessment of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution, enabling multiple independent measurements at short intervals. To appraise the feasibility of (10)CO2 for localizing and characterizing human brain function in single subjects, the authors chose a well-characterized activation paradigm. In 6 healthy volunteers, 50 to 64 independent PET scans of the rCBF distribution were acquired while viewing an annular reversing checkerboard presented at 10 reversal frequencies between 0.03 and 30 Hz. Changes in regional cerebral activity as a function of reversal frequency were modeled in every subject using a set of polynomial basis functions, which, as predicted, showed highly significant second or third order relations located in the striatal cortex. Correlation coefficients (R2) ranged from 0.46 to 0.63. The average intersubject maximal response relative to the 0.03 Hz condition was 8.0% +/- 1.7% SD occurring at stimulus contrast reversal frequencies between 6 and 15 Hz with an average of 11.8 +/- 3.8 (SD) Hz. From the qualitative and quantitative replication of previous results it is concluded that (10)CO2 PET is a feasible technique for human brain mapping studies and a great improvement compared with the existing oxygen-15-labeled water (H(2)(15)O) PET method, particularly for single subject studies and parametric design.

  15. Long-term subjective benefit with a bone conduction implant sound processor in 44 patients with single-sided deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Jolien; Wouters, Kristien; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Studies that investigate the subjective benefit from a bone conduction implant (BCI) sound processor in patients with single-sided sensorineural deafness (SSD) have been limited to examining short- and mid-term benefit. In the current study, we performed a survey among 44 SSD BCI users with a median follow-up time of 50 months. Forty-four experienced SSD BCI users participated in the survey, which consisted of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit, the Single-Sided Deafness Questionnaire, the Short Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults, and a self-made user questionnaire. For patients with tinnitus, the Tinnitus Questionnaire was also completed. The results of the survey were correlated with contralateral hearing loss, age at implantation, duration of the hearing loss at the time of implantation, duration of BCI use, and the presence and burden of tinnitus. In total, 86% of the patients still used their sound processor. The Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit and the Short Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults show a statistically significant overall improvement with the BCI. The Single-Sided Deafness Questionnaire and the user questionnaire showed that almost 40% of the patients reported daily use of the sound processor. However, the survey of daily use reveals benefit only in certain circumstances. Speech understanding in noisy situations is rated rather low, and 58% of all patients reported that their BCI benefit was less than expected. The majority of the patients reported an overall improvement from using their BCI. However, the number of users decreases during a longer follow-up time and patients get less enthusiastic about the device after an extended period of use, especially in noisy situations. However, diminished satisfaction because of time-related reductions in processor function could not be ruled out.

  16. Design and evaluation of a single-span bridge using ultra-high performance concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    "Research presented herein describes an application of a newly developed material called Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) to a : single-span bridge. The two primary objectives of this research were to develop a shear design procedure for possib...

  17. Hepatic insulin sensitivity in healthy and prediabetic subjects: from a dual- to a single-tracer oral minimal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Roberto; Dalla Man, Chiara; Basu, Rita; Basu, Ananda; Rizza, Robert A; Cobelli, Claudio

    2015-07-15

    Recently, a model was proposed to assess hepatic insulin sensitivity during a meal, i.e., the ability of insulin to suppress glucose production (EGP), SI (P). The model was developed on EGP data obtained from a triple-tracer meal and the tracer-to-tracee clamp technique and validated against the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. The aim of this study was to assess whether SI (P) can be obtained from plasma concentrations measured after a single-tracer meal by incorporating the above EGP model into the oral glucose minimal model by describing both glucose production and disposal (OMM(PD)). Triple-tracer meal data of two databases (20 healthy and 60 healthy and prediabetic subjects) were used. Virtually model-independent EGP estimates were calculated. OMM(PD) was identified on exogenous and endogenous glucose concentrations, providing indices of SI (P), disposal insulin sensitivity (SI (D)), and EGP. The model fitted the data well, and SI (P) and SI (D) were estimated with precision in both databases (SI (P) = 5.48 ± 0.54 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml and SI (D) = 9.93 ± 2.18 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml in healthy; SI (P) = 5.41 ± 3.55 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml and SI (D) = 5.34 ± 6.17 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml, in healthy and prediabetic subjects). Estimated SI (P) and that derived from the triple-tracer EGP model were very similar on average. Moreover, the time course of EGP normalized to basal EGP (EGPb), and EGP/EGPb agreed with the results obtained using the triple-tracer method. In this study, we have demonstrated that SI (P), SI (D), and EGP/EGPb time course can be estimated reliably from a single-tracer meal protocol in both healthy and prediabetic subjects. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of betamethasone after single-dose intramuscular administration of betamethasone phosphate and betamethasone acetate to healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Isam I; Najib, Naji M

    2012-01-01

    Betamethasone is used for its antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects in disorders of many organ systems. However, the pharmacokinetic properties of betamethasone in plasma after intramuscular injection of betamethasone sodium phosphate and betamethasone acetate dual-acting suspension need further investigation. The main aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of betamethasone, betamethasone acetate, and betamethasone phosphate after the administration of a single intramuscular dose of the dual-acting suspension to healthy human volunteers. Two different studies were conducted in healthy males. Volunteers were judged healthy based on their medical history, physical examination, and laboratory test results. Before confinement, all volunteers were tested for freedom from alcohol and drugs of abuse. Following a 10-hour overnight fasting, a single dose of 1 mL of the dual-acting suspension containing 3 mg of betamethasone phosphate and 3 mg of betamethasone acetate was administered by intramuscular injection. Blood sampling covered 48 hours. The plasma samples obtained in the second study were stabilized to enable pharmacokinetic profiling of betamethasone esters. Twenty-four healthy males with mean (SD) age of 27 (6.62) years participated in each study. No incidences of serious adverse events were recorded during the studies. Six mild adverse events were reported in 2 subjects in the second study. One subject suffered from pain at the injection site and insomnia, and another subject complained of heartburn and drowsiness. Betamethasone phosphate appeared to be readily absorbed with a mean AUC(0-t) of 96.01 ng/h/mL and an AUC(0-∞) of 97.96 (23.38) ng/h/mL. Betamethasone peak plasma concentration reached a mean t(½) of 12.92 hours. Betamethasone acetate was not detected in the volunteers' plasma in either study (total of 2208 plasma samples). The observed pharmacokinetic parameters suggested that the acetate ester, and not the

  19. Challenges in thermal design of industrial single-phase power inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of thermal aspects in design process of an industrial single-phase inverter, choice of its topology and components. Stringent design inputs like very high overload level, demand for natural cooling and very wide input voltage range have made conventional circuit topology inappropriate therefore asking for alternative solution. Different power losses calculations in semiconductors are performed and compared, outlining the guidelines how to choose the final topology. Some recommendations in power magnetic components design are given. Based on the final project, a 20kVA single-phase inverter for thermal power plant supervisory and control system is designed and commissioned.

  20. Incorporating nonoverlap indices with visual analysis for quantifying intervention effectiveness in single-case experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossart, Daniel F; Vannest, Kimberly J; Davis, John L; Patience, Marc A

    2014-01-01

    The field of neuropsychological rehabilitation frequently employs single case experimental designs (SCED) in research, but few if any, of the published studies use the effect sizes recommended by the American Psychological Association. Among the available methods for analysing single case designs, this paper focuses on nonoverlap methods. This paper provides examples and suggestions for integrating visual and statistical analysis, pointing out where contradictions may occur and how to be a critical consumer.

  1. Preliminary design requirements document for the initial single-shell tank retrieval system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzel, J.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-24

    The scope of this Preliminary Design Requirements Document is to identify and define the functions, with associated requirements, which must be performed to demonstrate and accomplish the initial single-shell tank saltcake retrieval from selected tanks. This document sets forth functions, requirements, performance requirements and design constraints necessary to begin conceptual design for the Initial Single-shell Tank Retrieval System. System and physical interfaces between the Initial Single-shell Tank Retrieval System project and the Tank Waste Remediation are identified. The constraints, performance requirements, and transfer of information and data across a technical interface will be documented in an Interface Control Document. The design requirements provided in this document will be augmented by additional detailed design to be documented by the project.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of a Single Oral Dose of the MEK1/2 Inhibitor Selumetinib in Subjects With End-Stage Renal Disease or Varying Degrees of Hepatic Impairment Compared With Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Angela W; Martin, Paul; So, Karen; Huang, Yifan; Severin, Paul; Holmes, Victoria; Mariani, Gabriella; Marbury, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Two phase I open-label studies were conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of single oral doses of selumetinib in subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis and subjects with varying degrees of hepatic impairment; both studies included a matched control group comprised of healthy individuals. In the renal impairment study, subjects received single doses of selumetinib 50 mg; those with ESRD received selumetinib before and after dialysis (with a between-treatment washout period of ≥7 days). In the hepatic impairment study, subjects received varying single doses of selumetinib (20-50 mg) depending on liver dysfunction (mild, moderate, or severe as per Child-Pugh classification). PK, safety, and tolerability data were collected from both studies. Overall, 24 subjects were included in the renal impairment study (ESRD, N = 12; healthy subjects, N = 12). Selumetinib exposure (AUC and C max ) was not increased in the ESRD group vs healthy subjects. Selumetinib exposure was lower when selumetinib was dosed before vs after dialysis, although individual exposure was variable. Overall, 32 subjects were included in the hepatic impairment study (mild, moderate, and severe impairment, N = 8 per group; healthy subjects, N = 8). Generally, dose-normalized total selumetinib exposure was increased by 25% to 59% in subjects with moderate and severe hepatic impairment compared with healthy subjects. Increasing Child-Pugh score, decreasing serum albumin, and increasing prothrombin time correlated with increasing unbound selumetinib exposure. In both studies, selumetinib was well tolerated with no new safety concerns. These studies will inform dose adjustment considerations in patients. © 2016, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  3. Single session imaging of cerebellum at 7 Tesla: obtaining structure and function of multiple motor subsystems in individual subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Batson

    Full Text Available The recent increase in the use of high field MR systems is accompanied by a demand for acquisition techniques and coil systems that can take advantage of increased power and accuracy without being susceptible to increased noise. Physical location and anatomical complexity of targeted regions must be considered when attempting to image deeper structures with small nuclei and/or complex cytoarchitechtonics (i.e. small microvasculature and deep nuclei, such as the brainstem and the cerebellum (Cb. Once these obstacles are overcome, the concomitant increase in signal strength at higher field strength should allow for faster acquisition of MR images. Here we show that it is technically feasible to quickly and accurately detect blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal changes and obtain anatomical images of Cb at high spatial resolutions in individual subjects at 7 Tesla in a single one-hour session. Images were obtained using two high-density multi-element surface coils (32 channels in total placed beneath the head at the level of Cb, two channel transmission, and three-dimensional sensitivity encoded (3D, SENSE acquisitions to investigate sensorimotor activations in Cb. Two classic sensorimotor tasks were used to detect Cb activations. BOLD signal changes during motor activity resulted in concentrated clusters of activity within the Cb lobules associated with each task, observed consistently and independently in each subject: Oculomotor vermis (VI/VII and CrusI/II for pro- and anti-saccades; ipsilateral hemispheres IV-VI for finger tapping; and topographical separation of eye- and hand- activations in hemispheres VI and VIIb/VIII. Though fast temporal resolution was not attempted here, these functional patches of highly specific BOLD signal changes may reflect small-scale shunting of blood in the microvasculature of Cb. The observed improvements in acquisition time and signal detection are ideal for individualized investigations such as

  4. Crossover learning of gestures in two ideomotor apraxia patients: A single case experimental design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Daisuke; Tanemura, Rumi

    2017-06-01

    Crossover learning may aid rehabilitation in patients with neurological disorders. Ideomotor apraxia (IMA) is a common sequela of left-brain damage that comprises a deficit in the ability to perform gestures to verbal commands or by imitation. This study elucidated whether crossover learning occurred in two post-stroke IMA patients without motor paralysis after gesture training approximately 2 months after stroke onset. We quantitatively analysed the therapeutic intervention history and investigated whether revised action occurred during gesture production. Treatment intervention was to examine how to influence improvement and generalisation of the ability to produce the gesture. This study used an alternating treatments single-subject design, and the intervention method was errorless learning. Results indicated crossover learning in both patients. Qualitative analysis indicated that revised action occurred during the gesture-production process in one patient and that there were two types of post-revised action gestures: correct and incorrect gestures. We also discovered that even when a comparably short time had elapsed since stroke onset, generalisation was difficult. Information transfer between the left and right hemispheres of the brain via commissural fibres is important in crossover learning. In conclusion, improvements in gesture-production skill should be made with reference to the left cerebral hemisphere disconnection hypothesis.

  5. Max-min SINR low complexity transceiver design for single cell massive MIMO

    KAUST Repository

    Sifaou, Houssem

    2016-08-11

    This work focuses on large scale multi-user MIMO systems in which the base station (BS) outfitted with M antennas communicates with K single antenna user equipments (UEs). In particular, we aim at designing the linear precoder and receiver that maximizes the minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) subject to a given power constraint. To gain insights into the structure of the optimal precoder and receiver as well as to reduce the computational complexity for their implementation, we analyze the asymptotic regime where M and K grow large with a given ratio and make use of random matrix theory (RMT) tools to compute accurate approximations. Although simpler, the implementation of the asymptotic precoder and receiver requires fast inversions of large matrices in every coherence period. To overcome this issue, we apply the truncated polynomial expansion (TPE) technique to the precoding and receiving vector of each UE and make use of RMT to determine the optimal weighting coefficients that asymptotically solve the max-min SINR problem. Numerical results are used to show that the proposed TPE-based precoder and receiver almost achieve the same performance as the optimal ones while requiring a lower complexity.

  6. Accuracy of genomic selection to predict maize single-crosses obtained through different mating designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristche-Neto, Roberto; Akdemir, Deniz; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2018-02-14

    Testcross is the worst mating design to use as a training set to predict maize single-crosses that would be obtained through full diallel or North Carolina design II. Even though many papers have been published about genomic prediction (GP) in maize, the best mating design to build the training population has not been defined yet. Such design must maximize the accuracy given constraints on costs and on the logistics of the crosses to be made. Hence, the aims of this work were: (1) empirically evaluate the effect of the mating designs, used as training set, on genomic selection to predict maize single-crosses obtained through full diallel and North Carolina design II, (2) and identify the possibility of reducing the number of crosses and parents to compose these training sets. Our results suggest that testcross is the worst mating design to use as a training set to predict maize single-crosses that would be obtained through full diallel or North Carolina design II. Moreover, North Carolina design II is the best training set to predict hybrids taken from full diallel. However, hybrids from full diallel and North Carolina design II can be well predicted using optimized training sets, which also allow reducing the total number of crosses to be made. Nevertheless, the number of parents and the crosses per parent in the training sets should be maximized.

  7. The Observation and Execution of Actions Share Motor and Somatosensory Voxels in all Tested Subjects : Single-Subject Analyses of Unsmoothed fMRI Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    Many neuroimaging studies of the mirror neuron system (MNS) examine if certain voxels in the brain are shared between action observation and execution (shared voxels, sVx). Unfortunately, finding sVx in standard group analyses is not a guarantee that sVx exist in individual subjects. Using

  8. Can Air Seat Cushions and Ball Chairs Improved Classroom Behaviors of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Single Subject Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Matin Sadr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Classroom behaviorsare disturbed in autistic students because of their repetitive, restlessness, and disruptive behaviors. This study aimed to examine the impacts of sitting on a ball, cushion, and/or common chair on classroom behavior of four students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Methods: Four children with Autism participated in this single-subject study. Students’ behaviors were video recorded in three phases: Sitting on their common chairs during phase A, air-sit cushioned in phase B, and ball chairs in phase C. Sitting times and on-task/off-task behaviors were quantified by momentary time sampling (every 10 seconds and compared during different phases for important changes. Social validity was taken by the teacher at the end of the research as well. Results: The findings demonstrated increases in on-task and in-seat behaviors in four students when seated on air sit cushioned chairs. Despite rises of ontask behaviors for all students, only two of the students showed enhanced inseat behaviors when seated on therapy balls. Social validity findings indicated that the teacher preferred the use of the balls and air-cushioned chairs for her students. Conclusion: Therapy balls/cushioned chairs for students with ASD may facilitate in-seat and on-task behavior.

  9. AN ELASTIC STRESS ANALYSIS FOR A POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE CANTILEVER BEAM SUBJECTED TO A SINGLE TRANSVERSE FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla TEKİN

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, elasto-plastic stress analysis is carried out in a polymer matrix composite cantilever beam of arbitrary fiber orientation subjected to a single transverse force applied to the free end by using the anisotropic elasticity theory. The residual stress component of ?x and yield points are determined for 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° fiber orientation angles. The yielding begins for 0° and 90° fiber orientation angles at the upper and lower surfaces of the beam at the same distances from the free end. It is seen that the yielding begins for 30°, 45° and 60° fiber orientation angles at the upper surface of the beam. The intensity of the residual stress component of ?x is maximum at the upper and lower surfaces of the beam. In this study, the residual stress component of ?x obtained for the polymer matrix composite thermoplastic cantilever beam reinforced by reinforced unidirectional fibers is compared with that of the thermoplastic cantilever beam reinforced by woven Cr-Ni steel fibers.

  10. Masked Visual Analysis: Minimizing Type I Error in Visually Guided Single-Case Design for Communication Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Hitchcock, Elaine R; Ferron, John

    2017-06-10

    Single-case experimental designs are widely used to study interventions for communication disorders. Traditionally, single-case experiments follow a response-guided approach, where design decisions during the study are based on participants' observed patterns of behavior. However, this approach has been criticized for its high rate of Type I error. In masked visual analysis (MVA), response-guided decisions are made by a researcher who is blinded to participants' identities and treatment assignments. MVA also makes it possible to conduct a hypothesis test assessing the significance of treatment effects. This tutorial describes the principles of MVA, including both how experiments can be set up and how results can be used for hypothesis testing. We then report a case study showing how MVA was deployed in a multiple-baseline across-subjects study investigating treatment for residual errors affecting rhotics. Strengths and weaknesses of MVA are discussed. Given their important role in the evidence base that informs clinical decision making, it is critical for single-case experimental studies to be conducted in a way that allows researchers to draw valid inferences. As a method that can increase the rigor of single-case studies while preserving the benefits of a response-guided approach, MVA warrants expanded attention from researchers in communication disorders.

  11. The Immediate Effects of Conventional Physical Therapy on the Knee Joint Load in Subjects with Moderate Knee Osteoarthritis; A Preliminary Single Blinded Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fattahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subjects with knee osteoarthritis typically have higher knee adduction moment. Current research efforts are mainly focused on therapeutic procedures that potentially may modify disease progression. This preliminary study was designed as a single blind (examiner randomized control trial to investigate the impact of conventional physical therapy on pain, and knee joint load in subjects with moderate knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Twelve participants diagnosed with moderate knee OA were randomly assigned into control and intervention groups. Three-dimensional knee kinematic and kinetic data were recorded during the gait before and after 10 sessions of conventional physical therapy. In addition, pain intensity was evaluated by visual analog scale and pain subscale of KOOS questionnaire. The control group did not receive any intervention during the same period. Gait parameters were analyzed within and between groups using nonparametric tests. Results: There was a significant difference between groups in baseline KOOS-pain Score and ML knee force (P=0.048 and P=0.01. Immediately after ten sessions of physical therapy the initial (first peak of knee adduction moment was significantly (P=0.03 lower than that of the control group while the first and second peak of knee AP velocity were significantly (P=0.02, P=0.01 respectively higher. In the intervention group, the second peaks of vertical and anteroposterior (AP knee forces were strongly correlated with the pretest KOOS-pain Score (r=0.99 and r=0.98, P<0.001. Therefore a multivariate general linear model was adopted with adjustment to baseline KOOS-pain. By this adjustment, 51% alleviation of VAS pain score and 81% decrement of first peak of knee adduction moment in comparison to control group was statistically significant (P=0.02, P=0.03 respectively. Conclusion: It seems that ten sessions of conventional physical therapy may modify knee joint load in subjects with moderate knee

  12. DESIGN, PROTOTYPE AND MEASUREMENT OF A SINGLE-CELL DEFLECTING CAVITY FOR THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haipeng Wang, Guangfeng Cheng, Gianluigi Ciovati, Peter Kneisel, Robert Rimmer, Kai Tian, Larry Turlington, Alireza Nassiri, Geoff Waldschmidt

    2009-05-01

    After the design optimization of a squashed elliptical shape, single-cell, superconducting (SC) deflecting cavity at 2.815 GHz, a copper prototype has been bench measured to determine its rf properties and the effectiveness of waveguide damping of parasitic modes [1]. RF cold tests were also performed at 2K on niobium single-cell and two-cell prototype cavities. Details of impedance calculation using wakefiled analysis of the single-cell cavity are shown to meet the strict 200 mA beam stability requirement of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Lab where a total of 16 single-cell cavities will be divided into two cryomodule. The design of higher-order mode (HOM) waveguide damping, the simulations of the Lorenz force detuning, and the prototype of on-cell damping are presented.

  13. Effects of food and grapefruit juice on single-dose pharmacokinetics of blonanserin in healthy Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, De-Wei; Wang, Zhan-Zhang; Hu, Hai-Tang; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Ni, Xiao-Jia; Lu, Hao-Yang; Zhang, Ming; Hu, Jin-Qing; Qiu, Chang; Peng, Huan; Shen, Ling-Fang; Wen, Yu-Guan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effects of a meal and grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of blonanserin and its metabolite N-desethyl blonanserin in healthy Chinese volunteers. This was a single-centre, open-label, fixed-sequence study, where 12 healthy Chinese volunteers received a single dose of 8 mg blonanserin after an overnight fast in period 1 (reference), a high-fat meal during period 2 and with co-administration of 250 mL of grapefruit juice in period 3. The washout period was 7 days. Series of plasma samples were collected after each dose to determine concentrations of blonanserin and its metabolite N-desethyl blonanserin using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by non-compartmental analysis and compared between periods by standard average bioequivalence ANOVA. Adverse events were monitored throughout the study. All subjects completed the study. High-fat meals significantly increased blonanserin exposure (AUC t ) 2.58-fold (90% CI 2.21, 3.02), relative to the reference period. Co-administration of blonanserin with grapefruit juice remarkably prolonged elimination half-life of blonanserin (from 9.7 to 21.4 h) and significantly increased exposures to blonanserin and N-desethyl blonanserin by 5.82-fold (90% CI 4.57, 7.42) and 1.81-fold (90% CI 1.65, 1.98), respectively. These results suggested that blonanserin was largely metabolised in the intestinal tract before becoming systemically available, and both food and grapefruit juice enhanced exposure to blonanserin and N-desethyl blonanserin. Grapefruit juice increased bioavailability and may have reduced systemic clearance of blonanserin. Further intestinal CYP3A4 and hepatic CYP3A4 might be postulated to explain the delayed elimination of blonanserin. Dose adjustment of blonanserin is needed on the basis of co-intake of known strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Patients taking high-dose blonanserin also need to be cautious about

  14. Single-dose, randomized crossover comparisons of different-strength imatinib mesylate formulations in healthy Korean male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ah; Park, Shin Jung; Kim, Chin; Park, Ji-Young

    2013-10-01

    Imatinib mesylate is used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia and advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of 2 different strengths of the imatinib formulation containing 100 mg (reference) and 400 mg (test) to satisfy the regulatory requirement for marketing. A single-center, randomized, single-dose, open-label, 2-period, 2-sequence, comparative crossover study with a 14-day washout period was conducted in 30 healthy male volunteers. Plasma samples for the drug analysis were collected up to 72 hours after drug treatment. Participants received either the reference (4 tablets of 100-mg imatinib) or the test (1 tablet of 400-mg imatinib) formulation during the first period and the alternative formulation during the second period. The safety profiles and tolerability of the 2 formulations were also assessed based on physical examinations, laboratory tests, a 12-lead ECG, and vital signs. Thirty participants were initially enrolled; their mean (SD) age, height, weight, and body mass index were 24.9 (2.0) years (range, 23-30 years), 174 (5) cm (range, 164-185 cm), 69.9 (2.0) kg (range, 54.1-87.4 kg), and 23.0 (2.0) kg/m(2) (range, 18.5-26.9 kg/m(2)); 28 healthy participants completed both treatment periods. Two subjects did not complete the study because they withdrew consent for personal reasons. The observed mean (SD) Cmax, AUC0-last, and AUC0-∞ values for the reference formulation were 1792 (357) ng/mL, 28,485 (6274) ng · h/mL, and 29,079 (6371) ng · h/mL, respectively. Corresponding values for the test formulation were 1710 (312) ng/mL, 27,222 (4624) ng · h/mL , and 27,872 (4751) ng · h/mL. The geometric mean ratios (90% CIs) between the 2 formulations at the 400-mg dose of imatinib were 0.9579 (0.9054-1.0136) for Cmax, 0.9652 (0.9174-1.0155) for AUC0-last, and 0.9679 (0.9203-1.0179) for AUC0-∞, respectively. During the study period, 6 adverse events (3 for the reference and 3 for the test

  15. Multi-person and multi-attribute design evaluations using evidential reasoning based on subjective safety and cost analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Yang, J.B.; Sen, P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for ranking proposed design options based on subjective safety and cost analyses. Hierarchical system safety analysis is carried out using fuzzy sets and evidential reasoning. This involves safety modelling by fuzzy sets at the bottom level of a hierarchy and safety synthesis by evidential reasoning at higher levels. Fuzzy sets are also used to model the cost incurred for each design option. An evidential reasoning approach is then employed to synthesise the estimates of safety and cost, which are made by multiple designers. The developed approach is capable of dealing with problems of multiple designers, multiple attributes and multiple design options to select the best design. Finally, a practical engineering example is presented to demonstrate the proposed multi-person and multi-attribute design selection approach

  16. Mass balance, metabolic disposition, and pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of regorafenib in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerisch, Michael; Hafner, Frank-Thorsten; Lang, Dieter; Radtke, Martin; Diefenbach, Konstanze; Cleton, Adriaan; Lettieri, John

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the mass balance, metabolic disposition, and pharmacokinetics of a single dose of regorafenib in healthy volunteers. In addition, in vitro metabolism of regorafenib in human hepatocytes was investigated. Four healthy male subjects received one 120 mg oral dose of regorafenib containing approximately 100 µCi (3.7 MBq) [ 14 C]regorafenib. Plasma concentrations of parent drug were derived from HPLC-MS/MS analysis and total radioactivity from liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Radiocarbon analyses used HPLC with fraction collection followed by LSC for all urine samples, plasma, and fecal homogenate extracts. For the in vitro study, [ 14 C]regorafenib was incubated with human hepatocytes and analyzed using HPLC-LSC and HPLC-HRMS/MS. Regorafenib was the major component in plasma, while metabolite M-2 (pyridine N-oxide) was the most prominent metabolite. Metabolites M-5 (demethylated pyridine N-oxide) and M-7 (N-glucuronide) were identified as minor plasma components. The mean concentration of total radioactivity in plasma/whole blood appeared to plateau at 1-4 h and again at 6-24 h post-dose. In total, 90.5% of administered radioactivity was recovered in the excreta within a collection interval of 12 days, most of which (71.2%) was eliminated in feces, while excretion via urine accounted for 19.3%. Regorafenib (47.2%) was the most prominent component in feces and was not excreted into urine. Excreted metabolites resulted from oxidative metabolism and glucuronidation. Regorafenib was eliminated predominantly in feces as well as by hepatic biotransformation. The multiple biotransformation pathways of regorafenib decrease the risk of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions.

  17. Assessment of body composition in subjects with metabolic syndrome comparing single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and bioelectrical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloetens, Lieselotte; Johansson-Persson, Anna; Helgegren, Hannah; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Uusitupa, Matti; Åkesson, Björn; Önning, Gunilla

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the agreement between body composition measurements made with two methods-single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (SF-BIA) and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS). The body composition measurements using SF-BIA and BIS were performed seven times during 6 months on 41 patients (13 men and 28 women) with metabolic syndrome who were taking part in a dietary intervention study. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] fat mass (FM) and median [interquartile range (IQR)] FM% measured with SF-BIA were 32.7 (6.7) kg and 36.3 (30.3-39.3)%, respectively, compared with 38.2 (8.7) kg and 40.9 (35.5-45.6)%, respectively, using BIS. The median (IQR) fat-free mass (FFM) was 60.0 (53.3-73.5) kg according to SF-BIA and 55.4 (48.8-66.5) kg according to BIS. These results obtained with the two methods were significantly different (P<0.001). Still highly significant correlations were found between the results obtained with SF-BIA and BIS for FM and FFM (all r≥0.89, P<0.001). Using Bland-Altman analysis, the bias was found to be -5.4 (4.1) kg for FM, -5.5 (3.7)% for FM%, and 5.4 (4.1) kg for FFM. Rather wide limits of agreement were found for FM, FM%, and FFM. Body composition data obtained using SF-BIA and BIS in subjects with metabolic syndrome were highly correlated but not interchangeable. FM was systematically lower when using SF-BIA than when using BIS.

  18. DESIGNING CROSS SUBJECT COMMUNICATIONS AS THE CONDITION FOR DEVELOPING SOCIAL SKILLS IN TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ivanovna Lygina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present the results of a pedagogical experiment aimed at studying the level of social skills in university professors. Planning cross subject communications in an academic subject with consideration of the previous and associated knowledge and skills of students in the educational programme formed the basis of the pedagogical experiment. Problems have occurred when university professors are faced with elaborating cross subject communications. It was discovered that the problems professors had were connected to their responsiveness and to the various strategies they applied while working within small groups. We will analyze the results, provide recommendations and show the change in the level of the professors’ social skills during elaboration of  cross subject communications.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-21

  19. Mixed response and time-to-event endpoints for multistage single-arm phase II design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xin; Zee, Benny Chung-Ying

    2015-06-04

    The objective of phase II cancer clinical trials is to determine if a treatment has sufficient activity to warrant further study. The efficiency of a conventional phase II trial design has been the object of considerable debate, particularly when the study regimen is characteristically cytostatic. At the time of development of a phase II cancer trial, we accumulated clinical experience regarding the time to progression (TTP) for similar classes of drugs and for standard therapy. By considering the time to event (TTE) in addition to the tumor response endpoint, a mixed-endpoint phase II design may increase the efficiency and ability of selecting promising cytotoxic and cytostatic agents for further development. We proposed a single-arm phase II trial design by extending the Zee multinomial method to fully use mixed endpoints with tumor response and the TTE. In this design, the dependence between the probability of response and the TTE outcome is modeled through a Gaussian copula. Given the type I and type II errors and the hypothesis as defined by the response rate (RR) and median TTE, such as median TTP, the decision rules for a two-stage phase II trial design can be generated. We demonstrated through simulation that the proposed design has a smaller expected sample size and higher early stopping probability under the null hypothesis than designs based on a single-response endpoint or a single TTE endpoint. The proposed design is more efficient for screening new cytotoxic or cytostatic agents and less likely to miss an effective agent than the alternative single-arm design.

  20. Yield and energy absorption in single and multi-phase glassy polymers subjected to multiaxial stress states: Theoretical and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Ramaswamy

    This thesis investigates the macroscopic yield behavior and microscopic energy absorption mechanisms in single and multiphase polymers. One unique aspect is the evaluation of polymers under multiaxial loading conditions. This is important because in many applications polymers are subjected to complex loading conditions and hence optimal design requires experimental evaluation and modeling of behavior under multiaxial stress states. This work has resulted in a more quantitative understanding of yield and energy absorption in the different polymers considered. Multiaxial stress states are achieved using thin-walled hollow cylinder specimens. The hollow tubes are simultaneously subjected to internal pressure and axial load, leading to biaxial stress states. Stress states ranging from uniaxial compression to equibiaxial tension are interrogated using the same specimen geometry, a procedure uncovering true material behavior. In the first part of this study, a generalized model for the yield behavior of single-phase polymers is evaluated for a polycarbonate system. The generalized model accounts not only accounts for viscoelasticity (i.e., rate and temperature dependence) but also the effect of pressure on yield behavior. The effects of physical aging on the behavior of amorphous polycarbonate are also highlighted. For rubber-modified polymers, existing models for both macroscopic yield behavior and the onset of microscopic damage (e.g., cavitation) are evaluated under multiaxial conditions (chapter 3). Serious discrepancies are found for both cases, prompting an investigation into the nature of energy absorption mechanisms in the materials. Apart from the chosen rubber-modified systems, a toughening mechanism in the form of overlapping parallel cracks is identified to be generic to a range of polymers (chapter 4). The last part of the thesis (chapter 5) involves a quantitative investigation of interactions in overlapping crack patterns. This effort is vital, because for

  1. Design methodology of single-feed compact near-isotropic antenna design

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Zhen

    2017-06-07

    The abundance of mobile wireless devices is giving rise to a new paradigm known as Internet of Things. In this paradigm, wireless devices will be everywhere and communicating with each other. Since they will be oriented randomly in the environment, they should be able to communicate equally in all directions in order to have stable communication link. Hence, compact near isotropic antennas are required, which can enable orientation insensitive communication. In this paper, we propose a simple design methodology to design a compact near-isotropic wire antenna based on equal vector potentials. As a proof of concept, a quarter wavelength monopole antennas has been designed that is wrapped on a 3D-printed box keeping the vector potentials in three orthogonal different directions equal. By optimizing the dimension of the antenna arms, a nearly isotropic radiation pattern is thus achieved. The results show that the antenna has a maximum gain of 2.2dBi at 900 MHz with gain derivation of 9.4dB.

  2. Enhancing the hermeneutic single-case efficacy design: Bridging the research-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jessie M; Kwee, Janelle L; Hu, Monica; McDonald, Marvin J

    2017-09-01

    Systematic case study designs are emerging as alternative paradigm strategies for psychotherapy and social science research. Through enhanced sensitivity to context, these designs examine idiographic profiles of causal processes. We specifically advocate the use of the hermeneutic single-case efficacy design (HSCED). HSCED has recently been used to investigate the efficacy of an existing therapy with a new population (Observed and Experiential Integration for athlete performance barriers) and an emerging therapy (Lifespan Integration Therapy). We describe innovations in HSCED that were implemented for these studies. These developments include (a) integrating psychotherapists as case developers, (b) incorporating multiple cases in one investigation, and (c) tailoring the repertoire of assessment tools. These extensions strategically incorporated principles of contextual paradigms in HSCED, thus complementing single-case designs that neglect idiographic contexts. We discuss recommendations for using HSCED in practice-based research, highlighting its potential as a bridge to address the research-practice gap.

  3. Single- and Multiple-Dose Study To Determine the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Ceftaroline Fosamil in Combination with Avibactam in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Riccobene, Todd A.; Su, Sheng Fang; Rank, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of intravenous doses of ceftaroline fosamil administered in combination with the novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam in healthy adults. In the single-dose, open-label arm, 12 subjects received single 1-h intravenous infusions of ceftaroline fosamil alone (600 mg), avibactam alone (600 mg), and ceftaroline fosamil in combination with avibactam (600/600 mg) separated by 5-day washout periods. In ...

  4. Design of mechanically stabilized earth wall connections and end of walls subjected to seismic loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The 4th Edition of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications requires all states to design for a 1,000- : year return period earthquake, as opposed to earlier editions 500-year return period. In response to this : requirement, the Colorado Depa...

  5. Hybrid neural network model for the design of beam subjected to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There is no direct method for design of beams. In general the dimensions of the beam and reinforcement are initially assumed and then the interaction formula is used to verify the suitability of chosen dimensions. This approach necessitates few trials for coming up with an economical and safe design. This paper ...

  6. Hybrid neural network model for the design of beam subjected to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Design of beam; hybridization; genetic algorithms; neural networks. ... A hybrid neural network model which combines the features of feed forward neural networks and genetic algorithms has been developed for the design of beam ... Department of Civil Engineering, J.N.T.U College of Engineering, Anantapur 515 002 ...

  7. Design and analysis of a radial diffuser in a single-stage centrifugal pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Gao Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial diffusers can improve the flow uniformity in pumps and affect the hydraulic performance of centrifugal pumps directly. The diffusion coefficient d is an important parameter in fluid machinery but it has seldom been used in the diffuser design of single-stage centrifugal pumps. To improve the design method of radial diffuser use in centrifugal pumps, the diffusion coefficient was introduced into the design of radial diffusers based on a single-arc hydraulic design method and it was found that the vane outlet angle, vane outlet thickness and vane number have a significant impact on the design results. A single-stage centrifugal pump with a radial diffuser was selected as the research model. The inner flow was simulated using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD program CFX and verified by experiment. The results indicate that the head and efficiency of the pump are best when the vane outlet angle is 6°. The flow area decreases and the flow velocity at radial diffuser outlet increase when the outlet thickness is greater than 2 mm. The hydraulic loss is minimum and the head and efficiency are better when the vane number is 8 at different flow rates. So, the optimal range of the diffusion coefficient for the model pump is around 1.6 to 2. The study indicates that it is feasible to design radial diffusers according to the diffusion coefficient.

  8. The Effects of Classic and Web-Designed Conceptual Change Texts on the Subject of Water Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Erol; Gülen, Salih; Öner, Zeynep; Özyürek, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to research the effects of traditional and web-assisted conceptual change texts for the subject of water chemistry on the success, conceptual errors and permanent learning of students. A total of 37 8th graders in a secondary school of Samsun participated in this study which had a random experimental design with…

  9. DESIGN OF ENVELOPE STRUCTURES OF BUILDINGS WITH ACCOUNT FOR AND SUBJECT TO THE CONDITIONS OF ACOUSTIC PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyasov Botir Iminzhonovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The totality of all environmental influences, including domestic and industrial noise, must be taken into account in the design of building structures. Building envelopes that have appropriate acoustic protection properties are to be used in the practice of the acoustic protection (soundproofing, etc.. According to the principles of structural design, design of soundproof buildings can be broken down into the two groups: design with account for the security conditions (eg., windows, doors, walls, floors, and design of noise-proof structures (eg., partitions, suspended ceilings. Multi-optional design of building structures or buildings that meet the terms of acoustic protection requires a modern approach to the process of their development. Any progress in this area is associated with computer-aided design supported by multiple analysis options. Automation allows adjustments in order to comply with the variety of the input data or objective functions to provide for optimal cycling options. In this regard, the authors describe the algorithms and principles of design of building envelopes on the condition of and subject to the acoustic protection. The proposed solution represents a software package capable of performing a multivariate analysis of options of acoustic protection at each stage of building design. Practical application of the software package used to solve practical problems in the design of building envelopes has demonstrated its higher efficiency that the one of traditional design methods.

  10. Airway responses and inflammation in subjects with asthma after four days of repeated high-single-dose allergen challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Johannes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both standard and low-dose allergen provocations are an established tool in asthma research to improve our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanism of allergic asthma. However, clinical symptoms are less likely to be induced. Therefore, we designed a protocol for repetitive high-dose bronchial allergen challenges to generate clinical symptoms and airway inflammation. Methods A total of 27 patients aged 18 to 40 years with positive skin-prick tests and mild asthma underwent repetitive high-dose allergen challenges with household dust mites for four consecutive days. Pulmonary function and exhaled NO were measured at every visit. Induced sputum was analysed before and after the allergen challenges for cell counts, ECP, IL-5, INF-γ, IL-8, and the transcription factor Foxp3. Results We found a significant decrease in pulmonary function, an increased use of salbutamol and the development of a late asthmatic response and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, as well as a significant induction of eNO, eosinophils, and Th-2 cytokines. Repeated provocation was feasible in the majority of patients. Two subjects had severe adverse events requiring prednisolone to cope with nocturnal asthma symptoms. Conclusions Repeated high-dose bronchial allergen challenges resulted in severe asthma symptoms and marked Th-2-mediated allergic airway inflammation. The high-dose challenge model is suitable only in an attenuated form in diseased volunteers for proof-of-concept studies and in clinical settings to reduce the risk of severe asthma exacerbations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.govNCT00677209

  11. Soothing and anti-itch effect of quercetin phytosome in human subjects: a single-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maramaldi G

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Giada Maramaldi,1 Stefano Togni,1 Ivan Pagin,1 Luca Giacomelli,2 Roberta Cattaneo,3 Roberto Eggenhöffner,2 Samuele E Burastero4 1Indena S.p.A, Milan, 2Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics, School of Medicine, Genova University, Genoa, 3Abich Srl, Verbania, 4San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, ItalyBackground: We evaluated the ability of quercetin, a natural antioxidant formulated in a specific delivery system, to reduce skin inflammation induced by a variety of stimuli, including UV radiation, stimulation with a histamine solution, or contact with chemical irritants. In particular, we tested the soothing and anti-itch effect of Quercevita®, 1% cream for external use, a formulation characterized by a phospholipids-based delivery system.Patients and methods: The study was a monocentric, single blind trial that enrolled a group of 30 healthy volunteers. The back of each subject was examined to identify four quadrants with no previous skin damage or naevi that were treated in order to induce a controlled and reversible form of skin stress. The areas were treated as follows: no product; Quercevita® 1% cream, 2 mg/cm2; placebo; positive control (a commercially available topical formulation containing 1% dexchlorpheniramine.Results: Only quercetin phospholipids 1% and dexchlorpheniramine 1% achieved a significant reduction in erythema with comparable results: (–10.05% [P=0.00329] for quercetin phospholipids 1% vs –14.05% [P=0.00046] for the positive control. Moreover, quercetin phospholipids 1% and dexchlorpheniramine 1% were both associated with a significant decrease in mean wheal diameter: (–13.25% and –12.23% for dexchlorpheniramine 1%, respectively. Similar findings were reported for the other tested parameters.Conclusion: Quercetin has a skin protective effect against damage caused by a variety of insults, including UV radiation, histamine, or contact with toxic chemical compounds. Indeed, quercetin is able

  12. Design of climate respiration chambers, adjustable to the metabolic mass of subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Alferink, S.J.J.; Zandstra, T.; Hendriks, P.; Brand, van den H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Open-circuit respiration chambers can be used to measure gas exchange and to calculate heat production (Q) of humans and animals. When studying short-term changes in Q, the size of the respiration chamber in relation to the subject of study is a point of concern. The washout time of a chamber,

  13. Single Event Testing on Complex Devices: Test Like You Fly versus Test-Specific Design Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for evaluating complex digital systems targeted for harsh radiation environments such as space. Focus is limited to analyzing the single event upset (SEU) susceptibility of designs implemented inside Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. Tradeoffs are provided between application-specific versus test-specific test structures.

  14. Single-Case Research Design: An Alternative Strategy for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Drue; Hawkins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The trend of utilizing evidence-based practice (EBP) in athletic training is now requiring clinicians, researchers, educators, and students to be equipped to both engage in and make judgments about research evidence. Single-case design (SCD) research may provide an alternative approach to develop such skills and inform clinical and…

  15. Applying Quality Indicators to Single-Case Research Designs Used in Special Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Jeremy D.; Dattilo, John; Rusch, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how specific guidelines and heuristics have been used to identify methodological rigor associated with single-case research designs based on quality indicators developed by Horner et al. Specifically, this article describes how literature reviews have applied Horner et al.'s quality indicators and evidence-based criteria.…

  16. Anterior single implants with different neck designs : 5 Year results of a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Laurens; Meijer, Henny J A; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M

    BACKGROUND: The design of the implant neck might be significant for preservation of marginal bone. PURPOSE: To compare the 5-year radiographic and clinical outcome of single anterior implants provided with a smooth neck, a rough neck or a scalloped rough neck. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 93 Patients with

  17. Single implants with different neck designs in the aesthetic zone : a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Laurens; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Stegenga, Boudewijn; Tymstra, Nynke; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare single implants in the aesthetic zone with different neck designs for marginal bone-level changes and clinical outcome measures. Materials and methods: Ninety-three patients with a missing anterior tooth in the maxilla were randomly assigned to be treated with an implant with

  18. Procedural Sensitivities of Effect Sizes for Single-Case Designs with Directly Observed Behavioral Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustejovsky, James E.

    2018-01-01

    A wide variety of effect size indices have been proposed for quantifying the magnitude of treatment effects in single-case designs. Commonly used measures include parametric indices such as the standardized mean difference, as well as non-overlap measures such as the percentage of non-overlapping data, improvement rate difference, and non-overlap…

  19. Design of Water Temperature Control System Based on Single Chip Microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hanhong; Yan, Qiyan

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we mainly introduce a multi-function water temperature controller designed with 51 single-chip microcomputer. This controller has automatic and manual water, set the water temperature, real-time display of water and temperature and alarm function, and has a simple structure, high reliability, low cost. The current water temperature controller on the market basically use bimetal temperature control, temperature control accuracy is low, poor reliability, a single function. With the development of microelectronics technology, monolithic microprocessor function is increasing, the price is low, in all aspects of widely used. In the water temperature controller in the application of single-chip, with a simple design, high reliability, easy to expand the advantages of the function. Is based on the appeal background, so this paper focuses on the temperature controller in the intelligent control of the discussion.

  20. Design of a bolted flange subjected to severe nuclear system thermal transients - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, W.J.; Tomawski, R.J.; Ezekoye, L.I.; Lacey, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Flange design standards recognize that flanged joints may develop leakage should they be exposed to severe thermal gradients and recommend that such operating conditions be avoided. In nuclear power plants, severe thermal transients may be encountered in many plant and system operating and test conditions. In such applications, conformance with standard design practice may not ensure a leak-tight joint. This paper describes the proper consideration of thermal effects on flanged joints and how that can lead to the development of a successful leak-tight design. Similar procedures may be applied generally to evaluate and upgrade flanged joints in thermal shock applications

  1. Optimum Design of Composite Sandwich Structures Subjected to Combined Torsion and Bending Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Gangyan; Wang, Chun H.; You, Min

    2012-06-01

    This research is motivated by the increase use of composite sandwich structures in a wide range of industries such as automotive, aerospace and civil infrastructure. To maximise stiffness at minimum weight, the paper develops a minimum weight optimization method for sandwich structure under combined torsion and bending loads. We first extend the minimum-weight design of sandwich structures under bending load to the case of torsional deformation and then present optimum solutions for the combined requirements of both bending and torsional stiffness. Three design cases are identified for a sandwich structure required to meet multiple design constraints of torsion and bending stiffness. The optimum solutions for all three cases are derived. To illustrate the newly developed optimum design solutions, numerical examples are presented for sandwich structures made of either isotropic face skins or orthotropic composite face skins.

  2. Design procedure for Bridge Foundations Subject to Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The response of piled bridge foundations to liquefaction-induced lateral soil deformation is an important design consideration in seismically active regions. Recent research and case history data suggest that three-dimensional deformation of the appr...

  3. Modelling single-trial ERP reveals modulation of bottom-up face visual processing by top-down task constraints (in some subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume A Rousselet

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied how task constraints modulate the relationship between single-trial ERPs and image noise. Thirteen subjects performed two interleaved tasks: on different blocks, they saw the same stimuli, but they discriminated either between two faces or between two colours. Stimuli were two pictures of red or green faces that contained from 10% to 80% of phase noise, with 10% increments. Behavioural accuracy followed a noise dependent sigmoid in the identity task but was high and independent of noise level in the colour task. EEG data recorded concurrently were analyzed using a single-trial ANCOVA: we assessed how changes in task constraints modulated ERP noise sensitivity while regressing out the main ERP differences due to identity, colour and task. Single-trial ERP sensitivity to image phase noise started at about 95-110 ms post-stimulus onset. Group analyses showed a significant reduction in noise sensitivity in the colour task compared to the identity task from about 140 ms to 300 ms post-stimulus onset. However, statistical analyses in every subject revealed different results: significant task modulation occurred in 8/13 subjects, one showing an increase and 7 showing a decrease in noise sensitivity in the colour task. Onsets and durations of effects also differed between group and single-trial analyses: at any time point only a maximum of 4 subjects (31% showed results consistent with group analyses. We provide detailed results for all 13 subjects, including a shift function analysis that revealed asymmetric task modulations of single-trial ERP distributions. We conclude that, during face processing, bottom-up sensitivity to phase noise can be modulated by top-down task constraints, in a broad window around the P2, at least in some subjects.

  4. Collaboration between student art teachers and communication and digital media students promoting subject specific didactics in digital visual learning design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Kirsten; Buhl, Mie

    Collaboration between student art teachers and communication and digital media students promoting subject specific didactics in digital visual learning design This paper presents research perspective on how the collaboration between communication designers and teacher trainers in visual arts...... in how to use digital media for doing artwork that goes beyond the well-known re-mediations (image processing or editing programs) of traditional media like painting, drawing or video. Thus, the project suggested the development of a visual learning design for achieving augmented reality (AR) experiences...... involving the domain of communication and digital media for developing learning resources. However, it must be concluded that more iterations of the empirical design must be conducted in order to test its usability. References Amiel, T., & Reeves, T. C. (2008). Design Based Research and Educational...

  5. Designing Oversight for Nanomedicine Research in Human Subjects: Systematic Analysis of Exceptional Oversight for Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M.; Jones, Cortney

    2012-01-01

    The basic procedures and rules for oversight of U.S. human subjects research have been in place since 1981. Certain types of human subjects research, however, have provoked creation of additional mechanisms and rules beyond the Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS) Common Rule and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) equivalent. Now another emerging domain of human subjects research—nanomedicine—is prompting calls for extra oversight. However, in 30 years of overseeing research on human beings, we have yet to specify what makes a domain of scientific research warrant extra oversight. This failure to systematically evaluate the need for extra measures, the type of extra measures appropriate for different challenges, and the usefulness of those measures hampers efforts to respond appropriately to emerging science such as nanomedicine. This article evaluates the history of extra oversight, extracting lessons for oversight of nanomedicine research in human beings. We argue that a confluence of factors supports the need for extra oversight, including heightened uncertainty regarding risks, fast-evolving science yielding complex and increasingly active materials, likelihood of research on vulnerable participants including cancer patients, and potential risks to others beyond the research participant. We suggest the essential elements of the extra oversight needed. PMID:23226969

  6. Designing oversight for nanomedicine research in human subjects: systematic analysis of exceptional oversight for emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M.; Jones, Cortney M.

    2011-04-01

    The basic procedures and rules for oversight of U.S. human subjects research have been in place since 1981. Certain types of human subjects research, however, have provoked creation of additional mechanisms and rules beyond the Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS) Common Rule and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) equivalent. Now another emerging domain of human subjects research—nanomedicine—is prompting calls for extra oversight. However, in 30 years of overseeing research on human beings, we have yet to specify what makes a domain of scientific research warrant extra oversight. This failure to systematically evaluate the need for extra measures, the type of extra measures appropriate for different challenges, and the usefulness of those measures hampers efforts to respond appropriately to emerging science such as nanomedicine. This article evaluates the history of extra oversight, extracting lessons for oversight of nanomedicine research in human beings. We argue that a confluence of factors supports the need for extra oversight, including heightened uncertainty regarding risks, fast-evolving science yielding complex and increasingly active materials, likelihood of research on vulnerable participants including cancer patients, and potential risks to others beyond the research participant. We suggest the essential elements of the extra oversight needed.

  7. Designing oversight for nanomedicine research in human subjects: systematic analysis of exceptional oversight for emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Susan M.; Jones, Cortney M.

    2011-01-01

    The basic procedures and rules for oversight of U.S. human subjects research have been in place since 1981. Certain types of human subjects research, however, have provoked creation of additional mechanisms and rules beyond the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Common Rule and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) equivalent. Now another emerging domain of human subjects research—nanomedicine—is prompting calls for extra oversight. However, in 30 years of overseeing research on human beings, we have yet to specify what makes a domain of scientific research warrant extra oversight. This failure to systematically evaluate the need for extra measures, the type of extra measures appropriate for different challenges, and the usefulness of those measures hampers efforts to respond appropriately to emerging science such as nanomedicine. This article evaluates the history of extra oversight, extracting lessons for oversight of nanomedicine research in human beings. We argue that a confluence of factors supports the need for extra oversight, including heightened uncertainty regarding risks, fast-evolving science yielding complex and increasingly active materials, likelihood of research on vulnerable participants including cancer patients, and potential risks to others beyond the research participant. We suggest the essential elements of the extra oversight needed.

  8. Randomized Pilot Clinical Trial of Tofacitinib Solution for Plaque Psoriasis: Challenges of the Intra-Subject Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ports, William C; Feldman, Steven R; Gupta, Pankaj; Tan, Huaming; Johnson, Theodore R; Bissonnette, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Intra-subject, left-right, randomized, controlled study designs are often used for proof-of-concept studies in dermatology. This design was used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a topical solution of tofacitinib (NCT00678561), a small-molecule Janus kinase inhibitor under investigation for the topical and oral treatment of patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Eighty-one patients, each with matched left and right target plaques, were randomized to 2%, 0.2%, or 0.02% tofacitinib or vehicle solution once or twice daily. Patients treated one plaque as per their randomization group (2%, 0.2%, 0.02% tofacitinib, or vehicle solution), and used vehicle to treat the contralateral plaque for 4 weeks. Except during clinic visits, study drug applications were performed unsupervised outside the clinical trial site. Intra-subject, vehicle-adjusted mean percent change from baseline in Target Plaque Severity Score at week 4 (primary efficacy endpoint) was not significantly different from baseline for any treatment group (P values of 0.28-0.68). However, skin biopsy analyses detected tofacitinib in both tofacitinib- and vehicle-treated plaques of some patients, suggesting cross-contamination or solution misapplication. Lack of efficacy with tofacitinib relative to vehicle may be due to the intra-subject study design with unsupervised applications. These findings have potential implications for future intra-subject studies of topical treatments.

  9. Single freeform surface design for prescribed input wavefront and target irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösel, Christoph; Gross, Herbert

    2017-09-01

    In beam shaping applications, the minimization of the number of necessary optical elements for the beam shaping process can benefit the compactness of the optical system and reduce its cost. The single freeform surface design for input wavefronts, which are neither planar nor spherical, is therefore of interest. In this work, the design of single freeform surfaces for a given zero-étendue source and complex target irradiances is investigated. Hence, not only collimated input beams or point sources are assumed. Instead, a predefined input ray direction vector field and irradiance distribution on a source plane, which has to be redistributed by a single freeform surface to give the predefined target irradiance, is considered. To solve this design problem, a partial differential equation (PDE) or PDE system, respectively, for the unknown surface and its corresponding ray mapping is derived from energy conservation and the ray-tracing equations. In contrast to former PDE formulations of the single freeform design problem, the derived PDE of Monge-Ampère type is formulated for general zero-étendue sources in Cartesian coordinates. The PDE system is discretized with finite differences, and the resulting nonlinear equation system is solved by a root-finding algorithm. The basis of the efficient solution of the PDE system builds the introduction of an initial iterate construction approach for a given input direction vector field, which uses optimal mass transport with a quadratic cost function. After a detailed description of the numerical algorithm, the efficiency of the design method is demonstrated by applying it to several design examples. This includes the redistribution of a collimated input beam beyond the paraxial approximation, the shaping of point source radiation, and the shaping of an astigmatic input wavefront into a complex target irradiance distribution.

  10. Design and evaluation guidelines for Department of Energy facilities subjected to natural phenomena hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.; McDonald, J.R.; McCann, M.W. Jr.; Murray, R.C.; Hill, J.R.

    1990-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Panel have developed uniform design and evaluation guidelines for protection against natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites throughout the United States. The goal of the guidelines is to assure that DOE facilities can withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, extreme winds, tornadoes, and flooding. The guidelines apply to both new facilities (design) and existing facilities (evaluation, modification, and upgrading). The intended audience is primarily the civil/structural or mechanical engineers conducting the design or evaluation of DOE facilities. The likelihood of occurrence of natural phenomena hazards at each DOE site has been evaluated by the DOE Natural Phenomena Hazard Program. Probabilistic hazard models are available for earthquake, extreme wind/tornado, and flood. Alternatively, site organizations are encouraged to develop site-specific hazard models utilizing the most recent information and techniques available. In this document, performance goals and natural hazard levels are expressed in probabilistic terms, and design and evaluation procedures are presented in deterministic terms. Design/evaluation procedures conform closely to common standard practices so that the procedures will be easily understood by most engineers. Performance goals are expressed in terms of structure or equipment damage to the extent that: (1) the facility cannot function; (2) the facility would need to be replaced; or (3) personnel are endangered. 82 refs., 12 figs., 18 tabs

  11. Design and evaluation guidelines for Department of Energy facilities subjected to natural phenomena hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R.P. (Structural Mechanics Consulting, Inc., Yorba Linda, CA (USA)); Short, S.A. (ABB Impell Corp., Mission Viejo, CA (USA)); McDonald, J.R. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (USA)); McCann, M.W. Jr. (Benjamin (J.R.) and Associates, Inc., Mountain View, CA (USA)); Murray, R.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Hill, J.R. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and He

    1990-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Panel have developed uniform design and evaluation guidelines for protection against natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites throughout the United States. The goal of the guidelines is to assure that DOE facilities can withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, extreme winds, tornadoes, and flooding. The guidelines apply to both new facilities (design) and existing facilities (evaluation, modification, and upgrading). The intended audience is primarily the civil/structural or mechanical engineers conducting the design or evaluation of DOE facilities. The likelihood of occurrence of natural phenomena hazards at each DOE site has been evaluated by the DOE Natural Phenomena Hazard Program. Probabilistic hazard models are available for earthquake, extreme wind/tornado, and flood. Alternatively, site organizations are encouraged to develop site-specific hazard models utilizing the most recent information and techniques available. In this document, performance goals and natural hazard levels are expressed in probabilistic terms, and design and evaluation procedures are presented in deterministic terms. Design/evaluation procedures conform closely to common standard practices so that the procedures will be easily understood by most engineers. Performance goals are expressed in terms of structure or equipment damage to the extent that: (1) the facility cannot function; (2) the facility would need to be replaced; or (3) personnel are endangered. 82 refs., 12 figs., 18 tabs.

  12. Safety and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple intravenous bolus doses of diclofenac sodium compared with oral diclofenac potassium 50 mg: A randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjal, Sagar; Gautam, Anirudh; Okumu, Franklin; McDowell, James; Allenby, Kent

    2016-01-01

    In a randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in 42 healthy adults, the safety and pharmacokinetic parameters of an intravenous formulation of 18.75 and 37.5 mg diclofenac sodium (DFP-08) following single- and multiple-dose bolus administration were compared with diclofenac potassium 50 mg oral tablets. Mean AUC0-inf values for a 50-mg oral tablet and an 18.75-mg intravenous formulation were similar (1308.9 [393.0]) vs 1232.4 [147.6]). As measured by the AUC, DFP-08 18.75 mg and 37.5 mg demonstrated dose proportionality for extent of exposure. One subject in each of the placebo and DFP-08 18.75-mg groups and 2 subjects in the DFP-08 37.5-mg group reported adverse events that were considered by the investigator to be related to the study drug. All were mild in intensity and did not require treatment. Two subjects in the placebo group and 1 subject in the DFP-08 18.75-mg group reported grade 1 thrombophlebitis; no subjects reported higher than grade 1 thrombophlebitis after receiving a single intravenous dose. The 18.75- and 37.5-mg doses of intravenous diclofenac (single and multiple) were well tolerated for 7 days. Additional efficacy and safety studies are required to fully characterize the product. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Multi-disciplinary design optimization and performance evaluation of a single stage transonic axial compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sae Il; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Kyu Hong; Park, Tae Choon; Lim, Byeung Jun; Kang, Young Seok

    2013-01-01

    The multidisciplinary design optimization method, which integrates aerodynamic performance and structural stability, was utilized in the development of a single-stage transonic axial compressor. An approximation model was created using artificial neural network for global optimization within given ranges of variables and several design constraints. The genetic algorithm was used for the exploration of the Pareto front to find the maximum objective function value. The final design was chosen after a second stage gradient-based optimization process to improve the accuracy of the optimization. To validate the design procedure, numerical simulations and compressor tests were carried out to evaluate the aerodynamic performance and safety factor of the optimized compressor. Comparison between numerical optimal results and experimental data are well matched. The optimum shape of the compressor blade is obtained and compared to the baseline design. The proposed optimization framework improves the aerodynamic efficiency and the safety factor.

  14. Design of Robust AMB Controllers for Rotors Subjected to Varying and Uncertain Seal Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jonas Skjødt; Santos, Ilmar

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the design and simulation results of model based controllers for AMB systems, subjectedto uncertain and changing dynamic seal forces. Specifically, a turbocharger with a hole-pattern seal mounted acrossthe balance piston is considered. The dynamic forces of the seal, which...... are dependent on the operational conditions,have a significant effect on the overall system dynamics. Furthermore, these forces are considered uncertain.The nominal and the uncertainty representation of the seal model are established using results from conventionalmodelling approaches, i.e. CFD and Bulkflow......, and experimental results. Three controllers are synthesized: I) AnH∞ controller based on nominal plant representation, II) A µ controller, designed to be robust against uncertaintiesin the dynamic seal model and III) a Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) controller, designed to provide a unifiedperformance over a large...

  15. A parametric design of ceramic faced composite armor subject to air weapon threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Y N; Sun, Q

    2015-01-01

    By taking into consideration the two categories of military projectile threats to aircraft structures, an optimal layer configuration of ceramic faced composite armor was designed in this paper. Using numerical simulations and the same layer arrangement of ceramic, UHMWPE, and carbon fiber laminates, a parametric finite element model using LS-DYNA code was built. Several thickness combinations were analyzed in order to determine the final lightest configuration that is capable of supporting a high-speed impact load and HEI blast wave load, which implements a high anti-penetration design for aircraft armor. This configuration can be used to improve the anti-impact ability of aircraft structures as well as achieve a structure/function integration design that considers a lighter weight. (paper)

  16. How to design a single-cell RNA-sequencing experiment: pitfalls, challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Molin, Alessandra; Di Camillo, Barbara

    2018-01-31

    The sequencing of the transcriptome of single cells, or single-cell RNA-sequencing, has now become the dominant technology for the identification of novel cell types in heterogeneous cell populations or for the study of stochastic gene expression. In recent years, various experimental methods and computational tools for analysing single-cell RNA-sequencing data have been proposed. However, most of them are tailored to different experimental designs or biological questions, and in many cases, their performance has not been benchmarked yet, thus increasing the difficulty for a researcher to choose the optimal single-cell transcriptome sequencing (scRNA-seq) experiment and analysis workflow. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the current available experimental and computational methods developed to handle single-cell RNA-sequencing data and, based on their peculiarities, we suggest possible analysis frameworks depending on specific experimental designs. Together, we propose an evaluation of challenges and open questions and future perspectives in the field. In particular, we go through the different steps of scRNA-seq experimental protocols such as cell isolation, messenger RNA capture, reverse transcription, amplification and use of quantitative standards such as spike-ins and Unique Molecular Identifiers (UMIs). We then analyse the current methodological challenges related to preprocessing, alignment, quantification, normalization, batch effect correction and methods to control for confounding effects. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effects of Persuasive Designed Courseware on Children with Learning Difficulties in Learning Malay Language Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kien Heng; Bakri, Aryati; Rahman, Azizah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The effects of courseware learning for children with learning difficulties have been studied over the years. Educational courseware is very common nowadays as a teaching tool for children's early education. However, most of the coursewares are designed for children with normal learning ability. Special children who face difficulty in the learning…

  18. Hybrid neural network model for the design of beam subjected to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Civil Engineering, J.N.T.U College of Engineering,. Anantapur 515 002 e-mail:hanchatel123@yahoo.co.in. MS received 25 September 2006; revised 8 March 2007. Abstract. There is no direct method for design of beams. In general the dimensions of the beam and reinforcement are initially assumed and then ...

  19. "That Tricky Subject": The Integration of Contextual Studies in Pre-Degree Art and Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintoul, Jenny; James, David

    2017-01-01

    Contextual studies (CS), "theory", "visual culture" or "art history" (amongst other labels) refer to a regular and often compulsory feature in art and design education. However, this takes many forms and can sit in a variety of relationships with the practical elements of such courses. This article is based on mixed…

  20. Hybrid neural network model for the design of beam subjected to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structural design are controlled by many codes and regulations, the structural engineer has to exercise caution and use his judgement in ... Lot of research has taken place on applications of artificial neural networks in structural engineering. .... been selected for this network model. The architecture is depicted in figure 1.

  1. A Comparison of Different Teaching Designs of "Acids and Bases" Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ültay, Neslihan; Çalik, Muammer

    2016-01-01

    Inability to link the acid-base concepts with daily life phenomena (as contexts) highlights the need for further research on the context-based acid-base chemistry. In this vein, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different teaching designs (REACT strategy, 5Es learning model and traditional (existing) instruction) relevant with…

  2. Design considerations for single-stage and two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.

    1988-09-01

    Performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors is compared with several models for one-dimensional, compressible fluid flow. Agreement is quite good for models that reflect actual breech chamber geometry and incorporate nonideal effects such as gas friction. Several methods of improving the performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors in the near term are outlined. The design and performance of two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors are discussed, and initial data from the two-stage pneumatic pellet injector test facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are presented. Finally, a concept for a repeating two-stage pneumatic pellet injector is described. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Short-term clinical performance of zirconia single crowns with different framework designs: 3-year clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Marco; Sorrentino, Roberto; Cagidiaco, Crysanti; Goracci, Cecilia; Vichi, Alessandro; Gherlone, Enrico; Zarone, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The present prospective clinical study evaluated the influence of coping design on the fracture resistance of CAD/CAM zirconia single crowns layered with dedicated ceramics. 56 subjects were provided with 90 zirconia single crowns in posterior regions. Tooth preparations were standardized and the abutment teeth were randomly distributed into three groups, according to three different coping designs (flat design, FD; porcelain-fused-to-metal-like crowns, PFM; anatomically-guided, AG). The zirconia cores were produced using a CAD/CAM software and then were hand-layered with dedicated ceramics. All crowns were cemented with a self-adhesive resin luting agent and the patients were recalled for follow-up visits after 1 month, 6 months, 1, 2 and 3 years of clinical service. The function, esthetics and marginal adaptation of the restorations were evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate survival and success of the restorations. Success rates of 100% were reported in Group 2 and Group 3 while the percentage was 80% in Group 1. Three chippings were noticed in Group 1 (FD) and two crowns needed to be replaced after 3 years, resulting in a survival rate of 93.3%. Group 2 and Group 3 had significantly higher 3-year success rates than Group 1 (P crowns performed better clinically than the flat designed cores in posterior regions after 3 years; standardized tooth preparations achieved even thicknesses of the bilayered restorations; the proper support given to the veneering ceramic by the correct design of the zirconia framework could significantly reduce the risk of chipping during function.

  4. Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.

    2013-01-01

    This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have precluded widespread implementation and acceptance of the SCED as a viable complementary methodology to the predominant group design. This article includes a description of the research design, measurement, and analysis domains distinctive to the SCED; a discussion of the results within the framework of contemporary standards and guidelines in the field; and a presentation of updated benchmarks for key characteristics (e.g., baseline sampling, method of analysis), and overall, it provides researchers and reviewers with a resource for conducting and evaluating SCED research. The results of the systematic review of 409 studies suggest that recently published SCED research is largely in accordance with contemporary criteria for experimental quality. Analytic method emerged as an area of discord. Comparison of the findings of this review with historical estimates of the use of statistical analysis indicates an upward trend, but visual analysis remains the most common analytic method and also garners the most support amongst those entities providing SCED standards. Although consensus exists along key dimensions of single-case research design and researchers appear to be practicing within these parameters, there remains a need for further evaluation of assessment and sampling techniques and data analytic methods. PMID:22845874

  5. A better alternative to stratified permuted block design for subject randomization in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenle

    2014-12-30

    Stratified permuted block randomization has been the dominant covariate-adaptive randomization procedure in clinical trials for several decades. Its high probability of deterministic assignment and low capacity of covariate balancing have been well recognized. The popularity of this sub-optimal method is largely due to its simplicity in implementation and the lack of better alternatives. Proposed in this paper is a two-stage covariate-adaptive randomization procedure that uses the block urn design or the big stick design in stage one to restrict the treatment imbalance within each covariate stratum, and uses the biased-coin minimization method in stage two to control imbalances in the distribution of additional covariates that are not included in the stratification algorithm. Analytical and simulation results show that the new randomization procedure significantly reduces the probability of deterministic assignments, and improve the covariate balancing capacity when compared to the traditional stratified permuted block randomization. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. CONCRETE MIX DESIGN FOR STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO EXPOSURE CLASS XC1 DEPENDING ON CONCRETE COVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Cherniakevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reinforced steel corrosion which is the most important problem of reinforced concrete structures durability is generally stipulated for carbonization of concrete surrounding it. Concrete cover calculation at the design stage is predicated one because of the differences in manufacturing conditions and use of constructions. The applying of the probabilistic approaches to the carbonation process modeling allows to get predicated grade of the depth of carbonization of concrete and, thus, to settle minimum concrete cover thickness for a given projected service life of a construction. The procedures for concrete mix design for different strength classes of concrete are described in the article. Current recommendations on assignment of concrete strength class as well as concrete cover are presented. The European Standard EN 206:2013 defines the content requirements for the concrete structures operated in the exposure class XC1, including the minimum values of water-cement ratio, minimum cement content, and minimum strength class of concrete. Since the standard does not include any basis or explanations of the requirements, we made an effort to develop a scientific justification for the mentioned requirements. We developed the probabilistic models for the process of carbonation of concrete based on the concrete mix which was designed using the software VTK-Korroziya. The reinforced concrete structures with concrete cover 20–35 mm operated in the most unfavorable conditions within the exposure class XC1 were analyzed. The corresponding probabilistic calculations of the depth of carbonated concrete are described in the article. 

  7. Discrepancies between Skinned Single Muscle Fibres and Whole Thigh Muscle Function Characteristics in Young and Elderly Human Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunseok Jee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to analyse the mechanical properties of skinned single muscle fibres derived from the vastus lateralis (VL muscle in relation to those of the whole intact thigh muscle and to compare any difference between young and older adults. Sixteen young men (29.25±4.65 years, 11 older men (71.45±2.94 years, 11 young women (29.64±4.88 years, and 7 older women (67.29±1.70 years were recruited. In vivo analyses were performed for mechanical properties such as isokinetic performance, isometric torque, and power. Specific force and maximum shortening velocity (Vo were measured with single muscle fibres. Sex difference showed greater impact on the functional properties of both the whole muscle (p<0.01 and single muscle fibres than aging (p<0.05. Sex difference, rather than aging, yielded more remarkable differences in gross mechanical properties in the single muscle fibre study in which significant differences between young men and young women were found only in the cross-sectional area and Vo (p<0.05. Age and sex differences reflect the mechanical properties of both single muscle fibres and whole thigh muscle, with the whole muscle yielding more prominent functional properties.

  8. Radiation field control at the latest BWR plants -- design principle, operational experience and future subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shunsuke [Energy Research Lab., Ibaraki (Japan); Ohsumi, Katsumi; Takashima, Yoshie [Hitachi Works, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Improvements of operational procedures to control water chemistry, e.g., nickel/iron control, as well as application of hardware improvements for reducing radioactive corrosion products resulted in an extremely low occupational exposure of less than 0.5 man.Sv/yr without any serious impact on the radwaste system, for BWR plants involved in the Japanese Improvement and Standardization Program. Recently, {sup 60}C radioactively in the reactor water has been increasing due to less crud fixation on the two smooth surfaces of new type high performance fuels and to the pH drop caused by chromium oxide anions released from stainless steel structures and pipings. This increase must be limited by changes in water chemistry, e.g., applications of modified nickel/iron ratio control and weak alkali control. Controlled water chemistry to optimize three points, the plant radiation level and integrities of fuel and structural materials, is the primary future subject for BWR water chemistry.

  9. Assessment of precast beam-column using capacity demand response spectrum subject to design basis earthquake and maximum considered earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Kay Dora Abd.; Tukiar, Mohd Azuan; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Malaysia is surrounded by the tectonic feature of the Sumatera area which consists of two seismically active inter-plate boundaries, namely the Indo-Australian and the Eurasian Plates on the west and the Philippine Plates on the east. Hence, Malaysia experiences tremors from far distant earthquake occurring in Banda Aceh, Nias Island, Padang and other parts of Sumatera Indonesia. In order to predict the safety of precast buildings in Malaysia under near field ground motion the response spectrum analysis could be used for dealing with future earthquake whose specific nature is unknown. This paper aimed to develop of capacity demand response spectrum subject to Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in order to assess the performance of precast beam column joint. From the capacity-demand response spectrum analysis, it can be concluded that the precast beam-column joints would not survive when subjected to earthquake excitation with surface-wave magnitude, Mw, of more than 5.5 Scale Richter (Type 1 spectra). This means that the beam-column joint which was designed using the current code of practice (BS8110) would be severely damaged when subjected to high earthquake excitation. The capacity-demand response spectrum analysis also shows that the precast beam-column joints in the prototype studied would be severely damaged when subjected to Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) with PGA=0.22g having a surface-wave magnitude of more than 5.5 Scale Richter, or Type 1 spectra.

  10. Design of a hybrid double-sideband/single-sideband (schlieren) objective aperture suitable for electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buijsse, Bart; Laarhoven, Frank M.H.M. van [FEI Company, PO Box 80066, 5600 KA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schmid, Andreas K.; Cambie, Rossana; Cabrini, Stefano; Jin, Jian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Glaeser, Robert M., E-mail: rmglaeser@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    A novel design is described for an aperture that blocks a half-plane of the electron diffraction pattern out to a desired scattering angle, and then - except for a narrow support beam - transmits all of the scattered electrons beyond that angle. Our proposed tulip-shaped design is thus a hybrid between the single-sideband (ssb) aperture, which blocks a full half-plane of the diffraction pattern, and the conventional (i.e. fully open) double-sideband (dsb) aperture. The benefits of this hybrid design include the fact that such an aperture allows one to obtain high-contrast images of weak-phase objects with the objective lens set to Scherzer defocus. We further demonstrate that such apertures can be fabricated from thin-foil materials by milling with a focused ion beam (FIB), and that such apertures are fully compatible with the requirements of imaging out to a resolution of at least 0.34 nm. As is known from earlier work with single-sideband apertures, however, the edge of such an aperture can introduce unwanted, electrostatic phase shifts due to charging. The principal requirement for using such an aperture in a routine data-collection mode is thus to discover appropriate materials, protocols for fabrication and processing and conditions of use such that the hybrid aperture remains free of charging over long periods of time. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New objective-aperture design is proposed for imaging weak-phase objects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design produces single-sideband contrast at low spatial frequencies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design also retains Scherzer-defocus phase contrast at higher resolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proof-of-concept results are presented for microfabricated apertures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Charging of such apertures during use remains an experimental challenge.

  11. Design of illumination and projection optics for projectors with single digital micromirror devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C M; Shieh, H P

    2000-07-01

    We present a new optical system design for a projector with a single digital micromirror device (Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device) that improves on previous designs in terms of optical efficiency, uniformity, and contrast while yielding a low-profile and compact system. A rod integrator is incorporated with a compact relay system to maximize light efficiency and to increase illumination uniformity. The uniformity achieved by the optimized optical system was calculated to be 94%. In addition, this unique light-separator design has dual output channels to increase the image contrast by steering the off-state light away from the projection lens. This projector design provides very efficient light utilization, and we discuss how the geometrical optical efficiency of the system can be boosted to approach the theoretical maximum.

  12. Direct Training to Improve Educators' Treatment Integrity: A Systematic Review of Single-Case Design Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Lindsay M; Kurtz, Kathryn D; Mueller, Marlana R

    2017-06-15

    In consultation, school psychologists may offer educators direct training to support the implementation of classroom interventions aimed to improve student outcomes. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review of single-case design research studies during which educators received direct training to implement a classroom intervention, specifically instructions, modeling, practice, and feedback. Two doctoral students in school psychology screened 228 articles and evaluated 33 studies to determine if direct training is effective and an evidence-based practice per single-case design standards proposed by the What Works Clearinghouse. Results of the review indicate that there is support for the practice to be deemed evidence-based and associated with better intervention implementation than before its application. Implications include direct training being considered for intensive, complex interventions to promote educator success with implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Design methodology for a special single winding based bearingless switched reluctance motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhurjya Dev Choudhury

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bearingless switched reluctance motors (BSRMs have both magnetic bearing as well as conventional motor characteristics which make them suitable for diverse industrial applications. This study proposes a design methodology for a BSRM in order to calculate the appropriate geometrical dimensions essential for realising a minimum levitation force at every orientation of rotor. It is based on the stator–rotor overlap angle and helps in reducing the complexities associated with the self-bearing operation of a switched reluctance motor (SRM. Different from a conventional SRM, the motor under study deploys a special single set parallel winding scheme for simultaneous production of torque as well as radial force. An analytical model incorporating this single set winding is developed for calculating the torque and the radial force. The proposed bearingless design is verified by developing a two-dimensional finite-element model of a 12/8 SRM in ANSYS Maxwell.

  14. Single Phase Current-Source Active Rectifier for Traction: Control System Design and Practical Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michalik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been motivated by industrial demand for single phase current-source active rectifier dedicated for reconstruction of older types of dc machine locomotives. This paper presents converters control structure design and simulations. The proposed converter control is based on the mathematical model and due to possible interaction with railway signaling and required low switching frequency employs synchronous PWM. The simulation results are verified by experimental tests performed on designed laboratory prototype of power of 7kVA

  15. Design of a multi beam klystron cavity from its single beam parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, Deepender, E-mail: dkc@ceeri.ernet.in; Joshi, L. M. [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani (India); Janyani, Vijay [Department of ECE, MNIT, Jaipur (India)

    2016-03-09

    The klystron is a well-known microwave amplifier which uses kinetic energy of an electron beam for amplification of the RF signal. There are some limitations of conventional single beam klystron such as high operating voltage, low efficiency and bulky size at higher power levels, which are very effectively handled in Multi Beam Klystron (MBK) that uses multiple low purveyance electron beams for RF interaction. Each beam propagates along its individual transit path through a resonant cavity structure. Multi-Beam klystron cavity design is a critical task due to asymmetric cavity structure and can be simulated by 3D code only. The present paper shall discuss the design of multi beam RF cavities for klystrons operating at 2856 MHz (S-band) and 5 GHz (C-band) respectively. The design approach uses some scaling laws for finding the electron beam parameters of the multi beam device from their single beam counter parts. The scaled beam parameters are then used for finding the design parameters of the multi beam cavities. Design of the desired multi beam cavity can be optimized through iterative simulations in CST Microwave Studio.

  16. Motion Control Design for an Omnidirectional Mobile Robot Subject to Velocity Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollin Peñaloza-Mejía

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A solution to achieve global asymptotic tracking with bounded velocities in an omnidirectional mobile robot is proposed in this paper. It is motivated by the need of having a useful in-practice motion control scheme, which takes into account the physical limits of the velocities. To this end, a passive nonlinear controller is designed and combined with a tracking controller in a negative feedback connection structure. By using Lyapunov theory and passivity tools, global asymptotic tracking with desired bounded velocities is proved. Simulations and experimental results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposal.

  17. Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Single and Multiple Oral Doses of an Omega-3-Carboxylic Acid Formulation in Healthy Male Japanese Subjects: A Phase 1 Single-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yoshinori; Nilsson, Catarina; Shimada, Hitoshi; Kim, Hyosung; Lundström, Torbjörn; Yajima, Toshitaka

    2018-02-01

    OM3-CA (omega-3-carboxylic acids) is a complex mixture of omega-3 carboxylic acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is approved in the United States for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. As part of its clinical development in Japan, we performed a phase 1 study to investigate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics after single and multiple doses of OM3-CA in healthy male Japanese subjects. Eighteen Japanese subjects were allocated to receive 2 or 4 g/day OM3-CA, or placebo (n = 6 per group). In addition, 6 white subjects received 4 g/day OM3-CA. The primary objective was to determine the safety and tolerability of OM3-CA. Plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA were adjusted for baseline values for pharmacokinetic analysis. Overall, OM3-CA was well tolerated in healthy Japanese subjects. Two Japanese subjects in each group and 5 white subjects experienced adverse events (AEs). Alanine aminotransferase increase was the most common AE in Japanese subjects, also seen with placebo, and diarrhea was the most common AE in white subjects. The maximum plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA were observed 5-6 hours postdose. The pharmacokinetic profiles of EPA and DHA after administration of OM3-CA were comparable between Japanese and white subjects. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  18. Design of a single cylinder optical access to the combustion engine Scania D12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Juergen

    2000-11-01

    In this work a maximum optical access to a diesel engine is developed. The combustion-process in the engine should be representative to the one in a standard engine, so the geometry of the combustion chamber is modified as little as possible. A Scania single cylinder, 2-litre engine was subjected to modifications allowing the optical access. Solutions to these problems are obtained by using the method of Product-Development, mainly based on the literature by Prof Dr.-Ing. Birkhofer at the Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany. An optical engine design of the Bowditch type was the chosen main working principle. This engine contains an extended cylinder, partly made of glass, a glass piston-crown and a mirror placed inside the extended piston. The laser sheet is led into the combustion chamber through the glass part of the cylinder, then gets reflected inside the combustion chamber and is led through the glass piston crown and via the mirror out of the engine. A redesign of the valve-train, using extended push-rods, is necessary. The demand to examine the combustion at Top-Dead-Centre (TDC) and the necessity of supporting the glass, give the reasons to do work on the cylinder head. This in return brings sealing problems, which have been solved. Another problem that occurs with that type of engine is that is has to run without oil-lubrication. Piston rings made of Rylon are used to solve this problem. A special feature of the engine that has been constructed here is that the inner surface of the glass may be cleaned without removing the cylinder head. This is obtained by a construction with a movable cylinder. In cleaning-state the cylinder is driven up and down together with the piston, while the head is supported by an outer structure. When running the engine, the cylinder is fixed to the structure. Furthermore this report contains the necessary calculations and integrity assessments on the critical parts of the construction. All calculations, except the

  19. Striatal dopamine release in reading and writing measured with [123I]iodobenzamide and single photon emission computed tomography in right handed human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommartz, B; Larisch, R; Vosberg, H; Müller-Gärtner, H M

    2000-09-29

    Competition between endogenous dopamine and a radioligand for postsynaptic dopamine D(2) receptor binding was examined in two groups of eight subjects each who had to read or write off a text, respectively, and in a control group. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and the ligand [(123)I]iodobenzamide (IBZM) were used for in vivo imaging. Subjects commenced reading or writing immediately before IBZM injection and continued for 30min thereafter. SPECT images were acquired 60min later. Striatum-to-parietal-cortex IBZM uptake ratios were lower in subjects who wrote off the text than in controls indicating competition of IBZM and dopamine. There was no difference between subjects who read the text and controls. Thus, dopamine release occurs as a consequence of the motoric activity involved in writing rather than of cognitive functions necessary for reading the text.

  20. Single-pole recording head design for 100 Gbpsi perpendicular magnetic recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Kiyoshi; Taguchi, Kaori; Ise, Kazuyuki; Honda, Naoki; Ouchi, Kazuhiro

    2001-01-01

    In developing a perpendicular recording head, writability, head induced erasure and head skew problem are major concerns for achieving 100 Gbpsi recording. Sufficient overwrite performance of the single-pole head with a trackwidth down to 0.26 μm and clear MFM images of 0.16 μm recorded signals were obtained. Furthermore, high stray field robustness was realized with a newly designed head accompanied by a high head efficiency

  1. Solar energy heating system design package for a single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The design of a solar heating and hot water system for the New Castle Redevelopment Authority's single-family dwelling located at New Castle, Pennsylvania is described. Documentation submitted by the contractor for Government review of plans, specifications, cost trade studies and verification status for approval to commit the system to fabrication is presented. Also included are system integration drawings, major subsystems drawings, and architect's specifications and plans.

  2. High Capacity Single Table Performance Design Using Partitioning in Oracle or PostgreSQL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    High Capacity Single Table Performance Design Using Partitioning in Oracle or PostgreSQL by Travis Parker and Paul Ritchey ARL-CR-0689...Partitioning in Oracle or PostgreSQL Travis Parker and Paul Ritchey Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL Prepared by... PostgreSQL 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911QX-07-F-0023 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Travis Parker and Paul Ritchey  5d. PROJECT

  3. Progress towards developing consistent design and evaluation guidelines for DOE facilities subjected to natural phenomena hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.; McDonald, J.R.; McCann, M.W. Jr.; Reed, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Probabilistic definitions of earthquake, wind and tornado natural phenomena hazards for many Department of Energy (DOE) facilities throughout the United States have been developed. In addition, definitions of the flood hazards which might affect these locations are currently being developed. The Department of Energy Natural Phenomena Hazards Panel is now preparing a document to provide guidance and criteria for DOE facility managers to assure that DOE facilities are adequately constructed to resist the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquake, strong wind and flood. The intent of this document is to provide instruction on how to utilize the hazard definitions to evaluate existing facilities and design new facilities in a manner such that the risk of adverse consequences is consistent with the cost, function, and danger to the public or environment of the facility. Potential effects on facilities of natural phenomena hazards are emphasized in this paper. The philosophy for mitigating these effects to be employed in the design and evaluation guidelines is also presented

  4. Bicycle saddle pressure: effects of trunk position and saddle design on healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpes, Felipe Pivetta; Dagnese, Frederico; Kleinpaul, Julio Francisco; Martins, Elisandro de Assis; Mota, Carlos Bolli

    2009-01-01

    There is a common belief that seat pressure during cycling can compress specific neurovascular tissues over the perineum leading to genital pathologies. This topic has seldom been discussed for women. The present study was conducted to verify the effect of trunk position and saddle design on saddle pressure in both men and women. Recreational cyclists (11 men and 11 women) were evaluated while seated on a bicycle. Saddle pressure was measured with F-scan insoles adapted for two saddle models (with and without a hole), and two trunk positions (upright and forwards). Pressure values were compared between trunk positions and saddles employing ANOVA. There were no statistical differences comparing saddle pressure between the two trunk positions for women. For men a statistical difference between the trunk positions for the saddle with a hole was found. Thus, the trunk forwards shift seems to affect the values of saddle pressure only for men using the 'holed' saddle. Saddle pressure for men was influenced by saddle design and trunk position only. This result indicates that the masculine anatomy may influence saddle pressure during bicycle. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Postural stability during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Janssens, Luc; Luyckx, Thomas; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan; Staes, Filip F

    2015-03-01

    An anterior cruciate ligament injury may lead to deteriorations in postural stability. The goal of this study was to evaluate postural stability during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance of both legs in anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects and non-injured control subjects with a standardized methodology. Fifteen control subjects and 15 anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects (time after injury: mean (SD)=1.4 (0.7) months) participated in the study. Both groups were similar for age, gender, height, weight and body mass index. Spatiotemporal center of pressure outcomes of both legs of each subject were measured during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Movement speed was standardized. The center of pressure displacement after a new stability point was reached during the single-leg stance phase was significantly increased in the anterior cruciate ligament injured group compared to the control group in the eyes closed condition (Plegs within both groups (P>.05). No significant differences were found during the transition itself (P>.05). The anterior cruciate ligament injured group showed postural stability deficits during the single-leg stance phase compared to the non-injured control group in the eyes closed condition. Using the non-injured leg as a normal reference when evaluating postural stability of the injured leg may lead to misinterpretations, as no significant differences were found between the injured and non-injured leg of the anterior cruciate ligament injured group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics of ebastine after single and repeated dosing in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatagi, S; Gillen, M; Aubeneau, M; Jan, C; Pandit, B; Jensen, B K; Rhodes, G

    2001-03-01

    Ebastine is a potent and selective H1-receptor antagonist indicated for allergic rhinitis which undergoes extensive first pass metabolism by CYP3A4 to form an active metabolite, carebastine. The purpose of the study was to determine age- and gender-related differences in the pharmacokinetics of ebastine and carebastine. The upper recommended oral dose of 20 mg once daily was administered to 12 healthy young (22 to 38 years) and 12 healthy elderly (50 to 92 years; 8 m and 4 f) subjects for 5 days. Plasma concentrations of ebastine and carebastine were determined for 24 hours following the initial dose on Day 1 and for 72 hours following the dose on Day 5 using a sensitive LC/MS/MS assay. The minimum quantifiable limit (MQL) for the assay was 0.05 ng/ml and 1.0 ng/ml for ebastine and carebastine, respectively. Mean area under the curve and Cmax values on Day 1 and Day 5 were similar for ebastine but approximately doubled for carebastine due to its longer half-life. Mean carebastine concentrations were approximately 10 to 20 fold higher than mean ebastine concentrations. For young subjects, the mean (%CV) ebastine t(1/2) was 5.76 (28.47) h and 20.38 (46.19) h on Day 1 and Day 5, respectively. Similarily, for young subjects, the mean (%CV) for carebastine t(1/2) was 7.03 (23.21) h and 26.12 (23.39) h on Day 1 and Day 5, respectively. This apparent prolongation of t(1/2) was probably due to lack of proper estimation of terminal half-life on Day 1 as fewer samples were collected for a shorter duration on Day 1. Using a multicomparison test for Cmin values, it was determined that steady state conditions were achieved by Day 5 for both age groups for ebastine and in young subjects for carebastine. The variability in ebastine pharmacokinetic parameters was higher than carebastine. A 50% increase in ebastine AUC(0-24) and Cmax values in elderly subjects, with no changes in t(1/2), could be explained by either increased absorption of ebastine in elderly subjects or due to a

  7. Single-Case Experimental Designs to Evaluate Novel Technology-Based Health Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Rachel N; Raiff, Bethany R

    2013-01-01

    Technology-based interventions to promote health are expanding rapidly. Assessing the preliminary efficacy of these interventions can be achieved by employing single-case experiments (sometimes referred to as n-of-1 studies). Although single-case experiments are often misunderstood, they offer excellent solutions to address the challenges associated with testing new technology-based interventions. This paper provides an introduction to single-case techniques and highlights advances in developing and evaluating single-case experiments, which help ensure that treatment outcomes are reliable, replicable, and generalizable. These advances include quality control standards, heuristics to guide visual analysis of time-series data, effect size calculations, and statistical analyses. They also include experimental designs to isolate the active elements in a treatment package and to assess the mechanisms of behavior change. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues related to the generality of findings derived from single-case research and how generality can be established through replication and through analysis of behavioral mechanisms. PMID:23399668

  8. Single-case experimental designs to assess intervention effectiveness in rehabilitation: A practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny-Pacini, Agata; Evans, Jonathan

    2017-12-15

    Single-case experimental designs (SCED) are experimental designs aiming at testing the effect of an intervention using a small number of patients (typically one to three), using repeated measurements, sequential (±randomized) introduction of an intervention and method-specific data analysis, including visual analysis and specific statistics. The aim of this paper is to familiarise professionals working in different fields of rehabilitation with SCEDs and provide practical advice on how to design and implement a SCED in clinical rehabilitation practice. Research questions suitable for SCEDs and the different types of SCEDs (e.g., alternating treatment designs, introduction/withdrawal designs and multiple baseline designs) are reviewed. Practical steps in preparing a SCED design are outlined. Examples from different rehabilitation domains are provided throughout the paper. Challenging issues such as the choice of the repeated measure, assessment of generalisation, randomization, procedural fidelity, replication and generalizability of findings are discussed. Simple rules and resources for data analysis are presented. The utility of SCEDs in physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Isomaltulose Together with Green Tea on Glycemic Response and Antioxidant Capacity: A Single-Blind, Crossover Study in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Suraphad, Passakorn; Suklaew, Phim On; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai; M?kynen, Kittana

    2017-01-01

    Isomaltulose, a naturally-occurring isomer of sucrose, is commonly used as an alternative sweetener in foods and beverages. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of isomaltulose together with green tea on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentration, as well as antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 15 healthy subjects (eight women and seven men; ages 23.5 ? 0.7 years; with body mass index of 22.6 ? 0.4 kg/m2) consumed f...

  10. Italy-Japan international project-based learning for developing human resources using design of welfare equipment as a subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, A; Komeda, T; Ito, K; Zobel, P Beomonte

    2015-08-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) is effective for developing human resources of young students. The design of welfare equipment, such as wheelchairs and gait assistive devices, is taken as the subject in this study because these devices must be fit to their environment, users, and method of use; students must consider the circumstances of each country concerned. The program commenced in 2012 at L'Aquila, Italy, and the Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan and has been continuing for three years. Students were divided into four groups and discussions were held on how to adapt the equipment to the user and environment. After discussion, they designed and simulated a model of the equipment using CAD. Finally, they presented their designs to each other. Through the program, students had fruitful discussions, exchanged ideas from different cultures, and learned from each other. Furthermore, friendships among the students were nurtured. It is believed that the objective of the program was satisfactorily accomplished.

  11. Collaboration Between Art Teacher Students and Communication and Digital Media Students Promoting Subject Specific Didactics in Digital Visual Learning Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Skov, Kirsten

    . Student art teachers and teacher trainers took part in the design process performed by communication students. The project took its point of the departure in the act of Danish teacher education where student teachers must be educated in the practical use of digital visual media for art practices aiming......, drawing or video. Thus, the project suggested the development of a visual learning design for achieving augmented reality (AR) experiences in urban environments and sharing them on social media. The purpose was to explore adequate approaches to work with digital media in visual arts education based...... and their lecturers. Finally, the designs indicate that a collaborative approach may promote new aspects to subject didactics, where visual art didactics gain new opportunities from involving the domain of communication and digital media for developing learning resources. However, it must be concluded that more...

  12. Optimization Design of Structures Subjected to Transient Loads Using First and Second Derivatives of Dynamic Displacement and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qimao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed an effective optimization method, i.e., gradient-Hessian matrix-based method or second order method, of frame structures subjected to the transient loads. An algorithm of first and second derivatives of dynamic displacement and stress with respect to design variables is formulated based on the Newmark method. The inequality time-dependent constraint problem is converted into a sequence of appropriately formed time-independent unconstrained problems using the integral interior point penalty function method. The gradient and Hessian matrixes of the integral interior point penalty functions are also computed. Then the Marquardt's method is employed to solve unconstrained problems. The numerical results show that the optimal design method proposed in this paper can obtain the local optimum design of frame structures and sometimes is more efficient than the augmented Lagrange multiplier method.

  13. Comparison of mobility and user satisfaction between a microprocessor knee and a standard prosthetic knee: a summary of seven single-subject trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Charla L; Wallace, Chris; Perry, Bonnie; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2018-03-01

    Insufficient evidence of the benefits provided by costlier microprocessor knees (MPKs) over nonmicroprocessor knees (NMPKs) often causes concern when considering MPK prescription. Thus, more studies are needed to demonstrate differences between MPKs and NMPKs and define sensitive outcomes to guide MPK prescription. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of switching from NMPK to MPK on measures of mobility and preference. Seven long-term NMPK users (all men, ages 50-84, 3-64 years postamputation) participated in this study, which use a single-subject design (ABA or BAB; A=NMPK, B=MPK). Mobility was assessed with the Amputee Mobility Predictor, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), L-Test, 6-Min Walk Test (6MWT) with Physiological Cost Index, and self-selected normal and very fast gait speeds. The preference between NMPK and MPK was evaluated by the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ) and the visual analog scale. Mobility improved with the MPK in six of seven participants, which was most often captured with BBS (median: +6 points) and 6MWT (median: +63 m). These improvements typically exceeded minimal clinically important difference or minimal detectable change thresholds. Most participants scored the MPK higher on the PEQ (median: +20 points) and six of seven expressed a global preference toward MPK. In the BAB group, the Amputee Mobility Predictor and BBS correlated with perception of change on several PEQ domains (Ρ≥0.59). In conclusion, MPKs may provide better outcomes and user satisfaction, particularly in those with lower mobility function. BBS and 6MWT were found to be the most sensitive measures to capture changes in mobility while using MPK for several weeks.

  14. Assessment of the Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Safety of Single Doses of TV-1106, a Long-Acting Growth Hormone, in Healthy Japanese and Caucasian Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Barak, Orit; Barkay, Hadas; Rasamoelisolo, Michele; Butler, Kathleen; Yamada, Kazumasa; Bassan, Merav; Yoon, Esther; Spiegelstein, Ofer

    2017-07-01

    TV-1106 is a human serum albumin genetically fused to recombinant human growth hormone, designed to provide a long-acting alternative to daily growth hormone (GH) injections in patients with GH deficiency. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of single subcutaneous doses of TV-1106 (7.5, 15, 50, and 100 mg) in Japanese (n = 44) and caucasian (n = 44) healthy subjects. TV-1106 pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were comparable in Japanese and caucasian populations. TV-1106 demonstrated relatively slow absorption (median t max , 10-30 hours) and a mean elimination half-life of 26-36 hours. Apparent clearance and volume of distribution decreased with increasing TV-1106 doses in both populations and appeared to increase more than dose proportionality across the tested doses. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) increased in a dose-related manner, with maximum responses observed at 33-96 and 42-109 hours, respectively. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 returned to baseline values at 168 hours following 7.5 and 15 mg of TV-1106, and 336 hours following 50 and 100 mg of TV-1106. TV-1106 appeared safe in both populations. There was no evidence of differences in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, or safety of TV-1106 between Japanese and caucasian populations. The data also demonstrate long-acting growth hormone properties of TV-1106 and support its potential for once-weekly dosing. © 2016, The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  15. Integrating Language, Pragmatics, and Social Intervention in a Single-Subject Case Study of a Child With a Developmental Social Communication Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny

    2015-10-01

    This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of individualized therapy activities and in close liaison with families. The study used an enhanced AB single-subject design in which an 8-year-old child with an SCD participated in 20 therapy sessions with a specialist speech-language pathologist. A procedure of matching assessment findings to intervention choices was followed to construct an individualized treatment program. Examples of intervention content and the embedded structure of SCIP are illustrated. Observational and formal measurements of receptive and expressive language, conversation, and parent-teacher ratings of social communication were completed before therapy, after therapy, and at a 6-month follow-up session. Outcomes revealed change in total and receptive language scores but not in expressive language. Conversation showed marked improvement in responsiveness, appreciation of listener knowledge, turn taking, and adaptation of discourse style. Teacher-reported outcomes included improved classroom behavior and enhanced literacy skills. Parent-reported outcomes included improved verbal interactions with family members and personal narratives. This clinical focus article demonstrates the complexity of needs in a child with an SCD and how these can be addressed in individualized intervention. Findings are discussed in relation to the essential nature of language support including pragmatic therapy for children with SCDs. Discussion of the role of formal and functional outcome measurement as well as the proximity of chosen outcomes to the intervention is included.

  16. Towards Subject-Specific Strength Training Design through Predictive Use of Musculoskeletal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Plüss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower extremity dysfunction is often associated with hip muscle strength deficiencies. Detailed knowledge of the muscle forces generated in the hip under specific external loading conditions enables specific structures to be trained. The aim of this study was to find the most effective movement type and loading direction to enable the training of specific parts of the hip muscles using a standing posture and a pulley system. In a novel approach to release the predictive power of musculoskeletal modelling techniques based on inverse dynamics, flexion/extension and ab-/adduction movements were virtually created. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, three hip orientations and an external loading force that was systematically rotated around the body were simulated using a state-of-the art OpenSim model in order to establish ideal designs for training of the anterior and posterior parts of the M. gluteus medius (GM. The external force direction as well as the hip orientation greatly influenced the muscle forces in the different parts of the GM. No setting was found for simultaneous training of the anterior and posterior parts with a muscle force higher than 50% of the maximum. Importantly, this study has demonstrated the use of musculoskeletal models as an approach to predict muscle force variations for different strength and rehabilitation exercise variations.

  17. A method to analyse measurement invariance under uncertainty in between-subjects design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, José A; Ruiz Marin, Manuel; Vivo Molina, Maria del Carmen

    2012-11-01

    In this research we have introduced a new test (H-test) for analyzing scale invariance in between group designs, and considering uncertainty in individual responses, in order to study the adequacy of disparate rating and visual scales for measuring abstract concepts. The H-test is easy to compute and, as a nonparametric test, does not require any a priori distribution of the data nor conditions on the variances of the distributions to be tested. We apply this test to measure perceived service quality of consumers of a sports services. Results show that, without considering uncertainty, the 1-7 scale is invariant, in line with the related works regarding this topic. However, de 1-5 scale and the 1-7 scale are invariant when adding uncertainty to the analysis. Therefore, adding uncertainty importantly change the conclusions regarding invariance analysis. Both types of visual scales are not invariant in the uncertainty scenario. Implications for the use of rating scales are discussed.

  18. Designing siRNA that distinguish between genes that differ by a single nucleotide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne S Schwarz

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, the guides that direct RNA interference (RNAi, provide a powerful tool to reduce the expression of a single gene in human cells. Ideally, dominant, gain-of-function human diseases could be treated using siRNAs that specifically silence the mutant disease allele, while leaving expression of the wild-type allele unperturbed. Previous reports suggest that siRNAs can be designed with single nucleotide specificity, but no rational basis for the design of siRNAs with single nucleotide discrimination has been proposed. We systematically identified siRNAs that discriminate between the wild-type and mutant alleles of two disease genes: the human Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1 gene, which contributes to the progression of hereditary amyotrophic lateral sclerosis through the gain of a toxic property, and the huntingtin (HTT gene, which causes Huntington disease when its CAG-repeat region expands beyond approximately 35 repeats. Using cell-free RNAi reactions in Drosophila embryo lysate and reporter assays and microarray analysis of off-target effects in cultured human cells, we identified positions within an siRNA that are most sensitive to mismatches. We also show that purine:purine mismatches imbue an siRNA with greater discriminatory power than other types of base mismatches. siRNAs in which either a G:U wobble or a mismatch is located in the "seed" sequence, the specialized siRNA guide region responsible for target binding, displayed lower levels of selectivity than those in which the mismatch was located 3' to the seed; this region of an siRNA is critical for target cleavage but not siRNA binding. Our data suggest that siRNAs can be designed to discriminate between the wild-type and mutant alleles of many genes that differ by just a single nucleotide.

  19. Using machine learning to identify structural breaks in single-group interrupted time series designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Single-group interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) is a popular evaluation methodology in which a single unit of observation is being studied, the outcome variable is serially ordered as a time series and the intervention is expected to 'interrupt' the level and/or trend of the time series, subsequent to its introduction. Given that the internal validity of the design rests on the premise that the interruption in the time series is associated with the introduction of the treatment, treatment effects may seem less plausible if a parallel trend already exists in the time series prior to the actual intervention. Thus, sensitivity analyses should focus on detecting structural breaks in the time series before the intervention. In this paper, we introduce a machine-learning algorithm called optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) as an approach to determine if structural breaks can be identified in years prior to the initiation of the intervention, using data from California's 1988 voter-initiated Proposition 99 to reduce smoking rates. The ODA analysis indicates that numerous structural breaks occurred prior to the actual initiation of Proposition 99 in 1989, including perfect structural breaks in 1983 and 1985, thereby casting doubt on the validity of treatment effects estimated for the actual intervention when using a single-group ITSA design. Given the widespread use of ITSA for evaluating observational data and the increasing use of machine-learning techniques in traditional research, we recommend that structural break sensitivity analysis is routinely incorporated in all research using the single-group ITSA design. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The diuretic effect in human subjects of an extract of Taraxacum officinale folium over a single day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Bevin A; Conroy, Richard S; Spelman, Kevin

    2009-08-01

    Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber (Asteraceae) has been extensively employed as a diuretic in traditional folk medicine and in modern phytotherapy in Europe, Asia, and the Americas without prior clinical trial substantiation. In this pilot study, a high-quality fresh leaf hydroethanolic extract of the medicinal plant T. officinale (dandelion) was ingested by volunteers to investigate whether an increased urinary frequency and volume would result. Volume of urinary output and fluid intake were recorded by subjects. Baseline values for urinary frequency and excretion ratio (urination volume:fluid intake) were established 2 days prior to dandelion dosing (8 mL TID) and monitored throughout a 1-day dosing period and 24 hours postdosing. For the entire population (n = 17) there was a significant (p officinale ethanolic extract shows promise as a diuretic in humans. Further studies are needed to establish the value of this herb for induction of diuresis in human subjects.

  1. An electrocorticographic BCI using code-based VEP for control in video applications: A single-subject study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eKapeller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A brain-computer-interface (BCI allows the user to control a device or software with brain activity. Many BCIs rely on visual stimuli with constant stimulation cycles that elicit steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP in the electroencephalogram (EEG. This EEG response can be generated with a LED or a computer screen flashing at a constant frequency, and similar EEG activity can be elicited with pseudo-random stimulation sequences on a screen (code-based BCI. Using electrocorticography (ECoG instead of EEG promises higher spatial and temporal resolution and leads to more dominant evoked potentials due to visual stimulation. This work is focused on BCIs based on visual evoked potentials (VEP and its capability as a continuous control interface for augmentation of video applications. One 35 year old female subject with implanted subdural grids participated in the study. The task was to select one out of four visual targets, while each was flickering with a code sequence. After a calibration run including 200 code sequences, a linear classifier was used during an evaluation run to identify the selected visual target based on the generated code-based VEPs over 20 trials. Multiple ECoG buffer lengths were tested and subject reached a mean online classification accuracy of 99.21 % for a window length of 3.15 s. Finally, the subject performed an unsupervised free run in combination with visual feedback of the current selection. Additionally, an algorithm was implemented that allowed to suppress false positive selections and this allowed the subject to start and stop the BCI at any time. The code-based BCI system attained very high online accuracy, which makes this approach very promising for control applications where a continuous control signal is needed.

  2. Fibromyalgia Symptom Reduction by Online Behavioral Self-monitoring, Longitudinal Single Subject Analysis and Automated Delivery of Individualized Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinge, William; Yarnold, Paul; Soltysik, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex chronic pain condition that is difficult to treat. The prevailing approach is an integration of pharmacological, psycho-educational, and behavioral strategies. Information technology offers great potential for FM sufferers to systemically monitor symptoms as well as potential impacts of various management strategies. This study aimed to evaluate effects of a web-based, self-monitoring and symptom management system (SMARTLog) that analyzes personal self-monitoring data and delivers data-based feedback over time. Subjects were self-referred, anonymous, and recruited via publicity on FM advocacy websites. Standardized instruments assessed health status, self-efficacy, and locus of control at baseline and monthly during participation. Subjects were encouraged to complete the SMARTLog several times weekly. Within-subject, univariate, and multivariate analyses were used to derive classification trees for each user associating specific behavior variables with symptom levels over time. Moderate use (3 times weekly x 3 months) increased likelihood of clinically significant improvements in pain, memory, gastrointestinal problems, depression, fatigue, and concentration; heavy use (4.5 times weekly x five months) produced the above plus improvement in stiffness and sleep difficulties. Individualized, web-based behavioral self-monitoring with personally-tailored feedback can enable FM sufferers to significantly reduce symptom levels over time.

  3. Masked Visual Analysis: Minimizing Type I Error in Visually Guided Single-Case Design for Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Hitchcock, Elaine R.; Ferron, John

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Single-case experimental designs are widely used to study interventions for communication disorders. Traditionally, single-case experiments follow a response-guided approach, where design decisions during the study are based on participants' observed patterns of behavior. However, this approach has been criticized for its high rate of…

  4. Photonic-crystal membranes for optical detection of single nano-particles, designed for biosensor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grepstad, Jon Olav; Kaspar, Peter; Solgaard, Olav; Johansen, Ib-Rune; Sudbø, Aasmund S

    2012-03-26

    A sensor designed to detect bio-molecules is presented. The sensor exploits a planar 2D photonic crystal (PC) membrane with sub-micron thickness and through holes, to induce high optical fields that allow detection of nano-particles smaller than the diffraction limit of an optical microscope. We report on our design and fabrication of a PC membrane with a nano-particle trapped inside. We have also designed and built an imaging system where an optical microscope and a CCD camera are used to take images of the PC membrane. Results show how the trapped nano-particle appears as a bright spot in the image. In a first experimental realization of the imaging system, single particles with a radius of 75 nm can be detected.

  5. Conceptual Design of a Single-Aisle Turboelectric Commercial Transport With Fuselage Boundary Layer Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welstead, Jason R.; Felder, James L.

    2016-01-01

    A single-aisle commercial transport concept with a turboelectric propulsion system architecture was developed assuming entry into service in 2035 and compared to a similar technology conventional configuration. The turboelectric architecture consisted of two underwing turbofans with generators extracting power from the fan shaft and sending it to a rear fuselage, axisymmetric, boundary layer ingesting fan. Results indicate that the turbo- electric concept has an economic mission fuel burn reduction of 7%, and a design mission fuel burn reduction of 12% compared to the conventional configuration. An exploration of the design space was performed to better understand how the turboelectric architecture changes the design space, and system sensitivities were run to determine the sensitivity of thrust specific fuel consumption at top of climb and propulsion system weight to the motor power, fan pressure ratio, and electrical transmission efficiency of the aft boundary layer ingesting fan.

  6. DESIGNING AN INSET COURSE FOR THE COLLEGE SUBJECT TEACHERS TO TEACH IN ENGLISH FOR INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Suharno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In  globalization  era  making  a  broader  networking  among universities  is  urgent. To  realize such  a cooperation  several Indonesian universities are opening international programs but the common  problem faced  in  higher  education  level  is  the  lack  of human  resources who master  English. To  overcome  the  problem, some short courses were conducted to improve the college subject teachers’  English  competence.  Service  English  Unit  (SEU, Diponegoro  University is  a  language  center  carrying  out  such  a training in cooperation with Univesitas Negeri Yogyakarta funded by  Program  Hibah  Kompetensi  Berbasis  Institusi  (PHKI  DIKTI Jakarta. The training lasting for 27 hours covered the components as  follows:  lecture  preparation,  academic  language,  grammar  & phonetics, developing students’ learning and communication skills, course outline, project.Dalam  era  globalisasi  membuat  jaringan  yang  lebih  luas  antar universitas  urgen.  Untuk  mewujutkan kerjasama  semacam  itu beberapa  perguruan  tinggi  Indonesia  membuka  program internasional  tetapi  masalah  umum  yang  dihadapi  dalam  tingkat perguruan  tinggi  adalah  terbatasnya  sumberdaya  manusia  yang menguasai bahasa Inggris. Untuk mengatasi masalah ini, beberapa kursus  singkat  diselenggarakan  untuk  meningkatkan  kompetensi bahasa  Inggris  para  pengajar  matakuliah  bidang  studi.  Service English  Unit  (SEU,  Universitas  Diponegoro  merupakan  pusat bahasa  yang menyelenggarakan pelatihan semacam itu kerja sama dengan  Universitas  Negeri  Yogyakarta  (UNY  yang  dibiayai  oleh Program  Hibah  Kompetensi  Berbasis  Institusi  (PHKI  DIKTI Jakarta.  Pelatihan  yang  berlangsung  27  jam  meliputi  komponen sebagai  berikut: persiapan  kuliah,  bahasa  akademik,  grammar  & fonetik,  pengembangan  ketrampilan

  7. Design and optimization for the occupant restraint system of vehicle based on a single freedom model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junyuan; Ma, Yue; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Throughout the vehicle crash event, the interactions between vehicle, occupant, restraint system (VOR) are complicated and highly non-linear. CAE and physical tests are the most widely used in vehicle passive safety development, but they can only be done with the detailed 3D model or physical samples. Often some design errors and imperfections are difficult to correct at that time, and a large amount of time will be needed. A restraint system concept design approach which based on single-degree-of-freedom occupant-vehicle model (SDOF) is proposed in this paper. The interactions between the restraint system parameters and the occupant responses in a crash are studied from the view of mechanics and energy. The discrete input and the iterative algorithm method are applied to the SDOF model to get the occupant responses quickly for arbitrary excitations (impact pulse) by MATLAB. By studying the relationships between the ridedown efficiency, the restraint stiffness, and the occupant response, the design principle of the restraint stiffness aiming to reduce occupant injury level during conceptual design is represented. Higher ridedown efficiency means more occupant energy absorbed by the vehicle, but the research result shows that higher ridedown efficiency does not mean lower occupant injury level. A proper restraint system design principle depends on two aspects. On one hand, the restraint system should lead to as high ridedown efficiency as possible, and at the same time, the restraint system should maximize use of the survival space to reduce the occupant deceleration level. As an example, an optimization of a passenger vehicle restraint system is designed by the concept design method above, and the final results are validated by MADYMO, which is the most widely used software in restraint system design, and the sled test. Consequently, a guideline and method for the occupant restraint system concept design is established in this paper.

  8. Shape-designed single-polymer micelles: a proof-of-concept simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moths, Brian; Witten, Thomas A.

    Much effort has been directed towards self-assembling nanostructures. Strong, local interactions between specific building blocks often determine these structures (e.g., globular proteins). We seek to produce designed structures that are instead determined by collective effects of weak interactions (e.g., surfactant self-assembly). Such structures may reversibly change conformation or disassemble in response to changing solvent conditions, and, being soft, have potential to adapt to fluctuating or unknown application-imposed shape requirements. Concretely, we aim to realize such a structure in the form of a single polymer micelle--an amphiphilic polymer exhibiting a condensed, phase-segregated conformation when immersed in solvent. Connecting all amphiphiles into a single chain provides geometric constraints controlling the surface curvature profile, thus dictating a non-trivial shape. We present 2D Monte Carlo simulation results demonstrating the feasibility of such soft, shape-designed micelles. Preliminary results demonstrate a stable concave ``dimple'' in a micelle composed of a single A-B multiblock linear copolymer. We discuss both current limitations on shape robustness and effects of block asymmetry, block molecular weights and overall chain length on micelle shape. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation's MRSEC Program under Award Number DMR-1420709.

  9. Discrepancies between Skinned Single Muscle Fibres and Whole Thigh Muscle Function Characteristics in Young and Elderly Human Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Hyunseok Jee; Jae-Young Lim

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to analyse the mechanical properties of skinned single muscle fibres derived from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle in relation to those of the whole intact thigh muscle and to compare any difference between young and older adults. Sixteen young men (29.25 ? 4.65 years), 11 older men (71.45 ? 2.94 years), 11 young women (29.64 ? 4.88 years), and 7 older women (67.29 ? 1.70 years) were recruited. In vivo analyses were performed for mechanical properties such as isokinetic performance, ...

  10. Functional aspects of treatment with implant-supported single crowns: a quality control study in subjects with tooth agenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goshima, Kenichi; Lexner, Michala O; Thomsen, Carsten Eckhart

    2010-01-01

    after implant placement shortly before crown cementation, and again 1 month after cementation. It consisted of questionnaires [including Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49)] and functional examination with plastic strips, the Dental Prescale Film and the Occluzer system, Xylitol color-changeable gum......BACKGROUND: No comprehensive patient-centered and clinical evaluations of the functional effect of treatment with implant-supported single crowns (ISSC) have been reported previously. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether and how treatment with ISSC affects masticatory function and Oral Health...

  11. Analysis and meta-analysis of single-case designs with a standardized mean difference statistic: a primer and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadish, William R; Hedges, Larry V; Pustejovsky, James E

    2014-04-01

    This article presents a d-statistic for single-case designs that is in the same metric as the d-statistic used in between-subjects designs such as randomized experiments and offers some reasons why such a statistic would be useful in SCD research. The d has a formal statistical development, is accompanied by appropriate power analyses, and can be estimated using user-friendly SPSS macros. We discuss both advantages and disadvantages of d compared to other approaches such as previous d-statistics, overlap statistics, and multilevel modeling. It requires at least three cases for computation and assumes normally distributed outcomes and stationarity, assumptions that are discussed in some detail. We also show how to test these assumptions. The core of the article then demonstrates in depth how to compute d for one study, including estimation of the autocorrelation and the ratio of between case variance to total variance (between case plus within case variance), how to compute power using a macro, and how to use the d to conduct a meta-analysis of studies using single-case designs in the free program R, including syntax in an appendix. This syntax includes how to read data, compute fixed and random effect average effect sizes, prepare a forest plot and a cumulative meta-analysis, estimate various influence statistics to identify studies contributing to heterogeneity and effect size, and do various kinds of publication bias analyses. This d may prove useful for both the analysis and meta-analysis of data from SCDs. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Subjective perception of cocaine reward in mice assessed by a single exposure place preference (sePP) paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runegaard, Annika H.; Jensen, Kathrine Louise; Dencker, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    Background The potential of abused drugs to induce addiction and compulsive drug-related behavior is associated with their ability to alter dopamine signaling. Dopamine plays a key role in reward signaling and it has been of great interest to investigate how various drugs of abuse alter reward....... The sePP protocol allows further dissection of the mechanism and influence of initial cocaine exposure on subsequent drug-related behaviors by including extinction and reinstatement. The lack of sePP in female mice may reflect a biologically relevant sex difference in the initial subjective perception...

  13. Neuropsychological Performance and Subjective Symptom Reporting in Military Service Members With a History of Multiple Concussions: Comparison With a Single Concussion, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Orthopedic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Douglas B; Curtiss, Glenn; Armistead-Jehle, Patrick; Belanger, Heather G; Tate, David F; Reid, Matthew; Bowles, Amy O; Velez, Carmen S; Kennedy, Jan E; Vanderploeg, Rodney D

    To examine differences in objective neurocognitive performance and subjective cognitive symptoms in individuals with a history of a single concussion, multiple concussions, orthopedic injuries, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants included 116 military service members who sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) during combat deployment. Subjects were subdivided into groups based on concussion frequency: a single concussion (n = 42), 2 concussions (n = 21), and 3 or more concussions (n = 53). Eighty-one subjects sustained an orthopedic injury (n = 60) during deployment or were diagnosed with PTSD (n = 21), but had no history of mTBI. Subjects completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and self-report measures of postconcussive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and psychopathology. No differences were found among the concussion groups on a composite neuropsychological measure. The PTSD group had the highest number of symptom complaints, with the 2-concussion and 3-plus-concussion groups being most similar to the PTSD group. The concussion groups showed a nonsignificant pattern of increasing distress with increasing number of concussions. The current findings are consistent with meta-analytic results showing no differential effect on neuropsychological functioning due to multiple concussions. Results also support the burden of adversity hypothesis suggesting increasing symptom levels with increasing psychological or physically traumatic exposures.

  14. A design of calibration single star simulator with adjustable magnitude and optical spectrum output system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guansheng; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Xuan; Shi, Gentai; Bai, Haojie

    2018-03-01

    In order to achieve multi-color temperature and multi-magnitude output, magnitude and temperature can real-time adjust, a new type of calibration single star simulator was designed with adjustable magnitude and optical spectrum output in this article. xenon lamp and halogen tungsten lamp were used as light source. The control of spectrum band and temperature of star was realized with different multi-beam narrow band spectrum with light of varying intensity. When light source with different spectral characteristics and color temperature go into the magnitude regulator, the light energy attenuation were under control by adjusting the light luminosity. This method can completely satisfy the requirements of calibration single star simulator with adjustable magnitude and optical spectrum output in order to achieve the adjustable purpose of magnitude and spectrum.

  15. Efficient numerical method for investigating diatomic molecules with single active electron subjected to intense and ultrashort laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Gellért Zsolt; Borbély, Sándor; Nagy, Ladislau

    2017-12-01

    We have presented here an efficient numerical approach for the ab initio numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger Equation describing diatomic molecules, which interact with ultrafast laser pulses. During the construction of the model we have assumed a frozen nuclear configuration and a single active electron. In order to increase efficiency our system was described using prolate spheroidal coordinates, where the wave function was discretized using the finite-element discrete variable representation (FE-DVR) method. The discretized wave functions were efficiently propagated in time using the short-iterative Lanczos algorithm. As a first test we have studied here how the laser induced bound state dynamics in H2+ is influenced by the strength of the driving laser field.

  16. Stress in closed thin-walled tubes of single box subjected by shear forces and application to airfoils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebbiche Toufik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented work is to develop a numerical computation program to determine the distribution of the shear stress to shear in closed tubes with asymmetric single thin wall section with a constant thickness and applications to airfoils and therefore determining the position and value of the maximum stress. In the literature, there are exact analytical solutions only for some sections of simple geometries such as circular section. Hence our interest is focused on the search of approximate numerical solutions for more complex sections used in aeronautics. In the second stage the position of the shear center is determined so that the section does not undergo torsion. The analytic function of the boundary of the airfoil is obtained by using the cubic spline interpolation since it is given in the form of tabulated points.

  17. Flexible Design and Operation of Multi-Stage Flash (MSF Desalination Process Subject to Variable Fouling and Variable Freshwater Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Alforjani Said

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work describes how the design and operation parameters of the Multi-Stage Flash (MSF desalination process are optimised when the process is subject to variation in seawater temperature, fouling and freshwater demand throughout the day. A simple polynomial based dynamic seawater temperature and variable freshwater demand correlations are developed based on actual data which are incorporated in the MSF mathematical model using gPROMS models builder 3.0.3. In addition, a fouling model based on stage temperature is considered. The fouling and the effect of noncondensable gases are incorporated into the calculation of overall heat transfer co-efficient for condensers. Finally, an optimisation problem is developed where the total daily operating cost of the MSF process is minimised by optimising the design (no of stages and the operating (seawater rejected flowrate and brine recycle flowrate parameters.

  18. Design and Development of a Solar Thermal Collector with Single Axis Solar Tracking Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Theebhan Mogana; Long Chua Yaw; Tiong Tay Tee

    2016-01-01

    The solar energy is a source of energy that is abundant in Malaysia and can be easily harvested. However, because of the rotation of the Earth about its axis, it is impossible to harvest the solar energy to the maximum capacity if the solar thermal collector is placed fix to a certain angle. In this research, a solar thermal dish with single axis solar tracking mechanism that will rotate the dish according to the position of the sun in the sky is designed and developed, so that more solar ray...

  19. ACCELERATORS: Design of a 450 MHz β = 0.2 single spoke cavity at PKU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhong-Yuan; Lu, Xiang-Yang; Zhao, Kui

    2009-04-01

    The design of a 450 MHz β = 0.2 superconducting single spoke cavity has been finished at Peking University. A theoretical model and a numerical simulation are used to study the relationship between the RF performance and the geometric parameters of the cavity. In this paper, the optimization of the spoke cavity is described in detail. The RF simulation gives the optimum parameters Epk/Eacc of 2.65 and Bpk/Eacc of 5.22 mT/(MV/m). The mechanical properties of the cavity are also studied. Two stiff ribs are used to offer a credible mechanical stability.

  20. Single Event Upset Energy Dependence In a Buck-Converter Power Supply Design

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration; De Lurgio, P; Stanek, R; Mellado, B; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mahadik, S; Reed, R; Senthilkumaran, A

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of Single Event Upsets performed on a commercial pulse-width modulator controller chip that we are using for a switching power supply design for the Atlas Tile Calorimeter at the LHC. We performed tests to study the probability of an SEU occurring as a function of incident particle (hadron) energy. We compare the results with prediction from theory. We discuss the performance of the circuit, and perform an analysis using Bendel parameters. We also present a solution that we found using external circuitry that eliminates the effect.

  1. Optimized design and performance of a shared pump single clad 2 μm TDFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tench, Robert E.; Romano, Clément; Delavaux, Jean-Marc

    2018-05-01

    We report the design, experimental performance, and simulation of a single stage, co- and counter-pumped Tm-doped fiber amplifier (TDFA) in the 2 μm signal wavelength band with an optimized 1567 nm shared pump source. We investigate the dependence of output power, gain, and efficiency on pump coupling ratio and signal wavelength. Small signal gains of >50 dB, an output power of 2 W, and small signal noise figures of data. We also discuss performance tradeoffs with respect to amplifier topology for this simple and efficient TDFA.

  2. Bayesian unknown change-point models to investigate immediacy in single case designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Prathiba; Hedges, Larry V

    2017-12-01

    Although immediacy is one of the necessary criteria to show strong evidence of a causal relation in single case designs (SCDs), no inferential statistical tool is currently used to demonstrate it. We propose a Bayesian unknown change-point model to investigate and quantify immediacy in SCD analysis. Unlike visual analysis that considers only 3-5 observations in consecutive phases to investigate immediacy, this model considers all data points. Immediacy is indicated when the posterior distribution of the unknown change-point is narrow around the true value of the change-point. This model can accommodate delayed effects. Monte Carlo simulation for a 2-phase design shows that the posterior standard deviations of the change-points decrease with increase in standardized mean difference between phases and decrease in test length. This method is illustrated with real data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A systematic approach to definitive planning and designing single and multiple unit implant abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunagaran, Sanjay; Markose, Sony; Paprocki, Gregory; Wicks, Russell

    2014-12-01

    With an increase in the availability of implant restorative components, the selection of an appropriate implant abutment for a given clinical situation has become more challenging. This article describes a systematic protocol to help the practitioner more thoughtfully select abutments for single and multiple unit fixed implant prostheses. The article examines the evaluation, planning, design, and fabrication processes for the definitive restoration. It includes an assessment of a variety of factors, namely restorative space, soft and hard tissues, the location of the implant platform, the type of platform connection, platform switching indications, tissue collar heights, emergence profile, implant angulation, and finally the design and esthetic options for the final implant abutment. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  4. ICU architectural design affects the delirium prevalence: a comparison between single-bed and multibed rooms*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pedro; Guardian, Lilian; Tiengo, Tatiane; Dos Santos, Lucio Souza; Junior, Pedro Medeiros

    2014-10-01

    Delirium risk factors are related to the patients' acute and chronic clinical condition, treatment, and environment. The environmental risk factors are essentially determined by the ICU architectural design. Although there are countless architectural variations among the ICUs, all can be classified as single- or multibed rooms. Our objectives were to compare the ICU delirium prevalence and characteristics (coma/delirium-free days, first day in delirium, and delirium motoric subtypes) of critically ill patients admitted in single- or multibed rooms. Retrospective. ICU of a teaching oncologic hospital with 31 beds. Twenty-three beds distributed in one multibed room with 13 beds and other with 10 beds. Eight beds distributed in single-bed rooms. All adult patients admitted from February to November 2011. None. We evaluated 1,587 patients and included 1,253 patients. Patients' characteristics at ICU admission and their outcomes along the ICU stay were not different between patients admitted in single- or multibed rooms. One hundred sixty-three patients (13.0%) had delirium, and the prevalence was significantly lower in patients admitted in single-bed rooms (6.8% × 15.1%; p < 0.01). This lower prevalence occurred in patients admitted due to a medical (11.0% × 25.6%; p < 0.01) or postoperative (5.0% × 11.4%; p < 0.01) reason. However, the coma/delirium-free days, the first day in delirium, and the delirium motoric subtypes were not different between the single- and multibed rooms. The risk factors associated with delirium were admission in multibed rooms (odds ratio, 4.03; 95% CI, 2.13-7.62), older age, ICU-acquired infection, and higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. Critically ill patients admitted in single-bed rooms have a lower prevalence of delirium than those admitted in multibed rooms. However, coma/delirium-free days, first day in delirium, and motoric subtypes were not different.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of Roflumilast and Its Active Metabolite Roflumilast N-Oxide in Healthy Chinese Subjects After Single and Multiple Oral Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yiya; Liu, Lingye; Ma, Pengcheng; Ding, Li

    2017-06-01

    Roflumilast is a selective, oral phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor approved for the treatment of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide in healthy Chinese subjects, and the effects of gender and food on their respective pharmacokinetic profiles. 36 healthy Chinese subjects were recruited in a randomized, single-center, open-label, parallel group study and assigned to 0.25-, 0.375-, and 0.5-mg dose groups. The single-dose pharmacokinetic studies in fasting condition were carried out in all groups. Moreover, the food effect study and multiple-dose study were conducted in 0.375-mg dose group. Serial blood samples were collected over 168 h after dosing, and plasma concentrations of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide were determined using a validated LC-MS/MS method. After oral administration of single doses of 0.25, 0.375 and 0.5 mg of roflumilast under fasting condition, the mean AUC 0-72h for roflumilast was 21.7 ± 8.3, 29.8 ± 8.3 and 54.2 ± 21.3 ng·h/mL, respectively. Meanwhile the mean AUC 0-168h for roflumilast N-oxide was 290 ± 103, 385 ± 107 and 673 ± 245 ng·h/mL, respectively. In the steady state after the multi-dose administration, the exposure to roflumilast in the subjects increased 20-40 %, and the exposure to roflumilast N-oxide increased about 169 %, compared to the single-dose administration. No statistically significant effect of gender on the disposition of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide was observed. Food had no effect on systemic exposure to roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide in the subjects, but delayed the T max of roflumilast by 0.9 h and reduced the C max of roflumilast by approximately 20 %. Based upon between-study comparison, peak and systemic exposure of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide were higher in Chinese than that in Caucasian subjects after oral administration of the same dose (i.e., 0.25 and 0.5

  6. A throttle-less single-rod hydraulic cylinder positioning system: Design and experimental evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Jalayeri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern industrial tote dumpers and lifters are equipped with long-stroke single-rod hydraulic cylinders. For years, valve-controlled cylinders have been used in tote dumpers. Valve-controlled actuators are highly inefficient due to huge power losses in throttling valves. They also need a cooling system to remove the wasted heat energy from the hydraulic oil. This article introduces a low-cost throttle-less hydraulic circuit to control the single-rod cylinder of a tote dumper. The system consists of a motor-driven gear pump, an On/Off solenoid valve, to redirect the differential flow of the single-rod hydraulic cylinder and a counterbalance valve, which makes the circuit controllable for assisting loads and keeps the load in position with no effort from the hydraulic pump. Experimental results demonstrate the performance of the circuit. A test rig has been designed to simulate a lifting load. The energy efficiency of the circuit is determined by comparing a valve-controlled circuit with the proposed circuit. The proposed circuit composition is not only efficient and simple but is also accurate in terms of position response using a proportional controller. The circuit is easy to control since the only needed measurement is the displacement of the actuator. The circuit, however, does not recycle energy.

  7. Hydraulic design of pine needles: one-dimensional optimization for single-vein leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Stone, Howard A; Leigh, Andrea; Boyce, C Kevin; Holbrook, N Michele

    2006-05-01

    Single-vein leaves have the simplest hydraulic design possible, yet even this linear water delivery system can be modulated to improve physiological performance. We determined the optimal distribution of transport capacity that minimizes pressure drop per given investment in xylem permeability along the needle for a given length without a change in total water delivery, or maximizes needle length for a given pressure difference between petiole and needle tip. This theory was tested by comparative analysis of the hydraulic design of three pine species that differ in the length of their needles [Pinus palustris (Engl.) Miller, approximately 50 cm; Pinus ponderosa Lawson & Lawson, approximately 20 cm and Pinus rigida Miller, approximately 5 cm]. In all three species, the distribution of hydraulic permeability was similar to that predicted by the optimum solution. The needles of P. palustris showed an almost perfect match between predicted and actual hydraulic optimum solution, providing evidence that vein design is a significant factor in the hydraulic design of pine leaves.

  8. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of DW1029M, a Botanical Drug for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy, Following Single Doses in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunjeong; Jeon, Ji-Young; Kim, Eun-Young; Lim, Cheol-Hee; Jang, Hwan Bong; Kim, Min-Gul

    2017-09-01

    DW1029M is a botanical extract of Morus albalinne root bark and Puerariae radix that is used for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. This study evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics of DW1029M following its administration in healthy Korean subjects. We conducted a randomized, open-label, single-dose, crossover phase 1 clinical study. During each period, subjects received 300, 600, or 1200 mg oral doses of DW1029M. Plasma concentrations of puerarin, daidzin, and daidzein were analyzed using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Six healthy male subjects completed the study. The maximum concentration of the drug in the plasma (C max ) and area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve to the last measurable concentration (AUC last ) for puerarin, daidzin, and daidzein were assessed after oral administration of DW1029M. No serious adverse events or clinically or statistically significant adverse events associated with any of the drug levels were observed. The results of the measurement of vital signs, electrocardiogram, laboratory tests, and physical examinations indicated that no clinically significant changes occurred during this study. The DW1029M tablet was safe and well tolerated over a single dose range of 300-1200 mg. This pharmacokinetic study of a botanical drug may aid in the development of DW1029M. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Lower extremity muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Janssens, Luc; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan; Staes, Filip F

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies mainly focused on muscles at the operated knee after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, less on muscles around other joints of the operated and non-operated leg. The aim of this study was to investigate muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects. Lower extremity muscle activation onset times of both legs of 20 fully returned to sport anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects and 20 non-injured control subjects were measured during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate differences between groups and differences between legs within both groups, while controlling for peak center of pressure velocity. Significantly delayed muscle activation onset times were found in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group compared to the control group for gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, vastus medialis obliquus, medial hamstrings, lateral hamstrings and gastrocnemius in both eyes open and eyes closed conditions (Panterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group, no significant different muscle activation onset times were found between the operated and non-operated leg (P>.05). Despite completion of rehabilitation and full return to sport, the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group showed neuromuscular control deficits that were not limited to the operated knee joint. Clinicians should focus on relearning multi-segmental anticipatory neuromuscular control strategies after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Design and analysis of a single stage to orbit nuclear thermal rocket reactor engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, Satira, E-mail: Satira.Labib@duke-energy.com; King, Jeffrey, E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Three NTR reactors are optimized for the single stage launch of 1–15 MT payloads. • The proposed rocket engines have specific impulses in excess of 700 s. • Reactivity and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each reactor. - Abstract: Recent advances in the development of high power density fuel materials have renewed interest in nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) as a viable propulsion technology for future space exploration. This paper describes the design of three NTR reactor engines designed for the single stage to orbit launch of payloads from 1 to 15 metric tons. Thermal hydraulic and rocket engine analyses indicate that the proposed rocket engines are able to reach specific impulses in excess of 800 s. Neutronics analyses performed using MCNP5 demonstrate that the hot excess reactivity, shutdown margin, and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each NTR reactor. The reactors each consist of a 40 cm diameter core packed with hexagonal tungsten cermet fuel elements. The core is surrounded by radial and axial beryllium reflectors and eight boron carbide control drums. The 40 cm long reactor meets the submersion criticality requirements (a shutdown margin of at least $1 subcritical in all submersion scenarios) with no further modifications. The 80 and 120 cm long reactors include small amounts of gadolinium nitride as a spectral shift absorber to keep them subcritical upon submersion in seawater or wet sand following a launch abort.

  11. Design of automatic curtain controlled by wireless based on single chip 51 microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dafeng; Chen, Xiaoning

    2017-08-01

    In order to realize the wireless control of the domestic intelligent curtains, a set of wireless intelligent curtain control system based on 51 single chip microcomputer have been designed in this paper. The intelligent curtain can work in the manual mode, automatic mode and sleep mode and can be carried out by the button and mobile phone APP mode loop switch. Through the photosensitive resistance module and human pyroelectric infrared sensor to collect the indoor light value and the data whether there is the person in the room, and then after single chip processing, the motor drive module is controlled to realize the positive inversion of the asynchronous motor, the intelligent opening and closing of the curtain have been realized. The operation of the motor can be stopped under the action of the switch and the curtain opening and closing and timing switch can be controlled through the keys and mobile phone APP. The optical fiber intensity, working mode, curtain state and system time are displayed by LCD1602. The system has a high reliability and security under practical testing and with the popularity and development of smart home, the design has broad market prospects.

  12. Cost-effective design of a concurrent photoacoustic-ultrasound microscope using single laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Shao; Liu, Wei-Wen; Li, Pai-Chi

    2016-03-01

    A method for concurrent photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasound (US) imaging with single laser pulses was previously demonstrated. An optical-absorbing multilayer film that can generate a US pulse based on the thermoelastic effect is used. With such a film, the generated US can be adjusted so that it does not overlap with the spectrum of the PA signal generated by the light transmitting through the layer. Thus, the US signal and the PA signal can be generated and separated by using a single laser pulse with spectral filtering. In this study, we continue with the same concurrent imaging approach and propose a cost-effective and portable design. The design consists of a pulsed laser diode with the repetition rate up to 25 kHz and energy of 2 μJ/pulse. A multilayer film is employed to generate narrow band US signals under laser excitation for US imaging. With simple spectral filtering, the PA signals and the US signals can be separated. With optical resolution, the system has a theoretical lateral resolution of 2 μm in PA imaging and 200 μm in US imaging. One of the applications of the proposed microscope is for tumor biology, where angiogenesis is an essential topic for understanding tumor growth and tumor metastasis. We will demonstrate performance of the proposed system by imaging vasculature networks.

  13. Design and Analysis of a Single-Camera Omnistereo Sensor for Quadrotor Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Carlos; Valenti, Roberto G; Guo, Ling; Xiao, Jizhong

    2016-02-06

    We describe the design and 3D sensing performance of an omnidirectional stereo (omnistereo) vision system applied to Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). The proposed omnistereo sensor employs a monocular camera that is co-axially aligned with a pair of hyperboloidal mirrors (a vertically-folded catadioptric configuration). We show that this arrangement provides a compact solution for omnidirectional 3D perception while mounted on top of propeller-based MAVs (not capable of large payloads). The theoretical single viewpoint (SVP) constraint helps us derive analytical solutions for the sensor's projective geometry and generate SVP-compliant panoramic images to compute 3D information from stereo correspondences (in a truly synchronous fashion). We perform an extensive analysis on various system characteristics such as its size, catadioptric spatial resolution, field-of-view. In addition, we pose a probabilistic model for the uncertainty estimation of 3D information from triangulation of back-projected rays. We validate the projection error of the design using both synthetic and real-life images against ground-truth data. Qualitatively, we show 3D point clouds (dense and sparse) resulting out of a single image captured from a real-life experiment. We expect the reproducibility of our sensor as its model parameters can be optimized to satisfy other catadioptric-based omnistereo vision under different circumstances.

  14. Rational design of DNA motors: fuel optimization through single-molecule fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Toma E; Tsukanov, Roman; Liber, Miran; Masoud, Rula; Plavner, Noa; Nir, Eyal

    2013-08-14

    While numerous DNA-based molecular machines have been developed in recent years, high operational yield and speed remain a major challenge. To understand the reasons for the limited performance, and to find rational solutions, we applied single-molecule fluorescence techniques and conducted a detailed study of the reactions involved in the operation of a model system comprised of a bipedal DNA walker that strides on a DNA origami track powered by interactions with fuel and antifuel strands. Analysis of the kinetic profiles of the leg-lifting reactions indicates a pseudo-first-order antifuel binding mechanism leading to a rapid and complete leg-lifting, indicating that the fuel-removal reaction is not responsible for the 1% operational yield observed after six steps. Analysis of the leg-placing reactions showed that although increased concentrations of fuel increase the reaction rate, they decrease the yield by consecutively binding the motor and leading to an undesirable trapped state. Recognizing this, we designed asymmetrical hairpin-fuels that by regulating the reaction hierarchy avoid consecutive binding. Motors operating with the improved fuels show 74% yield after 12 consecutive reactions, a dramatic increase over the 1% observed for motors operating with nonhairpin fuels. This work demonstrates that studying the mechanisms of the reactions involved in the operation of DNA-based molecular machines using single-molecule fluorescence can facilitate rationally designed improvements that increase yield and speed and promote the applicability of DNA-based machines.

  15. Design of an omnidirectional single-point photodetector for large-scale spatial coordinate measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Mao, Chensheng; Ren, Yongjie; Zhu, Jigui; Wang, Chao; Yang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    In high precision and large-scale coordinate measurement, one commonly used approach to determine the coordinate of a target point is utilizing the spatial trigonometric relationships between multiple laser transmitter stations and the target point. A light receiving device at the target point is the key element in large-scale coordinate measurement systems. To ensure high-resolution and highly sensitive spatial coordinate measurement, a high-performance and miniaturized omnidirectional single-point photodetector (OSPD) is greatly desired. We report one design of OSPD using an aspheric lens, which achieves an enhanced reception angle of -5 deg to 45 deg in vertical and 360 deg in horizontal. As the heart of our OSPD, the aspheric lens is designed in a geometric model and optimized by LightTools Software, which enables the reflection of a wide-angle incident light beam into the single-point photodiode. The performance of home-made OSPD is characterized with working distances from 1 to 13 m and further analyzed utilizing developed a geometric model. The experimental and analytic results verify that our device is highly suitable for large-scale coordinate metrology. The developed device also holds great potential in various applications such as omnidirectional vision sensor, indoor global positioning system, and optical wireless communication systems.

  16. Design optimization of single mixed refrigerant LNG process using a hybrid modified coordinate descent algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qyyum, Muhammad Abdul; Long, Nguyen Van Duc; Minh, Le Quang; Lee, Moonyong

    2018-01-01

    Design optimization of the single mixed refrigerant (SMR) natural gas liquefaction (LNG) process involves highly non-linear interactions between decision variables, constraints, and the objective function. These non-linear interactions lead to an irreversibility, which deteriorates the energy efficiency of the LNG process. In this study, a simple and highly efficient hybrid modified coordinate descent (HMCD) algorithm was proposed to cope with the optimization of the natural gas liquefaction process. The single mixed refrigerant process was modeled in Aspen Hysys® and then connected to a Microsoft Visual Studio environment. The proposed optimization algorithm provided an improved result compared to the other existing methodologies to find the optimal condition of the complex mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction process. By applying the proposed optimization algorithm, the SMR process can be designed with the 0.2555 kW specific compression power which is equivalent to 44.3% energy saving as compared to the base case. Furthermore, in terms of coefficient of performance (COP), it can be enhanced up to 34.7% as compared to the base case. The proposed optimization algorithm provides a deep understanding of the optimization of the liquefaction process in both technical and numerical perspectives. In addition, the HMCD algorithm can be employed to any mixed refrigerant based liquefaction process in the natural gas industry.

  17. Design and Characterization of 64K Pixels Chips Working in Single Photon Processing Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Llopart Cudie, Xavier; Campbell, M

    2007-01-01

    Progress in CMOS technology and in fine pitch bump bonding has made possible the development of high granularity single photon counting detectors for X-ray imaging. This thesis studies the design and characterization of three pulse processing chips with 65536 square pixels of 55 µm x 55 µm designed in a commercial 0.25 µm 6-metal CMOS technology. The 3 chips share the same architecture and dimensions and are named Medipix2, Mpix2MXR20 and Timepix. The Medipix2 chip is a pixel detector readout chip consisting of 256 x 256 identical elements, each working in single photon counting mode for positive or negative input charge signals. The preamplifier feedback provides compensation for detector leakage current on a pixel by pixel basis. Two identical pulse height discriminators are used to define an energy window. Every event falling inside the energy window is counted with a 13 bit pseudo-random counter. The counter logic, based in a shift register, also behaves as the input/output register for the pixel. Each...

  18. Single actuator wave-like robot (SAW): design, modeling, and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, David; Mann, Moshe; Degani, Nir; Yehuda, Tal; Jarbi, Nissan; Hess, Amotz

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present a single actuator wave-like robot, a novel bioinspired robot which can move forward or backward by producing a continuously advancing wave. The robot has a unique minimalistic mechanical design and produces an advancing sine wave, with a large amplitude, using only a single motor but with no internal straight spine. Over horizontal surfaces, the robot does not slide relative to the surface and its direction of locomotion is determined by the direction of rotation of the motor. We developed a kinematic model of the robot that accounts for the two-dimensional mechanics of motion and yields the speed of the links relative to the motor. Based on the optimization of the kinematic model, and accounting for the mechanical constraints, we have designed and built multiple versions of the robot with different sizes and experimentally tested them (see movie). The experimental results were within a few percentages of the expectations. The larger version attained a top speed of 57 cm s(-1) over a horizontal surface and is capable of climbing vertically when placed between two walls. By optimizing the parameters, we succeeded in making the robot travel by 13% faster than its own wave speed.

  19. Analysis and meta-analysis of single-case designs: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadish, William R

    2014-04-01

    The last 10 years have seen great progress in the analysis and meta-analysis of single-case designs (SCDs). This special issue includes five articles that provide an overview of current work on that topic, including standardized mean difference statistics, multilevel models, Bayesian statistics, and generalized additive models. Each article analyzes a common example across articles and presents syntax or macros for how to do them. These articles are followed by commentaries from single-case design researchers and journal editors. This introduction briefly describes each article and then discusses several issues that must be addressed before we can know what analyses will eventually be best to use in SCD research. These issues include modeling trend, modeling error covariances, computing standardized effect size estimates, assessing statistical power, incorporating more accurate models of outcome distributions, exploring whether Bayesian statistics can improve estimation given the small samples common in SCDs, and the need for annotated syntax and graphical user interfaces that make complex statistics accessible to SCD researchers. The article then discusses reasons why SCD researchers are likely to incorporate statistical analyses into their research more often in the future, including changing expectations and contingencies regarding SCD research from outside SCD communities, changes and diversity within SCD communities, corrections of erroneous beliefs about the relationship between SCD research and statistics, and demonstrations of how statistics can help SCD researchers better meet their goals. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Virtual peer-delivered memory intervention: a single-case experimental design in an adolescent with chronic memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Janine M; Lockett, Stephen; McIlroy, Alissandra; Gonzalez, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Children and adolescents with chronic memory impairment may develop coping strategies that enable functioning, yet these often remain undetectable using traditional psychometric measures. Personalized intervention studies that promote the use of such strategies designed specifically for use by this young cohort are scarce. To investigate the effect of a novel virtual reality peer-delivered memory intervention on the everyday functioning and well-being of SE, a 17-year-old female with a history of chronic verbal memory issues, impaired autobiographical event recall and elevated mood symptoms. A single-case ABA experimental design study was used to assess change. Following initial baseline assessment using objective neuropsychological and subjective functional questionnaires and intervention training, case SE used the intervention daily for 3 weeks before repeating key outcome measures. Using non-overlap of all pairs and qualitative feedback analysis, the results revealed a significant increase in event recall and self-reported positive changes to levels of everyday functioning. Supporting autobiographical event recall and prospective memory via a virtual peer-delivered intervention may lead to reduction in cognitive load, and benefit overall well-being and everyday functioning.

  1. A Bayesian predictive sample size selection design for single-arm exploratory clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramukai, Satoshi; Daimon, Takashi; Zohar, Sarah

    2012-12-30

    The aim of an exploratory clinical trial is to determine whether a new intervention is promising for further testing in confirmatory clinical trials. Most exploratory clinical trials are designed as single-arm trials using a binary outcome with or without interim monitoring for early stopping. In this context, we propose a Bayesian adaptive design denoted as predictive sample size selection design (PSSD). The design allows for sample size selection following any planned interim analyses for early stopping of a trial, together with sample size determination before starting the trial. In the PSSD, we determine the sample size using the method proposed by Sambucini (Statistics in Medicine 2008; 27:1199-1224), which adopts a predictive probability criterion with two kinds of prior distributions, that is, an 'analysis prior' used to compute posterior probabilities and a 'design prior' used to obtain prior predictive distributions. In the sample size determination of the PSSD, we provide two sample sizes, that is, N and N(max) , using two types of design priors. At each interim analysis, we calculate the predictive probabilities of achieving a successful result at the end of the trial using the analysis prior in order to stop the trial in case of low or high efficacy (Lee et al., Clinical Trials 2008; 5:93-106), and we select an optimal sample size, that is, either N or N(max) as needed, on the basis of the predictive probabilities. We investigate the operating characteristics through simulation studies, and the PSSD retrospectively applies to a lung cancer clinical trial. (243) Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Mechanical performance of a screw-type veterinary suture anchor subjected to single load to failure and cyclic loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balara, Jason M; McCarthy, Robert J; Boudrieau, Randy J; Kraus, Karl H

    2004-01-01

    To characterize the mechanical performance of a veterinary bone anchor under static and cyclic loads. Mechanical testing study. Cadaveric canine humeri. Humeri (6 pairs) were collected from skeletally mature dogs (mean [+/-SD] age, 17.2+/-2.1 months; weight, 20.8+/-1.5 kg). Bone anchors were inserted in the proximal metaphysis using nylon, and were longitudinally extracted. For the opposite humerus, anchors were subjected to longitudinal cyclic load (50% of the load at failure of their pair) for 1200 cycles then longitudinally loaded to failure. Anchors were then installed in a similar and adjacent area of these 2(nd) humeri with nylon and cyclically tested perpendicular to the axis of anchor insertion (100% of the longitudinal holding power of their pair) for 1200 cycles, then perpendicularly loaded to failure. Paired t-tests were used to compare holding power before and after longitudinal cyclic testing. Longitudinal holding power of the screw-type anchor in the proximal humerus was 385+/-30 N. Anchor pullout was the only mode of failure. Anchors in the paired humeri did not fail after 1200 cycles of 50% longitudinal loading, and post-cycle holding strength was not different (335+/-87 N; P=.32). Perpendicularly loaded anchors did not fail after 1200 cycles of 100% of opposite longitudinal holding strength, and had post-cycle perpendicular holding strengths of 514+/-72 N. Suture breakage was the mode of failure. Bone anchor holding strength is dependent on orientation of suture load. Screw-type bone anchor holding strength was not affected by longitudinal cyclic loading, and holding strengths of approximately 385 N can be expected in metaphyseal bone of large-breed mature dogs. Perpendicularly loaded anchors have higher failure loads, and holding strength of approximately 514 N can be expected in metaphyseal bone of the proximal humerus.

  3. Vertical dynamics of a single-span beam subjected to moving mass-suspended payload system with variable speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the vertical dynamics of a simply supported Euler-Bernoulli beam subjected to a moving mass-suspended payload system of variable velocities. A planar theoretical model of the moving mass-suspended payload system of variable speeds is developed based on several assumptions: the rope is massless and rigid, and its length keeps constant; the stiffness of the gantry beam is much greater than the supporting beam, and the gantry beam can be treated as a mass particle traveling along the supporting beam; the supporting beam is assumed as a simply supported Bernoulli-Euler beam. The model can be degenerated to consider two classical cases-the moving mass case and the moving payload case. The proposed model is verified using both numerical and experimental methods. To further investigate the effect of possible influential factors, numerical examples are conducted covering a range of parameters, such as variable speeds (acceleration or deceleration), mass ratios of the payload to the total moving load, and the pendulum lengths. The effect of beam flexibility on swing response of the payload is also investigated. It is shown that the effect of a variable speed is significant for the deflections of the beam. The accelerating movement tends to induce larger beam deflections, while the decelerating movement smaller ones. For accelerating or decelerating movements, the moving mass model may underestimate the deflections of the beam compared with the presented model; while for uniform motion, both the moving mass model and the moving mass-payload model lead to same beam responses. Furthermore, it is observed that the swing response of the payload is not sensitive to the stiffness of the beam for operational cases of a moving crane, thus a simple moving payload model can be employed in the swing control of the payload.

  4. Comparison of the benefits of cochlear implantation versus contra-lateral routing of signal hearing aids in adult patients with single-sided deafness: study protocol for a prospective within-subject longitudinal trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with a unilateral severe-to-profound hearing loss, or single-sided deafness, report difficulty with listening in many everyday situations despite having access to well-preserved acoustic hearing in one ear. The standard of care for single-sided deafness available on the UK National Health Service is a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid which transfers sounds from the impaired ear to the non-impaired ear. This hearing aid has been found to improve speech understanding in noise when the signal-to-noise ratio is more favourable at the impaired ear than the non-impaired ear. However, the indiscriminate routing of signals to a single ear can have detrimental effects when interfering sounds are located on the side of the impaired ear. Recent published evidence has suggested that cochlear implantation in individuals with a single-sided deafness can restore access to the binaural cues which underpin the ability to localise sounds and segregate speech from other interfering sounds. Methods/Design The current trial was designed to assess the efficacy of cochlear implantation compared to a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid in restoring binaural hearing in adults with acquired single-sided deafness. Patients are assessed at baseline and after receiving a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid. A cochlear implant is then provided to those patients who do not receive sufficient benefit from the hearing aid. This within-subject longitudinal design reflects the expected care pathway should cochlear implantation be provided for single-sided deafness on the UK National Health Service. The primary endpoints are measures of binaural hearing at baseline, after provision of a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid, and after cochlear implantation. Binaural hearing is assessed in terms of the accuracy with which sounds are localised and speech is perceived in background noise. The trial is also designed to measure the impact of

  5. Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Rufinamide Following Single and Multiple Oral Doses and Effect of Food on Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Chinese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingzhen; Ni, Yang; Zhou, Ying; He, Xiaomeng; Li, Huqun; Chen, Hui; Li, Weiyong

    2016-10-01

    Rufinamide is a triazole derivative that is structurally unrelated to currently marketed antiepileptic medications for add-on treatment of seizures in the setting of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients from the age of 4 years. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic and safety profile of single and multiple doses of rufinamide in healthy Chinese subjects. The effects of food and gender on the pharmacokinetic properties of rufinamide were also evaluated. In the single-dose study, volunteers were randomly assigned to 4 dose groups and received a single dose of 200, 400, 800, 1200 mg rufinamide tablets under fasting condition. Ten subjects in the 200-mg dose group were randomly assigned to either a high-fat or non-high-fat breakfast group in each study period. The drug administration was separated by a washout period of 7 calendar days. In the multiple-dose study, 10 subjects were administered on an empty stomach rufinamide 200 mg twice daily for 6 consecutive days. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was applied to determine plasma concentration of rufinamide. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including the maximum plasma concentration (C max), the time to peak concentration (t max), the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-t ) and from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞), terminal elimination half-life (t 1/2), apparent volume of distribution (V d), apparent clearance (CL), average residence time (MRT), area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration at steady state (AUCss), peak concentration (C max,ss) and trough level concentration (C min,ss) at steady state were calculated using non-compartmental models. Tolerability was assessed based on investigator inquiries, spontaneous reports and clinical evaluations. Rufinamide displayed a dose-dependent, but sub-proportional increase in exposure

  6. Quality Control of Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX Measurements in 6 Muscles in a Single-Subject "Round-Robin" Setup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Neuwirth

    Full Text Available Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX is a neurophysiological measure that provides an index of the number of lower motor neurons in a muscle. Its performance across centres in healthy subjects and patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS has been established, but inter-rater variability between multiple raters in one single subject has not been investigated.To assess reliability in a set of 6 muscles in a single subject among 12 examiners (6 experienced with MUNIX, 6 less experienced and to determine variables associated with variability of measurements.Twelve raters applied MUNIX in six different muscles (abductor pollicis brevis (APB, abductor digiti minimi (ADM, biceps brachii (BB, tibialis anterior (TA, extensor dig. brevis (EDB, abductor hallucis (AH twice in one single volunteer on consecutive days. All raters visited at least one training course prior to measurements. Intra- and inter-rater variability as determined by the coefficient of variation (COV between different raters and their levels of experience with MUNIX were compared.Mean intra-rater COV of MUNIX was 14.0% (±6.4 ranging from 5.8 (APB to 30.3% (EDB. Mean inter-rater COV was 18.1 (±5.4 ranging from 8.0 (BB to 31.7 (AH. No significant differences of variability between experienced and less experienced raters were detected.We provide evidence that quality control for neurophysiological methods can be performed with similar standards as in laboratory medicine. Intra- and inter-rater variability of MUNIX is muscle-dependent and mainly below 20%. Experienced neurophysiologists can easily adopt MUNIX and adequate teaching ensures reliable utilization of this method.

  7. The effect of single oral doses of duloxetine, reboxetine, and midodrine on the urethral pressure in healthy female subjects, using urethral pressure reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Niels; Cerneus, Dirk; Sawyer, William

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the effect on urethral pressure of reference drugs known to reduce stress urinary incontinence symptoms by different effect size and mechanisms of action on urethral musculature under four test conditions in healthy female subjects using urethral pressure reflectometry. METHODS......: Healthy females aged 18-55 years were recruited by advertising for this phase 1, single site, placebo-controlled, randomized, four-period, crossover study. The interventions were single oral doses of 10 mg Midodrine, 80 mg Duloxetine, 12 mg Reboxetine, and placebo. The endpoints were the opening urethral...... pressure measured in each period at four time points (predose and 2, 5.5, and 9 h after dosing). RESULTS: Twenty-nine females were enrolled; 25 randomized and 24 completed the study. The opening urethral pressure was higher in all measurements with filled bladder compared with empty bladder, and during...

  8. MECHANISM FOR DESIGNING COMPETENCE-ORIENTED TASKS IN VARIOUS ACADEMIC SUBJECTS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya M. Zhukova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to develop a mechanism for designing competence-oriented tasks in various academic subjects and requirements for its implementation in higher educational establishments. Methods. The authors conducted a theoretical analysis of philosophical, psychological and pedagogical literature sources on the research issues to implement the objectives of the study; Russian and foreign educational experience on the use of study tasks in the study process is studied and summarized; educational and syllabus documentation and training materials are analyzed (syllabi, textbooks, manuals, task and exercise books, etc.; normative documents are studied (State Educational Standards, Federal State Educational Standards, Main Syllabi, curricula, instructional acts, etc.. Empirical research methods involve observation, testing, questioning, modeling, peer review, pedagogical experiment and statistical interpretation of the study results. The study was carried out from 2007 to 2012 in the Engineering-Pedagogical Faculty of Moscow State Agroengineering Goryachkin University. 240 students were engaged in the pedagogical experiment. The following Moscow colleges provided facilities for the peer review of the list and solution frequency of vocational education tasks by secondary vocational school teachers: Colleges of Civil Engineering No 1 and No 12, Small Business College No 48, Polytechnic College No 13, Printing and Publishing College No 56, and Electromechanical College No 55. Results. The research findings demonstrate that the competence-oriented tasks are shown as an integrative didactic unit of professional competence development. Its functions, classification, and structural components are given. The mechanism of designing competence-oriented tasks in various academic subjects is developed and tested. The proposed mechanism is an invariant for academic and teaching staff of educational establishments at all levels of professional

  9. Design of flapping wings for application to single active degree of freedom micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kelvin Thomas

    This dissertation covers an experimental program to understand how wing compliance influences the performance of flapping micro air vehicle wings. The focus is the design of a membraned flapping wing for a single active degree of freedom mechanism, looking to maximize thrust performance in hover conditions. The optimization approach is unique in that experiments were the chosen engine as opposed to a computation model; this is because of the complexity involved in hover-mode flapping aerodynamics. The flapping mechanism and manufacturing process for fabricating the wings were carefully developed. The uncertainty in the thrust measurement was identified and reduced by implementing precision machining and repeatable techniques for fabrication. This resulted in a reduction of the manufacturing coefficient of variation from 16.8% to 2.6%. Optimization was then conducted for a single objective (Maximize thrust), using a three parameter design space, finding the highest thrust performance in wings with high aspect ratio; then, a multi-objective optimization was conducted with two objectives (Thrust and Power) and a four parameter space. The research then shifted focus to identifying the stiffness and deformation characteristics of high performance wing designs. Static stiffness measurements with a simple line load suggested that high chordwise stiffness or lower spanwise stiffness would be favorable for aerodynamic performance. To explore more components of the deformation, a full-field imaging technique was used and a uniform load was substituted to engage with the membrane. It was found that there is a range of torsional compliance where the wing is most efficient especially at higher flapping frequencies. The final component of the study was the dynamic deformation measurement. The two system, four camera digital image correlation setup uses stroboscopic measurement to capture the wing deformation. The phase shift between the twist and stroke, and the tip deflection

  10. Design of a Large Single-Aperture Dipole Magnet for HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Qingjin, Xu; Iio, Masami; Ogitsu, Toru; Sasaki, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Akira; Todesco, Ezio

    2013-01-01

    An upgrade of the low-beta insertion system for the ATLAS and Compact Muon Solenoid experiments is proposed in the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider upgrade project. It includes final beam focusing quadrupoles, beam separation and recombination dipoles, and larger aperture matching section quadrupoles. KEK is in charge of the conceptual design of the large aperture separation dipole D1. The latest design parameters are a main field of ~ 5 T at 1.9 K with Nb-Ti superconducting technology, a coil aperture of 160 mm, and a cos-theta one-layer coil with Large Hadron Collider dipole cable. Because the new D1 is expected to be operated in a very high radiation environment, radiation resistance and a cooling scheme are being carefully considered. The collaring-yoke structure is adopted to provide the mechanical support for the single-layer Nb-Ti coil. We summarize the design study of this magnet, including i) the very large iron saturation effect on field quality due to the large aperture and limited size of the...

  11. Systematic review of sensory integration therapy for individuals with disabilities: Single case design studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, H M; Carter, Mark; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Sensory integration therapy (SIT) is a controversial intervention that is widely used for people with disabilities. Systematic analysis was conducted on the outcomes of 17 single case design studies on sensory integration therapy for people with, or at-risk of, a developmental or learning disability, disorder or delay. An assessment of the quality of methodology of the studies found most used weak designs and poor methodology, with a tendency for higher quality studies to produce negative results. Based on limited comparative evidence, functional analysis-based interventions for challenging behavior were more effective that SIT. Overall the studies do not provide convincing evidence for the efficacy of sensory integration therapy. Given the findings of the present review and other recent analyses it is advised that the use of SIT be limited to experimental contexts. Issues with the studies and possible improvements for future research are discussed including the need to employ designs that allow for adequate demonstration of experimental control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Designing an extended energy range single-sphere multi-detector neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Ros, J.M.; Bedogni, R.; Moraleda, M.; Esposito, A.; Pola, A.; Introini, M.V.; Mazzitelli, G.; Quintieri, L.; Buonomo, B.

    2012-01-01

    This communication describes the design specifications for a neutron spectrometer consisting of 31 thermal neutron detectors, namely Dysprosium activation foils, embedded in a 25 cm diameter polyethylene sphere which includes a 1 cm thick lead shell insert that degrades the energy of neutrons through (n,xn) reactions, thus allowing to extension of the energy range of the response up to hundreds of MeV neutrons. The new spectrometer, called SP 2 (SPherical SPectrometer), relies on the same detection mechanism as that of the Bonner Sphere Spectrometer, but with the advantage of determining the whole neutron spectrum in a single exposure. The Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX was used to design the spectrometer in terms of sphere diameter, number and position of the detectors, position and thickness of the lead shell, as well as to obtain the response matrix for the final configuration. This work focuses on evaluating the spectrometric capabilities of the SP 2 design by simulating the exposure of SP 2 in neutron fields representing different irradiation conditions (test spectra). The simulated SP 2 readings were then unfolded with the FRUIT unfolding code, in the absence of detailed pre-information, and the unfolded spectra were compared with the known test spectra. The results are satisfactory and allowed approving the production of a prototypal spectrometer.

  13. Design of a Facility for Studying Shock-Cell Noise on Single and Coaxial Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Guariglia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Shock-cell noise occurs in aero-engines when the nozzle exhaust is supersonic and shock-cells are present in the jet. In commercial turbofan engines, at cruise, the secondary flow is often supersonic underexpanded, with the formation of annular shock-cells in the jet and consequent onset of shock-cell noise. This paper aims at describing the design process of the new facility FAST (Free jet AeroacouSTic laboratory at the von Karman Institute, aimed at the investigation of the shock-cell noise phenomenon on a dual stream jet. The rig consists of a coaxial open jet, with supersonic capability for both the primary and secondary flow. A coaxial silencer was designed to suppress the spurious noise coming from the feeding lines. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations of the coaxial jet and acoustic simulations of the silencer have been carried out to support the design choices. Finally, the rig has been validated by performing experimental measurements on a supersonic single stream jet and comparing the results with the literature. Fine-scale PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry coupled with a microphone array in the far field have been used in this scope. Preliminary results of the dual stream jet are also shown.

  14. Comparing Single Case Design Overlap-Based Effect Size Metrics from Studies Examining Speech Generating Device Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene K.; Reichle, Joe E.; Symons, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Meaningfully synthesizing single case experimental data from intervention studies comprised of individuals with low incidence conditions and generating effect size estimates remains challenging. Seven effect size metrics were compared for single case design (SCD) data focused on teaching speech generating device use to individuals with…

  15. Subjective memory impairment in general practice : Short overview and design of a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentzek, Michael; Leve, Verena; Leucht, Verena

    2017-05-01

    Public awareness for dementia is rising and patients with concerns about forgetfulness are not uncommon in general practice. For the general practitioner (GP) subjectively perceived memory impairment (SMI) also offers a chance to broach the issue of cognitive function with the patient. This may support GPs' patient-centered care in terms of a broader frailty concept. What is SMI (definition, operationalization, prevalence and burden)? Which conceptions and approaches do GPs have regarding SMI? Narrative overview of recent SMI criteria and results, selective utilization of results from a systematic literature search on GP dementia care, non-systematic search regarding SMI in general practice, deduction of a study design from the overview and development according to international standards. Studies revealed that approximately 60% of GP patients aged >74 reported a declining memory, every sixth person had concerns about this aspect and only relatively few seek medical advice. Concerns about SMI are considered a risk factor for future dementia. Specific general practice conceptions about SMI could not be identified in the literature. Using guidelines for mixed methods research, the design of an exploratory sequential mixed methods study is presented, which should reveal different attitudes of GPs towards SMI. Subjective memory impairment (SMI) is a common feature and troubles a considerable proportion of patients. Neuropsychiatric research is progressing, but for the transfer of the SMI concept into routine practice, involvement of GP research is necessary. A new study aims to make a contribution to this.

  16. Possibility designing half-wave and full-wave molecular rectifiers by using single benzene molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mohammed A.; Hanoon, Falah H.; Al-Badry, Lafy F.

    2018-02-01

    This work focused on possibility designing half-wave and full-wave molecular rectifiers by using single and two benzene rings, respectively. The benzene rings were threaded by a magnetic flux that changes over time. The quantum interference effect was considered as the basic idea in the rectification action, the para and meta configurations were investigated. All the calculations are performed by using steady-state theoretical model, which is based on the time-dependent Hamiltonian model. The electrical conductance and the electric current are considered as DC output signals of half-wave and full-wave molecular rectifiers. The finding in this work opens up the exciting potential to use these molecular rectifiers in molecular electronics.

  17. Design and Development of a Solar Thermal Collector with Single Axis Solar Tracking Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theebhan Mogana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy is a source of energy that is abundant in Malaysia and can be easily harvested. However, because of the rotation of the Earth about its axis, it is impossible to harvest the solar energy to the maximum capacity if the solar thermal collector is placed fix to a certain angle. In this research, a solar thermal dish with single axis solar tracking mechanism that will rotate the dish according to the position of the sun in the sky is designed and developed, so that more solar rays can be reflected to a focal point and solar thermal energy can be harvested from the focal point. Data were collected for different weather conditions and performance of the solar thermal collector with a solar tracker were studied and compared with stationary solar thermal collector.

  18. Visual analysis in single case experimental design studies: brief review and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Justin D; Gast, David L

    2014-01-01

    Visual analysis of graphic displays of data is a cornerstone of studies using a single case experimental design (SCED). Data are graphed for each participant during a study with trend, level, and stability of data assessed within and between conditions. Reliable interpretations of effects of an intervention are dependent on researchers' understanding and use of systematic procedures. The purpose of this paper is to provide readers with a rationale for visual analysis of data when using a SCED, a step-by-step guide for conducting a visual analysis of graphed data, as well as to highlight considerations for persons interested in using visual analysis to evaluate an intervention, especially the importance of collecting reliability data for dependent measures and fidelity of implementation of study procedures.

  19. Packerless single selective gravel-packed completions designed to improve recovery at Cognac Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, O.M.

    1984-09-01

    At Cognac, a majority of the reserves are contained in complex deltaic sands. A substantial thickness of low permeability, shaly sands are overlain by high permeability, clean sands. Due to the extreme variation in productivity, flow from the lower section was observed to be non-existent or poor, in common completions over the entire sand. The ''packerless'', single-selective, gravel packed, completion scheme was designed and installed in an effort to initially produce only the lower sand sections. Subsequent production log evaluation indicated that the desired production profile was not being achieved. Several modifications were adopted on wells completed during the final phase. A production log confirmed the effectiveness of the modifications. This modified completion technique has resulted in an increase in recovery from the bottom, lower permeability sand sections and in high production rates with a minimal increase in expense.

  20. Precoding Design for Single-RF Massive MIMO Systems: A Large System Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Sifaou, Houssem

    2016-08-26

    This work revisits a recently proposed precoding design for massive multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) systems that is based on the use of an instantaneous total power constraint. The main advantages of this technique lie in its suitability to the recently proposed single radio frequency (RF) MIMO transmitter coupled with a very-high power efficiency. Such features have been proven using simulations for uncorrelated channels. Based on tools from random matrix theory, we propose in this work to analyze the performance of this precoder for more involved channels accounting for spatial correlation. The obtained expressions are then optimized in order to maximize the signalto- interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). Simulation results are provided in order to illustrate the performance of the optimized precoder in terms of peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) and signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Thermal design of a modern, air-conditioned, single-floor, solar-powered desert house

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents a thermal analysis of a single-floor, solar-powered desert house. The house is air-conditioned and provides all modern comforts and facilities. Electrical power, which drives the entire energy system, is generated by roof-mounted photovoltaic modules. The modules are fixed on special cradles which fold at night to expose the roof to the night sky, thereby enhancing night-time cooling, which is substantial in the desert environment. A detailed dynamic heat transfer analysis is conducted for the building envelope, coupled with a solar radiation model. Application to a typical Middle-Eastern desert site reveals that indeed such a design is feasible with present-day technology; and should be even more attractive with future advances in technology. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  2. Designable and dynamic single-walled stiff nanotubes assembled from sequence-defined peptoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Haibao; Ding, Yanhuai; Wang, Mingming; Song, Yang; Liao, Zhihao; Newcomb, Christina J.; Wu, Xuepeng; Tang, Xian-Qiong; Li, Zheng; Lin, Yuehe; Yan, Feng; Jian, Teng-Yue; Mu, Peng; Chen, Chunlong

    2018-01-18

    Despite recent advances in assembly of organic nanotubes, conferral of sequence-defined engineering and dynamic response characteristics to the tubules remains a challenge. Here we report a new family of highly-designable and dynamic single-walled nanotubes assembled from sequence-defined peptoids through a unique “rolling-up and closure of nanosheet” mechanism. During the assembly process, amorphous spherical particles of amphiphilic peptoid oligomers (APOs) crystallized to form well-defined nanosheets which were then folded to form single-walled peptoid nanotubes (SW-PNTs). These SW-PNTs undergo a pH-triggered, reversible contraction-expansion motion. By varying the number of hydrophobic residues of APOs, we demonstrate the tuning of PNT wall thickness and diameter, and mechanical properties. AFM-based mechanical measurements indicate that PNTs are highly stiff (Young’s Modulus ~13-17 GPa), comparable to the stiffest known biological materials. We further demonstrate that the precise incorporation of functional groups within PNTs and the application of functional PNTs in water decontamination. We believe these SW-PNTs can provide a robust platform for development of biomimetic materials tailored to specific applications.

  3. Absence of QTc-interval-prolonging or hemodynamic effects of a single dose of bitter-orange extract in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Bokyung; Cios, Deborah; Kluger, Jeffrey; White, C Michael

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the hemodynamic and electrocardiographic effects of a single dose of commercially available bitter-orange dried-fruit extract, which is increasingly being used in dietary supplements. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. University of Connecticut, Storrs Campus. Eighteen healthy volunteers aged 18 years or older. Subjects were given either placebo or bitter-orange dried-fruit extract (450 mg standardized to 27 mg of m- or p-synephrine) in phase 1. The opposite treatment was given during phase 2 after a washout period of at least 7 days. The rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval and blood pressure were measured before dosing and at 1, 3, 5, and 8 hours after dosing. Mean+/-SD values of the maximum postdose values were compared between groups. Subjects receiving bitter-orange extract versus those receiving placebo had similar postdose QTc intervals (402+/-29 vs 403+/-24 msec, p=0.653), systolic blood pressure (114+/-10 vs 115+/-8 mm Hg, p=0.686) and diastolic blood pressure (68+/-9 vs 68+/-8, p=0.879). Bitter-orange dried-fruit extract standardized to m- or p-synephrine 27 mg did not significantly alter the QTc interval or blood pressure after a single dose was administered. Future studies are necessary to ensure the safety of this herbal product with multiple doses.

  4. Orientation and Mobility with Persons Who Are Deaf-Blind: An Initial Examination of Single-Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Amy T.

    2009-01-01

    Persons who are deaf-blind represent a heterogeneous, low-incidence population of children and adults who, at some point in life, regardless of the presence of additional disabilities, may benefit from formal orientation and mobility (O&M) instruction. Current national policies, such as the No Child Left Behind Act, which emphasize that…

  5. Single- and multiple-dose study to determine the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of ceftaroline fosamil in combination with avibactam in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccobene, Todd A; Su, Sheng Fang; Rank, Douglas

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of intravenous doses of ceftaroline fosamil administered in combination with the novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam in healthy adults. In the single-dose, open-label arm, 12 subjects received single 1-h intravenous infusions of ceftaroline fosamil alone (600 mg), avibactam alone (600 mg), and ceftaroline fosamil in combination with avibactam (600/600 mg) separated by 5-day washout periods. In the multiple-dose, placebo-controlled, double-blind arm, 48 subjects received intravenous infusions of ceftaroline fosamil/avibactam at 600/600 mg every 12 h (q12h), 400/400 mg q8h, 900/900 mg q12h, 600/600 mg q8h, or placebo for 10 days. Ceftaroline and avibactam levels in plasma and urine were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. No significant differences in systemic exposure of ceftaroline or avibactam were observed when the drugs were administered alone versus concomitantly, indicating that there was no apparent pharmacokinetic interaction between ceftaroline fosamil and avibactam administered as a single dose. No appreciable accumulation of either drug occurred with multiple intravenous doses of ceftaroline fosamil/avibactam, and pharmacokinetic parameters for ceftaroline and avibactam were similar on days 1 and 10. Infusions of ceftaroline fosamil/avibactam were well tolerated at total daily doses of up to 1,800 mg of each compound, and all adverse events (AEs) were mild to moderate in severity. Infusion-site reactions were the most common AEs reported with multiple dosing. The pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of ceftaroline fosamil/avibactam demonstrate that the 2 drugs can be administered concomitantly to provide an important broad-spectrum antimicrobial treatment option.

  6. Monitoring driver fatigue using a single-channel electroencephalographic device: A validation study by gaze-based, driving performance, and subjective data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, José M; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Rieiro, Héctor; Roca-González, Joaquín; Romero, Samuel; Catena, Andrés; Fuentes, Luis J; Di Stasi, Leandro L

    2017-12-01

    Driver fatigue can impair performance as much as alcohol does. It is the most important road safety concern, causing thousands of accidents and fatalities every year. Thanks to technological developments, wearable, single-channel EEG devices are now getting considerable attention as fatigue monitors, as they could help drivers to assess their own levels of fatigue and, therefore, prevent the deterioration of performance. However, the few studies that have used single-channel EEG devices to investigate the physiological effects of driver fatigue have had inconsistent results, and the question of whether we can monitor driver fatigue reliably with these EEG devices remains open. Here, we assessed the validity of a single-channel EEG device (TGAM-based chip) to monitor changes in mental state (from alertness to fatigue). Fifteen drivers performed a 2-h simulated driving task while we recorded, simultaneously, their prefrontal brain activity and saccadic velocity. We used saccadic velocity as the reference index of fatigue. We also collected subjective ratings of alertness and fatigue, as well as driving performance. We found that the power spectra of the delta EEG band showed an inverted U-shaped quadratic trend (EEG power spectra increased for the first hour and half, and decreased during the last thirty minutes), while the power spectra of the beta band linearly increased as the driving session progressed. Coherently, saccadic velocity linearly decreased and speeding time increased, suggesting a clear effect of fatigue. Subjective data corroborated these conclusions. Overall, our results suggest that the TGAM-based chip EEG device is able to detect changes in mental state while performing a complex and dynamic everyday task as driving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Postural stability deficits during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Janssens, Luc; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan; Staes, Filip F

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate postural stability during the transition from double-leg stance (DLS) to single-leg stance (SLS) in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACLR) (n=20) and non-injured control subjects (n=20). All ACLR subjects had fully returned to their pre-injury sport participation. Both groups were similar for age, gender, height, weight, body mass index and activity level. Spatiotemporal center of pressure outcomes of both legs of each subject were measured during the transition from DLS to SLS in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Movement speed was standardized. The center of pressure displacement after a new stability point was reached during the SLS phase was significantly increased in the ACLR group compared to the control group in the eyes closed condition (P=.001). No significant different postural stability outcomes were found between the operated and non-operated legs. In conclusion, the ACLR group showed postural stability deficits, indicating that these persons may have a decreased ability to stabilize their body after the internal postural perturbation created by the transition from DLS to SLS. The non-operated leg may not be the best reference when evaluating postural stability of the operated leg after ACLR, as no differences were found between legs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single doses of empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, in healthy Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarashina, Akiko; Koiwai, Kazuki; Seman, Leo J; Yamamura, Norio; Taniguchi, Atsushi; Negishi, Takahiro; Sesoko, Shogo; Woerle, Hans J; Dugi, Klaus A

    2013-01-01

    This randomized, placebo-controlled within dose groups, double-blind, single rising dose study investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 1 mg to 100 mg doses of empagliflozin in 48 healthy Japanese male subjects. Empagliflozin was rapidly absorbed, reaching peak levels in 1.25 to 2.50 h; thereafter, plasma concentrations declined in a biphasic fashion, with mean terminal elimination half-life ranging from 7.76 to 11.7 h. Increase in empagliflozin exposure was proportional to dose. Oral clearance was dose independent and ranged from 140 to 172 mL/min. In the 24 h following 100 mg empagliflozin administration, the mean (%CV) amount of glucose excreted in urine was 74.3 (17.1) g. The amount and the maximum rate of glucose excreted via urine increased with dose of empagliflozin. Nine adverse events, all of mild intensity, were reported by 8 subjects (7 with empagliflozin and 1 with the placebo). No hypoglycemia was reported. In conclusion, 1 mg to 100 mg doses of empagliflozin had a good safety and tolerability profile in healthy Japanese male subjects. Exposure to empagliflozin was dose proportional. The amount and rate of urinary glucose excretion were higher with empagliflozin than with the placebo, and increased with empagliflozin dose.

  9. Design of single phase inverter using microcontroller assisted by data processing applications software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, K.; Muharam, A.; Amin; Widodo Budi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Inverter is widely used for industrial, office, and residential purposes. Inverter supports the development of alternative energy such as solar cells, wind turbines and fuel cells by converting dc voltage to ac voltage. Inverter has been made with a variety of hardware and software combinations, such as the use of pure analog circuit and various types of microcontroller as controller. When using pure analog circuit, modification would be difficult because it will change the entire hardware components. In inverter with microcontroller based design (with software), calculations to generate AC modulation is done in the microcontroller. This increases programming complexity and amount of coding downloaded to the microcontroller chip (capacity flash memory in the microcontroller is limited). This paper discusses the design of a single phase inverter using unipolar modulation of sine wave and triangular wave, which is done outside the microcontroller using data processing software application (Microsoft Excel), result shows that complexity programming was reduce and resolution sampling data is very influence to THD. Resolution sampling must taking ½ A degree to get best THD (15.8%).

  10. Design of a Single-Cell Positioning Controller Using Electroosmotic Flow and Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhong-Yin Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current research was not only to provide a fast and automatic positioning platform for single cells, but also improved biomolecular manipulation techniques. In this study, an automatic platform for cell positioning using electroosmotic flow and image processing technology was designed. The platform was developed using a PCI image acquisition interface card for capturing images from a microscope and then transferring them to a computer using human-machine interface software. This software was designed by the Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench, a graphical language for finding cell positions and viewing the driving trace, and the fuzzy logic method for controlling the voltage or time of an electric field. After experiments on real human leukemic cells (U-937, the success of the cell positioning rate achieved by controlling the voltage factor reaches 100% within 5 s. A greater precision is obtained when controlling the time factor, whereby the success rate reaches 100% within 28 s. Advantages in both high speed and high precision are attained if these two voltage and time control methods are combined. The control speed with the combined method is about 5.18 times greater than that achieved by the time method, and the control precision with the combined method is more than five times greater than that achieved by the voltage method.

  11. THE DESIGN, FABRICATION AND PRELIMINARY TESTING OF AN INDIGENOUS SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOLASAYO T. FAYOSE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries including Nigeria have become dumping grounds of unserviceable and broken down imported machineries because of poor adaptation. Detailed study and design of machines to suit local conditions will prevent poor adaptation of imported machines and high initial costs. In this study, a single screw starch extruder was designed, fabricated and tested using locally available materials. The extruder is the dry type and it has 27.12 kg/s capacity, a compression ratio of 4.5: 1 and is powered by a 5.5 kW electric motor. It consists of a hopper, feeding screw, extruder screw rotating in a barrel and variable die, all made of stainless steel. A unit of the machine costs N 470, 390.00.00 as at April 2015. When used to process cassava flour, a maximum temperature of 114°C was attained through viscous dissipation, up to an actual screw speed of 98.96 rpm (1.65 Hz and extruder efficiency of 64%. Barrel temperature varied directly with extrusion time in a polynomial trend while actual extruder screw speed and efficiency varied inversely with extrusion time and it is best fitted with a polynomial trend.

  12. Design and implementation of a personal mobility of single spherical drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Tasuku; Yazawa, Miki; Naganuma, Ryota; Takada, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with a personal electric vehicle driven by a single spherical wheel. Using an appropriate feedback control, this driving strategy realizes dynamic stability in all directions and the vehicle can always be kept upright on the road surface of variety of slopes. It also enables immediate mobility to all directions, unlike personal vehicles of two- wheel type. The spherical wheel is driven by omnidirectional wheels as usual; however, since the number and location of wheels have huge effect on the driving performance, the authors firstly analyze kinematics of omnidirectional wheels and sphere and derive new configuration to achieve maximum power. Based on the kinematic analysis, the equation of motion of the vehicle is derived via Lagrangian formulation. The full dynamic model including kinematic constraints is then derived. Using the full model, a stabilizing controller for driving is designed based on partial feedback linearization technique. The vehicle is constructed and tested with a human driver. The proposed configuration of omnidirectional wheels, the controller design model and the control scheme are examined in practice. Results of the experiments, including going over uphill road and uneven ground, show much better driving performance than authors’ previous prototype of the similar. (paper)

  13. Design and implementation of a personal mobility of single spherical drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Tasuku; Yazawa, Miki; Naganuma, Ryota; Takada, Kotaro

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with a personal electric vehicle driven by a single spherical wheel. Using an appropriate feedback control, this driving strategy realizes dynamic stability in all directions and the vehicle can always be kept upright on the road surface of variety of slopes. It also enables immediate mobility to all directions, unlike personal vehicles of two- wheel type. The spherical wheel is driven by omnidirectional wheels as usual; however, since the number and location of wheels have huge effect on the driving performance, the authors firstly analyze kinematics of omnidirectional wheels and sphere and derive new configuration to achieve maximum power. Based on the kinematic analysis, the equation of motion of the vehicle is derived via Lagrangian formulation. The full dynamic model including kinematic constraints is then derived. Using the full model, a stabilizing controller for driving is designed based on partial feedback linearization technique. The vehicle is constructed and tested with a human driver. The proposed configuration of omnidirectional wheels, the controller design model and the control scheme are examined in practice. Results of the experiments, including going over uphill road and uneven ground, show much better driving performance than authors’ previous prototype of the similar.

  14. Design, operation, and safety of single-room interventional MRI suites: practical experience from two centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark J; Thornton, John S; Hawkes, David J; Hill, Derek L G; Kitchen, Neil; Mancini, Laura; McEvoy, Andrew W; Razavi, Reza; Wilson, Sally; Yousry, Tarek; Keevil, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    The design and operation of a facility in which a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner is incorporated into a room used for surgical or endovascular cardiac interventions presents several challenges. MR safety must be maintained in the presence of a much wider variety of equipment than is found in a diagnostic unit, and of staff unfamiliar with the MRI environment, without compromising the safety and practicality of the interventional procedure. Both the MR-guided cardiac interventional unit at Kings College London and the intraoperative imaging suite at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery are single-room interventional facilities incorporating 1.5 T cylindrical-bore MRI scanners. The two units employ similar strategies to maintain MR safety, both in original design and day-to-day operational workflows, and between them over a decade of incident-free practice has been accumulated. This article outlines these strategies, highlighting both similarities and differences between the units, as well as some lessons learned and resulting procedural changes made in both units since installation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Designing conical intersections for light-driven single molecule rotary motors: from precessional to axial motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Michael; Olivucci, Massimo

    2014-04-18

    In the past, the design of light-driven single molecule rotary motors has been mainly guided by the modification of their ground-state conformational properties. Further progress in this field is thus likely to be achieved through a detailed understanding of light-induced dynamics of the system and the ways of modulating it by introducing chemical modifications. In the present theoretical work, the analysis of model organic chromophores and synthesized rotary motors is used for rationalizing the effect of electron-withdrawing heteroatoms (such as a cationic nitrogen) on the topography and branching plane of mechanistically relevant conical intersections. Such an analysis reveals how the character of rotary motion could be changed from a precessional motion to an axial rotational motion. These concepts are then used to design and build quantum chemical models of three distinct types of Schiff base rotary motors. One of these models, featuring the synthetically viable indanylidenepyrroline framework, has conical intersection structures consistent with an axial rotation not hindered by ground-state conformational barriers. It is expected that this type of motor should be capable of funneling the photon energy into specific rotary modes, thus achieving photoisomerization quantum efficiencies comparable to those seen in visual pigments.

  16. Seismic Design of a Single Bored Tunnel: Longitudinal Deformations and Seismic Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J.; Moon, T.

    2018-03-01

    The large diameter bored tunnel passing through rock and alluvial deposits subjected to seismic loading is analyzed for estimating longitudinal deformations and member forces on the segmental tunnel liners. The project site has challenges including high hydrostatic pressure, variable ground profile and high seismic loading. To ensure the safety of segmental tunnel liner from the seismic demands, the performance-based two-level design earthquake approach, Functional Evaluation Earthquake and Safety Evaluation Earthquake, has been adopted. The longitudinal tunnel and ground response seismic analyses are performed using a three-dimensional quasi-static linear elastic and nonlinear elastic discrete beam-spring elements to represent segmental liner and ground spring, respectively. Three components (longitudinal, transverse and vertical) of free-field ground displacement-time histories evaluated from site response analyses considering wave passage effects have been applied at the end support of the strain-compatible ground springs. The result of the longitudinal seismic analyses suggests that seismic joint for the mitigation measure requiring the design deflection capacity of 5-7.5 cm is to be furnished at the transition zone between hard and soft ground condition where the maximum member forces on the segmental liner (i.e., axial, shear forces and bending moments) are induced. The paper illustrates how detailed numerical analyses can be practically applied to evaluate the axial and curvature deformations along the tunnel alignment under difficult ground conditions and to provide the seismic joints at proper locations to effectively reduce the seismic demands below the allowable levels.

  17. Statistical issues for design and analysis of single-arm multi-stage phase II cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2015-05-01

    Phase II trials have been very widely conducted and published every year for cancer clinical research. In spite of the fast progress in design and analysis methods, single-arm two-stage design is still the most popular for phase II cancer clinical trials. Because of their small sample sizes, statistical methods based on large sample approximation are not appropriate for design and analysis of phase II trials. As a prospective clinical research, the analysis method of a phase II trial is predetermined at the design stage and it is analyzed during and at the end of the trial as planned by the design. The analysis method of a trial should be matched with the design method. For two-stage single arm phase II trials, Simon's method has been the standards for choosing an optimal design, but the resulting data have been analyzed and published ignoring the two-stage design aspect with small sample sizes. In this article, we review analysis methods that exactly get along with the exact two-stage design method. We also discuss some statistical methods to improve the existing design and analysis methods for single-arm two-stage phase II trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography in normal subjects and in patients with Alzheimer's disease: effects of region of interest selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.J.; Harskamp, F. van; Breteler, M.M.B.; Krenning, E.P.; Cammen, T.J.M. van der; Hofman, A.; Hasan, D.

    1994-01-01

    We compared three different ROIs in a SPET study with 60 controls and in 48 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease diagnosed according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was assessed with SPET using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO), normalized to the mean activity in a cerebellar reference slice. The three different ROIs were: a multi-slice and a single-slice ROI with reference to the normal brain anatomy (using an anatomical atlas), and a rectangular (2x4 pixels) ROI in the frontal, temporal, temporoparietal and occipital cortices. No differences were observed for the means of rCBF values between the single-slice and multi-slice ROI's with reference to the normal anatomy, but some variability was present for individual comparisons. In contrast, significantly higher mean rCBF values were obtained with the single-slice rectangular ROIs in all four regions for both patients and controls and considerable variability was shown for individual subjects. After analysis with multivariate logistic regression and receiver operator characteristic curves, the ability of SPET to discriminate between controls and Alzheimer patients was similar in the three methods for mild and moderate Alzheimer patients (Global Deterioration Scale = GDS of 3 and 4). However, with increasing dementia severity (GDS>4) the rectangular ROIs showed lower ability to discriminate between groups compared to the single-slice and multi-slice anatomically defined ROIs. This study suggests that results of rCBF assessment with SPET using 99m Tc-HMPAO in patients with severe Alzheimer's disease are influenced by the shape and size of the ROI. (orig.)

  19. The effects of classic and web-designed conceptual change texts on the subject of water chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Taş

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to research the effects of traditional and web-assisted conceptual change texts for the subject of water chemistry on the success, conceptual errors and permanent learning of students. A total of 37 8th graders in a secondary school of Samsun participated in this study which had a random experimental design with pre–test and post-test groups. With the three-stage conceptual success test developed by the researchers, a pilot scheme was conducted with 103 participants (9th graders. As a result of this scheme, the test’s validity and reliability was completed and traditional conceptual change texts based on the determinated conceptual errors were prepared. In addition, this test was applied to students as pre-test at the beginning of the study. Classical conceptual change texts that were prepared were taught with traditional methods in control group’s lessons. On the other hand, traditional conceptual change texts were prepared web-assisted and the experimental group was taught by using web-assisted conceptual change texts. At the end of the study, three-stage conceptual success test was conducted on the sample again as post-test. The data collected was analyzed by using SPSS and Microsoft Office Excel 2007 package program. As a result of the study, it was found that conceptual change texts caused a decrease in the conceptual errors of students on the subject of water chemistry. This improvement was 65% for the experimental group and 14% for the control group. In addition, even after three months, this rate was 61% for the experimental group and 3,8 % for the control group. Web-assisted conceptual change texts were found to be more effective in the permanence of what is learned

  20. Choosing Content and Methods: Focus Group Interviews with Faculty Teachers in Norwegian Pre-Service Subject Teacher Education in Design, Art, and Crafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliksen, Marte S.; Hjardemaal, Finn R.

    2016-01-01

    The study is aimed at generating knowledge on how faculty teachers reflect and justify their choice of subject content logic in teacher education, exemplified by a concurrent pre-service Subject Teacher Education in design, art, and crafts. Focus-group interviews generated data. Three topics were discussed: too many choices, different logics, and…

  1. Pharmacokinetics of a telmisartan/rosuvastatin fixed-dose combination: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study in healthy Korean subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Dong Woo; Son, Mijeong; Kim, Yukyung; Son, Hankil; Jang, Seong Bok; Seo, Jeong Min; Nam, Su Youn; Park, Kyungsoo

    2015-10-01

    As hypertension and dyslipidemia are frequent comorbidities, antihypertensive drugs and lipid-lowering agents are often prescribed together for their treatment. Telmisartan and rosuvastatin are widely used together to treat hypertension and dyslipidemia. A combination formulation of these two drugs would improve patient compliance due to ease of dosing. The purpose of this study was to assess bioequivalence of single-dose administration of a newly-developed fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet containing telmisartan/rosuvastatin 80/20 mg (test treatment) and coadministration of a telmisartan 80-mg tablet and a rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet (reference treatment) in healthy Korean male volunteers. This was a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study enrolling healthy males aged 20 - 50 years with BMI between 18.5 and 25 kg/m2. Each subject received a single dose of the reference and test treatments with a 14-day washout period. Blood sampling was performed at prespecified intervals for up to 72 hours after dosing. Primary pharmacokinetic parameters were Cmax, AUClast, and AUC0-∞ of telmisartan, rosuvastatin, and N-desmethyl rosuvastatin. Bioequivalence was assessed by determining whether the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios (test treatment/reference treatment) of these parameters were within the standard range of 80% to 125%. Adverse events were monitored via regular interviews with the subjects and by physical examinations. 60 subjects were enrolled and 55 completed the study. The 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios of Cmax, AUClast, and AUC00-∞ were 0.9262-1.1498, 0.9294-1.0313, and 0.9312-1.0320 for telmisartan, 0.9041-1.0428, 0.9262-1.0085, and 0.9307-1.0094 for rosuvastatin, and 0.8718-1.0022, 0.8901-0.9904, and 0.8872-0.9767 for N-desmethyl rosuvastatin, respectively. There was no statistical difference in the incidence of adverse events (AEs) (all of which were mild or moderate) between the reference and test

  2. Design and analysis of linear oscillatory single-phase permanent magnet generator for free-piston stirling engine systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong-Man Kim; Jang-Young Choi; Kyu-Seok Lee; Sung-Ho Lee

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the design and analysis of a linear oscillatory single-phase permanent magnet generator for free-piston stirling engine (FPSE) systems. In order to implement the design of linear oscillatory generator (LOG) for suitable FPSEs, we conducted electromagnetic analysis of LOGs with varying design parameters. Then, detent force analysis was conducted using assisted PM. Using the assisted PM gave us the advantage of using mechanical strength by detent force. To improve the effi...

  3. Single molar replacement with a progressive thread design implant system: a retrospective clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, G E; Nentwig, G H

    2000-01-01

    Many clinical studies have shown that replacement of molars with only 1 implant is commonly associated with various functional complications, such as implant fracture and screw loosening. Thus, multiple implants have been recommended to withstand the high occlusal forces present in the molar region. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical response to the use of single implants with a progressive thread design (Ankylos) in the replacement of molar teeth. Fifty-eight implants (10 in the maxilla and 48 in the mandible) were placed in 51 patients. The implants were in situ for 29.30 +/- 16.52 months and in function for 20.60 +/- 16.64 months. All crowns were cemented to the abutments. The crown occlusion was adjusted to obtain minimal normal contacts in the centric occlusion and eccentric positions. Implants were clinically and radiographically evaluated, and clinical indices (Plaque Index, Sulcus Bleeding Index, probing pocket depth, keratinized mucosa width, Perio-test) were recorded immediately before the placement of the prosthesis and once annually. Vertical and horizontal bone loss were also examined radiographically. Two implants were lost (1 because of fracture in a patient who was a bruxer and another because of abutment fracture in the endosseous part of the implant). All clinical and radiographic parameters of most of the implants were comparable to the values found for the same type of implant in other clinical indications. The reduced incidence of failure (96.55% survival rate) found in this study with the Ankylos implant system compared to the results reported in the literature indicate that this system can be used for the replacement of molars using single-implant-supported restorations.

  4. Optimizing Within-Subject Experimental Designs for jICA of Multi-Channel ERP and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalathu-Arumana, Jain; Liebenthal, Einat; Beardsley, Scott A

    2018-01-01

    Joint independent component analysis (jICA) can be applied within subject for fusion of multi-channel event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to measure brain function at high spatiotemporal resolution (Mangalathu-Arumana et al., 2012). However, the impact of experimental design choices on jICA performance has not been systematically studied. Here, the sensitivity of jICA for recovering neural sources in individual data was evaluated as a function of imaging SNR, number of independent representations of the ERP/fMRI data, relationship between instantiations of the joint ERP/fMRI activity (linear, non-linear, uncoupled), and type of sources (varying parametrically and non-parametrically across representations of the data), using computer simulations. Neural sources were simulated with spatiotemporal and noise attributes derived from experimental data. The best performance, maximizing both cross-modal data fusion and the separation of brain sources, occurred with a moderate number of representations of the ERP/fMRI data (10-30), as in a mixed block/event related experimental design. Importantly, the type of relationship between instantiations of the ERP/fMRI activity, whether linear, non-linear or uncoupled, did not in itself impact jICA performance, and was accurately recovered in the common profiles (i.e., mixing coefficients). Thus, jICA provides an unbiased way to characterize the relationship between ERP and fMRI activity across brain regions, in individual data, rendering it potentially useful for characterizing pathological conditions in which neurovascular coupling is adversely affected.

  5. Optimizing Within-Subject Experimental Designs for jICA of Multi-Channel ERP and fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalathu-Arumana, Jain; Liebenthal, Einat; Beardsley, Scott A.

    2018-01-01

    Joint independent component analysis (jICA) can be applied within subject for fusion of multi-channel event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to measure brain function at high spatiotemporal resolution (Mangalathu-Arumana et al., 2012). However, the impact of experimental design choices on jICA performance has not been systematically studied. Here, the sensitivity of jICA for recovering neural sources in individual data was evaluated as a function of imaging SNR, number of independent representations of the ERP/fMRI data, relationship between instantiations of the joint ERP/fMRI activity (linear, non-linear, uncoupled), and type of sources (varying parametrically and non-parametrically across representations of the data), using computer simulations. Neural sources were simulated with spatiotemporal and noise attributes derived from experimental data. The best performance, maximizing both cross-modal data fusion and the separation of brain sources, occurred with a moderate number of representations of the ERP/fMRI data (10–30), as in a mixed block/event related experimental design. Importantly, the type of relationship between instantiations of the ERP/fMRI activity, whether linear, non-linear or uncoupled, did not in itself impact jICA performance, and was accurately recovered in the common profiles (i.e., mixing coefficients). Thus, jICA provides an unbiased way to characterize the relationship between ERP and fMRI activity across brain regions, in individual data, rendering it potentially useful for characterizing pathological conditions in which neurovascular coupling is adversely affected. PMID:29410611

  6. Optimized design and structural mechanics of a single-piece composite helicopter driveshaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Todd C.

    In rotorcraft driveline design, single-piece composite driveshafts have much potential for reducing driveline mass and complexity over multi-segmented metallic driveshafts. The singlepiece shaft concept is enabled by the relatively high fatigue strain capacity of fiber reinforced polymer composites over metals. Challenges for single-piece driveshaft design lie in addressing the self-heating behavior of the composite due to the material damping, as well as, whirling stability, torsional buckling stability, and composite strength. Increased composite temperature due to self-heating reduces the composite strength and is accounted for in this research. The laminate longitudinal stiffness ( Ex) and strength (Fx) are known to be heavily degraded by fiber undulation, however, both are not well understood in compression. The whirling stability (a function of longitudinal stiffness) and the composite strength are strongly influential in driveshaft optimization, and thus are investigated further through the testing of flat and filament wound composite specimens. The design of single-piece composite driveshafts, however, needs to consider many failure criteria, including hysteresis-induced overheating, whirl stability, torsional buckling stability, and material failure by overstress. The present investigation uses multi-objective optimization to investigate the design space which visually highlights design trades. Design variables included stacking sequence, number of laminas, and number of hanger bearings. The design goals were to minimize weight and maximize the lowest factor of safety by adaptively generating solutions to the multi-objective problem. Several design spaces were investigated by examining the effect of misalignment, ambient temperature, and constant power transmission on the optimized solution. Several materials of interest were modeled using experimentally determined elastic properties and novel temperature-dependent composite strength. Compared to the

  7. SpaRibs Geometry Parameterization for Wings with Multiple Sections using Single Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Shuvodeep; Jrad, Mohamed; Locatelli, Davide; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Baker, Myles; Pak, Chan-Gi

    2017-01-01

    The SpaRibs topology of an aircraft wing has a significant effect on its structural behavior and stability as well as the flutter performance. The development of additive manufacturing techniques like Electron Beam Free Form Fabrication (EBF3) has made it feasible to manufacture aircraft wings with curvilinear spars, ribs (SpaRibs) and stiffeners. In this article a new global-local optimization framework for wing with multiple sections using curvilinear SpaRibs is described. A single design space is used to parameterize the SpaRibs geometry. This method has been implemented using MSC-PATRAN to create a broad range of SpaRibs topologies using limited number of parameters. It ensures C0 and C1 continuities in SpaRibs geometry at the junction of two wing sections with airfoil thickness gradient discontinuity as well as mesh continuity between all structural components. This method is advantageous in complex multi-disciplinary optimization due to its potential to reduce the number of design variables. For the global-local optimization the local panels are generated by an algorithm which is totally based on a set algebra on the connectivity matrix data. The great advantage of this method is that it is completely independent of the coordinates of the nodes of the finite element model. It is also independent of the order in which the elements are distributed in the FEM. The code is verified by optimizing of the CRM Baseline model at trim condition at Mach number equal to 0.85 for five different angle of attack (-2deg, 0deg,2deg,4deg and 6deg). The final weight of the wing is 19,090.61 lb. This value is comparable to that obtained by Qiang et al. 6 (19,269 lb).

  8. Diffusion-weighted MRI of the cervical spinal cord using a single-shot fast spin-echo technique: findings in normal subjects and in myelomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Katase, S.; Fujikawa, A.; Hachiya, J. [Department of Radiology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, 181-8611, Tokyo (Japan); Kanazawa, H. [Toshiba Corporation, 1-1-1 Shibaura, Minato-ku, 105-8001, Tokyo (Japan); Yodo, K. [Toshiba Medical Systems, 3-26-5 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, 113-8456, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    We have implemented a new diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) sequence based on the single-shot fast spin-echo technique. We hypothesised that this would add information to conventional MRI for diagnosis of lesions of the cervical spinal cord. DWI was performed using a technique in which echo collection after the application of motion-probing gradients was done in the same manner as in the single-shot fast spin-echo technique. We first imaged six healthy volunteers to demonstrate the cervical spinal cord using the sequence. Then we applied the sequence to 12 patients with cervical myelomalacia due to chronic cord compression. The spinal cord was well seen in all subjects without the distortion associated with echo-planar DWI. In the patients, lesions appeared as areas of low- or isointense signal on DWI. Calculated apparent diffusion coefficients of the lesions (3.30{+-}0.38 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) were significantly higher than those of normal volunteers (2.26{+-}0.08 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s). Increased diffusion in areas of cervical myelomalacia, suggesting irreversible damage, can be detected using this technique. (orig.)

  9. Optical design and studies of a tiled single grating pulse compressor for enhanced parametric space and compensation of tiling errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiya, D.; Patidar, R. K.; Sharma, J.; Joshi, A. S.; Naik, P. A.; Gupta, P. D.

    2017-04-01

    A new optical design of tiled single grating pulse compressor has been proposed, set-up and studied. The parametric space, i.e. the laser beam diameters that can be accommodated in the pulse compressor for the given range of compression lengths, has been calculated and shown to have up to two fold enhancement in comparison to our earlier proposed optical designs. The new optical design of the tiled single grating pulse compressor has an additional advantage of self compensation of various tiling errors like longitudinal and lateral piston, tip and groove density mismatch, compared to the earlier designs. Experiments have been carried out for temporal compression of 650 ps positively chirped laser pulses, at central wavelength 1054 nm, down to 235 fs in the tiled grating pulse compressor set up with the proposed design. Further, far field studies have been performed to show the desired compensation of the tiling errors takes place in the new compressor.

  10. Rational design of single-ion magnets and spin qubits based on mononuclear lanthanoid complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoví, José J; Cardona-Serra, Salvador; Clemente-Juan, Juan M; Coronado, Eugenio; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro; Palii, Andrew

    2012-11-19

    Here we develop a general approach to calculating the energy spectrum and the wave functions of the low-lying magnetic levels of a lanthanoid ion submitted to the crystal field created by the surrounding ligands. This model allows us to propose general criteria for the rational design of new mononuclear lanthanoid complexes behaving as single-molecule magnets (SMMs) or acting as robust spin qubits. Three typical environments exhibited by these metal complexes are considered, namely, (a) square antiprism, (b) triangular dodecahedron, and (c) trigonal prism. The developed model is used to explain the properties of some representative examples showing these geometries. Key questions in this area, such as the chemical tailoring of the superparamagnetic energy barrier, tunneling gap, or spin relaxation time, are discussed. Finally, in order to take into account delocalization and/or covalent effects of the ligands, this point-charge model is complemented with ab initio calculations, which provide accurate information on the charge distribution around the metal, allowing for an explanation of the SMM behavior displayed by some sandwich-type organometallic compounds.

  11. Sweeter and stronger: enhancing sweetness and stability of the single chain monellin MNEI through molecular design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Serena; Pica, Andrea; Merlino, Antonello; Sannino, Filomena; Temussi, Piero Andrea; Picone, Delia

    2016-09-01

    Sweet proteins are a family of proteins with no structure or sequence homology, able to elicit a sweet sensation in humans through their interaction with the dimeric T1R2-T1R3 sweet receptor. In particular, monellin and its single chain derivative (MNEI) are among the sweetest proteins known to men. Starting from a careful analysis of the surface electrostatic potentials, we have designed new mutants of MNEI with enhanced sweetness. Then, we have included in the most promising variant the stabilising mutation E23Q, obtaining a construct with enhanced performances, which combines extreme sweetness to high, pH-independent, thermal stability. The resulting mutant, with a sweetness threshold of only 0.28 mg/L (25 nM) is the strongest sweetener known to date. All the new proteins have been produced and purified and the structures of the most powerful mutants have been solved by X-ray crystallography. Docking studies have then confirmed the rationale of their interaction with the human sweet receptor, hinting at a previously unpredicted role of plasticity in said interaction.

  12. Imagery Rescripting for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Multiple-Baseline Single-Case Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Rob; Veale, David; Freeston, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) often experience negative distorted images of their appearance, and research suggests these may be linked to memories of adverse events such as bullying or teasing. This study evaluates imagery rescripting (ImR) as an intervention for BDD. In this article, we present a multiple-baseline single-case experimental design testing imagery rescripting as a brief, stand-alone intervention, with six individuals with BDD that related to aversive memories. The impact of the intervention was assessed by self-reported daily measures of symptom severity (preoccupation with appearance, appearance-related checking behaviors, appearance-related distress, and strength of belief that their main problem is their appearance) and standardized clinician ratings of BDD severity (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for BDD). Four out of six of the participants responded positively to the intervention, with clinically meaningful improvement in symptomatology. Overall response was rapid; improvements began within the first week post-ImR intervention. From a small sample it is cautiously concluded that imagery rescripting may show promise as a module in cognitive-behavioral therapy for BDD, and is worthy of further investigation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Sharonlay - a novel postendodontic restorative design for premolars and single rooted molars: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddapur Mathada Sharath Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Root canal treated teeth are structurally compromised as a result of loss of tooth structure due to caries, iatrogenic cavity preparation, and dehydration. Given that a direct relationship exists between the amount of remaining tooth structure and the ability to resist occlusal forces, it is vital to provide a restoration allowing cuspal coverage as soon as possible following completion of the root canal treatment. A decision to provide a full crown or an onlay depends on the remaining tooth structure, if the cuspal width to length ratio is 1:2 or more, an onlay can be placed. When the ratio is <1:2, a full crown has to be planned. In single rooted teeth requiring postendodontic restoration cast post and core or a prefabricated post can provide resistance to fracture with comparable results. However in case of premolars, where only cuspal coverage is being practiced, it would require cervical reinforcement in addition, to counter the horizontal force acting at the cervical region. A new onlay design with a post extending into the radicular portion of the premolar providing the required reinforcement in a conservative manner and protecting it against both vertical and horizontal forces is proposed herewith called as SHARONLAY I.P. no 1956475.

  14. Compact Single-Layer Traveling-Wave Antenna DesignUsing Metamaterial Transmission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibakhshikenari, Mohammad; Virdee, Bal Singh; Limiti, Ernesto

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a single-layer traveling-wave antenna (TWA) that is based on composite right/left-handed (CRLH)-metamaterial (MTM) transmission line (TL) structure, which is implemented by using a combination of interdigital capacitors and dual-spiral inductive slots. By embedding dual-spiral inductive slots inside the CRLH MTM-TL results in a compact TWA. Dimensions of the proposed CRLH MTM-TL TWA is 21.5 × 30.0 mm2 or 0.372λ0 × 0.520λ0 at 5.2 GHz (center frequency). The fabricated TWA operates over 1.8-8.6 GHz with a fractional bandwidth greater than 120%, and it exhibits a peak gain and radiation efficiency of 4.2 dBi and 81%, respectively, at 5 GHz. By avoiding the use of lumped components, via-holes or defected ground structures, the proposed TWA design is economic for mass production as well as easy to integrate with wireless communication systems.

  15. Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research Design Studies on Instructional Pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt; De Mers, Marilyn

    2016-11-01

    More than four decades of research on instructional pacing has yielded varying and, in some cases, conflicting findings. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to synthesize single-case research design (SCRD) studies on instructional pacing to determine the relative benefits of brisker or slower pacing. Participants were children and youth with and without disabilities in educational settings, excluding higher education. Tau-U, a non-parametric statistic for analyzing data in SCRD studies, was used to determine effect size estimates. The article extraction yielded 13 instructional pacing studies meeting contemporary standards for high quality SCRD research. Eleven of the 13 studies reported small to large magnitude effects when two or more pacing parameters were compared, suggesting that instructional pacing is a robust instructional variable. Brisker instructional pacing with brief inter-trial interval (ITI) produced small increases in correct responding and medium to large reductions in challenging behavior compared with extended ITI. Slower instructional pacing with extended wait-time produced small increases in correct responding, but also produced small increases in challenging behavior compared with brief wait-time. Neither brief ITI nor extended wait-time meets recently established thresholds for evidence-based practice, highlighting the need for further instructional pacing research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Design and evaluation of a variable stiffness manual operating platform for laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Li, Xuejie; Wang, Jianchen; Xing, Yuan; Wang, Shuxin; Ren, Xiangyun

    2017-12-01

    Most of the existing robotic platforms for LESS have workspace and load capacity weaknesses, because of the limitation of one single incision. We have developed a LESS manual operating platform of which the stiffness of the insertion tube is controllable. The system included two dexterous tool manipulators, a stereo-vision module and a variable stiffness insertion tube (VSIT), which was designed using phase-change material (mixed indium, gallium and stannum). Experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the VSIT were set up. Peg transfer tasks and trajectory tracking tasks were conducted to assess the initial performance of the overall system. The experimental results for stiffness characteristic suggested that the rigidity of the VSIT with a straight-forward pose was considerably increased by about four times in the rigid mode. Peg transfer tasks and trajectory tracking tasks were performed successfully with an average time of 97 s and 52 s, respectively. The experimental results for stiffness characteristic showed that the manual operating platform had great promise for solving large workspace, high manipulation force and stability problems in LESS. The tool manipulators had the ability to achieve basic operations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A Single-Unit Design Structure and Gender Differences in the Swimming World Championships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkar Svetlana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Four 50 meter male/female finals - the freestyle, butterfly, breaststroke, and backstroke - swum during individual events at the Swimming World Championships (SWCs can be defined in four clusters. The aim of the present study was to use a single-unit design structure, in which the swimmer was defined at only one scale, to evaluate gender differences in start reaction times among elite swimmers in 50 m events. The top six male and female swimmers in the finals of four swimming stroke final events in six SWCs were analyzed. An unpaired t-test was used. The p-values were evaluated using Neo-Fisherian significance assessments (Hurlbert and Lombardi, 2012. For the freestyle, gender differences in the start reaction times were positively identified for five of the six SWCs. For the backstroke, gender differences in the start reaction times could be dismissed for five of the six SWCs. For both the butterfly and breaststroke, gender differences in the start reaction times yielded inconsistent statistical differences. Pooling all swimmers together (df = 286 showed that an overall gender difference in the start reaction times could be positively identified: p = 0.00004. The contrast between the gender differences in start reaction times between the freestyle and backstroke may be associated with different types of gender adaptations to swimming performances. When the natural groupings of swimming stroke final events were ignored, sacrificial pseudoreplication occurred, which may lead to erroneous statistical differences

  18. A single-unit design structure and gender differences in the swimming world championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkar, Svetlana; Issurin, Vladimir B; Verbitsky, Oleg

    2014-09-29

    Four 50 meter male/female finals - the freestyle, butterfly, breaststroke, and backstroke - swum during individual events at the Swimming World Championships (SWCs) can be defined in four clusters. The aim of the present study was to use a single-unit design structure, in which the swimmer was defined at only one scale, to evaluate gender differences in start reaction times among elite swimmers in 50 m events. The top six male and female swimmers in the finals of four swimming stroke final events in six SWCs were analyzed. An unpaired t-test was used. The p-values were evaluated using Neo-Fisherian significance assessments (Hurlbert and Lombardi, 2012). For the freestyle, gender differences in the start reaction times were positively identified for five of the six SWCs. For the backstroke, gender differences in the start reaction times could be dismissed for five of the six SWCs. For both the butterfly and breaststroke, gender differences in the start reaction times yielded inconsistent statistical differences. Pooling all swimmers together (df = 286) showed that an overall gender difference in the start reaction times could be positively identified: p = 0.00004. The contrast between the gender differences in start reaction times between the freestyle and backstroke may be associated with different types of gender adaptations to swimming performances. When the natural groupings of swimming stroke final events were ignored, sacrificial pseudoreplication occurred, which may lead to erroneous statistical differences.

  19. An introduction to modeling longitudinal data with generalized additive models: applications to single-case designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kristynn J; Shadish, William R; Steiner, Peter M

    2015-03-01

    Single-case designs (SCDs) are short time series that assess intervention effects by measuring units repeatedly over time in both the presence and absence of treatment. This article introduces a statistical technique for analyzing SCD data that has not been much used in psychological and educational research: generalized additive models (GAMs). In parametric regression, the researcher must choose a functional form to impose on the data, for example, that trend over time is linear. GAMs reverse this process by letting the data inform the choice of functional form. In this article we review the problem that trend poses in SCDs, discuss how current SCD analytic methods approach trend, describe GAMs as a possible solution, suggest a GAM model testing procedure for examining the presence of trend in SCDs, present a small simulation to show the statistical properties of GAMs, and illustrate the procedure on 3 examples of different lengths. Results suggest that GAMs may be very useful both as a form of sensitivity analysis for checking the plausibility of assumptions about trend and as a primary data analysis strategy for testing treatment effects. We conclude with a discussion of some problems with GAMs and some future directions for research on the application of GAMs to SCDs. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The influence of food on the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine and losartan after single-dose of its compound tablets in healthy chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, C; Wei, C; Wang, X; Yao, H; Li, R; Wang, B; Guo, R

    2014-05-01

    We aim to identify the effects of food on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of amlodipine, losartan and losartan's active metabolite (EXP3174) after oral administration of the Compound Amlodipine Tablets with single dose in healthy Chinese subjects. 12 subjects took the compounds (10 mg/100 mg, amlodipine/losartan) at the conditions of a high-fat breakfast and an overnight fast with a washout period of 14 days. Plasma samples were obtained at scheduled time, and determined by HPLC-MS/MS for the concentrations of amlodipine and HPLC-MS for the concentrations of losartan and EXP3174, respectively. PK parameters were calculated using Software Drug and Statistics (Version 2.0). When tablets were co-administered with food, there was no significant difference of AUC for amlodipine and losartan, but the AUC of EXP3174 was reduced by 19.1%. Meanwhile, the Cmax of amlodipine, losartan and EXP3174 were reduced by 11.4%, 20.0% and 41.4%, and the Tmax of losartan and EXP3174 were 1.3 and 1.8 h longer, respectively. No significant difference was found at t1/2 following food intake. In conclusion, the Compound Amlodipine Tablets, are affected by food administration by reducing the AUC of EXP3174. It is thus suggested that the Compound Amlodipine Tablets should be administered 1 h before or 2 h after meal. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. A randomized, single-blind, Phase I trial (INVICTAN-1) assessing the bioequivalence and safety of BI 695502, a bevacizumab biosimilar candidate, in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettema, Willem; Wynne, Christopher; Lang, Benjamin; Altendorfer, Mario; Czeloth, Niklas; Lohmann, Ragna; Athalye, Sandeep; Schliephake, Dorothee

    2017-08-01

    This Phase I trial (INVICTAN®-1) evaluated three-way bioequivalence and safety of BI 695502 a bevacizumab biosimilar candidate, and reference product bevacizumab from two sources (US-approved Avastin®, Genentech; EU-approved Avastin, Roche). Healthy male subjects (N = 91) were randomized 1:1:1 to receive a single intravenous infusion of 1 mg/kg of BI 695502 or US- or EU-approved Avastin. An interim analysis was planned when ~50% of subjects were evaluable for the primary end point to determine if the prespecified criteria for bioequivalence were achieved; if demonstrated, the study could be stopped early. The primary end point was area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of the analyte in plasma from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC 0-∞ ). Other pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters, safety, and in vitro binding affinity were also evaluated. The interim analysis demonstrated three-way bioequivalence for all comparisons. The confidence intervals around the geometric mean ratios of the primary and secondary PK parameters were within the predefined acceptance ranges. Study drugs were well tolerated with no clinically relevant differences in safety. BI 695502 and US- and EU-approved Avastin showed three-way bioequivalence with similar safety profile. NCT01608087.

  2. A single-blind placebo-controlled investigation into the analgesic effects of interferential currents on experimentally induced ischaemic pain in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I; Tabasam, Ghazala

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this single-blind placebo-controlled study was to examine the analgesic effects of interferential currents (IFC) on experimentally induced ischaemic pain. Ischaemic pain was induced using the submaximal effort tourniquet technique (SETT) and pain intensity was recorded using a visual analogue scale at 1-min intervals was used as the primary outcome measure. Following baseline recordings 30 healthy volunteers received either active IFC, sham IFC, or no treatment (10 subjects per group). Data were analysed by calculating the mean change in pain intensity at each 1-min interval by subtracting data during treatment from the baseline data. IFC was administered throughout the duration of the ischaemic pain test via four electrodes (quadripolar application) on the forearm. Active IFC delivered electrical currents at a 'strong but comfortable' intensity. A 'dummy' stimulator that delivered no current was used as sham IFC. Subjects in the no treatment control group were informed that the IFC device was not switched on. There were significant effects for Groups (P=0.04) which were attributed to a significant reduction in pain intensity for the IFC group when compared with sham and no-treatment control (P< or =0.05). There were no significant effects for Time (P=0.69) or Group-Time interaction (P=0.45). In conclusion, IFC produced significantly greater analgesia than sham and no-treatment control groups under the present experimental conditions.

  3. Catalysis by Design: Well-Defined Single-Site Heterogeneous Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Pelletier, Jeremie

    2016-03-09

    ConspectusHeterogeneous catalysis, a field important industrially and scientifically, is increasingly seeking and refining strategies to render itself more predictable. The main issue is due to the nature and the population of catalytically active sites. Their number is generally low to very low, their "acid strengths" or " redox properties" are not homogeneous, and the material may display related yet inactive sites on the same material. In many heterogeneous catalysts, the discovery of a structure-activity reationship is at best challenging. One possible solution is to generate single-site catalysts in which most, if not all, of the sites are structurally identical. Within this context and using the right tools, the catalyst structure can be designed and well-defined, to reach a molecular understanding. It is then feasible to understand the structure-activity relationship and to develop predictable heterogeneous catalysis. Single-site well-defined heterogeneous catalysts can be prepared using concepts and tools of surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC). This approach operates by reacting organometallic compounds with surfaces of highly divided oxides (or of metal nanoparticles). This strategy has a solid track record to reveal structure-activity relationship to the extent that it is becoming now quite predictable. Almost all elements of the periodical table have been grafted on surfaces of oxides (from simple oxides such as silica or alumina to more sophisticated materials regarding composition or porosity).Considering catalytic hydrocarbon transformations, heterogeneous catalysis outcome may now be predicted based on existing mechanistic proposals and the rules of molecular chemistry (organometallic, organic) associated with some concepts of surface sciences. A thorough characterization of the grafted metal centers must be carried out using tools spanning from molecular organometallic or surface chemistry. By selection of the metal, its ligand set, and the

  4. Catalysis by Design: Well-Defined Single-Site Heterogeneous Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jérémie D A; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-04-19

    Heterogeneous catalysis, a field important industrially and scientifically, is increasingly seeking and refining strategies to render itself more predictable. The main issue is due to the nature and the population of catalytically active sites. Their number is generally low to very low, their "acid strengths" or " redox properties" are not homogeneous, and the material may display related yet inactive sites on the same material. In many heterogeneous catalysts, the discovery of a structure-activity reationship is at best challenging. One possible solution is to generate single-site catalysts in which most, if not all, of the sites are structurally identical. Within this context and using the right tools, the catalyst structure can be designed and well-defined, to reach a molecular understanding. It is then feasible to understand the structure-activity relationship and to develop predictable heterogeneous catalysis. Single-site well-defined heterogeneous catalysts can be prepared using concepts and tools of surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC). This approach operates by reacting organometallic compounds with surfaces of highly divided oxides (or of metal nanoparticles). This strategy has a solid track record to reveal structure-activity relationship to the extent that it is becoming now quite predictable. Almost all elements of the periodical table have been grafted on surfaces of oxides (from simple oxides such as silica or alumina to more sophisticated materials regarding composition or porosity). Considering catalytic hydrocarbon transformations, heterogeneous catalysis outcome may now be predicted based on existing mechanistic proposals and the rules of molecular chemistry (organometallic, organic) associated with some concepts of surface sciences. A thorough characterization of the grafted metal centers must be carried out using tools spanning from molecular organometallic or surface chemistry. By selection of the metal, its ligand set, and the support taken

  5. Safety and immunogenicity of a single intramuscular dose of a tetanus-diphtheria toxoid (Td) vaccine (BR-TD-1001) in healthy Korean adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Taegon; Chung, Yong-Ju; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Ik-Hwan; Choe, Yong-Kyung; Lee, Jongtae; Jeon, Sangil; Han, Seunghoon; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    BR-TD-1001 was developed as a booster for the immunity maintenance of diphtheria and tetanus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of BR-TD-1001 (test vaccine) in comparison with placebo and an active comparator in healthy Korean adults. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active comparator, phase I clinical trial was conducted. Fifty subjects were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups in a ratio of 2:2:1, and were administered a single intramuscular dose of test vaccine, active comparator, or placebo, respectively. All subjects were monitored for 4 weeks after injection. The antibody titers of the patients 2 and 4 weeks after vaccination were compared with the baseline. The frequencies of all adverse events including adverse drug reactions in the test group were not statistically different from those of the other treatment groups (P = 0.4974, 0.3061). No serious adverse event occurred, and no subject was withdrawn from the study for safety. The seroprotection rates against both tetanus and diphtheria at 4 weeks after vaccination were over 0.95. For anti-tetanus antibody, the geometric mean titer in the test group was significantly higher than those of the other groups (P = 0.0364, 0.0033). The geometric mean titer of anti-diphtheria antibody in the test group was significantly higher than the value of the placebo (P = 0.0347) while it was not for the value of the active comparator (P = 0.8484). In conclusion, BR-TD-1001 was safe, well-tolerated, and showed sufficient immunogenicity as a booster for diphtheria and tetanus.

  6. Numerical design of in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Peng, Song; Ma, Yongzhong; Ding, Xunliang

    2014-01-01

    A new device using an ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics was numerically designed to realize in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging by using conventional laboratory X-ray source with a large spot. Numerical simulation results validated the effectiveness of the proposed device and approach. The ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics had potential applications in the in-line phase contrast imaging with polychromatic X-rays

  7. Esophageal transit and in vivo disintegration of branded risedronate sodium tablets and two generic formulations of alendronic acid tablets: a single-center, single-blind, six-period crossover study in healthy female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Alan C; Blackshaw, P Elaine; Hay, Peter D; Lawes, Simon C; Atherton, Clare T; Dansereau, Richard J; Wagner, Leigh K; Schnell, Dan J; Spiller, Robin C

    2008-05-01

    Delayed esophageal transit or disintegration of oral bisphosphonate tablets before they enter the stomach may be of concern with respect to iatrogenic complications among patients receiving longterm treatment. Different formulations of generic bisphosphonate tablets meeting regulatory requirements may have substantial differences in pharmaceutical attributes from the branded product that may result in different characteristics during esophageal transit. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate and compare esophageal transit times and in vivo disintegration of 3 bisphosphonate formulations, one branded and the others generic, that are commercially available in Canada and the United Kingdom. This was a single-center, randomized, singleblind, 6-period crossover study in healthy postmenopausal women aged >50 years. Each subject received a single oral dose of a branded risedronate sodium 35-mg tablet and 2 generic formulations of alendronic acid 70-mg tablets (Novopharm Limited, Toronto, Canada, and Teva UK Limited, Morley, United Kingdom) in both the erect and semisupine (45 degrees ) positions. Although the products are labeled to be taken in the erect position, the semisupine position was included to simulate dosing in bedridden patients. Subjects took tablets with 30 mL of water in the morning after an overnight fast. The tablets were radiolabeled with technetium-99m ion-exchange resins to enable visualization and measurement of esophageal transit time and disintegration using a gamma camera. Dynamic scintigraphic images were obtained for a total of 10 minutes: 2 images per second for the first 30 seconds and 1 image every 15 seconds for 9.5 minutes. This was a mechanistic study and tolerability was not assessed. The study was conducted in 20 healthy white female subjects with a mean age of 62 years (range, 51-77 years). The effect of body position was statistically significant (P = 0.043), with the estimated hazard ratio (HR) of 0.74 indicating longer

  8. Strength Design of Reinforced Concrete Hydraulic Structures. Report 2. Design Aids for Use in the Design and Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Hydraulic Structural Members Subjected to Combined Flexure and Axial Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    members subjected to combined uniaxial bending and axial loads. They are in- tended to save the designer the effort of performing certain routine...4 pGd ISM Rd 0 0 - Z- 0 00 00 -0 ------- A fl) 4-j 0 0 0 - In "i C- C p q -4 Ism ii i - CAA- 04 0 ’T V- O. .,. - ///’ ,II II"gI -- - - - -1_ - 0 0 o N

  9. Comparative bioavailability of ferrous succinate tablet formulations without correction for baseline circadian changes in iron concentration in healthy Chinese male subjects: a single-dose, randomized, 2-period crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guo-Ying; Li, Ke-Xin; Jin, Peng-Fei; Yue, Xiang-Yang; Yang, Chen; Hu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Ferrous succinate is used for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Determining the bioavailability of iron products is a challenge, because iron is naturally present in the blood and some tissues. Therefore, bioequivalence evaluation of ferrous formulations can be affected by the presence of endogenous iron species. Little information regarding the pharmacokinetics of ferrous supplements is available in the healthy Chinese population. The aim of the study was to assess the comparative bioavailability of 200-mg of a test (ferrous succinate,100 mg × 2, Hunan Huana Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Hunan, China) and reference (Sulifei, 100 mg × 2, Nanjing Jinling Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Nanjing, China) formulation in healthy Chinese male subjects. The study was conducted to meet Chinese State Food and Drug Administration regulatory requirements for approval of a generic formulation of ferrous succinate. This study utilized a single-dose randomized, 2-period, crossover design with alternate assignment of subjects to treatment (a single 200-mg [100 mg × 2]) or reference formulation groups. Both groups underwent a 4-day diet equilibration before 2 days of treatment and, finally, a 4-day washout period for the bioequivalence study. Blood samples were collected at 8:00 am on every diet equilibration day, 0 (baseline), 1, 2, 3, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 hours after drug administration. Iron concentrations were determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Subjects in both groups were given a standardized diet, with known amounts of iron and calories. The formulations were assumed to be bioequivalent if the 90% CI ratios for C(max) were within 70% to 143% and AUC(0-last) were within 80% to 125%-criteria established by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration. Tolerability was monitored throughout the study by assessing clinical parameters (vital signs, chemistry laboratory) and subject reports. Twenty healthy Han Chinese male subjects (mean age, 26

  10. Design of polymetallic uranium assemblies for the development of single molecule magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelain, Lucile

    2016-01-01

    The study of actinide chemistry is not only essential for the development of nuclear fuel, nuclear fuel reprocessing or environmental clean up, but also for the understanding of fundamental actinide/ligand interactions and multiple bounding. The magnetic properties of polynuclear actinide molecules are of significant interest to investigate the magnetic communication between the metallic centres. Furthermore, they are highly promising for the design of molecular magnets. Uranium undergoes redox reactions due to a wide range of available oxidation states and easily forms polynuclear assemblies. However, only a few controlled synthetic routes towards these polynuclear uranium assemblies are described in the literature. In this context, the first part of this work was dedicated to the synthesis of oxo/hydroxo uranium clusters from the controlled hydrolysis of tetravalent uranium in the presence of an environmentally relevant ligand. This led to the synthesis of clusters with novel topologies, for which size could be varied as a function of the reaction conditions employed. However, the obtained clusters do not behave as SMM. In order to gain a stronger interaction between metallic centres, the cation-cation interaction was used to rationally design polynuclear uranyl(V) complexes. The isolation of uranyl(V) complexes had been limited in the past by its disproportionation, however, a fine tuning of the organic ligand and reaction conditions finally allowed to stabilise uranyl(V). We used stable uranyl(V) units as building block to form heteronuclear complexes with 3d and 4f metals with polymeric or discrete structures. The study of the magnetic properties of the uranium polynuclear assemblies was carried out and revealed single molecule or chain magnet behaviours with high energy barriers. The uranyl(V) unit was also used as a structural model for the more radioactive neptunium element, allowing the isolation of an isostructural trinuclear neptunyl(V) assembly in

  11. A Rational Engineering Strategy for Designing Protein A-Binding Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Henry

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal protein A (SpA and streptococcal protein G (SpG affinity chromatography are the gold standards for purifying monoclonal antibodies (mAbs in therapeutic applications. However, camelid VHH single-domain Abs (sdAbs or VHHs are not bound by SpG and only sporadically bound by SpA. Currently, VHHs require affinity tag-based purification, which limits their therapeutic potential and adds considerable complexity and cost to their production. Here we describe a simple and rapid mutagenesis-based approach designed to confer SpA binding upon a priori non-SpA-binding VHHs. We show that SpA binding of VHHs is determined primarily by the same set of residues as in human mAbs, albeit with an unexpected degree of tolerance to substitutions at certain core and non-core positions and some limited dependence on at least one residue outside the SpA interface, and that SpA binding could be successfully introduced into five VHHs against three different targets with no adverse effects on expression yield or antigen binding. Next-generation sequencing of llama, alpaca and dromedary VHH repertoires suggested that species differences in SpA binding may result from frequency variation in specific deleterious polymorphisms, especially Ile57. Thus, the SpA binding phenotype of camelid VHHs can be easily modulated to take advantage of tag-less purification techniques, although the frequency with which this is required may depend on the source species.

  12. Design of Circular, Square, Single, and Multi-layer Induction Coils for Electromagnetic Priming Using Inductance Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, Robert; Kennedy, Mark W.; Aune, Ragnhild E.

    2018-02-01

    Special induction coils used for electro magnetic priming of ceramic foam filters in liquid metal filtration have been designed using a combination of analytical and finite element modeling. Relatively simple empirical equations published by Wheeler in 1928 and 1982 have been used during the design process. The equations were found to accurately predict the z-component of the magnetic flux densities of both single- and multi-layer coils as verified both experimentally and by using COMSOL® 5.1 multiphysics simulations.

  13. Design and Generation of Humanized Single-chain Fv Derived from Mouse Hybridoma for Potential Targeting Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantasup, Kannika; Chantima, Warangkana; Sangma, Chak; Poomputsa, Kanokwan; Dharakul, Tararaj

    2015-12-01

    Single-chain variable antibody fragments (scFvs) are attractive candidates for targeted immunotherapy in several human diseases. In this study, a concise humanization strategy combined with an optimized production method for humanizing scFvs was successfully employed. Two antibody clones, one directed against the hemagglutinin of H5N1 influenza virus, the other against EpCAM, a cancer biomarker, were used to demonstrate the validity of the method. Heavy chain (VH) and light chain (VL) variable regions of immunoglobulin genes from mouse hybridoma cells were sequenced and subjected to the construction of mouse scFv 3-D structure. Based on in silico modeling, the humanized version of the scFv was designed via complementarity-determining region (CDR) grafting with the retention of mouse framework region (FR) residues identified by primary sequence analysis. Root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) value between mouse and humanized scFv structures was calculated to evaluate the preservation of CDR conformation. Mouse and humanized scFv genes were then constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. Using this method, we successfully generated humanized scFvs that retained the targeting activity of their respective mouse scFv counterparts. In addition, the humanized scFvs were engineered with a C-terminal cysteine residue (hscFv-C) for site-directed conjugation for use in future targeting applications. The hscFv-C expression was extensively optimized to improve protein production yield. The protocol yielded a 20-fold increase in production of hscFv-Cs in E. coli periplasm. The strategy described in this study may be applicable in the humanization of other antibodies derived from mouse hybridoma.

  14. Seismic response characteristics of base-isolated AP1000 nuclear shield building subjected to beyond-design basis earthquake shaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayang Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of the design and construction requirements, the nuclear structures need to maintain the structural integrity under both design state and extreme earthquake shaking. The base-isolation technology can significantly reduce the damages of structures under extreme earthquake events, and effectively protect the safeties of structures and internal equipment. This study proposes a base-isolation design for the AP1000 nuclear shield building on considering the performance requirements of the seismic isolation systems and devices of shield building. The seismic responses of isolated and nonisolated shield buildings subjected to design basis earthquake (DBE shaking and beyond-design basis earthquake (BDBE shaking are analyzed, and three different strategies for controlling the displacements subjected to BDBE shaking are performed. By comparing with nonisolated shield buildings, the floor acceleration spectra of isolated shield buildings, relative displacement, and base shear force are significantly reduced in high-frequency region. The results demonstrate that the base-isolation technology is an effective approach to maintain the structural integrity which subjected to both DBE and BDBE shaking. A displacement control design for isolation layers subjected to BDBE shaking, which adopts fluid dampers for controlling the horizontal displacement of isolation layer is developed. The effectiveness of this simple method is verified through numerical analysis.

  15. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

  16. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Xiong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG. In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes, our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes, blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI.

  17. The Effect of Isomaltulose Together with Green Tea on Glycemic Response and Antioxidant Capacity: A Single-Blind, Crossover Study in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraphad, Passakorn; Suklaew, Phim On; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Mäkynen, Kittana

    2017-05-06

    Isomaltulose, a naturally-occurring isomer of sucrose, is commonly used as an alternative sweetener in foods and beverages. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of isomaltulose together with green tea on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentration, as well as antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 15 healthy subjects (eight women and seven men; ages 23.5 ± 0.7 years; with body mass index of 22.6 ± 0.4 kg/m²) consumed five beverages: (1) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL water; (2) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of water; (3) 400 mL of green tea; (4) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL of green tea; and (5) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of green tea. Incremental area under postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were determined during 120 min of administration. Following the consumption of isomaltulose, the incremental 2-h area under the curve (AUC 0-2 h ) indicated a higher reduction of postprandial glucose (43.4%) and insulin concentration (42.0%) than the consumption of sucrose. The addition of green tea to isomaltulose produced a greater suppression of postprandial plasma glucose (20.9%) and insulin concentration (37.7%). In accordance with antioxidant capacity, consumption of sucrose (40.0%) and isomaltulose (28.7%) caused the reduction of green tea-induced postprandial increases in FRAP. A reduction in postprandial MDA after drinking green tea was attenuated when consumed with sucrose (34.7%) and isomaltulose (17.2%). In conclusion, green tea could enhance the reduction of postprandial glucose and insulin concentration when consumed with isomaltulose. In comparison with sucrose, isomaltulose demonstrated less alteration of plasma antioxidant capacity after being consumed with green tea.

  18. Design of a box trainer for objective assessment of technical skills in single-port surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horeman, Tim; Sun, Siyu; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J. M.; Jansen, Frank William; Meijerink, Jeroen W. J. H. J.; Dankelman, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic single-port (SP) surgery uses only a single entry point for all instruments. The approach of SP has been applied in multiple laparoscopic disciplines owing to its improved cosmetic result. However, in SP surgery, instrument movements are further restricted, resulting in increased

  19. Optimal Continuous-Monitoring Design of Single-arm Phase II Trial Based on the Simulated Annealing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nan; Lee, J. Jack

    2013-01-01

    Simon’s two-stage design is commonly used in phase II single-arm clinical trials because of its simplicity and smaller sample size under the null hypothesis compared to the one-stage design. Some studies extend this design to accommodate more interim analyses (i.e., three-stage or four-stage designs). However, most of these studies, together with the original Simon’s two-stage design, are based on the exhaustive search method, which is difficult to extend to high-dimensional, general multi-stage designs. In this study, we propose a simulated annealing (SA)-based design to optimize the early stopping boundaries and minimize the expected sample size for multi-stage or continuous monitoring single-arm trials. We compare the results of the SA method, the decision-theoretic method, the predictive probability method, and the posterior probability method. The SA method can reach the smallest expected sample sizes in all scenarios under the constraints of the same type I and type II errors. The expected sample sizes from the SA method are generally 10–20% smaller than those from the posterior probability method or the predictive probability method, and are slightly smaller than those from the decision-theoretic method in almost all scenarios. The SA method offers an excellent alternative in designing phase II trials with continuous monitoring. PMID:23545075

  20. Esthetic Evaluation of Anterior Single-Tooth Implants with Different Abutment Designs - Patients' Satisfaction Compared to Dentists' Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, Ratnadeep; Gresnigt, Marco M M; Mahesh, Kavita; Dilbaghi, Anjali; Cune, Marco S

    Purpose: To correlate patients' satisfaction and dentists' observations regarding two abutment designs used for single crowns in the esthetic zone: a divergent one (control) and a curved one (experimental), with special emphasis on muco-gingival esthetics. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six patients

  1. Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Design Research on Self-Regulatory Interventions for Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Valerie; Albeg, Loren; Tung, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of self-regulatory interventions on reading, writing, and math by conducting a meta-analysis of single-case design research. Self-regulatory interventions have promise as an effective approach that is both minimally invasive and involves minimal resources. Effects of the interventions were analyzed by…

  2. Lamp system with a single second-lens newly designed by using the least square method for 4 LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jae Heung; Ryu, Jae Myung; Hong, Chun Gang

    2014-05-01

    It is common for many companies to use multiple LEDs to enhance the brightness of a LED lamp and, in general, four LEDs are used in the LED lamp systems. Moreover, the second-lens must be used to obtain a straight uniform illumination from LED lights. Where four LEDs are used, four second-lenses are also assembled conventionally and those four units of second-lenses are manufactured from a single mold and assembled together with the LEDs. However, this study introduces a new method of using the Least Square Method to get a uniform illumination with the divergence angle of 40 degrees with a new single injection molded lens. Thanks to this optical design with a single lens, the assembling process of LED lamp system was simplified by eliminating the complicated assembly procedure. Also, the uniformity of illumination of this newly designed lamp system was less than 14.1%.

  3. Persistent threats to validity in single-group interrupted time series analysis with a cross over design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel

    2017-04-01

    The basic single-group interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) design has been shown to be susceptible to the most common threat to validity-history-the possibility that some other event caused the observed effect in the time series. A single-group ITSA with a crossover design (in which the intervention is introduced and withdrawn 1 or more times) should be more robust. In this paper, we describe and empirically assess the susceptibility of this design to bias from history. Time series data from 2 natural experiments (the effect of multiple repeals and reinstatements of Louisiana's motorcycle helmet law on motorcycle fatalities and the association between the implementation and withdrawal of Gorbachev's antialcohol campaign with Russia's mortality crisis) are used to illustrate that history remains a threat to ITSA validity, even in a crossover design. Both empirical examples reveal that the single-group ITSA with a crossover design may be biased because of history. In the case of motorcycle fatalities, helmet laws appeared effective in reducing mortality (while repealing the law increased mortality), but when a control group was added, it was shown that this trend was similar in both groups. In the case of Gorbachev's antialcohol campaign, only when contrasting the results against those of a control group was the withdrawal of the campaign found to be the more likely culprit in explaining the Russian mortality crisis than the collapse of the Soviet Union. Even with a robust crossover design, single-group ITSA models remain susceptible to bias from history. Therefore, a comparable control group design should be included, whenever possible. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The Significance of Experiences of Nature for People with Parkinson’s Disease, with Special Focus on Freezing of Gait—The Necessity for a Biophilic Environment. A Multi-Method Single Subject Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosson, Johan; Lavesson, Lillian; Pinzke, Stefan; Grahn, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Freezing of Gait (FOG) is a common condition in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). FOG entails suddenly experiencing difficulties moving or feeling that one’s feet are as glued to the ground. It is triggered, e.g., when passing through doorways. Earlier studies suggest that being in natural environments affects FOG in a positive way. Five subjects were recruited to serve as five single subject cases. We used interviews, observations, questionnaires and collected gait pattern data with aid of an accelerometer. A special designed outdoor setting was used, where we investigated whether passing through hedge openings with or without built elements triggered FOG. We found that no one experienced a FOG reaction when they passed through hedge openings without built elements. However, FOG was triggered when a doorframe was inserted into a hedge opening, and/or when peripheral vision was blocked. We interpret the results such that the doorframe triggered a phobic reflex, causing a freezing reaction. Passing through hedge openings does not trigger FOG, which we interpret as a biophilic reaction. Our results, if repeated in future studies, may have significance to everyday lives of PD patients, who could get a simpler life by consciously prioritizing stays in natural surroundings. PMID:26132480

  5. Design and analysis of linear oscillatory single-phase permanent magnet generator for free-piston stirling engine systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Man Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the design and analysis of a linear oscillatory single-phase permanent magnet generator for free-piston stirling engine (FPSE systems. In order to implement the design of linear oscillatory generator (LOG for suitable FPSEs, we conducted electromagnetic analysis of LOGs with varying design parameters. Then, detent force analysis was conducted using assisted PM. Using the assisted PM gave us the advantage of using mechanical strength by detent force. To improve the efficiency, we conducted characteristic analysis of eddy-current loss with respect to the PM segment. Finally, the experimental result was analyzed to confirm the prediction of the FEA.

  6. Design and analysis of linear oscillatory single-phase permanent magnet generator for free-piston stirling engine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Man; Choi, Jang-Young; Lee, Kyu-Seok; Lee, Sung-Ho

    2017-05-01

    This study focuses on the design and analysis of a linear oscillatory single-phase permanent magnet generator for free-piston stirling engine (FPSE) systems. In order to implement the design of linear oscillatory generator (LOG) for suitable FPSEs, we conducted electromagnetic analysis of LOGs with varying design parameters. Then, detent force analysis was conducted using assisted PM. Using the assisted PM gave us the advantage of using mechanical strength by detent force. To improve the efficiency, we conducted characteristic analysis of eddy-current loss with respect to the PM segment. Finally, the experimental result was analyzed to confirm the prediction of the FEA.

  7. Hemodynamic mechanisms of the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Neves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the hemodynamic mechanisms responsible for the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after exercise, 26 healthy sedentary individuals (age 29 ± 8 years underwent the Stroop color-word test before and 60 min after a bout of maximal dynamic exercise on a treadmill. A subgroup (N = 11 underwent a time-control experiment without exercise. Blood pressure was continuously and noninvasively recorded by infrared finger photoplethysmography. Stroke volume was derived from pressure signals, and cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance were calculated. Perceived mental stress scores were comparable between mental stress tests both in the exercise (P = 0.96 and control (P = 0.24 experiments. After exercise, the blood pressure response to mental stress was attenuated (pre: 10 ± 13 vs post: 6 ± 7 mmHg; P 0.05. In conclusion, a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise attenuates the blood pressure response to mental stress in healthy subjects, along with lower stroke volume and cardiac output, denoting an acute modulatory action of exercise on the central hemodynamic response to mental stress.

  8. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of TV-1380, a novel mutated butyrylcholinesterase treatment for cocaine addiction, after single and multiple intramuscular injections in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Barak, Orit; Wildeman, Jacqueline; van de Wetering, Jeroen; Hettinga, Judith; Schuilenga-Hut, Petra; Gross, Aviva; Clark, Shane; Bassan, Merav; Gilgun-Sherki, Yossi; Mendzelevski, Boaz; Spiegelstein, Ofer

    2015-05-01

    Human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) contributes to cocaine metabolism and has been considered for use in treating cocaine addiction and cocaine overdose. TV-1380 is a recombinant protein composed of the mature form of human serum albumin fused at its amino terminus to the carboxy-terminus of a truncated and mutated BChE. In preclinical studies, TV-1380 has been shown to rapidly eliminate cocaine in the plasma thus forestalling entry of cocaine into the brain and heart. Two randomized, blinded phase I studies were conducted to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of TV-1380, following single and multiple administration in healthy subjects. TV-1380 was found to be safe and well tolerated with a long half-life (43-77 hours) and showed a dose-proportional increase in systemic exposure. Consistent with preclinical results, the ex vivo cocaine hydrolysis, TV-1380 activity clearly increased upon treatment in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, there was a direct relationship between ex vivo cocaine hydrolysis (kel ) and TV-1380 serum concentrations. There was no evidence that TV-1380 affected heart rate, the uncorrected QT interval, or the heart-rate-corrected QTcF interval. TV-1380, therefore, offers a safe once-weekly therapy to increase cocaine hydrolysis. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. A single session of perturbation-based gait training with the A-TPAD improves dynamic stability in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Dario; Kang, Jiyeon; Agrawal, Sunil K

    2017-07-01

    Gait and balance disorders are among the most common causes of falls in older adults. Most falls occur as a result of unexpected hazards while walking. In order to improve the effectiveness of current fall-prevention programs, new balance training paradigms aim to strengthen the control of the compensatory responses required after external perturbations. The aim of this study was to analyze the adaptions of reactive and proactive strategies to control stability after repeated exposures to waist-pull perturbations delivered while walking. Eight healthy young subjects participated in a single training session with the Active Tethered Pelvic assisted Device (A-TPAD). Participants were exposed to repeated multi-directional perturbations of increasing intensity. The Antero-Posterior (AP) and Medio-Lateral (ML) Base of Support (BoS) and Margin of Stability (MoS) during the response to diagonal perturbations were compared before and after the training. Results showed that participants adapted both the reactive and proactive strategies to control walking balance by significantly increasing their pre- and post-perturbation stability. The changes were principally accounted for by an increment of the AP BoS and MoS and a reduction of ML BoS. This improved their ability to react to a diagonal perturbation. We envision that this system can be used to develop a perturbation-based gait training aimed at improving balance and control of stability during walking, thus reducing fall risk.

  10. Efficacy of behavioral interventions for reducing problem behavior in persons with autism: an updated quantitative synthesis of single-subject research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Saenen, Lore; Campbell, Jonathan M; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    Problem or challenging behaviors are highly prevalent among persons with autism and bring along major risks for the individual with autism and his/her family. In order to reduce the problem behavior, several behavioral interventions are used. We conducted a quantitative synthesis of single-subject studies to examine the efficacy of behavioral interventions for reducing problem behavior in persons with autism. Two hundred and thirteen studies representing 358 persons with autism met the inclusion criteria and were included in the statistical analyses. Overall, we found that behavioral interventions were on average effective in reducing problem behavior in individuals with autism, but some interventions were significantly more effective than others. The results further showed that the use of positive (nonaversive) behavioral interventions was increasing over time. The behavioral interventions were on average equally effective regardless of the type of problem behavior that was targeted. Interventions preceded by a functional analysis reduced problem behavior significantly more than interventions not preceded by a functional analysis. Finally, treatment and experimental characteristics, but not participant characteristics, were statistically significant moderators of the behavioral treatment effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The evaluation of modified foot orthosis on muscle activity and kinetic in a subject with flexible flat foot : single case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Hassan; Mousavi, Mohammad E; Majddoleslam, Basir; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Aminian, Gholamreza; Tabatabai Ghomshe, Farhad; Movahedi Yeganeh, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    Due to blocking of pronation/dorsiflexion in flexible flat foot and restriction of these movements in using the University of California Berkeley Laboratory orthosis, provided pressures in sole by the orthosis were increased. Therefore, this article describes the evaluation of modified foot orthosis with flexible structure in the management of individuals with flexible flat foot. CASE DESCRIPTION AND METHOD: The patient was a 21-year-old male who had symptomatic flat foot. The modified foot orthosis included movable surface and the outside structure. The modified foot orthosis was evaluated by standing foot X-ray, comfort rate, electromyography of leg muscle and vertical ground reaction force during walking. The modified foot orthosis improved the foot alignment and decreased the symptoms of flat foot with more comfort. Subtalar position by sub-maximum supination had higher position than neutral in sagittal plane. It may increase the muscle activity of peroneus longus by 7% compared to barefoot, and there was a decrease of 11% ground reaction force in mid stance. The result of this single case evaluation only proposed the feasibility of this modified insole as the orthotic treatment in flexible flat foot. Clinical relevance The modified foot orthosis, which is mobile in the midfoot, is an orthosis for walking and standing in subjects with flexible flat foot.

  12. Design and prototyping of self-centering optical single-mode fiber alignment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebraert, Evert; Gao, Fei; Thienpont, Hugo; Van Erps, Jürgen; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The European Commission’s goal of providing each European household with at least a 30 Mb s −1 Internet connection by 2020 would be facilitated by a widespread deployment of fibre-to-the-home, which would in turn be sped up by the development of connector essential components, such as high-precision alignment features. Currently, the performance of state-of-the-art physical contact optical fiber connectors is limited by the tolerance on the cladding of standard telecom-grade single-mode fiber (SMF), which is typically smaller than  ±1 μ m. We propose to overcome this limit by developing micro-spring-based self-centering alignment structures (SCAS) for SMF-connectors. We design these alignment structures with robustness and low-cost replication in mind, allowing for large-scale deployment. Both theoretical and finite element analysis (FEA) models are used to determine the optimal dimensions of the beams of which the micro-springs of the SCAS are comprised. Two topologies of the SCAS, consisting of three and four micro-springs respectively, are investigated for two materials: polysulfone (PSU) and polyetherimide (PEI). These materials hold great potential for high-performance fiber connectors while being compatible with low-cost production and with the harsh environmental operation conditions of those connectors. The theory and FEA agree well (<3% difference) for a simple micro-spring. When including a pedestal on the micro-spring (to bring it further away from the fiber) and for shorter spring lengths the agreement worsens. This is due to spring compression effects not being taken into account in our theoretical model. Prototypes are successfully fabricated using deep proton writing and subsequently characterized. The controlled insertion of an SMF in the SCAS is investigated and we determine that a force of 0.11 N is required. The fiber insertion also causes an out-of-plane deformation of the micro-springs in the SCAS of about 7 μ m, which is no

  13. Research design considerations for single-dose analgesic clinical trials in acute pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Stephen A; Desjardins, Paul J; Turk, Dennis C

    2016-01-01

    sensitivity. Recommendations are presented on assessment measures, study designs, and operational factors. Although most of the methodological advances have come from studies of postoperative pain after dental impaction, bunionectomy, and other surgeries, the design considerations discussed are applicable...

  14. Pictorial mnemonic-strategy interventions for children with special needs: Illustration of a multiply randomized single-case crossover design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yooyeun; Levin, Joel R; Johnson, Evan W

    2016-01-25

    An innovative single-case crossover design containing multiple forms of randomization was implemented with eight participants in seven weekly sessions, during which instruction was given in the use of two different pictorial mnemonic (memory-enhancing) strategies: one designed to improve the children's learning of the dates of various inventions and the other designed to improve the children's acquisition of unfamiliar vocabulary items. A composite randomization statistical test revealed that when compared with the children's own preferred learning methods, the mnemonic-strategy approach produced the predicted facilitation effects. At the same time, it was evident that mnemonic instruction enhanced children's performance to a greater extent on the vocabulary task than on the inventions task. In-depth examination of both individual student performance profiles and the tasks/procedures were conducted, yielding recommendations and challenges for follow-up single-case intervention research on the topic.

  15. Improvements in staff quality of work life and family satisfaction following the move to single-family room NICU design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jo; DeLand, Marion; Gibbins, Sharyn; MacMillan York, Elizabeth; Robson, Kate

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were differences in staff quality of work life and parent satisfaction when a neonatal intensive care unit moved from an open-bay design to a single-room model of care. This descriptive study measured staff quality of work life and family satisfaction before and at 2 time periods after the relocation of a perinatal centre and the introduction of single-family room care. Differences in work life quality and satisfaction were determined using 2-sample t-tests. There were improvements in staff quality of work life and family satisfaction at both time periods following the move. Lessons learned may be of value to other units considering such a move. A neonatal intensive care unit designed to contribute to parental and staff well-being is a model to be considered for future neonatal designs.

  16. Innovation design of beta test loop system for heat transfer experiments in single-phase and two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiswanta; Edy Sumarno; Joko Prasetio W; Ainur Rosidi; G B Heru K

    2013-01-01

    Innovation design of BETA test loop has been done. BETA test loop is a research facility used as a support for experiments of reactor accident simulation. The innovation was performed to prepare experimental facilities in order to study flow of heat transfer in single-phase and two-phase flows. The design was executed by modifying new piping of UUB's primary system, addition of heat flux measurements and imaging thermal for easiness of experimental result analysis. UUB development and experiments were carried out to understand heat transfer process in the narrow gap of two-phase flow considering this phenomenon is one of the conditions postulated in PWR typed nuclear power plant accident scenario. The innovation design of BETA test loop is still in the planning stages so that the design has not been constructed. Piping systems made of SS-304 with the ability to use a maximum pressure of 10 bar with a diameter of % inch pipe to, from the calculation of minimal design that is 7.27 mm. If the tube SS-304 - ASTM B88 is the wall thickness of 0.083 inches. From this design it is indicated that the design is able to be fabricated and used for experimental study of heat transfer in single-phase and two-phase flows. (author)

  17. Analysis of advanced conceptual designs for single-family-size absorption chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macriss, R.A.; Zawacki, T.S.; Kouo, M.T.; Sneed, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this research study is the development of radically new fluid systems, specifically tailored to the needs and requirements of solar-absorption cooling for single-family-size residences. Progress is reported.

  18. Reliability-Oriented Design and Analysis of Input Capacitors in Single-Phase Transformer-less Photovoltaic Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    . A reliability-oriented design guideline is proposed in this paper for the input capacitors in single-phase transformer-less PV inverters. The guideline ensures that the service time requirement is to be accomplished under different power levels and ambient temperature profiles. The theoretical analysis has been......While 99% efficiency has been reported, the target of 20 years of service time imposes new challenge to cost-effective solutions for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverters. Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are the weak-link in terms of reliability and lifetime in single-phase PV systems...

  19. Design, Fabrication and Initial Testing of a Large Bore Single Aperture 1 m Long Superconducting Dipole Made with Phenolic Inserts

    CERN Document Server

    Boschmann, H; Kirby, G A; Lucas, J; Ostojic, R; Russenschuck, Stephan; Siemko, A; Vanenkov, I; Weterings, W

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC magnet development programme, a large bore single aperture 1-meter long superconducting dipole has been built in collaboration with HOLEC. The magnet features a single layer coil wound using the LHC main dipole outer layer cable, phenolic inserts, and a keyed two part structural iron yoke. This paper presents the magnetic and mechanical design and optimisation of the magnet. We describe the coil winding and curing, and present the construction and assembly procedures. Finally we report on the mechanical behaviour during assembly and cooling, and present the magnet training behaviour.

  20. Problem Solving and Creativity and Design: What Influence Do They Have on Girls' Interest in STEM Subject Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robyn; Heaverlo, Carol

    2013-01-01

    For girls there is a distinct loss in interest, lack of confidence, and decline in positive attitudes toward STEM subject areas that begins early on in their academic experience and increases with age. According to the National Academy of Engineering, students need to begin associating the possibilities in STEM fields with the need for creativity…

  1. Exposure of fatty acids after a single oral administration of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) and sunflower oil in human adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla; Villegas, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) is a potential oilseed crop because it is rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA) (omega-3 fatty acid). To evaluate the exposure of fatty acids after a single oral administration of sacha inchi or sunflower oil in healthy volunteers. Plasma fatty acids concentrations were assayed by Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector in 18 adult subjects. After fasting, blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after ingestion of 10 or 15 ml of sacha inchi oil or sunflower oil. The proportion ALA/linoleic acid was 1.37 in sacha inchi oil and 0.01 in sunflower oil. ALA, lauric acid, palmitic acid, linolelaidic acid, cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid, cis-13,16-docosadienoic acid and cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels changed over time after sacha inchi oil ingestion but not with sunflower oil. The time at maximal concentration (tmax) for ALA was 2 h after sacha inchi oil ingestion. No ALA in plasma was observed after sunflower oil consumption. The maximal concentration of ALA was 2.84 ± 0.36 mg/ml in women and 0.94 ± 0.57 mg/ml in men, p  0.05). There is a trend for higher plasma ALA levels with 15 ml sacha inchi oil. After 2 h of consumption, plasma delta triacylglycerol were reduced with sunflower oil but slightly increased with sacha inchi oil. A reduction in plasma delta triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein cholesterol was observed with both oils. Consumption of sacha inchi oil increased ALA and DHA in plasma.

  2. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of CEP-26401, a high-affinity histamine-3 receptor antagonist, following single and multiple dosing in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelstein, Ofer; Stevens, Jasper; Van Gerven, Joop; Nathan, Pradeep J; Maynard, James P; Mayleben, David W; Hellriegel, Edward; Yang, Ronghua

    2016-10-01

    CEP-26401 is a novel orally active, brain-penetrant, high-affinity histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonist, with potential therapeutic utility in cognition enhancement. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose escalation studies with single (0.02 to 5 mg) or multiple administration (0.02 to 0.5 mg once daily) of CEP-26401 were conducted in healthy subjects. Plasma and urine samples were collected to investigate CEP-26401 pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamic endpoints included a subset of tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and nocturnal polysomnography. Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling was conducted on one CANTAB and one polysomnography parameter of interest. CEP-26401 was slowly absorbed (median tmax range 3-6 hours) and the mean terminal elimination half-life ranged from 24-60 hours. Steady-state plasma concentrations were achieved within six days of dosing. CEP-26401 exhibits dose- and time-independent pharmacokinetics, and renal excretion is a major elimination pathway. CEP-26401 had a dose-dependent negative effect on sleep, with some positive effects on certain CANTAB cognitive parameters seen at lower concentrations. The derived three compartment population pharmacokinetic model, with first-order absorption and elimination, accurately described the available pharmacokinetic data. CEP-26401 was generally well tolerated up to 0.5 mg/day with most common treatment related adverse events being headache and insomnia. Further clinical studies are required to establish the potential of low-dose CEP-26401 in cognition enhancement. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Cavity design for single-frequency Yb:YAB microchip lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.; Dawes, J.M.; Piper, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We have proposed a cavity configuration for compact, stable, single-frequency operation in Yb:YAB. Modelling of the cavity output in the infrared and green has shown that sufficient mode discrimination can be achieved within the tuning range of the crystal. Experiments are planned to demonstrate efficient single longitudinal mode infrared operation of the devices that can be extended to include the self-frequency-doubled output. Details of the modelling and preliminary results will be presented at the conference

  4. Collaboration between student art teachers and communication and digital media students promoting subject specific didactics in digital visual learning design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Kirsten; Buhl, Mie

    =pdf Dunleavy, M. & Dede, C. (2014). Augmented reality teaching and learning. in. J.M. Spector, M.D. Merrill, J. Elen & M.J. Bishop (eds), The handbook og research for educational communications and technology New York: Springer http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic1116077.files...... facilitates the development of new forms of digital visual learning. Our discussion is based on an empirical project of developing a digital visual learning design. Student art teachers and teacher trainers took part in the design process performed by communication students. The project took its point...... Technology: Rethinking Technology and the Research Agenda. Educational Technology & Society, 11 (4), 2008, pp. 29–40 Beetham, H. (2007): An approach to learning activity design. In: Beetham, H. & Sharpe, R. (eds.) Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age. Designing and delivering e-learning. Abingdon: Routledge...

  5. Self-Similar Nanocavity Design with Ultrasmall Mode Volume for Single-Photon Nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Hyeongrak; Heuck, Mikkel; Englund, Dirk R.

    2017-01-01

    illustrate the design concept with a silicon-air one-dimensional photon crystal cavity that reaches an ultrasmall mode volume of V-eff similar to 7.01 x 10(-5)lambda(3) at lambda similar to 1550 nm. We show that the extreme light concentration in our design can enable ultrastrong Kerr nonlinearities, even...

  6. Process design and simulation for optimizing the oxygen concentration in Czochralski-grown single-crystal silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y. J.; Kim, W. K.; Jung, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    The highest-concentration impurity in a single-crystal silicon ingot is oxygen, which infiltrates the ingot during growth stage. This oxygen adversely affects the wafer is quality. This study was aimed at finding an optimal design for the Czochralski (Cz) process to enable high-quality and low cost (by reducing power consumption) wafer production by controlling the oxygen concentration in the silicon ingots. In the Cz process, the characteristics of silicon ingots during crystallization are greatly influenced by the design and the configuration of the hot zone, and by crystallization rate. In order to identify process conditions for obtaining an optimal oxygen concentration of 11 - 13 ppma (required for industrial-grade ingots), designed two shield shapes for the hot zone. Furthermore, oxygen concentrations corresponding to these two shapes were compared by evaluating each shape at five different production speeds. In addition, simulations were performed to identify the optimal shield design for industrial applications.

  7. Process design and simulation for optimizing the oxygen concentration in Czochralski-grown single-crystal silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Y. J.; Kim, W. K.; Jung, J. H. [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The highest-concentration impurity in a single-crystal silicon ingot is oxygen, which infiltrates the ingot during growth stage. This oxygen adversely affects the wafer is quality. This study was aimed at finding an optimal design for the Czochralski (Cz) process to enable high-quality and low cost (by reducing power consumption) wafer production by controlling the oxygen concentration in the silicon ingots. In the Cz process, the characteristics of silicon ingots during crystallization are greatly influenced by the design and the configuration of the hot zone, and by crystallization rate. In order to identify process conditions for obtaining an optimal oxygen concentration of 11 - 13 ppma (required for industrial-grade ingots), designed two shield shapes for the hot zone. Furthermore, oxygen concentrations corresponding to these two shapes were compared by evaluating each shape at five different production speeds. In addition, simulations were performed to identify the optimal shield design for industrial applications.

  8. Design parameters for voltage-controllable directed assembly of single nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porter, Benjamin F.; Abelmann, Leon; Bhaskaran, Harish

    2013-01-01

    Techniques to reliably pick-and-place single nanoparticles into functional assemblies are required to incorporate exotic nanoparticles into standard electronic circuits. In this paper we explore the use of electric fields to drive and direct the assembly process, which has the advantage of being

  9. The Iterative Use of Single Case Research Designs to Advance the Science of EI/ECSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Erin E.; Ledford, Jennifer R.; Lane, Justin D.; Decker, Jessica; Germansky, Sara E.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Kaiser, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Research in early intervention/early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) is focused on identifying effective practices related to positive outcomes for young children with disabilities and their families. Individual responses to evidence-based practices are often variable, and non-responders are common. Single case research (SCR) might be…

  10. Single Event Upset Energy Dependence In a Buck-Converter Power Supply Design

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mahadik, S; Mellado, B; Proudfoot, J; Reed, R; Senthilkumaran, A; Stanek, R

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of Single Event Upsets (SEU) performed on a commercial pulse-width modulator controller chip for switching power supplies. We performed tests to study the probability of an SEU occurring as a function of incident particle (hadron) energy. We discuss the performance of the circuit, and present a solution using external circuitry to effectively eliminate the effect.

  11. Design and Testing of a Thermostable Platform for Multimerization of Single Domain Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    from the blood of sharks and camelids (camels and llamas). Largely due to their small size (12‒14 kDa), these molecules have substantial thermostability...H.J. Properties, production, and applications of camelid single domain antibody fragments. Appl. Microbiol. Biot. 2007, 77, 13‒22. 2. Goldman

  12. The Impact of Psychotherapeutic Reiki on Anxiety and Mindfulness: A Single-Case Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Lindsay C.

    2016-01-01

    Reiki healing is one of several complementary and integrative therapies becoming increasingly prevalent in mental health counseling. It has been identified in the medical field for its usefulness in treating anxiety, depression, distress, and pain but has rarely been studied for its counseling impact on client wellness. I conducted single-case…

  13. Beam-dynamics design and performance of the rf deflector in the Los Alamos single-beam funnel experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, F.W.; Johnson, K.F.; Sander, O.R.

    1991-01-01

    Funnels in which two bunched ion beams are interlaced to form a single beam have been proposed for high-current low-emittance ion linacs. A well-designed funnel would produce a beam with twice the frequency and current and almost twice the brightness of each original beam. A single-beam funnel experiment exploring the beam- dynamics and physics issues of a discrete-element future has been completed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The only known beam-dynamics issue of concern in a two-beam funnel not addressed was the beam-beam interaction, which is negligible. The rf deflector, in which beam merging occurs, is a key component of a discrete-element funnel. We report the beam-dynamics design procedure and experimental results for the rf deflector. 8 refs., 5 figs

  14. Direct correlation of single-molecule properties with bulk mechanical performance for the biomimetic design of polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jaeyoon; Kushner, Aaron M; Weisman, Adam C; Guan, Zhibin

    2014-11-01

    For rational design of advanced polymeric materials, it is critical to establish a clear mechanistic link between the molecular structure of a polymer and the emergent bulk mechanical properties. Despite progress towards this goal, it remains a major challenge to directly correlate the bulk mechanical performance to the nanomechanical properties of individual constituent macromolecules. Here, we show a direct correlation between the single-molecule nanomechanical properties of a biomimetic modular polymer and the mechanical characteristics of the resulting bulk material. The multi-cyclic single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) data enabled quantitative derivation of the asymmetric potential energy profile of individual module rupture and re-folding, in which a steep dissociative pathway accounted for the high plateau modulus, while a shallow associative well explained the energy-dissipative hysteresis and dynamic, adaptive recovery. These results demonstrate the potential for SMFS to serve as a guide for future rational design of advanced multifunctional materials.

  15. Analysis, Design, and Experimental Verification of A Synchronous Reference Frame Voltage Control for Single-Phase Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monfared, Mohammad; Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    Control of three-phase power converters in the synchronous reference frame is now a mature and well developed research topic. However, for single-phase converters, it is not as well-established as three-phase applications. This paper deals with the design of a synchronous reference frame multi......-loop control strategy for single phase inverter-based islanded distributed generation (DG) systems. The proposed controller uses a synchronous reference frame PI (SRFPI) controller to regulate the instantaneous output voltage, a capacitor current shaping loop in the stationary reference frame to provide active...... in the synchronous reference frame, it is not straightforward to fine-tune the control parameters and evaluate the stability of the whole closed loop system. To overcome this problem, the stationary reference frame equivalent of the voltage loop is derived. Then, a step-by-step systematic design procedure based...

  16. All-optical Hilbert transformer based on a single phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating: design and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammad H; Azaña, José

    2009-02-01

    A simple all-fiber design for implementing an all-optical temporal Hilbert transformer is proposed and numerically demonstrated. We show that an all-optical Hilbert transformer can be implemented using a uniform-period fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with a properly designed amplitude-only grating apodization profile incorporating a single pi phase shift in the middle of the grating length. All-optical Hilbert transformers capable of processing arbitrary optical waveforms with bandwidths up to a few hundreds of gigahertz can be implemented using feasible FBGs.

  17. Single-mode optical fiber design with wide-band ultra low bending-loss for FTTH application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watekar, Pramod R; Ju, Seongmin; Han, Won-Taek

    2008-01-21

    We propose a new design of a single-mode optical fiber (SMF) which exhibits ultra low bend sensitivity over a wide communication band (1.3 microm to 1.65 microm). A five-cladding fiber structure has been proposed to minimize the bending loss, estimated to be as low as 4.4x10(-10) dB/turn for the bend radius of 10 mm.

  18. The promise of mobile technologies and single case designs for the study of individuals in their natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardaga, Roger; Bricker, Jonathan; McDonell, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Mobile technologies are growing rapidly around the world to broad demographics of society. These technologies hold great promise for their integration with Single Case Designs (SCDs) and the study of individuals in their natural environment. This paper discusses the theoretical, methodological and analytic implications of these tools for the advancement of the contextual behavioral etiology of behavioral disorders, and their remediation. We hope this paper will highlight the scientific advantages of combining mobile technologies and SCDs and encourage their adoption among CBS scientists.

  19. Design of custom oligonucleotide microarrays for single species or interspecies hybrids using Array Oligo Selector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudy, Amy A

    2011-01-01

    New technologies for DNA sequencing have made it feasible to determine the genome sequence of any organism of interest. This sequence is the resource required to create tools for downstream studies, including DNA microarrays. A number of vendors can produce DNA microarrays containing customer-specified sequences, allowing investigators to design and order arrays customized for any species of interest. Freely available, user-friendly computer programs are available for designing microarray probes. These design programs can be used to create probes that distinguish between two related genomes, allowing investigation of gene expression or gene representation in intra- or interspecies hybrids or in samples containing DNA from multiple species.

  20. Automated microbial metabolism laboratory. [design of advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into test chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The design and rationale of an advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into each of four test chambers are outlined. The feasibility for multiple addition tests was established and various details of the methodology were studied. The four chamber battery of tests include: (1) determination of the effect of various atmospheric gases and selection of that gas which produces an optimum response; (2) determination of the effect of incubation temperature and selection of the optimum temperature for performing Martian biochemical tests; (3) sterile soil is dosed with a battery of C-14 labeled substrates and subjected to experimental temperature range; and (4) determination of the possible inhibitory effects of water on Martian organisms is performed initially by dosing with 0.01 ml and 0.5 ml of medium, respectively. A series of specifically labeled substrates are then added to obtain patterns in metabolic 14CO2 (C-14)O2 evolution.

  1. Principle and Design of a Single-phase Inverter-Based Grounding System for Neutral-to-ground Voltage Compensation in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Yan, Lingjie; Zeng, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Neutral-to-ground overvoltage may occur in non-effectively grounded power systems because of the distributed parameters asymmetry and resonance between Petersen coil and distributed capacitances. Thus, the constraint of neutral-to-ground voltage is critical for the safety of distribution networks....... In this paper, an active grounding system based on single-phase inverter and its control parameter design method is proposed to achieve this objective. Relationship between its output current and neutral-to-ground voltage is derived to explain the principle of neutral-to-ground voltage compensation. Then...... margin subjecting to large range of load change. The PI method is taken as the comparative method and the performances of both control methods are presented in detail. Experimental results prove the effectiveness and novelty of the proposed grounding system and control method....

  2. Advanced Propfan Engine Technology (APET) definition study, single and counter-rotation gearbox/pitch change mechanism design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Single-rotation propfan-powered regional transport aircraft were studied to identify key technology development issues and programs. The need for improved thrust specific fuel consumption to reduce fuel burned and aircraft direct operating cost is the dominant factor. Typical cycle trends for minimizing fuel consumption are reviewed, and two 10,000 shp class engine configurations for propfan propulsion systems for the 1990's are presented. Recommended engine configurations are both three-spool design with dual spool compressors and free power turbines. The benefits of these new propulsion system concepts were evaluated using an advanced airframe, and results are compared for single-rotation propfan and turbofan advanced technology propulsion systems. The single-rotation gearbox is compared to a similar design with current technology to establish the benefits of the advanced gearbox technology. The conceptual design of the advanced pitch change mechanism identified a high pressure hydraulic system that is superior to the other contenders and completely external to the gearboxes.

  3. Design model for bending vibrations of single-stage tunnel fan rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasyuk, AM; Kosykh, PV

    2018-03-01

    Using of one-mass model of tunnel fan rotor is justified for estimation calculation of the natural bending vibrations frequency during the design stage. It’s shown that the evaluative computation of the main axial tunnel fan at the early design stage yields the acceptable accuracy. It is shown that after completion of the design, the mass of the stepped-type shaft differs from the mass of the calculated uniform-diameter shaft no more than by 40%. Inclusion of this additional mass in the estimation calculation makes it possible to improve the calculation accuracy. The region of the dimensionless rotor design parameters at which the relative difference of frequency in the evaluative and verification calculations is not higher than 5 % is determined.

  4. Designing single phase Current-Programmed-Controlled rectifiers by harmonic currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gert Karmisholt; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2002-01-01

    includes ramp compensation, different command current waveforms and the influence of the filter. One method show how the product of the inductance and the switching frequency determines the maximum power level the complies with IEC-61000-3-2. Design examples illustrate the possibilities of the presented...... design tool. The method is compared with simulated values as well with measured values and the calculations match very well....

  5. Computer Aided Design of Ni-Based Single Crystal Superalloy for Industrial Gas Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xianping; Gong, Xiufang; Yang, Gongxian; Wang, Haiwei; Li, Haisong; Chen, Xueda; Gao, Zhenhuan; Xu, Yongfeng; Yang, Ming

    The influence of molybdenum, tungsten and cobalt on stress-rupture properties of single crystal superalloy PWA1483 has been investigated using the simulated calculation of JMatPro software which ha s been widely used to develop single crystal superalloy, and the effect of alloying element on the stability of strengthening phase has been revealed by using the Thermo-Calc software. Those properties calculation results showed that the increasing of alloy content could facilitate the precipitation of TCP phases and increase the lattice misfit between γ and γ' phase, and the effect of molybdenum, tantalum was the strongest and that of cobalt was the weakest. Then the chemical composition was optimized, and the selected compositions showed excellent microstructure stability and stress-rupture properties by the confirmation of d-electrons concept and software calculation.

  6. Design and analysis of single- ended robust low power 8T SRAM cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Neha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the observation of 8T single ended static random access memory (SRAM and two techniques for reducing the sub threshold leakage current, power consumption are examined. In the first technique, effective supply voltage and ground node voltages are changed using a dynamic variable voltage level technique(VVL. In the second technique power supply is scaled down. This 8T SRAM cell uses one word line, two bitlinesand a transmission gate. Simulations and analytical results show that when the two techniques combine the new SRAM cell has correct read and write operation and also the cell contains 55.6% less leakage and the dynamic power is 98.8% less than the 8T single ended SRAM cell. Simulations are performed using cadence virtuoso tool at 45nm technology.

  7. Design optimization of single-main-amplifier KrF laser-fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    KrF lasers appear to be a very promising laser fusion driver for commercial applications. The Large Amplifier Module for the Aurora Laser System at Los Alamos is the largest KrF laser in the world and is currently operating at 5 kJ with 10 to 15 kJ eventually expected. The next generation system is anticipated to be a single-main-amplifier system that generates approximately 100 kJ. This paper examines the cost and efficiency tradeoffs for a complete single-main-amplifier KrF laser fusion experimental facility. It has been found that a 7% efficient $310/joule complete laser-fusion system is possible by using large amplifier modules and high optical fluences

  8. Improved Design Methods for Robust Single- and Three-Phase ac-dc-ac Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian

    After a century of fast developing, the society is facing energy issues again, e.g. the exhaustion of fossil fuel, emission caused air pollution, radiation leakage of nuclear generation, and so on. How to produce and use electricity in a more sustainable, efficient, and cost-effective way thus...... becomes a emerging challenge. Accordingly, installation of sustainable power generators like wind turbines and solar panels has experienced a large increase during the last decades. Meanwhile, power electronics converters, as interfaces in electrical system, are delivering approximately 80 % electricity......, the emerging challenges, and the structure of the thesis. The main content of the thesis starts with single-phase converters: Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 propose new modulation methods for single-phase B6 and H6 converters, respectively, in order to retain the same dc link voltage with two full-bridges connected...

  9. A multi-pH-dependent, single optical mesosensor/captor design for toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safty, Sherif A; Shenashen, Mohamed A; Ismail, Adel A

    2012-10-07

    The fabrication of low-cost, simple nanodesigns with sensing/capture functionality has been called into question by the toxicity and non-degradability of toxic metals, as well as the persistent threat they pose to human lives. In this study, a single, pH-dependent, mesocaptor/sensor was developed for the optical and selective removal of toxic ions from drinking water and physiological systems such as blood.

  10. Equilibrium stability and sub-millisecond refolding of a designed single-chain Arc repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C R; Sauer, R T

    1996-11-05

    Arc-L1-Arc is a single-chain variant of bacteriophage P22 Arc repressor in which a 15 residue linker joins the C-terminus of one subunit to the N-terminus of an otherwise identical subunit. Spectroscopic probes indicate that the native and denatured state of the single-chain protein are similar to those of the unlinked Arc dimer. In equilibrium experiments, Arc-L1-Arc denatures in a reaction without populated intermediate states as judged by the fits of the denaturation isotherms to a two-state model and by the coincidence of denaturation curves monitored by fluorescence and circular dichroism. Comparison of the equilibrium stabilities of Arc-L1-Arc and unlinked Arc gives an effective concentration of subunits in the denatured single-chain variant of 2.7 (+/- 0.7) mM. The kinetic refolding and unfolding reactions of Arc-L1-Arc also appear to proceed without populated intermediates. The rate constant for Arc-L1-Arc unfolding is about 2-fold faster than that of unlinked Arc, indicating that the linker mediates no significant contacts in the native structure that need to be broken to allow unfolding. As expected, the major effect of the linker occurs during the refolding reaction, where the effective subunit concentration calculated from the bimolecular and unimolecular refolding rate constants is 4.5 (+/- 1.8) mM. The transition states for the unfolding and refolding reactions of Arc-L1-Arc and wild-type Arc have similar solvent exposures as measured by the urea dependencies of the equilibrium and rate constants. In the absence of urea, the single-chain protein refolds very rapidly (kf approximately 10(4) s-1) in a reaction that is essentially complete in the sub-millisecond time regime.

  11. Farmers’ Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study: Study Design, Methods, and Baseline Characteristics of Enrolled Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hannae; Baek, Sora; Park, Hee-won; Lee, Sang-Ah; Moon, Jiyoung; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Ki Sung; Kim, Jee Yong; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background The ongoing Farmers’ Cohort for Agricultural Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) study was developed to evaluate health status and related factors in farmers. Methods Farmers in Kangwon Province, South Korea, were recruited. Baseline characteristics were determined using questionnaires about sociodemographic and health characteristics and agricultural work-related factors. In addition, laboratory examinations (lumbar spinal radiography and serologic testing) were conducted. Results The FARM study covers eight rural areas and recruited 1013 subjects (534 women; mean [standard deviation {SD}] age, 57.2 [7.5] years). Musculoskeletal pain in multiple areas was reported by 925 subjects (91.3%), and low back pain (63.8%) was the most frequent site of pain. Farmer’s Stress Inventory (mean [SD], 77.7 [10.2]; range, 28–112] and subjective stress index (mean [SD], 5.3 [2.4]; range, 0–10) were above median scale values, reflecting a stressful condition, while the EuroQol-5D-3L index and the EuroQol-Visual Analog Scale scores were high (mean [SD], 0.9 [0.1]; range −0.171–1 and mean [SD], 67.7 [18.7]; range 0–100, respectively), reflecting good life quality. In total, 53% of participants had worked in farming for more than 30 years, and workers involved in dry-field farming comprised the largest subgroup (41.5%). Most participants (94.3%) had no more than a high school education, and families with annual income below 20 million won constituted the largest subgroup (36.3%). Conclusions The FARM study may provide data on the current health status and related sociodemographic and agricultural work-related risk factors in Korean farmers, with the goal of providing a scientific basis for developing coping interventions and preventive strategies. PMID:26235456

  12. Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study: Study Design, Methods, and Baseline Characteristics of Enrolled Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hannae; Baek, Sora; Park, Hee-Won; Lee, Sang-Ah; Moon, Jiyoung; Yang, Jae E; Kim, Ki Sung; Kim, Jee Yong; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) study was developed to evaluate health status and related factors in farmers. Farmers in Kangwon Province, South Korea, were recruited. Baseline characteristics were determined using questionnaires about sociodemographic and health characteristics and agricultural work-related factors. In addition, laboratory examinations (lumbar spinal radiography and serologic testing) were conducted. The FARM study covers eight rural areas and recruited 1013 subjects (534 women; mean [standard deviation {SD}] age, 57.2 [7.5] years). Musculoskeletal pain in multiple areas was reported by 925 subjects (91.3%), and low back pain (63.8%) was the most frequent site of pain. Farmer's Stress Inventory (mean [SD], 77.7 [10.2]; range, 28-112] and subjective stress index (mean [SD], 5.3 [2.4]; range, 0-10) were above median scale values, reflecting a stressful condition, while the EuroQol-5D-3L index and the EuroQol-Visual Analog Scale scores were high (mean [SD], 0.9 [0.1]; range -0.171-1 and mean [SD], 67.7 [18.7]; range 0-100, respectively), reflecting good life quality. In total, 53% of participants had worked in farming for more than 30 years, and workers involved in dry-field farming comprised the largest subgroup (41.5%). Most participants (94.3%) had no more than a high school education, and families with annual income below 20 million won constituted the largest subgroup (36.3%). The FARM study may provide data on the current health status and related sociodemographic and agricultural work-related risk factors in Korean farmers, with the goal of providing a scientific basis for developing coping interventions and preventive strategies.

  13. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedges on knee load and neuromuscular control in healthy subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Kersting, Uwe G.

    2013-01-01

    and second peak knee adduction moments. However, the variability of this moment between shoe designs was of similar magnitude as the effect of laterally wedged insoles. Only marginal changes in muscle activity for gastrocnemius when walking with the wedged Oxford shoe were revealed. Conclusion: Lateral...

  14. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedges on knee load and neuromuscular control in healthy subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten; Kersting, Uwe G.

    2014-01-01

    design/type on the effectiveness of lateral wedging has not been investigated so far. The Purpose of the present study was to explore alterations in knee loading due to lateral foot wedges in three different shoes. Methods: Thirteen healthy participants with no history of knee pain were tested using...

  15. Effects of low-dose dobutamine on left ventricular function in normal subjects as assessed by gated single-photon emission tomography myocardial perfusion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everaert, H.; Vanhove, C.; Franken, P.R. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Free University of Brussels (Belgium)

    1999-10-01

    Electrocardiography gated single-photon emission tomography (gated SPET) allows the assessment of regional perfusion and function simultaneously and in full spatial congruency. In this study changes in global and regional left ventricular function in response to dobutamine infusion were assessed in ten healthy volunteers using sequential gated SPET myocardial perfusion acquisitions. Four consecutive gated SPET images were recorded 60 min after injection of 925 MBq technetium-99m tetrofosmin on a three-head camera equipped with focussing collimators. Two acquisitions were made at rest (baseline 1 and 2), and the third and fourth acquisitions were started 5 min after the beginning of the infusion of 5 and 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} min{sup -1} dobutamine, respectively. Systolic wall thickening (WT) was quantified using a method based on circumferential profile analysis. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and volumes were calculated automatically using the Cedars-Sinai program. Nine of the ten subjects presented a definite increase in WT during dobutamine infusion. WT increased on average from 46%{+-}14% at baseline to 71%{+-}23% (range: 37%-106%; P<0.05) during 5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} min{sup -1} dobutamine infusion and to 85%{+-}25% (range: 62%-123%; P<0.05 with respect to WT at 5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} min{sup -1}) during 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} min{sup -1} dobutamine infusion. Apical segments showed the largest WT at baseline. The average WT response to dobutamine was similar for all parts of the myocardium. It is concluded that changes in WT induced by infusion of low-dose dobutamine can be assessed by sequential gated SPET myocardial perfusion studies. The ''stress gated SPET'' protocol proposed in this study might be helpful to distinguish viable from scar tissue in patients with coronary artery disease, by demonstrating a preserved inotropic response in hypoperfused myocardium. (orig.)

  16. Concentrations of garenoxacin in plasma, bronchial mucosa, alveolar macrophages and epithelial lining fluid following a single oral 600 mg dose in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J; Honeybourne, D; Jevons, G; Boyce, M; Wise, R; Bello, A; Gajjar, D

    2003-03-01

    A microbiological assay was used to measure concentrations of garenoxacin (BMS-284756) in plasma, bronchial mucosa (BM), alveolar macrophages (AM) and epithelial lining fluid (ELF), following a single 600 mg oral dose. Twenty-four healthy subjects were allocated into four nominal time intervals after the dose, 2.5-3.5, 4.5-5.5, 10.5-11.5 and 23.5-24.5 h. Mean concentrations in plasma, BM, AM and ELF, respectively, for the four nominal time windows were for 2.5-3.5 h 10.0 mg/L (S.D. 2.8), 7.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.3), 106.1 mg/L (S.D. 60.3) and 9.2 mg/L (S.D. 3.6); 4.5-5.5 h 8.7 mg/L (S.D. 2.2), 6.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.9), 158.6 mg/L (S.D. 137.4) and 14.3 mg/L (S.D. 8.2); 10.5-11.5 h 6.1 mg/L (S.D. 1.9), 4.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.4), 76.0 mg/L (S.D. 47.7) and 7.9 mg/L (S.D. 4.6); and 23.5-24.5 h 2.1 mg/L (S.D. 0.5), 1.7 mg/kg (S.D. 0.7), 30.7 mg/L (S.D. 12.9) and 3.3 mg/L (S.D. 2.3). Concentrations at all sites exceeded MIC(90)s for the common respiratory pathogens Haemophilus influenzae (0.03 mg/L), Moraxella catarrhalis (0.015 mg/L) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (0.06 mg/L). These data suggest that garenoxacin should be effective in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  17. Design of single-layer high-efficiency transmitting phase-gradient metasurface and high gain antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Yang, Xiaoqing; Su, Piqiang; Luo, Jiefang; Chen, Huijie; Yuan, Jianping; Li, Lixin

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, based on rotation phase-gradient principle, a single-layer, high-efficiency transmitting metasurface is designed and applied to high-gain antenna. In the case of circularly polarized incident wave, the PCR (polarization conversions ratio) of the metasurface element is greater than 90% in the band of 9.11–10.48 GHz. The transmitting wave emerges an anomalous refraction when left-handed circularly polarized wave are incident perpendicularly to the 1D phase-gradient metasurface, which is composed of cycle arrangement of 6 units with step value of 30°. The simulated anomalous refraction angle is 40.1°, coincided with the theoretical design value (40.6°). For further application, the 2D focused metasurface is designed to enhance the antenna performance while the left-handed circularly polarized antenna is placed at the focus. The simulated max gain is increased by 12 dB (182%) and the half-power beamwidth is reduced by 74.6°. The measured results are coincided with the simulations, which indicates the antenna has high directivity. The designed single-layer transmission metasurface has advantages of thin thickness (only 1.5 mm), high efficiency and light weight, and will have important application prospects in polarization conversion and beam control.

  18. A room of one's own--Being cared for in a hospital with a single-bed room design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Eva; Anderberg, Patrice; Ekwall, Anna Kristensson

    2015-06-01

    To illuminate patients' experiences of being hospitalised in a hospital with a single-bed room design. Many patients seem to prefer single-bed hospital rooms. However, studies have also shown that patients do see the advantages of multiple-bed rooms. Interviews were conducted with 16 inpatients from a surgical ward in a hospital building with a single-bed room design. A hermeneutical-phenomenological approach guided by van Manen's four life-world existentials was used to analyse the interviews. The essential meaning was that patients felt secure because they could create a personal environment without disruptive elements. The room was private, and this implied feelings of homeliness, which allowed patients to focus on themselves and was thought to facilitate the recovery process. The patients preferred staying in their room, and the relationship with the personnel was central. Feelings of loneliness and isolation could occur and could be frightening. Being hospitalised in a single-bed room meant balancing between feeling secure and feeling insecure. The following four themes emerged: A homely environment, The need for company and security, Time as unpredictable and involving waiting and Focus on healing the body. Patients experienced that a single-bed room allowed them to focus on their recovery, have visitors without disturbing others and create a feeling of homeliness. However, mobilisation is not a natural part of the recovery process when patients have all they need in their rooms. The patients' need for social interaction and confirmation was not satisfied without effort and planning on the part of staff. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  19. Design parameters for single pipe thermal insulation systems for offshore flow assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Adam; Johnsen, Erik; Kopystynski, Adam; Simonsen, Eirik; Boye-Hansen, Allan [Bredero Shaw (Thermotite), Orkanger (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    Limit state design of subsea thermal insulation systems has been shown to be feasible and robust. This requires careful implementation of extensive long-term laboratory data and property models into verified FEA / FDA tools. Such simulations allow for the determination of not only the steady state response, but also the transient response of the system as a function of temperature, hydrostatic loading, ageing, water ingress and time. This departure from the traditional use of monolithic thermal conductivities, heat capacities and water absorption values can allow in some cases for a reduction in the thickness of insulation, whilst simultaneously enabling control of conservatism. The current paper discusses the important influences affecting the performance of insulant systems and the results of verification testing along with design examples where the generally accepted design method is compared to the limit state approach. (author)

  20. Evaluation of a Direct-Instruction Intervention to Improve Movement and Preliteracy Skills among Young Children: A Within-Subject Repeated-Measures Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Bedard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveSchool readiness involves the development of foundational skills such as emergent literacy and fundamental movement skills as well as the capacity to attentively engage in instructional situations. Children do not develop these skills naturally; therefore, they need the opportunity to develop these skills in their early years prior to entering school. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of a direct-instruction movement and preliteracy intervention in children aged 3–4 years.MethodsA within-subject repeated-measures design, embedded within a wait-list control study, was used to evaluate the intervention. The intervention was run across 10 weeks with 1 h weekly sessions. Each weekly session consisted of 30-min of movement skill instruction (e.g., through single-step acquisition strategies, 15-min of free play during which time children had access to a variety of equipment (e.g., balls, hula hoops, etc. or toys (e.g., puzzles, building blocks, and a 15-min interactive reading circle during which children read a storybook and were taught 1–2 preliteracy skills (e.g., alphabet knowledge, narrative knowledge, etc.. A convenience sample of 11 children (mean age = 45.6 months, SD = 7.3 was recruited. All children were assessed four times: baseline (Time 1, pre-intervention (Time 2, post-intervention (Time 3, and 5-week follow-up (Time 4. Gross motor skills and preliteracy skills were assessed at each time point.ResultsThere was a statistically significant effect of time on the change in gross motor skills (Wilks’ lambda = 0.09, p = .002, print-concept skills (Wilks’ lambda = 0.09, p = .001, and alphabet knowledge (Wilks’ lambda = 0.29, p = .046. Post hoc analyses reveal non-significant changes between time 1 and 2 for motor and print-concept skills and significant changes in all three outcomes between time 2 and time 3.ConclusionParticipation in a

  1. SSC 50 MM collider dipole cryostat single tube support post conceptual design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole magnet cold masses are connected to the cryostat vacuum vessel at five places equally spaced along their length. Five supports limit sag of the cold assembly due to its own weight to a level consistent with the final magnet alignment specifications. The design essentially consists of two composite tubes nested within each other as a means of maximizing the thermal path length. In addition it provides an ideal way to utilize materials best suited for the temperature range over which they must operate. Filament wound S-glass is used between 300K and 80K. Filament wound graphite fiber is used between 80K and 20K and between 20K and 4.5K. S-glass is a better thermal performer above approximately 40K. Graphite composites are ideally suited for operation below 40K. The designs for the 50 mm reentrant supports are well documented in the literature. The current design of the reentrant support has two major drawbacks. First, it requires very tight dimensional control on all components; composite tubes and metal attachment parts. Second, it is expensive, with cost being driven by both the tolerance constraints and by a complex assembly procedure. It seems clear that production magnets will require a support structure which is considerably less expensive than that which is currently used. It seems clear that a design alternate for reentrant support posts will be required for production dipoles primarily due to their cost. It seems less clear that injection molded composite materials are the ideal choice. This report describes the conceptual design for a support post whose function is identical to that of the current reentrant design, which requires very few modifications to surrounding cryostat components, is thermally equivalent to the current 50 mm support post, and is nearly equivalent structurally

  2. A Comparison of Single-Gender Classes and Traditional, Coeducational Classes on Student Academic Achievement, Discipline Referrals, and Attitudes toward Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Debra Messenger

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in single gender education. Emerging science has proven that boys and girls learn differently. This study compared fifth grade single-gender classes to fifth grade traditional, coeducational classes in the same urban middle school. The following were compared: students' academic achievement;…

  3. Detecting and locating light atoms from high-resolution STEM images: The quest for a single optimal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnissen, J; De Backer, A; den Dekker, A J; Sijbers, J; Van Aert, S

    2016-11-01

    In the present paper, the optimal detector design is investigated for both detecting and locating light atoms from high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR STEM) images. The principles of detection theory are used to quantify the probability of error for the detection of light atoms from HR STEM images. To determine the optimal experiment design for locating light atoms, use is made of the so-called Cramér-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB). It is investigated if a single optimal design can be found for both the detection and location problem of light atoms. Furthermore, the incoming electron dose is optimised for both research goals and it is shown that picometre range precision is feasible for the estimation of the atom positions when using an appropriate incoming electron dose under the optimal detector settings to detect light atoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Attitude Control of a Single Tilt Tri-Rotor UAV System: Dynamic Modeling and Each Channel's Nonlinear Controllers Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juing-Shian Chiou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has implemented nonlinear control strategy for the single tilt tri-rotor aerial robot. Based on Newton-Euler’s laws, the linear and nonlinear mathematical models of tri-rotor UAVs are obtained. A numerical analysis using Newton-Raphson method is chosen for finding hovering equilibrium point. Back-stepping nonlinear controller design is based on constructing Lyapunov candidate function for closed-loop system. By imitating the linguistic logic of human thought, fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs are designed based on control rules and membership functions, which are much less rigid than the calculations computers generally perform. Effectiveness of the controllers design scheme is shown through nonlinear simulation model on each channel.

  5. Image quality and radiation dose of single heartbeat 640-slice coronary CT angiography: A comparison between patients with chronic Atrial Fibrillation and subjects in normal sinus rhythm by propensity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Cesare, Ernesto, E-mail: ernesto.dicesare@cc.univaq.it [Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, Division of Radiotherapy, Laboratory of Radiobiology, University of L’Aquila (Italy); Gennarelli, Antonio; Di Sibio, Alessandra; Felli, Valentina; Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, Division of Radiology, Laboratory of Radiobiology, University of L’Aquila (Italy); Gravina, Giovanni Luca [Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, Division of Radiotherapy, Laboratory of Radiobiology, University of L’Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, Division of Radiology, Laboratory of Radiobiology, University of L’Aquila (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Atrial Fibrillation (AF) may affect CCTA image quality. •We compare the results of single heartbeat CCTA in subjects with chronic AF and in sinus rhythm. •Single heartbeat CCTA may be feasible also in subjects with cAF and HR <72 bpm. •In cAF patients with heart rate higher than 72 bpm, CCTA has more movement-associated artefacts. •Mean effective dose of single heartbeat CCTA in cAF group was higher than in sinus rhythm one. -- Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate image quality and radiation dose of single heartbeat 640-slice coronary CT angiography (CCTA) in patients with chronic Atrial Fibrillation (cAF) in comparison with subjects in normal sinus rhythm. Methods: A cohort of 71 patients with cAF was matched with 71 subjects in normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and HR ≤ 65 bpm using a matched by propensity analysis. All subjects underwent a single heartbeat CCTA with prospective gating. In subjects with cAF, we manually established the acquisition of data only from a single heartbeat. Mean effective dose and image quality, with both objective and subjective measures, were assessed. Results: 96.4% of all segments in the cAF group had diagnostic image quality. The rate of subjects with at least one non-diagnostic segment was 14% and 2.8% (p = 0.031) in the cAF and NRS groups, respectively. In the cAF group, the percentage of patients with at least one non-diagnostic segment for acquisition HR ≤ 72 was 1.8% (1/55), and it did not significantly differ from the NSR group (2.8%; 2/71) (p = 1.0). Objective quality parameters did not show a statistically significant difference between the two groups. The mean effective dose was 4.24 ± 1.24 mSv in the cAF group and 2.67 ± 0.5 mSv in the sinus rhythm group (p < 0.0001) with an increase by 59% in the cAF group with respect to the SNR group. Conclusions: A single heartbeat acquisition protocol with a 640-slice prospectively ECG-triggered CT angiography may be feasible in patients with cAF and HR below 72

  6. Design and analysis of sensorless torque optimization for single phase induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaez-Zadeh, S.; Payman, A.

    2006-01-01

    Single phase induction motors are traditionally used in constant speed applications and suffer from unsymmetrical performance. A reliable speed signal can improve their performance and extend their applications as variable speed drives. In this paper, a speed estimation method for these motors is proposed based on a machine model in the stator flux reference frame. The method is examined in a sensorless torque optimization system over a wide operating range. Extensive simulation results prove the validity of the proposed method. Also, the motor performance under the torque optimization system is analyzed

  7. Design of L1 -Adaptive Controller for Single Axis Positioning Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Jalil Humaidi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available L1 adaptive controller has proven to provide fast adaptation with guaranteed transients in a large variety of systems. It is commonly used for controlling systems with uncertain time-varying unknown parameters. The effectiveness of L1 adaptive controller for position control of single axis has been examined and compared with Model Reference Adaptive Controller (MRAC. The Linear servo motor is one of the main constituting elements of the x-y table which is mostly used in automation application. It is characterized by time-varying friction and disturbance

  8. Design of a Negative Differential Resistance Circuit Element Using Single-Electron Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, D. C.; Heij, C. P.; Hadley, P.; Mooij, J. E.

    1998-03-01

    Electronic circuit elements displaying negative differential resistance (NDR), such as tunnel diodes, have a wide variety of device applications, including oscillators, amplifiers, logic, and memory. We present a two-terminal device using two single-electron transistors (SET's) that demonstrates an NDR profile tuneable with gate voltages. If the capacitive coupling between the SET's is sufficiently larger than the junction capacitances, the device exhibits multiply-peaked NDR, allowing its use as a multi-valued digital element. We will also report recent experimental progress in measurements of such a device, fabricated using standard Al tunnel junctions, but with an additional overlap capacitor to allow the required inter-SET coupling.

  9. Single Allocation Hub-and-spoke Networks Design Based on Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Pingle

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Capacitated single allocation hub-and-spoke networks can be abstracted as a mixed integer linear programming model equation with three variables. Introducing an improved ant colony algorithm, which has six local search operators. Meanwhile, introducing the "Solution Pair" concept to decompose and optimize the composition of the problem, the problem can become more specific and effectively meet the premise and advantages of using ant colony algorithm. Finally, location simulation experiment is made according to Australia Post data to demonstrate this algorithm has good efficiency and stability for solving this problem.

  10. Rational Design of Lanthanoid Single-Ion Magnets: Predictive Power of the Theoretical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoví, José J; Duan, Yan; Morales, Roser; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro; Ruiz, Eliseo; Coronado, Eugenio

    2016-09-12

    We report two new single-ion magnets (SIMs) of a family of oxydiacetate lanthanide complexes with D3 symmetry to test the predictive capabilities of complete active space ab initio methods (CASSCF and CASPT2) and the semiempirical radial effective charge (REC) model. Comparison of the theoretical predictions of the energy levels, wave functions and magnetic properties with detailed spectroscopic and magnetic characterisation is used to critically discuss the limitations of these theoretical approaches. The need for spectroscopic information for a reliable description of the properties of lanthanide SIMs is emphasised. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Designs for high-efficiency electrically pumped photonic nanowire single-photon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    to conventional cavity-based sources, this non-resonant approach provides broadband spontaneous emission control and features an improved fabrication tolerance towards surface roughness and imperfections. Using an element-splitting approach, we analyze the various building blocks of the designs with respect...... to realistic variations of the experimental fabrication parameters....

  12. Single Group, Pre- and Post-Test Research Designs: Some Methodological Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Emma; Torgerson, Carole J.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides two illustrations of some of the factors that can influence findings from pre- and post-test research designs in evaluation studies, including regression to the mean (RTM), maturation, history and test effects. The first illustration involves a re-analysis of data from a study by Marsden (2004), in which pre-test scores are…

  13. The facial and subjective emotional reaction in response to a video game designed to train emotional regulation (Playmancer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Santamaría, Juan J; Moussa, Maher B; Sánchez, Isabel; Forcano, Laura; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia; Konstantas, Dimitri; Overby, Mikkel L; Nielsen, Jeppe; Bults, Richard G A; Granero, Roser; Lam, Tony; Kalapanidas, Elias; Treasure, Janet; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2012-11-01

    Several aspects of social and emotional functioning are abnormal in people with eating disorders. The aim of the present study was to measure facial emotional expression in patients with eating disorders and healthy controls whilst playing a therapeutic video game (Playmancer) designed to train individuals in emotional regulation. Participants were 23 ED patients (11 AN, 12 BN) and 11 HCs. ED patients self reported more anger at baseline but expressed less facial expression of anger during the Playmancer game. The discrepancy between self-report and non-verbal expression may lead to problems in social communication. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Pettiway, Keon

    2017-01-01

    by designers, planners, etc. (staging from above) and mobile subjects (staging from below). A research agenda for studying situated practices of mobility and mobilities design is outlined in three directions: foci of studies, methods and approaches, and epistemologies and frames of thinking. Jensen begins......In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions...... with a brief description of how movement is studied within social sciences after the “mobilities turn” versus the idea of physical movement in transport geography and engineering. He then explains how “mobilities design” was derived from connections between traffic and architecture. Jensen concludes...

  15. Single Grain Boundary Modeling and Design of Microcrystalline Si Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Hsuan Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For photovoltaic applications, microcrystalline silicon has a lot of advantages, such as the ability to absorb the near-infrared part of the solar spectrum. However, there are many dangling bonds at the grain boundary in microcrystalline Si. These dangling bonds would lead to the recombination of photo-generated carriers and decrease the conversion efficiency. Therefore, we included the grain boundary in the numerical study in order to simulate a microcrystalline Si solar cell accurately, designing new three-terminal microcrystalline Si solar cells. The 3-μm-thick three-terminal cell achieved a conversion efficiency of 10.8%, while the efficiency of a typical two-terminal cell is 9.7%. The three-terminal structure increased the JSC but decreased the VOC, and such phenomena are discussed. High-efficiency and low-cost Si-based thin film solar cells can now be designed based on the information provided in this paper.

  16. Single Grain Boundary Modeling and Design of Microcrystalline Si Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chu-Hsuan; Hsu, Wen-Tzu; Tai, Cheng-Hung

    2013-01-21

    For photovoltaic applications, microcrystalline silicon has a lot of advantages, such as the ability to absorb the near-infrared part of the solar spectrum. However, there are many dangling bonds at the grain boundary in microcrystalline Si. These dangling bonds would lead to the recombination of photo-generated carriers and decrease the conversion efficiency. Therefore, we included the grain boundary in the numerical study in order to simulate a microcrystalline Si solar cell accurately, designing new three-terminal microcrystalline Si solar cells. The 3-μm-thick three-terminal cell achieved a conversion efficiency of 10.8%, while the efficiency of a typical two-terminal cell is 9.7%. The three-terminal structure increased the J SC but decreased the V OC , and such phenomena are discussed. High-efficiency and low-cost Si-based thin film solar cells can now be designed based on the information provided in this paper.

  17. Progress towards developing consistent design and evaluation guidelines for US Department of Energy facilities subjected to natural phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Probabilistic definitions of earthquake, wind, and tornado hazards for many Department of Energy (DOE) facilities throughout the United States have been developed. In addition, definitions of the flood hazards which might affect these locations are currently being developed. The authors have prepared a document to provide guidance and criteria for DOE facility managers to assure that DOE facilities are adequately constructed to resist the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquake, strong wind, and flood. The intent of this document is to provide instruction on how to utilize the hazard definitions to evaluate existing facilities and design new facilities in a manner such that the risk of adverse consequences is consistent with the cost, function, and danger to the public or environment. A conference and six mini-courses were organized on natural phenomena hazards mitigation. This provided a mechanism for technology transfer to the DOE community. Complementary manuals have also been developed for 1) suspended ceiling systems and recommendations for bracing them, 2) practical equipment seismic upgrade and strengthening guidelines, and 3) suggested structural details for wind design. These manuals are intended to provide input and guidance for ongoing site safety programs

  18. Progress towards developing consistent design and evaluation guidelines for US Department of Energy facilities subjected to natural phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Probabilistic definitions of earthquake, wind, and tornado hazards for many DOE facilities throughout the United States have been developed. In addition, definitions of the flood hazards which might affect these locations are currently being developed. We have prepared a document to provide guidance and criteria for DOE facility managers to assure that DOE facilities are adequately constructed to resist the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquake, strong wind, and flood. The intent of this document is to provide instruction on how to utilize the hazard definitions to evaluate existing facilities and design new facilities in a manner such that the risk of adverse consequences is consistent with the cost, function, and danger to the public or environment. A conference and six mini-courses were organized on natural phenomena hazards mitigation. This provided a mechanism for technology transfer to the DOE community. Complementary manuals have also been developed for 1) suspended ceiling systems and recommendations for bracing them, 2) practical equipment seismic upgrade and strengthening guidelines, and 3) suggested structural details for wind design. These manuals are intended to provide input and guidance for ongoing site safety programs. (orig./HP)

  19. Emollient product design: objective measurements of formulation structure, texture and performance, and subjective assessments of user acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijević, M D; Owusu-Ware, S; Sanchon-Lopez, B

    2018-02-20

    The choice of prescribed emollients is usually based on cost and patient preference. Differences in formulations can affect user acceptability. To compare the physical performance, user acceptability and various product design features of two emollient gels that are prescribed in the UK and alleged to be therapeutically interchangeable because their formulations are described as having the same contents of oily ingredients. We found that here are in fact significant measurable differences between the structure and performance of the two formulations, which materially affect their user acceptability. These differences are attributed to the use of different types of gelling agents and other ingredients of differing grades/quality and concentrations, and probably due to the formulations being made by different manufacturing processes. We also identified other product design features that are important to user appeal, including the type of container in which the formulations are presented, the type of dispensing devices provided, and the nature and form of the supplied user instructions. Patients and prescribers should be aware that there can be important differences in performance and user appeal between emollients, even between products that, superficially, may appear to be very similar. These important performance aspects should be characterized for new emollient introductions to encourage better informed product selection. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists, North American Clinical Dermatologic Society and St Johns Dermatological Society.

  20. Rotor Design for an Efficient Single-Phase Induction Motor for Refrigerator Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jin Ahn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a rotor making technology for the production of high-efficiency single-phase induction motors (SPIMs to be used in refrigerator compressors. Rotors can have different aluminum fill factors according to the fabrication method. In order to examine the association between the fill factor and the efficiency of the rotor, we analyzed the distribution of magnetic flux density using the finite element method (FEM. Next, we made prototype rotors by conventional casting methods and by the proposed casting method and compared their fill factors. In addition, SPIMs were made using the rotors, and their efficiencies were measured using a dynamometer. Moreover, the SPIMs were put to use in a compressor, for testing, and for each SPIM the refrigerating capacity of the compressor was measured with a calorimeter. Based on the results of the FEM analysis of the magnetic flux density and the experiments, the reliability and validity of the proposed method were proven.

  1. Design of thermostable rhamnogalacturonan lyase mutants from Bacillus licheniformis by combination of targeted single point mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Ines Isabel Cardoso Rodrigues; Jers, Carsten; Otten, Harm

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonan I lyases (RGI lyases) (EC 4.2.2.-) catalyze cleavage of α-1,4 bonds between rhamnose and galacturonic acid in the backbone of pectins by β-elimination. In the present study, targeted improvement of the thermostability of a PL family 11 RGI lyase from Bacillus licheniformis (DSM...... the wild-type RGI lyase in Bacillus subtilis as opposed to in Pichia pastoris; this effect is suggested to be a negative result of glycosylation of the P. pastoris expressed enzyme. A ~ twofold improvement in thermal stability at 60 °C, accompanied by less significant increases in Tm of the enzyme mutants......, were obtained due to additive stabilizing effects of single amino acid mutations (E434L, G55V, and G326E) compared to the wild type. The crystal structure of the B. licheniformis wild-type RGI lyase was also determined; the structural analysis corroborated that especially mutation of charged amino...

  2. Design of a surgical robot with dynamic vision field control for Single Port Endoscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yo; Sekiguchi, Yuta; Tomono, Yu; Watanabe, Hiroki; Toyoda, Kazutaka; Konishi, Kozo; Tomikawa, Morimasa; Ieiri, Satoshi; Tanoue, Kazuo; Hashizume, Makoto; Fujie, Masaktsu G

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a robotic system was developed to assist Single Port Endoscopic Surgery (SPS). However, the existing system required a manual change of vision field, hindering the surgical task and increasing the degrees of freedom (DOFs) of the manipulator. We proposed a surgical robot for SPS with dynamic vision field control, the endoscope view being manipulated by a master controller. The prototype robot consisted of a positioning and sheath manipulator (6 DOF) for vision field control, and dual tool tissue manipulators (gripping: 5DOF, cautery: 3DOF). Feasibility of the robot was demonstrated in vitro. The "cut and vision field control" (using tool manipulators) is suitable for precise cutting tasks in risky areas while a "cut by vision field control" (using a vision field control manipulator) is effective for rapid macro cutting of tissues. A resection task was accomplished using a combination of both methods.

  3. A single of MR sponge tactile sensor design for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seung-Woo; Kang, Seok-Rae; Hwang, Yong-Hoon; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2017-04-01

    Recently, it is very popular in medical field to adopt robot surgery such as robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS). However, there are some problems in the robot surgery. It is very hard to get the touch feeling of the organs during the surgical operation because the surgeons cannot touch and feel repulsive force from the organs directly. So, this work proposes a squeeze mode of single magneto-rheological (MR) sponge to realize viscoelastic property of human organs or skins and undertake a theoretical analysis of MR sponge. In addition, its effectiveness is verified through experimental tests. The similarity between MR sponge and real organs is identified and desired repulsive force of each organs can be achieved by proper selection of MR sponge cell associated with controlled input current.

  4. Single and Multiple Dose Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Safety of the Novel Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Enzyme Inhibitor Darapladib in Healthy Chinese Subjects: An Open Label Phase-1 Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Hu

    Full Text Available Darapladib is a lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 inhibitor. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of darapladib in healthy Chinese subjects.Twenty-four subjects received darapladib 160 mg orally, approximately 1 hour after a standard breakfast, as a single dose and once daily for 28 days. Non-compartmental methods were used to determine the single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of darapladib and its metabolite SB-553253. Repeat dose Lp-PLA2 activity and safety were evaluated.Systemic exposure (AUC(0-T, Cmax geometric mean (CVb% of darapladib was higher after multiple-dosing (519 ng.h/mL (33.3%, 34.4 ng/mL (49.9% compared to single-dose administration (153 ng.h/mL (69.0%, 17.9 ng/mL (55.2%. The steady-state accumulation ratio was less than unity (Rs = 0.80, indicating time-dependent pharmacokinetics of darapladib. Darapladib steady-state was reached by Day 14 of once daily dosing. Systemic exposure to SB-553253 was lower than darapladib with median (SB-553253: darapladib ratios for AUC(0-τ of 0.0786 for single dose and 0.0532 for multiple dose administration. On Day 28, pre-dose and maximum inhibition of Lp-PLA2 activity was approximately 70% and 75% relative to the baseline value, respectively and was dependent of darapladib concentration. The most common adverse events (≥ 21% subjects were abnormal faeces, abnormal urine odour, diarrhoea and nasopharyngitis.Darapladib 160 mg single and repeat doses were profiled in healthy Chinese subjects. Single dose systemic exposure to darapladib in healthy Chinese subjects was consistent with that observed previously in Western subjects whereas steady-state systemic exposure was approximately 65% higher in Chinese than Western subjects. The Lp-PLA2 activity and adverse event profile were similar in healthy Chinese and previous reports in Western subjects. Ethnic-specific dose adjustment of darapladib is not considered necessary for the Chinese

  5. Generation of subject-specific, dynamic, multisegment ankle and foot models to improve orthotic design: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oosterwaal Michiel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, custom foot and ankle orthosis prescription and design tend to be based on traditional techniques, which can result in devices which vary greatly between clinicians and repeat prescription. The use of computational models of the foot may give further insight in the biomechanical effects of these devices and allow a more standardised approach to be taken to their design, however due to the complexity of the foot the models must be highly detailed and dynamic. Methods/Design Functional and anatomical datasets will be collected in a multicentre study from 10 healthy participants and 15 patients requiring orthotic devices. The patient group will include individuals with metarsalgia, flexible flat foot and drop foot. Each participant will undergo a clinical foot function assessment, 3D surface scans of the foot under different loading conditions, and detailed gait analysis including kinematic, kinetic, muscle activity and plantar pressure measurements in both barefoot and shod conditions. Following this each participant will undergo computed tomography (CT imaging of their foot and ankle under a range of loads and positions while plantar pressures are recorded. A further subgroup of participants will undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the foot and ankle. Imaging data will be segmented to derive the geometry of the bones and the orientation of the joint axes. Insertion points of muscles and ligaments will be determined from the MRI and CT-scans and soft tissue material properties computed from the loaded CT data in combination with the plantar pressure measurements. Gait analysis data will be used to drive the models and in combination with the 3D surface scans for scaling purposes. Predicted plantar pressures and muscle activation patterns predicted from the models will be compared to determine the validity of the models. Discussion This protocol will lead to the generation of unique datasets which will be used

  6. SSD for R: A Comprehensive Statistical Package to Analyze Single-System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin

    2013-01-01

    The need for statistical analysis in single-subject designs presents a challenge, as analytical methods that are applied to group comparison studies are often not appropriate in single-subject research. "SSD for R" is a robust set of statistical functions with wide applicability to single-subject research. It is a comprehensive package…

  7. X-Ray Emission Spectrometer Design with Single-Shot Pump-Probe and Resonant Excitation Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoth, Katherine; /SUNY, Buffalo /SLAC

    2012-08-28

    Core-level spectroscopy in the soft X-ray regime is a powerful tool for the study of chemical bonding processes. The ultrafast, ultrabright X-ray pulses generated by the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) allow these reactions to be studied in greater detail than ever before. In this study, we investigated a conceptual design of a spectrometer for the LCLS with imaging in the non-dispersive direction. This would allow single-shot collection of X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) measurements with varying laser pump X-ray probe delay or a variation of incoming X-ray energy over the illuminated area of the sample. Ray-tracing simulations were used to demonstrate how the components of the spectrometer affect its performance, allowing a determination of the optimal final design. These simulations showed that the spectrometer's non-dispersive focusing is extremely sensitive to the size of the sample footprint; the spectrometer is not able to image a footprint width larger than one millimeter with the required resolution. This is compatible with a single shot scheme that maps out the laser pump X-ray probe delay in the non-dispersive direction as well as resonant XES applications at normal incidence. However, the current capabilities of the Soft X-Ray (SXR) beamline at the LCLS do not produce the required energy range in a small enough sample footprint, hindering the single shot resonant XES application at SXR for chemical dynamics studies at surfaces. If an upgraded or future beamline at LCLS is developed with lower monochromator energy dispersion the width can be made small enough at the required energy range to be imaged by this spectrometer design.

  8. Comparison of Inversion (“flipping”) Rates Among Different Port Designs: A Single-Center Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etezadi, Vahid, E-mail: vahid.etezadi@umm.edu; Trerotola, Scott O., E-mail: streroto@uphs.upenn.edu [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2017-04-15

    PurposeTo compare incidence of port inversion among different types of implantable venous access devices.Materials and Methods Records of patients who underwent imaging-guided subcutaneous port placement without port fixation between July 2001 and April 2015 were reviewed with use of a quality assurance database. 1930 patients with complete follow-up (death or explant) were included in the study. Collected data included date and indication for port placement, port type, venous access site, immediate and long-term complications, indication for removal, and total number of catheter days. BMI of patients with inverted ports was also calculated.Results Port inversion within the pocket was observed in 18 patients (0.9%) including 7/82 (9%) of Dignity ports, 4/126 (3%) of Vaxcel plastic arm ports, 3/142 (2%) of Smartports, 2/100 (2%) of Powerports, 1/14 (7%) of Vaccess ports, and 1/1421 (0.07%) of Vortex LP ports. Among these designs, the inversion rate was significantly lower in Vortex LP ports (0.1%) (P < 0.05). There was a trend toward higher inversion rate of Dignity ports, which have a rectangular design with a relatively narrow base. Mean dwell in inverted ports was 114 days (7–580).Conclusion The incidence of port inversion without suture fixation of the port base to the pocket is extremely low. The present study shows differences in inversion incidence based on port design.Level of Evidence: Case Series, Level IV.

  9. Monolithic lithium disilicate complete single crowns with feather-edge preparation design in the posterior region: A multicentric retrospective study up to 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Johannes H; Cortellini, Davide; Granata, Stefano; Valenti, Marco

    2017-07-20

    This retrospective study evaluated the clinical success and survival of monolithic lithium disilicate single crowns in the posterior region fabricated with feather-edge margins and cemented with resin-based self-etching cement. In total, 627 pressed monolithic lithium disilicate restorations on posterior teeth (110 first premolars, 151 second premolars, 240 first molars, 121 second molars, 5 third molars) were placed in 335 patients. All teeth were prepared with feather-edge margins and restored with single crowns. The modified California Dental Association criteria were used to clinically evaluate subjects during regular maintenance recalls. The mean follow-up time was 48.17 months (SD, 27.7; range, 6 to 144). Nine crowns were replaced during the follow-up period due to bulk fracture of the material (overall 97.93% survival rate), and four teeth were extracted. No other technical or biologic failure was observed. In this retrospective evaluation, monolithic lithium disilicate crowns with feather-edge margins yielded clinical outcomes similar to those reported with other margin designs and materials. Following the same clinical protocol, crowns on second molars showed lower survival rates when compared to restorations on other teeth in the posterior region. Careful evaluation is mandatory in high-risk patients and terminal teeth. Alternative restorative materials, such as full-contour zirconia crowns, should be considered for the restoration of second molars.

  10. Single-Step Fabrication of Computationally Designed Microneedles by Continuous Liquid Interface Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley R Johnson

    Full Text Available Microneedles, arrays of micron-sized needles that painlessly puncture the skin, enable transdermal delivery of medications that are difficult to deliver using more traditional routes. Many important design parameters, such as microneedle size, shape, spacing, and composition, are known to influence efficacy, but are notoriously difficult to alter due to the complex nature of microfabrication techniques. Herein, we utilize a novel additive manufacturing ("3D printing" technique called Continuous Liquid Interface Production (CLIP to rapidly prototype sharp microneedles with tuneable geometries (size, shape, aspect ratio, spacing. This technology allows for mold-independent, one-step manufacturing of microneedle arrays of virtually any design in less than 10 minutes per patch. Square pyramidal CLIP microneedles composed of trimethylolpropane triacrylate, polyacrylic acid and photopolymerizable derivatives of polyethylene glycol and polycaprolactone were fabricated to demonstrate the range of materials that can be utilized within this platform for encapsulating and controlling the release of therapeutics. These CLIP microneedles effectively pierced murine skin ex vivo and released the fluorescent drug surrogate rhodamine.

  11. Design of a single flat null-screen for testing a parabolic trough solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Oliva, Víctor Iván; Campos-García, Manuel; Román-Hernández, Edwin; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustín

    2014-11-01

    We present a null-screen design for testing the shape quality of the reflecting surface of a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC). This technique is inexpensive, the whole surface is tested at once, and it is easy to implement. For this, we propose the design of a flat null-screen perpendicular to the optical axis of the PTSC in such a way that it allows testing of the full aperture; we compute the caustic associated with the reflected light rays on the desired surface and analyze the parameters that determine the null-screen dimensions. Additionally, we perform a numerical simulation to analyze the accuracy of the method by introducing random displacement errors into the measured data. Accuracies >0.35 mrad were found to evaluate the quality of surfaces with this method. The errors in the determination of the coordinates of the centroids of the reflected images must be measured with an accuracy >0.5 pixels, and the errors in the coordinates of the spots of the null-screen must be <0.5 mm.

  12. Design, structural investigation and physicochemical properties of benzotriazolium m-nitrophthalate monohydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekala, R.; Mani, Rajaboopathi; Jagdish, P.; Mathammal, R.

    2018-04-01

    The single crystals of organic salt benzotriazolium m-nitrophthalate monohydrate were grown by slow evaporation technique. It crystallizes in orthorhombic system with space group Pbca. The molecular interactions of the compound have been pictured using Hirshfeld surfaces and fingerprints plots and the results were compared with BZD+·mNPA-. The functional groups were identified by FTIR and FT-Raman spectra. The proton transfer from acid to base was identified from the 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The absorption and emission spectrum of BTA+·mNPA-·H2O was recorded in aqueous solution and different solvents, respectively The HOMO and LUMO energy gap of benzotriazole and BTA+·mNPA-·H2O were calculated using density functional theory (DFT). The thermal stability and melting point of hydrated salt was analysed and compared by TG-DTG/DSC study. The anti-oxidant activity of the title compound was evaluated by DPPH and ABTS+ Radical scavenging assay. The anti-microbial and anti-cancer activity showed a potential impact in the crystal.

  13. Hysteresis loop design by geometry of garnet film element with single domain wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skidanov, V A; Vetoshko, P M; Stempkovskiy, A L

    2011-01-01

    Numerical modeling and experimental investigation of magnetostatic stable states of two-domain structure in Bi-substituted uniaxial garnet film elements was made. Single domain walls (DW) between two opposite normally magnetized parts in isolated rectangular strip and strip-like bridge are found to exhibit different behavior. DW inside strip (bridge) suffers increasing repulsion (attraction) from nearest edge when shifted from element center. DW position center position is stable in isolated strip but bridge is magnetized spontaneously to one of two saturated states in zero external field. Isolated strip magnetization process occurs reversibly while bridge magnetization reversal occurs by coercive manner. Strip susceptibility and bridge coercive field are entirely defined by magnetostatic barrier created by element boundary stray field in case of constant DW length during magnetization reversal. Variation of strip and bridge boundary shape along DW trajectory gives the opportunity to create additional controllable potential profile due to DW surface energy modulation by DW length. Garnet elements with high Faraday rotation and low light switching field were developed for fine magnetic sensing and optical data processing applications.

  14. Single Qubit Spin Readout and Initialization in a Quantum Dot Quantum Computer: Design and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahan, Charles; Friesen, Mark; Joynt, Robert; Eriksson, M. A.

    2003-03-01

    Although electron spin qubits in semiconductors are attractive from the viewpoint of low environmental coupling and long coherence times, spin readout remains a challenge for quantum dot quantum computing. Unfortunately, promising schemes based on spin-charge transduction introduce external couplings in the form of reference qubits or Coulomb blockade leads. Here, we propose a twist on the spin-charge transduction scheme, converting spin information to orbital information within a single quantum dot (QD). The same QD can be used for initialization, gating, and readout, without unnecessary external couplings. We present detailed investigations into such a scheme in both SiGe and GaAs systems: simulations, including capacitive coupling to a RF-SET, calculations of coherent oscillation times which determine the read-out speed, and calculations of electron spin relaxation times which determine the initialization speed. We find that both initialization and readout can be performed within the same architecture. Work supported by NSF-QuBIC and MRSEC programs, ARDA, and NSA.

  15. Timetable Design for Minimizing Passenger Travel Time and Congestion for a Single Metro Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings a proposal for a timetable optimization model for minimizing the passenger travel time and congestion for a single metro line under time-dependent demand. The model is an integer-programming model that systemically considers the passenger travel time, the capacity of trains, and the capacity of platforms. A multi-objective function and a recursive optimization method are presented to solve the optimization problem. Using the model we can obtain an efficient timetable with minimal passenger travel time and minimal number of congestion events on platforms. Moreover, by increasing the number of dispatches, the critical point from congestion state to free-flow state and the optimal timetable with minimal cost for avoiding congestion on platforms can be obtained. The effectiveness of the model is evaluated by a real example. A half-regular timetable with fixed headways in each operation period and an irregular timetable with unfixed headway are investigated for comparison.

  16. Design and analysis of CMOS single photon counting avalanche photodiodes integrated with active quenching circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Young Soo

    2008-01-01

    The CMOS SPADs (Single Photon Avalanche Diodes) integrated with active quenching circuits were fabricated on same chip using AMIS 0.7 μm high voltage CMOS process without any process modifications. The SPADs have N+/P-substrate structure and their diameter of photo sensing area are 25 μm, 50 μm, 100 μm, 400 μm, and 800 μm. The avalanche multiplication is occurred at 10.7 V, and the photocurrent gain at 11 V reverse bias voltage is about 1000. In zero bias condition, the maximum quantum efficiency appears at 650 nm wavelength, and it corresponds to around 30%. The active quenching circuit is composed to a comparator, three monostable, and two MOS switch. As a circuit simulation results, the comparator and the monostable generate ∼22 nsec and ∼1 nsec delayed output pulse, respectively. The dead time of the active quenching circuits integrated with SPADs is about 100 nsec as a measured result. (author)

  17. Pharmaceutical 3D printing: Design and qualification of a single step print and fill capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derrick M; Kapoor, Yash; Klinzing, Gerard R; Procopio, Adam T

    2018-03-29

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing (3DP) has a potential to change how we envision manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry. A more common utilization for FDM 3DP is to build upon existing hot melt extrusion (HME) technology where the drug is dispersed in the polymer matrix. However, reliable manufacturing of drug-containing filaments remains a challenge along with the limitation of active ingredients which can sustain the processing risks involved in the HME process. To circumvent this obstacle, a single step FDM 3DP process was developed to manufacture thin-walled drug-free capsules which can be filled with dry or liquid drug product formulations. Drug release from these systems is governed by the combined dissolution of the FDM capsule 'shell' and the dosage form encapsulated in these shells. To prepare the shells, the 3D printer files (extension '.gcode') were modified by creating discrete zones, so-called 'zoning process', with individual print parameters. Capsules printed without the zoning process resulted in macroscopic print defects and holes. X-ray computed tomography, finite element analysis and mechanical testing were used to guide the zoning process and printing parameters in order to manufacture consistent and robust capsule shell geometries. Additionally, dose consistencies of drug containing liquid formulations were investigated in this work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictive modelling for packaging design: equilibrium modified atmosphere packages of fresh-cut vegetables subjected to a simulated distribution chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L; Devlieghere, F; Debevere, J

    2002-03-01

    The impact of temperature fluctuations in a simulated cold distribution chain, typical of commercial practice, was investigated on both the microbial and sensorial quality of equilibrium modified atmosphere (EMA) packaged minimally processed vegetables. The internal O2 concentration of the designed packages could be predicted for the different steps of the simulated distribution chain by applying an integrated mathematical system. The internal atmosphere in the packages remained in its aerobic range during storage in the chain due to the application of high permeable packaging films for O2 and CO2. Spoilage microorganisms were proliferating fast on minimally processed bell peppers and lettuce. Yeasts showed to be the shelf-life limiting group. Visual properties limited the sensorial shelf-life. Listeria monocytogenes was able to multiply on cucumber slices, survived on minimally processed lettuce and decreased in number on bell peppers due to the combination of low pH and refrigeration. Aeromonas caviae was multiplying on both cucumber slices and mixed lettuce, but was as well inhibited by the low pH of bell peppers. Storage temperature control was found to be of paramount importance for the microbial (spoilage and safety) and sensorial quality evaluation of EMA-packaged minimally processed vegetables.

  19. An Optimized Design of Single-Channel Beta-Gamma Coincidence Phoswich Detector by Geant4 Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized single-channel phoswich well detector design has been proposed and assessed in order to improve beta-gamma coincidence measurement sensitivity of xenon radioisotopes. This newly designed phoswich well detector consists of a plastic beta counting cell (BC404 embedded in a CsI(Tl crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The BC404 is configured in a cylindrical pipe shape to minimise light collection deterioration. The CsI(Tl crystal consists of a rectangular part and a semicylindrical scintillation part as a light reflector to increase light gathering. Compared with a PhosWatch detector, the final optimized detector geometry showed 15% improvement in the energy resolution of a 131mXe 129.4 keV conversion electron peak. The predicted beta-gamma coincidence efficiencies of xenon radioisotopes have also been improved accordingly.

  20. Design and Construction of an Autonomous Low-Cost Pulse Height Analyzer and a Single Channel Analyzer for Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, A.A.; Trujillo, J.M.; Morales, A.L.; Tobon, J.E.; Gancedo, J.R.; Reyes, L.

    2005-01-01

    A multichannel analyzer (MCA) and a single channel-analyzer (SCA) for Moessbauer spectrometry application have been designed and built. Both systems include low-cost digital and analog components. A microcontroller manages, either in PHA or MCS mode, the data acquisition, data storage and setting of the pulse discriminator limits. The user can monitor the system from an external PC through the serial port with the RS232 communication protocol. A graphic interface made with the LabVIEW software allows the user to adjust digitally the lower and upper limits of the pulse discriminator, and to visualize as well as save the PHA spectra in a file. The system has been tested using a 57Co radioactive source and several iron compounds, yielding satisfactory results. The low cost of its design, construction and maintenance make this equipment an attractive choice when assembling a Moessbauer spectrometer

  1. Structural Design of Systems with Safe Behavior under Single and Multiple Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Staroswiecki, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Handling of multiple simultaneous faults is a complex issue in fault-tolerant control. The design task is particularly made difficult by to the numerous different cases that need be analyzed. Aiming at safe fault-handling, this paper shows how structural analysis can be applied to find...... the analytical redundancy relations for all relevant combinations of faults, and can cope with the complexity and size of a real system. Being essential for fault-tolerant control schemes that shall handle particular cases of faults/failures, fault isolation is addressed. The paper introduces an extension...... to structural analysis to disclose which faults could be isolated from a structural point of view using active fault isolation. Results from application on a marine control system illustrate the concepts....

  2. Design of 650 MHz, β=0.61, 5-cell SRF cavity and development of single cell niobium cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, Sudeshna; Som, Sumit; Bhattacharyya, Pranab

    2015-01-01

    In India, DAE laboratories and other institutes are now actively involved in research and development activities on SRF cavities and associated technologies for the proposed high current, high energy proton linear accelerators like ISNS/IADS and also for the FERMILAB PIP-II program under Indian institutions-Fermilab collaboration (IIFC). As part of the above activities, VECC, Kolkata, has been involved in the design, analysis and development of a 650 MHz, β=0.61, 5-cell elliptical shape Superconducting RF linac cavity. RF design involves optimization of the geometry to get acceptable values of field enhancement factors (magnetic and electric), R/Q , Geometric factor, coupling factor and field flatness. This paper describes the RF design using 2-D superfish and 3-D CST Microwave studio and multipacting analysis using 2-D Multipac2.1 and 3-D CST Particle Studio. A prototype 1-cell aluminum cavity and a prototype 5-cell copper cavity have been fabricated using die-punch assembly designed for fabrication of elliptical half-cells to check the procedures for forming and to make sure the desired frequency and field flatness could be obtained. RF characterization has been carried out for both the prototypes using Vector Network Analyzer and Bead pull measurement set up.The fabrication of a single-cell niobium cavity has been carried out indigenously and with the help of Electron Beam Welding (EBW) facility at IUAC, New Delhi. CMM measurement and RF characterization of the niobium half cells and full cell cavities have been carried out. This paper describes the development and measurement of prototype cavities and single cell niobium cavity. (author)

  3. Design of a single-borehole hydraulic test programme allowing for interpretation-based errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.

    1987-07-01

    Hydraulic testing using packers in single boreholes is one of the most important sources of data to safety assessment modelling in connection with the disposal of radioactive waste. It is also one of the most time-consuming and expensive. It is important that the results are as reliable as possible and as accurate as necessary for the use that is made of them. There are many causes of possible error and inaccuracy ranging from poor field practice to inappropriate interpretation procedure. The report examines and attempts to quantify the size of error arising from the accidental use of an inappropriate or inadequate interpretation procedure. In doing so, it can be seen which interpretation procedure or combination of procedures results in least error. Lastly, the report attempts to use the previous conclusions from interpretation to propose forms of field test procedure where interpretation-based errors will be minimised. Hydraulic tests (sometimes known as packer tests) come in three basic forms: slug/pulse, constant flow and constant head. They have different characteristics, some measuring a variable volume of rock (dependent on hydraulic conductivity) and some having a variable duration (dependent on hydraulic conductivity). A combination of different tests in the same interval is seen as desirable. For the purposes of assessing interpretation-based errors, slug and pulse tests are considered together as are constant flow and constant head tests. The same method is used in each case to assess errors. The method assumes that the simplest analysis procedure (cylindrical flow in homogeneous isotropic porous rock) will be used on each set of field data. The error is assessed by calculating synthetic data for alternative configurations (e.g. fissured rock, anisotropic rock, inhomogeneous rock - i.e. skin - etc.) and then analyzing this data using the simplest analysis procedure. 28 refs., 26 figs

  4. Designing Kerr interactions using multiple superconducting qubit types in a single circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Matthew; Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran

    2018-02-01

    The engineering of Kerr interactions is of great interest for processing quantum information in multipartite quantum systems and for investigating many-body physics in a complex cavity-qubit network. We study how coupling multiple different types of superconducting qubits to the same cavity modes can be used to modify the self- and cross-Kerr effects acting on the cavities and demonstrate that this type of architecture could be of significant benefit for quantum technologies. Using both analytical perturbation theory results and numerical simulations, we first show that coupling two superconducting qubits with opposite anharmonicities to a single cavity enables the effective self-Kerr interaction to be diminished, while retaining the number splitting effect that enables control and measurement of the cavity field. We demonstrate that this reduction of the self-Kerr effect can maintain the fidelity of coherent states and generalised Schrödinger cat states for much longer than typical coherence times in realistic devices. Next, we find that the cross-Kerr interaction between two cavities can be modified by coupling them both to the same pair of qubit devices. When one of the qubits is tunable in frequency, the strength of entangling interactions between the cavities can be varied on demand, forming the basis for logic operations on the two modes. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of producing an array of cavities and qubits where intermediary and on-site qubits can tune the strength of self- and cross-Kerr interactions across the whole system. This architecture could provide a way to engineer interesting many-body Hamiltonians and be a useful platform for quantum simulation in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

  5. Design of a single-chain multi-enzyme fusion protein establishing the polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Jane A; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2010-05-03

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates are biodegradable biocompatible polymers naturally produced by various bacteria and archaea. Biotechnological production in transgenic plants has already been demonstrated with efficient polyhydroxybutyrate production requiring targeting of the enzymes to the chloroplasts. Three enzymes are required to establish the polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis pathway in non-naturally producing microorganisms or plants. To facilitate production of biopolyesters in plants, a gene encoding a translational fusion of the polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis enzymes PhaA (beta-ketothiolase), PhaB (acetoacetyl-CoA reductase) and PhaC (PHA synthase) was constructed. Escherichia coli harboring a plasmid encoding this fusion protein (PhaA-PhaB-PhaC) under control of the lac promoter accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate contributing to 0.4% (w/w) of cellular dry weight. Insertion of an extended linker between PhaA and PhaB increased polyhydroxybutyrate accumulation to 3.9% (w/w) of cellular dry weight. Introduction of a second plasmid encoding PhaA and PhaB restored polyhydroxybutyrate accumulation to wildtype levels of about 35% (w/w) of cellular dry weight suggesting that the functions of PhaA and/or PhaB were limiting factors. Deletion of PhaA in trans led to significantly reduced polyhydroxybutyrate production suggesting that the PhaA activity in the fusion protein is reduced. This study showed that a single-chain translational fusion protein comprising the three enzymes essential for polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis can be engineered which will strongly facilitate the establishment of recombinant polyhydroxybutyrate production organisms particularly requiring targeting to sub-cellular compartments such as the chloroplasts in plants. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Design and characterization of a single channel two-liquid capacitor and its application to hyperelastic strain sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanliangzi; Sun, Xiaoda; Hildreth, Owen J; Rykaczewski, Konrad

    2015-03-07

    Room temperature liquid-metal microfluidic devices are attractive systems for hyperelastic strain sensing. These liquid-phase electronics are intrinsically soft and retain their functionality even when stretched to several times their original length. Currently two types of liquid metal-based strain sensors exist for in-plane measurements: single-microchannel resistive and two-microchannel capacitive devices. With a winding serpentine channel geometry, these sensors typically have a footprint of about a square centimeter. This large footprint of an individual device limits the number of sensors that can be embedded into, for example, electronic fabric or skin. In this work we introduce an alternative capacitor design consisting of two liquid metal electrodes separated by a liquid dielectric material within a single straight channel. Using a liquid insulator instead of a solid elastomer enables us to tailor the system's capacitance by selecting high or low dielectric constant liquids. We quantify the effects of the electrode geometry including the diameter, spacing, and meniscus shape as well as the dielectric constant of the insulating liquid on the overall system's capacitance. We also develop a procedure for fabricating the two-liquid capacitor within a single straight polydiemethylsiloxane channel and demonstrate that this device can have about 25 times higher capacitance per sensor's base area when compared to two-channel liquid metal capacitors. Lastly, we characterize the response of this compact device to strain and identify operational issues arising from complex hydrodynamics near liquid-liquid and liquid-elastomer interfaces.

  7. Test-compatible confidence intervals for adaptive two-stage single-arm designs with binary endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Kevin; Kieser, Meinhard

    2018-01-01

    Inference after two-stage single-arm designs with binary endpoint is challenging due to the nonunique ordering of the sampling space in multistage designs. We illustrate the problem of specifying test-compatible confidence intervals for designs with nonconstant second-stage sample size and present two approaches that guarantee confidence intervals consistent with the test decision. Firstly, we extend the well-known Clopper-Pearson approach of inverting a family of two-sided hypothesis tests from the group-sequential case to designs with fully adaptive sample size. Test compatibility is achieved by using a sample space ordering that is derived from a test-compatible estimator. The resulting confidence intervals tend to be conservative but assure the nominal coverage probability. In order to assess the possibility of further improving these confidence intervals, we pursue a direct optimization approach minimizing the mean width of the confidence intervals. While the latter approach produces more stable coverage probabilities, it is also slightly anti-conservative and yields only negligible improvements in mean width. We conclude that the Clopper-Pearson-type confidence intervals based on a test-compatible estimator are the best choice if the nominal coverage probability is not to be undershot and compatibility of test decision and confidence interval is to be preserved. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Design comparison of single phase outer and inner-rotor hybrid excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.

  9. Effect of Maitland mobilization and exercises for the treatment of shoulder adhesive capsulitis: a single-case design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricar, N; Shacklady, C; McLoughlin, L

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this single-case design (ABCBC) was to investigate the response of shoulder motions, pain, and function to two commonly used physiotherapy management approaches. An individual with stage three shoulder adhesive capsulitis was treated with exercise (phase B) and exercise plus mobilization (phase C). Initially, a "baseline" phase (phase A) when treatment had not started was established for comparison. Two types of Maitland "accessory" glenohumeral mobilization techniques, anteroposterior mobilization in shoulder flexion and longitudinal caudad in shoulder abduction, were evaluated during phase C. The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) was used to monitor pain and functional disability, and four shoulder movements (flexion, abduction, internal, and external rotations) were measured. The results were evaluated by using single-case design analysis method of Split Middle Technique and visual observation. The SPADI scores deteriorated in phase A but improved in phase B1, C1, and B2. All four shoulder movements improved under both management approaches, although more gain in motion was observed when mobilizations were added to an exercise program. The exercise plus mobilization intervention shows promise as a cost-effective management. The deterioration in shoulder motion, pain, and function observed in phase A may suggest benefit of an earlier physiotherapy intervention.

  10. Design and testing of an integrated electronically controlled capacitor for integral and fractional horse power single phase induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiz, Jawad; Kasebi, F.; Pillay, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses a problem that occurs in many small appliances. As such, it is an important problem of energy utilization. To improve the performance of a single phase capacitor start/run induction motor, FET type power transistors could be used to replace a SCR H bridge. Such a configuration can lead to a simpler and more inexpensive circuit for the electronically controlled capacitor. In this paper, ICs and an OP-AMP are used to design an electronically controlled capacitor for a single phase induction motor. The design can compensate for the input voltage fluctuations that are present in the normal operation of the motor. In addition, an improvement in its performance can be obtained. At present, the use of a tachometer can be considered a disadvantage of the proposed scheme. Thus, a configuration that enables removal of the tachometer, while maintaining reasonable cost, is desirable. In addition, replacing the ac capacitor with one rated for dc can lead to a system reduction, in addition to a considerable reduction in the size of the circuit due to the use of integrated circuits

  11. Design and Analysis of a Single-Camera Omnistereo Sensor for Quadrotor Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Carlos; Valenti, Roberto G.; Guo, Ling; Xiao, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design and 3D sensing performance of an omnidirectional stereo (omnistereo) vision system applied to Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). The proposed omnistereo sensor employs a monocular camera that is co-axially aligned with a pair of hyperboloidal mirrors (a vertically-folded catadioptric configuration). We show that this arrangement provides a compact solution for omnidirectional 3D perception while mounted on top of propeller-based MAVs (not capable of large payloads). The theoretical single viewpoint (SVP) constraint helps us derive analytical solutions for the sensor’s projective geometry and generate SVP-compliant panoramic images to compute 3D information from stereo correspondences (in a truly synchronous fashion). We perform an extensive analysis on various system characteristics such as its size, catadioptric spatial resolution, field-of-view. In addition, we pose a probabilistic model for the uncertainty estimation of 3D information from triangulation of back-projected rays. We validate the projection error of the design using both synthetic and real-life images against ground-truth data. Qualitatively, we show 3D point clouds (dense and sparse) resulting out of a single image captured from a real-life experiment. We expect the reproducibility of our sensor as its model parameters can be optimized to satisfy other catadioptric-based omnistereo vision under different circumstances. PMID:26861351

  12. Design Of Single-Axis And Dual-Axis Solar Tracking Systems Protected Against High Wind Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Salaheldin Elsherbiny

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is rapidly gaining ground as an important mean of expanding renewable energy use. Solar tracking is employed in order to maximize collected solar radiation by a photovoltaic panel. In this paper we present a prototype for Automatic solar tracker that is designed using Arduino UNO with Wind sensor to Cease Wind effect on panels if wind speed exceeds certain threshold. The Proposed solar tracker tracks the location of the sun anywhere in any time by calculating the position of the sun. For producing the maximum amount of solar energy a solar panel must always be perpendicular to the source of light. Because the sun motion plane varies daily and during the day it moves from east to west one needs two axis tracking to follow the suns position. Maximum possible power is collected when two axis tracking is done. However two axis tracking is relatively costly and complex. A compromise between maximum power collection and system simplicity is obtained by single axis tracking where the plane North south axis is fixed while the east west motion is accomplished. This work deals with the design of both single and two axis tracking systems. Automatic trackers is also compared to Fixed one in terms of Energy generated Efficiency Cost and System reliability.

  13. Mood disturbances during combined oral contraceptive use and the effect of androgen supplementation. Results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-case alternation design pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumen, Frans J M E; Zimmerman, Yvette; van Wijck, Annemieke; Ter Kuile, Moniek M; Onghena, Patrick; Coelingh Bennink, Herjan J T

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of androgen supplementation in healthy combined oral contraceptive (COC) users who experience mood disturbances during COC-use only. Six women with mood disturbances during COC-use only, received COC with co-treatment of 50 mg dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) during three cycles and placebo during another three cycles in an individualized random order. Daily mood rating was measured by a single item: 'In what kind of mood have you been in the past 24 h?' The results were analysed using a randomisation test for single-case experimental designs. The p values for the alternation design randomisation tests on the raw data of the six healthy individuals varied between 0.21 and 1, indicating that the average daily mood ratings of the active treatment DHEA are not statistically significantly larger than the average daily mood ratings of placebo. The combined p value of the subjects using a DRSP-containing pill was 0.97, and of the subjects using an LNG-containing pill was 0.65, indicating no statistically significant treatment effect for any of the pill types. In this single-case alternation design study, concomitant treatment with DHEA for intermittent periods of 4 weeks did not result in improvement of mood disturbances related to COC-use, but had also no side-effects.

  14. Circular revisit orbits design for responsive mission over a single target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taibo; Xiang, Junhua; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2016-10-01

    The responsive orbits play a key role in addressing the mission of Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) because of their capabilities. These capabilities are usually focused on supporting specific targets as opposed to providing global coverage. One subtype of responsive orbits is repeat coverage orbit which is nearly circular in most remote sensing applications. This paper deals with a special kind of repeating ground track orbit, referred to as circular revisit orbit. Different from traditional repeat coverage orbits, a satellite on circular revisit orbit can visit a target site at both the ascending and descending stages in one revisit cycle. This typology of trajectory allows a halving of the traditional revisit time and does a favor to get useful information for responsive applications. However the previous reported numerical methods in some references often cost lots of computation or fail to obtain such orbits. To overcome this difficulty, an analytical method to determine the existence conditions of the solutions to revisit orbits is presented in this paper. To this end, the mathematical model of circular revisit orbit is established under the central gravity model and the J2 perturbation. A constraint function of the circular revisit orbit is introduced, and the monotonicity of that function has been studied. The existent conditions and the number of such orbits are naturally worked out. Taking the launch cost into consideration, optimal design model of circular revisit orbit is established to achieve a best orbit which visits a target twice a day in the morning and in the afternoon respectively for several days. The result shows that it is effective to apply circular revisit orbits in responsive application such as reconnoiter of natural disaster.

  15. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Pettiway, Keon

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions by desig......In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions...... by designers, planners, etc. (staging from above) and mobile subjects (staging from below). A research agenda for studying situated practices of mobility and mobilities design is outlined in three directions: foci of studies, methods and approaches, and epistemologies and frames of thinking. Jensen begins...... with a brief description of how movement is studied within social sciences after the “mobilities turn” versus the idea of physical movement in transport geography and engineering. He then explains how “mobilities design” was derived from connections between traffic and architecture. Jensen concludes...

  16. Attachment systems for mandibular single-implant overdentures: an in vitro retention force investigation on different designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabeeha, Nabeel; Atieh, Momen; Swain, Michael V; Payne, Alan G T

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the retentive force of six different attachment systems used for mandibular single-implant overdentures, including two prototype large ball attachment designs. Two prototype ball attachments of larger dimensions (7.9 and 5.9 mm) and four commercially available ball and stud attachments of standard dimensions (2.25 and 4.0 mm) were evaluated on three identical test casts resembling an edentulous mandible with severe residual ridge resorption. Five samples from each attachment system (n=30) were connected to three different implants (8.0-mm wide diameter, 3.75-mm regular diameter, and 4.0-mm regular diameter). An Instron testing machine with a computer software package was used to deliver a vertical dislodging force at a cross-head speed of 50 mm/min to each overdenture sample from the anterior direction. A total of 300 pull tests were conducted (50 per attachment system). The maximum load (retentive force) required to separate each overdenture from the supporting implant was then measured. The highest retentive force (36.97+/-2.23 N) was achieved with the 7.9-mm prototype ball attachment design, followed in a decreasing order by the 5.9-mm prototype ball attachment design (32.06+/-2.59 N), the standard 2.25-mm ball attachment (17.32+/-3.68 N), Locator white (12.39+/-0.55 N), Locator pink (9.40 N+/-0.74 N), and Locator blue (3.83+/-0.64 N). A statistically significant difference (Pattachments. Attachment systems of larger dimensions provided higher retentive forces for mandibular single-implant overdentures. Further in vitro and in vivo research is necessary to determine prosthodontic outcomes with these attachments in edentulous patients prior to their routine clinical use internationally.

  17. Single-Camera Trap Survey Designs Miss Detections: Impacts on Estimates of Occupancy and Community Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Brent S; Nielsen, Clayton K; Holzmueller, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    The use of camera traps as a tool for studying wildlife populations is commonplace. However, few have considered how the number of detections of wildlife differ depending upon the number of camera traps placed at cameras-sites, and how this impacts estimates of occupancy and community composition. During December 2015-February 2016, we deployed four camera traps per camera-site, separated into treatment groups of one, two, and four camera traps, in southern Illinois to compare whether estimates of wildlife community metrics and occupancy probabilities differed among survey methods. The overall number of species detected per camera-site was greatest with the four-camera survey method (Pcamera survey method detected 1.25 additional species per camera-site than the one-camera survey method, and was the only survey method to completely detect the ground-dwelling silvicolous community. The four-camera survey method recorded individual species at 3.57 additional camera-sites (P = 0.003) and nearly doubled the number of camera-sites where white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were detected compared to one- and two-camera survey methods. We also compared occupancy rates estimated by survey methods; as the number of cameras deployed per camera-site increased, occupancy estimates were closer to naïve estimates, detection probabilities increased, and standard errors of detection probabilities decreased. Additionally, each survey method resulted in differing top-ranked, species-specific occupancy models when habitat covariates were included. Underestimates of occurrence and misrepresented community metrics can have significant impacts on species of conservation concern, particularly in areas where habitat manipulation is likely. Having multiple camera traps per site revealed significant shortcomings with the common one-camera trap survey method. While we realize survey design is often constrained logistically, we suggest increasing effort to at least two camera traps

  18. The effect of phonation into a straw on the vocal tract adjustments and formant frequencies. A preliminary MRI study on a single subject completed with acoustic results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laukkanen, A. M.; Horáček, Jaromír; Krupa, P.; Švec, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2012), s. 50-57 ISSN 1746-8094 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : vocal exercises * semi-occlusions * vocal tract setting Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.074, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1746809411000097

  19. Engineering design and integration of in-vessel single turn segmental coil in vacuum vessel of SST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayswal, Snehal; Chauhan, P.; Santra, P.; Vasava, K.; Perekh, T.; Patel, H.; Biswas, P.; Pradhan, S.

    2017-04-01

    SST-1 tokamak is having the error field due to unsymmetrical positioning of Toroidal field coils which push the plasma to inner side from its major radius of 1100 mm. hence it is required to install the In-vessel Coil (PF6) at a location of 1350 mm radius and elevation of 350 mm above and below the mid plane of the toroidal field coils. The In-Vessel coil was decided to make in eight segments for futuristic use, to control the individual localized error field correction by supplying the different current. A single turn, eight segments, copper conductor with 18 mm diameter with GFRP insulation and in housed in SS304 L casing to carry 8000 A current for 10 s was designed and installed in vacuum vessel of SST-1. This paper will present the design drivers, material selection, advantages and constraints of the in-vessel coils, its conceptual and engineering design, CAD models, finite element analysis using ANSYS, its fabrication, quality assurance/control and assembly/integration aspects inside vacuum vessel of SST-1.

  20. Evaluating statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in single-case experimental designs: an SPSS method to analyze univariate data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maric, Marija; de Haan, Else; Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; Wolters, Lidewij H.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    Single-case experimental designs are useful methods in clinical research practice to investigate individual client progress. Their proliferation might have been hampered by methodological challenges such as the difficulty applying existing statistical procedures. In this article, we describe a