Sample records for single subject analysis

  1. Social antecedents of children's eyewtness testimony a single-subject experimental analysis. (United States)

    Doepke, Karla J; Henderson, Angela L; Critchfield, Thomas S


    In a laboratory simulation, a single-subject design was used to examine the effects of two types of social influence on children's eyewitness testimony, which has not been the subject of systematic behavioral analyses. This study replicates and extends findings from group-comparison studies, and shows that a topic of pressing social importance is amenable to analysis at the individual level, and therefore, potentially, to a behavioral analysis.

  2. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research. (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell


    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  3. Improving Treatment Plan Implementation in Schools: A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Design Studies (United States)

    Noell, George H.; Gansle, Kristin A.; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Knox, R. Maria; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Dahir, Amanda


    Twenty-nine peer-reviewed journal articles that analyzed intervention implementation in schools using single-case experimental designs were meta-analyzed. These studies reported 171 separate data paths and provided 3,991 data points. The meta-analysis was accomplished by fitting data extracted from graphs in mixed linear growth models. This…

  4. Microscale consolidation analysis of relaxation behavior of single living chondrocytes subjected to varying strain-rates. (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Dung; Oloyede, Adekunle; Singh, Sanjleena; Gu, YuanTong


    Besides the elastic stiffness, the relaxation behavior of single living cells is also of interest of various researchers when studying cell mechanics. It is hypothesized that the relaxation response of the cells is governed by both intrinsic viscoelasticity of the solid phase and fluid-solid interactions mechanisms. There are a number of mechanical models have been developed to investigate the relaxation behavior of single cells. However, there is lack of model enable to accurately capture both of the mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, the porohyperelastic (PHE) model, which is an extension of the consolidation theory, combined with inverse Finite Element Analysis (FEA) technique was used at the first time to investigate the relaxation response of living chondrocytes. This model was also utilized to study the dependence of relaxation behavior of the cells on strain-rates. The stress-relaxation experiments under the various strain-rates were conducted with the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results have demonstrated that the PHE model could effectively capture the stress-relaxation behavior of the living chondrocytes, especially at intermediate to high strain-rates. Although this model gave some errors at lower strain-rates, its performance was acceptable. Therefore, the PHE model is properly a promising model for single cell mechanics studies. Moreover, it has been found that the hydraulic permeability of living chondrocytes reduced with decreasing of strain-rates. It might be due to the intracellular fluid volume fraction and the fluid pore pressure gradients of chondrocytes were higher when higher strain-rates applied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Picture Exchange Communication System with Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Studies (United States)

    Hart, Stephanie L.; Banda, Devender R.


    Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a picture-based communication strategy used to teach communication skills to persons with developmental disabilities including autism. This article systematically reviews 13 published single-subject studies to examine the effectiveness of PECS, the effects of PECS on speech and problem behaviors,…

  6. Self-Management Interventions on Students with Autism: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Research (United States)

    Carr, Monica E.; Moore, Dennis W.; Anderson, Angelika


    Self-management interventions aimed at skill acquisition and/or improving behavior of students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders were examined. Twenty-three single-subject research design studies met inclusion criteria. Quality assessment of these studies was conducted using the What Works Clearinghouse guidelines, and treatment effect…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla TEKİN


    Full Text Available In this study, elasto-plastic stress analysis is carried out in a polymer matrix composite cantilever beam of arbitrary fiber orientation subjected to a single transverse force applied to the free end by using the anisotropic elasticity theory. The residual stress component of ?x and yield points are determined for 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° fiber orientation angles. The yielding begins for 0° and 90° fiber orientation angles at the upper and lower surfaces of the beam at the same distances from the free end. It is seen that the yielding begins for 30°, 45° and 60° fiber orientation angles at the upper surface of the beam. The intensity of the residual stress component of ?x is maximum at the upper and lower surfaces of the beam. In this study, the residual stress component of ?x obtained for the polymer matrix composite thermoplastic cantilever beam reinforced by reinforced unidirectional fibers is compared with that of the thermoplastic cantilever beam reinforced by woven Cr-Ni steel fibers.

  8. Assessment of body composition in subjects with metabolic syndrome comparing single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and bioelectrical spectroscopy. (United States)

    Cloetens, Lieselotte; Johansson-Persson, Anna; Helgegren, Hannah; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Uusitupa, Matti; Åkesson, Björn; Önning, Gunilla


    The aim of this study was to investigate the agreement between body composition measurements made with two methods-single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (SF-BIA) and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS). The body composition measurements using SF-BIA and BIS were performed seven times during 6 months on 41 patients (13 men and 28 women) with metabolic syndrome who were taking part in a dietary intervention study. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] fat mass (FM) and median [interquartile range (IQR)] FM% measured with SF-BIA were 32.7 (6.7) kg and 36.3 (30.3-39.3)%, respectively, compared with 38.2 (8.7) kg and 40.9 (35.5-45.6)%, respectively, using BIS. The median (IQR) fat-free mass (FFM) was 60.0 (53.3-73.5) kg according to SF-BIA and 55.4 (48.8-66.5) kg according to BIS. These results obtained with the two methods were significantly different (P<0.001). Still highly significant correlations were found between the results obtained with SF-BIA and BIS for FM and FFM (all r≥0.89, P<0.001). Using Bland-Altman analysis, the bias was found to be -5.4 (4.1) kg for FM, -5.5 (3.7)% for FM%, and 5.4 (4.1) kg for FFM. Rather wide limits of agreement were found for FM, FM%, and FFM. Body composition data obtained using SF-BIA and BIS in subjects with metabolic syndrome were highly correlated but not interchangeable. FM was systematically lower when using SF-BIA than when using BIS.

  9. Motion Correction of Single-Voxel Spectroscopy by Independent Component Analysis Applied to Spectra From Nonanesthetized Pediatric Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nijs, Robin; Miranda, Maria J.; Hansen, Lars Kai


    the influence of physiologic motion such as cardiac and respiratory motion on the data is limited, it can be compensated for without data loss. Individual acquisitions hampered by subject movements, on the other hand, need to be rejected if no correction or compensation is possible. If the individual......For single-voxel spectroscopy, the acquisition of the spectrum is typically repeated n times and then combined with a factor in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. In practice, the acquisitions are not only affected by random noise but also by physiologic motion and subject movements. Since...

  10. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  11. The Utility of Single Subject Design Research (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle D.


    Single subject design (SSD) research is a quantitative approach used to investigate basic and applied research questions. It has been used for decades to examine issues of social importance such as those related to general and special education strategies, therapeutic approaches in mental health, community health practices, safety, and business…

  12. N-of-1-pathways MixEnrich: advancing precision medicine via single-subject analysis in discovering dynamic changes of transcriptomes. (United States)

    Li, Qike; Schissler, A Grant; Gardeux, Vincent; Achour, Ikbel; Kenost, Colleen; Berghout, Joanne; Li, Haiquan; Zhang, Hao Helen; Lussier, Yves A


    Transcriptome analytic tools are commonly used across patient cohorts to develop drugs and predict clinical outcomes. However, as precision medicine pursues more accurate and individualized treatment decisions, these methods are not designed to address single-patient transcriptome analyses. We previously developed and validated the N-of-1-pathways framework using two methods, Wilcoxon and Mahalanobis Distance (MD), for personal transcriptome analysis derived from a pair of samples of a single patient. Although, both methods uncover concordantly dysregulated pathways, they are not designed to detect dysregulated pathways with up- and down-regulated genes (bidirectional dysregulation) that are ubiquitous in biological systems. We developed N-of-1-pathways MixEnrich, a mixture model followed by a gene set enrichment test, to uncover bidirectional and concordantly dysregulated pathways one patient at a time. We assess its accuracy in a comprehensive simulation study and in a RNA-Seq data analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). In presence of bidirectionally dysregulated genes in the pathway or in presence of high background noise, MixEnrich substantially outperforms previous single-subject transcriptome analysis methods, both in the simulation study and the HNSCCs data analysis (ROC Curves; higher true positive rates; lower false positive rates). Bidirectional and concordant dysregulated pathways uncovered by MixEnrich in each patient largely overlapped with the quasi-gold standard compared to other single-subject and cohort-based transcriptome analyses. The greater performance of MixEnrich presents an advantage over previous methods to meet the promise of providing accurate personal transcriptome analysis to support precision medicine at point of care.

  13. Fibromyalgia Symptom Reduction by Online Behavioral Self-monitoring, Longitudinal Single Subject Analysis and Automated Delivery of Individualized Guidance. (United States)

    Collinge, William; Yarnold, Paul; Soltysik, Robert


    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex chronic pain condition that is difficult to treat. The prevailing approach is an integration of pharmacological, psycho-educational, and behavioral strategies. Information technology offers great potential for FM sufferers to systemically monitor symptoms as well as potential impacts of various management strategies. This study aimed to evaluate effects of a web-based, self-monitoring and symptom management system (SMARTLog) that analyzes personal self-monitoring data and delivers data-based feedback over time. Subjects were self-referred, anonymous, and recruited via publicity on FM advocacy websites. Standardized instruments assessed health status, self-efficacy, and locus of control at baseline and monthly during participation. Subjects were encouraged to complete the SMARTLog several times weekly. Within-subject, univariate, and multivariate analyses were used to derive classification trees for each user associating specific behavior variables with symptom levels over time. Moderate use (3 times weekly x 3 months) increased likelihood of clinically significant improvements in pain, memory, gastrointestinal problems, depression, fatigue, and concentration; heavy use (4.5 times weekly x five months) produced the above plus improvement in stiffness and sleep difficulties. Individualized, web-based behavioral self-monitoring with personally-tailored feedback can enable FM sufferers to significantly reduce symptom levels over time.

  14. Handbook of statistical methods single subject design

    CERN Document Server

    Satake, Eiki; Maxwell, David L


    This book is a practical guide of the most commonly used approaches in analyzing and interpreting single-subject data. It arranges the methodologies used in a logical sequence using an array of research studies from the existing published literature to illustrate specific applications. The book provides a brief discussion of each approach such as visual, inferential, and probabilistic model, the applications for which it is intended, and a step-by-step illustration of the test as used in an actual research study.

  15. Estimating Intervention Effects across Different Types of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: Empirical Illustration (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M.; Onghena, Patrick; Heyvaert, Mieke; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim


    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the multilevel meta-analysis of results from single-subject experimental designs of different types, including AB phase designs, multiple-baseline designs, ABAB reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs. Current methodological work on the meta-analysis of single-subject experimental designs…

  16. Microarray expression profiling of human dental pulp from single subject. (United States)

    Tete, Stefano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Scioletti, Anna Paola; Tranasi, Michelangelo; Raicu, Florina; Paolantonio, Michele; Stuppia, Liborio; Vinci, Raffaele; Gherlone, Enrico; Ciampoli, Cristian; Sberna, Maria Teresa; Conti, Pio


    Microarray is a recently developed simultaneous analysis of expression patterns of thousand of genes. The aim of this research was to evaluate the expression profile of human healthy dental pulp in order to find the presence of genes activated and encoding for proteins involved in the physiological process of human dental pulp. We report data obtained by analyzing expression profiles of human tooth pulp from single subjects, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA. Experiments were performed on a high-density array able to analyse about 21,000 oligonucleotide sequences of about 70 bases in duplicate, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA from the pulp of a single tooth. Obtained data were analyzed using the S.A.M. system (Significance Analysis of Microarray) and genes were merged according to their molecular functions and biological process by the Onto-Express software. The microarray analysis revealed 362 genes with specific pulp expression. Genes showing significant high expression were classified in genes involved in tooth development, protoncogenes, genes of collagen, DNAse, Metallopeptidases and Growth factors. We report a microarray analysis, carried out by extraction of total RNA from specimens of healthy human dental pulp tissue. This approach represents a powerful tool in the study of human normal and pathological pulp, allowing minimization of the genetic variability due to the pooling of samples from different individuals.

  17. Image quality and radiation dose of single heartbeat 640-slice coronary CT angiography: A comparison between patients with chronic Atrial Fibrillation and subjects in normal sinus rhythm by propensity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Cesare, Ernesto, E-mail: [Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, Division of Radiotherapy, Laboratory of Radiobiology, University of L’Aquila (Italy); Gennarelli, Antonio; Di Sibio, Alessandra; Felli, Valentina; Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, Division of Radiology, Laboratory of Radiobiology, University of L’Aquila (Italy); Gravina, Giovanni Luca [Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, Division of Radiotherapy, Laboratory of Radiobiology, University of L’Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, Division of Radiology, Laboratory of Radiobiology, University of L’Aquila (Italy)


    Highlights: •Atrial Fibrillation (AF) may affect CCTA image quality. •We compare the results of single heartbeat CCTA in subjects with chronic AF and in sinus rhythm. •Single heartbeat CCTA may be feasible also in subjects with cAF and HR <72 bpm. •In cAF patients with heart rate higher than 72 bpm, CCTA has more movement-associated artefacts. •Mean effective dose of single heartbeat CCTA in cAF group was higher than in sinus rhythm one. -- Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate image quality and radiation dose of single heartbeat 640-slice coronary CT angiography (CCTA) in patients with chronic Atrial Fibrillation (cAF) in comparison with subjects in normal sinus rhythm. Methods: A cohort of 71 patients with cAF was matched with 71 subjects in normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and HR ≤ 65 bpm using a matched by propensity analysis. All subjects underwent a single heartbeat CCTA with prospective gating. In subjects with cAF, we manually established the acquisition of data only from a single heartbeat. Mean effective dose and image quality, with both objective and subjective measures, were assessed. Results: 96.4% of all segments in the cAF group had diagnostic image quality. The rate of subjects with at least one non-diagnostic segment was 14% and 2.8% (p = 0.031) in the cAF and NRS groups, respectively. In the cAF group, the percentage of patients with at least one non-diagnostic segment for acquisition HR ≤ 72 was 1.8% (1/55), and it did not significantly differ from the NSR group (2.8%; 2/71) (p = 1.0). Objective quality parameters did not show a statistically significant difference between the two groups. The mean effective dose was 4.24 ± 1.24 mSv in the cAF group and 2.67 ± 0.5 mSv in the sinus rhythm group (p < 0.0001) with an increase by 59% in the cAF group with respect to the SNR group. Conclusions: A single heartbeat acquisition protocol with a 640-slice prospectively ECG-triggered CT angiography may be feasible in patients with cAF and HR below 72

  18. A systematic study on the influencing parameters and improvement of quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker method using notoginseng as research subject. (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Qun; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing


    A new quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker (QAMS) method for 11 saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rg2, Rh1, Rf, Re and Rd; notoginsenosides R1, R4, Fa and K) in notoginseng was established, when 6 of these saponins were individually used as internal referring substances to investigate the influences of chemical structure, concentrations of quantitative components, and purities of the standard substances on the accuracy of the QAMS method. The results showed that the concentration of the analyte in sample solution was the major influencing parameter, whereas the other parameters had minimal influence on the accuracy of the QAMS method. A new method for calculating the relative correction factors by linear regression was established (linear regression method), which demonstrated to decrease standard method differences of the QAMS method from 1.20%±0.02% - 23.29%±3.23% to 0.10%±0.09% - 8.84%±2.85% in comparison with the previous method. And the differences between external standard method and the QAMS method using relative correction factors calculated by linear regression method were below 5% in the quantitative determination of Rg1, Re, R1, Rd and Fa in 24 notoginseng samples and Rb1 in 21 notoginseng samples. And the differences were mostly below 10% in the quantitative determination of Rf, Rg2, R4 and N-K (the differences of these 4 constituents bigger because their contents lower) in all the 24 notoginseng samples. The results indicated that the contents assayed by the new QAMS method could be considered as accurate as those assayed by external standard method. In addition, a method for determining applicable concentration ranges of the quantitative components assayed by QAMS method was established for the first time, which could ensure its high accuracy and could be applied to QAMS methods of other TCMs. The present study demonstrated the practicability of the application of the QAMS method for the quantitative analysis of multi

  19. Creating single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007. (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R; Jackson, James W; Small, Stacey L; Horner-King, Mollie J; Lik, Nicholas Mui Ker; Garcia, Yors; Rosales, Rocio


    Over 10 years have passed since the publication of Carr and Burkholder's (1998) technical article on how to construct single-subject graphs using Microsoft Excel. Over the course of the past decade, the Excel program has undergone a series of revisions that make the Carr and Burkholder paper somewhat difficult to follow with newer versions. The present article provides task analyses for constructing various types of commonly used single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007. The task analyses were evaluated using a between-subjects design that compared the graphing skills of 22 behavior-analytic graduate students using Excel 2007 and either the Carr and Burkholder or newly developed task analyses. Results indicate that the new task analyses yielded more accurate and faster graph construction than the Carr and Burkholder instructions.

  20. SSDOnt: An Ontology for Representing Single-Subject Design Studies. (United States)

    Berges, Idoia; Bermúdez, Jesus; Illarramendi, Arantza


    Single-Subject Design is used in several areas such as education and biomedicine. However, no suited formal vocabulary exists for annotating the detailed configuration and the results of this type of research studies with the appropriate granularity for looking for information about them. Therefore, the search for those study designs relies heavily on a syntactical search on the abstract, keywords or full text of the publications about the study, which entails some limitations. To present SSDOnt, a specific purpose ontology for describing and annotating single-subject design studies, so that complex questions can be asked about them afterwards. The ontology was developed following the NeOn methodology. Once the requirements of the ontology were defined, a formal model was described in a Description Logic and later implemented in the ontology language OWL 2 DL. We show how the ontology provides a reference model with a suitable terminology for the annotation and searching of single-subject design studies and their main components, such as the phases, the intervention types, the outcomes and the results. Some mappings with terms of related ontologies have been established. We show as proof-of-concept that classes in the ontology can be easily extended to annotate more precise information about specific interventions and outcomes such as those related to autism. Moreover, we provide examples of some types of queries that can be posed to the ontology. SSDOnt has achieved the purpose of covering the descriptions of the domain of single-subject research studies. Schattauer GmbH.

  1. Single-Subject Research Methodology: An Underutilized Tool in the Field of Deafness. (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Anderson, Glenn


    Single-subject research methods are simple, powerful, and very applicable to selected study of deafness. This article considers group versus single-subject designs; an example of withdrawal single-subject design; and an example of the multiple baseline single-subject design. (CB)

  2. The Use of Single-Subject Research to Identify Evidence-Based Practice in Special Education (United States)

    Horner, Robert H.; Carr, Edward G.; Halle, James; McGee, Gail; Odom, Samuel; Wolery, Mark


    Single-subject research plays an important role in the development of evidence-based practice in special education. The defining features of single-subject research are presented, the contributions of single-subject research for special education are reviewed, and a specific proposal is offered for using single-subject research to document…

  3. The Subject Analysis of Payment Systems Characteristics


    Korobeynikova Olga Mikhaylovna


    The article deals with the analysis of payment systems aimed at identifying the categorical terminological apparatus, proving their specific features and revealing the impact of payment systems on the state of money turnover. On the basis of the subject analysis, the author formulates the definitions of a payment system (characterized by increasing speed of effecting payments, by the reduction of costs, by high degree of payments convenience for subjects of transactions, by security of paymen...

  4. A new approach to assessing intra-subject variability in single-subject designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Borodkin


    Full Text Available Research Aim: One of the methodological challenges of single-subject designs is accounting for intra-individual variability in performance, which is commonly assessed by applying the same testing materials on multiple sessions (McReynolds & Thompson, 1986. This approach might be less feasible in some individuals, such as bilingual speakers with aphasia, who would need to be tested, using the same materials, on several occasions within as well as across languages. Repetitive exposure to the same testing materials can increase practice effects and further reduce the validity of the testing. In the present study, we explored an alternative approach to measuring stability in performance by comparing the use of identical vs. different (but comparable testing materials. Method: Participants were five monolinguals with non-fluent aphasia following a single left CVA. Participants performed an action-naming task and two narrative tasks: a picture sequence and a personal narrative. There were two testing times, several weeks apart using identical materials. Each testing time included three consecutive sessions, using different materials. Action-naming performance was assessed by the number of correct verbs produced. The verbal output in the narrative tasks was scored for amount (number of utterances, grammaticality (percentage of grammatical sentences, and verb diversity (number of different verbs. Pearson correlation coefficients (r were computed to establish the intra-subject variability across testing times and across sessions. The magnitude of the correlations was evaluated using published guidelines (Strauss, Sherman, & Spreen, 2006. Results: For action naming, the correlations ranged from high to very high (.87 to .98 across testing times and from adequate to very high across sessions (.74 to .96. For the narrative tasks, the correlations between the number of utterances across testing times ranged from adequate to very high (.76 to .97 and from low

  5. Seismic analysis of piping systems subjected to multiple support excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, C.; Vaish, A.K.; Slagis, G.C.


    The paper presents the results of a comparative study between the multiple response spectrum method and the time-history method for the seismic analysis of nuclear piping systems subjected to different excitation at different supports or support groups. First, the necessary equations for the above analysis procedures are derived. Then, three actual nuclear piping systems subjected to single and multiple excitations are analyzed by the different methods, and extensive comparisons of the results (stresses) are made. Based on the results, it is concluded that the multiple response spectrum analysis gives acceptable results as compared to the ''exact'', but much more costly, time-history analysis. 6 refs

  6. Microfluidics for single cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant

    Isolation and manipulation of single cells have gained an increasing interest from researchers because of the heterogeneity of cells from the same cell culture. Single cell analysis can ensure a better understanding of differences between individual cells and potentially solve a variety of clinical...... problems. In this thesis lab on a chip systems for rare single cell analysis are investigated. The focus was to develop a commercial, disposable device for circulating tumour cell (CTC) analysis. Such a device must be able to separate rare cells from blood samples and subsequently capture the specific...... cells, and simultaneously be fabricated and operated at low costs and be user-friendly. These challenges were addressed through development of two microfluidic devices, one for rare cell isolation based on pinched flow fractionation (PFF) and one for single cell capture based on hydrodynamic trapping...

  7. Analysis of single biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, Frank


    The extraction of elemental information from single cultured cells using nuclear microscopy is an area of great potential because it can provide both quantitative information on the uptake of elements by the cell, and also its elemental response to a wide variety of external stimuli. A recent technique based on nuclear physics technology enables the analysis of single cells down to the parts per million level to be achieved

  8. Single Cell Isolation and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hu


    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that the heterogeneity of individual cells within a genetically identical population can be critical to their peculiar function and fate. Conventional cell based assays mainly analysis the average responses from a population cells, while the difference within individual cells may often be masked. The cell size, RNA transcripts and protein expression level are quite different within individual cells and these variations are key point to answer the problems in cancer, neurobiology, stem cell biology, immunology and developmental biology. To better understand the cell-to-cell variations, the single cell analysis can provide much more detailed information which may be helpful for therapeutic decisions in an increasingly personalized medicine. In this review, we will focus on the recent development in single cell analysis, including methods used in single cell isolation, analysis and some application examples. The review provides the historical background to single cell analysis, discusses limitations, and current and future possibilities in this exciting field of research.

  9. Component Analyses Using Single-Subject Experimental Designs: A Review (United States)

    Ward-Horner, John; Sturmey, Peter


    A component analysis is a systematic assessment of 2 or more independent variables or components that comprise a treatment package. Component analyses are important for the analysis of behavior; however, previous research provides only cursory descriptions of the topic. Therefore, in this review the definition of "component analysis" is discussed,…

  10. Subjective health status of single homeless people in Sheffield. (United States)

    Westlake, L; George, S L


    A census of single homeless people was carried out over a single 12-hour period in Sheffield. Places of residence of homeless people were identified by local workers with homeless people. Participants completed a questionnaire designed to provide data relating to their demography, employment history, contact with welfare agencies, social status, prison history, past and family medical history, contact with health services, perceived health status as measured by the Nottingham Health Profile, and anxiety and depression measured using the Foulds Delusions Symptoms States Inventory/State of Anxiety and Depression DSSI/sAD. Three hundred and seventy-nine single homeless individuals were contacted. Reliable data were available on 340. The population was heterogeneous with respect to perceived health status, but it was significantly worse than a standard London population on all dimensions. Those with a self-reported history of psychiatric illness had a significantly worse perceived health status on all dimensions than those without such a history. Those reporting a history of admission to psychiatric hospital had a significantly worse status in two dimensions: mobility, reflecting greater age, and more significantly social isolation, consistent with findings in other de-institutionalised populations. Anxiety and depression, measured using the Foulds sAD scale, was raised in all groups in the study, but did not differentiate between those with and without a self-reported psychiatric history, or between those with and without a self-reported history of psychiatric admission. This suggests that these symptoms are a result rather than a cause of homelessness, and that a broad social solution to mental illness in homeless people is needed in addition to specific medical interventions.

  11. The Subject Analysis of Payment Systems Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikova Olga Mikhaylovna


    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of payment systems aimed at identifying the categorical terminological apparatus, proving their specific features and revealing the impact of payment systems on the state of money turnover. On the basis of the subject analysis, the author formulates the definitions of a payment system (characterized by increasing speed of effecting payments, by the reduction of costs, by high degree of payments convenience for subjects of transactions, by security of payments, by acceptable level of risks and by social efficiency, a national payment system, and a local payment system (characterized by the growth of economic and social efficiency of systems participants, by the process of money turnover optimization on the basis of saving transaction costs and increasing speed of money flows within the local payment systems. According to the economic levels, the payment systems are divided to macrosystems (national payment systems, mezosystems (payment systems localized on the operational and territorial basis, microsystems (payments by individual economic subjects. The establishment of qualitative features of payment systems, which is a basis of the author’s terminological interpretation, gave a possibility to reveal the cause-effect relations of payment systems influence on the state of money turnover in the involved subjects, and on the economy as a whole. The result of the present research consists in revealing the payment systems influence on the state of money turnover which is significant: at the state and regional level – in the optimization of budget and inter-budgetary relations, in acceleration of the money turnover, in deceleration of the money supply and inflation rate, in reduced need in money emission; at the level of economic entities – in accelerating the money turnover and accounts receivable, in the reduction of debit and credit loans, in the growth of profit (turnover; at the household level – in

  12. Studies Using Single-Subject Designs in Sport Psychology: 30 Years of Research (United States)

    Martin, G. L.; Thompson, K.; Regehr, K.


    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we…

  13. Single-Subject Designs and Action Research in the K-12 Setting (United States)

    Forbes, Sean A.; Ross, Margaret E.; Chesser, Svetlana S.


    In as much as educational research is concerned with individual student assessment and development, it is surprising that single-subject designs are not more readily utilized in classroom-based action research. The purpose of this article is to emphasize benefits of single-subject research in the K-12 setting, given that teachers teach and assess…

  14. A single dose of dark chocolate increases parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Machado DUARTE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of a single dose of dark chocolate (70% cocoa on blood pressure and heart rate variability. Methods: Thirty-one healthy subjects (aged 18-25 years; both sexes were divided into two groups: 10 subjects in the white chocolate (7.4 g group and 21 in the dark chocolate (10 g group; measurements were performed at the university's physiology lab. An electrocardiogram measured the sympathovagal balance by spectral and symbolic analysis. Results: A single dose of dark chocolate significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate. After consuming 10 g of dark chocolate, significant increases were observed for heart rate variability, standard deviation of RR intervals standard deviation of all NN intervals, square root of the mean squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals root mean square of successive differences, and an increase in the high frequency component in absolute values, representing the parasympathetic modulation. Conclusion: In conclusion the importance of our results lies in the magnitude of the response provoked by a single dose of cocoa. Just 10 g of cocoa triggered a significant increase in parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability. These combined effects can potentially increase life expectancy because a reduction in heart rate variability is associated with several cardiovascular diseases and higher mortality.

  15. Single-Cell Genomic Analysis in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxuan Yuan


    Full Text Available Individual cells in an organism are variable, which strongly impacts cellular processes. Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled single-cell genomic analysis to become widespread, addressing shortcomings of analyses conducted on populations of bulk cells. While the field of single-cell plant genomics is in its infancy, there is great potential to gain insights into cell lineage and functional cell types to help understand complex cellular interactions in plants. In this review, we discuss current approaches for single-cell plant genomic analysis, with a focus on single-cell isolation, DNA amplification, next-generation sequencing, and bioinformatics analysis. We outline the technical challenges of analysing material from a single plant cell, and then examine applications of single-cell genomics and the integration of this approach with genome editing. Finally, we indicate future directions we expect in the rapidly developing field of plant single-cell genomic analysis.

  16. Comparative Effects of Four Single Leg Squat Exercises in Subjects with Gluteus Medius Weakness. (United States)

    Han, Hae-Rim; Yi, Chung-Hwi; You, Sung-Hyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Lim, One-Bin; Son, Jae-Ik


    Of the weight bearing exercises, single leg squat (SLS) represents one of the most commonly used hip strengthening exercises that require more gluteus medius (GMED) activity. To date, no studies have investigated how the four SLS exercises affects muscle imbalance of GMED, tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and adductor longus (AL), and kinematics of hip. To investigate the hip muscle activities, onset time, and kinematics during four different SLS exercises (unilateral squat, unilateral wall-squat, lateral step-down, and front step-down) in subjects with GMED weakness. Repeated-measures experimental design. Research laboratory. Twenty-two subjects (11 males and 11 females) participated in this study and were compared using one-way repeated analysis of variance. Surface electromyography was used to measure the muscle activities and onset time of the GMED, TFL, and AL, and 3-dimensional motion tracking system was used to measure the hip adduction and internal/external rotation angles during SLS exercises. One-way repeated analysis of variance was used at a significance level of p<0.05. The unilateral wall-squat produced higher GMED/TFL activity ratio and lower GMED/TFL onset time ratio than in the other three exercises (p<0.05). No difference in GMED/AL activity ratio and GMED/AL onset time ratio was observed. The hip adduction angle was greater in unilateral wall-squat than in the other three exercises (p<0.05). As for the hip internal/external rotation, lateral step-down exhibited higher hip internal rotation angle than front step-down (p<0.05). The unilateral wall-squat may be recommended as an effective exercise for the subjects with GMED weakness, but they should take care to avoid excessive hip adduction during the exercise.

  17. System reliability analysis with natural language and expert's subjectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onisawa, T.


    This paper introduces natural language expressions and expert's subjectivity to system reliability analysis. To this end, this paper defines a subjective measure of reliability and presents the method of the system reliability analysis using the measure. The subjective measure of reliability corresponds to natural language expressions of reliability estimation, which is represented by a fuzzy set defined on [0,1]. The presented method deals with the dependence among subsystems and employs parametrized operations of subjective measures of reliability which can reflect expert 's subjectivity towards the analyzed system. The analysis results are also expressed by linguistic terms. Finally this paper gives an example of the system reliability analysis by the presented method

  18. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects. (United States)

    Wilhelmus, Micha Mm; Hay, Justin L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Okkerse, Pieter; Perdrieu, Christelle; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Schmitt, Jeroen; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Silber, Beata Y


    Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male ( n=41) and female ( n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test. Effects on mood and fatigue were analysed using Bond and Lader and Caffeine Research visual analogue scales, and Samn-Perelli questionnaire. Saliva sampling was performed for both compliance and caffeine pharmacokinetic analysis. Administration of a 60 mg caffeine dose resulted in a significant improvement in sustained attention compared with the placebo. Also a significantly improved peak saccadic velocity and reaction time performance was found, and decreased error rate. Significantly increased feelings of alertness, contentment and overall mood after caffeine treatment compared with placebo were observed. This study demonstrated that in healthy adult subjects oral administration of a single 60 mg caffeine dose elicited a clear enhancement of sustained attention and alertness, measured both in multiple objective performances and in subjective scales.

  19. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo


    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  20. Can Constraint Induced Movement Therapy Improve In-Hand Manipulation Skills: A Single Subject Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Kavousipor


    Full Text Available Objectives: This study describes a single subject design (ABA that shows the effective use of constraint induced movement therapy in improvement of quality and performance of in-hand manipulation skills for a 10 year old boy and a 9 years old girl with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, as Dickerson (2007 showed it in arm movement and function. Methods: To determine the effectiveness of CIMT by the use of C-statistic analysis and visual analysis. Approach: The first step was to design a child friendly group activity and home based intervention program through occupation. The possible effectiveness of CIMT was evaluated by daily measurements and video recording of 6 sub skills of in-hand manipulation according to Pont category (2009 in defined activity. Results: For making the treatment more cost effective, families can produce a simple clinical setting at home and participate in their child treatment plan actively. Discussion: A client center intervention will facilitate the use and quality of fingers and hand motion. Also a group activity can motivate participants to participate more and better.

  1. Pharmacokinetic Effects of Antidrug Antibodies Occurring in Healthy Subjects After a Single Dose of Intravenous Infliximab. (United States)

    Ehrenpreis, Eli D


    Infliximab pharmacokinetic studies have been performed in patients receiving chronic infliximab therapy. In these patients, infliximab antidrug antibodies (ADAs) increase infliximab clearance and decrease serum levels and drug efficacy. This study analyzed the pharmacokinetic effect of infliximab ADAs in healthy subjects receiving a single dose of intravenous infliximab. Data were obtained from a single-blind, parallel-group, single-dose study of healthy subjects receiving 5 mg/kg of intravenous SB2 (infliximab biosimilar), EU-sourced Remicade (EU-IFX) or US-sourced Remicade (US-IFX). Serum infliximab was measured at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h and at 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 70 days after administration. ADAs were measured pre-dose and at 29 and 71 days. Data from the first ten subjects randomized to each treatment arm were utilized for this study. A two-compartment model of the serum infliximab vs. time curve was developed using nonlinear regression. At 10 weeks, 11 subjects (37%) developed ADAs. ADAs were detected in four subjects after SB2, one subject after EU-IFX, and six subjects after US-IFX infusion. Of these, neutralizing antibodies occurred in one subject after SB2, in no subjects after EU-IFX, and in three subjects after US-IFX infusion. Infliximab clearance was increased in subjects with ADAs vs. those without ADAs (12.89 ± 2.69 vs. 9.90 ± 1.74 ml/h; p ADAs (282.4 ± 56.4 vs. 343.3 ± 61.9 h; p ADAs are common in healthy subjects after a single intravenous dose of infliximab and result in faster infliximab clearance, shorter elimination time, and lower serum infliximab levels. These data confirm that ADAs are common with biologic therapy and significantly impact the efficacy of these drugs.

  2. Creating Single-Subject Design Graphs in Microsoft Excel[TM] 2007 (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Jackson, James W.; Small, Stacey L.; Horner-King, Mollie J.; Mui Ker Lik, Nicholas; Garcia, Yors; Rosales, Rocio


    Over 10 years have passed since the publication of Carr and Burkholder's (1998) technical article on how to construct single-subject graphs using Microsoft Excel. Over the course of the past decade, the Excel program has undergone a series of revisions that make the Carr and Burkholder paper somewhat difficult to follow with newer versions. The…

  3. Single-Level and Multilevel Mediation Analysis (United States)

    Tofighi, Davood; Thoemmes, Felix


    Mediation analysis is a statistical approach used to examine how the effect of an independent variable on an outcome is transmitted through an intervening variable (mediator). In this article, we provide a gentle introduction to single-level and multilevel mediation analyses. Using single-level data, we demonstrate an application of structural…

  4. Rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and n-of-1 trials: introducing the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale. (United States)

    Tate, Robyn L; McDonald, Skye; Perdices, Michael; Togher, Leanne; Schultz, Regina; Savage, Sharon


    Rating scales that assess methodological quality of clinical trials provide a means to critically appraise the literature. Scales are currently available to rate randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, but there are none that assess single-subject designs. The Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale was developed for this purpose and evaluated for reliability. Six clinical researchers who were trained and experienced in rating methodological quality of clinical trials developed the scale and participated in reliability studies. The SCED Scale is an 11-item rating scale for single-subject designs, of which 10 items are used to assess methodological quality and use of statistical analysis. The scale was developed and refined over a 3-year period. Content validity was addressed by identifying items to reduce the main sources of bias in single-case methodology as stipulated by authorities in the field, which were empirically tested against 85 published reports. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using a random sample of 20/312 single-subject reports archived in the Psychological Database of Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (PsycBITE). Inter-rater reliability for the total score was excellent, both for individual raters (overall ICC = 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92) and for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (overall ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95). Item reliability was fair to excellent for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (range k = 0.48 to 1.00). The results were replicated with two independent novice raters who were trained in the use of the scale (ICC = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.95). The SCED Scale thus provides a brief and valid evaluation of methodological quality of single-subject designs, with the total score demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability using both individual and consensus ratings. Items from the scale can also be used as a checklist in the design, reporting and critical

  5. Differences in subjective well-being within households: An analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differences in subjective well-being within households: An analysis of married and cohabiting couples in South Africa. ... African Review of Economics and Finance ... We use regression analysis first to explore the correlates of subjective well-being among women, and among men, who are married or cohabiting. We then ...

  6. A Comparison of Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood and Asymptotically Distribution-Free Dynamic Factor Analysis Parameter Estimation in Fitting Covariance-Structure Models to Block-Toeplitz Representing Single-Subject Multivariate Time-Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.C.M.; Nesselroade, J.R.


    The study of intraindividual variability pervades empirical inquiry in virtually all subdisciplines of psychology. The statistical analysis of multivariate time-series data - a central product of intraindividual investigations - requires special modeling techniques. The dynamic factor model (DFM),

  7. Effectiveness of standing frame on constipation in children with cerebral palsy: a single-subject study. (United States)

    Rivi, Elena; Filippi, Mariacristina; Fornasari, Elisa; Mascia, Maria Teresa; Ferrari, Adriano; Costi, Stefania


    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) and quadriplegia or severe diplegia suffer from highly reduced mobility and consequent constipation. Clinicians recommend standing frames to exercise the support reaction in this population, sharing the opinion that the upright position may facilitate intestinal transit, although no evidence supports this assumption. We conducted this study to determine the effects of the standing frame on spontaneous evacuation in children with CP. Moreover, we studied its effects on the frequency of induction of evacuation, the characteristics of the stool and the pain suffered by the child due to constipation and/or evacuation. We implemented a single-subject research design in one chronically constipated child with CP and quadriplegia, Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. To monitor the effects of the standing frame, we measured the outcome of interest throughout the study using a daily diary and the Bristol Stool Scale. This study was approved by the local Ethics Committee. This study has several limitation; primarily, the use of a single-subject research design only makes possible the visual analysis of data obtained from a unique patient. So, by themselves, data obtained do not allow us any generalization for the target population. Future research should verify our results collecting more data and also investigating the effect of the standing-frame on respiratory functions. Although the standing frame did not affect the frequency of evacuations or the characteristics of the stool, its employment reduced the inductions of evacuation and the related pain suffered by the child. However, this study has several limitations, such as the lack of generalization due to the fact that we studied a unique patient and the overall brevity of the study due to external circumstances. Therefore, we suggest future research to verify our results, also investigating the effect of the standing frame on respiratory functions. Relevance to clinical

  8. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and safety of single and multiple ceftaroline fosamil infusions in healthy Chinese and Western subjects. (United States)

    Yang, Li; Sunzel, Maria; Xu, Peng; Edeki, Timi; Wilson, David; Li, Jianguo; Li, Haiyan


    Two phase I studies in healthy Chinese (NCT01458743) and Western (NCT01612507) subjects evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of single and multiple ceftaroline fosamil 600 mg infusions administered every 8 or 12 hours (q8h or q12h). Each study enrolled subjects sequentially into 1 of 2 cohorts (cohort 1: 60-minute infusions; cohort 2: 120-minute infusions). All subjects in the Chinese (n = 26) study received open label ceftaroline fosamil; in the Western study, subjects (n = 41) in each cohort were randomized 3 : 1 to ceftaroline fosamil or placebo infusions. Single infusions were administered on days 1 and 8. On days 2 - 7 (3 - 7 for Chinese study, cohort 1) subjects received q12h or q8h infusions. Plasma and urine were collected on days 1 and 8 for PK analysis. Ceftaroline PK was linear and time-independent following single and multiple doses of ceftaroline fosamil. The magnitude and timing of peak plasma concentrations of ceftaroline (active metabolite), ceftaroline fosamil (prodrug), and ceftaroline M-1 (inactive metabolite) varied according to the ceftaroline fosamil dosing schedule (q12h or q8h) and infusion duration (60 minutes or 120 minutes), but overall plasma ceftaroline exposures within the respective dosing intervals were broadly similar across cohorts. The most frequent adverse events were rash/drug eruption, most of which were of mild-moderate intensity and considered related to treatment. Ceftaroline PK was broadly similar in healthy Chinese and Western subjects receiving equivalent dose regimens. The tolerability profile of ceftaroline fosamil in Chinese and Western subjects was consistent with previous clinical trials.

  9. Speech intelligibility and subjective benefit in single-sided deaf adults after cochlear implantation. (United States)

    Finke, Mareike; Strauß-Schier, Angelika; Kludt, Eugen; Büchner, Andreas; Illg, Angelika


    Treatment with cochlear implants (CIs) in single-sided deaf individuals started less than a decade ago. CIs can successfully reduce incapacitating tinnitus on the deaf ear and allow, so some extent, the restoration of binaural hearing. Until now, systematic evaluations of subjective CI benefit in post-lingually single-sided deaf individuals and analyses of speech intelligibility outcome for the CI in isolation have been lacking. For the prospective part of this study, the Bern Benefit in Single-Sided Deafness Questionnaire (BBSS) was administered to 48 single-sided deaf CI users to evaluate the subjectively perceived CI benefit across different listening situations. In the retrospective part, speech intelligibility outcome with the CI up to 12 month post-activation was compared between 100 single-sided deaf CI users and 125 bilaterally implanted CI users (2nd implant). The positive median ratings in the BBSS differed significantly from zero for all items suggesting that most individuals with single-sided deafness rate their CI as beneficial across listening situations. The speech perception scores in quiet and noise improved significantly over time in both groups of CI users. Speech intelligibility with the CI in isolation was significantly better in bilaterally implanted CI users (2nd implant) compared to the scores obtained from single-sided deaf CI users. Our results indicate that CI users with single-sided deafness can reach open set speech understanding with their CI in isolation, encouraging the extension of the CI indication to individuals with normal hearing on the contralateral ear. Compared to the performance reached with bilateral CI users' second implant, speech reception threshold are lower, indicating an aural preference and dominance of the normal hearing ear. The results from the BBSS propose good satisfaction with the CI across several listening situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The reliability of puff topography and subjective responses during ad lib smoking of a single cigarette. (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Karelitz, Joshua L; Giedgowd, Grace E; Conklin, Cynthia A


    Acute smoking behavior (i.e., puff topography) and subjective responses during the ad lib smoking of a single cigarette in the laboratory may provide useful measures of smoking reinforcement and reward, respectively. However, the reliability of such measures is not clear, leaving uncertain the utility of a single assessment of smoking behavior as an individual difference measure. Dependent smokers (N = 94) smoked normally prior to each of 4 laboratory sessions during which they were instructed to smoke 1 cigarette of their preferred brand in ad libitum and unblinded fashion and then rate it for subjective effects. Puff topography (puff number, total volume, and maximum volume) was assessed via portable Clinical Research Support System device. Subjective reward and perception were assessed by visual analog scales of "liking" and "how strong," respectively. The reliability of puff topography and subjective measures was determined across days by intra-class correlations (ICCs). Differences due to sex and nicotine dependence (high and low Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score) were also examined. Reliability was highly significant for each measure. ICCs were .70 for total puff volume, .60 for maximum puff volume, .73 for puff number, .64 for liking, and .78 for how strong. Reliability generally did not differ by sex or dependence, but absolute values for total volume and maximum puff volume were greater in men and in high dependent smokers. Liking was also greater in high dependent smokers. Puff topography and subjective measures during the ad lib smoking of a single cigarette are highly reliable. Smoking responses during a single ad lib smoking session may be useful in identifying stable individual differences in smoking reinforcement and reward.

  11. Parallel single-cell analysis microfluidic platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Floris Teunis Gerardus; Gool, Elmar; Frimat, Jean-Philippe; Bomer, Johan G.; van den Berg, Albert; le Gac, Severine


    We report a PDMS microfluidic platform for parallel single-cell analysis (PaSCAl) as a powerful tool to decipher the heterogeneity found in cell populations. Cells are trapped individually in dedicated pockets, and thereafter, a number of invasive or non-invasive analysis schemes are performed.



    VANIŠ, Marek


    The main aim of this thesis is an analysis of the storage system of a chosen subject with the focus on informational and tangible flow, storage processes, logistics costs and related logistic indexes.

  13. Analysis of a Pyroceram Radome Subjected to Aerodynamic Heating

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Negaard, Gordon


    .... It describes the modeling and analysis of an axisymmetric radome subjected to an axisymmetric thermal distribution and the variations in the stresses produced by two different axisymmetric elements in NASTRAN...

  14. Pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole and its main metabolites after single and multiple intravenous doses in healthy Chinese subjects. (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Man; Wang, Xiaolin; Yang, Man; Han, Jing; Liu, Huichen


    The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole (LPZ) and its main metabolites, 5'-hydroxy lansoprazole (HLPZ) and lansoprazole sulfone (LPZS), after single and multiple intravenous (i.v.) doses of LPZ in healthy Chinese subjects. Twelve subjects (six males and six females) were given a single dose of LPZ by i.v. infusion on day 1, and multiple doses from day 2 to day 6. Blood samples were collected at designated time points for analysis of plasma concentrations of LPZ, HLPZ and LPZS by an LC-MS/MS method. LPZ was generally well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects. After single and multiple i.v. doses of 30 mg LPZ, the C max values of LPZ, HLPZ and LPZS were 1490 ± 290 and 1450 ± 280, 175 ± 71 and 154 ± 56, and 51.3 ± 82.9 and 74.1 ± 158.7 ng/mL, with the AUC0-t values 3280 ± 2550 and 4260 ± 3880, 381 ± 128 and 389 ± 111, and 389 ± 1204 and 700 ± 2255 ng h/mL, respectively. The t 1/2 and CL values of LPZ after single and multiple i.v. doses were 1.48 ± 1.03 and 2.19 ± 1.03 h, and 11.67 ± 4.49 and 9.56 ± 4.08 L/h, respectively. Compared with the pharmacokinetics of LPZ after a single dose, t 1/2 increased markedly, CL decreased significantly and AUC increased by over 20 % after multiple doses. The results indicated that there was drug accumulation of LPZ after multiple i.v. doses, and there was no gender-related difference in pharmacokinetics of LPZ and its two metabolites.

  15. Visual Analysis of Single-Subject Studies by School Psychologists. (United States)

    Furlong, Michael J.; Wampold, Bruce E.


    To guide the unbiased process of visual inference, a four-step model is presented for the assessment of reliability, intervention effect, meaningfulness, and generalizability. A Visual Inference Checklist (VIC) systematizes this assessment process. (Author)

  16. Pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole and its main metabolites after single intravenous doses in healthy Chinese subjects. (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Yang, Man; Liu, Man; Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Xue; Liu, Huichen


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of lansoprazole (LPZ) and its main metabolites 5'-hydroxy lansoprazole (HLPZ) and lansoprazole sulphone (LPZS) after single intravenous (i.v.) doses of LPZ in healthy Chinese subjects, and the relationship between the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 phenotypes and the plasma concentrations of LPZS at the time-points in the elimination phase of LPZ. Twelve subjects were given lansoprazole by i.v. infusion. Blood samples were collected at designated time points up to 24 h. Plasma concentrations of LPZ, HLPZ and LPZS were quantified by a selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. After single i.v. doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg LPZ, C(max) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-t)) of LPZ were 725 ± 151, 1480 ± 190, 3130 ± 480 µg · L(-1) and 1690 ± 1210, 3630 ± 2530, 8080 ± 4550 µg · h · L(-1), respectively. LPZ was generally well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects, and displayed linear PK in the range of 15-60 mg. There were significant differences in the elimination of LPZ and the formation of LPZS between the single CYP2C19 poor metabolizer (PM) and the CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers (EM). The concentration of LPZS at the time-points in the elimination phase of LPZ could be monitored for CYP2C19 phenotyping. As a probe drug for CYP2C19 phenotyping, LPZ for injection might be more suitable than LPZ oral formulations.

  17. Mild hallux valgus angle affects single-limb postural stability in asymptomatic subjects. (United States)

    Çınar-Medeni, Özge; Atalay Guzel, Nevin; Basar, Selda


    Single-limb postural stability is a key component of lower extremity functional status. Factors affecting postural stability should be well defined to prevent injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the hallux valgus angle on postural stability in asymptomatic subjects. A total of 19 subjects were included in the study. The hallux valgus angle and postural stability were assessed. Participants were assigned to two groups according to whether the hallux valgus angle was pathological or not. A hallux valgus angle greater than 15 degrees was accepted as pathological. The relationship between the hallux valgus angle and postural stability, and the differences in postural stability scores between the two groups were analyzed. Postural stability was assessed with a stabilometer. The test was performed with the eyes open. We found a significant correlation between the hallux valgus angle and mediolateral and overall stability index (r= 0.484, p= 0.036; r = 0.463, p= 0.046 respectively). Subjects with a pathological mild hallux valgus angle had greater stability index scores than normal subjects (phallux valgus angle has negative effects on postural stability as a forefoot deformity. This deformity should be taken into account for injury prevention strategies in pain-free younger adults.

  18. Interleukin 2-regulated in vitro antibody production following a single spinal manipulative treatment in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorczyk-Injeyan Julita A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our recent investigations have demonstrated that cell cultures from subjects, who received a single spinal manipulative treatment in the upper thoracic spine, show increased capacity for the production of the key immunoregulatory cytokine, interleukin-2. However, it has not been determined if such changes influence the response of the immune effector cells. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether, in the same subjects, spinal manipulation-related augmentation of the in vitro interleukin-2 synthesis is associated with the modulation of interleukin 2-dependent and/or interleukin-2-induced humoral immune response (antibody synthesis. Methods A total of seventy-four age and sex-matched healthy asymptomatic subjects were studied. The subjects were assigned randomly to: venipuncture control (n = 22, spinal manipulative treatment without cavitation (n = 25 or spinal manipulative treatment associated with cavitation (n = 27 groups. Heparinized blood samples were obtained from the subjects before (baseline and then at 20 minutes and 2 hours post-treatment. Immunoglobulin (antibody synthesis was induced in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by stimulation with conventional pokeweed mitogen or by application of human recombinant interleukin-2. Determinations of the levels of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M production in culture supernatants were performed by specific immunoassays. Results The baseline levels of immunoglobulin synthesis induced by pokeweed mitogen or human recombinant interleukin-2 stimulation were comparable in all groups. No significant changes in the production of pokeweed mitogen-induced immunoglobulins were observed during the post-treatment period in any of the study groups. In contrast, the production of interleukin-2 -induced immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M was significantly increased in cultures from subjects treated with spinal manipulation. At 20 min post

  19. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Tedizolid Phosphate After Single-dose Administration in Healthy Korean Male Subjects. (United States)

    Kim, Yun; Kim, Anhye; Lee, SeungHwan; Choi, Sung-Hak; Lee, Dae Young; Song, Ji-Su; Lee, Howard; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang


    Tedizolid phosphate is a next-generation oxazolidinone prodrug that is transformed into the active moiety tedizolid. Its indication is acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by gram-positive species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Although tedizolid phosphate has been marketed in Korea, no data on the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties or tolerability of tedizolid phosphate in Korean subjects are available. This study was designed to evaluate the PK properties, oral bioavailability, and tolerability with a single-dose oral and intravenous administration of tedizolid phosphate in healthy Korean male subjects. A block-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose study was conducted in 3 groups (200, 400, and 600 mg; 10 subjects in each group). In the second part of the study, subjects from the 200-mg group received administration orally and intravenously (1-hour infusion) via 2-way crossover for the evaluation of absolute bioavailability. There was a 7-day washout period between treatments in the absolute bioavailability part of the study. Serial blood samples for PK analysis were collected for up to 72 hours. Tolerability was assessed by analysis of adverse events. Thirty healthy Korean subjects completed the study and were included in the PK and tolerability analyses. Tedizolid phosphate was rapidly converted into tedizolid. After a single oral dose, the T max of tedizolid was observed to be 1.5 to 2.5 hours, and the plasma concentration-time curve of tedizolid showed a 2-phase elimination pattern, with a half-life of ~11 hours. Dose-dependent increases were observed in the AUC last value (29,441-78,062 μg · h/L) and in the C max value ( 2679-6980 μg/L) with the administration of tedizolid phosphate 200 to 600 mg PO. The absolute bioavailability of tedizolid was 95.2% (90% CI, 92.7%-97.8%) in the 200-mg administration group. There were no serious adverse events or clinically significant changes in the

  20. Enhancement of in vitro interleukin-2 production in normal subjects following a single spinal manipulative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Glen M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence supports somato-visceral effects of manual therapies. We have previously demonstrated that a single spinal manipulative treatment (SMT accompanied by audible release has an inhibitory effect on the production of proinflammatory cytokines in asymptomatic subjects. The purpose of this study is to report on SMT-related changes in the production of the immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2 and to investigate whether such changes might differ with respect to the treatment approach related to the presence or absence of an audible release (joint cavitation. Methods Of 76 asymptomatic subjects, 29 received SMT with cavitation (SMT-C, 23 were treated with SMT without cavitation (SMT-NC and 24 comprised the venipuncture control (VC group. The SMT-C and SMT-NC subjects received a single, similar force high velocity low amplitude manipulation, in the upper thoracic spine. However, in SMT-NC subjects, positioning and line of drive were not conducive to cavitation. Blood and serum samples were obtained before and then at 20 and 120 min post-intervention. The production of IL-2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures was induced by activation for 48 hr with Staphylococcal protein A (SPA and, in parallel preparations, with the combination of phorbol ester (TPA and calcium ionophore. The levels of IL-2 in culture supernatants and serum were assessed by specific immunoassays. Results Compared with VC and their respective baselines, SPA-induced secretion of IL-2 increased significantly in cultures established from both SMT-C and SMT-NC subjects at 20 min post-intervention. At 2 hr post-treatment, significant elevation of IL-2 synthesis was still apparent in preparations from SMT-treated groups though it became somewhat attenuated in SMT-NC subjects. Conversely, IL-2 synthesis induced by TPA and calcium ionophore was unaltered by either type of SMT and was comparable to that in VC group at all time points. No

  1. Whispering--a single-subject study of glottal configuration and aerodynamics. (United States)

    Sundberg, Johan; Scherer, Ronald; Hess, Markus; Müller, Frank


    Whisper productions were produced by a single adult male subject over a wide range of subglottal pressures, glottal areas, and glottal flows. Dimensional measurements were made of these three variables, including glottal perimeter. Subglottal pressure was directly obtained by a pressure transducer in a tracheal catheter, and wide-band flow with a pneumotach mask. Four types of whispers were used-hyperfunctional, hypofunctional, neutral, and postphonation-in addition to three levels of loudness (soft, medium, loud). Sequences of the /pae/ syllable were used. Video recordings of the larynx were made. The glottis was outlined by hand with extrapolation for unseen parts, and area and perimeter were obtained through image analysis software. The whisper tokens resulted in the following wide ranges: subglottal pressure: 1.3-17 cm H2O; glottal flow: 0.9-1.71 L/s; glottal area: 0.065-1.76 m2; and glottal perimeter: 1.09-6.55 cm. Hyperfunctional whisper tended to have higher subglottal pressures and lower areas and flows than hypofunctional whisper, with neutral and postphonation whisper values in between. An important finding is that glottal flow changed more for small changes of area when the area was already small, and did not create much flow change when area was changed for already larger areas; that is, whisper is "more sensitive" to airflow changes for smaller glottal areas. A general equation for whisper aerodynamics was obtained, namely, P (subglottal pressure [cm H2O])=C X F (glottal flow [cm(3)/s]), where C = 0.052 x A(4) - 0.1913 x A(3) + 0.2577 x A(2) - 0.1523 x A+0.0388, where A is the glottal area (cm(2)). Another general equation for nondimensional terms (pressure coefficient vs Reynolds number) also is offered. Implications for whisper flow resistance and aerodynamic power are given. These results give insight into whisper aerodynamics and offer equations relevant to speech synthesis. Copyright © 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  2. Finite element modelling of plastic collapse of metallic single mitred pipe bends subject to in-plane bending moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochekseraii, Sadegh Babaii


    Theoretical analysis based on the finite element (FE) method for plastic collapse of metallic single mitred pipe bends of various geometries, subject to in-plane bending moment, were carried out using both ABAQUS and ANSYS structural FE programs covering both linear small displacement and non-linear large displacement analysis. Parametric surveys presented interesting features including an increase in plastic collapse in-plane bending moments after mitre angles of around 40 deg. . Results obtained using either ANSYS or ABAQUS could not be compared against any available experimental data as they differ significantly in areas like strain hardening and other features of a real material that did not exist in the FE modelling. However, single case comparison with the only reported experimental work, known to the author, showed that large displacement FE analysis led to more realistic predictions. It is, therefore, concluded that despite complex behaviour of a real material as compared to material models available in FE analysis, effective plastic collapse moments can be predicted using the small displacement FE analysis

  3. Substitutional potential of mephedrone: an analysis of the subjective effects. (United States)

    Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Kertész, Máté; Winstock, Adam; Deluca, Paolo; Corazza, Ornella; Farkas, Judit; Zacher, Gábor; Urbán, Róbert; Demetrovics, Zsolt


    In the past 25-30 years, a large number of synthetic and non-synthetic drugs have appeared on the recreational scene, but with the exception of 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), none of these substances reached the popularity of ecstasy [3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine, (MDMA)]. Authors aimed to determine the subjective effects of mephedrone in order to understand how mephedrone can serve as a potential substitute for entactogens, such as MDMA. One hundred forty-five mephedrone users--recruited by snowball method--filled out a questionnaire on their patterns of use and experienced subjective effects of mephedrone. Factor analysis revealed six factors of mephedrone-induced subjective effects: positive emotions, sensibility, adverse somatic effects, adverse psychological effects, stimulant effects, and psychedelic effects. A preference list of subjective effects indicates that mephedrone is popular primarily for its psychostimulant and entactogen effects. Latent class analysis identified two classes of mephedrone users, with closely parallel profiles. The two classes differed in severity of subjective experience in a way that was consistent across the six dimensions. By having similar subjective effects as MDMA and other entactogens, mephedrone seems able to substitute other enactogenic stimulants. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Brace modification improves aerobic performance in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: a single-subject design. (United States)

    Bean, J; Walsh, A; Frontera, W


    Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) can lower energy expenditure in patients with hemiplegia by 10%-13%. Review of the lower motor injury literature reveals insufficient physiologic evidence supporting the use or modification of AFOs in patients with lower motor neuron injury and, specifically, progressive conditions such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. We sought to test the hypothesis that optimal AFOs would improve submaximal aerobic performance and submaximal perceived exertion, while producing no change in maximal aerobic capacity. In an individual with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a single-subject design study was used. An A-B-A design was used, with "A" corresponding to use of the patient's old AFOs and "B" corresponding to the newly prescribed AFOs. The subject underwent treadmill exercise tolerance testing using a modified Balke protocol. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure oxygen consumption per unit time (VO2), and the Borg scale was used to measure perceived exertion. At the same submaximal exercise intensities, VO2, rate-pressure product, and perceived exertion were all reduced when using the modified AFOs. Additionally, these conditions allowed the subject to conduct the treadmill exercise test 20% longer. Maximal VO2 remained constant under all conditions. Optimizing the AFO prescription in a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease can enhance physiologic performance and perceived exertion at submaximal activity levels. Larger controlled trials are necessary to further demonstrate such benefits in patients with progressive neuropathy and other causes of lower motor neuron injury.

  5. On the Optimality of Trust Network Analysis with Subjective Logic


    PARK, Y.


    Building and measuring trust is one of crucial aspects in e-commerce, social networking and computer security. Trust networks are widely used to formalize trust relationships and to conduct formal reasoning of trust values. Diverse trust network analysis methods have been developed so far and one of the most widely used schemes is TNA-SL (Trust Network Analysis with Subjective Logic). Recent papers claimed that TNA-SL always finds the optimal solution by producing the least un...

  6. Subjective and Objective Quality Assessment of Single-Channel Speech Separation Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Saeidi, Rahim; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll


    Previous studies on performance evaluation of single-channel speech separation (SCSS) algorithms mostly focused on automatic speech recognition (ASR) accuracy as their performance measure. Assessing the separated signals by different metrics other than this has the benefit that the results...... are expected to carry on to other applications beyond ASR. In this paper, in addition to conventional speech quality metrics (PESQ and SNRloss), we also evaluate the separation systems output using different source separation metrics: blind source separation evaluation (BSS EVAL) and perceptual evaluation...... that PESQ and PEASS quality metrics predict well the subjective quality of separated signals obtained by the separation systems. From the results it is observed that the short-time objective intelligibility (STOI) measure predict the speech intelligibility results....

  7. Effects of aquatic aerobic exercise for a child with cerebral palsy: single-subject design. (United States)

    Retarekar, Runzun; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Townsend, Elise L


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an aquatic aerobic exercise program for a child with cerebral palsy. A 5-year-old girl with spastic diplegia classified at level III on the Gross Motor Function Classification System participated in this single-subject A-B-A design study. The aquatic aerobic exercise intervention was carried out 3 times per week for 12 weeks at an intensity of 50% to 80% of heart rate reserve. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Gross Motor Function Measure, and 6-minute walk test were used as outcomes. Statistically significant improvements were found in the participation, activity, and body function components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model. Improvements in functional abilities and walking endurance and speed were recorded. These findings suggest that an aquatic aerobic exercise program was effective for this child with cerebral palsy and support the need for additional research in this area.

  8. Optimization of genetic analysis for single cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hussein mouawia


    Full Text Available The molecular genetic analysis of microdissected cells by laser, a method for selecting a starting material of pure DNA or RNA uncontaminated. Our study focuses on technical pre-PCR (polymerase chain reaction for the amplification of DNA from a single cell (leukocyte isolated from human blood after laser microdissection and aims to optimize the yield of DNA extracted of this cell to be amplified without errors and provide reliable genetic analyzes. This study has allowed us to reduce the duration of cell lysis in order to perform the step of expanding genomic PEP (primer extension preamplification directly after lysis the same day and the quality of genomic amplification and eliminate purification step of the product PEP, step with a risk of contamination and risk of loss of genetic material related to manipulation. This approach has shown that the combination of at least 3 STR (short tandem repeat markers for genetic analysis of single cell improves the efficiency and accuracy of PCR and minimizes the loss of allele (allele drop out; ADO. This protocol can be applied to large scale and an effective means suitable for genetic testing for molecular diagnostic from isolated single cell (cancerous - fetal.

  9. Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study. (United States)

    Eberhard, Jörg; Grote, Karsten; Luchtefeld, Maren; Heuer, Wieland; Schuett, Harald; Divchev, Dimitar; Scherer, Ralph; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Langfeldt, Daniela; Stumpp, Nico; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Schieffer, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike


    We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, Pgingivitis. Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL:


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niha Siraj Mulla


    Full Text Available Background:A temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction or TMD is a group of conditions characterized by pain in the muscles of mastication, the temporo-mandiblar joint or both. Rocabado has described techniques includes the Rocabado’s manipulation and Rocabado’s exercises which have both been individually advocated for treatment of TMD. The purpose of study is to determine the effectiveness of Rocabado’s techniques on TMJ dysfunction symptoms, pain, TMJ Range of Motion (ROM and jaw functional limitation for subjects with temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. Method: Pre to post test experimental study design, subjects with temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction randomized into two groups with 15 subjects into each group with total of 30 subjects in Study and control group, respectively. The study group received the Rocabado’s technique which consisted of Rocabado’s non-thrust TMJ manipulation and Rocabado’s exercises along with conventional TMJ exercises and the control group received only conventional TMJ exercises. The exercises were performed for 6 times per each session, six times in a day, one session under supervision and remaining five sessions by the subject at home for 6 days in a week for duration of 2 weeks. The outcome measurements such as VAS for pain, TMJ ROM, Fonseca’s questionnaire rating for TMJ dysfunction symptoms and jaw function limitation score (JFLS was measured before and after two weeks of intervention. Results: Comparative analysis, using Independent ‘t’ test and Mann Whitney U- test found that the means of VAS, TMJ ROM, Fonseca’s questionnaire and JFLS scores showed statistically significant difference (p <0.05 when the pre-intervention means and post-intervention means were compared between two groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that Rocabado’s technique found to have statistically and clinically significant added effect with conventional TMJ exercises shown greater percentage of improvements obtained

  11. Multi-modal analysis of genetically-related subjects using SIFT descriptors in brain MRI


    Kumar, Kuldeep; Chauvin, Laurent; Toews, Mathew; Colliot, Olivier; Desrosiers, Christian


    International audience; So far, fingerprinting studies have focused on identifying features from single-modality MRI data, which capture individual characteristics in terms of brain structure, function, or white matter microstruc-ture. However, due to the lack of a framework for comparing across multiple modalities, studies based on multi-modal data remain elusive. This paper presents a multi-modal analysis of genetically-related subjects to compare and contrast the information provided by va...

  12. STATSLAB: An open-source EEG toolbox for computing single-subject effects using robust statistics. (United States)

    Campopiano, Allan; van Noordt, Stefon J R; Segalowitz, Sidney J


    Research on robust statistics during the past half century provides concrete evidence that classical hypothesis tests that rely on the sample mean and variance are problematic. Even seemingly minor departures from normality are now known to create major problems in terms of increased error rates and decreased power. Fortunately, numerous robust estimation techniques have been developed that circumvent the need for strict assumptions of normality and equal variances, leading to increased power and accuracy when testing hypotheses. Two robust methods that have been shown to have practical value across a wide range of applied situations are the trimmed mean and percentile bootstrap test. To facilitate the uptake of robust methods into the behavioural sciences, especially when dealing with trial-based data such as EEG, we introduce STATSLAB: An open-source EEG toolbox for computing single-subject effects using robust statistics. With the STATSLAB toolbox users can apply the percentile bootstrap test, with trimmed means, to a variety of neural signals including voltages, global field amplitude, and spectral features for both scalp channels and independent components. The toolbox offers a range of analytical strategies and is packaged with a fully functional graphical user interface that includes documentation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Using virtual reality to distinguish subjects with multiple- but not single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal elderly subjects. (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Kargar, Mahmoud; Hesami, Ehsan


    Spatial disorientation is a hallmark of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease. Our aim was to use virtual reality to determine the allocentric and egocentric memory deficits of subjects with single-domain aMCI (aMCIsd) and multiple-domain aMCI (aMCImd). For this purpose, we introduced an advanced virtual reality navigation task (VRNT) to distinguish these deficits in mild Alzheimer's disease (miAD), aMCIsd, and aMCImd. The VRNT performance of 110 subjects, including 20 with miAD, 30 with pure aMCIsd, 30 with pure aMCImd, and 30 cognitively normal controls was compared. Our newly developed VRNT consists of a virtual neighbourhood (allocentric memory) and virtual maze (egocentric memory). Verbal and visuospatial memory impairments were also examined with Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, respectively. We found that miAD and aMCImd subjects were impaired in both allocentric and egocentric memory, but aMCIsd subjects performed similarly to the normal controls on both tasks. The miAD, aMCImd, and aMCIsd subjects performed worse on finding the target or required more time in the virtual environment than the aMCImd, aMCIsd, and normal controls, respectively. Our findings indicated the aMCImd and miAD subjects, as well as the aMCIsd subjects, were more impaired in egocentric orientation than allocentric orientation. We concluded that VRNT can distinguish aMCImd subjects, but not aMCIsd subjects, from normal elderly subjects. The VRNT, along with the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, can be used as a valid diagnostic tool for properly distinguishing different forms of aMCI. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  14. Composite Estimation for Single-Index Models with Responses Subject to Detection Limits

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Yanlin


    We propose a semiparametric estimator for single-index models with censored responses due to detection limits. In the presence of left censoring, the mean function cannot be identified without any parametric distributional assumptions, but the quantile function is still identifiable at upper quantile levels. To avoid parametric distributional assumption, we propose to fit censored quantile regression and combine information across quantile levels to estimate the unknown smooth link function and the index parameter. Under some regularity conditions, we show that the estimated link function achieves the non-parametric optimal convergence rate, and the estimated index parameter is asymptotically normal. The simulation study shows that the proposed estimator is competitive with the omniscient least squares estimator based on the latent uncensored responses for data with normal errors but much more efficient for heavy-tailed data under light and moderate censoring. The practical value of the proposed method is demonstrated through the analysis of a human immunodeficiency virus antibody data set.

  15. The Subjectivity Problem: Improving Triangulation Approaches in Metaphor Analysis Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya L. Armstrong


    Full Text Available Metaphor analysis procedures for uncovering participant conceptualizations have been well-established in qualitative research settings since the early 1980s; however, one common criticism of metaphor analysis is the trustworthiness of the findings. Namely, accurate determination of the conceptual metaphors held by participants based on the investigation of linguistic metaphors has been identified as a methodological issue because of the subjectivity involved in the interpretation; that is, because they are necessarily situated in specific social and cultural milieus, meanings of particular metaphors are not universally constructed nor understood. In light of these critiques, this article provides examples of two different triangulation methods that can be employed to supplement the trustworthiness of the findings when metaphor analysis methodologies are used.

  16. Single Molecule Analysis of Resection Tracks. (United States)

    Huertas, Pablo; Cruz-García, Andrés


    Homologous recombination is initiated by the so-called DNA end resection, the 5'-3' nucleolytic degradation of a single strand of the DNA at each side of the break. The presence of resected DNA is an obligatory step for homologous recombination. Moreover, the amount of resected DNA modulates the prevalence of different recombination pathways. In different model organisms, there are several published ways to visualize and measure with more or less detail the amount of DNA resected. In human cells, however, technical constraints hampered the study of resection at high resolution. Some information might be gathered from the study of endonuclease-created DSBs, in which the resection of breaks at known sites can be followed by PCR or ChIP. In this chapter, we describe in detail a novel assay to study DNA end resection in breaks located on unknown positions. Here, we use ionizing radiation to induce double-strand breaks, but the same approach can be used to monitor resection induced by different DNA damaging agents. By modifying the DNA-combing technique, used for high-resolution replication analyses, we can measure resection progression at the level of individual DNA fibers. Thus, we named the method Single Molecule Analysis of Resection Tracks (SMART). We use human cells in culture as a model system, but in principle the same approach would be feasible to any model organism adjusting accordingly the DNA isolation part of the protocol.

  17. Subjective facial analysis and its correlation with dental relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Silva Siécola

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Subjective facial analysis is a diagnostic method that provides morphological analysis of the face. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the facial and dental diagnoses and investigate their relationship. METHODS: This sample consisted of 151 children (7 to 13 years old, without previous orthodontic treatment, analyzed by an orthodontist. Standardized extraoral and intraoral photographs were taken for the subjective facial classification according to Facial Pattern classification and occlusal analyses. It has been researched the occurrence of different Facial Patterns, the relationship between Facial Pattern classification in frontal and profile views, the relationship between Facial Patterns and Angle classification, and between anterior open bite and Long Face Pattern. RESULTS: Facial Pattern I was verified in 64.24% of the children, Pattern II in 21.29%, Pattern III in 6.62%, Long Face Pattern in 5.96% and Short Face Pattern in 1.99%. A substantial strength of agreement of approximately 84% between frontal and profile classification of Facial Pattern was observed (Kappa = 0.69. Agreement between the Angle classification and the Facial Pattern was seen in approximately 63% of the cases (Kappa = 0.27. Long Face Pattern did not present more open bite prevalence. CONCLUSION: Facial Patterns I and II were the most prevalent in children and the less prevalent was the Short Face Pattern. A significant concordance was observed between profile and frontal subjective facial analysis. There was slight concordance between the Facial Pattern and the sagittal dental relationships. The anterior open bite (AOB was not significantly prevalent in any Facial Pattern.

  18. Saturation analysis studies of corticosteroid levels in normal Greek subjects and in subjects with haemolytic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyzantiadis, A.


    Between 1970 and 1974 a saturation analysis for cortisol in plasma and free cortisol in urine, and a radioimmunoassay method for aldosterone in plasma and urine were developed. In order to permit a comparative evaluation it was necessary to study corticosteroids, diurnal rhythm and the probable effect of a siesta on this rhythm both in normal subjects and in patients suffering from hemic diseases, in particular from sickle-cell anemia. Saturation assay for cortisol, using serum from pregnant women as source of transcortin, and radioimmunoassay for aldosterone were the basic methods used. Serum cortisol was estimated twice a day (8-9 a.m. and 5-6 p.m.). Cortisol and aldosterone were also estimated in serum and in urine before and after adrenalin stimulation with ACTH. No significant influence of a siesta on the diurnal rhythm of cortisol was observed, nor did the levels of serum cortisol or the diurnal rhythm appear affected in congenital hemolytic anemias, following adrenalin stimulation. The report lists experimental results briefly and refers to a paper in which these are published in more detail

  19. Test-retest reliability of single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Hermsen, A M; Haag, A; Duddek, C; Balkenhol, K; Bugiel, H; Bauer, S; Mylius, V; Menzler, K; Rosenow, F


    To determine the influence of different factors on test-retest reliability of frequently used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) parameters while controlling for potential confounders in healthy subjects. TMS was applied in 93 healthy volunteers (61% male) twice (mean retest interval of 34.0 ± 25.6 (SD) days) between 7 am and 2 pm by four investigators (sessions n investigator A=47, investigator B=95, investigator C=28, investigator D=16). Women were assessed in their follicular phase. Test stimulus (TS), resting motor threshold (RMT), short latency intracortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF) and cortical silent period (SCP) were analyzed. Good test-retest reliabilities were observed for TS (r=.880) and RMT (r=.826), moderate for visual and automated analyzed CSP durations (resp. r=.466, r=.486), and poor for ICF (r=-.159). Reliable change indexes are reported. Gender (e.g. automated CSP women: r=.538 vs. men: r=.422), re-test interval and method of CSP-analysis did not influence reliabilities. In a large sample of healthy volunteers we found good to moderate test-retest reliabilities in all but one TMS-parameter. Automated analysis of the CSP did not prove to be more reliable than visual determination. This study contains analyses of re-test reliability in TMS considering several confounding factors. For the first time it presents reliable change indices for all frequently used TMS parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. On the Optimality of Trust Network Analysis with Subjective Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARK, Y.


    Full Text Available Building and measuring trust is one of crucial aspects in e-commerce, social networking and computer security. Trust networks are widely used to formalize trust relationships and to conduct formal reasoning of trust values. Diverse trust network analysis methods have been developed so far and one of the most widely used schemes is TNA-SL (Trust Network Analysis with Subjective Logic. Recent papers claimed that TNA-SL always finds the optimal solution by producing the least uncertainty. In this paper, we present some counter-examples, which imply that TNA-SL is not an optimal algorithm. Furthermore, we present a probabilistic algorithm in edge splitting to minimize uncertainty.

  1. Dietary pattern analysis: a comparison between matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects. (United States)

    Clarys, Peter; Deriemaeker, Peter; Huybrechts, Inge; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Mullie, Patrick


    Dietary pattern analysis, based on the concept that foods eaten together are as important as a reductive methodology characterized by a single food or nutrient analysis, has emerged as an alternative approach to study the relation between nutrition and disease. The aim of the present study was to compare nutritional intake and the results of dietary pattern analysis in properly matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects. Vegetarians (n = 69) were recruited via purposeful sampling and matched non-vegetarians (n = 69) with same age, gender, health and lifestyle characteristics were searched for via convenience sampling. Two dietary pattern analysis methods, the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) were calculated and analysed in function of the nutrient intake. Mean total energy intake was comparable between vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (p > 0.05). Macronutrient analysis revealed significant differences between the mean values for vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (absolute and relative protein and total fat intake were significantly lower in vegetarians, while carbohydrate and fibre intakes were significantly higher in vegetarians than in omnivorous subjects). The HEI and MDS were significantly higher for the vegetarians (HEI = 53.8.1 ± 11.2; MDS = 4.3 ± 1.3) compared to the omnivorous subjects (HEI = 46.4 ± 15.3; MDS = 3.8 ± 1.4). Our results indicate a more nutrient dense pattern, closer to the current dietary recommendations for the vegetarians compared to the omnivorous subjects. Both indexing systems were able to discriminate between the vegetarians and the non-vegetarians with higher scores for the vegetarian subjects.

  2. Investigating Neuroanatomical Features in Top Athletes at the Single Subject Level (United States)

    Taubert, Marco; Wenzel, Uwe; Draganski, Bogdan; Kiebel, Stefan J.; Ragert, Patrick; Krug, Jürgen; Villringer, Arno


    In sport events like Olympic Games or World Championships competitive athletes keep pushing the boundaries of human performance. Compared to team sports, high achievements in many athletic disciplines depend solely on the individual’s performance. Contrasting previous research looking for expertise-related differences in brain anatomy at the group level, we aim to demonstrate changes in individual top athlete’s brain, which would be averaged out in a group analysis. We compared structural magnetic resonance images (MRI) of three professional track-and-field athletes to age-, gender- and education-matched control subjects. To determine brain features specific to these top athletes, we tested for significant deviations in structural grey matter density between each of the three top athletes and a carefully matched control sample. While total brain volumes were comparable between athletes and controls, we show regional grey matter differences in striatum and thalamus. The demonstrated brain anatomy patterns remained stable and were detected after 2 years with Olympic Games in between. We also found differences in the fusiform gyrus in two top long jumpers. We interpret our findings in reward-related areas as correlates of top athletes’ persistency to reach top-level skill performance over years. PMID:26079870

  3. Modelling single-trial ERP reveals modulation of bottom-up face visual processing by top-down task constraints (in some subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume A Rousselet


    Full Text Available We studied how task constraints modulate the relationship between single-trial ERPs and image noise. Thirteen subjects performed two interleaved tasks: on different blocks, they saw the same stimuli, but they discriminated either between two faces or between two colours. Stimuli were two pictures of red or green faces that contained from 10% to 80% of phase noise, with 10% increments. Behavioural accuracy followed a noise dependent sigmoid in the identity task but was high and independent of noise level in the colour task. EEG data recorded concurrently were analyzed using a single-trial ANCOVA: we assessed how changes in task constraints modulated ERP noise sensitivity while regressing out the main ERP differences due to identity, colour and task. Single-trial ERP sensitivity to image phase noise started at about 95-110 ms post-stimulus onset. Group analyses showed a significant reduction in noise sensitivity in the colour task compared to the identity task from about 140 ms to 300 ms post-stimulus onset. However, statistical analyses in every subject revealed different results: significant task modulation occurred in 8/13 subjects, one showing an increase and 7 showing a decrease in noise sensitivity in the colour task. Onsets and durations of effects also differed between group and single-trial analyses: at any time point only a maximum of 4 subjects (31% showed results consistent with group analyses. We provide detailed results for all 13 subjects, including a shift function analysis that revealed asymmetric task modulations of single-trial ERP distributions. We conclude that, during face processing, bottom-up sensitivity to phase noise can be modulated by top-down task constraints, in a broad window around the P2, at least in some subjects.

  4. Single particle raster image analysis of diffusion. (United States)

    Longfils, M; Schuster, E; Lorén, N; Särkkä, A; Rudemo, M


    As a complement to the standard RICS method of analysing Raster Image Correlation Spectroscopy images with estimation of the image correlation function, we introduce the method SPRIA, Single Particle Raster Image Analysis. Here, we start by identifying individual particles and estimate the diffusion coefficient for each particle by a maximum likelihood method. Averaging over the particles gives a diffusion coefficient estimate for the whole image. In examples both with simulated and experimental data, we show that the new method gives accurate estimates. It also gives directly standard error estimates. The method should be possible to extend to study heterogeneous materials and systems of particles with varying diffusion coefficient, as demonstrated in a simple simulation example. A requirement for applying the SPRIA method is that the particle concentration is low enough so that we can identify the individual particles. We also describe a bootstrap method for estimating the standard error of standard RICS. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  5. Micro-PIXE for single cell analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Richard


    The knowledge of the intracellular distribution of biological relevant metals is important to understand their mechanisms of action in cells, either for physiological, toxicological or pathological processes. However, the direct detection of trace metals in single cells is a challenging task that requires sophisticated analytical developments. The combination of micro-PIXE with RBS and STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy) allows the quantitative determination of trace metal content within sub-cellular compartments. The application of STIM analysis provides high spatial resolution imaging (< 200 nm) and excellent mass sensitivity (< 0.1 ng). Application of the STIM-PIXE-RBS methodology is absolutely needed when organic mass loss appears during PIXE-RBS irradiation. This combination of STIM-PIXE-RBS provides fully quantitative determination of trace element content, expressed in μg/g, which is a quite unique capability for micro-PIXE compared to other micro-analytical methods such as the electron and synchrotron x-ray fluorescence. Examples of micro-PIXE studies for sub-cellular imaging of trace elements in various fields of interest will be presented: in patho-physiology of trace elements involved in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, and in toxicology of metals such as cobalt. (author)

  6. Stress analysis of a single osteon (United States)

    Ismail, A. A.; Daud, R.; Amin, N. A. M.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Basaruddin, K. S.; Junoh, A. K.


    Cortical boneis considered as a composite material as it was made up of different phases such as osteon, interstitial bone and cement line. Bone is known for its function to give supports in vertebrae. The bone also has a special feature that was enable it to resist the fracture under certain condition. Many researchers are interested in understanding the fracture mechanic of the bone because of its special micro-structure. The objective of this study was to develop numericalmodelof a single osteon using Finite Element Method to determine stress distribution and predict the location of microcrack initiation.A finite element stress and strain analysis has been carried out for an osteon under radial loading. With radial loading, high values of stresses were predicted at the innermost lamellar of osteon. These findings suggest that stress was accumulated in the lamella near the Haversian canal. The microcrack in osteon may start in the lamella near to the canal, correlates with the data in literature.

  7. Within-subject template estimation for unbiased longitudinal image analysis. (United States)

    Reuter, Martin; Schmansky, Nicholas J; Rosas, H Diana; Fischl, Bruce


    Longitudinal image analysis has become increasingly important in clinical studies of normal aging and neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, there is a growing appreciation of the potential utility of longitudinally acquired structural images and reliable image processing to evaluate disease modifying therapies. Challenges have been related to the variability that is inherent in the available cross-sectional processing tools, to the introduction of bias in longitudinal processing and to potential over-regularization. In this paper we introduce a novel longitudinal image processing framework, based on unbiased, robust, within-subject template creation, for automatic surface reconstruction and segmentation of brain MRI of arbitrarily many time points. We demonstrate that it is essential to treat all input images exactly the same as removing only interpolation asymmetries is not sufficient to remove processing bias. We successfully reduce variability and avoid over-regularization by initializing the processing in each time point with common information from the subject template. The presented results show a significant increase in precision and discrimination power while preserving the ability to detect large anatomical deviations; as such they hold great potential in clinical applications, e.g. allowing for smaller sample sizes or shorter trials to establish disease specific biomarkers or to quantify drug effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Statistical analysis of subjective preferences for video enhancement (United States)

    Woods, Russell L.; Satgunam, PremNandhini; Bronstad, P. Matthew; Peli, Eli


    Measuring preferences for moving video quality is harder than for static images due to the fleeting and variable nature of moving video. Subjective preferences for image quality can be tested by observers indicating their preference for one image over another. Such pairwise comparisons can be analyzed using Thurstone scaling (Farrell, 1999). Thurstone (1927) scaling is widely used in applied psychology, marketing, food tasting and advertising research. Thurstone analysis constructs an arbitrary perceptual scale for the items that are compared (e.g. enhancement levels). However, Thurstone scaling does not determine the statistical significance of the differences between items on that perceptual scale. Recent papers have provided inferential statistical methods that produce an outcome similar to Thurstone scaling (Lipovetsky and Conklin, 2004). Here, we demonstrate that binary logistic regression can analyze preferences for enhanced video.

  9. Bayesian analysis of factors associated with fibromyalgia syndrome subjects (United States)

    Jayawardana, Veroni; Mondal, Sumona; Russek, Leslie


    Factors contributing to movement-related fear were assessed by Russek, et al. 2014 for subjects with Fibromyalgia (FM) based on the collected data by a national internet survey of community-based individuals. The study focused on the variables, Activities-Specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC), Primary Care Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder screen (PC-PTSD), Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), a Joint Hypermobility Syndrome screen (JHS), Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS-SF), Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD), Pain, work status and physical activity dependent from the "Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire" (FIQR). The study presented in this paper revisits same data with a Bayesian analysis where appropriate priors were introduced for variables selected in the Russek's paper.

  10. Gait analysis in demented subjects: Interests and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Beauchet


    Full Text Available Olivier Beauchet1, Gilles Allali2, Gilles Berrut3, Caroline Hommet4, Véronique Dubost5, Frédéric Assal21Department of Geriatrics, Angers University Hospital, France; 2Department of Neurology, Geneva University Hospital, France; 3Department of Geriatrics, Nantes University Hospital, France; 4Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Tours University Hospital, France; 5Department of Geriatrics, Dijon University Hospital, FranceAbstract: Gait disorders are more prevalent in dementia than in normal aging and are related to the severity of cognitive decline. Dementia-related gait changes (DRGC mainly include decrease in walking speed provoked by a decrease in stride length and an increase in support phase. More recently, dual-task related changes in gait were found in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and non-Alzheimer dementia, even at an early stage. An increase in stride-to-stride variability while usual walking and dual-tasking has been shown to be more specific and sensitive than any change in mean value in subjects with dementia. Those data show that DRGC are not only associated to motor disorders but also to problem with central processing of information and highlight that dysfunction of temporal and frontal lobe may in part explain gait impairment among demented subjects. Gait assessment, and more particularly dual-task analysis, is therefore crucial in early diagnosis of dementia and/or related syndromes in the elderly. Moreover, dual-task disturbances could be a specific marker of falling at a pre-dementia stage.Keywords: gait, prediction of dementia, risk of falling, older adult

  11. Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Single and Multiple Oral Doses of an Omega-3-Carboxylic Acid Formulation in Healthy Male Japanese Subjects: A Phase 1 Single-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Noda, Yoshinori; Nilsson, Catarina; Shimada, Hitoshi; Kim, Hyosung; Lundström, Torbjörn; Yajima, Toshitaka


    OM3-CA (omega-3-carboxylic acids) is a complex mixture of omega-3 carboxylic acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is approved in the United States for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. As part of its clinical development in Japan, we performed a phase 1 study to investigate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics after single and multiple doses of OM3-CA in healthy male Japanese subjects. Eighteen Japanese subjects were allocated to receive 2 or 4 g/day OM3-CA, or placebo (n = 6 per group). In addition, 6 white subjects received 4 g/day OM3-CA. The primary objective was to determine the safety and tolerability of OM3-CA. Plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA were adjusted for baseline values for pharmacokinetic analysis. Overall, OM3-CA was well tolerated in healthy Japanese subjects. Two Japanese subjects in each group and 5 white subjects experienced adverse events (AEs). Alanine aminotransferase increase was the most common AE in Japanese subjects, also seen with placebo, and diarrhea was the most common AE in white subjects. The maximum plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA were observed 5-6 hours postdose. The pharmacokinetic profiles of EPA and DHA after administration of OM3-CA were comparable between Japanese and white subjects. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  12. Hydroelastic analysis of a rectangular plate subjected to slamming loads (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Guedes Soares, C.


    A hydroelastic analysis of a rectangular plate subjected to slamming loads is presented. An analytical model based on Wagner theory is used for calculations of transient slamming load on the ship plate. A thin isotropic plate theory is considered for determining the vibration of a rectangular plate excited by an external slamming force. The forced vibration of the plate is calculated by the modal expansion method. Analytical results of the transient response of a rectangular plate induced by slamming loads are compared with numerical calculations from finite element method. The theoretical slamming pressure based on Wagner model is applied on the finite element model of a plate. Good agreement is obtained between the analytical and numerical results for the structural deflection of a rectangular plate due to slamming pressure. The effects of plate dimension and wave profile on the structural vibration are discussed as well. The results show that a low impact velocity and a small wetted radial length of wave yield negligible effects of hydroelasticity.

  13. Inactivation of single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator by thrombin in human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, E. A.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Bos, R.; Haverkate, F.; Lassen, M. R.; de Maat, M. P.; Rijken, D. C.


    Thrombin cleaves single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) into a virtually inactive two-chain form (tcu-PA/T), a process that may protect a blood clot from early fibrinolysis. It is not known under what circumstances tcu-PA/T can be generated in vivo. We have studied the occurrence

  14. Subjective dimension in the analysis of human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÓPEZ NOVAL, Borja


    Full Text Available In recent years subjective evaluations about own quality of life, resumed in levels of life satisfactionor happiness, are gaining importance as indicators of development. Some authors state that subjectivewell-being is a necessary and sufficient condition for human development. In this work the arguments ofthese authors are explained and it is discussed the role subjective evaluations must play on developmentstudies. The main conclusion is that although it is necessary to integrate subjective well-being into humandevelopment studies we cannot identify subjective well-being and development.

  15. Initial Single-Shell Tank Retrieval System mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzel, J.S.


    This document provides the mission analysis for the Initial Single-Shell Tank Retrieval System task, which supports the Single-Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Program in its commitment to remove waste from single-shell tanks for treatment and final closure

  16. Effect of Vibrations on Lifetime of Ni Base Single Crystals Subjected to Tensile Stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Mintách, Rastislav


    Roč. 567-568, - (2008), s. 293-296 ISSN 0255-5476. [MSMF /5./. Brno, 27.06.2007-29.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/05/2112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : high-cycle fatigue * CMSX-4 * CM186LC Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  17. Single and multi-subject clustering of flow cytometry data for cell-type identification and anomaly detection. (United States)

    Pouyan, Maziyar Baran; Jindal, Vasu; Birjandtalab, Javad; Nourani, Mehrdad


    Measurement of various markers of single cells using flow cytometry has several biological applications. These applications include improving our understanding of behavior of cellular systems, identifying rare cell populations and personalized medication. A common critical issue in the existing methods is identification of the number of cellular populations which heavily affects the accuracy of results. Furthermore, anomaly detection is crucial in flow cytometry experiments. In this work, we propose a two-stage clustering technique for cell type identification in single subject flow cytometry data and extend it for anomaly detection among multiple subjects. Our experimentation on 42 flow cytometry datasets indicates high performance and accurate clustering (F-measure > 91 %) in identifying main cellular populations. Furthermore, our anomaly detection technique evaluated on Acute Myeloid Leukemia dataset results in only <2 % false positives.

  18. Comparing methods for single paragraph similarity analysis. (United States)

    Stone, Benjamin; Dennis, Simon; Kwantes, Peter J


    The focus of this paper is two-fold. First, similarities generated from six semantic models were compared to human ratings of paragraph similarity on two datasets-23 World Entertainment News Network paragraphs and 50 ABC newswire paragraphs. Contrary to findings on smaller textual units such as word associations (Griffiths, Tenenbaum, & Steyvers, 2007), our results suggest that when single paragraphs are compared, simple nonreductive models (word overlap and vector space) can provide better similarity estimates than more complex models (LSA, Topic Model, SpNMF, and CSM). Second, various methods of corpus creation were explored to facilitate the semantic models' similarity estimates. Removing numeric and single characters, and also truncating document length improved performance. Automated construction of smaller Wikipedia-based corpora proved to be very effective, even improving upon the performance of corpora that had been chosen for the domain. Model performance was further improved by augmenting corpora with dataset paragraphs. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Efficacy of single dose antihistamine vs. single dose valerian-hops in subjective sleep measures among war refugees: a comparison trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Salem Gammoh

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many sedatives and anxiolytics are used in single dose or chronically to aid sleep. Clinically important sedatives include valerian-hops and antihistamines as they are used over the counter and are highly accessible and safe agents. Objectives To evaluate and compare a single dose of chlorpheniramine versus valerian-hops combination in modulating subjective sleep measures in insomniac war refugees. Methods Insomnia among refugees was screened using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI. Insomniac subjects were randomized to received a single dose valerian-hops (320/80 mg (n = 65, or chlorpheneramine (4 mg (n = 50 or placebo (n = 76 two hours prior sleeping. Participants were instructed to complete Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ, visual analogue scales of anxiety and sedation. Also sleep latency, total hours slept and self-rated improvement were obtained. Results Almost 75% of screened refugees had insomnia. Chlorpheneramine reduced sleep latency and anxiety significantly, however it resulted in poor sleep quality. Valerian-hops group showed marked anxiolysis one hour after dosing, a sleep quality similar to placebo and better than chlorpheneramine, and better alertness compared to placebo. Participants satisfaction was higher with chlorpheneramine and there was no difference in the total hours slept. Discussion Valerian-hops combination may provide better sleep quality than antihistamines.

  20. Performance evaluation of a piezoactuator-based single-stage valve system subjected to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Han, Chulhee; Ung Chung, Jye; Choi, Seung-Bok


    In this paper, a novel single-stage valve system activated by a piezostack actuator is proposed and experimentally evaluated at both room temperature (20 °C) and high temperature (100 °C) conditions. A hinge-lever displacement amplifier is adopted in the valve system to magnify the displacement generated from the piezostack actuator. After explaining the operating principle of the proposed piezostack-driven single-stage valve system, the geometric dimensions and mechanical properties of the valve components are discussed in details. An experimental apparatus is then manufactured to evaluate the performances of the valve system such as flow rate. The experimental apparatus consists of a heat chamber, which can regulate the temperature of the valve system and oil, pneumatic-hydraulic cylinders, a hydraulic circuit, a pneumatic circuit, electronic devices, an interface card, and a high voltage amplifier. The pneumatic-hydraulic cylinder transforms the pneumatic pressure into hydraulic pressure. The performances of the valve system regarding spool response, pressure drop, and flow rate are evaluated and presented. In addition, the performance of the valve system under high temperature condition is compared with that under room temperature condition. The experimental results are plotted in both frequency and time domains. (paper)

  1. Analysis of Single Event Evoked Potentials. (United States)


    stimuli is available in the literature, and since this study deals with single responses, an assumption had to be made before the information in the...Figue 4 Repon e mocekroadpten.trp atrsadt ln 0m10 4 4 22 A S10 2D 3 40 5 64 10 i 13 10 II0 Visul wo (miautes) of side of dck Figure 5. The effect of unit...differences in their average evoked responses. These responses will also lend themselves to detection based on information from multiple electrodes because

  2. Mass balance, metabolic disposition, and pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of regorafenib in healthy human subjects. (United States)

    Gerisch, Michael; Hafner, Frank-Thorsten; Lang, Dieter; Radtke, Martin; Diefenbach, Konstanze; Cleton, Adriaan; Lettieri, John


    To evaluate the mass balance, metabolic disposition, and pharmacokinetics of a single dose of regorafenib in healthy volunteers. In addition, in vitro metabolism of regorafenib in human hepatocytes was investigated. Four healthy male subjects received one 120 mg oral dose of regorafenib containing approximately 100 µCi (3.7 MBq) [ 14 C]regorafenib. Plasma concentrations of parent drug were derived from HPLC-MS/MS analysis and total radioactivity from liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Radiocarbon analyses used HPLC with fraction collection followed by LSC for all urine samples, plasma, and fecal homogenate extracts. For the in vitro study, [ 14 C]regorafenib was incubated with human hepatocytes and analyzed using HPLC-LSC and HPLC-HRMS/MS. Regorafenib was the major component in plasma, while metabolite M-2 (pyridine N-oxide) was the most prominent metabolite. Metabolites M-5 (demethylated pyridine N-oxide) and M-7 (N-glucuronide) were identified as minor plasma components. The mean concentration of total radioactivity in plasma/whole blood appeared to plateau at 1-4 h and again at 6-24 h post-dose. In total, 90.5% of administered radioactivity was recovered in the excreta within a collection interval of 12 days, most of which (71.2%) was eliminated in feces, while excretion via urine accounted for 19.3%. Regorafenib (47.2%) was the most prominent component in feces and was not excreted into urine. Excreted metabolites resulted from oxidative metabolism and glucuronidation. Regorafenib was eliminated predominantly in feces as well as by hepatic biotransformation. The multiple biotransformation pathways of regorafenib decrease the risk of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions.

  3. Effects of food and grapefruit juice on single-dose pharmacokinetics of blonanserin in healthy Chinese subjects. (United States)

    Shang, De-Wei; Wang, Zhan-Zhang; Hu, Hai-Tang; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Ni, Xiao-Jia; Lu, Hao-Yang; Zhang, Ming; Hu, Jin-Qing; Qiu, Chang; Peng, Huan; Shen, Ling-Fang; Wen, Yu-Guan


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effects of a meal and grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of blonanserin and its metabolite N-desethyl blonanserin in healthy Chinese volunteers. This was a single-centre, open-label, fixed-sequence study, where 12 healthy Chinese volunteers received a single dose of 8 mg blonanserin after an overnight fast in period 1 (reference), a high-fat meal during period 2 and with co-administration of 250 mL of grapefruit juice in period 3. The washout period was 7 days. Series of plasma samples were collected after each dose to determine concentrations of blonanserin and its metabolite N-desethyl blonanserin using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by non-compartmental analysis and compared between periods by standard average bioequivalence ANOVA. Adverse events were monitored throughout the study. All subjects completed the study. High-fat meals significantly increased blonanserin exposure (AUC t ) 2.58-fold (90% CI 2.21, 3.02), relative to the reference period. Co-administration of blonanserin with grapefruit juice remarkably prolonged elimination half-life of blonanserin (from 9.7 to 21.4 h) and significantly increased exposures to blonanserin and N-desethyl blonanserin by 5.82-fold (90% CI 4.57, 7.42) and 1.81-fold (90% CI 1.65, 1.98), respectively. These results suggested that blonanserin was largely metabolised in the intestinal tract before becoming systemically available, and both food and grapefruit juice enhanced exposure to blonanserin and N-desethyl blonanserin. Grapefruit juice increased bioavailability and may have reduced systemic clearance of blonanserin. Further intestinal CYP3A4 and hepatic CYP3A4 might be postulated to explain the delayed elimination of blonanserin. Dose adjustment of blonanserin is needed on the basis of co-intake of known strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Patients taking high-dose blonanserin also need to be cautious about

  4. RT-qPCR work-flow for single-cell data analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stahlberg, A.; Rusňáková, Vendula; Forootan, A.; Anděrová, Miroslava; Kubista, Mikael


    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2013), s. 80-88 ISSN 1046-2023 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10052; GA ČR GAP303/10/1338 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : RT-qPCR * Single-cell biology * Single-cell data analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; FH - Neurology (UEM-P) Impact factor: 3.221, year: 2013

  5. Subjective Analysis and Objective Characterization of Adaptive Bitrate Videos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell


    The HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) technology allows video service providers to improve the network utilization and thereby increasing the end-users’ Quality of Experience (QoE).This has made HAS a widely used approach for audiovisual delivery. There are several previous studies aiming to identify...... the factors influencing on subjective QoE of adaptation events.However, adapting the video quality typically lasts in a time scale much longer than what current standardized subjective testing methods are designed for, thus making the full matrix design of the experiment on an event level hard to achieve....... In this study, we investigated the overall subjective QoE of 6 minutes long video sequences containing different sequential adaptation events. This was compared to a data set from our previous work performed to evaluate the individual adaptation events. We could then derive a relationship between the overall...

  6. Multiplex single particle analysis in microfluidics. (United States)

    Dannhauser, D; Romeo, G; Causa, F; De Santo, I; Netti, P A


    A straightforward way to measure separated micrometric sized particles in microfluidic flow is reported. The light scattering profile (LSP) of each single particle is fully characterized by using a CMOS-camera based small angle light scattering (SALS) apparatus, ranging from 2° up to 30°. To ensure controlled particle passage through the incident laser, a viscoelastic 3D alignment effect by viscoelastic induced particle migration has been implemented in a simple and cost-effective microfluidic device. Different polystyrene particle sizes are measured in microfluidic flows and the obtained scattering signatures are matched with the Lorenz-Mie based scattering theory. The results confirm the possibility of using this apparatus for real multiplex particle analyses in microfluidic particle flows.

  7. A general symplectic method for the response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to random excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available A general symplectic method for the random response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to stationary/non-stationary random excitations is developed using symplectic mathematics in conjunction with variable separation and the pseudo-excitation method (PEM. Starting from the equation of motion for a single loaded substructure, symplectic analysis is firstly used to eliminate the dependent degrees of the freedom through condensation. A Fourier expansion of the condensed equation of motion is then applied to separate the variables of time and wave number, thus enabling the necessary recurrence scheme to be developed. The random response is finally determined by implementing PEM. The proposed method is justified by comparison with results available in the literature and is then applied to a more complicated time-dependent coupled system.

  8. Evaluation of the single radiosensitivity in patients subjected to medical exposure that show severe skin reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Portas, M.; Perez, M.R.


    The Burnt Hospital of the Buenos Aires City Government (HQGCBA) it is a hospital of reference of the Net of Medical Responses in Radiological Emergencies of the Argentine Republic. In the mark of an agreement among the HQGCBA and the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN), it is in execution a study protocol for the one boarding diagnoses and therapeutic of radioinduced cutaneous leisure. They exist individual variations that can condition the response to the ionizing radiations (IR), so much in accidental exposures as having programmed (radiotherapy, radiology interventionist). In this context, the individual radiosensitivity is evaluated in the patients signed up in this protocol that presented sharp or late cutaneous reactions, with grades of severity 3-4 (approaches EORTC/RTOG). The capacity of repair of the DNA was evaluated in outlying blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro (2 Gy, gamma of Co-60) by means of the micronucleus techniques and comet essay in alkaline conditions. In this work two cases in those that is applied this study protocol, the therapeutic answer and its correlate with the discoveries of the radiosensitivity tests is presented. Case 1: patient of feminine sex, subjected to external radiotherapy by a breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma; developed sharp cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 3 (confluent humid epithelitis) that motivate the interruption of the treatment. Case 2: patient of masculine sex, subjected to a coronary angioplasty (interventionist radiology); developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 4 (ulceration in dorsal region). Both patients were treated with topical trolamine associated to systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and antioxidants. The therapeutic answer is evaluated by means of clinical pursuit, photographic serial register and complementary exams (thermography and ultrasonography of high frequency). In the case 1 the answer was very favorable, with precocious local improvement and complete remission of symptoms and

  9. Pressure transient analysis of a horizontal well subject to four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reservoir characterization is essential for effective reservoir and wellbore management. But when a horizontal well is subject to constant-pressure external boundaries, the extent of reservoir characterization that is possible depends on the flow regimes that are encountered in a given flow time. In this paper dimensionless ...

  10. Analysis of Idiom Variation in the Framework of Linguistic Subjectivity (United States)

    Liu, Zhengyuan


    Idiom variation is a ubiquitous linguistic phenomenon which has raised a lot of research questions. The past approach was either formal or functional. Both of them did not pay much attention to cognitive factors of language users. By putting idiom variation in the framework of linguistic subjectivity, we have offered a new perspective in the…

  11. A Web Survey Analysis of Subjective Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzi, M.; de Pedraza García, P.


    Purpose - This paper explores the role of work conditions and job characteristics with respect to three subjective well-being indicators: life satisfaction, job satisfaction and satisfaction with work-life balance. From a methodological point of view, the paper shows how social sciences can benefit

  12. Reproducibility of Radial Pulse Wave Analysis in Healthy Subjects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipovský, J.; Svoboda, V.; Pecen, Ladislav


    Roč. 18, č. 8 (2000), s. 1033-1040 ISSN 0263-6352 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : blood pressure * heart - rate * predictor * risk Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.640, year: 2000

  13. Performance, Pinned Down: A Lacanian Analysis of Subjectivity at Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M.W. Hoedemaekers (Casper)


    textabstractThis study seeks to create an account of how the performing subject comes into being within a specific organizational context. It looks at some of the ways in which managerial practices impact upon the selfhood of employees by means of the language in which they are couched. Drawing

  14. Analysis of Subjective Conceptualizations Towards Collective Conceptual Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard


    This work is conducted as a preliminary study for a project where individuals' conceptualizations of domain knowledge will thoroughly be analyzed across 150 subjects from 6 countries. The project aims at investigating how humans' conceptualizations differ according to different types of mother...

  15. A within-subject analysis of other-regarding preferences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blanco, M.; Engelmann, Dirk; Normann, H.-T.


    Roč. 72, č. 2 (2011), s. 321-338 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : behavioral economics * experimental economics * inequality aversion Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.829, year: 2011

  16. Analysis of Subjective Conceptualizations Towards Collective Conceptual Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard


    This work is conducted as a preliminary study for a project where individuals' conceptualizations of domain knowledge will thoroughly be analyzed across 150 subjects from 6 countries. The project aims at investigating how humans' conceptualizations differ according to different types of mother la...

  17. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Tedizolid after Single and Multiple Intravenous/Oral Sequential Administrations in Healthy Chinese Subjects. (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Shen, Kai; Chang, Xinying; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Li, Li; Hu, Pei


    Tedizolid phosphate is a new antibacterial agent under investigation for the treatment of Gram-positive infections in China. This study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, oral bioavailability, and safety of once daily tedizolid phosphate 200 mg in Chinese subjects to support its further clinical development in China. This Phase I single-center study, conducted in 16 healthy Chinese male subjects, consisted of a single-dose administration, 1:1 randomized, two-way, intravenous (IV)/oral (PO) crossover of tedizolid phosphate 200 mg (Part 1) and, after a 7-day washout, a nonrandomized, multiple-dose, 7-day tedizolid phosphate 200 mg once daily administration (IV for 3 days, PO for 4 days; Part 2). Blood samples were collected for up to 72 hours after single dosing and for up to 2 hours on Day 3 and 72 hours on Day 7 of multiple dosing to determine PK parameters. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the entire study. The Cmax and AUC of tedizolid (the active moiety of tedizolid phosphate) were 3.02 µg/mL and 30.50 µg • h/mL after single IV dosing of tedizolid phosphate, and 2.25 µg/mL and 26.10 µg • h/mL after single PO dosing, respectively, and the mean half-life was 10.1 hours for both administration routes. The oral bioavailability of tedizolid was 85.5%. PK parameters of tedizolid were similar after single and multiple dosing of tedizolid phosphate, indicating no time dependency. Only minor accumulation of tedizolid was observed after multiple dosing (expressed as accumulation ratios RAAUC: 1.18 for PO dosing, and RACmax: 1.16 and 1.05 for IV and PO dosing, respectively). Steady state of tedizolid was reached after about 3 days, and trough concentrations remained constant when switching from IV to PO dosing. Tedizolid phosphate was well tolerated with 6 subjects (37.5%) in Part 1 and 5 subjects (31.3%) in Part 2 experiencing an AE; all AEs but one were related to the study drug assessed by the investigator. All AEs were of

  18. Single-dose, randomized crossover comparisons of different-strength imatinib mesylate formulations in healthy Korean male subjects. (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ah; Park, Shin Jung; Kim, Chin; Park, Ji-Young


    Imatinib mesylate is used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia and advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of 2 different strengths of the imatinib formulation containing 100 mg (reference) and 400 mg (test) to satisfy the regulatory requirement for marketing. A single-center, randomized, single-dose, open-label, 2-period, 2-sequence, comparative crossover study with a 14-day washout period was conducted in 30 healthy male volunteers. Plasma samples for the drug analysis were collected up to 72 hours after drug treatment. Participants received either the reference (4 tablets of 100-mg imatinib) or the test (1 tablet of 400-mg imatinib) formulation during the first period and the alternative formulation during the second period. The safety profiles and tolerability of the 2 formulations were also assessed based on physical examinations, laboratory tests, a 12-lead ECG, and vital signs. Thirty participants were initially enrolled; their mean (SD) age, height, weight, and body mass index were 24.9 (2.0) years (range, 23-30 years), 174 (5) cm (range, 164-185 cm), 69.9 (2.0) kg (range, 54.1-87.4 kg), and 23.0 (2.0) kg/m(2) (range, 18.5-26.9 kg/m(2)); 28 healthy participants completed both treatment periods. Two subjects did not complete the study because they withdrew consent for personal reasons. The observed mean (SD) Cmax, AUC0-last, and AUC0-∞ values for the reference formulation were 1792 (357) ng/mL, 28,485 (6274) ng · h/mL, and 29,079 (6371) ng · h/mL, respectively. Corresponding values for the test formulation were 1710 (312) ng/mL, 27,222 (4624) ng · h/mL , and 27,872 (4751) ng · h/mL. The geometric mean ratios (90% CIs) between the 2 formulations at the 400-mg dose of imatinib were 0.9579 (0.9054-1.0136) for Cmax, 0.9652 (0.9174-1.0155) for AUC0-last, and 0.9679 (0.9203-1.0179) for AUC0-∞, respectively. During the study period, 6 adverse events (3 for the reference and 3 for the test

  19. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of a Single Oral Dose of Mirogabalin in Japanese Subjects With Varying Degrees of Renal Impairment. (United States)

    Kato, Manabu; Tajima, Naoyuki; Shimizu, Takako; Sugihara, Masahiro; Furihata, Kenichi; Harada, Kazuhiro; Ishizuka, Hitoshi


    Mirogabalin (DS-5565) is a novel preferentially selective α 2 δ-1 ligand being developed for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain and postherpetic neuralgia. The current multicenter open-label study determined the effect of varying degrees of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics and safety of a single dose of mirogabalin 5 mg in Japanese subjects. A total of 30 subjects (6 subjects per renal function category [normal, mild, moderate, or severe impairment; and end-stage renal disease (ESRD)]) were enrolled and completed the study. The AUC last increased with severity of renal impairment; the geometric least-squares mean ratios of AUC last compared with subjects with normal renal function were 1.3, 1.9, 3.6, and 5.3 for patients with mild, moderate, and severe impairment and ESRD, respectively. In accordance with this AUC last increase, apparent total body clearance (CL/F), renal clearance (CLr), and the cumulative percentage of mirogabalin dose excreted into urine all decreased with severity of renal impairment. There were no deaths and no severe treatment-related adverse events (TEAEs), serious TEAEs, or TEAEs resulting in study discontinuation. Mirogabalin was well tolerated in Japanese subjects with normal renal function and those with mild to severe renal impairment. It was also tolerated in subjects with ESRD but with a higher incidence of TEAEs. The most frequently reported TEAEs were dizziness (ESRD, n = 3), somnolence (ESRD, n = 2), and vomiting (ESRD, n = 2). Based on these data, a mirogabalin dose adjustment will be considered in Japanese subjects with moderate to severe renal impairment and those with ESRD. © 2017, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. Recent advances in the development of single cell analysis-A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klepárník, Karel; Foret, František


    Roč. 800, OCT (2013), s. 12-21 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0182; GA ČR GAP206/11/2377 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : single cell analysis * capillary electrophoresis * electrochemistry * microfluidic devices Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 4.517, year: 2013

  1. Recent advances in the development of single cell analysis-A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klepárník, Karel; Foret, František


    Roč. 800, OCT (2013), s. 12-21 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0182; GA ČR GAP206/11/2377 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : single cell analysis * capillary electrophoresis * electrochemistry * microfluidic devices Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.517, year: 2013

  2. Effect of Single Administration of Coffee on Pupil Size and Ocular Wavefront Aberration Measurements in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Bardak


    Full Text Available No study has so far evaluated the impact of coffee drinking on ocular wavefront aberration (OWA measurements. This study presents novel findings regarding the OWA of the eye following coffee intake. We aimed to evaluate the acute changes in pupil size and OWA of the eye after single administration of coffee. A total of 30 otherwise healthy participants were included in this prospective study. All subjects drank a cup of coffee containing 57 mg caffeine. Measurements of pupil size, total coma (TC, total trefoil (TF, total spherical aberration (TSA, and total higher order aberration (HOA were performed before and at 5 minutes, at 30 minutes, and at 4 hours after coffee drinking using a wavefront aberrometer device (Irx3, Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France. The mean age of the study population was 20.30 ± 2.74 years. Pupil size did not show a significant change during the measurements (p>0.05. A significant increase was observed in TF and HOA measurements following coffee intake (p=0.029 and p=0.009, resp.. Single administration of coffee results in significant increase in TF and total HOAs in healthy subjects without any effect on pupil diameter. Ultrastructural changes in the cornea following coffee intake might be of relevance to the alterations in ocular aberrations in healthy subjects.

  3. Effect of Single Administration of Coffee on Pupil Size and Ocular Wavefront Aberration Measurements in Healthy Subjects. (United States)

    Bardak, Handan; Gunay, Murat; Mumcu, Ugur; Bardak, Yavuz


    No study has so far evaluated the impact of coffee drinking on ocular wavefront aberration (OWA) measurements. This study presents novel findings regarding the OWA of the eye following coffee intake. We aimed to evaluate the acute changes in pupil size and OWA of the eye after single administration of coffee. A total of 30 otherwise healthy participants were included in this prospective study. All subjects drank a cup of coffee containing 57 mg caffeine. Measurements of pupil size, total coma (TC), total trefoil (TF), total spherical aberration (TSA), and total higher order aberration (HOA) were performed before and at 5 minutes, at 30 minutes, and at 4 hours after coffee drinking using a wavefront aberrometer device (Irx3, Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France). The mean age of the study population was 20.30 ± 2.74 years. Pupil size did not show a significant change during the measurements (p > 0.05). A significant increase was observed in TF and HOA measurements following coffee intake (p = 0.029 and p = 0.009, resp.). Single administration of coffee results in significant increase in TF and total HOAs in healthy subjects without any effect on pupil diameter. Ultrastructural changes in the cornea following coffee intake might be of relevance to the alterations in ocular aberrations in healthy subjects.

  4. Pharmacokinetics and safety of single doses of tabalumab in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Witcher, Jennifer; Fleischmann, Roy; Chindalore, Vishala L; Hansen, Ryan J; Hu, Leijun; Radtke, David; Voelker, James; Gomez, Elisa; McColm, Juliet


    Two phase 1 studies evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and biological activity of tabalumab, a human monoclonal antibody against B-cell activating factor (BAFF), administered intravenously (i.v.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In study A, subjects with RA (n = 23) or SLE (n = 6) received a single i.v. dose of tabalumab (RA 0.01, 0.04, 0.125, 0.5, 2.0, and 8.0 mg kg(-1) and SLE 0.125 or 2.0 mg kg(-1) ) or placebo. In study B, subjects with RA received a single tabalumab dose i.v. (10 mg) (n = 12) or s.c. (20 mg) (n = 12). Serum tabalumab and CD20+ B cells were evaluated and safety was assessed throughout both studies. Tabalumab PK were non-linear across the 0.01 to 8.0 mg kg(-1) dose range. Clearance (CL) decreased from 2.9 to 0.1 l day(-1) and terminal half-life (t1/2 ) increased from about 1.6 to 25 days. Subjects with RA or SLE had similar PK. After s.c. dosing, tabalumab time to maximal concentration (tmax ) was 5.5 days. Absolute bioavailability (F) was approximately 62%. Following tabalumab dosing, CD20+ B cells transiently increased from baseline followed by a progressive decrease below baseline. A single tabalumab dose administered i.v. or s.c. was well tolerated and had non-linear CL over the dose range investigated in subjects with RA and SLE. The non-linearity likely reflects target-mediated CL due to binding to BAFF. Tabalumab showed biological activity based on changes in peripheral CD20+ lymphocyte numbers in both subjects with RA and SLE. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Single cell array impedance analysis in a microfluidic device (United States)

    Altinagac, Emre; Taskin, Selen; Kizil, Huseyin


    Impedance analysis of single cells is presented in this paper. Following the separation of a target cell type by dielectrophoresis in our previous work, this paper focuses on capturing the cells as a single array and performing impedance analysis to point out the signature difference between each cell type. Lab-on-a-chip devices having a titanium interdigitated electrode layer on a glass substrate and a PDMS microchannel are fabricated to capture each cell in a single form and perform impedance analysis. HCT116 (homosapiens colon colorectal carcin) and HEK293 (human embryonic kidney) cells are used in our experiments.

  6. A 2D Markerless Gait Analysis Methodology: Validation on Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Castelli


    Full Text Available A 2D markerless technique is proposed to perform lower limb sagittal plane kinematic analysis using a single video camera. A subject-specific, multisegmental model of the lower limb was calibrated with the subject in an upright standing position. Ankle socks and underwear garments were used to track the feet and pelvis segments, whereas shank and thigh segments were tracked by means of reference points identified on the model. The method was validated against a marker based clinical gait model. The accuracy of the spatiotemporal parameters estimation was found suitable for clinical use (errors between 1% and 3% of the corresponding true values. Comparison analysis of the kinematics patterns obtained with the two systems revealed high correlation for all the joints (0.82analysis protocols.

  7. Automated longitudinal intra-subject analysis (ALISA) for diffusion MRI tractography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarnink, Saskia H; Vos, Sjoerd B; Leemans, Alexander


    the inter-subject and intra-subject automation in this situation are intended for subjects without gross pathology. In this work, we propose such an automated longitudinal intra-subject analysis (dubbed ALISA) approach, and assessed whether ALISA could preserve the same level of reliability as obtained...

  8. A Validated Task Analysis of the Single Pilot Operations Concept (United States)

    Wolter, Cynthia A.; Gore, Brian F.


    The current day flight deck operational environment consists of a two-person Captain/First Officer crew. A concept of operations (ConOps) to reduce the commercial cockpit to a single pilot from the current two pilot crew is termed Single Pilot Operations (SPO). This concept has been under study by researchers in the Flight Deck Display Research Laboratory (FDDRL) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Ames (Johnson, Comerford, Lachter, Battiste, Feary, and Mogford, 2012) and researchers from Langley Research Centers (Schutte et al., 2007). Transitioning from a two pilot crew to a single pilot crew will undoubtedly require changes in operational procedures, crew coordination, use of automation, and in how the roles and responsibilities of the flight deck and ATC are conceptualized in order to maintain the high levels of safety expected of the US National Airspace System. These modifications will affect the roles and the subsequent tasks that are required of the various operators in the NextGen environment. The current report outlines the process taken to identify and document the tasks required by the crew according to a number of operational scenarios studied by the FDDRL between the years 2012-2014. A baseline task decomposition has been refined to represent the tasks consistent with a new set of entities, tasks, roles, and responsibilities being explored by the FDDRL as the move is made towards SPO. Information from Subject Matter Expert interviews, participation in FDDRL experimental design meetings, and study observation was used to populate and refine task sets that were developed as part of the SPO task analyses. The task analysis is based upon the proposed ConOps for the third FDDRL SPO study. This experiment possessed nine different entities operating in six scenarios using a variety of SPO-related automation and procedural activities required to guide safe and efficient aircraft operations. The task analysis presents the roles and

  9. Results of single-staged rotational osteotomy in a child with congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis: subjective and objective evaluation. (United States)

    Shingade, Viraj U; Shingade, Rashmi V; Ughade, Suresh N


    For congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis, both conservative and operative treatments have been described. Most of the studies describing surgical interventions are based on subjective evaluation of the forearm function and have used severe degree of forearm pronation as an indication for surgery. This study describes a single-staged rotational osteotomy of the proximal third ulna and distal third radius. The aim of the study was to assess the utility of the described surgical procedure by subjective and objective evaluations of the forearm function. Forty-eight children with congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis were evaluated by subjective and objective assessments and were followed up prospectively. Subjective evaluation consisted of a set of 12 questions regarding the basic activities of life. Objective evaluation was made using the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test and a classification system used by Failla and colleagues for 15 tasks described by Morrey and colleagues. Eleven children were treated conservatively. Thirty-six children underwent a single-staged rotational osteotomy of the proximal third ulna and distal third radius. After surgery, the evaluations were repeated. The mean age at surgery was 8.6±3.7 years, and the mean postoperative follow-up period was 54±13 months. All operated forearms showed a statistically significant improvement in functioning after surgery as per the subjective and objective evaluations. The mean time taken to carry out all activities before surgery was 47.7+10.0 seconds, which significantly reduced to 33.3+6.6 seconds after surgery (P=0.0001) as per the results of the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test. All good (n=19) and fair (n=11) results were converted to excellent (n=30) after surgery as per the modified Failla classification. There were no neurovascular injuries as compared with other published techniques. Only 1 child had delayed union, and 1 had persistent dorsal angulation at the radial osteotomy site. For


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Khyathi


    Full Text Available Background: Among many interventions for subjects with frozen shoulder, mobilization techniques are the important techniques of intervention. However the opinions about efficacy of mobilization techniques differ. Hence, the purpose of this study to compare the effectiveness of Mulligan’s mobilization with movement with that of Spencer technique on improving pain, abduction and external rotation ROM and functional disability in subjects with frozen shoulder. Method: An experimental study design, 40 subjects with unilateral frozen shoulder were randomized into 2 groups with 20 subjects each in Mulligan and in Spencer group. Subjects in Mulligan group received Mulligan mobilization with movement (MWM and subjects in Spencer group received Spencer technique and conventional exercises was given for both the groups. The duration of intervention was one treatment sessions per day for five days. Outcome measurements such as pain using VAS, shoulder abduction and external rotation ROM using goniometer and functional disability using SPADI were measured before and after five days of intervention. Results: Analysis using paired ‘t’ test and wilcoxon signed rank test found that there is a statistically significant improvement (p<0.05 in pain, shoulder mobility and functional disability within the groups. Comparative analysis using independent ‘t’ test and Mann Whitney U test found that there is no statistically significant difference in improving pain between MWM and Spencer group. However MWM group found significantly greater improvement in shoulder mobility and functional disability comparative with Spencer technique. Conclusion: It is concluded that both MWM and Spencer technique are shown to have short term effect on improving pain, shoulder mobility and functional disability. However, MWM was found clinically more effective with greater percentage of improvement on improving shoulder abduction, external rotation ROM and functional disability

  11. Multiclass classification of subjects with sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome through snoring analysis. (United States)

    Solà-Soler, Jordi; Fiz, José Antonio; Morera, José; Jané, Raimon


    The gold standard for diagnosing sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS) is polysomnography (PSG), an expensive, labour-intensive and time-consuming procedure. Accordingly, it would be very useful to have a screening method to allow early assessment of the severity of a subject, prior to his/her referral for PSG. Several differences have been reported between simple snorers and SAHS patients in the acoustic characteristics of snoring and its variability. In this paper, snores are fully characterised in the time domain, by their sound intensity and pitch, and in the frequency domain, by their formant frequencies and several shape and energy ratio measurements. We show that accurate multiclass classification of snoring subjects, with three levels of SAHS, can be achieved on the basis of acoustic analysis of snoring alone, without any requiring information on the duration or the number of apnoeas. Several classification methods are examined. The best of the approaches assessed is a Bayes model using a kernel density estimation method, although good results can also be obtained by a suitable combination of two binary logistic regression models. Multiclass snore-based classification allows early stratification of subjects according to their severity. This could be the basis of a single channel, snore-based screening procedure for SAHS. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Social trauma: Clinical practice and analysis of subjectivity]. (United States)

    Lagos, Mariana; Bekerman, Silvana; Sosa, Noemí


    Clinical and psychosocial assistance demand that we try and understand the complex effect traumatic events have on people and their subjectivity, as well as on our own stance and reference framework. Traumatic situations of social origin affect groups of individuals and the State is to some extent responsible for their genesis and the resolution of their effects. In our professional practice we are faced with problems that concern both the individuals and the relationships they establish. The way highly traumatic events are dealt with is in?uenced by various factors that challenge our therapeutic theories and approaches. The crisis of our time, characterized by uncertainty, violence patterns, intolerance of differences, fracture of social bonds, combined with major technological developments and subjective changes, triggers new and complex ways of connection -even hyperconnectivity- through social media. These vicissitudes of our time confront us with new expressions of discomfort about our own place in the world, deeply affect our identities and reinforce the suffering we experience when faced with the emergency of the devastating power of social trauma. Thus, they become part of our current challenge as professionals.

  13. Evaluation of Occupational Cold Environments: Field Measurements and Subjective Analysis (United States)

    OLIVEIRA, A. Virgílio M.; GASPAR, Adélio R.; RAIMUNDO, António M.; QUINTELA, Divo A.


    The present work is dedicated to the study of occupational cold environments in food distribution industrial units. Field measurements and a subjective assessment based on an individual questionnaire were considered. The survey was carried out in 5 Portuguese companies. The field measurements include 26 workplaces, while a sample of 160 responses was considered for the subjective assessment. In order to characterize the level of cold exposure, the Required Clothing Insulation Index (IREQ) was adopted. The IREQ index highlights that in the majority of the workplaces the clothing ensembles worn are inadequate, namely in the freezing chambers where the protection provided by clothing is always insufficient. The questionnaires results show that the food distribution sector is characterized by a female population (70.6%), by a young work force (60.7% are less than 35 yr old) and by a population with a medium-length professional career (80.1% in this occupation for less than 10 yr). The incidence of health effects which is higher among women, the distribution of protective clothing (50.0% of the workers indicate one garment) and the significant percentage of workers (>75%) that has more difficulties in performing the activity during the winter represent other important results of the present study. PMID:24583510


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lubbe


    Full Text Available Accounting students often have a negative attitude towards the subject andstruggle to understand core concepts of accounting standards. A large percentageof accounting students do not prepare for class and homework is either not doneor neglected. Many factors contributed to students struggling to prepare for classand complete homework assignments. The flipped classroom approach has grownat a rapid pace and was perceived very successful in many subjects. Little researchhas been done on the effectiveness of this approach for accounting students.Videos was created whereby accounting theory was explained and questions withexamples were given and explained. All contact sessions were transformed into anactive learning environment. During contact sessions, students were provided withquestions. Guidance was given with regards to the interpretation of a practicalcase study. Students had to analyze questions before feedback was provided tothem. Contact sessions commenced with easy questions, and progressedto moredifficult questions.Research was conducted in order to determine whether a flipped classroommethod could improve the learning experience of accounting students at a highereducation institution. The study indicated that students watched the videos beforecontact sessions, they felt more positive about their performance in accountingand improved their time management. The majority of students that completed thesurvey preferred the flipped classroom method. It enables students to learn fromtheir own mistakes in class.

  15. Single-shell tank interim stabilization risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basche, A.D.


    The purpose of the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Risk Analysis is to provide a cost and schedule risk analysis of HNF-2358, Rev. 1, Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization Project Plan (Project Plan) (Ross et al. 1998). The analysis compares the required cost profile by fiscal year (Section 4.2) and revised schedule completion date (Section 4.5) to the Project Plan. The analysis also evaluates the executability of the Project Plan and recommends a path forward for risk mitigation

  16. Lower extremity muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects. (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Janssens, Luc; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan; Staes, Filip F


    Previous studies mainly focused on muscles at the operated knee after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, less on muscles around other joints of the operated and non-operated leg. The aim of this study was to investigate muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects. Lower extremity muscle activation onset times of both legs of 20 fully returned to sport anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects and 20 non-injured control subjects were measured during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate differences between groups and differences between legs within both groups, while controlling for peak center of pressure velocity. Significantly delayed muscle activation onset times were found in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group compared to the control group for gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, vastus medialis obliquus, medial hamstrings, lateral hamstrings and gastrocnemius in both eyes open and eyes closed conditions (Panterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group, no significant different muscle activation onset times were found between the operated and non-operated leg (P>.05). Despite completion of rehabilitation and full return to sport, the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group showed neuromuscular control deficits that were not limited to the operated knee joint. Clinicians should focus on relearning multi-segmental anticipatory neuromuscular control strategies after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Managing incidental findings in human subjects research: analysis and recommendations. (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M; Lawrenz, Frances P; Nelson, Charles A; Kahn, Jeffrey P; Cho, Mildred K; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Fletcher, Joel G; Georgieff, Michael K; Hammerschmidt, Dale; Hudson, Kathy; Illes, Judy; Kapur, Vivek; Keane, Moira A; Koenig, Barbara A; Leroy, Bonnie S; McFarland, Elizabeth G; Paradise, Jordan; Parker, Lisa S; Terry, Sharon F; Van Ness, Brian; Wilfond, Benjamin S


    No consensus yet exists on how to handle incidental findings (IFs) in human subjects research. Yet empirical studies document IFs in a wide range of research studies, where IFs are findings beyond the aims of the study that are of potential health or reproductive importance to the individual research participant. This paper reports recommendations of a two-year project group funded by NIH to study how to manage IFs in genetic and genomic research, as well as imaging research. We conclude that researchers have an obligation to address the possibility of discovering IFs in their protocol and communications with the IRB, and in their consent forms and communications with research participants. Researchers should establish a pathway for handling IFs and communicate that to the IRB and research participants. We recommend a pathway and categorize IFs into those that must be disclosed to research participants, those that may be disclosed, and those that should not be disclosed.

  18. Analysis of Subjective Evaluation of User Experience with Headphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus; Lauridsen, Nikolaj; Poulsen, Andreas


    The aspects of what provides a good user experience with headphones is initially investigated by an exploratory study (experiment I). Using KJ-Technique, 5 workshop teams of 4-6 participants each provide a number of aspects influencing their experience with headphones. Analysing the aspects...... for uniqueness and relatedness provides 144 aspects of user experience with headphones, arranged in 12 categories. The 144 influencing aspects from experiment I are condensed, and 24 attributes regarding user experience with headphones are selected. These attributes are tested in regard to their correlation...... with and effects on overall evaluation of headphones in a second experiment, thus investigating which attributes are most influential for user experience. Using a within-subject design, eight different headphones are evaluated according to the attributes along with an overall evaluation. The attributes are listed...

  19. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following single- and multiple-dosing of oral artesunate in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsch Lee E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population pharmacokinetics of artesunate (AS and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA were studied in healthy subjects receiving single- or multiple-dosing of AS orally either in combination with pyronaridine (PYR or as a monotherapy with or without food. Methods Data from 118 concentration-time profiles arising from 91 healthy Korean subjects were pooled from four Phase I clinical studies. Subjects received 2-5 mg/kg of single- and multiple-dosing of oral AS either in combination with PYR or as a monotherapy with or without food. Plasma AS and DHA were measured simultaneously using a validated liquid chromatography- mass spectrometric method with a lower limit of quantification of 1 ng/mL for both AS and DHA. Nonlinear mixed-effect modelling was used to obtain the pharmacokinetic and variability (inter-individual and residual variability parameter estimates. Results A novel parent-metabolite pharmacokinetic model consisting of a dosing compartment, a central compartment for AS, a central compartment and a peripheral compartment for DHA was developed. AS and DHA data were modelled simultaneously assuming stoichiometric conversion to DHA. AS was rapidly absorbed with a population estimate of absorption rate constant (Ka of 3.85 h-1. The population estimates of apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V2/F for AS were 1190 L/h with 36.2% inter-individual variability (IIV and 1210 L with 57.4% IIV, respectively. For DHA, the population estimates of apparent clearance (CLM/F and central volume of distribution (V3/F were 93.7 L/h with 28% IIV and 97.1 L with 30% IIV, respectively. The population estimates of apparent inter-compartmental clearance (Q/F and peripheral volume of distribution (V4/F for DHA were 5.74 L/h and 18.5 L, respectively. Intake of high-fat and high-caloric meal prior to the drug administration resulted in 84% reduction in Ka. Body weight impacted CLM/F, such that a unit change in

  20. Finite Element Analysis of Saferooms Subjected to Tornado Impact Loads (United States)

    Parfilko, Y.; Amaral de Arruda, F.; Varela, B.


    A Tornado is one of the most dreadful and unpredictable events in nature. Unfortunately, weather and geographic conditions make a large portion of the United States prone to this phenomenon. Tornado saferooms are monolithic reinforced concrete protective structures engineered to guard against these natural disasters. Saferooms must withstand impacts and wind loads from EF-5 tornadoes - where the wind speed reaches up to 150 m/s (300 mph) and airborne projectiles can reach up to 50 m/s (100 mph). The objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of a saferoom under impact from tornado-generated debris and tornado-dragged vehicles. Numerical simulations were performed to model the impact problem using explicit dynamics and energy methods. Finite element models of the saferoom, windborne debris, and vehicle models were studied using the LS-DYNA software. RHT concrete material was used to model the saferoom and vehicle models from NCAC were used to characterize damage from impacts at various speeds. Simulation results indicate good performance of the saferoom structure at vehicle impact speeds up to 25 meters per second. Damage is more significant and increases nonlinearly starting at impact velocities of 35 m/s (78 mph). Results of this study give valuable insight into the dynamic response of saferooms subjected to projectile impacts, and provide design considerations for civilian protective structures. Further work is being done to validate the models with experimental measurements.

  1. Analysis of acoustic emission data for bearings subject to unbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapinder Sawhney


    Full Text Available Acoustic Emission (AE is an effective nondestructive method for investigating the behavior of materials under stress. In recent decades, AE applications in structural health monitoring have been extended to other areas such as rotating machineries and cutting tools. This research investigates the application of acoustic emission data for unbalance analysis and detection in rotary systems. The AE parameter of interest in this study is a discrete variable that covers the significance of count, duration and amplitude of AE signals. A statistical model based on Zero-Inflated Poisson (ZIP regression is proposed to handle over-dispersion and excess zeros of the counting data. The ZIP model indicates that faulty bearings can generate more transient wave in the AE waveform. Control charts can easily detect the faulty bearing using the parameters of the ZIP model. Categorical data analysis based on generalized linear models (GLM is also presented. The results demonstrate the significance of the couple unbalance.

  2. Within-subject template estimation for unbiased longitudinal image analysis


    Reuter, Martin; Schmansky, Nicholas J.; Rosas, H. Diana; Fischl, Bruce


    Longitudinal image analysis has become increasingly important in clinical studies of normal aging and neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, there is a growing appreciation of the potential utility of longitudinally acquired structural images and reliable image processing to evaluate disease modifying therapies. Challenges have been related to the variability that is inherent in the available cross-sectional processing tools, to the introduction of bias in longitudinal processing and to po...

  3. Pharmacokinetics of solithromycin (CEM-101) after single or multiple oral doses and effects of food on single-dose bioavailability in healthy adult subjects. (United States)

    Still, J Gordon; Schranz, Jennifer; Degenhardt, Thorsten P; Scott, Drusilla; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Gutierrez, Maria J; Clark, Kay


    The pharmacokinetics of orally administered solithromycin (CEM-101), a novel fluoroketolide, were evaluated in healthy subjects in three phase 1 studies. In two randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled studies, escalating single oral doses of solithromycin (50 to 1,600 mg) or seven oral daily doses (200 to 600 mg) of solithromycin were administered. A third study evaluated the effects of food on the bioavailability of single oral doses (400 mg) of solithromycin. Following single doses, the median time to peak concentration (Tmax) ranged from 1.5 h to 6 h. The mean maximum measured plasma concentration (Cmax) ranged from 0.0223 μg/ml to 19.647 μg/ml, and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve from time zero to time t (AUC0-t) ranged from 0.0402 μg·h/ml to 28.599 μg·h/ml. There was no effect of high-fat food on the oral bioavailability of solithromycin. In the multiple-dose study, after 7 days, the mean maximum measured plasma solithromycin concentration at steady-state (Cmax,ss) ranged from 0.248 to 1.50 μg/ml, and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve over the final dosing interval (AUCτ) ranged from 2.310 to 18.41 μg·h/ml. These values indicate a greater than proportional increase in exposure at 200 and 400 mg but a proportional exposure at 600 mg. Median Tmax values remained constant between day 1 and day 7. Moderate accumulation ratios of solithromycin were observed after 7 days of dosing. All dose regimens of solithromycin were well tolerated, and no discontinuations due to an adverse event occurred. The human pharmacokinetic profile and tolerability of solithromycin, combined with its in vitro potency and efficacy in animal models against a broad spectrum of pathogens, support further development of solithromycin.

  4. Bioinformatics approaches to single-cell analysis in developmental biology. (United States)

    Yalcin, Dicle; Hakguder, Zeynep M; Otu, Hasan H


    Individual cells within the same population show various degrees of heterogeneity, which may be better handled with single-cell analysis to address biological and clinical questions. Single-cell analysis is especially important in developmental biology as subtle spatial and temporal differences in cells have significant associations with cell fate decisions during differentiation and with the description of a particular state of a cell exhibiting an aberrant phenotype. Biotechnological advances, especially in the area of microfluidics, have led to a robust, massively parallel and multi-dimensional capturing, sorting, and lysis of single-cells and amplification of related macromolecules, which have enabled the use of imaging and omics techniques on single cells. There have been improvements in computational single-cell image analysis in developmental biology regarding feature extraction, segmentation, image enhancement and machine learning, handling limitations of optical resolution to gain new perspectives from the raw microscopy images. Omics approaches, such as transcriptomics, genomics and epigenomics, targeting gene and small RNA expression, single nucleotide and structural variations and methylation and histone modifications, rely heavily on high-throughput sequencing technologies. Although there are well-established bioinformatics methods for analysis of sequence data, there are limited bioinformatics approaches which address experimental design, sample size considerations, amplification bias, normalization, differential expression, coverage, clustering and classification issues, specifically applied at the single-cell level. In this review, we summarize biological and technological advancements, discuss challenges faced in the aforementioned data acquisition and analysis issues and present future prospects for application of single-cell analyses to developmental biology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European

  5. Analysis of the cephalometric pattern of Brazilian achondroplastic adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cardoso


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the position of the cranial base, maxilla, and mandible of Brazilian achondroplastic adult subjects through cephalometric measurements of the cranio-dento-facial complex, and to compare the results to normal patterns established in literature. METHODS: Fourteen achondroplastic adult subjects were evaluated based on their radiographic cephalometric measurements, which were obtained using the tracings proposed by Downs, Steinner, Bjork, Ricketts and McNamara. Statistical comparison of the means was performed with Student's t test. RESULTS: When compared to normal patterns, the cranial base presented a smaller size in both its anterior and posterior portions, the cranial base angle was acute and there was an anterior projection of the porion; the maxilla was found to be smaller in size in both the anteroposterior and transversal directions, it was inclined anteriorly with anterior vertical excess, and retropositioned in relation to the cranial base and to the mandible; the mandible presented a normal-sized ramus, a decreased body and transverse dimension, a tendency towards vertical growth and clockwise rotation, and it was slightly protruded in relation to the cranial base and maxilla. CONCLUSION: Although we observed wide individual variation in some parameters, it was possible to identify significant differences responsible for the phenotypical characteristics of achondroplastic patients.OBJETIVO: avaliar o tamanho e o posicionamento da base do crânio, da maxila e da mandíbula de indivíduos acondroplásicos brasileiros adultos, a partir de medidas cefalométricas do complexo dentoesqueletofacial. Confrontar os dados obtidos aos padrões de normalidade estabelecidos na literatura. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 14 indivíduos acondroplásicos adultos, utilizando algumas grandezas cefalométricas radiográficas obtidas a partir dos traçados preconizados por Downs, Steinner, Björk, Ricketts e Mc

  6. Single-shell tank retrieval program mission analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokes, W.J.


    This Mission Analysis Report was prepared to provide the foundation for the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Program, a new program responsible for waste removal for the SSTS. The SST Retrieval Program is integrated with other Tank Waste Remediation System activities that provide the management, technical, and operations elements associated with planning and execution of SST and SST Farm retrieval and closure. This Mission Analysis Report provides the basis and strategy for developing a program plan for SST retrieval. This Mission Analysis Report responds to a US Department of Energy request for an alternative single-shell tank retrieval approach (Taylor 1997).

  7. Single-shell tank retrieval program mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, W.J.


    This Mission Analysis Report was prepared to provide the foundation for the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Program, a new program responsible for waste removal for the SSTS. The SST Retrieval Program is integrated with other Tank Waste Remediation System activities that provide the management, technical, and operations elements associated with planning and execution of SST and SST Farm retrieval and closure. This Mission Analysis Report provides the basis and strategy for developing a program plan for SST retrieval. This Mission Analysis Report responds to a US Department of Energy request for an alternative single-shell tank retrieval approach (Taylor 1997)

  8. A single-chip computer analysis system for liquid fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongming; Wu Ruisheng; Li Bin


    The single-chip computer analysis system for liquid fluorescence is an intelligent analytic instrument, which is based on the principle that the liquid containing hydrocarbons can give out several characteristic fluorescences when irradiated by strong light. Besides a single-chip computer, the system makes use of the keyboard and the calculation and printing functions of a CASIO printing calculator. It combines optics, mechanism and electronics into one, and is small, light and practical, so it can be used for surface water sample analysis in oil field and impurity analysis of other materials

  9. Stress analysis of rotating propellers subject to forced excitations (United States)

    Akgun, Ulas

    Turbine blades experience vibrations due to the flow disturbances. These vibrations are the leading cause for fatigue failure in turbine blades. This thesis presents the finite element analysis methods to estimate the maximum vibrational stresses of rotating structures under forced excitation. The presentation included starts with the derived equations of motion for vibration of rotating beams using energy methods under the Euler Bernoulli beam assumptions. The nonlinear large displacement formulation captures the centrifugal stiffening and gyroscopic effects. The weak form of the equations and their finite element discretization are shown. The methods implemented were used for normal modes analyses and forced vibration analyses of rotating beam structures. The prediction of peak stresses under simultaneous multi-mode excitation show that the maximum vibrational stresses estimated using the linear superposition of the stresses can greatly overestimate the stresses if the phase information due to damping (physical and gyroscopic effects) are neglected. The last section of this thesis also presents the results of a practical study that involves finite element analysis and redesign of a composite propeller.

  10. DNA analysis by single molecule stretching in nanofluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abad, E.; Juarros, A.; Retolaza, A.


    Stretching single DNA molecules by confinement in nanofluidic channels has attracted a great interest during the last few years as a DNA analysis tool. We have designed and fabricated a sealed micro/nanofluidic device for DNA stretching applications, based on the use of the high throughput Nano......Imprint Lithography (NIL) technology combined with a conventional anodic bonding of the silicon base and Pyrex cover. Using this chip, we have performed single molecule imaging on a bench-top fluorescent microscope system. Lambda phage DNA was used as a model sample to characterize the chip. Single molecules of λ...... a method to determining DNA size. The results of this work prove that the developed fabrication process is a good alternative for the fabrication of single molecule DNA biochips and it allows developing a variety of innovative bio/chemical sensors based on single-molecule DNA sequencing devices....

  11. Quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Hannemann

    Full Text Available During cancer progression, specific genomic aberrations arise that can determine the scope of the disease and can be used as predictive or prognostic markers. The detection of specific gene amplifications or deletions in single blood-borne or disseminated tumour cells that may give rise to the development of metastases is of great clinical interest but technically challenging. In this study, we present a method for quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cells. Cells were isolated under permanent microscopic control followed by high-fidelity whole genome amplification and subsequent analyses by fine tiling array-CGH and qPCR. The assay was applied to single breast cancer cells to analyze the chromosomal region centred by the therapeutical relevant EGFR gene. This method allows precise quantitative analysis of copy number variations in single cell diagnostics.

  12. Subjective experience analysis in women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Belber-Gómez


    Full Text Available In this article the psychological experience and needs shown in the discourse of women diagnosed with breast cancer in a psychological group intervention was analyzed. The sessions are transcribed and a discourse analysis is performed, selecting the most prevailing topics. The main psychological difficulties perceived by the participants are the following: body identity change, sexuality changes, new quality of interpersonal relationships, implications of positive thinking culture, fear of recurrence, the relationship with the hospital staff and change after diagnosis. The aspects of the group considered to be helpful are also addressed, i.e. feeling understood by the others, seeing the rest of participants as coping models, changing their relationship with the illness. Several clinical implications are highlighted in order to improve a comprehensive care.

  13. Psalm 151 of the Septuagint: a Subject Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veviurko Il'ia


    Full Text Available By its location in the Septuagint canon, Psalm 151 takes up a place of a certain epilogue of the whole Psalter. Due to its isolation in the Greek text and non-canonicity from the masoretic point of view, as well as to its apparent simplicity and triviality, the Psalm was not often attracting attention of the biblical scholars. Only after discovering of a longer Hebrew version of the Psalm in Qumran the situation began to change. Now the Greek Ps 151 has being engaged into comparative study, but generally remaining in the shadow of the Qumran text. This article deals principally with Septuagint version of the Psalm, that underlies the Slavonic and others recensions adopted in the Christian tradition. A through thematical analysis, beginning with the presumption of the texts meaningfulness, will allow then to compare it with the longer Qumran version, the latter to be found poetical interpretation of the former. The analysis reveals David of the Ps 151 to be very much archetypical than historical personality. This is enough to explain the almost complete withdrawal of the emotional «colours», though not depriving the Psalm of its poetical expressiveness. The hero of Ps 151 is a silhouette with some trates of the Anoited One that cometh. This conclusion leads us to the proper estimation of the significance of the Psalm in the history of religious ideas: by the examination of this text we can determine more exactly, what kind of characteristics of the Psalters David collected in its ‘epilogue’ were perceived by the readers as protomessianic: the stainless moral purity, the unfamiliarity to the world, the mysterious conversation with God, the natural possession of power as a mode of the direct divine activity, and the readiness to became a ransomer for the people.

  14. Controlling the formation of wrinkles in a single layer graphene sheet subjected to in-plane shear

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Wen Hui


    The initiation and development of wrinkles in a single layer graphene sheet subjected to in-plane shear displacements are investigated. The dependence of the wavelength and amplitude of wrinkles on the applied shear displacements is explicitly obtained with molecular mechanics simulations. A continuum model is developed for the characteristics of the wrinkles which show that the wrinkle wavelength decreases with an increase in shear loading, while the amplitude of the wrinkles is found to initially increase and then become stable. The propagation and growth process of the wrinkles in the sheet is elucidated. It is expected that the research could promote applications of graphenes in the transportation of biological systems, separation science, and the development of the fluidic electronics. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An evaluation of the stimulus equivalence paradigm to teach single-subject design to distance education students via Blackboard. (United States)

    Walker, Brooke D; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne


    The purpose of the current study was to examine the degree to which instruction based on stimulus equivalence procedures could be used to teach single-subject design methodology to graduate-level professionals through a Web-based course management system known as Blackboard (see Specifically, we used the stimulus equivalence paradigm to teach relations among the names, definitions, graphical representations of the designs, and two practical scenarios of when it would be appropriate to implement each design. Most participants demonstrated the emergence of untaught relations, and some participants showed generalization to novel vignettes and graphs. Relations largely were not maintained at follow-up but were retaught.

  16. Shaking of reinforced concrete structures subjected to transient dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouzaud, Christophe


    In the design of nuclear engineering structures security and safety present a crucial aspect. Civil engineering design and the qualification of materials to dynamic loads must consider the accelerations which they undergo. These accelerations could integrate seismic activity and shaking movements consecutive to aircraft impact with higher cut-off frequency. Current methodologies for assessing this shock are based on transient analyses using classical finite element method associated with explicit numerical schemes or projection on modal basis, often linear. In both cases, to represent in meaningful way a medium-frequency content, it should implement a mesh refinement which is hardly compatible with the size of models of the civil engineering structures. In order to extend industrial methodologies used and to allow a better representation of the behavior of the structure in medium-frequency, an approach coupling a temporal and non-linear analysis for shock area with a frequency approach to treatment of shaking with VTCR (Variational Theory of Complex Rays) has been used. The aim is to use the computational efficiency of the implemented strategy, including medium frequency to describe the nuclear structures to aircraft impact. (author)

  17. Analysis of reinforced concrete structures subjected to aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, J.; Scharpf, F.; Schwarz, R.


    Concerning the evaluation of the effects of aircraft impact loading on the reactor building and the contained equipment special interest belongs to both the characteristic of loading conditions and the consideration of the nonlinear behaviour of the local impacted area as well as the overall behaviour of the structure. To cover this extensive scope of problems the fully 3-dimensional code DYSMAS/L was prepared for the analysis of highly dynamic continuum mechanics problems. For this totally Lagrangian description, derived and tested in the field of the simulation of impact phenomena and penetration of armoured structures, an extension was made for the reasonable modelling of the material behaviour of reinforced concrete. Conforming the available experimental data a nonlinear stress-strain curve is given and a continuous triaxial failure-surface is composed which allows cracking of concrete in the tensile region and its crushing in the compressive mode. For the separately modeled reinforcement an elastic-plastic stress-strain relationship with kinematic hardening is used. (orig./RW)

  18. Assessment of paraspinal muscle hardness in subjects with a mild single scoliosis curve: a preliminary myotonometer study. (United States)

    Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Barbosa-Romero, Alejandro; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Jesús; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Tejero-García, Sergio


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hardness of the paraspinal muscles in the convexity and concavity of patients with scoliosis curvatures and in the upper trapezius (UT) muscle in subjects with mild idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and to observe the correlation between the myotonometer (MYO) measurements and the value of body mass index (BMI) and the Cobb angle. The sample included 13 patients with a single-curve mild IS (Risser sign ≤ 4) at thoracic, lumbar, or thoracolumbar level (mean Cobb angle of 11.53º). Seven females and 6 males were recruited, with a mean age of 12.84 ± 3.06 (9-18) years. A MYO was used to examine the differences in muscle hardness on both sides of the scoliosis curvature at several points: (a) apex of the curve, (b) upper and lower limits of the curve, and (c) the midpoint between the apex and the upper limit and between the apex and the lower limit. The UT was also explored. Although the MYO recorded lower values in all points on the concave side of the scoliosis, there were no significant differences in the comparison between sides (P > .05). No association was observed between BMI and MYO values, whereas the Cobb angle negatively correlated with muscle hardness only at 2 points on the convex side. The preliminary findings show that, in subjects with a single-curve mild IS, muscular hardness in the UT and paraspinal muscles, as assessed using a MYO, was not found to differ between the concave and the convex sides at different reference levels. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Juan


    Full Text Available The article analyses the scientists’ views on the phenomenon of “reliability”. The author pays special attention to the fact that the concept “reliability” is considered by the scientists as the systematic characteristic, which is characterized by the specific number of professional, psychological, physiological qualities and functions at the different levels of a person’s activity. This activity provides stable and reliable work. It is found out that scientists think the quality is the most important property which provides definiteness to any phenomenon. Personal qualities that affect the maturity of emotional and volitional reliability are established. Scientific interpretation of the concept of “reliability” and the main features of performing reliability is revealed. The analysis of pedagogical and psychological literature proves that the emotional qualities are being formed throughout the life according to the person’s environmental and genetic conditions. Emotional irritability, emotional stability, emotional tone, emotional reactions, emotional stability are the qualities which depend upon a type of a person’s higher nervous activity. The person’s activity, especially music one, can’t exist without involving emotions and feelings. Music plays an important role; due to it emotions become conscious processes. Thanks to music the person’s higher emotions (moral, intellectual, esthetic are formed. It is noticed that individual differences in demonstration of emotions depend on a person’s volitional qualities. Volition is considered to be a person’s psychological activity that determines purposefulness of actions. The author concluded that the maturity level of emotional and volitional reliability depends on direction and resistance of socially significant motives (needs, interests, values, attitudes; personality’s psychophysical traits (abilities, capacities, which provide the required level and effectiveness

  20. Platforms for Single-Cell Collection and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Valihrach


    Full Text Available Single-cell analysis has become an established method to study cell heterogeneity and for rare cell characterization. Despite the high cost and technical constraints, applications are increasing every year in all fields of biology. Following the trend, there is a tremendous development of tools for single-cell analysis, especially in the RNA sequencing field. Every improvement increases sensitivity and throughput. Collecting a large amount of data also stimulates the development of new approaches for bioinformatic analysis and interpretation. However, the essential requirement for any analysis is the collection of single cells of high quality. The single-cell isolation must be fast, effective, and gentle to maintain the native expression profiles. Classical methods for single-cell isolation are micromanipulation, microdissection, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. In the last decade several new and highly efficient approaches have been developed, which not just supplement but may fully replace the traditional ones. These new techniques are based on microfluidic chips, droplets, micro-well plates, and automatic collection of cells using capillaries, magnets, an electric field, or a punching probe. In this review we summarize the current methods and developments in this field. We discuss the advantages of the different commercially available platforms and their applicability, and also provide remarks on future developments.

  1. Single-cell analysis of endothelial morphogenesis in vivo (United States)

    Yu, Jianxin A.; Castranova, Daniel; Pham, Van N.; Weinstein, Brant M.


    Vessel formation has been extensively studied at the tissue level, but the difficulty in imaging the endothelium with cellular resolution has hampered study of the morphogenesis and behavior of endothelial cells (ECs) in vivo. We are using endothelial-specific transgenes and high-resolution imaging to examine single ECs in zebrafish. By generating mosaics with transgenes that simultaneously mark endothelial nuclei and membranes we are able to definitively identify and study the morphology and behavior of individual ECs during vessel sprouting and lumen formation. Using these methods, we show that developing trunk vessels are composed of ECs of varying morphology, and that single-cell analysis can be used to quantitate alterations in morphology and dynamics in ECs that are defective in proper guidance and patterning. Finally, we use single-cell analysis of intersegmental vessels undergoing lumen formation to demonstrate the coexistence of seamless transcellular lumens and single or multicellular enclosed lumens with autocellular or intercellular junctions, suggesting that heterogeneous mechanisms contribute to vascular lumen formation in vivo. The tools that we have developed for single EC analysis should facilitate further rigorous qualitative and quantitative analysis of EC morphology and behavior in vivo. PMID:26253401

  2. Long-term subjective benefit with a bone conduction implant sound processor in 44 patients with single-sided deafness. (United States)

    Desmet, Jolien; Wouters, Kristien; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul


    Studies that investigate the subjective benefit from a bone conduction implant (BCI) sound processor in patients with single-sided sensorineural deafness (SSD) have been limited to examining short- and mid-term benefit. In the current study, we performed a survey among 44 SSD BCI users with a median follow-up time of 50 months. Forty-four experienced SSD BCI users participated in the survey, which consisted of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit, the Single-Sided Deafness Questionnaire, the Short Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults, and a self-made user questionnaire. For patients with tinnitus, the Tinnitus Questionnaire was also completed. The results of the survey were correlated with contralateral hearing loss, age at implantation, duration of the hearing loss at the time of implantation, duration of BCI use, and the presence and burden of tinnitus. In total, 86% of the patients still used their sound processor. The Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit and the Short Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults show a statistically significant overall improvement with the BCI. The Single-Sided Deafness Questionnaire and the user questionnaire showed that almost 40% of the patients reported daily use of the sound processor. However, the survey of daily use reveals benefit only in certain circumstances. Speech understanding in noisy situations is rated rather low, and 58% of all patients reported that their BCI benefit was less than expected. The majority of the patients reported an overall improvement from using their BCI. However, the number of users decreases during a longer follow-up time and patients get less enthusiastic about the device after an extended period of use, especially in noisy situations. However, diminished satisfaction because of time-related reductions in processor function could not be ruled out.

  3. Hepatic insulin sensitivity in healthy and prediabetic subjects: from a dual- to a single-tracer oral minimal model. (United States)

    Visentin, Roberto; Dalla Man, Chiara; Basu, Rita; Basu, Ananda; Rizza, Robert A; Cobelli, Claudio


    Recently, a model was proposed to assess hepatic insulin sensitivity during a meal, i.e., the ability of insulin to suppress glucose production (EGP), SI (P). The model was developed on EGP data obtained from a triple-tracer meal and the tracer-to-tracee clamp technique and validated against the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. The aim of this study was to assess whether SI (P) can be obtained from plasma concentrations measured after a single-tracer meal by incorporating the above EGP model into the oral glucose minimal model by describing both glucose production and disposal (OMM(PD)). Triple-tracer meal data of two databases (20 healthy and 60 healthy and prediabetic subjects) were used. Virtually model-independent EGP estimates were calculated. OMM(PD) was identified on exogenous and endogenous glucose concentrations, providing indices of SI (P), disposal insulin sensitivity (SI (D)), and EGP. The model fitted the data well, and SI (P) and SI (D) were estimated with precision in both databases (SI (P) = 5.48 ± 0.54 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml and SI (D) = 9.93 ± 2.18 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml in healthy; SI (P) = 5.41 ± 3.55 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml and SI (D) = 5.34 ± 6.17 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml, in healthy and prediabetic subjects). Estimated SI (P) and that derived from the triple-tracer EGP model were very similar on average. Moreover, the time course of EGP normalized to basal EGP (EGPb), and EGP/EGPb agreed with the results obtained using the triple-tracer method. In this study, we have demonstrated that SI (P), SI (D), and EGP/EGPb time course can be estimated reliably from a single-tracer meal protocol in both healthy and prediabetic subjects. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of betamethasone after single-dose intramuscular administration of betamethasone phosphate and betamethasone acetate to healthy subjects. (United States)

    Salem, Isam I; Najib, Naji M


    Betamethasone is used for its antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects in disorders of many organ systems. However, the pharmacokinetic properties of betamethasone in plasma after intramuscular injection of betamethasone sodium phosphate and betamethasone acetate dual-acting suspension need further investigation. The main aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of betamethasone, betamethasone acetate, and betamethasone phosphate after the administration of a single intramuscular dose of the dual-acting suspension to healthy human volunteers. Two different studies were conducted in healthy males. Volunteers were judged healthy based on their medical history, physical examination, and laboratory test results. Before confinement, all volunteers were tested for freedom from alcohol and drugs of abuse. Following a 10-hour overnight fasting, a single dose of 1 mL of the dual-acting suspension containing 3 mg of betamethasone phosphate and 3 mg of betamethasone acetate was administered by intramuscular injection. Blood sampling covered 48 hours. The plasma samples obtained in the second study were stabilized to enable pharmacokinetic profiling of betamethasone esters. Twenty-four healthy males with mean (SD) age of 27 (6.62) years participated in each study. No incidences of serious adverse events were recorded during the studies. Six mild adverse events were reported in 2 subjects in the second study. One subject suffered from pain at the injection site and insomnia, and another subject complained of heartburn and drowsiness. Betamethasone phosphate appeared to be readily absorbed with a mean AUC(0-t) of 96.01 ng/h/mL and an AUC(0-∞) of 97.96 (23.38) ng/h/mL. Betamethasone peak plasma concentration reached a mean t(½) of 12.92 hours. Betamethasone acetate was not detected in the volunteers' plasma in either study (total of 2208 plasma samples). The observed pharmacokinetic parameters suggested that the acetate ester, and not the

  5. The influence of the design matrix on treatment effect estimates in the quantitative analyses of single-subject experimental design research. (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim


    The quantitative methods for analyzing single-subject experimental data have expanded during the last decade, including the use of regression models to statistically analyze the data, but still a lot of questions remain. One question is how to specify predictors in a regression model to account for the specifics of the design and estimate the effect size of interest. These quantitative effect sizes are used in retrospective analyses and allow synthesis of single-subject experimental study results which is informative for evidence-based decision making, research and theory building, and policy discussions. We discuss different design matrices that can be used for the most common single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs), namely, the multiple-baseline designs, reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs, and provide empirical illustrations. The purpose of this article is to guide single-subject experimental data analysts interested in analyzing and meta-analyzing SSED data. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Single cell transcriptional analysis reveals novel innate immune cell types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda E. Kippner


    Full Text Available Single-cell analysis has the potential to provide us with a host of new knowledge about biological systems, but it comes with the challenge of correctly interpreting the biological information. While emerging techniques have made it possible to measure inter-cellular variability at the transcriptome level, no consensus yet exists on the most appropriate method of data analysis of such single cell data. Methods for analysis of transcriptional data at the population level are well established but are not well suited to single cell analysis due to their dependence on population averages. In order to address this question, we have systematically tested combinations of methods for primary data analysis on single cell transcription data generated from two types of primary immune cells, neutrophils and T lymphocytes. Cells were obtained from healthy individuals, and single cell transcript expression data was obtained by a combination of single cell sorting and nanoscale quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR for markers of cell type, intracellular signaling, and immune functionality. Gene expression analysis was focused on hierarchical clustering to determine the existence of cellular subgroups within the populations. Nine combinations of criteria for data exclusion and normalization were tested and evaluated. Bimodality in gene expression indicated the presence of cellular subgroups which were also revealed by data clustering. We observed evidence for two clearly defined cellular subtypes in the neutrophil populations and at least two in the T lymphocyte populations. When normalizing the data by different methods, we observed varying outcomes with corresponding interpretations of the biological characteristics of the cell populations. Normalization of the data by linear standardization taking into account technical effects such as plate effects, resulted in interpretations that most closely matched biological expectations. Single cell transcription

  7. Single Particle Tracking: Analysis Techniques for Live Cell Nanoscopy (United States)

    Relich, Peter Kristopher, II

    Single molecule experiments are a set of experiments designed specifically to study the properties of individual molecules. It has only been in the last three decades where single molecule experiments have been applied to the life sciences; where they have been successfully implemented in systems biology for probing the behaviors of sub-cellular mechanisms. The advent and growth of super-resolution techniques in single molecule experiments has made the fundamental behaviors of light and the associated nano-probes a necessary concern amongst life scientists wishing to advance the state of human knowledge in biology. This dissertation disseminates some of the practices learned in experimental live cell microscopy. The topic of single particle tracking is addressed here in a format that is designed for the physicist who embarks upon single molecule studies. Specifically, the focus is on the necessary procedures to generate single particle tracking analysis techniques that can be implemented to answer biological questions. These analysis techniques range from designing and testing a particle tracking algorithm to inferring model parameters once an image has been processed. The intellectual contributions of the author include the techniques in diffusion estimation, localization filtering, and trajectory associations for tracking which will all be discussed in detail in later chapters. The author of this thesis has also contributed to the software development of automated gain calibration, live cell particle simulations, and various single particle tracking packages. Future work includes further evaluation of this laboratory's single particle tracking software, entropy based approaches towards hypothesis validations, and the uncertainty quantification of gain calibration.

  8. Single cell analysis contemporary research and clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cossarizza, Andrea


    This book highlights the current state of the art in single cell analysis, an area that involves many fields of science – from clinical hematology, functional analysis and drug screening, to platelet and microparticle analysis, marine biology and fundamental cancer research. This book brings together an eclectic group of current applications, all of which have a significant impact on our current state of knowledge. The authors of these chapters are all pioneering researchers in the field of single cell analysis. The book will not only appeal to those readers more focused on clinical applications, but also those interested in highly technical aspects of the technologies. All of the technologies identified utilize unique applications of photon detection systems.

  9. Single base pair mutation analysis by PNA directed PCR clamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, H.; Nielsen, P.E.; Egholm, M.


    A novel method that allows direct analysis of single base mutation by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is described. The method utilizes the finding that PNAs (peptide nucleic acids) recognize and bind to their complementary nucleic acid sequences with higher thermal stability and specificity...

  10. Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 9, 2014 ... Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain cultures of lactobacilli and mixed culture starter made from them. KiBeom Lee1*, Ho-Jin Kim1 and Sang-Kyu Park2. 1Bio Center Technopark, 7-50 Songdo, Yeonsu-Gu, Incheon 406-840, Republic of Korea. 2Nambu University, Chumdan ...

  11. Automatic settlement analysis of single-layer armour layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; van gent, Marcel


    A method to quantify, analyse, and present the settlement of single-layer concrete armour layers of coastal structures is presented. The use of the image processing technique for settlement analysis is discussed based on various modelling
    studies performed over the years. The accuracy of the

  12. CrazyEgg Reports for Single Page Analysis (United States)

    CrazyEgg provides an in depth look at visitor behavior on one page. While you can use GA to do trend analysis of your web area, CrazyEgg helps diagnose the design of a single Web page by visually displaying all visitor clicks during a specified time.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of a Single Oral Dose of the MEK1/2 Inhibitor Selumetinib in Subjects With End-Stage Renal Disease or Varying Degrees of Hepatic Impairment Compared With Healthy Subjects. (United States)

    Dymond, Angela W; Martin, Paul; So, Karen; Huang, Yifan; Severin, Paul; Holmes, Victoria; Mariani, Gabriella; Marbury, Thomas


    Two phase I open-label studies were conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of single oral doses of selumetinib in subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis and subjects with varying degrees of hepatic impairment; both studies included a matched control group comprised of healthy individuals. In the renal impairment study, subjects received single doses of selumetinib 50 mg; those with ESRD received selumetinib before and after dialysis (with a between-treatment washout period of ≥7 days). In the hepatic impairment study, subjects received varying single doses of selumetinib (20-50 mg) depending on liver dysfunction (mild, moderate, or severe as per Child-Pugh classification). PK, safety, and tolerability data were collected from both studies. Overall, 24 subjects were included in the renal impairment study (ESRD, N = 12; healthy subjects, N = 12). Selumetinib exposure (AUC and C max ) was not increased in the ESRD group vs healthy subjects. Selumetinib exposure was lower when selumetinib was dosed before vs after dialysis, although individual exposure was variable. Overall, 32 subjects were included in the hepatic impairment study (mild, moderate, and severe impairment, N = 8 per group; healthy subjects, N = 8). Generally, dose-normalized total selumetinib exposure was increased by 25% to 59% in subjects with moderate and severe hepatic impairment compared with healthy subjects. Increasing Child-Pugh score, decreasing serum albumin, and increasing prothrombin time correlated with increasing unbound selumetinib exposure. In both studies, selumetinib was well tolerated with no new safety concerns. These studies will inform dose adjustment considerations in patients. © 2016, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  14. Single session imaging of cerebellum at 7 Tesla: obtaining structure and function of multiple motor subsystems in individual subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Batson

    Full Text Available The recent increase in the use of high field MR systems is accompanied by a demand for acquisition techniques and coil systems that can take advantage of increased power and accuracy without being susceptible to increased noise. Physical location and anatomical complexity of targeted regions must be considered when attempting to image deeper structures with small nuclei and/or complex cytoarchitechtonics (i.e. small microvasculature and deep nuclei, such as the brainstem and the cerebellum (Cb. Once these obstacles are overcome, the concomitant increase in signal strength at higher field strength should allow for faster acquisition of MR images. Here we show that it is technically feasible to quickly and accurately detect blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal changes and obtain anatomical images of Cb at high spatial resolutions in individual subjects at 7 Tesla in a single one-hour session. Images were obtained using two high-density multi-element surface coils (32 channels in total placed beneath the head at the level of Cb, two channel transmission, and three-dimensional sensitivity encoded (3D, SENSE acquisitions to investigate sensorimotor activations in Cb. Two classic sensorimotor tasks were used to detect Cb activations. BOLD signal changes during motor activity resulted in concentrated clusters of activity within the Cb lobules associated with each task, observed consistently and independently in each subject: Oculomotor vermis (VI/VII and CrusI/II for pro- and anti-saccades; ipsilateral hemispheres IV-VI for finger tapping; and topographical separation of eye- and hand- activations in hemispheres VI and VIIb/VIII. Though fast temporal resolution was not attempted here, these functional patches of highly specific BOLD signal changes may reflect small-scale shunting of blood in the microvasculature of Cb. The observed improvements in acquisition time and signal detection are ideal for individualized investigations such as

  15. A randomized, single-blind, Phase I trial (INVICTAN-1) assessing the bioequivalence and safety of BI 695502, a bevacizumab biosimilar candidate, in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Hettema, Willem; Wynne, Christopher; Lang, Benjamin; Altendorfer, Mario; Czeloth, Niklas; Lohmann, Ragna; Athalye, Sandeep; Schliephake, Dorothee


    This Phase I trial (INVICTAN®-1) evaluated three-way bioequivalence and safety of BI 695502 a bevacizumab biosimilar candidate, and reference product bevacizumab from two sources (US-approved Avastin®, Genentech; EU-approved Avastin, Roche). Healthy male subjects (N = 91) were randomized 1:1:1 to receive a single intravenous infusion of 1 mg/kg of BI 695502 or US- or EU-approved Avastin. An interim analysis was planned when ~50% of subjects were evaluable for the primary end point to determine if the prespecified criteria for bioequivalence were achieved; if demonstrated, the study could be stopped early. The primary end point was area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of the analyte in plasma from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC 0-∞ ). Other pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters, safety, and in vitro binding affinity were also evaluated. The interim analysis demonstrated three-way bioequivalence for all comparisons. The confidence intervals around the geometric mean ratios of the primary and secondary PK parameters were within the predefined acceptance ranges. Study drugs were well tolerated with no clinically relevant differences in safety. BI 695502 and US- and EU-approved Avastin showed three-way bioequivalence with similar safety profile. NCT01608087.

  16. Image analysis driven single-cell analytics for systems microbiology. (United States)

    Balomenos, Athanasios D; Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Aspridou, Zafiro; Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P; Manolakos, Elias S


    Time-lapse microscopy is an essential tool for capturing and correlating bacterial morphology and gene expression dynamics at single-cell resolution. However state-of-the-art computational methods are limited in terms of the complexity of cell movies that they can analyze and lack of automation. The proposed Bacterial image analysis driven Single Cell Analytics (BaSCA) computational pipeline addresses these limitations thus enabling high throughput systems microbiology. BaSCA can segment and track multiple bacterial colonies and single-cells, as they grow and divide over time (cell segmentation and lineage tree construction) to give rise to dense communities with thousands of interacting cells in the field of view. It combines advanced image processing and machine learning methods to deliver very accurate bacterial cell segmentation and tracking (F-measure over 95%) even when processing images of imperfect quality with several overcrowded colonies in the field of view. In addition, BaSCA extracts on the fly a plethora of single-cell properties, which get organized into a database summarizing the analysis of the cell movie. We present alternative ways to analyze and visually explore the spatiotemporal evolution of single-cell properties in order to understand trends and epigenetic effects across cell generations. The robustness of BaSCA is demonstrated across different imaging modalities and microscopy types. BaSCA can be used to analyze accurately and efficiently cell movies both at a high resolution (single-cell level) and at a large scale (communities with many dense colonies) as needed to shed light on e.g. how bacterial community effects and epigenetic information transfer play a role on important phenomena for human health, such as biofilm formation, persisters' emergence etc. Moreover, it enables studying the role of single-cell stochasticity without losing sight of community effects that may drive it.

  17. Markov chain analysis of single spin flip Ising simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennecke, M.


    The Markov processes defined by random and loop-based schemes for single spin flip attempts in Monte Carlo simulations of the 2D Ising model are investigated, by explicitly constructing their transition matrices. Their analysis reveals that loops over all lattice sites using a Metropolis-type single spin flip probability often do not define ergodic Markov chains, and have distorted dynamical properties even if they are ergodic. The transition matrices also enable a comparison of the dynamics of random versus loop spin selection and Glauber versus Metropolis probabilities

  18. The Observation and Execution of Actions Share Motor and Somatosensory Voxels in all Tested Subjects : Single-Subject Analyses of Unsmoothed fMRI Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    Many neuroimaging studies of the mirror neuron system (MNS) examine if certain voxels in the brain are shared between action observation and execution (shared voxels, sVx). Unfortunately, finding sVx in standard group analyses is not a guarantee that sVx exist in individual subjects. Using

  19. Assessment of cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography in normal subjects and in patients with Alzheimer's disease: effects of region of interest selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.J.; Harskamp, F. van; Breteler, M.M.B.; Krenning, E.P.; Cammen, T.J.M. van der; Hofman, A.; Hasan, D.


    We compared three different ROIs in a SPET study with 60 controls and in 48 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease diagnosed according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was assessed with SPET using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO), normalized to the mean activity in a cerebellar reference slice. The three different ROIs were: a multi-slice and a single-slice ROI with reference to the normal brain anatomy (using an anatomical atlas), and a rectangular (2x4 pixels) ROI in the frontal, temporal, temporoparietal and occipital cortices. No differences were observed for the means of rCBF values between the single-slice and multi-slice ROI's with reference to the normal anatomy, but some variability was present for individual comparisons. In contrast, significantly higher mean rCBF values were obtained with the single-slice rectangular ROIs in all four regions for both patients and controls and considerable variability was shown for individual subjects. After analysis with multivariate logistic regression and receiver operator characteristic curves, the ability of SPET to discriminate between controls and Alzheimer patients was similar in the three methods for mild and moderate Alzheimer patients (Global Deterioration Scale = GDS of 3 and 4). However, with increasing dementia severity (GDS>4) the rectangular ROIs showed lower ability to discriminate between groups compared to the single-slice and multi-slice anatomically defined ROIs. This study suggests that results of rCBF assessment with SPET using 99m Tc-HMPAO in patients with severe Alzheimer's disease are influenced by the shape and size of the ROI. (orig.)

  20. Can Air Seat Cushions and Ball Chairs Improved Classroom Behaviors of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Single Subject Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Matin Sadr


    Full Text Available Background: Classroom behaviorsare disturbed in autistic students because of their repetitive, restlessness, and disruptive behaviors. This study aimed to examine the impacts of sitting on a ball, cushion, and/or common chair on classroom behavior of four students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Methods: Four children with Autism participated in this single-subject study. Students’ behaviors were video recorded in three phases: Sitting on their common chairs during phase A, air-sit cushioned in phase B, and ball chairs in phase C. Sitting times and on-task/off-task behaviors were quantified by momentary time sampling (every 10 seconds and compared during different phases for important changes. Social validity was taken by the teacher at the end of the research as well. Results: The findings demonstrated increases in on-task and in-seat behaviors in four students when seated on air sit cushioned chairs. Despite rises of ontask behaviors for all students, only two of the students showed enhanced inseat behaviors when seated on therapy balls. Social validity findings indicated that the teacher preferred the use of the balls and air-cushioned chairs for her students. Conclusion: Therapy balls/cushioned chairs for students with ASD may facilitate in-seat and on-task behavior.

  1. Multi-element analysis of the obese subject by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwek, R.A.; Burkinshaw, L.; Oxby, C.B.; Robinson, P.A.J.


    The Leeds facility for in vivo neutron activation analysis has been modified and calibrated for the simultaneous measurement of nitrogen, potassium, sodium, chlorine, phosphorus and calcium in obese patients weighing up to 210 kg. The effects of body size and shape were incorporated into the calibration by measuring 14 anthropomorphic phantoms of known composition representing individual patients being treated for obesity. The phantoms were constructed from tissue substitutes representing lean skeletal and adipose tissues, arranged to simulate the distributions of the corresponding tissues within the patients, as visualised by CT scanning. The precision of the method, determined by measuring a single phantom ten times over a period of ten weeks, is between two and three per cent for all elements except calcium, for which it is 11.3%. Accuracy is estimated to be similar to precision. The procedure has been used to study changes in body composition of patients undergoing therapeutic starvation. (author)

  2. Analysis of stresses on buried pipeline subjected to landslide based on numerical simulation and regression analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bing; Jing, Hongyuan; Liu, Jianping; Wu, Zhangzhong [PetroChina Pipeline RandD Center, Langfang, Hebei (China); Hao, Jianbin [School of Petroleum Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)


    Landslides have a serious impact on the integrity of oil and gas pipelines in the tough terrain of Western China. This paper introduces a solving method of axial stress, which uses numerical simulation and regression analysis for the pipelines subjected to landslides. Numerical simulation is performed to analyze the change regularity of pipe stresses for the five vulnerability assessment indexes, which are: the distance between pipeline and landslide tail; the thickness of landslide; the inclination angle of landslide; the pipeline length passing through landslide; and the buried depth of pipeline. A pipeline passing through a certain landslide in southwest China was selected as an example to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. This method has practical applicability, but it would need large numbers of examples to better verify its reliability and should be modified accordingly. Also, it only considers the case where the direction of the pipeline is perpendicular to the primary slip direction of the landslide.

  3. Dielectrophoretic capture and genetic analysis of single neuroblastoma tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L Carpenter


    Full Text Available Our understanding of the diversity of cells that escape the primary tumor and seed micrometastases remains rudimentary, and approaches for studying circulating and disseminated tumor cells have been limited by low throughput and sensitivity, reliance on single parameter sorting, and a focus on enumeration rather than phenotypic and genetic characterization. Here we utilize a highly sensitive microfluidic and dielectrophoretic approach for the isolation and genetic analysis of individual tumor cells. We employed fluorescence labeling to isolate 208 single cells from spiking experiments conducted with 11 cell lines, including 8 neuroblastoma cell lines, and achieved a capture sensitivity of 1 tumor cell per 106 white blood cells. Sample fixation or freezing had no detectable effect on cell capture. Point mutations were accurately detected in the whole genome amplification product of captured single tumor cells but not in negative control white blood cells. We applied this approach to capture 144 single tumor cells from 10 bone marrow samples from patients suffering from neuroblastoma. In this pediatric malignancy, high-risk patients often exhibit wide-spread hematogenous metastasis, but access to primary tumor can be difficult or impossible. Here we used flow-based sorting to pre-enrich samples with tumor involvement below 0.02%. For all patients for whom a mutation in the Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase gene had already been detected in their primary tumor, the same mutation was detected in single cells from their marrow. These findings demonstrate a novel, non-invasive, and adaptable method for the capture and genetic analysis of single tumor cells from cancer patients.

  4. Diagnosis and Classification of 17 Diseases from 1404 Subjects via Pattern Analysis of Exhaled Molecules. (United States)

    Nakhleh, Morad K; Amal, Haitham; Jeries, Raneen; Broza, Yoav Y; Aboud, Manal; Gharra, Alaa; Ivgi, Hodaya; Khatib, Salam; Badarneh, Shifaa; Har-Shai, Lior; Glass-Marmor, Lea; Lejbkowicz, Izabella; Miller, Ariel; Badarny, Samih; Winer, Raz; Finberg, John; Cohen-Kaminsky, Sylvia; Perros, Frédéric; Montani, David; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Simonneau, Gérald; Nakhoul, Farid; Baram, Shira; Salim, Raed; Hakim, Marwan; Gruber, Maayan; Ronen, Ohad; Marshak, Tal; Doweck, Ilana; Nativ, Ofer; Bahouth, Zaher; Shi, Da-You; Zhang, Wei; Hua, Qing-Ling; Pan, Yue-Yin; Tao, Li; Liu, Hu; Karban, Amir; Koifman, Eduard; Rainis, Tova; Skapars, Roberts; Sivins, Armands; Ancans, Guntis; Liepniece-Karele, Inta; Kikuste, Ilze; Lasina, Ieva; Tolmanis, Ivars; Johnson, Douglas; Millstone, Stuart Z; Fulton, Jennifer; Wells, John W; Wilf, Larry H; Humbert, Marc; Leja, Marcis; Peled, Nir; Haick, Hossam


    We report on an artificially intelligent nanoarray based on molecularly modified gold nanoparticles and a random network of single-walled carbon nanotubes for noninvasive diagnosis and classification of a number of diseases from exhaled breath. The performance of this artificially intelligent nanoarray was clinically assessed on breath samples collected from 1404 subjects having one of 17 different disease conditions included in the study or having no evidence of any disease (healthy controls). Blind experiments showed that 86% accuracy could be achieved with the artificially intelligent nanoarray, allowing both detection and discrimination between the different disease conditions examined. Analysis of the artificially intelligent nanoarray also showed that each disease has its own unique breathprint, and that the presence of one disease would not screen out others. Cluster analysis showed a reasonable classification power of diseases from the same categories. The effect of confounding clinical and environmental factors on the performance of the nanoarray did not significantly alter the obtained results. The diagnosis and classification power of the nanoarray was also validated by an independent analytical technique, i.e., gas chromatography linked with mass spectrometry. This analysis found that 13 exhaled chemical species, called volatile organic compounds, are associated with certain diseases, and the composition of this assembly of volatile organic compounds differs from one disease to another. Overall, these findings could contribute to one of the most important criteria for successful health intervention in the modern era, viz. easy-to-use, inexpensive (affordable), and miniaturized tools that could also be used for personalized screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of a number of diseases, which can clearly be extended by further development.

  5. Spatiotemporal analysis of single-trial EEG of emotional pictures based on independent component analysis and source location (United States)

    Liu, Jiangang; Tian, Jie


    The present study combined the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) algorithms to identify the spatial distribution and time course of single-trial EEG record differences between neural responses to emotional stimuli vs. the neutral. Single-trial multichannel (129-sensor) EEG records were collected from 21 healthy, right-handed subjects viewing the emotion emotional (pleasant/unpleasant) and neutral pictures selected from International Affective Picture System (IAPS). For each subject, the single-trial EEG records of each emotional pictures were concatenated with the neutral, and a three-step analysis was applied to each of them in the same way. First, the ICA was performed to decompose each concatenated single-trial EEG records into temporally independent and spatially fixed components, namely independent components (ICs). The IC associated with artifacts were isolated. Second, the clustering analysis classified, across subjects, the temporally and spatially similar ICs into the same clusters, in which nonparametric permutation test for Global Field Power (GFP) of IC projection scalp maps identified significantly different temporal segments of each emotional condition vs. neutral. Third, the brain regions accounted for those significant segments were localized spatially with LORETA analysis. In each cluster, a voxel-by-voxel randomization test identified significantly different brain regions between each emotional condition vs. the neutral. Compared to the neutral, both emotional pictures elicited activation in the visual, temporal, ventromedial and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulated gyrus. In addition, the pleasant pictures activated the left middle prefrontal cortex and the posterior precuneus, while the unpleasant pictures activated the right orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulated gyrus and somatosensory region. Our results were well consistent with other functional imaging

  6. Optimized variational analysis scheme of single Doppler radar wind data (United States)

    Sasaki, Yoshi K.; Allen, Steve; Mizuno, Koki; Whitehead, Victor; Wilk, Kenneth E.


    A computer scheme for extracting singularities has been developed and applied to single Doppler radar wind data. The scheme is planned for use in real-time wind and singularity analysis and forecasting. The method, known as Doppler Operational Variational Extraction of Singularities is outlined, focusing on the principle of local symmetry. Results are presented from the application of the scheme to a storm-generated gust front in Oklahoma on May 28, 1987.

  7. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivram; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga


    An improved protocol for thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of samples of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) material has been developed to increase the degree of consistency among results so that meaningful comparisons can be made among different samples. This improved TGA protocol is suitable for incorporation into the protocol for characterization of carbon nanotube material. In most cases, TGA of carbon nanotube materials is performed in gas mixtures that contain oxygen at various concentrations. The improved protocol is summarized.

  8. Precise analysis of the metal package photomultiplier single photoelectron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirikov-Zorin, I.E.; Fedorko, I.; Sykora, I.; Tokar, S.; Menzione, A.


    A deconvolution method based on a sophisticated photomultiplier response function was used to analyse the compact metal package photomultiplier spectra taken in single photoelectron mode. The spectra taken by Hamamtsu R5600 and R5900 photomultipliers have been analysed. The detailed analysis shows that the method appropriately describes the process of charge multiplication in these photomultipliers in a wide range of working regimes and the deconvoluted parameters are established with about 1% accuracy. The method can be used for a detailed analysis of photomultiplier noise and for calibration purposes

  9. Status and subjects of thermal-hydraulic analysis for next-generation LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The status and subjects on thermal-hydraulic analysis for next-generation light water reactors (LWRs) with passive safety systems were surveyed through about 5 years until March 1999 by subcommittee on improvement of reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis codes under the nuclear code committee in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Based on the survey results and discussion, the status and subjects on system analysis for various types of proposed reactor were summarized in 1998 and those on multidimensional two-phase flow analysis were also reviewed, since the multidimensional analysis was recognized as one of the most important subjects through the investigation on system analysis. In this report, the status and subjects for the following were summarized from the survey results and discussion in 1998 and 1999; (1) BWR neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled analysis, (2) Evaluation of passive safety system performance and (3) Gas-liquid two-phase flow analysis. The contents in this report are the forefront of thermal-hydraulic analysis for LWRs including test results from several large-scale facilities. We expect that the contents can offer a guideline to improve reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis codes in future. (author)

  10. Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Levornidazole in Elderly Subjects and Dosing Regimen Evaluation Using Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Analysis. (United States)

    Guo, Beining; He, Gaoli; Wu, Xiaojie; Yu, Jicheng; Cao, Guoying; Li, Yi; Fan, Yaxin; Chen, Yuancheng; Shi, Yaoguo; Zhang, Yingyuan; Zhang, Jing


    Levornidazole, the levo-isomer of ornidazole, is a third-generation nitroimidazole derivative newly developed after metronidazole, tinidazole, and ornidazole. An open-label, parallel-controlled, single-dose study was conducted for the investigation of the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of levornidazole and its metabolites in healthy elderly Chinese subjects, and for the evaluation of 2 dosing regimens in the elderly. Levornidazole was intravenously administered at 500 mg to healthy elderly (aged 60-80 years) or young subjects (aged 19-45 years). The PK profiles of levornidazole and its metabolites in elderly subjects were evaluated and compared with those in the young group. WinNonlin software was used for simulating the PK profile of levornidazole in the elderly population following the dosing regimens of 500 mg BID and 750 mg once daily for 7 days. Monte Carlo simulation was used for estimating the cumulative fraction of response and probability of target attainment of both dosing regimens against Bacteroides spp. The C max , AUC 0-24, and AUC 0-∞ values of levornidazole in the elderly group were 11.98 μg/mL, 131.36 μg·h/mL, and 173.61 μg·h/mL, respectively. The t 1/2 , CL t , and mean residence time from time 0 to infinity were 12.21 hours, 2.91 L/h, and 16.46 hours. The metabolic ratios of metabolites (M) 1, 2, 4, and 6 were 90% against B fragilis and other Bacteroides spp, and the probability of target attainment was >90% when the minimum inhibitory concentration was ≤1 μg/mL, in both groups. No dosing regimen adjustment is suggested when levornidazole is used in elderly patients with normal hepatic functioning and mild renal dysfunction. The findings from the PK/PD analysis imply that both regimens may achieve satisfactory clinical and microbiological efficacy against anaerobic infections in elderly patients. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ( identifier: ChiCTR-OPC-16007938. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All

  11. Reliability analysis of multi-trigger binary systems subject to competing failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chaonan; Xing, Liudong; Levitin, Gregory


    This paper suggests two combinatorial algorithms for the reliability analysis of multi-trigger binary systems subject to competing failure propagation and failure isolation effects. Propagated failure with global effect (PFGE) is referred to as a failure that not only causes outage to the component from which the failure originates, but also propagates through all other system components causing the entire system failure. However, the propagation effect from the PFGE can be isolated in systems with functional dependence (FDEP) behavior. This paper studies two distinct consequences of PFGE resulting from a competition in the time domain between the failure isolation and failure propagation effects. As compared to existing works on competing failures that are limited to systems with a single FDEP group, this paper considers more complicated cases where the systems have multiple dependent FDEP groups. Analysis of such systems is more challenging because both the occurrence order between the trigger failure event and PFGE from the dependent components and the occurrence order among the multiple trigger failure events have to be considered. Two combinatorial and analytical algorithms are proposed. Both of them have no limitation on the type of time-to-failure distributions for the system components. Their correctness is verified using a Markov-based method. An example of memory systems is analyzed to demonstrate and compare the applications and advantages of the two proposed algorithms. - Highlights: ► Reliability of binary systems with multiple dependent functional dependence groups is analyzed. ► Competing failure propagation and failure isolation effect is considered. ► The proposed algorithms are combinatorial and applicable to any arbitrary type of time-to-failure distributions for system components.

  12. Signal Integrity Analysis in Single and Bundled Carbon Nanotube Interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, M.K.; Pandya, N.D.; Kaushik, B.K.; Manhas, S.K.


    Carbon nanotube (CN T) can be considered as an emerging interconnect material in current nano scale regime. They are more promising than other interconnect materials such as Al or Cu because of their robustness to electromigration. This research paper aims to address the crosstalk-related issues (signal integrity) in interconnect lines. Different analytical models of single- (SWCNT), double- (DWCNT), and multiwalled CNTs (MWCNT) are studied to analyze the crosstalk delay at global interconnect lengths. A capacitively coupled three-line bus architecture employing CMOS driver is used for accurate estimation of crosstalk delay. Each line in bus architecture is represented with the equivalent RLC models of single and bundled SWCNT, DWCNT, and MWCNT interconnects. Crosstalk delay is observed at middle line (victim) when it switches in opposite direction with respect to the other two lines (aggressors). Using the data predicted by ITRS 2012, a comparative analysis on the basis of crosstalk delay is performed for bundled SWCNT/DWCNT and single MWCNT interconnects. It is observed that the overall crosstalk delay is improved by 40.92% and 21.37% for single MWCNT in comparison to bundled SWCNT and bundled DWCNT interconnects, respectively.

  13. Extractables analysis of single-use flexible plastic biocontainers. (United States)

    Marghitoiu, Liliana; Liu, Jian; Lee, Hans; Perez, Lourdes; Fujimori, Kiyoshi; Ronk, Michael; Hammond, Matthew R; Nunn, Heather; Lower, Asher; Rogers, Gary; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser


    Studies of the extractable profiles of bioprocessing components have become an integral part of drug development efforts to minimize possible compromise in process performance, decrease in drug product quality, and potential safety risk to patients due to the possibility of small molecules leaching out from the components. In this study, an effective extraction solvent system was developed to evaluate the organic extractable profiles of single-use bioprocess equipment, which has been gaining increasing popularity in the biopharmaceutical industry because of the many advantages over the traditional stainless steel-based bioreactors and other fluid mixing and storage vessels. The chosen extraction conditions were intended to represent aggressive conditions relative to the application of single-use bags in biopharmaceutical manufacture, in which aqueous based systems are largely utilized. Those extraction conditions, along with a non-targeted analytical strategy, allowed for the generation and identification of an array of extractable compounds; a total of 53 organic compounds were identified from four types of commercially available single-use bags, the majority of which are degradation products of polymer additives. The success of this overall extractables analysis strategy was reflected partially by the effectiveness in the extraction and identification of a compound that was later found to be highly detrimental to mammalian cell growth. The usage of single-use bioreactors has been increasing in biopharmaceutical industry because of the appealing advantages that it promises regarding to the cleaning, sterilization, operational flexibility, and so on, during manufacturing of biologics. However, compared to its conventional counterparts based mainly on stainless steel, single-use bioreactors are more susceptible to potential problems associated with compound leaching into the bioprocessing fluid. As a result, extractable profiling of the single-use system has become

  14. Single- and Multiple-Dose Study To Determine the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Ceftaroline Fosamil in Combination with Avibactam in Healthy Subjects


    Riccobene, Todd A.; Su, Sheng Fang; Rank, Douglas


    This study was conducted to determine the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of intravenous doses of ceftaroline fosamil administered in combination with the novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam in healthy adults. In the single-dose, open-label arm, 12 subjects received single 1-h intravenous infusions of ceftaroline fosamil alone (600 mg), avibactam alone (600 mg), and ceftaroline fosamil in combination with avibactam (600/600 mg) separated by 5-day washout periods. In ...

  15. Reliability Analysis of Retaining Walls Subjected to Blast Loading by Finite Element Approach (United States)

    GuhaRay, Anasua; Mondal, Stuti; Mohiuddin, Hisham Hasan


    Conventional design methods adopt factor of safety as per practice and experience, which are deterministic in nature. The limit state method, though not completely deterministic, does not take into account effect of design parameters, which are inherently variable such as cohesion, angle of internal friction, etc. for soil. Reliability analysis provides a measure to consider these variations into analysis and hence results in a more realistic design. Several studies have been carried out on reliability of reinforced concrete walls and masonry walls under explosions. Also, reliability analysis of retaining structures against various kinds of failure has been done. However, very few research works are available on reliability analysis of retaining walls subjected to blast loading. Thus, the present paper considers the effect of variation of geotechnical parameters when a retaining wall is subjected to blast loading. However, it is found that the variation of geotechnical random variables does not have a significant effect on the stability of retaining walls subjected to blast loading.

  16. Soothing and anti-itch effect of quercetin phytosome in human subjects: a single-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maramaldi G


    Full Text Available Giada Maramaldi,1 Stefano Togni,1 Ivan Pagin,1 Luca Giacomelli,2 Roberta Cattaneo,3 Roberto Eggenhöffner,2 Samuele E Burastero4 1Indena S.p.A, Milan, 2Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics, School of Medicine, Genova University, Genoa, 3Abich Srl, Verbania, 4San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, ItalyBackground: We evaluated the ability of quercetin, a natural antioxidant formulated in a specific delivery system, to reduce skin inflammation induced by a variety of stimuli, including UV radiation, stimulation with a histamine solution, or contact with chemical irritants. In particular, we tested the soothing and anti-itch effect of Quercevita®, 1% cream for external use, a formulation characterized by a phospholipids-based delivery system.Patients and methods: The study was a monocentric, single blind trial that enrolled a group of 30 healthy volunteers. The back of each subject was examined to identify four quadrants with no previous skin damage or naevi that were treated in order to induce a controlled and reversible form of skin stress. The areas were treated as follows: no product; Quercevita® 1% cream, 2 mg/cm2; placebo; positive control (a commercially available topical formulation containing 1% dexchlorpheniramine.Results: Only quercetin phospholipids 1% and dexchlorpheniramine 1% achieved a significant reduction in erythema with comparable results: (–10.05% [P=0.00329] for quercetin phospholipids 1% vs –14.05% [P=0.00046] for the positive control. Moreover, quercetin phospholipids 1% and dexchlorpheniramine 1% were both associated with a significant decrease in mean wheal diameter: (–13.25% and –12.23% for dexchlorpheniramine 1%, respectively. Similar findings were reported for the other tested parameters.Conclusion: Quercetin has a skin protective effect against damage caused by a variety of insults, including UV radiation, histamine, or contact with toxic chemical compounds. Indeed, quercetin is able

  17. Efficacy of behavioral interventions for reducing problem behavior in persons with autism: an updated quantitative synthesis of single-subject research. (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Saenen, Lore; Campbell, Jonathan M; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick


    Problem or challenging behaviors are highly prevalent among persons with autism and bring along major risks for the individual with autism and his/her family. In order to reduce the problem behavior, several behavioral interventions are used. We conducted a quantitative synthesis of single-subject studies to examine the efficacy of behavioral interventions for reducing problem behavior in persons with autism. Two hundred and thirteen studies representing 358 persons with autism met the inclusion criteria and were included in the statistical analyses. Overall, we found that behavioral interventions were on average effective in reducing problem behavior in individuals with autism, but some interventions were significantly more effective than others. The results further showed that the use of positive (nonaversive) behavioral interventions was increasing over time. The behavioral interventions were on average equally effective regardless of the type of problem behavior that was targeted. Interventions preceded by a functional analysis reduced problem behavior significantly more than interventions not preceded by a functional analysis. Finally, treatment and experimental characteristics, but not participant characteristics, were statistically significant moderators of the behavioral treatment effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Method for exploratory cluster analysis and visualisation of single-trial ERP ensembles. (United States)

    Williams, N J; Nasuto, S J; Saddy, J D


    The validity of ensemble averaging on event-related potential (ERP) data has been questioned, due to its assumption that the ERP is identical across trials. Thus, there is a need for preliminary testing for cluster structure in the data. We propose a complete pipeline for the cluster analysis of ERP data. To increase the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of the raw single-trials, we used a denoising method based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). Next, we used a bootstrap-based method to determine the number of clusters, through a measure called the Stability Index (SI). We then used a clustering algorithm based on a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to define initial cluster centroids for subsequent k-means clustering. Finally, we visualised the clustering results through a scheme based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). After validating the pipeline on simulated data, we tested it on data from two experiments - a P300 speller paradigm on a single subject and a language processing study on 25 subjects. Results revealed evidence for the existence of 6 clusters in one experimental condition from the language processing study. Further, a two-way chi-square test revealed an influence of subject on cluster membership. Our analysis operates on denoised single-trials, the number of clusters are determined in a principled manner and the results are presented through an intuitive visualisation. Given the cluster structure in some experimental conditions, we suggest application of cluster analysis as a preliminary step before ensemble averaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Review Essay: Faltering Forms Go to School. Analysis of the Subject in Connection With Andreas Reckwitz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Twardella


    Full Text Available In his book "Subjectivity," Andreas RECKWITZ interprets the work of a series of structuralist and poststructuralist authors in relation to the analysis of subjectivity. In the following article I reconstruct this interpretation and attempt to critically analyze the empirical explanatory power of these authors. An excerpt from the school routine of a German class is used to show how these various "subject-theoretical analysis strategies" may lead to different, interesting, and insightful interpretations. It also becomes clear that the idea of subjectivity, and therefore of education and maturity, cannot be abandoned. Without this idea, the application of pedagogy would be cynical, and the ability to understand it impossible. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs090222

  20. Biological Nanopores: Confined Spaces for Electrochemical Single-Molecule Analysis. (United States)

    Cao, Chan; Long, Yi-Tao


    Nanopore sensing is developing into a powerful single-molecule approach to investigate the features of biomolecules that are not accessible by studying ensemble systems. When a target molecule is transported through a nanopore, the ions occupying the pore are excluded, resulting in an electrical signal from the intermittent ionic blockade event. By statistical analysis of the amplitudes, duration, frequencies, and shapes of the blockade events, many properties of the target molecule can be obtained in real time at the single-molecule level, including its size, conformation, structure, charge, geometry, and interactions with other molecules. With the development of the use of α-hemolysin to characterize individual polynucleotides, nanopore technology has attracted a wide range of research interest in the fields of biology, physics, chemistry, and nanoscience. As a powerful single-molecule analytical method, nanopore technology has been applied for the detection of various biomolecules, including oligonucleotides, peptides, oligosaccharides, organic molecules, and disease-related proteins. In this Account, we highlight recent developments of biological nanopores in DNA-based sensing and in studying the conformational structures of DNA and RNA. Furthermore, we introduce the application of biological nanopores to investigate the conformations of peptides affected by charge, length, and dipole moment and to study disease-related proteins' structures and aggregation transitions influenced by an inhibitor, a promoter, or an applied voltage. To improve the sensing ability of biological nanopores and further extend their application to a wider range of molecular sensing, we focus on exploring novel biological nanopores, such as aerolysin and Stable Protein 1. Aerolysin exhibits an especially high sensitivity for the detection of single oligonucleotides both in current separation and duration. Finally, to facilitate the use of nanopore measurements and statistical analysis

  1. Replica Analysis for Portfolio Optimization with Single-Factor Model (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi


    In this paper, we use replica analysis to investigate the influence of correlation among the return rates of assets on the solution of the portfolio optimization problem. We consider the behavior of an optimal solution for the case where the return rate is described with a single-factor model and compare the findings obtained from our proposed methods with correlated return rates with those obtained with independent return rates. We then analytically assess the increase in the investment risk when correlation is included. Furthermore, we also compare our approach with analytical procedures for minimizing the investment risk from operations research.

  2. Optofluidics for handling and analysis of single living cells

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo


    Optofluidics is a field with important applications in areas such as biotechnology, chemical synthesis and analytical chemistry. Optofluidic devices combine optical elements into microfluidic devices in ways that increase portability and sensitivity of analysis for diagnostic or screening purposes .In fact in these devices fluids give fine adaptability, mobility and accessibility to nanoscale photonic devices which otherwise could not be realized using conventional devices. This review describes several cases inwhich optical or microfluidic approaches are used to trap single cells in proximity of integrated optical sensor for being analysed.

  3. Computer-assisted analysis of cervical vertebral bone age using cephalometric radiographs in Brazilian subjects. (United States)

    Caldas, Maria de Paula; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Haiter Neto, Francisco


    The aims of this study were to develop a computerized program for objectively evaluating skeletal maturation on cephalometric radiographs, and to apply the new method to Brazilian subjects. The samples were taken from the patient files of Oral Radiological Clinics from the North, Northeast, Midwest and South regions of the country. A total of 717 subjects aged 7.0 to 15.9 years who had lateral cephalometric radiographs and hand-wrist radiographs were selected. A cervical vertebral computerized analysis was created in the Radiocef Studio 2 computer software for digital cephalometric analysis, and cervical vertebral bone age was calculated using the formulas developed by Caldas et al.17 (2007). Hand-wrist bone age was evaluated by the TW3 method. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test were used to compare cervical vertebral bone age, hand-wrist bone age and chronological age (P cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age in all regions studied. When analyzing bone age, it was possible to observe a statistically significant difference between cervical vertebral bone age and hand-wrist bone age for female and male subjects in the North and Northeast regions, as well as for male subjects in the Midwest region. No significant difference was observed between bone age and chronological age in all regions except for male subjects in the North and female subjects in the Northeast. Using cervical vertebral bone age, it might be possible to evaluate skeletal maturation in an objective manner using cephalometric radiographs.

  4. A miniaturized device for bioluminescence analysis of caspase-3/7 5 activity in a single apoptotic cell

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamová, Eva; Lišková, Marcela; Matalová, E.; Klepárník, Karel

    Roč. 406 , č. 22 (2014), s. 5389-5394 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-28254S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : apoptosis * bioluminescence * single-cell analysis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.436, year: 2014

  5. A miniaturized device for bioluminescence analysis of caspase-3/7 activity in a single apoptotic cell

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamová, Eva; Lišková, M.; Matalová, Eva; Klepárník, K.


    Roč. 406, č. 22 (2014), s. 5389-5394 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/11/1418 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : apoptosis * bioluminiscence * caspase3/7 * single-cell analysis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.436, year: 2014

  6. Analysis of the dative in impersonal constructions: the concepts of subject and semi-subject in ancient Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Conti


    Full Text Available Impersonal constructions holding a complement both in dative and genitive are attested in Greek with a few verbs, which share the property of expressing the interests or the needs of human beings. These constructions, which occur in several ancient Indo- European languages, are documented in the post- Homeric period in the case of Greek. In the opposite, personal constructions, which appear more recently in other languages, are already documented in Greek since Homer’s times. The dative in the impersonal construction refers to human entities, codes the Experiencer and it is also the topic. These properties, which are close to those of the prototypical subject, seem to allow the dative to show some subject-like syntactic behaviour. In fact, we will argue that the dative in the impersonal construction behaves as a semi-subject, i. e. a verbal complement which, regardless of its coding, does have a set of properties that are typically associated with the subject in Greek. As well as the complement in dative, the complement in genitive in the impersonal construction exhibits a syntactic behaviour similar to the subject. However, the genitive does not follow the same patterns the dative does in the impersonal construction.

  7. Characterizing single-molecule FRET dynamics with probability distribution analysis. (United States)

    Santoso, Yusdi; Torella, Joseph P; Kapanidis, Achillefs N


    Probability distribution analysis (PDA) is a recently developed statistical tool for predicting the shapes of single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) histograms, which allows the identification of single or multiple static molecular species within a single histogram. We used a generalized PDA method to predict the shapes of FRET histograms for molecules interconverting dynamically between multiple states. This method is tested on a series of model systems, including both static DNA fragments and dynamic DNA hairpins. By fitting the shape of this expected distribution to experimental data, the timescale of hairpin conformational fluctuations can be recovered, in good agreement with earlier published results obtained using different techniques. This method is also applied to studying the conformational fluctuations in the unliganded Klenow fragment (KF) of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I, which allows both confirmation of the consistency of a simple, two-state kinetic model with the observed smFRET distribution of unliganded KF and extraction of a millisecond fluctuation timescale, in good agreement with rates reported elsewhere. We expect this method to be useful in extracting rates from processes exhibiting dynamic FRET, and in hypothesis-testing models of conformational dynamics against experimental data.

  8. Tetramethylammonium-filled protein nanopore for single-molecule analysis. (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yao, Fujun; Kang, Xiao-feng


    Nanopore technology, as the simplest and most inexpensive single-molecule tool, is being intensively developed. In nanopore stochastic sensing, KCl and NaCl have traditionally been employed as pore-filled electrolytes for recording the change of ion conductance in nanopores triggered by analyte translocation through the pore. However, some challenges limit its further advance. Here we used tetramethylammonium (TMA) chloride, instead of KCl, as a novel analysis system for nanopores. Some unique nanopore characteristics were observed: (1) The stability of the planar lipid bilayer for embedding the protein pores was elevated at least 6 times. (2) The TMA-Cl system could effectively reduce the noise of single-channel recording. (3) It was easy to control the insertion of protein pores into the lipid bilayer, and the formed single nanopore could last for a sufficiently long time. (4) TMA-Cl could be used as a DNA speed bump in the nanopore to slow DNA translocation speed. (5) The capacity of the nanopore capture of DNA (capture rate) increased significantly and simultaneously increased the translocation time of DNA in the pore. (6) The TMA-filled nanopore could discriminate between various polynucleotides.

  9. Condensing Raman spectrum for single-cell phenotype analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Shiwei


    Background In recent years, high throughput and non-invasive Raman spectrometry technique has matured as an effective approach to identification of individual cells by species, even in complex, mixed populations. Raman profiling is an appealing optical microscopic method to achieve this. To fully utilize Raman proling for single-cell analysis, an extensive understanding of Raman spectra is necessary to answer questions such as which filtering methodologies are effective for pre-processing of Raman spectra, what strains can be distinguished by Raman spectra, and what features serve best as Raman-based biomarkers for single-cells, etc. Results In this work, we have proposed an approach called rDisc to discretize the original Raman spectrum into only a few (usually less than 20) representative peaks (Raman shifts). The approach has advantages in removing noises, and condensing the original spectrum. In particular, effective signal processing procedures were designed to eliminate noise, utilising wavelet transform denoising, baseline correction, and signal normalization. In the discretizing process, representative peaks were selected to signicantly decrease the Raman data size. More importantly, the selected peaks are chosen as suitable to serve as key biological markers to differentiate species and other cellular features. Additionally, the classication performance of discretized spectra was found to be comparable to full spectrum having more than 1000 Raman shifts. Overall, the discretized spectrum needs about 5storage space of a full spectrum and the processing speed is considerably faster. This makes rDisc clearly superior to other methods for single-cell classication.

  10. Safety and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple intravenous bolus doses of diclofenac sodium compared with oral diclofenac potassium 50 mg: A randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Munjal, Sagar; Gautam, Anirudh; Okumu, Franklin; McDowell, James; Allenby, Kent


    In a randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in 42 healthy adults, the safety and pharmacokinetic parameters of an intravenous formulation of 18.75 and 37.5 mg diclofenac sodium (DFP-08) following single- and multiple-dose bolus administration were compared with diclofenac potassium 50 mg oral tablets. Mean AUC0-inf values for a 50-mg oral tablet and an 18.75-mg intravenous formulation were similar (1308.9 [393.0]) vs 1232.4 [147.6]). As measured by the AUC, DFP-08 18.75 mg and 37.5 mg demonstrated dose proportionality for extent of exposure. One subject in each of the placebo and DFP-08 18.75-mg groups and 2 subjects in the DFP-08 37.5-mg group reported adverse events that were considered by the investigator to be related to the study drug. All were mild in intensity and did not require treatment. Two subjects in the placebo group and 1 subject in the DFP-08 18.75-mg group reported grade 1 thrombophlebitis; no subjects reported higher than grade 1 thrombophlebitis after receiving a single intravenous dose. The 18.75- and 37.5-mg doses of intravenous diclofenac (single and multiple) were well tolerated for 7 days. Additional efficacy and safety studies are required to fully characterize the product. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  11. Evidence-Based Communication Practices for Children with Visual Impairments and Additional Disabilities: An Examination of Single-Subject Design Studies (United States)

    Parker, Amy T.; Grimmett, Eric S.; Summers, Sharon


    This review examines practices for building effective communication strategies for children with visual impairments, including those with additional disabilities, that have been tested by single-subject design methodology. The authors found 30 studies that met the search criteria and grouped intervention strategies to align any evidence of the…

  12. Surface noise analysis using a single-ion sensor (United States)

    Daniilidis, N.; Gerber, S.; Bolloten, G.; Ramm, M.; Ransford, A.; Ulin-Avila, E.; Talukdar, I.; Häffner, H.


    We use a single-ion electric-field noise sensor in combination with in situ surface treatment and analysis tools, to investigate the relationship between electric-field noise from metal surfaces in vacuum and the composition of the surface. These experiments are performed in a setup that integrates ion trapping capabilities with surface analysis tools. We find that treatment of an aluminum-copper surface with energetic argon ions significantly reduces the level of room-temperature electric-field noise, but the surface does not need to be atomically clean to show noise levels comparable to those of the best cryogenic traps. The noise levels after treatment are low enough to allow fault-tolerant trapped-ion quantum information processing on a microfabricated surface trap at room temperature.

  13. Social support and subjective burden in caregivers of adults and older adults: A meta-analysis. (United States)

    Del-Pino-Casado, Rafael; Frías-Osuna, Antonio; Palomino-Moral, Pedro A; Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio J


    Despite the generally accepted belief that social support improves caregiver adjustment in general and subjective burden in particular, the literature shows mixed findings, and a recent review concluded that the predictive strength of caregiver social support in determining caregiver burden is less evident, due to the conceptual diversity of this determinant. The purpose of this review is to analyse the relationship of perceived and received social support with subjective burden among informal caregivers of an adult or older adult. A systematic search was carried out up to September 2017 in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO), Scopus and ISI Proceedings, and a meta-analysis was performed with the results of the selected and included studies. Fifty-six studies were included in the meta-analysis, which provided 46 independent comparisons for perceived support and 16 for received support. Most of these studies were cross-sectional. There was a moderate, negative association of perceived social support on subjective burden (r = -0.36; CI 95% = -0.40, -0.32) and a very small, negative association of received support on subjective burden (r = -0.05; CI 95% = -0.095, -0.001). 1) perceived and received support are not redundant constructs, 2) the relationships between social support and subjective burden depend on whether the social support is measured as perceived or received, 3) the relationship of perceived social support with subjective burden has a bigger effect size than that of received social support, the relation between received support and subjective burden being clinically irrelevant, 4) perceived social support may be a good predictor of subjective burden. Our findings broadly support interventions promoting social support in caregivers to prevent or alleviate subjective burden, and specifically, to intervene on the promotion of perceived social support more than on the promotion of received social support when preventing or

  14. Modal Analysis of a Single-Structure Multiaxis MEMS Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Shah


    Full Text Available This paper reports on designing a single-structure triaxes MEMS capacitive gyroscope which is capable of measuring the three angular velocities on a single drive. A Z-shaped beam for the support of folded coupling spring has been applied to suppress the unwanted mode and decrease the stress effect at the spring ends. The unique coupling spring has changed the driving motion, due to which slide film damping in the driving mode has been reduced. This reduction can lead to higher performance of the sensor with less requirements on vacuum level which decreases the cost of fabrication. Simulation analysis has been performed in COMSOL Multiphysics and Matlab Simulink to finalize the design for fabrication. After finite element analysis, the driving, x-sensing, z-sensing, and y-sensing are, respectively, found to be 13.30 KHz, 13.40 KHz, 13.47 KHz, and 13.51 KHz.

  15. Bulk segregant analysis using single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Becker


    Full Text Available Bulk segregant analysis (BSA using microarrays, and extreme array mapping (XAM have recently been used to rapidly identify genomic regions associated with phenotypes in multiple species. These experiments, however, require the identification of single feature polymorphisms (SFP between the cross parents for each new combination of genotypes, which raises the cost of experiments. The availability of the genomic polymorphism data in Arabidopsis thaliana, coupled with the efficient designs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP genotyping arrays removes the requirement for SFP detection and lowers the per array cost, thereby lowering the overall cost per experiment. To demonstrate that these approaches would be functional on SNP arrays and determine confidence intervals, we analyzed hybridizations of natural accessions to the Arabidopsis ATSNPTILE array and simulated BSA or XAM given a variety of gene models, populations, and bulk selection parameters. Our results show a striking degree of correlation between the genotyping output of both methods, which suggests that the benefit of SFP genotyping in context of BSA can be had with the cheaper, more efficient SNP arrays. As a final proof of concept, we hybridized the DNA from bulks of an F2 mapping population of a Sulfur and Selenium ionomics mutant to both the Arabidopsis ATTILE1R and ATSNPTILE arrays, which produced almost identical results. We have produced R scripts that prompt the user for the required parameters and perform the BSA analysis using the ATSNPTILE1 array and have provided them as supplemental data files.

  16. Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Voriconazole from a Pharmacokinetic Study with Immunocompromised Japanese Pediatric Subjects (United States)

    Shoji, Satoshi; Tomono, Yoshiro; Liu, Ping


    A population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis was conducted to characterize the voriconazole pharmacokinetic profiles in immunocompromised Japanese pediatric subjects and to compare them to those in immunocompromised non-Japanese pediatric subjects. A previously developed two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with first-order absorption and mixed linear and nonlinear elimination adequately described the voriconazole intravenous and oral data from Japanese pediatric subjects with few modifications. Bayesian priors were applied to this analysis by using the NONMEM routine NWPRI, which allowed priors for the fixed-effect parameter vector and variance matrix of the random-effect parameters to be a normal distribution and an inverse Wishart distribution, respectively. Large intersubject variabilities in oral bioavailability and voriconazole exposure were observed in these pediatric subjects. The mean oral bioavailability estimated in Japanese pediatric subjects was 73% (range, 17% to 99%), which is consistent with the reported estimates of 64% in the previous model and less than what was originally estimated for healthy adults—96%. Voriconazole exposures in Japanese pediatric subjects were generally comparable to those in non-Japanese pediatric subjects receiving the same dosing regimens, given the large intersubject variability. Consistent with the previous findings, the CYP2C19 genotyping status did not have a clinically relevant effect on voriconazole exposure in Japanese pediatric subjects, although it was identified as a covariate in the model to help explain the intersubject variability in voriconazole exposure. The CYP2C19 genotyping status alone does not warrant dose adjustment of voriconazole. No other factors besides age and weight were identified to explain the PK variability of voriconazole. PMID:25801557

  17. Discrepancies between Skinned Single Muscle Fibres and Whole Thigh Muscle Function Characteristics in Young and Elderly Human Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunseok Jee


    Full Text Available We aimed to analyse the mechanical properties of skinned single muscle fibres derived from the vastus lateralis (VL muscle in relation to those of the whole intact thigh muscle and to compare any difference between young and older adults. Sixteen young men (29.25±4.65 years, 11 older men (71.45±2.94 years, 11 young women (29.64±4.88 years, and 7 older women (67.29±1.70 years were recruited. In vivo analyses were performed for mechanical properties such as isokinetic performance, isometric torque, and power. Specific force and maximum shortening velocity (Vo were measured with single muscle fibres. Sex difference showed greater impact on the functional properties of both the whole muscle (p<0.01 and single muscle fibres than aging (p<0.05. Sex difference, rather than aging, yielded more remarkable differences in gross mechanical properties in the single muscle fibre study in which significant differences between young men and young women were found only in the cross-sectional area and Vo (p<0.05. Age and sex differences reflect the mechanical properties of both single muscle fibres and whole thigh muscle, with the whole muscle yielding more prominent functional properties.

  18. Constructing Unfinalizability: A Subject Positioning Analysis of a Couple's Therapy Session Hosted by Tom Andersen. (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Michael


    The notion of subject positions is a useful tool in thinking through therapeutic interactions. In this article, I discuss positioning as an everyday phenomenon, and highlight the relational and social power dynamics that shape the subject positions persons may inhabit. Analysis is presented of the positional dynamics that play out in the couple's therapy session facilitated by Tom Andersen. Analysis suggests that Andersen adopts a not-knowing, uncertain, and curious position, while constructing the couple as competent, unfinalizable persons able to negotiate the choice-points that arise in front of them. However, if subject positions are grounded in social power dynamics, the session leaves a particular question unanswered: How will these emergent positions take hold outside of the consulting room? © 2018 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  19. The informational subject in the contemporary context. An analysis from the epistemology of informational community identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Rendón-Rojas


    Full Text Available The Epistemology of Informational Community Identity (ECI-I is proposed as a toolbox for the analysis of informational reality within categories as contextual paradigm, informational subject and informational entity, built ex profeso for this theoretical-methodological analysis. The concepts of information user´s and informational subject are distinguished, the latest, to seek an answer from a concrete social enclave within a particular community and its interrelationships with others, to under go a process of self construction, from which specific information needs arise. And the user needs to seek concrete answer after formal questioning many facts occurring in a consumerist, unequal and alienating world. So the emphasis is put on the need for an interdisciplinary approach between social theory and library science in the study of the documentary information world of particular informational subjects, which is often marginalized and excluded

  20. Social Gerontology--Integrative and Territorial Aspects: A Citation Analysis of Subject Scatter and Database Coverage (United States)

    Lasda Bergman, Elaine M.


    To determine the mix of resources used in social gerontology research, a citation analysis was conducted. A representative sample of citations was selected from three prominent gerontology journals and information was added to determine subject scatter and database coverage for the cited materials. Results indicate that a significant portion of…

  1. The influence of subjective aging on health and longevity: A meta-analysis of longitudinal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Miche, M.; Brothers, A.F.; Barrett, A.E.; Diehl, M.; Montepare, J.M.; Wahl, H.-W.; Wurm, S.


    Evidence is accumulating on the effects of subjective aging—that is, how individuals perceive their own aging process—on health and survival in later life. The goal of this article is to synthesize findings of existing longitudinal studies through a meta-analysis. A systematic search in PsycInfo,

  2. Single particle analysis with a 3600 light scattering photometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholdi, M.F.


    Light scattering by single spherical homogeneous particles in the diameter range 1 to 20 μm and relative refractive index 1.20 is measured. Particle size of narrowly dispersed populations is determined and a multi-modal dispersion of five components is completely analyzed. A 360 0 light scattering photometer for analysis of single particles has been designed and developed. A fluid stream containing single particles intersects a focused laser beam at the primary focal point of an ellipsoidal reflector ring. The light scattered at angles theta = 2.5 0 to 177.5 0 at phi = 0 0 and 180 0 is reflected onto a circular array of photodiodes. The ellipsoidal reflector is situated in a chamber filled with fluid matching that of the stream to minimize refracting and reflecting interfaces. The detector array consists of 60 photodiodes each subtending 3 0 in scattering angle on 6 0 centers around 360 0 . 32 measurements on individual particles can be acquired at rates of 500 particles per second. The intensity and angular distribution of light scattered by spherical particles are indicative of size and relative refractive index. Calculations, using Lorenz--Mie theory, of differential scattering patterns integrated over angle corresponding to the detector geometry determined the instrument response to particle size. From this the expected resolution and experimental procedures are determined.Ultimately, the photometer will be utilized for identification and discrimination of biological cells based on the sensitivity of light scattering to size, shape, refractive index differences, internal granularity, and other internal morphology. This study has demonstrated the utility of the photometer and indicates potential for application to light scattering studies of biological cells

  3. Parallel single cell analysis on an integrated microfluidic platform for cell trapping, lysis and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Gac, Severine; de Boer, Hans L.; Wijnperle, Daniël; Meuleman, W.; Carlen, Edwin; van den Berg, Albert; Kim, Tae Song; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Chung, Taek-Dong; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Choo, Jaebum; Kim, Yong-Kweon


    We report here a novel and easily scalable microfluidic platform for the parallel analysis of hundreds of individual cells, with controlled single cell trapping, followed by their lysis and subsequent retrieval of the cellular content for on-chip analysis. The device consists of a main channel and

  4. Striatal dopamine release in reading and writing measured with [123I]iodobenzamide and single photon emission computed tomography in right handed human subjects. (United States)

    Schommartz, B; Larisch, R; Vosberg, H; Müller-Gärtner, H M


    Competition between endogenous dopamine and a radioligand for postsynaptic dopamine D(2) receptor binding was examined in two groups of eight subjects each who had to read or write off a text, respectively, and in a control group. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and the ligand [(123)I]iodobenzamide (IBZM) were used for in vivo imaging. Subjects commenced reading or writing immediately before IBZM injection and continued for 30min thereafter. SPECT images were acquired 60min later. Striatum-to-parietal-cortex IBZM uptake ratios were lower in subjects who wrote off the text than in controls indicating competition of IBZM and dopamine. There was no difference between subjects who read the text and controls. Thus, dopamine release occurs as a consequence of the motoric activity involved in writing rather than of cognitive functions necessary for reading the text.

  5. Bayesian analysis of inflation: Parameter estimation for single field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortonson, Michael J.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Easther, Richard


    Future astrophysical data sets promise to strengthen constraints on models of inflation, and extracting these constraints requires methods and tools commensurate with the quality of the data. In this paper we describe ModeCode, a new, publicly available code that computes the primordial scalar and tensor power spectra for single-field inflationary models. ModeCode solves the inflationary mode equations numerically, avoiding the slow roll approximation. It is interfaced with CAMB and CosmoMC to compute cosmic microwave background angular power spectra and perform likelihood analysis and parameter estimation. ModeCode is easily extendable to additional models of inflation, and future updates will include Bayesian model comparison. Errors from ModeCode contribute negligibly to the error budget for analyses of data from Planck or other next generation experiments. We constrain representative single-field models (φ n with n=2/3, 1, 2, and 4, natural inflation, and 'hilltop' inflation) using current data, and provide forecasts for Planck. From current data, we obtain weak but nontrivial limits on the post-inflationary physics, which is a significant source of uncertainty in the predictions of inflationary models, while we find that Planck will dramatically improve these constraints. In particular, Planck will link the inflationary dynamics with the post-inflationary growth of the horizon, and thus begin to probe the ''primordial dark ages'' between TeV and grand unified theory scale energies.

  6. Size analysis of single-core magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Frank, E-mail: [Institut für Elektrische Messtechnik und Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Balceris, Christoph; Viereck, Thilo [Institut für Elektrische Messtechnik und Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Posth, Oliver; Steinhoff, Uwe [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany); Gavilan, Helena; Costo, Rocio [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Zeng, Lunjie; Olsson, Eva [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden); Jonasson, Christian; Johansson, Christer [ACREO Swedish ICT AB, Göteborg (Sweden)


    Single-core iron-oxide nanoparticles with nominal core diameters of 14 nm and 19 nm were analyzed with a variety of non-magnetic and magnetic analysis techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), static magnetization vs. magnetic field (M-H) measurements, ac susceptibility (ACS) and magnetorelaxometry (MRX). From the experimental data, distributions of core and hydrodynamic sizes are derived. Except for TEM where a number-weighted distribution is directly obtained, models have to be applied in order to determine size distributions from the measurand. It was found that the mean core diameters determined from TEM, M-H, ACS and MRX measurements agree well although they are based on different models (Langevin function, Brownian and Néel relaxation times). Especially for the sample with large cores, particle interaction effects come into play, causing agglomerates which were detected in DLS, ACS and MRX measurements. We observed that the number and size of agglomerates can be minimized by sufficiently strong diluting the suspension. - Highlights: • Investigation of size parameters of single-core magnetic nanoparticles with nominal core diameters of 14 nm and 19 nm utilizing different magnetic and non-magnetic methods • Hydrodynamic size determined from ac susceptibility measurements is consistent with the DLS findings • Core size agrees determined from static magnetization curves, MRX and ACS data agrees with results from TEM although the estimation is based on different models (Langevin function, Brownian and Néel relaxation times).

  7. Postural stability during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects. (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Janssens, Luc; Luyckx, Thomas; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan; Staes, Filip F


    An anterior cruciate ligament injury may lead to deteriorations in postural stability. The goal of this study was to evaluate postural stability during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance of both legs in anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects and non-injured control subjects with a standardized methodology. Fifteen control subjects and 15 anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects (time after injury: mean (SD)=1.4 (0.7) months) participated in the study. Both groups were similar for age, gender, height, weight and body mass index. Spatiotemporal center of pressure outcomes of both legs of each subject were measured during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Movement speed was standardized. The center of pressure displacement after a new stability point was reached during the single-leg stance phase was significantly increased in the anterior cruciate ligament injured group compared to the control group in the eyes closed condition (Plegs within both groups (P>.05). No significant differences were found during the transition itself (P>.05). The anterior cruciate ligament injured group showed postural stability deficits during the single-leg stance phase compared to the non-injured control group in the eyes closed condition. Using the non-injured leg as a normal reference when evaluating postural stability of the injured leg may lead to misinterpretations, as no significant differences were found between the injured and non-injured leg of the anterior cruciate ligament injured group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics of ebastine after single and repeated dosing in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Rohatagi, S; Gillen, M; Aubeneau, M; Jan, C; Pandit, B; Jensen, B K; Rhodes, G


    Ebastine is a potent and selective H1-receptor antagonist indicated for allergic rhinitis which undergoes extensive first pass metabolism by CYP3A4 to form an active metabolite, carebastine. The purpose of the study was to determine age- and gender-related differences in the pharmacokinetics of ebastine and carebastine. The upper recommended oral dose of 20 mg once daily was administered to 12 healthy young (22 to 38 years) and 12 healthy elderly (50 to 92 years; 8 m and 4 f) subjects for 5 days. Plasma concentrations of ebastine and carebastine were determined for 24 hours following the initial dose on Day 1 and for 72 hours following the dose on Day 5 using a sensitive LC/MS/MS assay. The minimum quantifiable limit (MQL) for the assay was 0.05 ng/ml and 1.0 ng/ml for ebastine and carebastine, respectively. Mean area under the curve and Cmax values on Day 1 and Day 5 were similar for ebastine but approximately doubled for carebastine due to its longer half-life. Mean carebastine concentrations were approximately 10 to 20 fold higher than mean ebastine concentrations. For young subjects, the mean (%CV) ebastine t(1/2) was 5.76 (28.47) h and 20.38 (46.19) h on Day 1 and Day 5, respectively. Similarily, for young subjects, the mean (%CV) for carebastine t(1/2) was 7.03 (23.21) h and 26.12 (23.39) h on Day 1 and Day 5, respectively. This apparent prolongation of t(1/2) was probably due to lack of proper estimation of terminal half-life on Day 1 as fewer samples were collected for a shorter duration on Day 1. Using a multicomparison test for Cmin values, it was determined that steady state conditions were achieved by Day 5 for both age groups for ebastine and in young subjects for carebastine. The variability in ebastine pharmacokinetic parameters was higher than carebastine. A 50% increase in ebastine AUC(0-24) and Cmax values in elderly subjects, with no changes in t(1/2), could be explained by either increased absorption of ebastine in elderly subjects or due to a

  9. Renormalisation group analysis of single right-handed neutrino dominance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.F.; Nimai Singh, N.


    We perform a renormalisation group (RG) analysis of neutrino masses and mixing angles in the see-saw mechanism in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with three right-handed neutrinos, including the effects of the heavy neutrino thresholds. We focus on the case that one of the right-handed neutrinos provides the dominant contribution to the 23 block of the light Majorana matrix, causing its determinant to approximately vanish and giving an automatic neutrino mass hierarchy, so-called single right-handed neutrino dominance which may arise from a U(1) family symmetry. In these models radiative corrections can increase atmospheric and solar neutrino mixing by up to about 10% and 5%, respectively, and may help to achieve bi-maximal mixing. Significantly we find that the radiative corrections over the heavy neutrino threshold region are at least as important as those usually considered from the lightest right-handed neutrino down to low energies

  10. Robust stability analysis of adaptation algorithms for single perceptron. (United States)

    Hui, S; Zak, S H


    The problem of robust stability and convergence of learning parameters of adaptation algorithms in a noisy environment for the single preceptron is addressed. The case in which the same input pattern is presented in the adaptation cycle is analyzed. The algorithm proposed is of the Widrow-Hoff type. It is concluded that this algorithm is robust. However, the weight vectors do not necessarily converge in the presence of measurement noise. A modified version of this algorithm in which the reduction factors are allowed to vary with time is proposed, and it is shown that this algorithm is robust and that the weight vectors converge in the presence of bounded noise. Only deterministic-type arguments are used in the analysis. An ultimate bound on the error in terms of a convex combination of the initial error and the bound on the noise is obtained.

  11. Single-cell phospho-protein analysis by flow cytometry. (United States)

    Schulz, Kenneth R; Danna, Erika A; Krutzik, Peter O; Nolan, Garry P


    This protocol describes methods for monitoring intracellular phosphorylation-dependent signaling events on a single-cell basis. This approach measures cell signaling by treating cells with exogenous stimuli, fixing cells with formaldehyde, permeabilizing with methanol, and then staining with phospho-specific antibodies. Thus, cell signaling states can be determined as a measure of how cells interact with their environment. This method has applications in clinical research as well as mechanistic studies of basic biology. In clinical research, diagnostic or drug efficacy information can be retrieved by discovering how a disease affects the ability of cells to respond to growth factors. Basic scientists can use this technique to analyze signaling events in cell lines and human or murine primary cells, including rare populations, like B1 cells or stem cells. This technique has broad applications bringing standard biochemical analysis into primary cells in order to garner valuable information about signaling events in physiologic settings. © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Examining the relationship between subjective and objective memory performance in older adults: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Crumley, Jessica J; Stetler, Cinnamon A; Horhota, Michelle


    Are the beliefs that older adults hold about their memory abilities associated with their scores on lab-based memory tasks? A review of the aging literature suggests that the correlation between subjective and objective memory is inconsistent, with some studies reporting significant effects and others reporting null results. A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively summarize the relationship between subjective memory, defined as general predictions about memory, and objective memory performance in older adults, and to examine the conditions under which this relationship may be strongest. This meta-analysis included 53 studies, each of which included a normatively aging older adult sample. Overall, the association between subjective and objective memory was small (r = .062, SE = 0.014) but reliably greater than zero. Moderator analyses were conducted to better understand the parameters of this effect. Age, years of education, gender, depression symptoms, length and format of subjective memory measures, and type of objective memory were significantly correlated with effect size. These results caution against relying on general subjective memory belief measures as a substitute for objective assessments of memory. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of the cranio-cervical curvatures in subjects with migraine with and without neck pain. (United States)

    Ferracini, Gabriela Natália; Chaves, Thais Cristina; Dach, Fabíola; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Speciali, José Geraldo


    To investigate the differences in head and cervical spine alignment between subjects with migraine and healthy people. A cross-sectional, observational study. Fifty subjects with migraine and 50 matched healthy controls. The presence of neck pain and neck pain-related disability was assessed. Four angles (high cervical angle, low cervical angle, atlas plane angle and cervical lordosis Cobb angle) as well as four distances (anterior translation distance, C0 to C1 distance, C2 to C7 posterior translation and hyoid triangle) were calculated using digitalised radiographs and analysed using K-Pacs ® software. Subjects with migraine reported a longer history of neck pain symptoms, and higher pain intensity and neck-pain-related disability than controls (P<0.01). Patients exhibited a smaller anterior translation distance (mean difference: 4.9mm, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 8.8; P<0.001) and hyoid triangle (difference: 3.0mm, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 5.0; P=0.02) than healthy controls. When the presence or the absence of neck pain was included in the analysis, the differences did not change. Differences in anterior translation and hyoid triangle distances were considered clinically relevant for subjects with migraine suffering from neck pain. Subjects with migraine exhibited straightening of cervical lordosis curvature. The presence of neck pain did not influence head posture in subjects with and without migraine. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of adjunctive perampanel in subjects with partial-onset seizures. (United States)

    Takenaka, O; Ferry, J; Saeki, K; Laurenza, A


    Explore perampanel pharmacokinetics (PK) in all subjects (aged ≥12 years) vs adolescents (aged ≥12 to ≤17 years) with partial-onset seizures (POS) and identify factors explaining between-subject variability in efficacy using a population PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) analysis. Population PK analysis was performed using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling with data from phase II/III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of adjunctive perampanel in POS. Perampanel exposure was predicted for all subjects and adolescents. Population PK/PD analyses were performed using data from phase III studies to explore the relationship between perampanel exposure and 28-day average seizure frequency and responder probability. Pooled perampanel PK data from 1318 subjects were described by a one-compartment disposition model. In the absence of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) affecting perampanel PK, estimated perampanel apparent clearance (CL/F) was 0.668 L/h (all subjects) and 0.682 L/h (adolescent subjects). Co-administration of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine/phenytoin reduced perampanel exposure. Gender, Asian race (excluding Japanese or Chinese), and increasing alanine aminotransferase lowered perampanel CL/F, but differences were small and not considered clinically relevant. Adolescent outcomes were similar to the total population. Based on PK/PD data from 1748 subjects, percent reduction in 28-day average seizure frequency from baseline and responder probability increased with increasing perampanel exposure; concomitant CYP3A-inducing AEDs lowered perampanel exposure but did not impact the slope for responder probability. These results are consistent with previous analyses but expand on these through inclusion of a larger number of patients from different ethnic groups, and demonstrate that outcomes were similar between adults and adolescents. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Low aspect ratio micropores for single-particle and single-cell analysis. (United States)

    Goyal, Gaurav; Mulero, Rafael; Ali, Jamel; Darvish, Armin; Kim, Min Jun


    This paper describes microparticle and bacterial translocation studies using low aspect ratio solid-state micropores. Micropores, 5 μm in diameter, were fabricated in 200 nm thick free-standing silicon nitride membranes, resulting in pores with an extremely low aspect ratio, nominally 0.04. For microparticle translocation experiments, sulfonated polystyrene microparticles and magnetic microbeads in size range of 1-4 μm were used. Using the microparticle translocation characteristics, we find that particle translocations result in a change only in the pore's geometrical resistance while the access resistance remains constant. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability of our micropore to probe high-resolution shape information of translocating analytes using concatenated magnetic microspheres. Distinct current drop peaks were observed for each microsphere of the multibead architecture. For bacterial translocation experiments, nonflagellated Escherichia coli (strain HCB 5) and wild type flagellated Salmonella typhimurium (strain SJW1103) were used. Distinct current signatures for the two bacteria were obtained and this difference in translocation behavior was attributed to different surface protein distributions on the bacteria. Our findings may help in developing low aspect ratio pores for high-resolution microparticle characterization and single-cell analysis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Computer-assisted analysis of cervical vertebral bone age using cephalometric radiographs in Brazilian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Paula Caldas


    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to develop a computerized program for objectively evaluating skeletal maturation on cephalometric radiographs, and to apply the new method to Brazilian subjects. The samples were taken from the patient files of Oral Radiological Clinics from the North, Northeast, Midwest and South regions of the country. A total of 717 subjects aged 7.0 to 15.9 years who had lateral cephalometric radiographs and hand-wrist radiographs were selected. A cervical vertebral computerized analysis was created in the Radiocef Studio 2 computer software for digital cephalometric analysis, and cervical vertebral bone age was calculated using the formulas developed by Caldas et al.17 (2007. Hand-wrist bone age was evaluated by the TW3 method. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and the Tukey test were used to compare cervical vertebral bone age, hand-wrist bone age and chronological age (P < 0.05. No significant difference was found between cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age in all regions studied. When analyzing bone age, it was possible to observe a statistically significant difference between cervical vertebral bone age and hand-wrist bone age for female and male subjects in the North and Northeast regions, as well as for male subjects in the Midwest region. No significant difference was observed between bone age and chronological age in all regions except for male subjects in the North and female subjects in the Northeast. Using cervical vertebral bone age, it might be possible to evaluate skeletal maturation in an objective manner using cephalometric radiographs.

  17. Verb retrieval in brain-damaged subjects: 2. Analysis of errors. (United States)

    Kemmerer, D; Tranel, D


    Verb retrieval for action naming was assessed in 53 brain-damaged subjects by administering a standardized test with 100 items. In a companion paper (Kemmerer & Tranel, 2000), it was shown that impaired and unimpaired subjects did not differ as groups in their sensitivity to a variety of stimulus, lexical, and conceptual factors relevant to the test. For this reason, the main goal of the present study was to determine whether the two groups of subjects manifested theoretically interesting differences in the kinds of errors that they made. All of the subjects' errors were classified according to an error coding system that contains 27 distinct types of errors belonging to five broad categories-verbs, phrases, nouns, adpositional words, and "other" responses. Errors involving the production of verbs that are semantically related to the target were especially prevalent for the unimpaired group, which is similar to the performance of normal control subjects. By contrast, the impaired group had a significantly smaller proportion of errors in the verb category and a significantly larger proportion of errors in each of the nonverb categories. This relationship between error rate and error type is consistent with previous research on both object and action naming errors, and it suggests that subjects with only mild damage to putative lexical systems retain an appreciation of most of the semantic, phonological, and grammatical category features of words, whereas subjects with more severe damage retain a much smaller set of features. At the level of individual subjects, a wide range of "predominant error types" were found, especially among the impaired subjects, which may reflect either different action naming strategies or perhaps different patterns of preservation and impairment of various lexical components. Overall, this study provides a novel addition to the existing literature on the analysis of naming errors made by brain-damaged subjects. Not only does the study

  18. Non-linear canonical correlation for joint analysis of MEG signals from two subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eCampi


    Full Text Available We consider the problem of analysing magnetoencephalography (MEG data measured from two persons undergoing the same experiment, and we propose a method that searches for sources with maximally correlated energies. Our method is based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA, which provides linear transformations, one for each subject, such that the correlation between the transformed MEG signals is maximized. Here, we present a nonlinear version of CCA which measures the correlation of energies. Furthermore, we introduce a delay parameter in the modelto analyse, e.g., leader-follower changes in experiments where the two subjects are engaged in social interaction.

  19. The Effect of Isomaltulose Together with Green Tea on Glycemic Response and Antioxidant Capacity: A Single-Blind, Crossover Study in Healthy Subjects


    Suraphad, Passakorn; Suklaew, Phim On; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai; M?kynen, Kittana


    Isomaltulose, a naturally-occurring isomer of sucrose, is commonly used as an alternative sweetener in foods and beverages. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of isomaltulose together with green tea on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentration, as well as antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 15 healthy subjects (eight women and seven men; ages 23.5 ? 0.7 years; with body mass index of 22.6 ? 0.4 kg/m2) consumed f...

  20. Analysis of an adhesively bonded single lap joint subjected to eccentric loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyfantis, Konstantinos; Tsouvalis, N. G.


    A new experimental test is proposed, which allows the contribution of Mode I, II and III fracture modes to the failure of the adhesive layer of bonded joints aiming at achieving the realistic conditions often occurring during loading of practical joints. The main objective of this test is benchma......A new experimental test is proposed, which allows the contribution of Mode I, II and III fracture modes to the failure of the adhesive layer of bonded joints aiming at achieving the realistic conditions often occurring during loading of practical joints. The main objective of this test......, which correspond to Mode I, II and III loading and fracture. These tests were designed so that the metal substrates do not enter plasticity and the adhesive achieves a mode mixity ratio between Mode II and Mode III not lower than 0.5. The experiments were simulated in a 3-dimensional finite element...

  1. Volumetric Analysis from a Harmonized Multisite Brain MRI Study of a Single Subject with Multiple Sclerosis. (United States)

    Shinohara, R T; Oh, J; Nair, G; Calabresi, P A; Davatzikos, C; Doshi, J; Henry, R G; Kim, G; Linn, K A; Papinutto, N; Pelletier, D; Pham, D L; Reich, D S; Rooney, W; Roy, S; Stern, W; Tummala, S; Yousuf, F; Zhu, A; Sicotte, N L; Bakshi, R


    MR imaging can be used to measure structural changes in the brains of individuals with multiple sclerosis and is essential for diagnosis, longitudinal monitoring, and therapy evaluation. The North American Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis Cooperative steering committee developed a uniform high-resolution 3T MR imaging protocol relevant to the quantification of cerebral lesions and atrophy and implemented it at 7 sites across the United States. To assess intersite variability in scan data, we imaged a volunteer with relapsing-remitting MS with a scan-rescan at each site. All imaging was acquired on Siemens scanners (4 Skyra, 2 Tim Trio, and 1 Verio). Expert segmentations were manually obtained for T1-hypointense and T2 (FLAIR) hyperintense lesions. Several automated lesion-detection and whole-brain, cortical, and deep gray matter volumetric pipelines were applied. Statistical analyses were conducted to assess variability across sites, as well as systematic biases in the volumetric measurements that were site-related. Systematic biases due to site differences in expert-traced lesion measurements were significant ( P 90% of the variation (range, 13.0-16.4 mL in T1 and 15.9-20.1 mL in T2) in lesion volumes. Site also explained >80% of the variation in most automated volumetric measurements. Output measures clustered according to scanner models, with similar results from the Skyra versus the other 2 units. Even in multicenter studies with consistent scanner field strength and manufacturer after protocol harmonization, systematic differences can lead to severe biases in volumetric analyses. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  2. A seismic analysis of nuclear power plant components subjected to multi-excitations of earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Gunyasu, K.


    In this analysis, the modal analysis methods are used to determine the seismic responses of structural systems instead of the direct integration method. These results have been compared with some kinds of other analytical methods, and investigated the accuracy of numerical results of these analysis, applying to such components as Reactor Pressure Vessel and Reactor Internals of an actual plant. The results of this method of analysis are summarized as follows: (1) one of the seismic analysis methods concerning systems subjected to multi-excitations of earthquakes has been presented to the conference of JSME. Although the analytical theory presented to that conference is correct, it has a serious problem about the accuracy of numerical results. This computer program and theory cannot be used practically due to the time necessary to calculate. However, the method described in this paper overcomes those serious problems stated above and has no problem about the computer time and precision. So, it is possible to apply this method to the seismic design of an actual nuclear power plant practically. (2) The feed back effects of the seismic responses of Reactor Internals to Reactor Building are considered so small that we can separate the model of Reactor Internals from Reactor Building. (3) The results of seismic response of Reactor Internals are fairly consistent with those obtained from the model coupled with Reactor Building. (4) This analysis method can be extended to the model of Reactor Internals subjected to more than two random excitations of earthquakes. (5) It is possible that this analysis method is also applied to the seismic analysis of such three-dimensional systems as piping systems subjected to multi-excitations of earthquakes

  3. The diuretic effect in human subjects of an extract of Taraxacum officinale folium over a single day. (United States)

    Clare, Bevin A; Conroy, Richard S; Spelman, Kevin


    Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber (Asteraceae) has been extensively employed as a diuretic in traditional folk medicine and in modern phytotherapy in Europe, Asia, and the Americas without prior clinical trial substantiation. In this pilot study, a high-quality fresh leaf hydroethanolic extract of the medicinal plant T. officinale (dandelion) was ingested by volunteers to investigate whether an increased urinary frequency and volume would result. Volume of urinary output and fluid intake were recorded by subjects. Baseline values for urinary frequency and excretion ratio (urination volume:fluid intake) were established 2 days prior to dandelion dosing (8 mL TID) and monitored throughout a 1-day dosing period and 24 hours postdosing. For the entire population (n = 17) there was a significant (p officinale ethanolic extract shows promise as a diuretic in humans. Further studies are needed to establish the value of this herb for induction of diuresis in human subjects.

  4. An electrocorticographic BCI using code-based VEP for control in video applications: A single-subject study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eKapeller


    Full Text Available A brain-computer-interface (BCI allows the user to control a device or software with brain activity. Many BCIs rely on visual stimuli with constant stimulation cycles that elicit steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP in the electroencephalogram (EEG. This EEG response can be generated with a LED or a computer screen flashing at a constant frequency, and similar EEG activity can be elicited with pseudo-random stimulation sequences on a screen (code-based BCI. Using electrocorticography (ECoG instead of EEG promises higher spatial and temporal resolution and leads to more dominant evoked potentials due to visual stimulation. This work is focused on BCIs based on visual evoked potentials (VEP and its capability as a continuous control interface for augmentation of video applications. One 35 year old female subject with implanted subdural grids participated in the study. The task was to select one out of four visual targets, while each was flickering with a code sequence. After a calibration run including 200 code sequences, a linear classifier was used during an evaluation run to identify the selected visual target based on the generated code-based VEPs over 20 trials. Multiple ECoG buffer lengths were tested and subject reached a mean online classification accuracy of 99.21 % for a window length of 3.15 s. Finally, the subject performed an unsupervised free run in combination with visual feedback of the current selection. Additionally, an algorithm was implemented that allowed to suppress false positive selections and this allowed the subject to start and stop the BCI at any time. The code-based BCI system attained very high online accuracy, which makes this approach very promising for control applications where a continuous control signal is needed.

  5. Kinetic analysis of single molecule FRET transitions without trajectories (United States)

    Schrangl, Lukas; Göhring, Janett; Schütz, Gerhard J.


    Single molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) is a popular tool to study biological systems that undergo topological transitions on the nanometer scale. smFRET experiments typically require recording of long smFRET trajectories and subsequent statistical analysis to extract parameters such as the states' lifetimes. Alternatively, analysis of probability distributions exploits the shapes of smFRET distributions at well chosen exposure times and hence works without the acquisition of time traces. Here, we describe a variant that utilizes statistical tests to compare experimental datasets with Monte Carlo simulations. For a given model, parameters are varied to cover the full realistic parameter space. As output, the method yields p-values which quantify the likelihood for each parameter setting to be consistent with the experimental data. The method provides suitable results even if the actual lifetimes differ by an order of magnitude. We also demonstrated the robustness of the method to inaccurately determine input parameters. As proof of concept, the new method was applied to the determination of transition rate constants for Holliday junctions.

  6. Analysis of Active Learning Suitability of Subjects in Information and Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikatsu Kubota


    Full Text Available “Active Learning (AL,” the teaching method which puts emphasis on students’ active participation in class and their abilities to discover problems and solve them, has been coming under the spotlight worldwide. NIT, Sendai College, Hirose Campus is promoting AL in the field of information and electronics. Especially, we are practicing “A3 Learning System” specializing in utilizing computers. We have aggressively introduced AL in class and seen the good effects of them. However, some problems are emerging in a certain type of subjects, which may mean that there are subjects unsuitable for AL. In this paper we report large-scale analysis of introduction of AL in information and electronics field and suggest that successful introduction of AL in class depends on the type of subjects.

  7. Fractal time series analysis of postural stability in elderly and control subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doussot Michel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of balance using stabilogram analysis is of particular interest in the study of falls. Although simple statistical parameters derived from the stabilogram have been shown to predict risk of falls, such measures offer little insight into the underlying control mechanisms responsible for degradation in balance. In contrast, fractal and non-linear time-series analysis of stabilograms, such as estimations of the Hurst exponent (H, may provide information related to the underlying motor control strategies governing postural stability. In order to be adapted for a home-based follow-up of balance, such methods need to be robust, regardless of the experimental protocol, while producing time-series that are as short as possible. The present study compares two methods of calculating H: Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA and Stabilogram Diffusion Analysis (SDA for elderly and control subjects, as well as evaluating the effect of recording duration. Methods Centre of pressure signals were obtained from 90 young adult subjects and 10 elderly subjects. Data were sampled at 100 Hz for 30 s, including stepping onto and off the force plate. Estimations of H were made using sliding windows of 10, 5, and 2.5 s durations, with windows slid forward in 1-s increments. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to test for the effect of time, age and estimation method on the Hurst exponent, while the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was used as a measure of reliability. Results Both SDA and DFA methods were able to identify differences in postural stability between control and elderly subjects for time series as short as 5 s, with ICC values as high as 0.75 for DFA. Conclusion Both methods would be well-suited to non-invasive longitudinal assessment of balance. In addition, reliable estimations of H were obtained from time series as short as 5 s.

  8. Graph-Based Inter-Subject Pattern Analysis of fMRI Data (United States)

    Takerkart, Sylvain; Auzias, Guillaume; Thirion, Bertrand; Ralaivola, Liva


    In brain imaging, solving learning problems in multi-subjects settings is difficult because of the differences that exist across individuals. Here we introduce a novel classification framework based on group-invariant graphical representations, allowing to overcome the inter-subject variability present in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and to perform multivariate pattern analysis across subjects. Our contribution is twofold: first, we propose an unsupervised representation learning scheme that encodes all relevant characteristics of distributed fMRI patterns into attributed graphs; second, we introduce a custom-designed graph kernel that exploits all these characteristics and makes it possible to perform supervised learning (here, classification) directly in graph space. The well-foundedness of our technique and the robustness of the performance to the parameter setting are demonstrated through inter-subject classification experiments conducted on both artificial data and a real fMRI experiment aimed at characterizing local cortical representations. Our results show that our framework produces accurate inter-subject predictions and that it outperforms a wide range of state-of-the-art vector- and parcel-based classification methods. Moreover, the genericity of our method makes it is easily adaptable to a wide range of potential applications. The dataset used in this study and an implementation of our framework are available at PMID:25127129

  9. Sleep quality and obesity in young subjects: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Fatima, Y; Doi, S A R; Mamun, A A


    To assess the effect of poor sleep quality on Overweight/Obesity (Ow/Ob) in young subjects, and explore if this association is independent of sleep duration. Pubmed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases were searched for papers on sleep quality and overweight/obesity, focusing on children, adolescents, and young adults. Studies based on subjects with medical/psychological problems or published in languages other than English were excluded. Quality effects model was used to pool studies for meta-analysis. Findings from the systematic review suggest a link between poor sleep quality and Ow/Ob in young subjects. Pooled estimate (from 26,553 subjects) suggest a role of inadequate sleep (including both short duration and poor quality) in Ow/Ob (OR: 1.27 95% CI: 1.05-1.53). Sub-group-analyses suggest considerably higher odds of Ow/Ob (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.24-1.72) in young subjects with poor sleep quality (independent of duration). Poor sleep quality seems to be associated with Ow/Ob, and some studies indicate this association to be independent of duration. Therefore, considering only sleep duration might not help in disentangling sleep-obesity association. However, this review is mostly composed of cross-sectional studies. Therefore, a causal link or the stability of the sleep quality and Ow/Ob association could not be established. © 2016 World Obesity.

  10. Graph-based inter-subject pattern analysis of FMRI data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Takerkart

    Full Text Available In brain imaging, solving learning problems in multi-subjects settings is difficult because of the differences that exist across individuals. Here we introduce a novel classification framework based on group-invariant graphical representations, allowing to overcome the inter-subject variability present in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data and to perform multivariate pattern analysis across subjects. Our contribution is twofold: first, we propose an unsupervised representation learning scheme that encodes all relevant characteristics of distributed fMRI patterns into attributed graphs; second, we introduce a custom-designed graph kernel that exploits all these characteristics and makes it possible to perform supervised learning (here, classification directly in graph space. The well-foundedness of our technique and the robustness of the performance to the parameter setting are demonstrated through inter-subject classification experiments conducted on both artificial data and a real fMRI experiment aimed at characterizing local cortical representations. Our results show that our framework produces accurate inter-subject predictions and that it outperforms a wide range of state-of-the-art vector- and parcel-based classification methods. Moreover, the genericity of our method makes it is easily adaptable to a wide range of potential applications. The dataset used in this study and an implementation of our framework are available at

  11. Subjective health among LGBT persons living with disabilities: A qualitative content analysis. (United States)

    Dispenza, Franco; Harper, Lauren S; Harrigan, Megan A


    There exist significant health disparities among both lesbian, gay, bisexual, transexual (LGBT) and disability persons; however, there is a dearth of information regarding the subjective health experiences of LGBT persons living with disabilities (LGBTPWD). As such, the purpose of this study was to understand how LGBTPWD subjectively defined and characterized the meaning of health in their lives. Using qualitative content analyses procedures outlined by Elo and Kyngäs (2008), we conducted a secondary data analysis using a larger questionnaire study that was administered via the Internet. Participants were originally asked to answer the following prompt, "Describe what it personally means to you to be healthy?" Open-ended responses from 79 participants were thematically analyzed over several inductive and comparative coding iterations by a 3-person research team. Trustworthiness of data analysis was ensured via researcher triangulation, negative case analyses, and researcher reflexivity. Four dimensions of subjective health emerged during the qualitative analytic process: physical wellness, emotional vitality, functionality, and social engagement. There are contextually nuanced characteristics that constitute subjective health for LGBTPWD. These findings could help rehabilitation professionals provide culturally competent interventions. Implications for future research and limitations are provided in the discussion section. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Reliability analysis of hierarchical computer-based systems subject to common-cause failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Liudong; Meshkat, Leila; Donohue, Susan K.


    The results from reliability modeling and analysis are key contributors to design and tuning activities for computer-based systems. Each architecture style, however, poses different challenges for which analytical approaches must be developed or modified. The challenge we address in this paper is the reliability analysis of hierarchical computer-based systems (HS) with common-cause failures (CCF). The dependencies among components introduced by CCF complicate the reliability analysis of HS, especially when components affected by a common cause exist on different hierarchical levels. We propose an efficient decomposition and aggregation (EDA) approach for incorporating CCF into the reliability evaluation of HS. Our approach is to decompose an original HS reliability analysis problem with CCF into a number of reduced reliability problems freed from the CCF concerns. The approach is represented in a dynamic fault tree by a proposed CCF gate modeled after the functional dependency gate. We present the basics of the EDA approach by working through a hypothetical analysis of a HS subject to CCF and show how it can be extended to an analysis of a hierarchical phased-mission system subject to different CCF depending on mission phases

  13. Single-cell analysis of targeted transcriptome predicts drug sensitivity of single cells within human myeloma tumors. (United States)

    Mitra, A K; Mukherjee, U K; Harding, T; Jang, J S; Stessman, H; Li, Y; Abyzov, A; Jen, J; Kumar, S; Rajkumar, V; Van Ness, B


    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by significant genetic diversity at subclonal levels that have a defining role in the heterogeneity of tumor progression, clinical aggressiveness and drug sensitivity. Although genome profiling studies have demonstrated heterogeneity in subclonal architecture that may ultimately lead to relapse, a gene expression-based prediction program that can identify, distinguish and quantify drug response in sub-populations within a bulk population of myeloma cells is lacking. In this study, we performed targeted transcriptome analysis on 528 pre-treatment single cells from 11 myeloma cell lines and 418 single cells from 8 drug-naïve MM patients, followed by intensive bioinformatics and statistical analysis for prediction of proteasome inhibitor sensitivity in individual cells. Using our previously reported drug response gene expression profile signature at the single-cell level, we developed an R Statistical analysis package available at, SCATTome (single-cell analysis of targeted transcriptome), that restructures the data obtained from Fluidigm single-cell quantitative real-time-PCR analysis run, filters missing data, performs scaling of filtered data, builds classification models and predicts drug response of individual cells based on targeted transcriptome using an assortment of machine learning methods. Application of SCATT should contribute to clinically relevant analysis of intratumor heterogeneity, and better inform drug choices based on subclonal cellular responses.

  14. Discrepancies between Skinned Single Muscle Fibres and Whole Thigh Muscle Function Characteristics in Young and Elderly Human Subjects


    Hyunseok Jee; Jae-Young Lim


    We aimed to analyse the mechanical properties of skinned single muscle fibres derived from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle in relation to those of the whole intact thigh muscle and to compare any difference between young and older adults. Sixteen young men (29.25 ? 4.65 years), 11 older men (71.45 ? 2.94 years), 11 young women (29.64 ? 4.88 years), and 7 older women (67.29 ? 1.70 years) were recruited. In vivo analyses were performed for mechanical properties such as isokinetic performance, ...

  15. Functional aspects of treatment with implant-supported single crowns: a quality control study in subjects with tooth agenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goshima, Kenichi; Lexner, Michala O; Thomsen, Carsten Eckhart


    after implant placement shortly before crown cementation, and again 1 month after cementation. It consisted of questionnaires [including Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49)] and functional examination with plastic strips, the Dental Prescale Film and the Occluzer system, Xylitol color-changeable gum......BACKGROUND: No comprehensive patient-centered and clinical evaluations of the functional effect of treatment with implant-supported single crowns (ISSC) have been reported previously. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether and how treatment with ISSC affects masticatory function and Oral Health...

  16. Subjective perception of cocaine reward in mice assessed by a single exposure place preference (sePP) paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runegaard, Annika H.; Jensen, Kathrine Louise; Dencker, Ditte


    Background The potential of abused drugs to induce addiction and compulsive drug-related behavior is associated with their ability to alter dopamine signaling. Dopamine plays a key role in reward signaling and it has been of great interest to investigate how various drugs of abuse alter reward....... The sePP protocol allows further dissection of the mechanism and influence of initial cocaine exposure on subsequent drug-related behaviors by including extinction and reinstatement. The lack of sePP in female mice may reflect a biologically relevant sex difference in the initial subjective perception...

  17. Neuropsychological Performance and Subjective Symptom Reporting in Military Service Members With a History of Multiple Concussions: Comparison With a Single Concussion, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Orthopedic Trauma. (United States)

    Cooper, Douglas B; Curtiss, Glenn; Armistead-Jehle, Patrick; Belanger, Heather G; Tate, David F; Reid, Matthew; Bowles, Amy O; Velez, Carmen S; Kennedy, Jan E; Vanderploeg, Rodney D

    To examine differences in objective neurocognitive performance and subjective cognitive symptoms in individuals with a history of a single concussion, multiple concussions, orthopedic injuries, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants included 116 military service members who sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) during combat deployment. Subjects were subdivided into groups based on concussion frequency: a single concussion (n = 42), 2 concussions (n = 21), and 3 or more concussions (n = 53). Eighty-one subjects sustained an orthopedic injury (n = 60) during deployment or were diagnosed with PTSD (n = 21), but had no history of mTBI. Subjects completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and self-report measures of postconcussive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and psychopathology. No differences were found among the concussion groups on a composite neuropsychological measure. The PTSD group had the highest number of symptom complaints, with the 2-concussion and 3-plus-concussion groups being most similar to the PTSD group. The concussion groups showed a nonsignificant pattern of increasing distress with increasing number of concussions. The current findings are consistent with meta-analytic results showing no differential effect on neuropsychological functioning due to multiple concussions. Results also support the burden of adversity hypothesis suggesting increasing symptom levels with increasing psychological or physically traumatic exposures.

  18. Experimental and numerical analysis of aramid fiber laminates with DCPD resin matrix subjected to impact tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocian Miroslaw


    Full Text Available Research for innovative composite material solutions for impact absorbers is focused on the analysis of their ability to absorb impact energy. For this purpose, aramid fiber laminate with DCPD resin matrix was prepared. Laminate samples were tested on the drop test and were subjected to ballistic loads. The laminate structure was modeled with ABAQUS software with the objective to optimize and estimate the ability to absorb impact energy in the range of high speeds (350m/s.

  19. Nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete structures subjected to high temperature and external load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Y.; Goto, M.; Saito, K.; Suzuki, N.; Muto, A.; Ueda, M.


    A quarter of a century has passed since the finite element method was first applied to nonlinear problems concerning reinforced concrete structures, and the reliability of the analysis at ordinary temperature has been enhanced accordingly. By contrast, few studies have tried to deal with the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete structures subjected to high temperature and external loads simultaneously. It is generally known that the mechanical properties of concrete and steel are affected greatly by temperature. Therefore, in order to analyze the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete subjected to external loads at high temperature, it is necessary to construct constitutive models of the materials reflecting the influence of temperature. In this study, constitutive models of concrete and reinforcement that can express decreases in strength and stiffness at high temperature have been developed. A two-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis program has been developed by use of these material models. The behavior of reinforced concrete beams subjected simultaneously to high temperature and shear forces were simulated using the developed analytical method. The results of the simulation agreed well with the experimental results, evidencing the validity of the developed material models and the finite element analysis program

  20. Uric acid levels in subjects with bipolar disorder: A comparative meta-analysis. (United States)

    Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Mazza, Mario Gennaro; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe


    Previous research has hypothesised increased uric acid levels, possibly because of an amplified purinergic metabolism and a reduced adenosine activity, in subjects with bipolar disorder. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at estimating if individuals with bipolar disorder had uric acid levels higher than both healthy controls and subjects with major depression (trait marker hypothesis). It also tested if uric acid levels could differ in different phases of bipolar disorder (state marker hypothesis). Meta-analyses were carried out generating pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs), using random-effects models. Heterogeneity between studies was estimated using the I(2) index. Relevant sensitivity and meta-regression analyses were conducted. We searched main Electronic Databases, identifying twelve studies that met our inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses showed increased uric acid levels in individuals with bipolar disorder as compared with both healthy controls (SMD = 0.65, p uric acid levels were higher in manic/mixed phases as compared with depressive ones (SMD = 0.34; p = 0.04, I(2) = 58.8%), a sensitivity analysis did not confirm the association. In sum, our meta-analysis shows that subjects with bipolar disorder have uric acid levels higher than healthy controls. The potential role of factors that might clarify the nature of this association deserves additional research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring the Effects of Using an Oral Appliance to Reduce Movement Dysfunction in an Individual With Parkinson Disease: A Single-Subject Design Study. (United States)

    Lane, Hillary; Rose, Lindsey E; Woodbrey, Megan; Arghavani, David; Lawrence, Michael; Cavanaugh, James T


    Clinical reports suggest that wearing an oral appliance can improve the gait and balance of an individual with Parkinson disease (PD). Our primary purpose was to systematically explore this effect using a single-subject study design and quantitative motion analysis. Secondarily, we sought to examine the quality-of-life outcomes following 1-month of routine oral appliance wear. The participant was a 73-year-old ambulatory man with mid-stage PD. Using an A-B-A design, for which a custom-made oral appliance served as the intervention, kinematic and kinetic data were captured during performance of Four Square Step Test, serpentine walk, and tandem walk tasks. Grip strength was quantified with a dynamometer. Quality-of-life outcomes were collected after 1 month of appliance wear using the Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39). Perceived changes in balance, mobility, and quality of life were captured from the participant using an 11-point Global Rate of Change (GRC) scale. Changes in mobility, postural control, and grip strength during appliance wear were suggestive of reduced movement dysfunction. The PDQ-39 revealed a significant improvement in quality of life, primarily related to increased emotional well-being, decreased stigma, and increased communication. GRC scores indicated a clinically significant improvement in ease of movement in the community (+3), ease of movement during the performance of activities of daily living (+4), and in standing balance while performing activities of daily living (+4). Study findings provided quantitative evidence supporting the effectiveness of oral appliance wear for reducing movement dysfunction in a patient with mid-stage PD.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Supplemental Digital Content 1,

  2. Cyclic elastic analysis of a PWR nozzle subjected to a repeated thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locci, J.M.; Prost, J.P.


    In the primary piping system of a PWR nuclear power plant, some nozzles are subjected to strong thermal shocks due to sudden thermal variations in the internal water flow. The thermal gradients are sufficiently high to induce general elastic plastic behaviour. The design of these nozzles using the simplified elastic plastic analysis given in the ASME III Code NB-3200 generally leads to a very high usage factor. The aim of this work is to show by giving an example that a complete cyclic elastic plastic analysis makes it possible to considerably reduce the usage factor. (orig.)

  3. Fluid-structure interaction analysis for pressurizer surge line subjected to thermal stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Gu; Jhung, Myung Jo; Chang, Soon Heung


    Research highlights: → Temperature of surge line due to stratified flow is defined using CFD analysis. → Fluid-structure interaction analysis is performed to investigate the response characteristics due to thermal stress. → Fatigue usage factors due to thermal stratification are relatively low. → Simplifying temperature distribution in surge line is not always conservative. - Abstract: Serious mechanical damages such as cracks and plastic deformations due to excessive thermal stress caused by thermal stratification have been experienced in several nuclear power plants. In particular, the thermal stratification in the pressurizer surge line has been addressed as one of the significant safety and technical issues. In this study, a detailed unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis involving conjugate heat transfer analysis is performed to obtain the transient temperature distributions in the wall of the pressurizer surge line subjected to stratified internal flows either during out-surge or in-surge operation. The thermal loads from CFD calculations are transferred to the structural analysis code which is employed for the thermal stress analysis to investigate the response characteristics, and the fatigue analysis is ultimately performed. In addition, the thermal stress and fatigue analysis results obtained by applying the realistic temperature distributions from CFD calculations are compared with those by assuming the simplified temperature distributions to identify some requirements for a realistic and conservative thermal stress analysis from a safety point of view.

  4. Favored subjects and psychosocial needs in music therapy in terminally ill cancer patients: a content analysis. (United States)

    Preissler, Pia; Kordovan, Sarah; Ullrich, Anneke; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Oechsle, Karin


    Research has shown positive effects of music therapy on the physical and mental well-being of terminally ill patients. This study aimed to identify favored subjects and psychosocial needs of terminally ill cancer patients during music therapy and associated factors. Forty-one Patients receiving specialized inpatient palliative care prospectively performed a music therapy intervention consisting of at least two sessions (total number of sessions: 166; per patient average: 4, range, 2-10). Applied music therapy methods and content were not pre-determined. Therapeutic subjects and psychosocial needs addressed in music therapy sessions were identified from prospective semi-structured "field notes" using qualitative content analysis. Patient- and treatment-related characteristics as well as factors related to music and music therapy were assessed by questionnaire or retrieved from medical records. Seven main categories of subjects were identified: "condition, treatment, further care", "coping with palliative situation", "emotions and feelings", "music and music therapy", "biography", "social environment", and "death, dying, and spiritual topics". Patients addressed an average of 4.7 different subjects (range, 1-7). Some subjects were associated with gender (p = .022) and prior impact of music in patients' life (p = .012). The number of subjects per session was lower when receptive music therapy methods were used (p = .040). Psychosocial needs were categorized into nine main dimensions: "relaxing and finding comfort", "communication and dialogue", "coping and activation of internal resources", "activity and vitality", "finding expression", "sense of self and reflection", "finding emotional response", "defocusing and diversion", and "structure and hold". Patients expressed an average of 4.9 psychosocial needs (range, 1-8). Needs were associated with age, parallel art therapy (p = .010), role of music in patient's life (p = .021), and the applied music

  5. Cluster analysis in severe emphysema subjects using phenotype and genotype data: an exploratory investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Fernando J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have demonstrated associations between genetic markers and COPD, but results have been inconsistent. One reason may be heterogeneity in disease definition. Unsupervised learning approaches may assist in understanding disease heterogeneity. Methods We selected 31 phenotypic variables and 12 SNPs from five candidate genes in 308 subjects in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT Genetics Ancillary Study cohort. We used factor analysis to select a subset of phenotypic variables, and then used cluster analysis to identify subtypes of severe emphysema. We examined the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of each cluster. Results We identified six factors accounting for 75% of the shared variability among our initial phenotypic variables. We selected four phenotypic variables from these factors for cluster analysis: 1 post-bronchodilator FEV1 percent predicted, 2 percent bronchodilator responsiveness, and quantitative CT measurements of 3 apical emphysema and 4 airway wall thickness. K-means cluster analysis revealed four clusters, though separation between clusters was modest: 1 emphysema predominant, 2 bronchodilator responsive, with higher FEV1; 3 discordant, with a lower FEV1 despite less severe emphysema and lower airway wall thickness, and 4 airway predominant. Of the genotypes examined, membership in cluster 1 (emphysema-predominant was associated with TGFB1 SNP rs1800470. Conclusions Cluster analysis may identify meaningful disease subtypes and/or groups of related phenotypic variables even in a highly selected group of severe emphysema subjects, and may be useful for genetic association studies.

  6. Efficient numerical method for investigating diatomic molecules with single active electron subjected to intense and ultrashort laser fields (United States)

    Kiss, Gellért Zsolt; Borbély, Sándor; Nagy, Ladislau


    We have presented here an efficient numerical approach for the ab initio numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger Equation describing diatomic molecules, which interact with ultrafast laser pulses. During the construction of the model we have assumed a frozen nuclear configuration and a single active electron. In order to increase efficiency our system was described using prolate spheroidal coordinates, where the wave function was discretized using the finite-element discrete variable representation (FE-DVR) method. The discretized wave functions were efficiently propagated in time using the short-iterative Lanczos algorithm. As a first test we have studied here how the laser induced bound state dynamics in H2+ is influenced by the strength of the driving laser field.

  7. Stress in closed thin-walled tubes of single box subjected by shear forces and application to airfoils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebbiche Toufik


    Full Text Available The presented work is to develop a numerical computation program to determine the distribution of the shear stress to shear in closed tubes with asymmetric single thin wall section with a constant thickness and applications to airfoils and therefore determining the position and value of the maximum stress. In the literature, there are exact analytical solutions only for some sections of simple geometries such as circular section. Hence our interest is focused on the search of approximate numerical solutions for more complex sections used in aeronautics. In the second stage the position of the shear center is determined so that the section does not undergo torsion. The analytic function of the boundary of the airfoil is obtained by using the cubic spline interpolation since it is given in the form of tabulated points.

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of orbital atherectomy plus balloon angioplasty vs balloon angioplasty alone in subjects with calcified femoropopliteal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinstock B


    Full Text Available Barry Weinstock,1 Raymond Dattilo,2 Tiffini Diage3 1Orlando Health Heart Institute, Mid-Florida Cardiology Specialists, Orlando, FL, USA; 2Department of Cardiology, St Francis Health Center, Topeka, KS, USA; 3North American Science Association (NAMSA, Sunnyvale, CA, USA Introduction: As cost considerations become increasingly critical when selecting optimal endovascular treatment strategies, a cost-benefit analysis was conducted comparing the Diamondback 360°® Orbital Atherectomy System (OAS (Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., St Paul, MN, USA and balloon angioplasty (BA vs BA alone for treatment of calcified femoropopliteal lesions. Patients and methods: The clinical outcomes from COMPLIANCE 360°, a prospective, multicenter, randomized study comparing OAS+BA vs BA alone for treatment of calcified femoropopliteal lesions, were correlated with cost data and previously published quality of life data. Site of service, hospital charges, and associated medical resource utilization were obtained from Uniform Billing statements for index treatments and associated revascularizations out to 1 year. Hospital costs were estimated using hospital-specific, procedure-specific cost-to-charge ratios. Length of stay and procedural data were collected from participating study sites. Results: Twenty-five subjects with 38 lesions and 25 subjects with 27 lesions were randomized to the OAS+BA and BA-alone groups, respectively. Mean hospital charges (US$51,755 vs US$39,922 and estimated hospital costs (US$15,100 vs US$11,016 were higher for OAS+BA compared with BA alone (not statistically significant. Stent utilization was statistically significantly higher with BA-alone treatment for all subjects (1.1 vs 0.1, P=0.001 and in the subset of subjects with one lesion (1.0 vs 0.1, P<0.00001. There was a significant difference in cost for single-lesion versus multiple-lesion treatment. Using costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs for the single-lesion cohort, the 1-year

  9. Single particle raster image analysis of diffusion for particle mixtures. (United States)

    Longfils, M; Röding, M; Altskär, A; Schuster, E; Lorén, N; Särkkä, A; Rudemo, M


    Recently we complemented the raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) method of analysing raster images via estimation of the image correlation function with the method single particle raster image analysis (SPRIA). In SPRIA, individual particles are identified and the diffusion coefficient of each particle is estimated by a maximum likelihood method. In this paper, we extend the SPRIA method to analyse mixtures of particles with a finite set of diffusion coefficients in a homogeneous medium. In examples with simulated and experimental data with two and three different diffusion coefficients, we show that SPRIA gives accurate estimates of the diffusion coefficients and their proportions. A simple technique for finding the number of different diffusion coefficients is also suggested. Further, we study the use of RICS for mixtures with two different diffusion coefficents and investigate, by plotting level curves of the correlation function, how large the quotient between diffusion coefficients needs to be in order to allow discrimination between models with one and two diffusion coefficients. We also describe a minor correction (compared to published papers) of the RICS autocorrelation function. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  10. Analysis of the Single Toggle Jaw Crusher Force Transmission Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Frank Oduori


    Full Text Available This paper sets out to perform a static force analysis of the single toggle jaw crusher mechanism and to obtain the force transmission characteristics of the mechanism. In order to obtain force transmission metrics that are characteristic of the structure of the mechanism, such influences as friction, dead weight, and inertia are considered to be extraneous and neglected. Equations are obtained by considering the balance of forces at the moving joints and appropriately relating these to the input torque and the output torque. A mechanical advantage, the corresponding transmitted torque, and the variations thereof, during the cycle of motion of the mechanism, are obtained. The mechanical advantage that characterizes the mechanism is calculated as the mean value over the active crushing stroke of the mechanism. The force transmission characteristics can be used as criteria for the comparison of different jaw crusher mechanism designs in order to select the most suitable design for a given application. The equations obtained can also be used in estimating the forces sustained by the components of the mechanism.

  11. The Evaluation of Preprocessing Choices in Single-Subject BOLD fMRI Using NPAIRS Performance Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephen, LaConte; Rottenberg, David; Strother, Stephen


    signal-to-noise and our reproducibility estimates as derived previously. Second, we submit our model complexity curves in the prediction versus reproducibility space as reflecting classic bias-variance tradeoffs. Among the particular analysis chains considered, we found little impact in performance...... metrics with alignment, some benefit with temporal detrending, and greatest improvement with spatial smoothing....

  12. Reflexivity and the "Acting Subject": Conceptualizing the Unit of Analysis in Qualitative Health Research. (United States)

    Shaw, James A


    The ways in which social scientists conceptualize the "reflexive" human subject have important consequences for how we go about our research. Whether and how we understand human subjects to be the authors of our own actions helps to structure what we say about health, health care, and the many other topics addressed in qualitative health research. In this article, I critically discuss assumptions of human reflexivity that are built into qualitative social science of health and medicine. I describe three alternative ways of understanding reflexive thought and human action derived from the theoretical works of Pierre Bourdieu, Bruno Latour, and George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, respectively. I then apply these three different ways of thinking about reflexivity and the acting subject to the analysis of an excerpt of participant observation data from a health services research study of transitions from hospital to home, illuminating the different kinds of analyses that arise from each perspective. I conclude with a call for social scientists to commit to the search for better ways of understanding the human subject, resisting the temptation to "settle" on theoretical statements that close down the path to more sophisticated conceptualizations of human thought and action. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy for irritable bowel syndrome. A single-case experimental design across 13 subjects. (United States)

    Boersma, Katja; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Edebol-Carlman, Hanna; Schrooten, Martien; Linton, Steven J; Brummer, Robert J


    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent disorder with a significant impact on quality of life. The presence of psychological symptoms in IBS patients such as catastrophic worry and behavioral avoidance suggests the possible efficacy of cognitive behavioral interventions. Exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven to be a promising approach but has only been investigated in a few studies and mainly via the Internet. Therefore, the aims of this study were to extend and replicate previous findings and to evaluate whether an individual, face-to-face, exposure-based CBT leads to improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, avoidance behavior and quality of life in IBS patients. Thirteen patients with IBS according to Rome III criteria participated in a single-case experimental study using a five-week baseline and a subsequent twelve-session intervention phase focusing on psycho-education, mindfulness and in vivo exposure. Standardized measurement of gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, avoidance behavior and quality of life was conducted weekly during baseline as well as intervention phase and at six-month follow-up. Results showed that over 70% of patients improved significantly on gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, and quality of life. Effects on avoidance behavior were modest. These results strengthen and extend earlier findings and provide further support for the efficacy of exposure-based strategies for IBS.

  14. Cross Time-Frequency Analysis of Gastrocnemius Electromyographic Signals in Hypertensive and Nonhypertensive Subjects (United States)

    Mitchell, Patrick; Krotish, Debra; Shin, Yong-June; Hirth, Victor


    The effects of hypertension are chronic and continuous; it affects gait, balance, and fall risk. Therefore, it is desirable to assess gait health across hypertensive and nonhypertensive subjects in order to prevent or reduce the risk of falls. Analysis of electromyography (EMG) signals can identify age related changes of neuromuscular activation due to various neuropathies and myopathies, but it is difficult to translate these medical changes to clinical diagnosis. To examine and compare geriatrics patients with these gait-altering diseases, we acquire EMG muscle activation signals, and by use of a timesynchronized mat capable of recording pressure information, we localize the EMG data to the gait cycle, ensuring identical comparison across subjects. Using time-frequency analysis on the EMG signal, in conjunction with several parameters obtained from the time-frequency analyses, we can determine the statistical discrepancy between diseases. We base these parameters on physiological manifestations caused by hypertension, as well as other comorbities that affect the geriatrics community. Using these metrics in a small population, we identify a statistical discrepancy between a control group and subjects with hypertension, neuropathy, diabetes, osteoporosis, arthritis, and several other common diseases which severely affect the geriatrics community.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Roflumilast and Its Active Metabolite Roflumilast N-Oxide in Healthy Chinese Subjects After Single and Multiple Oral Doses. (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yiya; Liu, Lingye; Ma, Pengcheng; Ding, Li


    Roflumilast is a selective, oral phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor approved for the treatment of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide in healthy Chinese subjects, and the effects of gender and food on their respective pharmacokinetic profiles. 36 healthy Chinese subjects were recruited in a randomized, single-center, open-label, parallel group study and assigned to 0.25-, 0.375-, and 0.5-mg dose groups. The single-dose pharmacokinetic studies in fasting condition were carried out in all groups. Moreover, the food effect study and multiple-dose study were conducted in 0.375-mg dose group. Serial blood samples were collected over 168 h after dosing, and plasma concentrations of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide were determined using a validated LC-MS/MS method. After oral administration of single doses of 0.25, 0.375 and 0.5 mg of roflumilast under fasting condition, the mean AUC 0-72h for roflumilast was 21.7 ± 8.3, 29.8 ± 8.3 and 54.2 ± 21.3 ng·h/mL, respectively. Meanwhile the mean AUC 0-168h for roflumilast N-oxide was 290 ± 103, 385 ± 107 and 673 ± 245 ng·h/mL, respectively. In the steady state after the multi-dose administration, the exposure to roflumilast in the subjects increased 20-40 %, and the exposure to roflumilast N-oxide increased about 169 %, compared to the single-dose administration. No statistically significant effect of gender on the disposition of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide was observed. Food had no effect on systemic exposure to roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide in the subjects, but delayed the T max of roflumilast by 0.9 h and reduced the C max of roflumilast by approximately 20 %. Based upon between-study comparison, peak and systemic exposure of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide were higher in Chinese than that in Caucasian subjects after oral administration of the same dose (i.e., 0.25 and 0.5

  16. Design and Analysis of Single-Cell Sequencing Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grün, Dominic; van Oudenaarden, Alexander


    Recent advances in single-cell sequencing hold great potential for exploring biological systems with unprecedented resolution. Sequencing the genome of individual cells can reveal somatic mutations and allows the investigation of clonal dynamics. Single-cell transcriptome sequencing can elucidate

  17. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of DW1029M, a Botanical Drug for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy, Following Single Doses in Healthy Subjects. (United States)

    Kim, Yunjeong; Jeon, Ji-Young; Kim, Eun-Young; Lim, Cheol-Hee; Jang, Hwan Bong; Kim, Min-Gul


    DW1029M is a botanical extract of Morus albalinne root bark and Puerariae radix that is used for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. This study evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics of DW1029M following its administration in healthy Korean subjects. We conducted a randomized, open-label, single-dose, crossover phase 1 clinical study. During each period, subjects received 300, 600, or 1200 mg oral doses of DW1029M. Plasma concentrations of puerarin, daidzin, and daidzein were analyzed using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Six healthy male subjects completed the study. The maximum concentration of the drug in the plasma (C max ) and area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve to the last measurable concentration (AUC last ) for puerarin, daidzin, and daidzein were assessed after oral administration of DW1029M. No serious adverse events or clinically or statistically significant adverse events associated with any of the drug levels were observed. The results of the measurement of vital signs, electrocardiogram, laboratory tests, and physical examinations indicated that no clinically significant changes occurred during this study. The DW1029M tablet was safe and well tolerated over a single dose range of 300-1200 mg. This pharmacokinetic study of a botanical drug may aid in the development of DW1029M. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  18. An analysis of university subjects from the field of adapted physical activity in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Baloun


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The inclusion of students with special educational needs is a process, which faces many challenges. An essential condition for the success of inclusion is the competence of physical educators. We suggest that it is necessary to establish courses focused on adapted physical activity as part of the university education for physical education (PE teachers. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to analyze courses focused on adapted physical activity within teacher preparation programs. METHODS: We conducted quantitative and qualitative content analysis of subjects which was focused on adapted physical activity at selected public universities in the Czech Republic. In total, subjects from the six faculties met the conditions. RESULTS: The results show the lack of emphasis for this area in the current PE teacher preparations programs, which is one of basic requirements for success of the inclusion process.

  19. Principal components analysis of an evaluation of the hemiplegic subject based on the Bobath approach. (United States)

    Corriveau, H; Arsenault, A B; Dutil, E; Lepage, Y


    An evaluation based on the Bobath approach to treatment has previously been developed and partially validated. The purpose of the present study was to verify the content validity of this evaluation with the use of a statistical approach known as principal components analysis. Thirty-eight hemiplegic subjects participated in the study. Analysis of the scores on each of six parameters (sensorium, active movements, muscle tone, reflex activity, postural reactions, and pain) was evaluated on three occasions across a 2-month period. Each time this produced three factors that contained 70% of the variation in the data set. The first component mainly reflected variations in mobility, the second mainly variations in muscle tone, and the third mainly variations in sensorium and pain. The results of such exploratory analysis highlight the fact that some of the parameters are not only important but also interrelated. These results seem to partially support the conceptual framework substantiating the Bobath approach to treatment.

  20. Airway responses and inflammation in subjects with asthma after four days of repeated high-single-dose allergen challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Johannes


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both standard and low-dose allergen provocations are an established tool in asthma research to improve our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanism of allergic asthma. However, clinical symptoms are less likely to be induced. Therefore, we designed a protocol for repetitive high-dose bronchial allergen challenges to generate clinical symptoms and airway inflammation. Methods A total of 27 patients aged 18 to 40 years with positive skin-prick tests and mild asthma underwent repetitive high-dose allergen challenges with household dust mites for four consecutive days. Pulmonary function and exhaled NO were measured at every visit. Induced sputum was analysed before and after the allergen challenges for cell counts, ECP, IL-5, INF-γ, IL-8, and the transcription factor Foxp3. Results We found a significant decrease in pulmonary function, an increased use of salbutamol and the development of a late asthmatic response and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, as well as a significant induction of eNO, eosinophils, and Th-2 cytokines. Repeated provocation was feasible in the majority of patients. Two subjects had severe adverse events requiring prednisolone to cope with nocturnal asthma symptoms. Conclusions Repeated high-dose bronchial allergen challenges resulted in severe asthma symptoms and marked Th-2-mediated allergic airway inflammation. The high-dose challenge model is suitable only in an attenuated form in diseased volunteers for proof-of-concept studies and in clinical settings to reduce the risk of severe asthma exacerbations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.govNCT00677209

  1. Mechanical performance of a screw-type veterinary suture anchor subjected to single load to failure and cyclic loads. (United States)

    Balara, Jason M; McCarthy, Robert J; Boudrieau, Randy J; Kraus, Karl H


    To characterize the mechanical performance of a veterinary bone anchor under static and cyclic loads. Mechanical testing study. Cadaveric canine humeri. Humeri (6 pairs) were collected from skeletally mature dogs (mean [+/-SD] age, 17.2+/-2.1 months; weight, 20.8+/-1.5 kg). Bone anchors were inserted in the proximal metaphysis using nylon, and were longitudinally extracted. For the opposite humerus, anchors were subjected to longitudinal cyclic load (50% of the load at failure of their pair) for 1200 cycles then longitudinally loaded to failure. Anchors were then installed in a similar and adjacent area of these 2(nd) humeri with nylon and cyclically tested perpendicular to the axis of anchor insertion (100% of the longitudinal holding power of their pair) for 1200 cycles, then perpendicularly loaded to failure. Paired t-tests were used to compare holding power before and after longitudinal cyclic testing. Longitudinal holding power of the screw-type anchor in the proximal humerus was 385+/-30 N. Anchor pullout was the only mode of failure. Anchors in the paired humeri did not fail after 1200 cycles of 50% longitudinal loading, and post-cycle holding strength was not different (335+/-87 N; P=.32). Perpendicularly loaded anchors did not fail after 1200 cycles of 100% of opposite longitudinal holding strength, and had post-cycle perpendicular holding strengths of 514+/-72 N. Suture breakage was the mode of failure. Bone anchor holding strength is dependent on orientation of suture load. Screw-type bone anchor holding strength was not affected by longitudinal cyclic loading, and holding strengths of approximately 385 N can be expected in metaphyseal bone of large-breed mature dogs. Perpendicularly loaded anchors have higher failure loads, and holding strength of approximately 514 N can be expected in metaphyseal bone of the proximal humerus.

  2. Vertical dynamics of a single-span beam subjected to moving mass-suspended payload system with variable speeds (United States)

    He, Wei


    This paper presents the vertical dynamics of a simply supported Euler-Bernoulli beam subjected to a moving mass-suspended payload system of variable velocities. A planar theoretical model of the moving mass-suspended payload system of variable speeds is developed based on several assumptions: the rope is massless and rigid, and its length keeps constant; the stiffness of the gantry beam is much greater than the supporting beam, and the gantry beam can be treated as a mass particle traveling along the supporting beam; the supporting beam is assumed as a simply supported Bernoulli-Euler beam. The model can be degenerated to consider two classical cases-the moving mass case and the moving payload case. The proposed model is verified using both numerical and experimental methods. To further investigate the effect of possible influential factors, numerical examples are conducted covering a range of parameters, such as variable speeds (acceleration or deceleration), mass ratios of the payload to the total moving load, and the pendulum lengths. The effect of beam flexibility on swing response of the payload is also investigated. It is shown that the effect of a variable speed is significant for the deflections of the beam. The accelerating movement tends to induce larger beam deflections, while the decelerating movement smaller ones. For accelerating or decelerating movements, the moving mass model may underestimate the deflections of the beam compared with the presented model; while for uniform motion, both the moving mass model and the moving mass-payload model lead to same beam responses. Furthermore, it is observed that the swing response of the payload is not sensitive to the stiffness of the beam for operational cases of a moving crane, thus a simple moving payload model can be employed in the swing control of the payload.

  3. Quantitative analysis of iris changes following mydriasis in subjects with different mechanisms of angle closure. (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Li, Si Zhen; Li, Lei; He, Ming Guang; Thomas, Ravi; Wang, Ning Li


    We estimate and compare change in iris cross-sectional area (IA) after physiologic and pharmacologic mydriasis in subjects with different dominant mechanisms for primary angle closure. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) measurements in light, dark, and following pharmacologic dilation were obtained on primary angle closure suspects (PACS), primary angle closure (PAC), and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) examined during the 5-year follow-up of the Handan Eye Study. Subjects were categorized into three subgroups according to their dominant angle closure (AC) mechanisms as determined by AS-OCT: pupillary block (PB), plateau iris configuration (PIC), and thick peripheral iris roll (TPIR). The IA and other biometric parameters measured using the Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program in the right eyes of all subjects were analyzed. A total of 364 right eyes of subjects with PACS (333), and PAC/PACG (31) was included in the analysis. Significant differences in the change of IAs (P = 0.030), IA loss per mm pupil diameter (PD) increase (P = 0.001) in light versus pharmacologic dilation, and IA loss per mm PD increase (P = 0.011) from dark versus pharmacologic dilation were observed among the three groups. The smallest decrease occurred in the PB group. There are significant differences in IA and IA loss per mm of pupil change following physiologic or pharmacologic mydriasis in Chinese subjects with dissimilar dominant mechanisms for AC. Dynamic iris change may have a more important role in angle closure where PB is the dominant mechanism. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  4. Molecular Analysis of Malassezia Microflora on the Skin of Atopic Dermatitis Patients and Healthy Subjects (United States)

    Sugita, Takashi; Suto, Hajime; Unno, Tetsushi; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Ogawa, Hideoki; Shinoda, Takako; Nishikawa, Akemi


    Members of the genus Malassezia, lipophilic yeasts, are considered to be one of the exacerbating factors in atopic dermatitis (AD). We examined variation in cutaneous colonization by Malassezia species in AD patients and compared it with variation in healthy subjects. Samples were collected by applying transparent dressings to the skin lesions of AD patients. DNA was extracted directly from the dressings and amplified in a specific nested PCR assay. Malassezia-specific DNA was detected in all samples obtained from 32 AD patients. In particular, Malassezia globosa and M. restricta were detected in approximately 90% of the AD patients and M. furfur and M. sympodialis were detected in approximately 40% of the cases. The detection rate was not dependent on the type of skin lesion. In healthy subjects, Malassezia DNA was detected in 78% of the samples, among which M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. sympodialis were detected at frequencies ranging from 44 to 61%, with M. furfur at 11%. The diversity of Malassezia species found in AD patients was greater (2.7 species detected in each individual) than that found in healthy subjects (1.8 species per individual). Our results suggest that M. furfur, M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. sympodialis are common inhabitants of the skin of both AD patients and healthy subjects, while the skin microflora of AD patients shows more diversity than that of healthy subjects. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of a nested PCR as an alternative to fungal culture for analysis of the distribution of cutaneous Malassezia spp. PMID:11574560

  5. Modal analysis of human body vibration model for Indian subjects under sitting posture. (United States)

    Singh, Ishbir; Nigam, S P; Saran, V H


    Need and importance of modelling in human body vibration research studies are well established. The study of biodynamic responses of human beings can be classified into experimental and analytical methods. In the past few decades, plenty of mathematical models have been developed based on the diverse field measurements to describe the biodynamic responses of human beings. In this paper, a complete study on lumped parameter model derived from 50th percentile anthropometric data for a seated 54- kg Indian male subject without backrest support under free un-damped conditions has been carried out considering human body segments to be of ellipsoidal shape. Conventional lumped parameter modelling considers the human body as several rigid masses interconnected by springs and dampers. In this study, concept of mass of interconnecting springs has been incorporated and eigenvalues thus obtained are found to be closer to the values reported in the literature. Results obtained clearly establish decoupling of vertical and fore-and-aft oscillations. The mathematical modelling of human body vibration studies help in validating the experimental investigations for ride comfort of a sitting subject. This study clearly establishes the decoupling of vertical and fore-and-aft vibrations and helps in better understanding of possible human response to single and multi-axial excitations.

  6. Single aflatoxin contaminated corn kernel analysis with fluorescence hyperspectral image (United States)

    Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Kincaid, Russell; Ononye, Ambrose; Brown, Robert L.; Cleveland, Thomas E.


    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, among others. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin levels in food and feed are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US, allowing 20 ppb (parts per billion) limits in food and 100 ppb in feed for interstate commerce. Currently, aflatoxin detection and quantification methods are based on analytical tests including thin-layer chromatography (TCL) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These analytical tests require the destruction of samples, and are costly and time consuming. Thus, the ability to detect aflatoxin in a rapid, nondestructive way is crucial to the grain industry, particularly to corn industry. Hyperspectral imaging technology offers a non-invasive approach toward screening for food safety inspection and quality control based on its spectral signature. The focus of this paper is to classify aflatoxin contaminated single corn kernels using fluorescence hyperspectral imagery. Field inoculated corn kernels were used in the study. Contaminated and control kernels under long wavelength ultraviolet excitation were imaged using a visible near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral camera. The imaged kernels were chemically analyzed to provide reference information for image analysis. This paper describes a procedure to process corn kernels located in different images for statistical training and classification. Two classification algorithms, Maximum Likelihood and Binary Encoding, were used to classify each corn kernel into "control" or "contaminated" through pixel classification. The Binary Encoding approach had a slightly better performance with accuracy equals to 87% or 88% when 20 ppb or 100 ppb was used as classification threshold, respectively.

  7. Single cell analysis of caspase-3 in apoptotic and non-apoptotic cells during mouse limb development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamová, Eva; Klepárník, Karel; Matalová, E.


    Roč. 3, - (2014), PP58 ISSN 2052-1219. [European Calcified Tissue Society Congress /41./. 17.05.2014-20.05.2014, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/2377; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-28254S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : single cell analysis * caspase-3 * mouse limb development Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  8. Parallel single-cell analysis of active caspase-3/7 in apoptotic and non-apoptotic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ledvina, Vojtěch; Janečková, Eva; Matalová, Eva; Klepárník, Karel


    Roč. 409, č. 1 (2017), s. 269-274 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-28254S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : single-cell analysis * bioluminescence * apoptosis * caspase-3/7 Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UZFG-Y) OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry ; Developmental biology (UZFG-Y) Impact factor: 3.431, year: 2016

  9. Parallel single-cell analysis of active caspase-3/7 in apoptotic and non-apoptotic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ledvina, Vojtěch; Janečková, Eva; Matalová, Eva; Klepárník, Karel


    Roč. 409, č. 1 (2017), s. 269-274 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-28254S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : single-cell analysis * bioluminescence * apoptosis * caspase-3/7 Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UZFG-Y) OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry; Developmental biology (UZFG-Y) Impact factor: 3.431, year: 2016

  10. Analysis of ventilation systems subjected to explosive transients: initial analysis and proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.S.; Smith, P.R.; Bolstad, J.W.; Duerre, K.H.


    This report describes an initial study of explosive pressure transients and their propagation through ventilation systems. The objective of this study is to organize the required calculations into a computer code that is highly user-oriented and will predict explosive-induced gas dynamics within a ventilation system. The explosive process is subdivided into three regimes - deflagration, detonation, and transition from deflagration to detonation. Equations describing each process and suggested procedures for solving these equations are presented. The proposed organization of the explosion code capitalizes on the desirable aspects of the previously developed TVENT code, which predicts tornado-induced pressure transients within ventilation systems. The explosion code will include both near- and far-field analyses. The near-field analysis will use detailed models to describe the combustion process near the explosive event, and provide parametric driving potentials for flow in the regions that are removed from the explosive event (far-field). The far-field analysis will include the combustion wave as it propagates through the rest of the system

  11. Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Rufinamide Following Single and Multiple Oral Doses and Effect of Food on Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Chinese Subjects. (United States)

    Xu, Mingzhen; Ni, Yang; Zhou, Ying; He, Xiaomeng; Li, Huqun; Chen, Hui; Li, Weiyong


    Rufinamide is a triazole derivative that is structurally unrelated to currently marketed antiepileptic medications for add-on treatment of seizures in the setting of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients from the age of 4 years. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic and safety profile of single and multiple doses of rufinamide in healthy Chinese subjects. The effects of food and gender on the pharmacokinetic properties of rufinamide were also evaluated. In the single-dose study, volunteers were randomly assigned to 4 dose groups and received a single dose of 200, 400, 800, 1200 mg rufinamide tablets under fasting condition. Ten subjects in the 200-mg dose group were randomly assigned to either a high-fat or non-high-fat breakfast group in each study period. The drug administration was separated by a washout period of 7 calendar days. In the multiple-dose study, 10 subjects were administered on an empty stomach rufinamide 200 mg twice daily for 6 consecutive days. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was applied to determine plasma concentration of rufinamide. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including the maximum plasma concentration (C max), the time to peak concentration (t max), the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-t ) and from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞), terminal elimination half-life (t 1/2), apparent volume of distribution (V d), apparent clearance (CL), average residence time (MRT), area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration at steady state (AUCss), peak concentration (C max,ss) and trough level concentration (C min,ss) at steady state were calculated using non-compartmental models. Tolerability was assessed based on investigator inquiries, spontaneous reports and clinical evaluations. Rufinamide displayed a dose-dependent, but sub-proportional increase in exposure

  12. Power budget analysis of dual/single feeder fiber WDMPON (United States)

    Imtiaz, Waqas A.; Khan, Yousaf; Qamar, Affaq; Khan, Jehanzeb; Khan, Noaman Ahmed


    This paper investigates how to reduce the cost of wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDMPON) by comparing the transmission performance of bidirectional single feeder fiber and dual feeder fiber. Comparison is performed on the basis of power budgeting and cost of both arrangements. Simulation results using Optisystem show that the performance of a single feeder fiber is almost equivalent to that of a dual feeder fiber. Therefore, the single feeder fiber WDM-PON can efficiently replace the dual feeder fiber WDM-PON with the minimum deterioration in system performance and reduction in cost.

  13. An adjoint method of sensitivity analysis for residual vibrations of structures subject to impacts (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Cheng, Gengdong


    For structures subject to impact loads, the residual vibration reduction is more and more important as the machines become faster and lighter. An efficient sensitivity analysis of residual vibration with respect to structural or operational parameters is indispensable for using a gradient based optimization algorithm, which reduces the residual vibration in either active or passive way. In this paper, an integrated quadratic performance index is used as the measure of the residual vibration, since it globally measures the residual vibration response and its calculation can be simplified greatly with Lyapunov equation. Several sensitivity analysis approaches for performance index were developed based on the assumption that the initial excitations of residual vibration were given and independent of structural design. Since the resulting excitations by the impact load often depend on structural design, this paper aims to propose a new efficient sensitivity analysis method for residual vibration of structures subject to impacts to consider the dependence. The new method is developed by combining two existing methods and using adjoint variable approach. Three numerical examples are carried out and demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method. The numerical results show that the dependence of initial excitations on structural design variables may strongly affects the accuracy of sensitivities.

  14. Simulation and analysis of the plutonium shipping container subject to 30-foot drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, C.; Gupta, N.K.; Gromada, R.J.


    The shipping container 5320 is a shipping package for radioactive materials. In order to maintain the component in this packaging within the sub-critical state when subjected to any kind of Hypothetical Accident conditions (HAC), this Type B packaging is designed with various impact limiters. The present study is to examine the energy absorbing capacity of the impact limiter design of this container subjected to a 30-foot drop onto a flat unyielding horizontal surface in each of the three critical dropping orientations. This paper presents the results of a three dimensional nonlinear dynamic impact analysis. This analysis shows the deformed configuration of the container caused by the impact and also determines the effects of different stress wave paths in three distinct drops on the stress states in the critical component. The solution to the problem was obtained using the ABAQUS (explicit) finite element computer code. The nonlinearity of this analysis involves large structural deformation, elasto-plastic materials with strain hardening as well as multiple contact interfaces. Three drop orientations were studied, namely, top down impact, bottom down impact and side impact. Results will be compared against actual drop test data

  15. Quality Control of Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX Measurements in 6 Muscles in a Single-Subject "Round-Robin" Setup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Neuwirth

    Full Text Available Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX is a neurophysiological measure that provides an index of the number of lower motor neurons in a muscle. Its performance across centres in healthy subjects and patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS has been established, but inter-rater variability between multiple raters in one single subject has not been investigated.To assess reliability in a set of 6 muscles in a single subject among 12 examiners (6 experienced with MUNIX, 6 less experienced and to determine variables associated with variability of measurements.Twelve raters applied MUNIX in six different muscles (abductor pollicis brevis (APB, abductor digiti minimi (ADM, biceps brachii (BB, tibialis anterior (TA, extensor dig. brevis (EDB, abductor hallucis (AH twice in one single volunteer on consecutive days. All raters visited at least one training course prior to measurements. Intra- and inter-rater variability as determined by the coefficient of variation (COV between different raters and their levels of experience with MUNIX were compared.Mean intra-rater COV of MUNIX was 14.0% (±6.4 ranging from 5.8 (APB to 30.3% (EDB. Mean inter-rater COV was 18.1 (±5.4 ranging from 8.0 (BB to 31.7 (AH. No significant differences of variability between experienced and less experienced raters were detected.We provide evidence that quality control for neurophysiological methods can be performed with similar standards as in laboratory medicine. Intra- and inter-rater variability of MUNIX is muscle-dependent and mainly below 20%. Experienced neurophysiologists can easily adopt MUNIX and adequate teaching ensures reliable utilization of this method.

  16. The effect of single oral doses of duloxetine, reboxetine, and midodrine on the urethral pressure in healthy female subjects, using urethral pressure reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Niels; Cerneus, Dirk; Sawyer, William


    AIMS: To evaluate the effect on urethral pressure of reference drugs known to reduce stress urinary incontinence symptoms by different effect size and mechanisms of action on urethral musculature under four test conditions in healthy female subjects using urethral pressure reflectometry. METHODS......: Healthy females aged 18-55 years were recruited by advertising for this phase 1, single site, placebo-controlled, randomized, four-period, crossover study. The interventions were single oral doses of 10 mg Midodrine, 80 mg Duloxetine, 12 mg Reboxetine, and placebo. The endpoints were the opening urethral...... pressure measured in each period at four time points (predose and 2, 5.5, and 9 h after dosing). RESULTS: Twenty-nine females were enrolled; 25 randomized and 24 completed the study. The opening urethral pressure was higher in all measurements with filled bladder compared with empty bladder, and during...

  17. Effect of Knee Orthoses on Hamstring Contracture in Children With Cerebral Palsy: Multiple Single-Subject Study. (United States)

    Laessker-Alkema, Kristina; Eek, Meta Nyström


    To examine the effect of knee orthoses on extensibility of the hamstrings in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). The short-term effects of knee orthoses on passive range of motion (ROM), spasticity, and gross motor function of the hamstrings. Ten children with spastic CP, aged 5 to 14 years, at Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I to V, were followed. The orthoses were worn for a minimum of 30 minutes day, 5 days per week, during the intervention period of 8 weeks. Visual analysis using the Two Standard Deviation Band Method supported improvements in passive ROM for all 20 hamstring muscles and in 12 of 14 knee extension measurements. Analyses with the Wilcoxon signed rank test confirm the individual results and support a significant increase in hamstring muscles (P = .005) and knee extension (right: P =.028; left: P =.018) compared with baseline. In children with spastic CP, 8 weeks of treatment with knee orthoses can improve extensibility of the hamstrings.

  18. Armoured vehicles subject to mine explosions an analysis method for operationability and survivability (United States)

    Langrand, B.; Deletombe, E.; Charles, J.-L.; Sobry, J.-F.; Martin, S.; Chazal, H.


    The paper deals with numerical methodologies to improve the operationability and survivability of armoured vehicle subject to mine explosions. Methods are proposed to model and extract the time history of the impulsive load from a mine explosion, and to restore equivalent loading conditions to a structural analysis calculation. The problem of computing the shock transmitted to the floor through the undercarriage in the case of the explosion of a mine under a wheel is finally investigated. That kind of model enables to discriminate whether the highly dynamic shock is transmitted through the wheel/undercarriage, or directly through the floor.

  19. FE analysis of unstiffened and stiffened corrugated panels subjected to blast loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijaya, Christian; Kim, Byung Tak [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper presents the results of a dynamic analysis on unstiffened and stiffened corrugated panels subjected to hydrocarbon explosion. A parametric study is also conducted on simplified models of the stiffened corrugated panels considering the effect of stiffeners on the compressive flange under different loading levels. The 1/2 symmetry of corrugated panels is modeled. This numerical study is performed using NX Nastran version 7.5. The unstiffened panel produces localized buckling at the center of corrugation and large permanent deformation by increasing the peak pressure. The stiffened panels suppress the structural response, and the vee stiffeners are structurally more effective than the round ones.

  20. Complex stiffness formulation for the finite element analysis of anisotropic axisymmetric solids subjected to nonsymmetric loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frater, J.; Lestingi, J.; Padovan, J.


    This paper describes the development of an improved semi-analytical finite element for the stress analysis of anisotropic axisymmetric solids subjected to nonsymmetric loads. Orthogonal functions in the form of finite Fourier exponential transforms, which satisfy the equations of equilibrium of the theory of elasticity for an anisotropic solid of revolution, are used to expand the imposed loadings and displacement field. It is found that the orthogonality conditions for the assumed solution reduce the theta-dependency, thus reducing the three dimensional problem to an infinite series of two dimensional problems. (Auth.)

  1. AHSG tag single nucleotide polymorphisms associate with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia: studies of metabolic traits in 7,683 white Danish subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gitte; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Sparsø, Thomas


    been largely successful. We related seven frequent AHSG tag single nucleotide polymorphisms to a range of metabolic traits, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The polymorphisms were genotyped in 7,683 white Danish subjects using Taqman allelic...... with dyslipidemia (P = 0.003 and P(corr) = 0.009). Thr248Met (rs4917) tended to associate with lower fasting and post-oral glucose tolerance test serum insulin release (P = 0.02, P(corr) = 0.1 for fasting and P = 0.04, P(corr) = 0.2 for area under the insulin curve) and improved insulin sensitivity estimated...

  2. Single channel analysis of membrane proteins in artificial bilayer membranes. (United States)

    Bartsch, Philipp; Harsman, Anke; Wagner, Richard


    The planar lipid bilayer technique is a powerful experimental approach for electrical single channel recordings of pore-forming membrane proteins in a chemically well-defined and easily modifiable environment. Here we provide a general survey of the basic materials and procedures required to set up a robust bilayer system and perform electrophysiological single channel recordings of reconstituted proteins suitable for the in-depth characterization of their functional properties.

  3. Hemispheric lateralization in an analysis of speech sounds. Left hemisphere dominance replicated in Japanese subjects. (United States)

    Koyama, S; Gunji, A; Yabe, H; Oiwa, S; Akahane-Yamada, R; Kakigi, R; Näätänen, R


    Evoked magnetic responses to speech sounds [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M. Vainio, P. Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.] were recorded from 13 Japanese subjects (right-handed). Infrequently presented vowels ([o]) among repetitive vowels ([e]) elicited the magnetic counterpart of mismatch negativity, MMNm (Bilateral, nine subjects; Left hemisphere alone, three subjects; Right hemisphere alone, one subject). The estimated source of the MMNm was stronger in the left than in the right auditory cortex. The sources were located posteriorly in the left than in the right auditory cortex. These findings are consistent with the results obtained in Finnish [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M.Vainio, P.Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.][T. Rinne, K. Alho, P. Alku, M. Holi, J. Sinkkonen, J. Virtanen, O. Bertrand and R. Näätänen, Analysis of speech sounds is left-hemisphere predominant at 100-150 ms after sound onset. Neuroreport, 10 (1999) 1113-1117.] and English [K. Alho, J.F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko and R.J. Ilmoniemi, Hemispheric lateralization in preattentive processing of speech sounds. Neurosci. Lett., 258 (1998) 9-12.] subjects. Instead of the P1m observed in Finnish [M. Tervaniemi, A. Kujala, K. Alho, J. Virtanen, R.J. Ilmoniemi and R. Näätänen, Functional specialization of the human auditory cortex in processing phonetic and musical sounds: A magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Neuroimage, 9 (1999) 330-336.] and English [K. Alho, J. F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko

  4. Analysis of a Circular Composite Disk Subjected to Edge Rotations and Hydrostatic Pressure (United States)

    Oliver, Stanley T.


    The structural analysis results for a graphite/epoxy quasi-isotropic circular plate subjected to a forced rotation at the boundary and pressure is presented. The analysis is to support a specialized material characterization test for composite cryogenic tanks. Finite element models were used to ensure panel integrity and determine the pressure necessary to achieve a predetermined equal biaxial strain value. The displacement results due to the forced rotation at the boundary led to a detailed study of the bending stiffness matrix [D]. The variation of the bending stiffness terms as a function of angular position is presented graphically, as well as, an illustrative technique of considering the laminate as an I-beam.

  5. Microarray analysis of gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from dioxin-exposed human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHale, Cliona M.; Zhang, Luoping; Hubbard, Alan E.; Zhao, Xin; Baccarelli, Andrea; Pesatori, Angela C.; Smith, Martyn T.; Landi, Maria Teresa


    Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is classified as a human carcinogen and exerts toxic effects on the skin (chloracne). Effects on reproductive, immunological, and endocrine systems have also been observed in animal models. TCDD acts through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway influencing largely unknown gene networks. An industrial accident in Seveso, Italy in 1976 exposed thousands of people to substantial quantities of TCDD. Twenty years after the exposure, this study examines global gene expression in the mononuclear cells of 26 Seveso female never smokers, with similar age, alcohol consumption, use of medications, and background plasma levels of 22 dioxin congeners unrelated to the Seveso accident. Plasma dioxin levels were still elevated in the exposed subjects. We performed analyses in two different comparison groups. The first included high-exposed study subjects compared with individuals with background TCDD levels (average plasma levels 99.4 and 6.7 ppt, respectively); the second compared subjects who developed chloracne after the accident, and those who did not develop this disease. Overall, we observed a modest alteration of gene expression based on dioxin levels or on chloracne status. In the comparison between high levels and background levels of TCDD, four histone genes were up-regulated and modified expression of HIST1H3H was confirmed by real-time PCR. In the comparison between chloracne case-control subjects, five hemoglobin genes were up-regulated. Pathway analysis revealed two major networks for each comparison, involving cell proliferation, apoptosis, immunological and hematological disease, and other pathways. Further examination of the role of these genes in dioxin induced-toxicity is warranted

  6. Effects of low-dose dobutamine on left ventricular function in normal subjects as assessed by gated single-photon emission tomography myocardial perfusion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everaert, H.; Vanhove, C.; Franken, P.R. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Free University of Brussels (Belgium)


    Electrocardiography gated single-photon emission tomography (gated SPET) allows the assessment of regional perfusion and function simultaneously and in full spatial congruency. In this study changes in global and regional left ventricular function in response to dobutamine infusion were assessed in ten healthy volunteers using sequential gated SPET myocardial perfusion acquisitions. Four consecutive gated SPET images were recorded 60 min after injection of 925 MBq technetium-99m tetrofosmin on a three-head camera equipped with focussing collimators. Two acquisitions were made at rest (baseline 1 and 2), and the third and fourth acquisitions were started 5 min after the beginning of the infusion of 5 and 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} min{sup -1} dobutamine, respectively. Systolic wall thickening (WT) was quantified using a method based on circumferential profile analysis. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and volumes were calculated automatically using the Cedars-Sinai program. Nine of the ten subjects presented a definite increase in WT during dobutamine infusion. WT increased on average from 46%{+-}14% at baseline to 71%{+-}23% (range: 37%-106%; P<0.05) during 5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} min{sup -1} dobutamine infusion and to 85%{+-}25% (range: 62%-123%; P<0.05 with respect to WT at 5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} min{sup -1}) during 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} min{sup -1} dobutamine infusion. Apical segments showed the largest WT at baseline. The average WT response to dobutamine was similar for all parts of the myocardium. It is concluded that changes in WT induced by infusion of low-dose dobutamine can be assessed by sequential gated SPET myocardial perfusion studies. The ''stress gated SPET'' protocol proposed in this study might be helpful to distinguish viable from scar tissue in patients with coronary artery disease, by demonstrating a preserved inotropic response in hypoperfused myocardium. (orig.)

  7. Adaptive independent vector analysis for multi-subject complex-valued fMRI data. (United States)

    Kuang, Li-Dan; Lin, Qiu-Hua; Gong, Xiao-Feng; Cong, Fengyu; Calhoun, Vince D


    Complex-valued fMRI data can provide additional insights beyond magnitude-only data. However, independent vector analysis (IVA), which has exhibited great potential for group analysis of magnitude-only fMRI data, has rarely been applied to complex-valued fMRI data. The main challenges in this application include the extremely noisy nature and large variability of the source component vector (SCV) distribution. To address these challenges, we propose an adaptive fixed-point IVA algorithm for analyzing multiple-subject complex-valued fMRI data. We exploited a multivariate generalized Gaussian distribution (MGGD)- based nonlinear function to match varying SCV distributions in which the MGGD shape parameter was estimated using maximum likelihood estimation. To achieve our de-noising goal, we updated the MGGD-based nonlinearity in the dominant SCV subspace, and employed a post-IVA de-noising strategy based on phase information in the IVA estimates. We also incorporated the pseudo-covariance matrix of fMRI data into the algorithm to emphasize the noncircularity of complex-valued fMRI sources. Results from simulated and experimental fMRI data demonstrated the efficacy of our method. Our approach exhibited significant improvements over typical complex-valued IVA algorithms, especially during higher noise levels and larger spatial and temporal changes. As expected, the proposed complex-valued IVA algorithm detected more contiguous and reasonable activations than the magnitude-only method for task-related (393%) and default mode (301%) spatial maps. The proposed approach is suitable for decomposing multi-subject complex-valued fMRI data, and has great potential for capturing additional subject variability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Discourse analysis and mother tongue teaching: the construction of the subject author

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avany Aparecida Garcia


    Full Text Available This article seeks to establish possible and convenient relations between Discourse Analysis and the mother tongue teaching, in order to promote the formation of a critical subject author, with the linguistic support required for the exercise of citizenship. To the explicit the discursive mechanisms of language, is considered the strategic use of these in textual productions what, submissive to the systemic impositions print in their content an intervention character in the historical and social context. For this purpose, appreciated postulations are that lead to a materialistic elaboration of the speech, the which it is perceived as a practice, and the language designed from its relation to materialness historical. It is conjectured thus the strategic construction of a subject author who it is responsible for the coherence and consistency of your producing and relating with its externality and interiority, can constitute and show up as an author in their midst (ORLANDI, 1993. It is inferred from this analysis what, for the realization of discursive practice, the school as a whole and especially the mother tongue classes are a privileged space.

  9. A functional analysis of indeterminate Subject in Popular Portuguese spoken in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deize Crespim Pereira


    Full Text Available Using the theoretical and methodological tools of Functional Linguistics, this paper presents a quantitative analysis of pronominal and verbal forms expressing subject indeterminacy in Popular Portuguese spoken in São Paulo. Data consist of 23 interviews which are part of the Popular Portuguese Project in São Paulo. This data correspond to recordings of speeches of adults illiterate or that have only few years of schooling, immigrants as well as people who were born in São Paulo, who live in slams located in the capital. The analysis demonstrates that (i there are many forms that express subject indeterminacy in Popular Portuguese; (ii considering that indeterminacy is a matter of degree, there are forms that are more indeterminate than others which are accompanied by referential clues in text or context; (iii these forms can have different functions according to the context in which they appear; (iv they can refer from one to three grammatical persons when they reach a high degree of generalization.

  10. Pet Bottle Design, Correlation Analysis Of Pet Bottle Characteristics Subjective Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Avramović


    Full Text Available Ability to predict consumer’s reaction to particular design solution of the product is very important. Gathering andanalysis of subjective judgments of particular characteristics, based on which the aesthetic of the product is judged,is one of predicting the consumer’s reaction in the future. Knowledge gathered this manner can serve as a referencefor further studies of determining factors for aesthetic results and design quality. There are two opposed opinionsregarding prediction of aesthetic impression. One opinion is that taste of individual cannot be discussed because itis extremely variable and the possibility of meaningful analysis of aesthetic impression is rejected. Other opinionstates that there is a consistent preference of certain aesthetic characteristics despite individual and group differences.Main goal of this paper is to examine the correlation between subjective judgments of certain PET bottlecharacteristics. Analysis showed meaningful correlation between some of the PET bottle characteristics while othercharacteristics showed less correlation. It can be concluded that not all of the characteristics have the same influenceon the aesthetics and design quality of the PET bottle form. Emphasizing the characteristics relative to aesthetics ofthe product can produce better market results, taking in to account that consumer’s buy the product they consider tobe more attractive if other parameters of the product are similar.

  11. Combinatorial analysis of systems with competing failures subject to failure isolation and propagation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Liudong; Levitin, Gregory


    This paper considers the reliability analysis of binary-state systems, subject to propagated failures with global effect, and failure isolation phenomena. Propagated failures with global effect are common-cause failures originated from a component of a system/subsystem causing the failure of the entire system/subsystem. Failure isolation occurs when the failure of one component (referred to as a trigger component) causes other components (referred to as dependent components) within the same system to become isolated from the system. On the one hand, failure isolation makes the isolated dependent components unusable; on the other hand, it prevents the propagation of failures originated from those dependent components. However, the failure isolation effect does not exist if failures originated in the dependent components already propagate globally before the trigger component fails. In other words, there exists a competition in the time domain between the failure of the trigger component that causes failure isolation and propagated failures originated from the dependent components. This paper presents a combinatorial method for the reliability analysis of systems subject to such competing propagated failures and failure isolation effect. Based on the total probability theorem, the proposed method is analytical, exact, and has no limitation on the type of time-to-failure distributions for the system components. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the basics and advantages of the proposed method.

  12. Single-site robotic cholecystectomy: efficiency and cost analysis. (United States)

    Buzad, Francis A; Corne, Louis M; Brown, Thomas C; Fagin, Randy S; Hebert, April E; Kaczmarek, Charles A; Pack, Angie N; Payne, Thomas N


    Single-incision surgery has gained in popularity, and the recent development of specialized robotic and laparoscopic instruments may remove some of the ergonomic and technical difficulties associated with this approach. However, questions of cost and efficiency remain. We prospectively collected perioperative outcome and efficiency (operative time, case volume) data for our single-site robotic cholecystectomy cases and retrospectively reviewed data for our single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases. There were no differences in patient characteristics or perioperative outcomes between the robotic (n = 20) and laparoscopic (n = 10) groups; operative times were equivalent (84.6 vs 85.5 min; p = 0.8737) and blood loss and complications were minimal. There was a higher robotic case volume, with an average of two robotic cases (range 1-4)/day vs one/day for laparoscopic cases (range 1-1; p = 0.0306). Streamlined instrument costs were essentially equivalent. Robotic single-site cholecystectomy is a safe, cost-effective alternative to single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a robot-existing model. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Absence of QTc-interval-prolonging or hemodynamic effects of a single dose of bitter-orange extract in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Min, Bokyung; Cios, Deborah; Kluger, Jeffrey; White, C Michael


    To evaluate the hemodynamic and electrocardiographic effects of a single dose of commercially available bitter-orange dried-fruit extract, which is increasingly being used in dietary supplements. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. University of Connecticut, Storrs Campus. Eighteen healthy volunteers aged 18 years or older. Subjects were given either placebo or bitter-orange dried-fruit extract (450 mg standardized to 27 mg of m- or p-synephrine) in phase 1. The opposite treatment was given during phase 2 after a washout period of at least 7 days. The rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval and blood pressure were measured before dosing and at 1, 3, 5, and 8 hours after dosing. Mean+/-SD values of the maximum postdose values were compared between groups. Subjects receiving bitter-orange extract versus those receiving placebo had similar postdose QTc intervals (402+/-29 vs 403+/-24 msec, p=0.653), systolic blood pressure (114+/-10 vs 115+/-8 mm Hg, p=0.686) and diastolic blood pressure (68+/-9 vs 68+/-8, p=0.879). Bitter-orange dried-fruit extract standardized to m- or p-synephrine 27 mg did not significantly alter the QTc interval or blood pressure after a single dose was administered. Future studies are necessary to ensure the safety of this herbal product with multiple doses.

  14. The effect of a motor-based, social skills intervention for adolescents with high-functioning autism: two single-subject design cases. (United States)

    Gutman, Sharon A; Raphael, Emily I; Ceder, Leila M; Khan, Arshi; Timp, Katherine M; Salvant, Sabrina


    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a motor-based, social skills intervention for two adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA) using single-subject design. A description of the intervention is provided as a first step in the manualization process. The intervention was provided as a 7-week after-school program, once weekly to the paired participants. Intervention consisted of role-play methods in which motor behaviours were linked with their cognitive and emotional meanings. Baseline, intervention and 3-month probe data collection periods were carried out and then compared using visual inspection of graphed data, paired t-tests and a three-standard-deviation-band approach. Both participants displayed a statistically significant increase in targeted social skills behaviours from baseline to intervention and maintained this level at a 3-month post-intervention probe. These single-subject design cases illustrate that motor-based, social skills interventions may be effective for adolescents with HFA and warrant further testing. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Single trial time-frequency domain analysis of error processing in post-traumatic stress disorder. (United States)

    Clemans, Zachary A; El-Baz, Ayman S; Hollifield, Michael; Sokhadze, Estate M


    Error processing studies in psychology and psychiatry are relatively common. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are often used as measures of error processing, two such response-locked ERPs being the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error-related positivity (Pe). The ERN and Pe occur following committed error in reaction time tasks as low frequency (4-8 Hz) electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations registered at the midline fronto-central sites. We created an alternative method for analyzing error processing using time-frequency analysis in the form of a wavelet transform. A study was conducted in which subjects with PTSD and healthy control completed a forced-choice task. Single trial EEG data from errors in the task were processed using a continuous wavelet transform. Coefficients from the transform that corresponded to the theta range were averaged to isolate a theta waveform in the time-frequency domain. Measures called the time-frequency ERN and Pe were obtained from these waveforms for five different channels and then averaged to obtain a single time-frequency ERN and Pe for each error trial. A comparison of the amplitude and latency for the time-frequency ERN and Pe between the PTSD and control group was performed. A significant group effect was found on the amplitude of both measures. These results indicate that the developed single trial time-frequency error analysis method is suitable for examining error processing in PTSD and possibly other psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural integrity analysis of an Ignalina nuclear power plant building subjected to an airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dundulis, Gintautas; Kulak, Ronald F.; Marchertas, Algirdas; Uspuras, Eugenijus


    Recent terrorist attacks using commandeered commercial airliners on civil structures have raised the issue of the ability of nuclear power plants to survive the consequences of an airliner crash. The structural integrity analysis due to the effects of an aircraft crash on an Ignalina nuclear power plant (INPP) accident localization system (ALS) building is the subject of this paper. A combination of the finite element method and empirical relationships were used for the analysis. A global structural integrity analysis was performed for a portion of the ALS building using the dynamic loading from an aircraft crash impact model. The local effects caused by impact of the aircraft's engine on the building wall were evaluated independently by using an empirical formula. The results from the crash analysis of a twin engine commercial aircraft show that the impacted reinforced concrete wall of the ALS building will not have through-the-wall concrete failure, and the reinforcement will not fail. Strain-rate effects were found to delay the onset of cracking. Therefore, the structural integrity of the impacted wall of the INPP ALS building will be maintained during the crash event studied

  17. Morphometric Analysis of the Mandible in Subjects with Class III Malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yun Pan


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the deformations that contribute to Class III mandibular configuration, employing geometric morphometric analysis. Lateral cephalograms of male and female groups of 100 young adults and 70 children with Class III malocclusion were compared to those of counterparts with normal occlusion. The sample included an equal number of both genders. The cephalographs were traced, and 12 homologous landmarks were identified and digitized. Average mandibular geometries were generated by means of Procrustes analysis. Thin-plate spline analysis was then applied to mandibular configurations to determine local form differences in male and female groups of adults and children with normal occlusion and Class III malocclusion. The mandibular morphology was significantly different between these two groups of male and female adults, and children (p < 0.0001. This spline analysis revealed an anteroposterior elongation of the mandible along the condylion-gnathion axis, showing an extension in the regions of the mandibular condyle and ramus, and of the anteroinferior portion of the mandibular symphysis in Class III groups. More extension was evident in Class III adults. The deformations in subjects with Class III malocclusion may represent a developmental elongation of the mandible anteroposteriorly, which leads to the appearance of a prognathic mandibular profile.

  18. Single- and multiple-dose study to determine the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of ceftaroline fosamil in combination with avibactam in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Riccobene, Todd A; Su, Sheng Fang; Rank, Douglas


    This study was conducted to determine the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of intravenous doses of ceftaroline fosamil administered in combination with the novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam in healthy adults. In the single-dose, open-label arm, 12 subjects received single 1-h intravenous infusions of ceftaroline fosamil alone (600 mg), avibactam alone (600 mg), and ceftaroline fosamil in combination with avibactam (600/600 mg) separated by 5-day washout periods. In the multiple-dose, placebo-controlled, double-blind arm, 48 subjects received intravenous infusions of ceftaroline fosamil/avibactam at 600/600 mg every 12 h (q12h), 400/400 mg q8h, 900/900 mg q12h, 600/600 mg q8h, or placebo for 10 days. Ceftaroline and avibactam levels in plasma and urine were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. No significant differences in systemic exposure of ceftaroline or avibactam were observed when the drugs were administered alone versus concomitantly, indicating that there was no apparent pharmacokinetic interaction between ceftaroline fosamil and avibactam administered as a single dose. No appreciable accumulation of either drug occurred with multiple intravenous doses of ceftaroline fosamil/avibactam, and pharmacokinetic parameters for ceftaroline and avibactam were similar on days 1 and 10. Infusions of ceftaroline fosamil/avibactam were well tolerated at total daily doses of up to 1,800 mg of each compound, and all adverse events (AEs) were mild to moderate in severity. Infusion-site reactions were the most common AEs reported with multiple dosing. The pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of ceftaroline fosamil/avibactam demonstrate that the 2 drugs can be administered concomitantly to provide an important broad-spectrum antimicrobial treatment option.

  19. Monitoring driver fatigue using a single-channel electroencephalographic device: A validation study by gaze-based, driving performance, and subjective data. (United States)

    Morales, José M; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Rieiro, Héctor; Roca-González, Joaquín; Romero, Samuel; Catena, Andrés; Fuentes, Luis J; Di Stasi, Leandro L


    Driver fatigue can impair performance as much as alcohol does. It is the most important road safety concern, causing thousands of accidents and fatalities every year. Thanks to technological developments, wearable, single-channel EEG devices are now getting considerable attention as fatigue monitors, as they could help drivers to assess their own levels of fatigue and, therefore, prevent the deterioration of performance. However, the few studies that have used single-channel EEG devices to investigate the physiological effects of driver fatigue have had inconsistent results, and the question of whether we can monitor driver fatigue reliably with these EEG devices remains open. Here, we assessed the validity of a single-channel EEG device (TGAM-based chip) to monitor changes in mental state (from alertness to fatigue). Fifteen drivers performed a 2-h simulated driving task while we recorded, simultaneously, their prefrontal brain activity and saccadic velocity. We used saccadic velocity as the reference index of fatigue. We also collected subjective ratings of alertness and fatigue, as well as driving performance. We found that the power spectra of the delta EEG band showed an inverted U-shaped quadratic trend (EEG power spectra increased for the first hour and half, and decreased during the last thirty minutes), while the power spectra of the beta band linearly increased as the driving session progressed. Coherently, saccadic velocity linearly decreased and speeding time increased, suggesting a clear effect of fatigue. Subjective data corroborated these conclusions. Overall, our results suggest that the TGAM-based chip EEG device is able to detect changes in mental state while performing a complex and dynamic everyday task as driving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis and meta-analysis of single-case designs with a standardized mean difference statistic: a primer and applications. (United States)

    Shadish, William R; Hedges, Larry V; Pustejovsky, James E


    This article presents a d-statistic for single-case designs that is in the same metric as the d-statistic used in between-subjects designs such as randomized experiments and offers some reasons why such a statistic would be useful in SCD research. The d has a formal statistical development, is accompanied by appropriate power analyses, and can be estimated using user-friendly SPSS macros. We discuss both advantages and disadvantages of d compared to other approaches such as previous d-statistics, overlap statistics, and multilevel modeling. It requires at least three cases for computation and assumes normally distributed outcomes and stationarity, assumptions that are discussed in some detail. We also show how to test these assumptions. The core of the article then demonstrates in depth how to compute d for one study, including estimation of the autocorrelation and the ratio of between case variance to total variance (between case plus within case variance), how to compute power using a macro, and how to use the d to conduct a meta-analysis of studies using single-case designs in the free program R, including syntax in an appendix. This syntax includes how to read data, compute fixed and random effect average effect sizes, prepare a forest plot and a cumulative meta-analysis, estimate various influence statistics to identify studies contributing to heterogeneity and effect size, and do various kinds of publication bias analyses. This d may prove useful for both the analysis and meta-analysis of data from SCDs. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of gene expression profile of periodontal ligament cells subjected to cyclic compressive force. (United States)

    Wu, Jiapei; Li, Yu; Fan, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Chaoliang; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Zhihe


    Cyclic compressive force is an important mechanical stimulus on periodontal ligament (PDL). The differential expression of genes in PDL cells is thought to be involved in the remodeling of periodontal tissues subjected to mechanical stress. However, little is known about differentially expressed genes in PDL cells under cyclic compressive force. In our study, human PDL cells were subjected to 4000 μ strain compressive stress loading at 0.5 Hz for 2 h. The effect of mechanical stress on PDL cells proliferation was observed by flow cytometry. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the mechano-induced differential gene profile in PDL cells. Differential expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis on genes of interest and explored at two more force loading times (6 h, 12 h). After mechanical loading, cell proliferation was repressed. The microarray data showed that 217 out of 35,000 genes were differentially expressed; among the 217 genes, 207 were up-regulated whereas 10 were down-regulated (p < 0.05). Gene ontology analysis suggested that majority of differentially expressed genes were located in the nucleus and functioned as transcription factors involved in a variety of biological processes. Five genes of interest (IL6, IL8, ETS1, KLF10, and DLC1) were found to be closely related to negative regulation of cell proliferation. The PCR results showed increased expression after 2 h loading, then a decline with extended loading time. The signaling pathways involved were also identified. These findings expand understanding of molecular regulation in the mechano-response of PDL cells.

  2. The Agreement between Conjoined Subjects and Predicate: Croatian Church Slavonic Corpus Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kovačević


    Full Text Available The abundance of grammatical categories in Slavonic and their overlap are particularly evident in the agreement between conjoined subjects and predicate. When they are accompanied by agreement conditions, such as word order and animacy in Slavic languages, different agreement patterns, dependent also on concrete context and speaker, are to be expected. In this paper the study of the agreement between conjoined subjects and predicate is based on an analysis of the medieval Glagolitic Croatian Church Slavonic corpus. Number, gender, and person are grammatical categories, i. e., features of conjoined noun phrases and predicate agreement. The analysis includes noun phrases conjoined by coordinating and some non-coordinating conjunctions as well as noun phrases conjoined by a gradational ‛not only [. . .] but also’ structure. Comitative and reciprocal noun phrases are included as well. The research in the given corpus shows that the conjoined noun phrases with predicate agreement can be syntactic (predicate showing agreement with one conjunct or semantic (predicate showing agreement with all conjuncts. Syntactic agreement appears as the so-called contact agreement (predicate showing agreement with the closest conjunct and as distant agreement (predicate showing agreement with the most distant conjunct. Semantic agreement is applied mostly in accordance with G. G. Corbett’s resolution rules for Slavic languages. However, the analysis shows that some resolution rules for number should be revised due to dual number. Although absent from the majority of contemporary Slavic languages, it is precisely in historical Slavic idioms that dual number reveals its identity, highlighted in agreement study as well.

  3. Using (10)CO2 for single subject characterization of the stimulus frequency dependence in visual cortex: a novel positron emission tomography tracer for human brain mapping. (United States)

    Law, I; Jensen, M; Holm, S; Nickles, R J; Paulson, O B


    Carbon-10-labeled carbon dioxide ((10)CO2) with a half-life of 19.3 seconds offers almost ideal characteristics as a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for assessment of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution, enabling multiple independent measurements at short intervals. To appraise the feasibility of (10)CO2 for localizing and characterizing human brain function in single subjects, the authors chose a well-characterized activation paradigm. In 6 healthy volunteers, 50 to 64 independent PET scans of the rCBF distribution were acquired while viewing an annular reversing checkerboard presented at 10 reversal frequencies between 0.03 and 30 Hz. Changes in regional cerebral activity as a function of reversal frequency were modeled in every subject using a set of polynomial basis functions, which, as predicted, showed highly significant second or third order relations located in the striatal cortex. Correlation coefficients (R2) ranged from 0.46 to 0.63. The average intersubject maximal response relative to the 0.03 Hz condition was 8.0% +/- 1.7% SD occurring at stimulus contrast reversal frequencies between 6 and 15 Hz with an average of 11.8 +/- 3.8 (SD) Hz. From the qualitative and quantitative replication of previous results it is concluded that (10)CO2 PET is a feasible technique for human brain mapping studies and a great improvement compared with the existing oxygen-15-labeled water (H(2)(15)O) PET method, particularly for single subject studies and parametric design.

  4. Single-sweep spectral analysis of contact heat evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine M; Graversen, Carina; Frøkjaer, Jens B


    AIMS: The cortical response to nociceptive thermal stimuli recorded as contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) may be altered by morphine. However, previous studies have averaged CHEPs over multiple stimuli, which are confounded by jitter between sweeps. Thus, the aim was to assess single-sweep ch...

  5. Simulation and analysis of single-ribosome translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinoco, Ignacio Jr; Wen, Jin-Der


    In the cell, proteins are synthesized by ribosomes in a multi-step process called translation. The ribosome translocates along the messenger RNA to read the codons that encode the amino acid sequence of a protein. Elongation factors, including EF-G and EF-Tu, are used to catalyze the process. Recently, we have shown that translation can be followed at the single-molecule level using optical tweezers; this technique allows us to study the kinetics of translation by measuring the lifetime the ribosome spends at each codon. Here, we analyze the data from single-molecule experiments and fit the data with simple kinetic models. We also simulate the translation kinetics based on a multi-step mechanism from ensemble kinetic measurements. The mean lifetimes from the simulation were consistent with our experimental single-molecule measurements. We found that the calculated lifetime distributions were fit in general by equations with up to five rate-determining steps. Two rate-determining steps were only obtained at low concentrations of elongation factors. These analyses can be used to design new single-molecule experiments to better understand the kinetics and mechanism of translation

  6. Discrete dislocation plasticity analysis of single slip tension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshpande, VS; Needleman, A; Van der Giessen, E


    The effect of loading conditions on the tensile stress versus strain response of micron-sized planar crystals with a single active slip system is investigated via finite and small deformation discrete dislocation plasticity analyses. When rotation of the tensile axis is prevented, lattice curvature

  7. Biomechanical analysis of the single-leg decline squat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerver, J.; Bredeweg, S. W.; Hof, A. L.

    Background: The single-leg squat on a 25 decline board has been described as a clinical assessment tool and as a rehabilitation exercise for patients with patellar tendinopathy. Several assumptions have been made about its working mechanism on patellar load and patellofemoral forces, but these are

  8. Single-cell Analysis of Lambda Immunity Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, Kristoffer Torbjørn; Svenningsen, Sine Lo; Eisen, Harvey


    We have examined expression of the ¿cI operon in single cells via a rexgfp substitution. Although average fluorescence agreed with expectations for expression of ¿-repressor, fluorescence fluctuated greatly from cell-to-cell. Fluctuations in repressor concentration are not predicted by previous m...

  9. Analysis of rare, exonic variation amongst subjects with autism spectrum disorders and population controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu


    Full Text Available We report on results from whole-exome sequencing (WES of 1,039 subjects diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and 870 controls selected from the NIMH repository to be of similar ancestry to cases. The WES data came from two centers using different methods to produce sequence and to call variants from it. Therefore, an initial goal was to ensure the distribution of rare variation was similar for data from different centers. This proved straightforward by filtering called variants by fraction of missing data, read depth, and balance of alternative to reference reads. Results were evaluated using seven samples sequenced at both centers and by results from the association study. Next we addressed how the data and/or results from the centers should be combined. Gene-based analyses of association was an obvious choice, but should statistics for association be combined across centers (meta-analysis or should data be combined and then analyzed (mega-analysis? Because of the nature of many gene-based tests, we showed by theory and simulations that mega-analysis has better power than meta-analysis. Finally, before analyzing the data for association, we explored the impact of population structure on rare variant analysis in these data. Like other recent studies, we found evidence that population structure can confound case-control studies by the clustering of rare variants in ancestry space; yet, unlike some recent studies, for these data we found that principal component-based analyses were sufficient to control for ancestry and produce test statistics with appropriate distributions. After using a variety of gene-based tests and both meta- and mega-analysis, we found no new risk genes for ASD in this sample. Our results suggest that standard gene-based tests will require much larger samples of cases and controls before being effective for gene discovery, even for a disorder like ASD.

  10. Postural stability deficits during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects. (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Janssens, Luc; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan; Staes, Filip F


    The goal of this study was to evaluate postural stability during the transition from double-leg stance (DLS) to single-leg stance (SLS) in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACLR) (n=20) and non-injured control subjects (n=20). All ACLR subjects had fully returned to their pre-injury sport participation. Both groups were similar for age, gender, height, weight, body mass index and activity level. Spatiotemporal center of pressure outcomes of both legs of each subject were measured during the transition from DLS to SLS in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Movement speed was standardized. The center of pressure displacement after a new stability point was reached during the SLS phase was significantly increased in the ACLR group compared to the control group in the eyes closed condition (P=.001). No significant different postural stability outcomes were found between the operated and non-operated legs. In conclusion, the ACLR group showed postural stability deficits, indicating that these persons may have a decreased ability to stabilize their body after the internal postural perturbation created by the transition from DLS to SLS. The non-operated leg may not be the best reference when evaluating postural stability of the operated leg after ACLR, as no differences were found between legs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single doses of empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, in healthy Japanese subjects. (United States)

    Sarashina, Akiko; Koiwai, Kazuki; Seman, Leo J; Yamamura, Norio; Taniguchi, Atsushi; Negishi, Takahiro; Sesoko, Shogo; Woerle, Hans J; Dugi, Klaus A


    This randomized, placebo-controlled within dose groups, double-blind, single rising dose study investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 1 mg to 100 mg doses of empagliflozin in 48 healthy Japanese male subjects. Empagliflozin was rapidly absorbed, reaching peak levels in 1.25 to 2.50 h; thereafter, plasma concentrations declined in a biphasic fashion, with mean terminal elimination half-life ranging from 7.76 to 11.7 h. Increase in empagliflozin exposure was proportional to dose. Oral clearance was dose independent and ranged from 140 to 172 mL/min. In the 24 h following 100 mg empagliflozin administration, the mean (%CV) amount of glucose excreted in urine was 74.3 (17.1) g. The amount and the maximum rate of glucose excreted via urine increased with dose of empagliflozin. Nine adverse events, all of mild intensity, were reported by 8 subjects (7 with empagliflozin and 1 with the placebo). No hypoglycemia was reported. In conclusion, 1 mg to 100 mg doses of empagliflozin had a good safety and tolerability profile in healthy Japanese male subjects. Exposure to empagliflozin was dose proportional. The amount and rate of urinary glucose excretion were higher with empagliflozin than with the placebo, and increased with empagliflozin dose.

  12. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms of PRNP gene in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    12, 389–394. Del Bo R., Comi G. P., Giorda R., Crimi M., Locatelli F., Martinelli-. Boneschi F. et al. 2003 The 129 codon polymorphism of the prion protein gene influences earlier cognitive performance in. Down syndrome subjects. J. Neurol. 250, 688–692. Indian Genome Variation Consortium 2005 The Indian Genome.

  13. Spatial-Temporal Feature Analysis on Single-Trial Event Related Potential for Rapid Face Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang


    Full Text Available The event-related potential (ERP is the brain response measured in electroencephalography (EEG, which reflects the process of human cognitive activity. ERP has been introduced into brain computer interfaces (BCIs to communicate the computer with the subject's intention. Due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of EEG, most ERP studies are based on grand-averaging over many trials. Recently single-trial ERP detection attracts more attention, which enables real time processing tasks as rapid face identification. All the targets needed to be retrieved may appear only once, and there is no knowledge of target label for averaging. More interestingly, how the features contribute temporally and spatially to single-trial ERP detection has not been fully investigated. In this paper, we propose to implement a local-learning-based (LLB feature extraction method to investigate the importance of spatial-temporal components of ERP in a task of rapid face identification using single-trial detection. Comparing to previous methods, LLB method preserves the nonlinear structure of EEG signal distribution, and analyze the importance of original spatial-temporal components via optimization in feature space. As a data-driven methods, the weighting of the spatial-temporal component does not depend on the ERP detection method. The importance weights are optimized by making the targets more different from non-targets in feature space, and regularization penalty is introduced in optimization for sparse weights. This spatial-temporal feature extraction method is evaluated on the EEG data of 15 participants in performing a face identification task using rapid serial visual presentation paradigm. Comparing with other methods, the proposed spatial-temporal analysis method uses sparser (only 10% of the total features, and could achieve comparable performance (98% of single-trial ERP detection as the whole features across different detection methods. The interesting finding is

  14. Single particle and molecular assembly analysis of polyribosomes by single- and double-tilt cryo electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasnikov, Alexander G. [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Department of Integrative Structural Biology, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/ Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale INSERM U964/ Université de Strasbourg, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Afonina, Zhanna A. [Institute of Protein Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142290 Pushchino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Klaholz, Bruno P., E-mail: [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Department of Integrative Structural Biology, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/ Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale INSERM U964/ Université de Strasbourg, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France)


    Cryo electron tomography (cryo-ET) can provide cellular and molecular structural information on various biological samples. However, the detailed interpretation of tomograms reconstructed from single-tilt data tends to suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio and artefacts caused by some systematically missing angular views. While these can be overcome by sub-tomogram averaging, they remain limiting for the analysis of unique structures. Double-tilt ET can improve the tomogram quality by acquiring a second tilt series after an in-plane rotation, but its usage is not widespread yet because it is considered technically demanding and it is rarely used under cryo conditions. Here we show that double-tilt cryo-ET improves the quality of 3D reconstructions so significantly that even single particle analysis can be envisaged despite of the intrinsically low image contrast obtained from frozen-hydrated specimens. This is illustrated by the analysis of eukaryotic polyribosomes in which individual ribosomes were reconstructed using single-tilt, partial and full double-tilt geometries. The improved tomograms favour the faster convergence of iterative sub-tomogram averaging and allow a better 3D classification using multivariate statistical analysis. Our study of single particles and molecular assemblies within polysomes illustrates that the dual-axis approach is particularly useful for cryo applications of ET, both for unique objects and for structures that can be classified and averaged. - Highlights: ► Double-tilt cryo-ET improves 3D reconstructions thus making single particle analysis possible. ► Dual-axis cryo-ET data favour a faster convergence of iterative sub-tomogram averaging. ► Individual ribosomes were reconstructed from single-tilt, partial/ full double-tilt geometries. ► Double-tilt cryo-ET facilitates analysis of larger molecular assemblies such as in cell sections. ► Dual-axis cryo-ET is applicable to unique objects and to structures that can be

  15. Intersection tests for single marker QTL analysis can be more powerful than two marker QTL analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doerge RW


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported in the quantitative trait locus (QTL literature that when testing for QTL location and effect, the statistical power supporting methodologies based on two markers and their estimated genetic map is higher than for the genetic map independent methodologies known as single marker analyses. Close examination of these reports reveals that the two marker approaches are more powerful than single marker analyses only in certain cases. Simulation studies are a commonly used tool to determine the behavior of test statistics under known conditions. We conducted a simulation study to assess the general behavior of an intersection test and a two marker test under a variety of conditions. The study was designed to reveal whether two marker tests are always more powerful than intersection tests, or whether there are cases when an intersection test may outperform the two marker approach. We present a reanalysis of a data set from a QTL study of ovariole number in Drosophila melanogaster. Results Our simulation study results show that there are situations where the single marker intersection test equals or outperforms the two marker test. The intersection test and the two marker test identify overlapping regions in the reanalysis of the Drosophila melanogaster data. The region identified is consistent with a regression based interval mapping analysis. Conclusion We find that the intersection test is appropriate for analysis of QTL data. This approach has the advantage of simplicity and for certain situations supplies equivalent or more powerful results than a comparable two marker test.

  16. Factor Analysis of Subjective Psychological Experiences and States of Football Referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš ZEMAN


    Full Text Available Correlations between values of components of subjective psychological experiences and states in 26 male football referees before the match and after the match were explored using factor analysis. For evaluation of subjective psychological experiences and states the standardized questionnaire SUPSO was used. The questionnaire was filled in twice by refer ees: before the match and immediately after the match. Four most important factors were described and named. The first factor was called "tendency to discomfort". It relates to referee ́s current mental state being probably a reflection of long - term negativ e circumstances in referee ́s life. It is neither related to the completed match, nor referee ́s temperament . The second factor was called "depression from failure" and it is connected directly to the completed match. It is probably determined by current ref eree ́s physical and mental conditions . The third and fourth factors proved to be consequences of temperament of referees. In conclusion, the two most important factors of current mental state of football referee during the game can probably be influenced b y a systematic psychological preparation . Psychological preparation should therefore become an effective part of the pre - match preparation of football referees.

  17. Second-Order Nonlinear Analysis of Steel Tapered Beams Subjected to Span Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hadidi


    Full Text Available A second-order elastic analysis of tapered steel members with I-shaped sections subjected to span distributed and concentrated loadings is developed. Fixed end forces and moments as well as exact stiffness matrix of tapered Timoshenko-Euler beam are obtained with exact geometrical properties of sections. The simultaneous action of bending moment, shear, and axial force including P−δ effects is also considered in the analysis. A computer code has been developed in MATLAB software using a power series method to solve governing second-order differential equation of equilibrium with variable coefficients for beams with distributed span loading. A generalized matrix condensation technique is then utilized for analysis of beams with concentrated span loadings. The accuracy and efficiency of the results of the proposed method are verified through comparing them to those obtained from other approaches such as finite element methods, which indicates the robustness and time saving of this method even for large scale frames with tapered members.

  18. Raman analysis of gold on WSe2 single crystal film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Bablu; Sun Leong, Wei; Li, Yida; Thong, John T L; Gong, Hao; Sun, Linfeng; Xiang Shen, Ze; Simsek, Ergun


    Synthesis and characterization of high-quality single-crystal tungsten diselenide (WSe 2 ) films on a highly insulating substrate is presented. We demonstrate for the first time that the presence of gold (Au) nanoparticles in the basal plane of a WSe 2 film can enhance its Raman scattering intensity. The experimentally observed enhancement ratio in the Raman signal correlates well with the simulated electric field intensity using both three-dimensional electromagnetic software and theoretical calculation considering layered medium coupled-dipole approximation (LM-CDA). This work serves as a guideline for the use of Au nanoparticles on WSe 2 single-crystal thin films for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications in the future. (paper)

  19. Glycan family analysis for deducing N-glycan topology from single MS


    Goldberg, David; Bern, Marshall; North, Simon J.; Haslam, Stuart M.; Dell, Anne


    Motivation: In the past few years, mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as the premier tool for identification and quantification of biological molecules such as peptides and glycans. There are two basic strategies: single-MS, which uses a single round of mass analysis, and MS/MS (or higher order MSn), which adds one or more additional rounds of mass analysis, interspersed with fragmentation steps. Single-MS offers higher throughput, broader mass coverage and more direct quantitation, but gener...

  20. Applications of heavy ion microprobe for single event effects analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Robert A.; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Sierawski, Brian; Warren, Kevin M.; Porter, Mark; Wilkinson, Jeff; Marshall, Paul W.; Niu, Guofu; Cressler, John D.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Tipton, Alan; Weller, Robert A.


    The motion of ionizing-radiation-induced rogue charge carriers in a semiconductor can create unwanted voltage and current conditions within a microelectronic circuit. If sufficient unwanted charge or current occurs on a sensitive node, a variety of single event effects (SEEs) can occur with consequences ranging from trivial to catastrophic. This paper describes the application of heavy ion microprobes to assist with calibration and validation of SEE modeling approaches

  1. Nonlinear rocking analysis of nuclear reactor building simultaneously subjected to horizontal and vertical earthquake motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Motohashi, S.; Mizuno, N.; Moribe, I.; Sugiyama, N.; Suzuki, T.


    In the dynamic analysis of a reactor building, the response acceleration of the building is largely amplified during an earthquake and it's base mat may be lifted by a response overturning moment caused by a strong earthquake. And it makes geometrical nonlinear interaction between the base mat and rock foundation beneath it, which produces very complex phenomena by horizontal and vertical earthquake motions. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of a BWR type reactor building is studied considering the uplift of the base mat subjected to simultaneous horizontal and vertical earthquake motions. Results: (1) The horizontal maximum response values of the building (acceleration, shear force and bending moment) have little effect by the existence of the vertical input. (2) The vertical acceleration of the building is generated by the uplift of the base mat caused by horizontal input. (3) The horizontal acceleration response spectrum of the building takes some effect by the uplift within it's high frequency range. (orig./HP)

  2. Dynamic Analysis of Elastically Supported Cracked Beam Subjected to a Concentrated Moving Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ozturk

    Full Text Available Abstract This study deals with the dynamic behavior of a cracked beam subjected to a concentrated force traveling at a constant velocity. Dynamic analyses for a hinged-hinged cracked beam resting on elastic supports under the action of a moving load are carried out by the finite element method. For the beam having rectangular cross-section, element formulation for crack element is developed by using the principles of fracture mechanics. In the numerical analysis, Newmark integration method is employed in order to calculate the dynamic response of the beam. The effects of crack depth, crack location, elastic support and load velocity on the dynamic displacements calculated for different locations on the beam are investigated. The results related to the dynamic response of the beam are presented in 3D graphs.

  3. Single-trial analysis of the neural correlates of speech quality perception. (United States)

    Porbadnigk, Anne K; Treder, Matthias S; Blankertz, Benjamin; Antons, Jan-Niklas; Schleicher, Robert; Möller, Sebastian; Curio, Gabriel; Müller, Klaus-Robert


    Assessing speech quality perception is a challenge typically addressed in behavioral and opinion-seeking experiments. Only recently, neuroimaging methods were introduced, which were used to study the neural processing of quality at group level. However, our electroencephalography (EEG) studies show that the neural correlates of quality perception are highly individual. Therefore, it became necessary to establish dedicated machine learning methods for decoding subject-specific effects. The effectiveness of our methods is shown by the data of an EEG study that investigates how the quality of spoken vowels is processed neurally. Participants were asked to indicate whether they had perceived a degradation of quality (signal-correlated noise) in vowels, presented in an oddball paradigm. We find that the P3 amplitude is attenuated with increasing noise. Single-trial analysis allows one to show that this is partly due to an increasing jitter of the P3 component. A novel classification approach helps to detect trials with presumably non-conscious processing at the threshold of perception. We show that this approach uncovers a non-trivial confounder between neural hits and neural misses. The combined use of EEG signals and machine learning methods results in a significant 'neural' gain in sensitivity (in processing quality loss) when compared to standard behavioral evaluation; averaged over 11 subjects, this amounts to a relative improvement in sensitivity of 35%.

  4. Single-trial analysis of the neural correlates of speech quality perception (United States)

    Porbadnigk, Anne K.; Treder, Matthias S.; Blankertz, Benjamin; Antons, Jan-Niklas; Schleicher, Robert; Möller, Sebastian; Curio, Gabriel; Müller, Klaus-Robert


    Objective. Assessing speech quality perception is a challenge typically addressed in behavioral and opinion-seeking experiments. Only recently, neuroimaging methods were introduced, which were used to study the neural processing of quality at group level. However, our electroencephalography (EEG) studies show that the neural correlates of quality perception are highly individual. Therefore, it became necessary to establish dedicated machine learning methods for decoding subject-specific effects. Approach. The effectiveness of our methods is shown by the data of an EEG study that investigates how the quality of spoken vowels is processed neurally. Participants were asked to indicate whether they had perceived a degradation of quality (signal-correlated noise) in vowels, presented in an oddball paradigm. Main results. We find that the P3 amplitude is attenuated with increasing noise. Single-trial analysis allows one to show that this is partly due to an increasing jitter of the P3 component. A novel classification approach helps to detect trials with presumably non-conscious processing at the threshold of perception. We show that this approach uncovers a non-trivial confounder between neural hits and neural misses. Significance. The combined use of EEG signals and machine learning methods results in a significant ‘neural’ gain in sensitivity (in processing quality loss) when compared to standard behavioral evaluation; averaged over 11 subjects, this amounts to a relative improvement in sensitivity of 35%.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of a telmisartan/rosuvastatin fixed-dose combination: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study in healthy Korean subjects. (United States)

    Chae, Dong Woo; Son, Mijeong; Kim, Yukyung; Son, Hankil; Jang, Seong Bok; Seo, Jeong Min; Nam, Su Youn; Park, Kyungsoo


    As hypertension and dyslipidemia are frequent comorbidities, antihypertensive drugs and lipid-lowering agents are often prescribed together for their treatment. Telmisartan and rosuvastatin are widely used together to treat hypertension and dyslipidemia. A combination formulation of these two drugs would improve patient compliance due to ease of dosing. The purpose of this study was to assess bioequivalence of single-dose administration of a newly-developed fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet containing telmisartan/rosuvastatin 80/20 mg (test treatment) and coadministration of a telmisartan 80-mg tablet and a rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet (reference treatment) in healthy Korean male volunteers. This was a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study enrolling healthy males aged 20 - 50 years with BMI between 18.5 and 25 kg/m2. Each subject received a single dose of the reference and test treatments with a 14-day washout period. Blood sampling was performed at prespecified intervals for up to 72 hours after dosing. Primary pharmacokinetic parameters were Cmax, AUClast, and AUC0-∞ of telmisartan, rosuvastatin, and N-desmethyl rosuvastatin. Bioequivalence was assessed by determining whether the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios (test treatment/reference treatment) of these parameters were within the standard range of 80% to 125%. Adverse events were monitored via regular interviews with the subjects and by physical examinations. 60 subjects were enrolled and 55 completed the study. The 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios of Cmax, AUClast, and AUC00-∞ were 0.9262-1.1498, 0.9294-1.0313, and 0.9312-1.0320 for telmisartan, 0.9041-1.0428, 0.9262-1.0085, and 0.9307-1.0094 for rosuvastatin, and 0.8718-1.0022, 0.8901-0.9904, and 0.8872-0.9767 for N-desmethyl rosuvastatin, respectively. There was no statistical difference in the incidence of adverse events (AEs) (all of which were mild or moderate) between the reference and test

  6. Analysis of prototypical narratives produced by aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Silveira

    Full Text Available Aphasia can globally or selectively affect comprehension and production of verbal and written language. Discourse analysis can aid language assessment and diagnosis.Objective:[1] To explore narratives that produce a number of valid indicators for diagnosing aphasia in speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. [2] To analyze the macrostructural aspects of the discourse of normal individuals. [3] To analyze the macrostructural aspects of the discourse of aphasic individuals.Methods:The macrostructural aspects of three narratives produced by aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects were analyzed.Results:A total of 30 volunteers were examined comprising 10 aphasic individuals (AG and 20 healthy controls (CG. The CG included 5 males. The CG had a mean age of 38.9 years (SD=15.61 and mean schooling of 13 years (SD=2.67 whereas the AG had a mean age of 51.7 years (SD=17.3 and mean schooling of 9.1 years (SD=3.69. Participants were asked to narrate three fairy tales as a basis for analyzing the macrostructure of discourse. Comparison of the three narratives revealed no statistically significant difference in number of propositions produced by the groups. A significant negative correlation was found between age and number of propositions produced. Also, statistically significant differences were observed in the number of propositions produced by the individuals in the CG and the AG for the three tales.Conclusion:It was concluded that the three tales are applicable for discourse assessment, containing a similar number of propositions and differentiating aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects based on analysis of the macrostructure of discourse.

  7. Symptomatic response to blocked and unblocked pentagastrin stimulation in functional dyspepsia - Comparison of responders and non-responders to omeprazole identified in a single-subject trial model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L.G.; Bytzer, P.


    Background: The role of acid in functional dyspepsia is controversial and drug treatment trials indicate that only a subset of patients has acid-related symptoms. A novel single-subject trial design, the Random Starting Day trial (RSD trial), was developed to identify acid-related symptoms. We...... was expected not to be influenced by gastric acid stimulation or type of treatment. Methods: Nineteen patients were evaluated. Symptomatic response to pentagastrin (6 mu g/kg) was assessed twice in each patient following placebo and omeprazole (40 mg bid) treatment in a randomized, double-blind, cross......-over design. Epigastric pain was assessed every 15 for 90 min after stimulation using a 5-graded Likert scale and a VAS scale. A positive acid provocation test was defined as an increase of the Likert score of epigastric pain by at least one grade after pentagastrin stimulation during placebo treatment...

  8. Multiscale Failure Analysis of Laminated Composite Panels Subjected to Blast Loading Using FEAMAC/Explicit (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Waas, Anthony M.; Berdnarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.; Collier, Craig S.


    This preliminary report demonstrates the capabilities of the recently developed software implementation that links the Generalized Method of Cells to explicit finite element analysis by extending a previous development which tied the generalized method of cells to implicit finite elements. The multiscale framework, which uses explicit finite elements at the global-scale and the generalized method of cells at the microscale is detailed. This implementation is suitable for both dynamic mechanics problems and static problems exhibiting drastic and sudden changes in material properties, which often encounter convergence issues with commercial implicit solvers. Progressive failure analysis of stiffened and un-stiffened fiber-reinforced laminates subjected to normal blast pressure loads was performed and is used to demonstrate the capabilities of this framework. The focus of this report is to document the development of the software implementation; thus, no comparison between the results of the models and experimental data is drawn. However, the validity of the results are assessed qualitatively through the observation of failure paths, stress contours, and the distribution of system energies.

  9. Dynamic analysis of maritime gasbag-type floating bridge subjected to moving loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-huan Wang


    Full Text Available This paper studied the dynamic response of a new gasbag-type floating bridge under the effect of a moving load. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE method was used to simulate the movement of seawater and air, and the penalty-based method was used to study the coupling between gasbags and fluid. A three-dimensional finite element model of the floating bridge was established, and the numerical model was verified by comparing with the experimental results. In order to prevent resonance, the natural frequencies and flexural mode shapes were analyzed. Based on the initial state analysis, the dynamic responses of the floating bridge subjected to different moving loads were investigated. Vertical displacements and radial deformations of gasbags under different loads were compared, and principal stress distributions of gasbags were researched while driving. The hinge forces between adjacent modules were calculated to ensure the connection strength. Besides, the floating bridge under wave impacting was analyzed. Those results can provide references for the analysis and design of this new floating bridge.

  10. Stability Analysis Of Earth Dam Slopes Subjected To Earthquake Using ERT Results Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Andi Suryo


    Full Text Available Earth Dam stability can be affected significantly by the existence of excessive leakage. This is due to decreasing of shear strength of the dam material and additional overturning moment. In such scenario, the non-destructive soil investigation method is needed to analyze the stability of earth dam in current condition. This paper examines the use of Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT to investigate soil layers and to measure parameters of soil shear strength indirectly. First survey was carried out at dam crest and downstream using Wenner Configuration along profile lines at electrode spacing of 5 m. There were 5 profile lines of 180m long each and 10m distance of spacing. Furthermore, two profiles lines at weak cross-section based on its resistivity soil values were undertaken. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine relationship between resistivity value, moisture content, cohesion and angle of friction for each type of dam materials. From the ERT results and lab testing, a model dam can be obtained using current material parameters to perform stability analysis of dam subjected to earthquake. The lowest FOS was found at the upstream side about 1.15 and at the downstream side about 1.14 after applying seismic load of 100 years return period. Keywords: Stability Analysis, ERT,resistivity, leakage, dam

  11. Orthodontic and dysfunctional abnormalities of stomatognatic apparatus: radiographic analysis of 204 subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Capurso, V.; Rotolo, R.; Calura, G.; Orzincolo, C.


    Two hundred and four subjects (86 males and 118 females), aged 8 to 35 years, with different types of malocclusion, underwent panoramic dental radiography and skull teleradiography. This study was aimed at investigating advantages and limitations of the two radiographic techniques, in view of their use as screening methods. On orthopan-tomography, inferior interincisive point, menthon (Me), and, bilaterally, gonion (Go) and condilion (Co), were localized so as to allow a model of the right and left jaws to be made. On teleradiography of the skull, in lateral view, Steiner's cephalometric analysis allowed skeletal classes to be evaluated according to ANB angle values. More-over, major postural parameters relative to the relationship between skull and cervical spine were analyzed: atlanto-occipital distance, cranio-vertebral angle, cervical lordosis, and hyoid triangle. Orthopan-tomography, though not a reproducible technique, can be considered as a valuable screening method for it allows right and left hemi-jaws to be comparatively measured. Cephalometric analysis of postural data confirmed the frequency of wrong postures in orthodontic patients. From the correlation of mandibular asymmetries and cranio-cervical parameters, the authors observed that asymmetrical patients have many postural problems, just like class II skeletal and dolico-facial types. This findings seems to confirm the mixed (functional and skeletal) etiopathogenesis of mandibular asymmetries

  12. A qualitative phenomenological analysis of the subjective experience and understanding of the at risk mental state. (United States)

    Brew, Benjamin; Shannon, Ciaran; Storey, Lesley; Boyd, Adrian; Mulholland, Ciaran


    Over recent years there has been a growing interest in identifying the early stages of psychosis. The At Risk Mental State (ARMS) is characteristic of the prodromal stages of psychosis and its identification gives rise to a number of clinical and research opportunities including early intervention and prevention of psychosis. This study employs interpretative phenomenological analysis to gain insights into the subjective experience and individuals understanding of the development of their ARMS. Five participants took part and provided information on the experience of symptoms, life prior to onset of their ARMS and their understanding of symptoms and their development through a semi structured interview. From the analysis of transcripts eight themes emerged which were common across participants accounts. Three themes of experience (disturbed world/disturbed self, disconnection with the world, thunderstruck) and five themes of understanding (absence of understanding, use of others, identity, forming links, fragmented understanding) were identified. Themes are explored in detail and discussed in relation to existing literature and theory. Clinical implications, directions for future research, and limitations are discussed within.

  13. Novel automated tracking analysis of particles subjected to shear flow: kindlin-3 role in B cells. (United States)

    Willenbrock, Frances; Zicha, Daniel; Hoppe, Andreas; Hogg, Nancy


    Shear flow assays are used to mimic the influence of physiological shear force in diverse situations such as leukocyte rolling and arrest on the vasculature, capture of nanoparticles, and bacterial adhesion. Analysis of such assays usually involves manual counting, is labor-intensive, and is subject to bias. We have developed the Leukotrack program that incorporates a novel (to our knowledge) segmentation routine capable of reliable detection of cells in phase contrast images. The program also automatically tracks rolling cells in addition to those that are more firmly attached and migrating in random directions. We demonstrate its use in the analysis of lymphocyte arrest mediated by one or more active conformations of the integrin LFA-1. Activation of LFA-1 is a multistep process that depends on several proteins including kindlin-3, the protein that is mutated in leukocyte adhesion deficiency-III patients. We find that the very first stage of LFA-1-mediated attaching is unable to proceed in the absence of kindlin-3. Our evidence indicates that kindlin-3-mediated high-affinity LFA-1 controls both the early transient integrin-dependent adhesions in addition to the final stable adhesions made under flow conditions. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tools for Genomic and Transcriptomic Analysis of Microbes at Single-Cell Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixi Chen


    Full Text Available Microbiologists traditionally study population rather than individual cells, as it is generally assumed that the status of individual cells will be similar to that observed in the population. However, the recent studies have shown that the individual behavior of each single cell could be quite different from that of the whole population, suggesting the importance of extending traditional microbiology studies to single-cell level. With recent technological advances, such as flow cytometry, next-generation sequencing (NGS, and microspectroscopy, single-cell microbiology has greatly enhanced the understanding of individuality and heterogeneity of microbes in many biological systems. Notably, the application of multiple ‘omics’ in single-cell analysis has shed light on how individual cells perceive, respond, and adapt to the environment, how heterogeneity arises under external stress and finally determines the fate of the whole population, and how microbes survive under natural conditions. As single-cell analysis involves no axenic cultivation of target microorganism, it has also been demonstrated as a valuable tool for dissecting the microbial ‘dark matter.’ In this review, current state-of-the-art tools and methods for genomic and transcriptomic analysis of microbes at single-cell level were critically summarized, including single-cell isolation methods and experimental strategies of single-cell analysis with NGS. In addition, perspectives on the future trends of technology development in the field of single-cell analysis was also presented.

  15. Chip based single cell analysis for nanotoxicity assessment. (United States)

    Shah, Pratikkumar; Kaushik, Ajeet; Zhu, Xuena; Zhang, Chengxiao; Li, Chen-Zhong


    Nanomaterials, because of their tunable properties and performances, have been utilized extensively in everyday life related consumable products and technology. On exposure, beyond the physiological range, nanomaterials cause health risks via affecting the function of organisms, genomic systems, and even the central nervous system. Thus, new analytical approaches for nanotoxicity assessment to verify the feasibility of nanomaterials for future use are in demand. The conventional analytical techniques, such as spectrophotometric assay-based techniques, usually require a lengthy and time-consuming process and often produce false positives, and often cannot be implemented at a single cell level measurement for studying cell behavior without interference from its surrounding environment. Hence, there is a demand for a precise, accurate, sensitive assessment for toxicity using single cells. Recently, due to the advantages of automation of fluids and minimization of human errors, the integration of a cell-on-a-chip (CoC) with a microfluidic system is in practice for nanotoxicity assessments. This review explains nanotoxicity and its assessment approaches with advantages/limitations and new approaches to overcome the confines of traditional techniques. Recent advances in nanotoxicity assessment using a CoC integrated with a microfluidic system are also discussed in this review, which may be of use for nanotoxicity assessment and diagnostics.

  16. Single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Takaaki; Ohhara, Takashi


    Single-crystal neutron diffraction technique is a powerful method to analyze the reaction mechanism whose hydrogen atom or proton has a key role in the reaction. Especially hydrogen atom or proton transfer(HT/PT) is one of the most elemental phenomena and often observed in many organic, inorganic, enzymatic and catalytic reactions. We describe several applications in chemistry. At first, hydrogen atom in metal hydride complexes, which is quite difficult to do using X-ray diffraction because of the great cloud of electrons of central metal atom. Secondary, hydrogen atom in hydrogen-bonding network, e.g., low-barrier hydrogen bond(LBHB) system. Neutron diffraction can refine the thermal motion of hydrogen atom. Finally, our results, photo-induced HT/PTs using 'deuterium atom labeling' technique and 'crystalline-state reaction' technique, which are currently developing applications. Despite the success illustrated by the many studies presented here or many other studies, we have many problems in using single-crystal neutron diffraction technique. For example, extremely limited flux and the requirement for mm-size sample crystals. Now, these limitations are being solved by the operation of powerful instruments at a new generation of pulsed neutron sources, including iBIX diffractometer running at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex(J-PARC) in Japan. (author)

  17. Diffusion-weighted MRI of the cervical spinal cord using a single-shot fast spin-echo technique: findings in normal subjects and in myelomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Katase, S.; Fujikawa, A.; Hachiya, J. [Department of Radiology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, 181-8611, Tokyo (Japan); Kanazawa, H. [Toshiba Corporation, 1-1-1 Shibaura, Minato-ku, 105-8001, Tokyo (Japan); Yodo, K. [Toshiba Medical Systems, 3-26-5 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, 113-8456, Tokyo (Japan)


    We have implemented a new diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) sequence based on the single-shot fast spin-echo technique. We hypothesised that this would add information to conventional MRI for diagnosis of lesions of the cervical spinal cord. DWI was performed using a technique in which echo collection after the application of motion-probing gradients was done in the same manner as in the single-shot fast spin-echo technique. We first imaged six healthy volunteers to demonstrate the cervical spinal cord using the sequence. Then we applied the sequence to 12 patients with cervical myelomalacia due to chronic cord compression. The spinal cord was well seen in all subjects without the distortion associated with echo-planar DWI. In the patients, lesions appeared as areas of low- or isointense signal on DWI. Calculated apparent diffusion coefficients of the lesions (3.30{+-}0.38 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) were significantly higher than those of normal volunteers (2.26{+-}0.08 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s). Increased diffusion in areas of cervical myelomalacia, suggesting irreversible damage, can be detected using this technique. (orig.)

  18. Foucault’s analysis of subjectivity and the question of philosophizing with words or things


    Öner, Senem


    This article examines how Foucault analyzes subjectivity within the frame of his approach concerning power and discourse, and the concepts of archaeology and problematization as all discursive and non-discursive practices that constitute the subject and subjective experience. The article investigates the philosophical and political implications occurring as a result of Foucault’s rejection of the idea of natural, ahistorical, founding and constituting subject at the outset and his emphasis on...

  19. The influence of food on the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine and losartan after single-dose of its compound tablets in healthy chinese subjects. (United States)

    Lv, C; Wei, C; Wang, X; Yao, H; Li, R; Wang, B; Guo, R


    We aim to identify the effects of food on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of amlodipine, losartan and losartan's active metabolite (EXP3174) after oral administration of the Compound Amlodipine Tablets with single dose in healthy Chinese subjects. 12 subjects took the compounds (10 mg/100 mg, amlodipine/losartan) at the conditions of a high-fat breakfast and an overnight fast with a washout period of 14 days. Plasma samples were obtained at scheduled time, and determined by HPLC-MS/MS for the concentrations of amlodipine and HPLC-MS for the concentrations of losartan and EXP3174, respectively. PK parameters were calculated using Software Drug and Statistics (Version 2.0). When tablets were co-administered with food, there was no significant difference of AUC for amlodipine and losartan, but the AUC of EXP3174 was reduced by 19.1%. Meanwhile, the Cmax of amlodipine, losartan and EXP3174 were reduced by 11.4%, 20.0% and 41.4%, and the Tmax of losartan and EXP3174 were 1.3 and 1.8 h longer, respectively. No significant difference was found at t1/2 following food intake. In conclusion, the Compound Amlodipine Tablets, are affected by food administration by reducing the AUC of EXP3174. It is thus suggested that the Compound Amlodipine Tablets should be administered 1 h before or 2 h after meal. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. A single-blind placebo-controlled investigation into the analgesic effects of interferential currents on experimentally induced ischaemic pain in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I; Tabasam, Ghazala


    The aim of this single-blind placebo-controlled study was to examine the analgesic effects of interferential currents (IFC) on experimentally induced ischaemic pain. Ischaemic pain was induced using the submaximal effort tourniquet technique (SETT) and pain intensity was recorded using a visual analogue scale at 1-min intervals was used as the primary outcome measure. Following baseline recordings 30 healthy volunteers received either active IFC, sham IFC, or no treatment (10 subjects per group). Data were analysed by calculating the mean change in pain intensity at each 1-min interval by subtracting data during treatment from the baseline data. IFC was administered throughout the duration of the ischaemic pain test via four electrodes (quadripolar application) on the forearm. Active IFC delivered electrical currents at a 'strong but comfortable' intensity. A 'dummy' stimulator that delivered no current was used as sham IFC. Subjects in the no treatment control group were informed that the IFC device was not switched on. There were significant effects for Groups (P=0.04) which were attributed to a significant reduction in pain intensity for the IFC group when compared with sham and no-treatment control (P< or =0.05). There were no significant effects for Time (P=0.69) or Group-Time interaction (P=0.45). In conclusion, IFC produced significantly greater analgesia than sham and no-treatment control groups under the present experimental conditions.

  1. Kinetic analysis of volatile formation in milk subjected to pressure-assisted thermal treatments. (United States)

    Vazquez-Landaverde, P A; Qian, M C; Torres, J A


    Volatile formation in milk subjected to pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP) was investigated from a reaction kinetic analysis point of view to illustrate the advantages of this technology. The concentration of 27 volatiles of different chemical class in milk subjected to pressure, temperature, and time treatments was fitted to zero-, 1st-, and 2nd-order chemical reaction models. Temperature and pressure effects on rate constants were analyzed to obtain activation energy (E(a)) and activation volume (deltaV*) values. Hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, and decanal followed 1st-order kinetics with rate constants characterized by E(a) values decreasing with pressure reflecting negative deltaV* values. Formation of 2-methylpropanal, 2,3-butanedione, and hydrogen sulfide followed zero-order kinetics with rate constants increasing with temperature but with unclear pressure effects. E(a) values for 2-methylpropanal and 2,3-butanedione increased with pressure, that is, deltaV* > 0, whereas values for hydrogen sulfide remained constant, that is, deltaV* = 0. The concentration of all other volatiles, including methanethiol, remained unchanged in pressure-treated samples, suggesting large negative deltaV* values. The concentration of methyl ketones, including 2-pentanone, 2-hexanone, 2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, 2-decanone, and 2-undecanone, was independent of pressure and pressure-holding time. PATP promoted the formation of few compounds, had no effect on some, and inhibited the formation of volatiles reported to be factors of the consumer rejection of "cooked" milk flavor. The kinetic behavior observed suggested that new reaction formation mechanisms were not likely involved in volatile formation in PATP milk. The application of the Le Chatelier principle frequently used to explain the high quality of pressure-treated foods, often with no supporting experimental evidence, was not necessary.

  2. Single-case research design in pediatric psychology: considerations regarding data analysis. (United States)

    Cohen, Lindsey L; Feinstein, Amanda; Masuda, Akihiko; Vowles, Kevin E


    Single-case research allows for an examination of behavior and can demonstrate the functional relation between intervention and outcome in pediatric psychology. This review highlights key assumptions, methodological and design considerations, and options for data analysis. Single-case methodology and guidelines are reviewed with an in-depth focus on visual and statistical analyses. Guidelines allow for the careful evaluation of design quality and visual analysis. A number of statistical techniques have been introduced to supplement visual analysis, but to date, there is no consensus on their recommended use in single-case research design. Single-case methodology is invaluable for advancing pediatric psychology science and practice, and guidelines have been introduced to enhance the consistency, validity, and reliability of these studies. Experts generally agree that visual inspection is the optimal method of analysis in single-case design; however, statistical approaches are becoming increasingly evaluated and used to augment data interpretation.

  3. The Immediate Effects of Conventional Physical Therapy on the Knee Joint Load in Subjects with Moderate Knee Osteoarthritis; A Preliminary Single Blinded Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fattahi


    Full Text Available Background: Subjects with knee osteoarthritis typically have higher knee adduction moment. Current research efforts are mainly focused on therapeutic procedures that potentially may modify disease progression. This preliminary study was designed as a single blind (examiner randomized control trial to investigate the impact of conventional physical therapy on pain, and knee joint load in subjects with moderate knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Twelve participants diagnosed with moderate knee OA were randomly assigned into control and intervention groups. Three-dimensional knee kinematic and kinetic data were recorded during the gait before and after 10 sessions of conventional physical therapy. In addition, pain intensity was evaluated by visual analog scale and pain subscale of KOOS questionnaire. The control group did not receive any intervention during the same period. Gait parameters were analyzed within and between groups using nonparametric tests. Results: There was a significant difference between groups in baseline KOOS-pain Score and ML knee force (P=0.048 and P=0.01. Immediately after ten sessions of physical therapy the initial (first peak of knee adduction moment was significantly (P=0.03 lower than that of the control group while the first and second peak of knee AP velocity were significantly (P=0.02, P=0.01 respectively higher. In the intervention group, the second peaks of vertical and anteroposterior (AP knee forces were strongly correlated with the pretest KOOS-pain Score (r=0.99 and r=0.98, P<0.001. Therefore a multivariate general linear model was adopted with adjustment to baseline KOOS-pain. By this adjustment, 51% alleviation of VAS pain score and 81% decrement of first peak of knee adduction moment in comparison to control group was statistically significant (P=0.02, P=0.03 respectively. Conclusion: It seems that ten sessions of conventional physical therapy may modify knee joint load in subjects with moderate knee

  4. Safety and immunogenicity of a single intramuscular dose of a tetanus-diphtheria toxoid (Td) vaccine (BR-TD-1001) in healthy Korean adult subjects. (United States)

    Hong, Taegon; Chung, Yong-Ju; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Ik-Hwan; Choe, Yong-Kyung; Lee, Jongtae; Jeon, Sangil; Han, Seunghoon; Yim, Dong-Seok


    BR-TD-1001 was developed as a booster for the immunity maintenance of diphtheria and tetanus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of BR-TD-1001 (test vaccine) in comparison with placebo and an active comparator in healthy Korean adults. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active comparator, phase I clinical trial was conducted. Fifty subjects were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups in a ratio of 2:2:1, and were administered a single intramuscular dose of test vaccine, active comparator, or placebo, respectively. All subjects were monitored for 4 weeks after injection. The antibody titers of the patients 2 and 4 weeks after vaccination were compared with the baseline. The frequencies of all adverse events including adverse drug reactions in the test group were not statistically different from those of the other treatment groups (P = 0.4974, 0.3061). No serious adverse event occurred, and no subject was withdrawn from the study for safety. The seroprotection rates against both tetanus and diphtheria at 4 weeks after vaccination were over 0.95. For anti-tetanus antibody, the geometric mean titer in the test group was significantly higher than those of the other groups (P = 0.0364, 0.0033). The geometric mean titer of anti-diphtheria antibody in the test group was significantly higher than the value of the placebo (P = 0.0347) while it was not for the value of the active comparator (P = 0.8484). In conclusion, BR-TD-1001 was safe, well-tolerated, and showed sufficient immunogenicity as a booster for diphtheria and tetanus.

  5. Analysis and meta-analysis of single-case designs: an introduction. (United States)

    Shadish, William R


    The last 10 years have seen great progress in the analysis and meta-analysis of single-case designs (SCDs). This special issue includes five articles that provide an overview of current work on that topic, including standardized mean difference statistics, multilevel models, Bayesian statistics, and generalized additive models. Each article analyzes a common example across articles and presents syntax or macros for how to do them. These articles are followed by commentaries from single-case design researchers and journal editors. This introduction briefly describes each article and then discusses several issues that must be addressed before we can know what analyses will eventually be best to use in SCD research. These issues include modeling trend, modeling error covariances, computing standardized effect size estimates, assessing statistical power, incorporating more accurate models of outcome distributions, exploring whether Bayesian statistics can improve estimation given the small samples common in SCDs, and the need for annotated syntax and graphical user interfaces that make complex statistics accessible to SCD researchers. The article then discusses reasons why SCD researchers are likely to incorporate statistical analyses into their research more often in the future, including changing expectations and contingencies regarding SCD research from outside SCD communities, changes and diversity within SCD communities, corrections of erroneous beliefs about the relationship between SCD research and statistics, and demonstrations of how statistics can help SCD researchers better meet their goals. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Classification using diffraction patterns for single-particle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hongli; Zhang, Kaiming [Department of Biophysics, the Health Science Centre, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Meng, Xing, E-mail: [Wadsworth Centre, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201 (United States)


    An alternative method has been assessed; diffraction patterns derived from the single particle data set were used to perform the first round of classification in creating the initial averages for proteins data with symmetrical morphology. The test protein set was a collection of Caenorhabditis elegans small heat shock protein 17 obtained by Cryo EM, which has a tetrahedral (12-fold) symmetry. It is demonstrated that the initial classification on diffraction patterns is workable as well as the real-space classification that is based on the phase contrast. The test results show that the information from diffraction patterns has the enough details to make the initial model faithful. The potential advantage using the alternative method is twofold, the ability to handle the sets with poor signal/noise or/and that break the symmetry properties. - Highlights: • New classification method. • Create the accurate initial model. • Better in handling noisy data.

  7. Classification using diffraction patterns for single-particle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Hongli; Zhang, Kaiming; Meng, Xing


    An alternative method has been assessed; diffraction patterns derived from the single particle data set were used to perform the first round of classification in creating the initial averages for proteins data with symmetrical morphology. The test protein set was a collection of Caenorhabditis elegans small heat shock protein 17 obtained by Cryo EM, which has a tetrahedral (12-fold) symmetry. It is demonstrated that the initial classification on diffraction patterns is workable as well as the real-space classification that is based on the phase contrast. The test results show that the information from diffraction patterns has the enough details to make the initial model faithful. The potential advantage using the alternative method is twofold, the ability to handle the sets with poor signal/noise or/and that break the symmetry properties. - Highlights: • New classification method. • Create the accurate initial model. • Better in handling noisy data.

  8. The Analysis of Forming Forces in Single Point Incremental Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Kyung Hee


    Full Text Available Incremental forming is a process to produce sheet metal parts in quick. Because there is no need for dedicated dies and molds, this process is less cost and time spent. The purpose of this study is to investigate forming forces in single point incremental forming. Producing a cone frustum of aluminum is tested for forming forces. A dynamometer is used to collect forming forces and analyze them. These forces are compared with cutting forces upon producing same geometrical shapes of experimental parts. The forming forces in Z direction are 40 times larger than the machining forces. A spindle and its axis of a forming machine should be designed enough to withstand the forming forces.

  9. Single-cell analysis of G-protein signal transduction. (United States)

    Clister, Terri; Mehta, Sohum; Zhang, Jin


    The growing use of fluorescent biosensors to directly probe the spatiotemporal dynamics of biochemical processes in living cells has revolutionized the study of intracellular signaling. In this review, we summarize recent developments in the use of biosensors to illuminate the molecular details of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways, which have long served as the model for our understanding of signal transduction, while also offering our perspectives on the future of this exciting field. Specifically, we highlight several ways in which biosensor-based single-cell analyses are being used to unravel many of the enduring mysteries that surround these diverse signaling pathways. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


    A simple, approximate method of analysis for the buckling of a thin-walled conical shell subjected to external hydrostatic pressure is presented for...and all other available test data on this subject are presented in tabular form. The agreement between the suggested method of analysis and the test

  11. Esophageal transit and in vivo disintegration of branded risedronate sodium tablets and two generic formulations of alendronic acid tablets: a single-center, single-blind, six-period crossover study in healthy female subjects. (United States)

    Perkins, Alan C; Blackshaw, P Elaine; Hay, Peter D; Lawes, Simon C; Atherton, Clare T; Dansereau, Richard J; Wagner, Leigh K; Schnell, Dan J; Spiller, Robin C


    Delayed esophageal transit or disintegration of oral bisphosphonate tablets before they enter the stomach may be of concern with respect to iatrogenic complications among patients receiving longterm treatment. Different formulations of generic bisphosphonate tablets meeting regulatory requirements may have substantial differences in pharmaceutical attributes from the branded product that may result in different characteristics during esophageal transit. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate and compare esophageal transit times and in vivo disintegration of 3 bisphosphonate formulations, one branded and the others generic, that are commercially available in Canada and the United Kingdom. This was a single-center, randomized, singleblind, 6-period crossover study in healthy postmenopausal women aged >50 years. Each subject received a single oral dose of a branded risedronate sodium 35-mg tablet and 2 generic formulations of alendronic acid 70-mg tablets (Novopharm Limited, Toronto, Canada, and Teva UK Limited, Morley, United Kingdom) in both the erect and semisupine (45 degrees ) positions. Although the products are labeled to be taken in the erect position, the semisupine position was included to simulate dosing in bedridden patients. Subjects took tablets with 30 mL of water in the morning after an overnight fast. The tablets were radiolabeled with technetium-99m ion-exchange resins to enable visualization and measurement of esophageal transit time and disintegration using a gamma camera. Dynamic scintigraphic images were obtained for a total of 10 minutes: 2 images per second for the first 30 seconds and 1 image every 15 seconds for 9.5 minutes. This was a mechanistic study and tolerability was not assessed. The study was conducted in 20 healthy white female subjects with a mean age of 62 years (range, 51-77 years). The effect of body position was statistically significant (P = 0.043), with the estimated hazard ratio (HR) of 0.74 indicating longer

  12. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct. Keywords. Nonlocality; single particle; hidden variables. PACS Nos 03.67.Ba; 03.65.Ta; 32.80.Lg; 07.79.Fc. 1. Introduction. Quantum nonlocality [2] for single particle is a subject of debate since the origin.

  13. The Digital Single Market and Legal Certainty : A Critical Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castermans, A.G.; Graaff, de R.; Haentjens, M.; Colombi, Ciacchi A.


    This chapter critically examines the CESL from the viewpoint of its capability to provide legal certainty for commercial actors. This chapter’s analysis focuses on three important stages in the life cycle of a contract, seen from a business perspective: the scope rules that determine whether the

  14. Numerical Analysis of Hydrodynamic Flow in Microfluidic Biochip for Single-Cell Trapping Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Ahmad Khalili


    Full Text Available Single-cell analysis has become the interest of a wide range of biological and biomedical engineering research. It could provide precise information on individual cells, leading to important knowledge regarding human diseases. To perform single-cell analysis, it is crucial to isolate the individual cells before further manipulation is carried out. Recently, microfluidic biochips have been widely used for cell trapping and single cell analysis, such as mechanical and electrical detection. This work focuses on developing a finite element simulation model of single-cell trapping system for any types of cells or particles based on the hydrodynamic flow resistance (Rh manipulations in the main channel and trap channel to achieve successful trapping. Analysis is carried out using finite element ABAQUS-FEA™ software. A guideline to design and optimize single-cell trapping model is proposed and the example of a thorough optimization analysis is carried out using a yeast cell model. The results show the finite element model is able to trap a single cell inside the fluidic environment. Fluid’s velocity profile and streamline plots for successful and unsuccessful single yeast cell trapping are presented according to the hydrodynamic concept. The single-cell trapping model can be a significant important guideline in designing a new chip for biomedical applications.

  15. Comparative assessment of different methods for the estimation of gait temporal parameters using a single inertial sensor: application to elderly, post-stroke, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease subjects. (United States)

    Trojaniello, Diana; Ravaschio, Andrea; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Cereatti, Andrea


    The estimation of gait temporal parameters with inertial measurement units (IMU) is a research topic of interest in clinical gait analysis. Several methods, based on the use of a single IMU mounted at waist level, have been proposed for the estimate of these parameters showing satisfactory performance when applied to the gait of healthy subjects. However, the above mentioned methods were developed and validated on healthy subjects and their applicability in pathological gait conditions was not systematically explored. We tested the three best performing methods found in a previous comparative study on data acquired from 10 older adults, 10 hemiparetic, 10 Parkinson's disease and 10 Huntington's disease subjects. An instrumented gait mat was used as gold standard. When pathological populations were analyzed, missed or extra events were found for all methods and a global decrease of their performance was observed to different extents depending on the specific group analyzed. The results revealed that none of the tested methods outperformed the others in terms of accuracy of the gait parameters determination for all the populations except the Parkinson's disease subjects group for which one of the methods performed better than others. The hemiparetic subjects group was the most critical group to analyze (stride duration errors between 4-5 % and step duration errors between 8-13 % of the actual values across methods). Only one method provides estimates of the stance and swing durations which however should be interpreted with caution in pathological populations (stance duration errors between 6-14 %, swing duration errors between 10-32 % of the actual values across populations). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dental research in Spain. A bibliometric analysis on subjects, authors and institutions (1993-2012) (United States)

    Bueno-Aguilera, Felipe; Lucena-Martín, Cristina; Pulgar-Encinas, Rosa


    Background Bibliometrics is defined as the use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Our objective was to characterize Spanish scientific output in Dentistry through the analysis of Web of Science database in a 20-year period. By means of a bibliometric study documents were statistically analyzed using indicators that showed quantitative and qualitative aspects of the production. Specifically, time course of the scientific production within the time span was analysed, as were the journals where the article was published and the categories of Journal Citation Reports (JCR) in which they belong, thematic areas, authorship, and finally authors and institutions with the highest production in Spain. Material and Methods By means of the design of a specific search strategy previously described in the scientific literature, we recovered all citable documents about Dentistry signed by Spanish researchers and included in the WoS database between 1993 and 2012. Results A total of 3006 documents fulfilled the search criteria, of which 2449 (81.5%) were published in journals within the category Dentistry Oral Surgery and Medicine and 557 (18.5%) within other categories of the JCR. During the four quinquenniums studied, the production increased quantitatively (8.6-fold) and qualitatively. Finally, the universities of Granada and Complutense of Madrid were the institutions with the highest production and most prolific authors. Conclusions The Spanish dental production sharply increased in the last two decades, reaching quantitative and qualitative levels similar to those of the other medical specialties in the country. Key words:Dental research, dentistry, publications, Journal impact factor, bibliometrics, biomedical research, Spanish dental production. PMID:26827056

  17. Nonlinear analysis of sensory organization test for subjects with unilateral vestibular dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Rong Yeh

    Full Text Available Vestibular disorder is the cause of approximately 50% of dizziness in older people. The vestibular system is a critical postural control mechanism, and posturography analysis is helpful for diagnosing vestibular disorder. In clinical practice, the sensory organization test (SOT is used to quantify postural control in an upright stance under different test conditions. However, both aging and vestibular disorder cause declines of postural control mechanisms. The aim of this study was to enhance the performance of the SOT using a nonlinear algorithm of empirical mode decomposition (EMD and to verify the differences of effects caused by aging and/or illnesses benefits to clinical diagnosis. A total of 51 subjects belonging to 3 groups--healthy-young, healthy-elderly and dizzy--were recruited for this study. New dynamic parameters of the SOT were derived from the center of pressure (COP signals. EMD served as an adaptive filter bank to derive the low- and high-frequency components of the COP. The effects on four ratios of sensory analysis caused by aging and vestibular disorder can be investigated for the specific frequency bands. According to our findings, new SOT parameters derived from the component with the specific frequency band more sensitively reflect the functional condition of vestibular dysfunction. Furthermore, both aging and vestibular dysfunction caused an increase in magnitude for the low-frequency component of the AP-direction COP time series. In summary, the low-frequency fluctuation reflects the stability of postural control, while the high-frequency fluctuation is sensitive to the functional condition of the sensory system. EMD successfully improved the accuracy of SOT measurements in this investigation.

  18. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analysis of Protamine Genes in Infertile Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamad Salamian


    Full Text Available Background: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs are considered as one of the underlyingcauses of male infertility. Proper sperm chromatin packaging which involves replacement ofhistones with protamines has profound effect on male fertility. Over 20 SNPs have been reportedfor the protamine 1 and 2.Materials and Methods: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of two previouslyreported SNPs using polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism(RFLP approach in 35, 96 and 177 normal, oligozoospermic and azoospermic individuals. TheseSNPs are: 1. A base pair substitution (G at position 197 instead of T in protamine type 1 Openreading frame (ORF including untranslated region, which causes an Arg residue change to Serresidue in a highly conserved region. 2. cytidine nucleotide change to thymidine in position of 248of protamine type 2 ORF which caused a nonsense point mutation.Results: The two mentioned SNPs were not present in the studied population, thus concluding thatthese SNPs can not serves as molecular markers for male infertility diagnosis.Conclusion: The results of our study reveal that in a selected Iranian population, the SNP G197Tand C248T are completely absent and are not associated with male infertility and therefore theseSNPs may not represent a molecular marker for genetic diagnosis of male infertility.

  19. Analysis of ripple formation in single crystal spot welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappaz, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Lab de Metallurgie Physique; Corrigan, D.; Boatner, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.


    Stationary spot welds have been made at the (001) surface of Fe-l5%Ni-15%Cr single crystals using a Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA). On the top surface of the spot welds, very regular and concentric ripples were observed after solidification by differential interference color microscopy. Their height (typically 1--5 {micro}m) and spacing (typically {approximately} 60 {micro}m) decreased with the radius of the pool. These ripples were successfully accounted for in terms of capillary-wave theory using the fundamental mode frequency f{sub 0} given by the first zero of the zero-order Bessel function. The spacing d between the ripples was then equated to v{sub s}/f{sub 0}, where v{sub s} is the solidification rate. From the measured ripple spacing, the velocity of the pool was deduced as a function of the radius, and this velocity was in good agreement with the results of a heat-flow simulation.

  20. Finite Element Analysis of Aluminum Honeycombs Subjected to Dynamic Indentation and Compression Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.M. Ayman Ashab


    Full Text Available The mechanical behavior of aluminum hexagonal honeycombs subjected to out-of-plane dynamic indentation and compression loads has been investigated numerically using ANSYS/LS-DYNA in this paper. The finite element (FE models have been verified by previous experimental results in terms of deformation pattern, stress-strain curve, and energy dissipation. The verified FE models have then been used in comprehensive numerical analysis of different aluminum honeycombs. Plateau stress, σpl, and dissipated energy (EI for indentation and EC for compression have been calculated at different strain rates ranging from 102 to 104 s−1. The effects of strain rate and t/l ratio on the plateau stress, dissipated energy, and tearing energy have been discussed. An empirical formula is proposed to describe the relationship between the tearing energy per unit fracture area, relative density, and strain rate for honeycombs. Moreover, it has been found that a generic formula can be used to describe the relationship between tearing energy per unit fracture area and relative density for both aluminum honeycombs and foams.

  1. Thermal analysis of GFRP-reinforced continuous concrete decks subjected to top fire (United States)

    Hawileh, Rami A.; Rasheed, Hayder A.


    This paper presents a numerical study that investigates the behavior of continuous concrete decks doubly reinforced with top and bottom glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars subjected to top surface fire. A finite element (FE) model is developed and a detailed transient thermal analysis is performed on a continuous concrete bridge deck under the effect of various fire curves. A parametric study is performed to examine the top cover thickness and the critical fire exposure curve needed to fully degrade the top GFRP bars while achieving certain fire ratings for the deck considered. Accordingly, design tables are prepared for each fire curve to guide the engineer to properly size the top concrete cover and maintain the temperature in the GFRP bars below critical design values in order to control the full top GFRP degradation. It is notable to indicate that degradation of top GFRP bars do not pose a collapse hazard but rather a serviceability concern since cracks in the negative moment region widen resulting in simply supported spans.

  2. Damage Analysis of Aluminium Foam Panel Subjected to Underwater Shock Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan He


    Full Text Available Underwater shock loading experiment device is the equipment which simulates underwater explosive shock wave through experiment. Underwater shock loading experiment device was used to conduct high-speed underwater impact on aluminium foam panel and its damage modes were studied in this paper. 3D dynamic DIC test system was used to collect and analyze real-time deformation of target board. After the experiment was completed, a numerical simulation of the series of experiment was conducted through ABAQUS finite element simulation and then a comparative analysis of the experiment was implemented. To comprehensively study damage modes of aluminium foam panel subjected to underwater shock loading, damage modes of aluminium foam panel at different shock speeds were studied. Results indicated that when a certain impact speed which could damage aluminium foam panel was reached, if the impact speed was low, aluminium foam panel would generate shear fracture at constrained boundary of flange; if the impact speed was high, aluminium foam panel would firstly generate fracture at the center and then generate shear fracture at constrained boundary of flange, and central fracture would generate three cracks.

  3. Analysis of the strain induced martensitic transformation in austenitic steel subjected to dynamic perforation (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, J. A.; Rusinek, A.; Pesci, R.; Zaera, R.


    An experimental and numerical analysis on the martensitic transformation in AISI 304 steel sheets subjected to perforation by conical and hemispherical projectiles is reported. Two target thicknesses are considered, 0.5 and 1.0 mm, and impact velocities range from 35 to 200 m/s. The perforation mechanisms are identified and the effect of the projectile nose-shape on the ability of the target for energy absorption is evaluated. Martensite has been detected in all the impacted samples and the role played by the projectile nose-shape on the transformation is highlighted. A 3D model implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit allowed to simulate the perforation tests. The material is defined through a constitutive description developed by the authors to describe the strain induced martensitic transformation taking place in metastable austenitic steels at high strain rates. The numerical results are compared with the experimental evidence and satisfactory matching is obtained. The numerical model succeeds in describing the perforation mechanisms associated to each projectile-target configuration analysed.

  4. Photoacoustic physio-chemical analysis of liver conditions in animal and human subjects (United States)

    Wang, Xueding; Xu, Guan; Tian, Chao; Wan, Shanshan; Welling, Theodore H.; Lok, Anna S. F.; Rubin, Jonathan M.


    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease affecting 30% of the population in the United States. Biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing NAFLD. Liver histology assesses the amount of fat, and determines type and extent of cell injury, inflammation and fibrosis. However, liver biopsy is invasive and is limited by sampling error. Current radiological diagnostic modalities can evaluate the 'physical' morphology in liver by quantifying the backscattered US signals, but cannot interrogate the 'histochemical' components forming these backscatterers. For example, ultrasound (US) imaging can detect the presence of fat but cannot differentiate steatosis alone from steatohepatitis. Our previous study of photoacoustic physiochemical analysis (PAPCA) has demonstrated that this method can characterize the histological changes in livers during the progression of NAFLD in animal models. In this study, we will further validate PAPCA with human livers. Ex vivo human liver samples with steatosis, fibrosis and cirrhosis will be scanned using optical illumination at wavelengths of 680-1700 nm and compared to histology results. In vivo study on human subjects with confirmed steatosis is planned using our PA-ultrasound (US) parallel imaging system based on Verasonic US imaging flatform with an L7-4 probe. 10 mJ/cm2 per pulse optical energy at 755 nm will be delivered to the skin surface, which is under the safety limit of American National Standard Institute. Preliminary study with ex vivo human tissue has demonstrated the potential of the proposed approach in differentiating human liver conditions.

  5. Safety analysis of nuclear containment vessels subjected to strong earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Feng; Li, Hong Zhi [Dept. Structural Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)


    Nuclear power plants under expansion and under construction in China are mostly located in coastal areas, which means they are at risk of suffering strong earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis. This paper presents a safety analysis for a new reinforced concrete containment vessel in such events. A finite element method-based model was built, verified, and first used to understand the seismic performance of the containment vessel under earthquakes with increased intensities. Then, the model was used to assess the safety performance of the containment vessel subject to an earthquake with peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.56g and subsequent tsunamis with increased inundation depths, similar to the 2011 Great East earthquake and tsunami in Japan. Results indicated that the containment vessel reached Limit State I (concrete cracking) and Limit State II (concrete crushing) when the PGAs were in a range of 0.8–1.1g and 1.2–1.7g, respectively. The containment vessel reached Limit State I with a tsunami inundation depth of 10 m after suffering an earthquake with a PGA of 0.56g. A site-specific hazard assessment was conducted to consider the likelihood of tsunami sources.

  6. Oral reading fluency analysis in patients with Alzheimer disease and asymptomatic control subjects. (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, F; Meilán, J J G; García-Sevilla, J; Carro, J; Arana, J M


    Many studies highlight that an impaired ability to communicate is one of the key clinical features of Alzheimer disease (AD). To study temporal organisation of speech in an oral reading task in patients with AD and in matched healthy controls using a semi-automatic method, and evaluate that method's ability to discriminate between the 2 groups. A test with an oral reading task was administered to 70 subjects, comprising 35 AD patients and 35 controls. Before speech samples were recorded, participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. There were no differences between groups with regard to age, sex, or educational level. All of the study variables showed impairment in the AD group. According to the results, AD patients' oral reading was marked by reduced speech and articulation rates, low effectiveness of phonation time, and increases in the number and proportion of pauses. Signal processing algorithms applied to reading fluency recordings were shown to be capable of differentiating between AD patients and controls with an accuracy of 80% (specificity 74.2%, sensitivity 77.1%) based on speech rate. Analysis of oral reading fluency may be useful as a tool for the objective study and quantification of speech deficits in AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of the strain induced martensitic transformation in austenitic steel subjected to dynamic perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaera R.


    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical analysis on the martensitic transformation in AISI 304 steel sheets subjected to perforation by conical and hemispherical projectiles is reported. Two target thicknesses are considered, 0.5 and 1.0 mm, and impact velocities range from 35 to 200 m/s. The perforation mechanisms are identified and the effect of the projectile nose-shape on the ability of the target for energy absorption is evaluated. Martensite has been detected in all the impacted samples and the role played by the projectile nose-shape on the transformation is highlighted. A 3D model implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit allowed to simulate the perforation tests. The material is defined through a constitutive description developed by the authors to describe the strain induced martensitic transformation taking place in metastable austenitic steels at high strain rates. The numerical results are compared with the experimental evidence and satisfactory matching is obtained. The numerical model succeeds in describing the perforation mechanisms associated to each projectile-target configuration analysed.

  8. Development and application of an automated analysis method for individual cerebral perfusion single photon emission tomography images

    CERN Document Server

    Cluckie, A J


    Neurological images may be analysed by performing voxel by voxel comparisons with a group of control subject images. An automated, 3D, voxel-based method has been developed for the analysis of individual single photon emission tomography (SPET) scans. Clusters of voxels are identified that represent regions of abnormal radiopharmaceutical uptake. Morphological operators are applied to reduce noise in the clusters, then quantitative estimates of the size and degree of the radiopharmaceutical uptake abnormalities are derived. Statistical inference has been performed using a Monte Carlo method that has not previously been applied to SPET scans, or for the analysis of individual images. This has been validated for group comparisons of SPET scans and for the analysis of an individual image using comparison with a group. Accurate statistical inference was obtained independent of experimental factors such as degrees of freedom, image smoothing and voxel significance level threshold. The analysis method has been eval...

  9. Exploring aphasic grammar. 1: A single case analysis of conversation. (United States)

    Beeke, Suzanne; Wilkinson, Ray; Maxim, Jane


    This paper uses the methodology and analytical findings of conversation analysis to investigate the notion that aphasic grammar may be understood at least partly in the context of the demands of turns at talk in conversation. An investigation of the conversation of an English-speaking person with aphasia reveals two distinct grammatical phenomena, and it is suggested that their use may be interactionally motivated by the need to take a relatively unproblematic turn at talk despite the constraints of non-fluent aphasia. The grammatical patterns that are revealed by this analysis look considerably different from those elicited by standard methods of data sampling. The possibility that interactional grammatical phenomena are not visible in the language data elicited by clinical assessments is raised. This question is addressed via an in-depth comparison of the same speaker's interactional and elicited grammar in a linked article. It is suggested that the tool of conversation analysis provides researchers with a new and fruitful approach to the study of grammatical abilities in aphasia.

  10. Within-subject mediation analysis for experimental data in cognitive psychology and neuroscience. (United States)

    Vuorre, Matti; Bolger, Niall


    Statistical mediation allows researchers to investigate potential causal effects of experimental manipulations through intervening variables. It is a powerful tool for assessing the presence and strength of postulated causal mechanisms. Although mediation is used in certain areas of psychology, it is rarely applied in cognitive psychology and neuroscience. One reason for the scarcity of applications is that these areas of psychology commonly employ within-subjects designs, and mediation models for within-subjects data are considerably more complicated than for between-subjects data. Here, we draw attention to the importance and ubiquity of mediational hypotheses in within-subjects designs, and we present a general and flexible software package for conducting Bayesian within-subjects mediation analyses in the R programming environment. We use experimental data from cognitive psychology to illustrate the benefits of within-subject mediation for theory testing and comparison.

  11. A critical analysis of human-subject experiments in virtual reality and 3D user interfaces


    Andújar Gran, Carlos Antonio; Brunet Crosa, Pere


    This paper is about the major peculiarities and difficulties we encounter when trying to validate research results in fields such as virtual reality (VR) and 3D user interfaces (3DUI). We review the steps in the empirical method and discuss a number of challenges when conducting human-subject experiments. These challenges include the number of independent variables to control to get useful findings, the within-subjects or between-subjects dilemma, hard-to-collect data, experimenter effects, e...

  12. Risk analysis for roadways subjected to multiple landslide-related hazards (United States)

    Corominas, Jordi; Mavrouli, Olga


    Roadways through mountainous terrain often involve cuts and landslide areas whose stability is precarious and require protection and stabilization works. To optimize the allocation of resources, government and technical offices are increasingly interested in both the risk analysis and assessment. Risk analysis has to consider the hazard occurrence and the consequences. The consequences can be both direct and indirect. The former include the costs regarding the repair of the roadway, the damage of vehicles and the potential fatalities, while the latter refer to the costs related to the diversion of vehicles, the excess of distance travelled, the time differences, and tolls. The type of slope instabilities that may affect a roadway may vary and its effects as well. Most current approaches either consider a single hazardous phenomenon each time, or if applied at small (for example national) scale, they do not take into account local conditions at each section of the roadway. The objective of this work is the development of a simple and comprehensive methodology for the assessment of the risk due to multiple hazards along roadways, integrating different landslide types that include rockfalls, debris flows and considering as well the potential failure of retaining walls. To quantify risk, all hazards are expressed with a common term: their probability of occurrence. The methodology takes into consideration the specific local conditions along the roadway. For rockfalls and debris flow a variety of methods for assessing the probability of occurrence exists. To assess the annual probability of failure of retaining walls we use an indicator-based model that provides a hazard index. The model parameters consist in the design safety factor, and further anchorage design and construction parameters. The probability of failure is evaluated in function of the hazard index and next corrected (in terms of order of magnitude) according to in situ observations for increase of two

  13. Single-block rockfall dynamics inferred from seismic signal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hibert


    Full Text Available Seismic monitoring of mass movements can significantly help to mitigate the associated hazards; however, the link between event dynamics and the seismic signals generated is not completely understood. To better understand these relationships, we conducted controlled releases of single blocks within a soft-rock (black marls gully of the Rioux-Bourdoux torrent (French Alps. A total of 28 blocks, with masses ranging from 76 to 472 kg, were used for the experiment. An instrumentation combining video cameras and seismometers was deployed along the travelled path. The video cameras allow reconstructing the trajectories of the blocks and estimating their velocities at the time of the different impacts with the slope. These data are compared to the recorded seismic signals. As the distance between the falling block and the seismic sensors at the time of each impact is known, we were able to determine the associated seismic signal amplitude corrected for propagation and attenuation effects. We compared the velocity, the potential energy lost, the kinetic energy and the momentum of the block at each impact to the true amplitude and the radiated seismic energy. Our results suggest that the amplitude of the seismic signal is correlated to the momentum of the block at the impact. We also found relationships between the potential energy lost, the kinetic energy and the seismic energy radiated by the impacts. Thanks to these relationships, we were able to retrieve the mass and the velocity before impact of each block directly from the seismic signal. Despite high uncertainties, the values found are close to the true values of the masses and the velocities of the blocks. These relationships allow for gaining a better understanding of the physical processes that control the source of high-frequency seismic signals generated by rockfalls.

  14. Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Self-Management Interventions in Single-Case Research (United States)

    Briesch, Amy M.; Briesch, Jacquelyn M.


    The current study meta-analyzed 47 single-subject studies of behavioral self-management interventions that were published between 1971 and 2011. In addition to obtaining an overall measure of effect across all self-management studies (f = 0.93), analyses were conducted to assess whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by factors such as…

  15. Analysis of Variable-Speed Operation of Drives with Single-Phase Machines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chomát, Miroslav; Schreier, Luděk; Bendl, Jiří


    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2007), s. 139-147 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/06/0215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : single-phase machines * induction machines * variable-speed drives Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  16. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of the MEK1/2 inhibitor, selumetinib, in Asian and Western healthy subjects: a pooled analysis. (United States)

    Dymond, Angela W; Elks, Cathy; Martin, Paul; Carlile, David J; Mariani, Gabriella; Lovick, Susan; Huang, Yifan; Lorch, Ulrike; Brown, Helen; So, Karen


    Emerging data on selumetinib, a MEK1/2 inhibitor in clinical development, suggest a possible difference in pharmacokinetics (PK) between Japanese and Western patients. This pooled analysis sought to assess the effect of ethnicity on selumetinib exposure in healthy Western and Asian subjects, and to identify any association between genetic variants in the UGT1A1, CYP2C19 and ABCG2 genes and observed differences in selumetinib PK. A pooled analysis of data from ten Phase I studies, one in Asian subjects (encompassing Japanese, non-Japanese Asian and Indian Asian subjects) and nine in Western subjects, was conducted. Key findings were derived from the collective exposure data across doses of 25, 35, 50 and 75 mg selumetinib; primary variables were dose-normalized AUC and C max . PK data from 308 subjects (10 studies) were available for the pooled analysis; genetic data from 87 subjects (3 studies) were available for the pharmacogenetic analysis. Dose-normalized AUC and C max were 35% (95% CI: 25-47%) and 39% (95% CI: 24-56%) higher in the pooled Asian group, respectively, compared with Western subjects. PK exposure parameters were similar between the Japanese, non-Japanese Asian and Indian groups. There was no evidence that the polymorphisms assessed in the genes UGT1A1, CYP2C19 and ABCG2 account for observed PK differences. Selumetinib exposure was higher in healthy Asian subjects compared with Western subjects, and these data provide valuable insight for clinicians to consider when treating patients of Asian ethnicity with selumetinib.

  17. X-ray diffraction analysis of some single crystals with special properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipin, M.Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Organoelement Compounds


    New possibilities of the X-ray diffraction method for studies of some single crystals with special physical properties are analyzed. It is demonstrated that wide range temperature diffraction data, special single crystals experiments under strong electric fields, and charge density analysis in crystals might enrich the knowledge on the nature of the crystal properties.

  18. Quantitative Synthesis and Component Analysis of Single-Participant Studies on the Picture Exchange Communication System (United States)

    Tincani, Matt; Devis, Kathryn


    The "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) has emerged as the augmentative communication intervention of choice for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a supporting body of single-participant studies. This report describes a meta-analysis of 16 single-participant studies on PECS with percentage of nonoverlapping data…

  19. Toward Single Enzyme Analysis in a Droplet-based Micro and Nanofluidic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arayanarakool, Rerngchai


    In this thesis, we demonstrate the application of a micro- and nanofluidic device for the single-enzyme analysis by encapsulating single enzymes into the generated aqueous droplets in oil. This thesis consists of the introduction (chapter 1), a review of the generation and manipulation of droplets

  20. Citation analysis with medical subject Headings (MeSH) using the Web of Knowledge: A new routine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Opthof, Tobias


    Citation analysis of documents retrieved from the Medline database (at the Web of Knowledge) has been possible only on a case-by-case basis. A technique is presented here for citation analysis in batch mode using both Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) at the Web of Knowledge and the Science Citation

  1. Status and subjects of thermal-hydraulic analysis for next-generation LWRs with passive safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The present status and subjects on thermal-hydraulic analysis for next-generation light water reactors (LWRs) with passive safety systems were summarized based on survey results and discussion by subcommittee on improvement of reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis codes under nuclear code committee in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This survey was performed to promote the research of improvement of reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis codes in future. In the first part of this report, the status and subjects on system analysis and those on evaluation of passive safety system performance are summarized for various types of reactor proposed before. In the second part, the status and subjects on multidimensional two-phase flow analysis are reviewed, since the multidimensional analysis was recognized as one of most important subjects through the investigation in the first part. Besides, databases for bubbly flow and annular dispersed flow were explored, those are needed to assess and verify each multidimensional analytical method. The contents in this report are the forefront of thermal-hydraulic analysis for LWRs and those include current findings for the development of multidimensional two-phase flow analytical method. Thus, we expect that the contents can offer various useful information against the improvement of reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis codes in future. (author)

  2. Yield and energy absorption in single and multi-phase glassy polymers subjected to multiaxial stress states: Theoretical and experimental studies (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Ramaswamy

    This thesis investigates the macroscopic yield behavior and microscopic energy absorption mechanisms in single and multiphase polymers. One unique aspect is the evaluation of polymers under multiaxial loading conditions. This is important because in many applications polymers are subjected to complex loading conditions and hence optimal design requires experimental evaluation and modeling of behavior under multiaxial stress states. This work has resulted in a more quantitative understanding of yield and energy absorption in the different polymers considered. Multiaxial stress states are achieved using thin-walled hollow cylinder specimens. The hollow tubes are simultaneously subjected to internal pressure and axial load, leading to biaxial stress states. Stress states ranging from uniaxial compression to equibiaxial tension are interrogated using the same specimen geometry, a procedure uncovering true material behavior. In the first part of this study, a generalized model for the yield behavior of single-phase polymers is evaluated for a polycarbonate system. The generalized model accounts not only accounts for viscoelasticity (i.e., rate and temperature dependence) but also the effect of pressure on yield behavior. The effects of physical aging on the behavior of amorphous polycarbonate are also highlighted. For rubber-modified polymers, existing models for both macroscopic yield behavior and the onset of microscopic damage (e.g., cavitation) are evaluated under multiaxial conditions (chapter 3). Serious discrepancies are found for both cases, prompting an investigation into the nature of energy absorption mechanisms in the materials. Apart from the chosen rubber-modified systems, a toughening mechanism in the form of overlapping parallel cracks is identified to be generic to a range of polymers (chapter 4). The last part of the thesis (chapter 5) involves a quantitative investigation of interactions in overlapping crack patterns. This effort is vital, because for

  3. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Xiong Huang


    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG. In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes, our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes, blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI.

  4. The Effect of Isomaltulose Together with Green Tea on Glycemic Response and Antioxidant Capacity: A Single-Blind, Crossover Study in Healthy Subjects. (United States)

    Suraphad, Passakorn; Suklaew, Phim On; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Mäkynen, Kittana


    Isomaltulose, a naturally-occurring isomer of sucrose, is commonly used as an alternative sweetener in foods and beverages. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of isomaltulose together with green tea on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentration, as well as antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 15 healthy subjects (eight women and seven men; ages 23.5 ± 0.7 years; with body mass index of 22.6 ± 0.4 kg/m²) consumed five beverages: (1) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL water; (2) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of water; (3) 400 mL of green tea; (4) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL of green tea; and (5) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of green tea. Incremental area under postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were determined during 120 min of administration. Following the consumption of isomaltulose, the incremental 2-h area under the curve (AUC 0-2 h ) indicated a higher reduction of postprandial glucose (43.4%) and insulin concentration (42.0%) than the consumption of sucrose. The addition of green tea to isomaltulose produced a greater suppression of postprandial plasma glucose (20.9%) and insulin concentration (37.7%). In accordance with antioxidant capacity, consumption of sucrose (40.0%) and isomaltulose (28.7%) caused the reduction of green tea-induced postprandial increases in FRAP. A reduction in postprandial MDA after drinking green tea was attenuated when consumed with sucrose (34.7%) and isomaltulose (17.2%). In conclusion, green tea could enhance the reduction of postprandial glucose and insulin concentration when consumed with isomaltulose. In comparison with sucrose, isomaltulose demonstrated less alteration of plasma antioxidant capacity after being consumed with green tea.

  5. Essentials of single-cell analysis concepts, applications and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Santra, Tuhin


    This book provides an overview of single-cell isolation, separation, injection, lysis and dynamics analysis as well as a study of their heterogeneity using different miniaturized devices. As an important part of single-cell analysis, different techniques including electroporation, microinjection, optical trapping, optoporation, rapid electrokinetic patterning and optoelectronic tweezers are described in detail. It presents different fluidic systems (e.g. continuous micro/nano-fluidic devices, microfluidic cytometry) and their integration with sensor technology, optical and hydrodynamic stretchers etc., and demonstrates the applications of single-cell analysis in systems biology, proteomics, genomics, epigenomics, cancer transcriptomics, metabolomics, biomedicine and drug delivery systems. It also discusses the future challenges for single-cell analysis, including the advantages and limitations. This book is enjoyable reading material while at the same time providing essential information to scientists in acad...

  6. The Making of the Modern Subject: A Cross-Cultural Analysis (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping


    The postmodern critique of modernity has focused on the construction of the modern subject and the self-disciplining and self-cancellation tendencies within it. This critique, however, fails to consider what happens during the early years of children's development--the period during which the modern subject is made, and the one in which the…

  7. Discipline, subjectivity and personality : an analysis of the manuals of four psychological tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.

    The administration of psychological tests is highly regulated. Test manuals prescribe the instructions to the test subject, the time the test should take, where it should take place, whether and hen; the test administrator should answer questions from the test subject, and other aspects of the

  8. Analysis of Subjects' Vulnerability in a Touch Screen Game Using Behavioral Metrics. (United States)

    Parsinejad, Payam; Sipahi, Rifat


    In this article, we report results on an experimental study conducted with volunteer subjects playing a touch-screen game with two unique difficulty levels. Subjects have knowledge about the rules of both game levels, but only sufficient playing experience with the easy level of the game, making them vulnerable with the difficult level. Several behavioral metrics associated with subjects' playing the game are studied in order to assess subjects' mental-workload changes induced by their vulnerability. Specifically, these metrics are calculated based on subjects' finger kinematics and decision making times, which are then compared with baseline metrics, namely, performance metrics pertaining to how well the game is played and a physiological metric called pnn50 extracted from heart rate measurements. In balanced experiments and supported by comparisons with baseline metrics, it is found that some of the studied behavioral metrics have the potential to be used to infer subjects' mental workload changes through different levels of the game. These metrics, which are decoupled from task specifics, relate to subjects' ability to develop strategies to play the game, and hence have the advantage of offering insight into subjects' task-load and vulnerability assessment across various experimental settings.

  9. Morphometric connectivity analysis to distinguish normal, mild cognitive impaired, and Alzheimer subjects based on brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge; Mysling, Peter


    This work investigates a novel way of looking at the regions in the brain and their relationship as possible markers to classify normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and Alzheimer Disease (AD) subjects. MRI scans from a subset of 101 subjects from the ADNI study at baseline was used...

  10. Conformational analysis of single perfluoroalkyl chains by single-molecule real-time transmission electron microscopic imaging. (United States)

    Harano, Koji; Takenaga, Shinya; Okada, Satoshi; Niimi, Yoshiko; Yoshikai, Naohiko; Isobe, Hiroyuki; Suenaga, Kazu; Kataura, Hiromichi; Koshino, Masanori; Nakamura, Eiichi


    Whereas a statistical average of molecular ensembles has been the conventional source of information on molecular structures, atomic resolution movies of single organic molecules obtained by single-molecule real-time transmission electron microscopy have recently emerged as a new tool to study the time evolution of the structures of individual molecules. The present work describes a proof-of-principle study of the determination of the conformation of each C-C bond in single perfluoroalkyl fullerene molecules encapsulated in a single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) as well as those attached to the outer surface of a carbon nanohorn (CNH). Analysis of 82 individual molecules in CNTs under a 120 kV electron beam indicated that 6% of the CF2-CF2 bonds and about 20% of the CH2-CH2 bonds in the corresponding hydrocarbon analogue are in the gauche conformation. This comparison qualitatively matches the known conformational data based on time- and molecular-average as determined for ensembles. The transmission electron microscopy images also showed that the molecules entered the CNTs predominantly in one orientation. The molecules attached on a CNH surface moved more freely and exhibited more diverse conformation than those in a CNT, suggesting the potential applicability of this method for the determination of the dynamic shape of flexible molecules and of detailed conformations. We observed little sign of any decomposition of the specimen molecules, at least up to 10(7) e·nm(-2) (electrons/nm(2)) at 120 kV acceleration voltage. Decomposition of CNHs under irradiation with a 300 kV electron beam was suppressed by cooling to 77 K, suggesting that the decomposition is a chemical process. Several lines of evidence suggest that the graphitic substrate and the attached molecules are very cold.

  11. DNA methylation analysis of the macrosatellite repeat associated with FSHD muscular dystrophy at single nucleotide level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Huichalaf

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is one of the most common inherited diseases of the skeletal muscle. It is characterized by asymmetric muscle weakness and variable penetrance. FSHD is linked to a reduction in copy number of the D4Z4 3.3 kb macrosatellite repeat, located in 4q35. This causes the epigenetic de-repression of FSHD candidate genes leading to disease. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism responsible for silencing of FSHD candidate genes in healthy subjects is not fully understood. While a role for DNA methylation has been suggested, so far there is limited information regarding the methylation status of the 325 CpGs contained in each D4Z4 unit. Using a human/rodent monochromosomal hybrid cell line containing a single human chromosome 4, we performed an in depth analysis of DNA methylation for the majority of the CpGs inside D4Z4 at single nucleotide level. We found that D4Z4 is not uniformly methylated and that the level of DNA methylation does not correlate with the density of CpG dinucleotides. Moreover, in several D4Z4 regions characterized by near complete methylation, we found specific unmethylated CpGs. These elements are enriched in transcription factor binding sites that could be involved in muscle-specific D4Z4 activity. Our approach also detected differential methylation among different D4Z4 units, suggesting that the D4Z4 array is a mosaic of euchromatic and heterochromatic domains. Finally, we found that DNA methylation and histone de-acetylation are required to maintain FSHD candidate genes repressed. Taken together, our data underscore new players involved in the epigenetic regulation of the FSHD locus that could be targeted for therapeutic purposes.

  12. Stochastic analysis model for vehicle-track coupled systems subject to earthquakes and track random irregularities (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Zhai, Wanming


    This paper devotes to develop a computational model for stochastic analysis and reliability assessment of vehicle-track systems subject to earthquakes and track random irregularities. In this model, the earthquake is expressed as non-stationary random process simulated by spectral representation and random function, and the track random irregularities with ergodic properties on amplitudes, wavelengths and probabilities are characterized by a track irregularity probabilistic model, and then the number theoretical method (NTM) is applied to effectively select representative samples of earthquakes and track random irregularities. Furthermore, a vehicle-track coupled model is presented to obtain the dynamic responses of vehicle-track systems due to the earthquakes and track random irregularities at time-domain, and the probability density evolution method (PDEM) is introduced to describe the evolutionary process of probability from excitation input to response output by assuming the vehicle-track system as a probabilistic conservative system, which lays the foundation on reliability assessment of vehicle-track systems. The effectiveness of the proposed model is validated by comparing to the results of Monte-Carlo method from statistical viewpoint. As an illustrative example, the random vibrations of a high-speed railway vehicle running on the track slabs excited by lateral seismic waves and track random irregularities are analyzed, from which some significant conclusions can be drawn, e.g., track irregularities will additionally promote the dynamic influence of earthquakes especially on maximum values and dispersion degree of responses; the characteristic frequencies or frequency ranges respectively governed by earthquakes and track random irregularities are greatly different, moreover, the lateral seismic waves will dominate or even change the characteristic frequencies of system responses of some lateral dynamic indices at low frequency.

  13. Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Aircraft Wing Subjected to Fatigue Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem Rahim Wasmi


    Full Text Available This study deals with the aircraft wing analysis (numerical and experimental which subjected to fatigue loading in order to analyze the aircraft wing numerically by using ANSYS 15.0 software and experimentally by using loading programs which effect on fatigue test specimens at laboratory to estimate life of used metal (aluminum alloy 7075-T651 the wing metal and compare between numerical and experimental work, as well as to formulate an experimental mathematical model which may find safe estimate for metals and most common alloys that are used to build aircraft wing at certain conditions. In experimental work, a (34 specimen of (aluminum alloy 7075-T651 were tested using alternating bending fatigue machine rig. The test results are ; (18 Specimen to establish the (S-N curve and endurance limit and the other specimens used for variable amplitude tests were represented by loading programs which represents actual flight conditions. Also it has been obtained the safe fatigue curves which are described by mathematical formulas. ANSYS results show convergence with experimental results about cumulative fatigue damage (D, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the life; this model gives good results in case of actual loading programs. Also, Miner and Marsh rules are applied to the specimens and compared with the proposal mathematical model in order to estimate the life of the wing material under actual flight loading conditions, comparing results show that it is possible to depend on present mathematical model than Miner and Marsh theories because the proposal mathematical model shows safe and good results compared with experimental work results.

  14. Clival chordoma: a single-centre outcome analysis. (United States)

    Jägersberg, Max; El Rahal, Amir; Dammann, Philipp; Merkler, Doron; Weber, Damien Charles; Schaller, Karl


    The treatment of clival chordomas remains challenging. Total tumour resection is often impossible without hampering adjacent anatomical structures and causing functional sequelae. On the other hand, chordomas show limited response to non-surgical treatment modalities. Up to now, no well-established interdisciplinary treatment algorithms for clival chordomas exist. In this regard, we analysed the data from all patients that underwent interdisciplinary treatment for clival chordoma in our institution over the last 10 years. Retrospective report of all patients treated at the authors' institution from 2005 to 2015. Thirteen patients underwent 24 surgeries, of which 2 (8%) were gross total resections and 22 (92%) incomplete resections. Neurological deterioration, endocrinological disturbances and other surgical complications were observed in six (25%), three (13%) and nine (38%) cases, respectively. Three surgeries (13%) led to an improvement of the initial preoperative neurological condition. All patients were discussed on the interdisciplinary tumour board and all underwent one type of radiotherapy following initial surgery: proton beam in 11 cases (85%) and photon beam in two (15%) cases. In the course of their recurrent disease, three patients (23%) received systemic therapy (imatinib, pazopanib and nivolumab). One patient received a personalised cellular immunotherapy. One patient (8%) was lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 12 patients, four patients (33%) died in the period of analysis; all deaths were chordoma-related. The 5-year cumulative survival rate was 83% (52-97%, CI 95%), 5-year progression-free survival rate was 53% (26-79%, CI 95%). The eight patients (66%) still alive had favourable outcome (KPS, 90 ± 10.7%). SF36 analysis among the survivors revealed 43 points for the Physical Component Summary (12% above, 38% at and 50% below the general population norm) and 47 points for the Mental Component Summary (25% above, 38% at and 38% below). Our

  15. Wavelet coherence analysis of spontaneous oscillations in cerebral tissue oxyhemoglobin concentrations and arterial blood pressure in elderly subjects. (United States)

    Cui, Ruofei; Zhang, Ming; Li, Zengyong; Xin, Qing; Lu, Liqian; Zhou, Weiei; Han, Qingyu; Gao, Yuanjin


    This study aims to assess the relationship between spontaneous oscillations in changes in cerebral tissue oxyhemoglobin concentrations (Delta [HbO2]) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals in healthy elderly subjects during the resting state using wavelet coherence analysis. Continuous recordings of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and ABP signals were obtained from simultaneous measurements in 33 healthy elderly subjects (age: 70.7±7.9 years) and 27 young subjects (age: 25.2±3.7 years) during the resting state. The coherence between Delta [HbO2] and ABP oscillations in six frequency intervals (I, 0.4-2 Hz; II, 0.15-0.4 Hz; III, 0.05-0.15 Hz; IV, 0.02-0.05 Hz, V, 0.005-0.0095 Hz and VI, 0.005-0.0095 Hz) was analyzed using wavelet coherence analysis. In elderly subjects, the Delta [HbO2] and ABP oscillations were significantly wavelet coherent in interval I, and wavelet phase coherent in intervals I, II and IV. The wavelet coherence in interval I was significantly higher (p=0.040), in elderly subjects than in young subjects whereas that in interval V significantly lower (p=0.015). In addition, the wavelet phase coherence in interval IV was significantly higher in elderly subjects than in young subjects (p=0.028). The difference in the wavelet coherence of the elderly subjects and the young subjects indicates an altered cerebral autoregulation caused by aging. This study provides new insight into the dynamics of Delta [HbO2] and ABP oscillations and may be useful in identifying the risk for dynamic cerebral autoregulation processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Retrospective analysis of paediatric achalasia in India: Single centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Singh


    Full Text Available Background: Developing countries at tertiary referral centre. The aim of this study was to share our experience of paediatric achalasia in Indian scenario. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of children <16 years, operated for achalasia at our centre, from December 1998 to December 2011. Results: Total 40 patients (mean age 39 ± 4.29 months, including 1 patient of megaesophagus were operated over 13 years of period; 17 patients (associated congenital H-type tracheoesophageal fistula in one patient, non- responders/ lost follow-up for minimum of 3 years in 16 patients were excluded from the study. The response rate of parents in follow-up was 60.0%. Mean symptoms duration was 27.88 ± 2 months. Most common symptoms were regurgitation and failure to thrive (78.2%. Mean symptom scoring in follow-up after 3 year was 1 ± 0.7 compared to 5 ± 0.51 at the time of admission (P < 0.012. One infant expired (mediastenitis, one developed adhesive intestinal obstruction and one needed posterior re-myotomy (for megaesophagus. There were no treatment failures in mean follow-up of 40.2 ± 5.07 months. Conclusions: Cardiomyotomy with partial fundoplication is the best modality of treatment for paediatric achalasia cardia, even from parents′ perspective.

  17. Hemodynamic mechanisms of the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Neves


    Full Text Available To determine the hemodynamic mechanisms responsible for the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after exercise, 26 healthy sedentary individuals (age 29 ± 8 years underwent the Stroop color-word test before and 60 min after a bout of maximal dynamic exercise on a treadmill. A subgroup (N = 11 underwent a time-control experiment without exercise. Blood pressure was continuously and noninvasively recorded by infrared finger photoplethysmography. Stroke volume was derived from pressure signals, and cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance were calculated. Perceived mental stress scores were comparable between mental stress tests both in the exercise (P = 0.96 and control (P = 0.24 experiments. After exercise, the blood pressure response to mental stress was attenuated (pre: 10 ± 13 vs post: 6 ± 7 mmHg; P 0.05. In conclusion, a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise attenuates the blood pressure response to mental stress in healthy subjects, along with lower stroke volume and cardiac output, denoting an acute modulatory action of exercise on the central hemodynamic response to mental stress.

  18. Exploring inter-task transfer following a CO-OP approach with four children with DCD: A single subject multiple baseline design. (United States)

    Capistran, Julie; Martini, Rose


    Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach has been shown to be effective for improving the performance of tasks worked on in therapy and the use of cognitive strategies. No study to date seems to have explored its effectiveness for improving performance of untrained tasks (inter-task transfer) in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). This study aimed to determine whether CO-OP leads to improved performance in an untrained task. A single-subject design with multiple baselines across skills was adopted, with three replications. Four children with DCD (7-12years) received 10 sessions of CO-OP intervention where each child worked on three tasks during therapy sessions and a fourth task was identified, but not worked on, to verify inter-task transfer. Task performance was rated over four phases (baseline, intervention, post-intervention, follow-up) using the Performance Quality Rating Scale (PQRS-OD). Graphed data was statistically analyzed using a two or three standard deviation band method. Significant improvement was obtained for 11 of 12 tasks worked on during therapy and for two of the four untrained tasks. These results indicate that the effectiveness of CO-OP to improve untrained tasks in children merit further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of TV-1380, a novel mutated butyrylcholinesterase treatment for cocaine addiction, after single and multiple intramuscular injections in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Cohen-Barak, Orit; Wildeman, Jacqueline; van de Wetering, Jeroen; Hettinga, Judith; Schuilenga-Hut, Petra; Gross, Aviva; Clark, Shane; Bassan, Merav; Gilgun-Sherki, Yossi; Mendzelevski, Boaz; Spiegelstein, Ofer


    Human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) contributes to cocaine metabolism and has been considered for use in treating cocaine addiction and cocaine overdose. TV-1380 is a recombinant protein composed of the mature form of human serum albumin fused at its amino terminus to the carboxy-terminus of a truncated and mutated BChE. In preclinical studies, TV-1380 has been shown to rapidly eliminate cocaine in the plasma thus forestalling entry of cocaine into the brain and heart. Two randomized, blinded phase I studies were conducted to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of TV-1380, following single and multiple administration in healthy subjects. TV-1380 was found to be safe and well tolerated with a long half-life (43-77 hours) and showed a dose-proportional increase in systemic exposure. Consistent with preclinical results, the ex vivo cocaine hydrolysis, TV-1380 activity clearly increased upon treatment in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, there was a direct relationship between ex vivo cocaine hydrolysis (kel ) and TV-1380 serum concentrations. There was no evidence that TV-1380 affected heart rate, the uncorrected QT interval, or the heart-rate-corrected QTcF interval. TV-1380, therefore, offers a safe once-weekly therapy to increase cocaine hydrolysis. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. A single session of perturbation-based gait training with the A-TPAD improves dynamic stability in healthy young subjects. (United States)

    Martelli, Dario; Kang, Jiyeon; Agrawal, Sunil K


    Gait and balance disorders are among the most common causes of falls in older adults. Most falls occur as a result of unexpected hazards while walking. In order to improve the effectiveness of current fall-prevention programs, new balance training paradigms aim to strengthen the control of the compensatory responses required after external perturbations. The aim of this study was to analyze the adaptions of reactive and proactive strategies to control stability after repeated exposures to waist-pull perturbations delivered while walking. Eight healthy young subjects participated in a single training session with the Active Tethered Pelvic assisted Device (A-TPAD). Participants were exposed to repeated multi-directional perturbations of increasing intensity. The Antero-Posterior (AP) and Medio-Lateral (ML) Base of Support (BoS) and Margin of Stability (MoS) during the response to diagonal perturbations were compared before and after the training. Results showed that participants adapted both the reactive and proactive strategies to control walking balance by significantly increasing their pre- and post-perturbation stability. The changes were principally accounted for by an increment of the AP BoS and MoS and a reduction of ML BoS. This improved their ability to react to a diagonal perturbation. We envision that this system can be used to develop a perturbation-based gait training aimed at improving balance and control of stability during walking, thus reducing fall risk.

  1. Comparison of forward versus backward walking using body weight supported treadmill training in an individual with a spinal cord injury: a single subject design. (United States)

    Moriello, Gabriele; Pathare, Neeti; Cirone, Cono; Pastore, Danielle; Shears, Dacia; Sulehri, Sahira


    Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) is a task-specific intervention that promotes functional locomotion. There is no research evaluating the effect of backward walking (BW) using BWSTT in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this single subject design was to examine the differences between forward walking (FW) and BW training using BWSTT in an individual with quadriparesis. The participant was a 57-year-old male with incomplete C3-C6 SCI. An ABABAB design (A = BW; B = FW; each phase = 3 weeks of biweekly sessions) was utilized. Outcome measures included: gait parameters; a timed 4-meter walk; the 5-repetition sit-to-stand test (STST); tandem stance time; and 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Data was analyzed with split level method of trend estimation. Improvements in gait parameters, on the timed 4-meter walk, 6MWT, tandem balance and aerobic endurance were similar with FW and BW training. The only difference between FW and BW training was that BW training resulted in greater improvements in the STST. The results of this study suggest that in this individual backward walking training was advantageous, resulting in improved ability to perform the 5-repetition STST. It is suspected that these changes can be attributed to the differences in muscle activation and task difficulty between FW and BW.

  2. The evaluation of modified foot orthosis on muscle activity and kinetic in a subject with flexible flat foot : single case study. (United States)

    Saeedi, Hassan; Mousavi, Mohammad E; Majddoleslam, Basir; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Aminian, Gholamreza; Tabatabai Ghomshe, Farhad; Movahedi Yeganeh, Mohsen


    Due to blocking of pronation/dorsiflexion in flexible flat foot and restriction of these movements in using the University of California Berkeley Laboratory orthosis, provided pressures in sole by the orthosis were increased. Therefore, this article describes the evaluation of modified foot orthosis with flexible structure in the management of individuals with flexible flat foot. CASE DESCRIPTION AND METHOD: The patient was a 21-year-old male who had symptomatic flat foot. The modified foot orthosis included movable surface and the outside structure. The modified foot orthosis was evaluated by standing foot X-ray, comfort rate, electromyography of leg muscle and vertical ground reaction force during walking. The modified foot orthosis improved the foot alignment and decreased the symptoms of flat foot with more comfort. Subtalar position by sub-maximum supination had higher position than neutral in sagittal plane. It may increase the muscle activity of peroneus longus by 7% compared to barefoot, and there was a decrease of 11% ground reaction force in mid stance. The result of this single case evaluation only proposed the feasibility of this modified insole as the orthotic treatment in flexible flat foot. Clinical relevance The modified foot orthosis, which is mobile in the midfoot, is an orthosis for walking and standing in subjects with flexible flat foot.

  3. Comparison of standard PCR/cloning to single genome sequencing for analysis of HIV-1 populations. (United States)

    Jordan, Michael R; Kearney, Mary; Palmer, Sarah; Shao, Wei; Maldarelli, Frank; Coakley, Eoin P; Chappey, Colombe; Wanke, Christine; Coffin, John M


    To compare standard PCR/cloning and single genome sequencing (SGS) in their ability to reflect actual intra-patient polymorphism of HIV-1 populations, a total of 530 HIV-1 pro-pol sequences obtained by both sequencing techniques from a set of 17 ART naïve patient specimens was analyzed. For each specimen, 12 and 15 sequences, on average, were characterized by the two techniques. Using phylogenetic analysis, tests for panmixia and entropy, and Bland-Altman plots, no difference in population structure or genetic diversity was shown in 14 of the 17 subjects. Evidence of sampling bias by the presence of subsets of identical sequences was found by either method. Overall, the study shows that neither method was more biased than the other, and providing that an adequate number of PCR templates is analyzed, and that the bulk sequencing captures the diversity of the viral population, either method is likely to provide a similar measure of population diversity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ewing's sarcoma: analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism in the EWS gene. (United States)

    Silva, Deborah S B S; Sawitzki, Fernanda R; De Toni, Elisa C; Graebin, Pietra; Picanco, Juliane B; Abujamra, Ana Lucia; de Farias, Caroline B; Roesler, Rafael; Brunetto, Algemir L; Alho, Clarice S


    We aimed to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the EWS gene breaking region in order to analyze Ewing's sarcoma susceptibility. The SNPs were investigated in a healthy subject population and in Ewing's sarcoma patients from Southern Brazil. Genotyping was performed by TaqMan® assay for allelic discrimination using Real-Time PCR. The analysis of incidence of SNPs or different SNP-arrangements revealed a higher presence of homozygote TT-rs4820804 in Ewing's sarcoma patients (p=0.02; Chi Square Test). About 300 bp from the rs4820804 SNP lies a palindromic hexamer (5'-GCTAGC-3') and three nucleotides (GTC), which were previously identified to be in close vicinity of the breakpoint junction in both EWS and FLI1 genes. This DNA segment surrounding the rs4820804 SNP is likely to indicate a breakpoint region. If the T-rs4820804 allele predisposes a DNA fragment to breakage, homozygotes (TT-rs4820804) would have double the chance of having a chromosome break, increasing the chances for a translocation to occur. In conclusion, the TT-rs4820804 EWS genotype can be associated with Ewing's sarcoma and the SNP rs4820804 can be a candidate marker to understand Ewing's sarcoma susceptibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Is subjective social status a unique correlate of physical health? A meta-analysis. (United States)

    Cundiff, Jenny M; Matthews, Karen A


    Both social stratification (e.g., social rank) as well as economic resources (e.g., income) are thought to contribute to socioeconomic health disparities. It has been proposed that subjective socioeconomic status (an individual's perception of his or her hierarchical rank) provides increased predictive utility for physical health over and above more traditional, well-researched socioeconomic constructs such as education, occupation, and income. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were systematically searched for studies examining the association of subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health adjusting for at least 1 measure of objective SES. The final sample included 31 studies and 99 unique effects. Meta-analyses were performed to: (a) estimate the overlap among subjective and objective indicators of SES and (b) estimate the cumulative association of subjective SES with physical health adjusting for objective SES. Potential moderators such as race and type of health indicator assessed (global self-reports vs. more specific and biologically based indicators) were also examined. Across samples, subjective SES shows moderate overlap with objective indicators of SES, but associations are much stronger in Whites than Blacks. Subjective SES evidenced a unique cumulative association with physical health in adults, above and beyond traditional objective indicators of SES (Z = .07, SE = .01, p Subjective SES may provide unique information relevant to understanding disparities in health, especially self-rated health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. ZIFA: Dimensionality reduction for zero-inflated single-cell gene expression analysis. (United States)

    Pierson, Emma; Yau, Christopher


    Single-cell RNA-seq data allows insight into normal cellular function and various disease states through molecular characterization of gene expression on the single cell level. Dimensionality reduction of such high-dimensional data sets is essential for visualization and analysis, but single-cell RNA-seq data are challenging for classical dimensionality-reduction methods because of the prevalence of dropout events, which lead to zero-inflated data. Here, we develop a dimensionality-reduction method, (Z)ero (I)nflated (F)actor (A)nalysis (ZIFA), which explicitly models the dropout characteristics, and show that it improves modeling accuracy on simulated and biological data sets.

  7. Fluidic Logic Used in a Systems Approach to Enable Integrated Single-cell Functional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Ramalingam


    Full Text Available The study of single cells has evolved over the past several years to include expression and genomic analysis of an increasing number of single cells. Several studies have demonstrated wide-spread variation and heterogeneity within cell populations of similar phenotype. While the characterization of these populations will likely set the foundation for our understanding of genomic- and expression-based diversity, it will not be able to link the functional differences of a single cell to its underlying genomic structure and activity. Currently, it is difficult to perturb single cells in a controlled environment, monitor and measure the response due to perturbation, and link these response measurements to downstream genomic and transcriptomic analysis. In order to address this challenge, we developed a platform to integrate and miniaturize many of the experimental steps required to study single-cell function. The heart of this platform is an elastomer-based Integrated Fluidic Circuit (IFC that uses fluidic logic to select and sequester specific single cells based on a phenotypic trait for downstream experimentation. Experiments with sequestered cells that have been performed include on-chip culture, exposure to a variety of stimulants, and post-exposure image-based response analysis, followed by preparation of the mRNA transcriptome for massively parallel sequencing analysis. The flexible system embodies experimental design and execution that enable routine functional studies of single cells.

  8. Analysis of the intronic single nucleotide polymorphism rs#466452 of the nephrin gene in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We present the analysis of an intronic polymorphism of the nephrin gene and its relationship to the development of diabetic nephropathy in a study of diabetes type 1 and type 2 patients. The frequency of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs#466452 in the nephrin gene was determined in 231 patients and control subjects. The C/T status of the polymorphism was assessed using restriction enzyme digestions and the nephrin transcript from a kidney biopsy was examined. Association between the polymorphism and clinical parameters was evaluated using multivaríate correspondence analysis. A bioinformatics analysis of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs#466452 suggested the appearance of a splicing enhancer sequence in intron 24 of the nephrin gene and a modification of proteins that bind to this sequence. However, no change in the splicing of a nephrin transcript from a renal biopsy was found. No association was found between the polymorphism and diabetes or degree of renal damage in diabetes type 1 or 2 patients. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs#466452 of the nephrin gene seems to be neutral in relation to diabetes and the development of diabetic nephropathy, and does not affect the splicing of a nephrin transcript, in spite of a splicing enhancer site.

  9. Preferences and beliefs in a sequential social dilemma: a within-subjects analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blanco, M.; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, A. K.; Normann, H.-T.


    Roč. 87, September (2014), s. 122-135 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : beliefs * consensus effect * social dilemma Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.067, year: 2014

  10. Evaluation of work zone speed limits : an objective and subjective analysis of work zones in Missouri. (United States)


    This study objectively and subjectively examined speed characteristics and driver compliance with the posted speed limit : in Missouri work zones. The objective evaluation collected vehicle speeds from four work zones with different : configurations ...

  11. Analysis of Blended Learning Implementation on Waste Treatment Subjects in Agricultural Vocational School (United States)

    Sugiarti, Y.; Nurmayani, S.; Mujdalipah, S.


    Waste treatment is one of the productive subjects in vocational high school in programs of Agricultural Processing Technology which is one of the objectives learning has been assigned in graduate competency standards (SKL) of Vocational High School. Based on case studies that have been conducted in SMK Pertanian Pembangunan Negeri Lembang, waste treatment subjects had still use the lecture method or conventional method, and students are less enthusiastic in learning process. Therefore, the implementation of more interactive learning models such as blended learning with Edmodo is one of alternative models to resolve the issue. So, the purpose of this study is to formulate the appropriate learning syntax for the implementation of blended learning with Edmodo to agree the requirement characteristics of students and waste treatment subject and explain the learning outcome obtained by students in the cognitive aspects on the subjects of waste treatment. This research was conducted by the method of classroom action research (CAR) with a Mc. Tagart model. The result from this research is the implementation of blended learning with Edmodo on the subjects of waste treatment can improve student learning outcomes in the cognitive aspects with the maximum increase in the value of N-gain 0.82, as well as student learning completeness criteria reaching 100% on cycle 2. Based on the condition of subject research the formulation of appropriate learning syntax for implementation of blended learning model with Edmodo on waste treatment subject are 1) Self-paced learning, 2) Group networking, 3) Live Event- collaboration, 4) Association - communication, 5) Assessment - Performance material support. In summary, implementation of blended learning model with Edmodo on waste treatment subject can improve improve student learning outcomes in the cognitive aspects and conducted in five steps on syntax.

  12. Morphometric analysis of vascular pathology in the orbitofrontal cortex of older subjects with major depression. (United States)

    Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose Javier; Jiang, Wei; Konick, Lisa; Overholser, James C; Jurjus, George J; Stockmeier, Craig A; Steffens, David C; Krishnan, K Ranga R; Rajkowska, Grazyna


    Late-life depression has been associated with risk for cerebrovascular pathology, as demonstrated in neuroimaging studies of older depressed patients, as well as mood disorder following cerebrovascular accidents. However, more research is needed on neuroanatomical changes in late-life depression, where there has been no clearly documented link to brain injury. Such studies should examine morphological changes in medium and small sized vessels that supply the cortical gray and white matter. The present study used a non-specific histological Nissl staining and a more vessel-specific immunolabeling with endothelial marker von Willebrand Factor (vWF) to estimate density and size of blood vessel segments in the orbitofrontal cortex of 16 older subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 9 non-psychiatric comparison subjects. The density of Nissl-stained vessel segments and of segments with perivascular spaces was higher in subjects with MDD than in comparison subjects in gray (GM) and white matter (WM). In GM, the density of vWF-immunoreactive segments with cross-sectional areas greater than 800 µm2 was higher in MDD. In WM, only the density of vWF-immunoreactive segments with patent perivascular spaces and diameters larger than 60 µm was higher in subjects with MDD. Also in the WM, only subjects with late-onset MDD presented a significantly higher density of vWF-positive segments than comparison subjects. In older subjects with MDD, there appear to be morphological changes that increase visibility of medium-sized vessel segments with some labeling techniques, and this increased visibility may be related to increased patency of perivascular spaces around arterioles. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


    Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose Javier; Jiang, Wei; Konick, Lisa; Overholser, James C.; Jurjus, George J.; Stockmeier, Craig A.; Steffens, David; Krishnan, K. Ranga R.; Rajkowska, Grazyna


    Objective Late-life depression has been associated with risk for cerebrovascular pathology, as demonstrated in neuroimaging studies of older depressed patients, as well as mood disorder following cerebrovascular accidents. However, more research is needed on neuroanatomical changes in late-life depression, where there has been no clearly documented link to brain injury. Such studies should examine morphological changes in medium and small sized vessels that supply the cortical gray and white matter. Methods The present study used a non-specific histological Nissl staining and a more vessel-specific immunolabeling with endothelial marker von Willebrand Factor (vWF) to estimate density and size of blood vessel segments in the orbitofrontal cortex of 16 elderly subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 9 non-psychiatric comparison subjects. Results The density of Nissl-stained vessel segments and of segments with perivascular spaces was higher in subjects with MDD than in comparison subjects in gray (GM) and white matter (WM). In GM, the density of vWF-immunoreactive segments with cross-sectional areas greater than 800 μm2 was higher in MDD. In WM, only the density of vWF-immunoreactive segments with patent perivascular spaces and diameters larger than 60 μm was higher in subjects with MDD. Also in the WM, only subjects with late-onset MDD presented a significantly higher density of vWF-positive segments than comparison subjects. Conclusions In elderly subjects with MDD, there appear to be morphological changes that increase visibility of medium-sized vessel segments with some labeling techniques, and this increased visibility may be related to increased patency of perivascular spaces around arterioles. PMID:23208772

  14. Validating a Finite Element Model of a Structure Subjected to Mine Blast with Experimental Modal Analysis (United States)


    FE finite element MAC modal assurance criteria SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SDIC stereo-digital image correlation SLAD Survivability...ARL-TR-8224 ● NOV 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Validating a Finite Element Model of a Structure Subjected to Mine Blast with...NOV 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Validating a Finite Element Model of a Structure Subjected to Mine Blast with Experimental Modal

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Swallowing Function Between Dysphagia Patients and Healthy Subjects Using High-Resolution Manometry


    Park, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Yong-Taek; Yi, Youbin; Lee, Jung-Sang; Kim, Kunwoo; Park, Jung Ho; Yoon, Kyung Jae


    Objective To compare swallowing function between healthy subjects and patients with pharyngeal dysphagia using high resolution manometry (HRM) and to evaluate the usefulness of HRM for detecting pharyngeal dysphagia. Methods Seventy-five patients with dysphagia and 28 healthy subjects were included in this study. Diagnosis of dysphagia was confirmed by a videofluoroscopy. HRM was performed to measure pressure and timing information at the velopharynx (VP), tongue base (TB), and upper esophage...

  16. Social support and subjective burden in caregivers of adults and older adults: A meta-analysis


    del-Pino-Casado, Rafael; Frías-Osuna, Antonio; Palomino-Moral, Pedro A.; Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio J.


    Background Despite the generally accepted belief that social support improves caregiver adjustment in general and subjective burden in particular, the literature shows mixed findings, and a recent review concluded that the predictive strength of caregiver social support in determining caregiver burden is less evident, due to the conceptual diversity of this determinant. Objective The purpose of this review is to analyse the relationship of perceived and received social support with subjective...

  17. Clinical studies of cerebral arteriosclerosis in diabetic subjects. Analysis with brain MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Makoto; Tanahashi, Hideo; Nomura, Makoto; Yamada, Yoshio; Abe, Hiroshi.


    In order to investigate the clinical characteristics of cerebral arteriosclerosis in diabetic subjects, brain MRI studies were conducted in diabetic patients and healthy subjects. The subjects were 93 diabetic patients without symptoms and signs of cerebral infarction (49 males and 44 females) with a mean age of 59 years and 73 healthy subjects (43 males and 30 females) with a mean age of 57 years. The MRI studies were performed on a General Electric 1.5-T signa system. The spin-echo technique (T2-weighted image) was used with a pulse repetition time (TR) of 2,500 msec and echo time (TE) of 80 msec. The quantitative evaluation of cerebral infarction was assessed using personal computer and image-scanner. By MRI, the incidence of cerebral infarction in diabetic patients was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (30.1% vs. 13.7%, respectively, p<0.05). The mean age of the diabetic patients with cerebral infarctions was higher than that of those without cerebral infarctions. Hypertension and diabetic nephropathy were present more frequently in the subjects with cerebral infarctions. These data suggest that it is important to delay the onset and slow the progression of cerebral infarction in diabetic patients by strict blood glucose control and management of blood pressure. (author)

  18. Prosthetic restoration in the single-tooth gap: patient preferences and analysis of the WTP index. (United States)

    Augusti, Davide; Augusti, Gabriele; Re, Dino


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the preference of a patients' population, according to the index of willingness to pay (WTP), against two treatments to restore a single-tooth gap: the implant-supported crown (ISC) and the 3-unit fixed partial denture prosthesis (FPDP) on natural teeth. Willingness to pay values were recorded on 107 subjects by asking the WTP from a starting bid of €2000 modifiable through monetary increases or decreases (€100). Data were collected through an individually delivered questionnaire. The characteristics of the population and choices made, the median values and WTP associations with socio-demographic parameters (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests), correlations between variables (chi-square test in contingency tables) and significant parameters for predicting WTP values obtained in a multiple linear regression model were revealed. The 64% of patients expressed a preference for ISC, while the remaining 36% of the population chose the FPDP. The current therapeutic choice and those carried out in the past were generally in agreement (>70% of cases, P = 0.0001); a relationship was discovered between the anterior and posterior area to the same method of rehabilitation (101 of 107 cases, 94.4%). The WTP median values for ISC were of €3000 and of €2500 in the anterior and posterior areas, respectively. The smallest amount of money has been allocated for FPDP in posterior region (median of €1500). The "importance of oral care" for the patient was a significant predictor, in the regression model analysis, for the estimation of both anterior (P = 0.0003) and posterior (P replacement of a single missing tooth, showing a higher WTP index in the anterior area. Among investigated socio-demographic variables, the importance assigned by the patient to oral care appeared to influence WTP values of the rehabilitation, regardless the location of the single gap in the mouth. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John

  19. Safety analysis of dual purpose metal cask subjected to impulsive loads due to aircraft engine crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Koji; Namba, Kosuke; Saegusa, Toshiari


    In Japan, the first Interim Storage Facility of spent nuclear fuel away from reactor site is being planned to start its commercial operation around 2010, in use of dual-purpose metal cask in the northern part of Main Japan Island. Business License Examination for safety design approval has started since March, 2007. To demonstrate the more scientific and rational performance of safety regulation activities on each phase for the first license procedure, CREPEI has executed demonstration tests with full scale casks, such as drop tests onto real targets without impact limiters and seismic tests subjected to strong earthquake motions. Moreover, it is important to develop the knowledge for the inherent security of metal casks under extreme mechanical-impact conditions, especially for increasing interest since the terrorist attacks from 11th September 2001. This paper presents dynamic mechanical behavior of the metal cask lid closure system caused by direct aircraft engine crash and describes calculated results (especially, leak tightness based on relative dynamic displacements between metallic seals). Firstly, the local penetration damage of the interim storage facility building by a big passenger aircraft engine research (diameter 2.7m, length 4.3m, weight 4.4ton, impact velocity 90m/s) has been examined. The reduced velocity is calculated by the local damage formula for concrete structure with its thickness of 70cm. The load vs. time function for this reduced velocity (60m/s) is estimated by the impact analysis using Finite Element code LS-DYNA with the full scale engine model onto a hypothetically rigid target. Secondly, as the most critical scenarios for the metal cask, two impact scenarios (horizontal impact hitting the cask and vertical impact onto the lid metallic seal system) are chosen. To consider the geometry of all bolts for two lids, the gasket reaction forces and the inner pressure of the cask cavity, the detailed three dimensional FEM models are developed

  20. Safety Analysis of Dual Purpose Metal Cask Subjected to Impulsive Loads due to Aircraft Engine Crash (United States)

    Shirai, Koji; Namba, Kosuke; Saegusa, Toshiari

    In Japan, the first Interim Storage Facility of spent nuclear fuel away from reactor site is being planned to start its commercial operation around 2010, in use of dual-purpose metal cask in the northern part of Main Japan Island. Business License Examination for safety design approval has started since March, 2007. To demonstrate the more scientific and rational performance of safety regulation activities on each phase for the first license procedure, CREPEI has executed demonstration tests with full scale casks, such as drop tests onto real targets without impact limiters(1) and seismic tests subjected to strong earthquake motions(2). Moreover, it is important to develop the knowledge for the inherent security of metal casks under extreme mechanical-impact conditions, especially for increasing interest since the terrorist attacks from 11th September 2001(3)-(6). This paper presents dynamic mechanical behavior of the metal cask lid closure system caused by direct aircraft engine crash and describes calculated results (especially, leak tightness based on relative dynamic displacements between metallic seals). Firstly, the local penetration damage of the interim storage facility building by a big passenger aircraft engine crash (diameter 2.7m, length 4.3m, weight 4.4ton, impact velocity 90m/s) has been examined. The reduced velocity is calculated by the local damage formula for concrete structure with its thickness of 70cm. The load vs. time function for this reduced velocity (60m/s) is estimated by the impact analysis using Finite Element code LS-DYNA with the full scale engine model onto a hypothetically rigid target. Secondly, as the most critical scenarios for the metal cask, two impact scenarios (horizontal impact hitting the cask and vertical impact onto the lid metallic seal system) are chosen. To consider the geometry of all bolts for two lids, the gasket reaction forces and the inner pressure of the cask cavity, the detailed three dimensional FEM models are

  1. Environmental analysis of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell on the subject of life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukurozaki, Sandra Harumi


    The energy is the fuel of growth and an essential requirement for the socioeconomic development. However, the current production model is based on fossil fuels, considered as threat to man and nature. As for, the relating to the human activities and their effects on the environment, they are handled by the implementation of a more rigid model of environmental control and the mobilization of the society in favor of technologies with less energy impact. In view of this scenario, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell - PEMFC has been recognized as a key for the vital need of a clean and efficient energy. Considering the conventional power generation system, their advantages during usage configure its application as an ideal option for several utilities, especially in the mobile sector. Even though, the focus on several environmental evaluations in energy systems is referred back to the initial stage of it use, the employment relating to production of the system and to final destination should be considered, since these also present impacts. In the case of PEMFC, their previous and subsequent phases of use are issues related to the platinum catalysts, which indicates an environmental importance that cannot be overlooked. In this sense, the Life Cycle Assessment has been used to understand and to question the risks and opportunities that are associated to certain product, starting from a systemic concept of their relationships with the environment. It is precisely in this context that the present research intends to present its major contribution, starting from an exploratory study towards the its objectives to provide an environmental analysis of such technology linked to post stage of powder-use of the membrane electrode assembly - MEA, concerning the platinum catalysts, on the subject of Life Cycle Assessment - LCA. To attain such aim, the relationships between energy, environment and development are presented and discussed, as well as, the Fuel Cell technology and

  2. QSpec: online control and data analysis system for single-cell Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Ren


    Full Text Available Single-cell phenotyping is critical to the success of biological reductionism. Raman-activated cell sorting (RACS has shown promise in resolving the dynamics of living cells at the individual level and to uncover population heterogeneities in comparison to established approaches such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. Given that the number of single-cells would be massive in any experiment, the power of Raman profiling technique for single-cell analysis would be fully utilized only when coupled with a high-throughput and intelligent process control and data analysis system. In this work, we established QSpec, an automatic system that supports high-throughput Raman-based single-cell phenotyping. Additionally, a single-cell Raman profile database has been established upon which data-mining could be applied to discover the heterogeneity among single-cells under different conditions. To test the effectiveness of this control and data analysis system, a sub-system was also developed to simulate the phenotypes of single-cells as well as the device features.

  3. Simultaneous characterisation of silver nanoparticles and determination of dissolved silver in chicken meat subjected to in vitro human gastrointestinal digestion using single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Ramos, K; Ramos, L; Gómez-Gómez, M M


    In this study, a chicken meat containing AgNPs (candidate reference material Nanolyse 14) has been used as a model matrix to study the fate and behaviour of AgNPs upon oral ingestion following an in vitro model that included saliva, gastric and intestinal digestions. The behaviour of a 40nm AgNPs standard solution during the three digestion steps was also evaluated. Sample preparation conditions were optimised to prevent AgNPs oxidation and/or aggregation and to ensure the representativeness of the reported results. Total silver released from the test sample and the evaluated AgNP standard was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The presence of both AgNPs and dissolved silver in the extracts was confirmed by single particle (SP)-ICPMS analysis. AgNPs were sized and the particle number concentration determined in the three digestion juices. Experimental results demonstrated differentiated behaviours for AgNP from the standard solution and the meat sample highlighting the relevance of using physiological conditions for accurate risk assessment. In the most realistic scenario assayed (i.e., spiked chicken meat analysis), only 13% of the AgNPs present in the reference material would reach the intestine wall. Meanwhile, other bioaccessible dissolved forms of silver would account for as much as 44% of the silver initially spiked to the meat paste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of angiotensin II binding to human platelets: Differences in young and old subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebers, M.J.; Goodfriend, T.L.; Ball, D.; Elliott, M.E.


    We examined the binding of radiolabeled angiotensin II (AII) to human platelets to characterize the apparent increase in AII receptors observed in older subjects. At 22 degrees C, the amount of radioactivity associated with platelets from older subjects increased continuously for more than 2 hours. The same amount of radioactivity was displaced by addition of unlabeled AII at 30 min and 60 min. In the presence of phenylarsine oxide, in the cold, or when labeled antagonist was the ligand, binding came to equilibrium by 30 min. High pressure liquid chromatography demonstrated that 125 I-AII was the major radioactive compound in the supernatant and platelets after incubation, but the platelets also contained radiolabeled AII fragments. Thus, some degradation accompanied interaction of AII and platelets. Phenylarsine oxide did not prevent degradation of bound AII, suggesting that degradation precedes internalization. On average, maximum binding was greater in older subjects whether platelets were incubated with 125 I-AII alone, with 125 I-AII and phenylarsine oxide to prevent internalization, or when the competitive inhibitor 125 I-sar1,ile8-AII was the radioligand. Variability of binding among subjects also increased with age. Thus, platelets bind, degrade, and internalize AII, and the three processes occur to a greater extent in platelets from some, but not all older subjects

  5. Kinematic analysis of ankle stiffness in subjects with and without flat foot. (United States)

    Sung, Paul S


    Although the magnitude of ankle motion is influenced by joint congruence and ligament elasticity, there is a lack of understanding on ankle stiffness between subjects with and without flat foot. This study investigated a quantified ankle stiffness difference between subjects with and without flat foot. There were forty-five age- and gender-matched subjects who participated in the study. Each subject was seated upright with the tested foot held firmly onto a footplate that was attached to a torque sensor by the joint-driving device. The flat foot group (mean ± standard deviation) demonstrated increased stiffness during ankle dorsiflexion (0.37 ± 0.16 for flat foot group, 0.28 ± 0.10 for control group; t=-2.11, p=0.04). However, there was no significant group difference during plantar flexion (0.35 ± 0.15 for flat foot group, 0.33 ± 0.07 for control group; t=0.64, p=0.06). The results of this study indicated that the flat foot group demonstrated increased ankle stiffness during dorsiflexion regardless of demographic factors. This study highlights the need for kinematic analyses and joint stiffness measures during ankle dorsiflexion in subjects with flat foot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. SmashCell: A software framework for the analysis of single-cell amplified genome sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Eoghan D; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Raes, Jeroen


    SUMMARY: Recent advances in single-cell manipulation technology, whole genome amplification and high-throughput sequencing have now made it possible to sequence the genome of an individual cell. The bioinformatic analysis of these genomes however is far more complicated than the analysis of those...

  7. Infrared analysis of urinary calculi by a single reflection accessory and a neural network interpretation algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volmer, M; de Vries, JCM; Goldschmidt, HMJ

    Background: Preparation of KBr tablets, used for Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis of urinary calculus composition, is time-consuming and often hampered by pellet breakage. We developed a new F:T-IR method for urinary calculus analysis. This method makes use of a Golden Gate Single

  8. Analysis of Single-cell Gene Transcription by RNA Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronander, Elena; Bengtsson, Dominique C; Joergensen, Louise


    fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of var gene transcription by the parasite in individual nuclei of P. falciparum IE(1). Here, we present a detailed protocol for carrying out the RNA-FISH methodology for analysis of var gene transcription in single-nuclei of P. falciparum infected human...

  9. Blind links, a big challenge in the linked data idea: Analysis of Persian Subject Headings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Sharif


    Full Text Available In this survey, Linked data concept as exposing, sharing, and connecting pieces of data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web and some potential problems in converting Persian subject headings (PSHs Records into linked data were discussed. A data set (11233 records of PSHs was searched in three information retrieval systems including National Library of Iran (NLI online catalog, Library of Congress (LC online catalog and NOSA books. Correct links between Persian and English subject headings in the 9519 common records of two catalogs were recorded. The results indicate that the links between Persian and English subjects in 20% of records were failed. The maximum error was associated with the anonymous databases (6/7 % in NLI online catalog. It is recommended to preprocess the PSHs records before any conversion projects. It seems that, during the preprocessing, the potential errors could be identified and corrected.

  10. Thermal analysis of dry eye subjects and the thermal impulse perturbation model of ocular surface. (United States)

    Zhang, Aizhong; Maki, Kara L; Salahura, Gheorghe; Kottaiyan, Ranjini; Yoon, Geunyoung; Hindman, Holly B; Aquavella, James V; Zavislan, James M


    In this study, we explore the usage of ocular surface temperature (OST) decay patterns to distinguished between dry eye patients with aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). The OST profiles of 20 dry eye subjects were measured by a long-wave infrared thermal camera in a standardized environment (24 °C, and relative humidity (RH) 40%). The subjects were instructed to blink every 5 s after 20 ∼ 25 min acclimation. Exponential decay curves were fit to the average temperature within a region of the central cornea. We find the MGD subjects have both a higher initial temperature (p model, referred to as the thermal impulse perturbation (TIP) model. We conclude that long-wave-infrared thermal imaging is a plausible tool in assisting with the classification of dry eye patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Walking speed of normal subjects and amputees: aspects of validity of gait analysis. (United States)

    Boonstra, A M; Fidler, V; Eisma, W H


    This study investigated some aspects of the validity of walking speed recording in 15 normal subjects, 16 trans-femoral amputees and 8 knee disarticulation amputees. The variability and test-retest reliability of walking speed and the influence of simultaneous recording of EMG and goniometry on comfortable and fast walking speeds were studied. The variability between sessions was mainly determined by the variance within each session. The variance of speed within sessions while walking with fast speed, was higher when walking without equipment than when walking with equipment. The variances of speed within sessions of the normal subjects were higher than those for both amputee groups. The test-retest reliability, expressed by the intra-class correlation coefficient, was good: between 0.83 and 0.98. The speed when walking without equipment was significantly higher both in normal subjects and amputees than the speed when walking with equipment.

  12. Preferences and Beliefs in a Sequential Social Dilemma: A Within-Subjects Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    Within-subject data from sequential social dilemma experiments reveal a correlation of first and second-mover decisions for which two channels may be responsible, that our experiment allows to separate: i) a direct, preference-based channel that influences both first- and second-mover decisions; ii......) an indirect channel, where second-mover decisions influence beliefs via a consensus effect, and the first-mover decision is a best response to these beliefs. We find strong evidence for the indirect channel: beliefs about second-mover cooperation are biased toward own second-mover behavior, and most subjects...... best respond to stated beliefs. But when first movers know the true probability of second-mover cooperation, subjects' own second moves still have predictive power regarding their first moves, suggesting that the direct channel also plays a role....

  13. Radial artery pseudoaneurysm: A rare complication after a single arterial puncture for blood-gas analysis. (United States)

    Patel, Kajal Nitin; Gandhi, Shruti P; Sutariya, Harsh C


    With a reported incidence of 0.048%, radial artery pseudoaneurysm (PA) is a rare but serious complication of arterial cannulation. We report a case of PA developing after a single puncture of the right radial artery for arterial blood-gas analysis diagnosed by Doppler ultrasound in young male patient. The development of PA after puncture of radial artery for continuous blood pressure monitoring and serial blood-gas analysis has been reported in the past; however, to the best of our knowledge, there is only one case report of development of PA after a single arterial puncture for blood-gas analysis is reported in the past.

  14. Exposure of fatty acids after a single oral administration of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) and sunflower oil in human adult subjects. (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla; Villegas, Leon


    Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) is a potential oilseed crop because it is rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA) (omega-3 fatty acid). To evaluate the exposure of fatty acids after a single oral administration of sacha inchi or sunflower oil in healthy volunteers. Plasma fatty acids concentrations were assayed by Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector in 18 adult subjects. After fasting, blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after ingestion of 10 or 15 ml of sacha inchi oil or sunflower oil. The proportion ALA/linoleic acid was 1.37 in sacha inchi oil and 0.01 in sunflower oil. ALA, lauric acid, palmitic acid, linolelaidic acid, cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid, cis-13,16-docosadienoic acid and cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels changed over time after sacha inchi oil ingestion but not with sunflower oil. The time at maximal concentration (tmax) for ALA was 2 h after sacha inchi oil ingestion. No ALA in plasma was observed after sunflower oil consumption. The maximal concentration of ALA was 2.84 ± 0.36 mg/ml in women and 0.94 ± 0.57 mg/ml in men, p  0.05). There is a trend for higher plasma ALA levels with 15 ml sacha inchi oil. After 2 h of consumption, plasma delta triacylglycerol were reduced with sunflower oil but slightly increased with sacha inchi oil. A reduction in plasma delta triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein cholesterol was observed with both oils. Consumption of sacha inchi oil increased ALA and DHA in plasma.

  15. Comparison of mobility and user satisfaction between a microprocessor knee and a standard prosthetic knee: a summary of seven single-subject trials. (United States)

    Howard, Charla L; Wallace, Chris; Perry, Bonnie; Stokic, Dobrivoje S


    Insufficient evidence of the benefits provided by costlier microprocessor knees (MPKs) over nonmicroprocessor knees (NMPKs) often causes concern when considering MPK prescription. Thus, more studies are needed to demonstrate differences between MPKs and NMPKs and define sensitive outcomes to guide MPK prescription. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of switching from NMPK to MPK on measures of mobility and preference. Seven long-term NMPK users (all men, ages 50-84, 3-64 years postamputation) participated in this study, which use a single-subject design (ABA or BAB; A=NMPK, B=MPK). Mobility was assessed with the Amputee Mobility Predictor, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), L-Test, 6-Min Walk Test (6MWT) with Physiological Cost Index, and self-selected normal and very fast gait speeds. The preference between NMPK and MPK was evaluated by the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ) and the visual analog scale. Mobility improved with the MPK in six of seven participants, which was most often captured with BBS (median: +6 points) and 6MWT (median: +63 m). These improvements typically exceeded minimal clinically important difference or minimal detectable change thresholds. Most participants scored the MPK higher on the PEQ (median: +20 points) and six of seven expressed a global preference toward MPK. In the BAB group, the Amputee Mobility Predictor and BBS correlated with perception of change on several PEQ domains (Ρ≥0.59). In conclusion, MPKs may provide better outcomes and user satisfaction, particularly in those with lower mobility function. BBS and 6MWT were found to be the most sensitive measures to capture changes in mobility while using MPK for several weeks.

  16. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of CEP-26401, a high-affinity histamine-3 receptor antagonist, following single and multiple dosing in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Spiegelstein, Ofer; Stevens, Jasper; Van Gerven, Joop; Nathan, Pradeep J; Maynard, James P; Mayleben, David W; Hellriegel, Edward; Yang, Ronghua


    CEP-26401 is a novel orally active, brain-penetrant, high-affinity histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonist, with potential therapeutic utility in cognition enhancement. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose escalation studies with single (0.02 to 5 mg) or multiple administration (0.02 to 0.5 mg once daily) of CEP-26401 were conducted in healthy subjects. Plasma and urine samples were collected to investigate CEP-26401 pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamic endpoints included a subset of tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and nocturnal polysomnography. Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling was conducted on one CANTAB and one polysomnography parameter of interest. CEP-26401 was slowly absorbed (median tmax range 3-6 hours) and the mean terminal elimination half-life ranged from 24-60 hours. Steady-state plasma concentrations were achieved within six days of dosing. CEP-26401 exhibits dose- and time-independent pharmacokinetics, and renal excretion is a major elimination pathway. CEP-26401 had a dose-dependent negative effect on sleep, with some positive effects on certain CANTAB cognitive parameters seen at lower concentrations. The derived three compartment population pharmacokinetic model, with first-order absorption and elimination, accurately described the available pharmacokinetic data. CEP-26401 was generally well tolerated up to 0.5 mg/day with most common treatment related adverse events being headache and insomnia. Further clinical studies are required to establish the potential of low-dose CEP-26401 in cognition enhancement. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Assessment of the Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Safety of Single Doses of TV-1106, a Long-Acting Growth Hormone, in Healthy Japanese and Caucasian Subjects. (United States)

    Cohen-Barak, Orit; Barkay, Hadas; Rasamoelisolo, Michele; Butler, Kathleen; Yamada, Kazumasa; Bassan, Merav; Yoon, Esther; Spiegelstein, Ofer


    TV-1106 is a human serum albumin genetically fused to recombinant human growth hormone, designed to provide a long-acting alternative to daily growth hormone (GH) injections in patients with GH deficiency. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of single subcutaneous doses of TV-1106 (7.5, 15, 50, and 100 mg) in Japanese (n = 44) and caucasian (n = 44) healthy subjects. TV-1106 pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were comparable in Japanese and caucasian populations. TV-1106 demonstrated relatively slow absorption (median t max , 10-30 hours) and a mean elimination half-life of 26-36 hours. Apparent clearance and volume of distribution decreased with increasing TV-1106 doses in both populations and appeared to increase more than dose proportionality across the tested doses. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) increased in a dose-related manner, with maximum responses observed at 33-96 and 42-109 hours, respectively. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 returned to baseline values at 168 hours following 7.5 and 15 mg of TV-1106, and 336 hours following 50 and 100 mg of TV-1106. TV-1106 appeared safe in both populations. There was no evidence of differences in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, or safety of TV-1106 between Japanese and caucasian populations. The data also demonstrate long-acting growth hormone properties of TV-1106 and support its potential for once-weekly dosing. © 2016, The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  18. Integrating Language, Pragmatics, and Social Intervention in a Single-Subject Case Study of a Child With a Developmental Social Communication Disorder. (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny


    This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of individualized therapy activities and in close liaison with families. The study used an enhanced AB single-subject design in which an 8-year-old child with an SCD participated in 20 therapy sessions with a specialist speech-language pathologist. A procedure of matching assessment findings to intervention choices was followed to construct an individualized treatment program. Examples of intervention content and the embedded structure of SCIP are illustrated. Observational and formal measurements of receptive and expressive language, conversation, and parent-teacher ratings of social communication were completed before therapy, after therapy, and at a 6-month follow-up session. Outcomes revealed change in total and receptive language scores but not in expressive language. Conversation showed marked improvement in responsiveness, appreciation of listener knowledge, turn taking, and adaptation of discourse style. Teacher-reported outcomes included improved classroom behavior and enhanced literacy skills. Parent-reported outcomes included improved verbal interactions with family members and personal narratives. This clinical focus article demonstrates the complexity of needs in a child with an SCD and how these can be addressed in individualized intervention. Findings are discussed in relation to the essential nature of language support including pragmatic therapy for children with SCDs. Discussion of the role of formal and functional outcome measurement as well as the proximity of chosen outcomes to the intervention is included.

  19. Masked Visual Analysis: Minimizing Type I Error in Visually Guided Single-Case Design for Communication Disorders. (United States)

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Hitchcock, Elaine R; Ferron, John


    Single-case experimental designs are widely used to study interventions for communication disorders. Traditionally, single-case experiments follow a response-guided approach, where design decisions during the study are based on participants' observed patterns of behavior. However, this approach has been criticized for its high rate of Type I error. In masked visual analysis (MVA), response-guided decisions are made by a researcher who is blinded to participants' identities and treatment assignments. MVA also makes it possible to conduct a hypothesis test assessing the significance of treatment effects. This tutorial describes the principles of MVA, including both how experiments can be set up and how results can be used for hypothesis testing. We then report a case study showing how MVA was deployed in a multiple-baseline across-subjects study investigating treatment for residual errors affecting rhotics. Strengths and weaknesses of MVA are discussed. Given their important role in the evidence base that informs clinical decision making, it is critical for single-case experimental studies to be conducted in a way that allows researchers to draw valid inferences. As a method that can increase the rigor of single-case studies while preserving the benefits of a response-guided approach, MVA warrants expanded attention from researchers in communication disorders.

  20. Socioeconomic status, frailty, and subjective well-being: A moderated mediation analysis in elderly Chinese. (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Pang, Joyce S


    The study examined the mechanisms underlying the link between socioeconomic status and subjective well-being and explored the role of social activities using a representative sample of older adults ( N = 2773) in Shanghai, China. Results show that frailty mediated the relationship between socioeconomic status and subjective well-being, and social activities moderated the model, such that the mediation effect of frailty was significant only when social activities were lower. Moreover, the moderated mediation model was significant only for women, not for men. Findings highlight the importance of addressing frailty of older adults and promoting social activities (especially for elderly women) in future interventions.

  1. Single cell analysis: the new frontier in 'Omics'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Daojing; Bodovitz, Steven


    Cellular heterogeneity arising from stochastic expression of genes, proteins, and metabolites is a fundamental principle of cell biology, but single cell analysis has been beyond the capabilities of 'Omics' technologies. This is rapidly changing with the recent examples of single cell genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. The rate of change is expected to accelerate owing to emerging technologies that range from micro/nanofluidics to microfabricated interfaces for mass spectrometry to third- and fourth-generation automated DNA sequencers. As described in this review, single cell analysis is the new frontier in Omics, and single cell Omics has the potential to transform systems biology through new discoveries derived from cellular heterogeneity.

  2. DNA Methylation Analysis of HTR2A Regulatory Region in Leukocytes of Autistic Subjects. (United States)

    Hranilovic, Dubravka; Blazevic, Sofia; Stefulj, Jasminka; Zill, Peter


    Disturbed brain and peripheral serotonin homeostasis is often found in subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The role of the serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) in the regulation of central and peripheral serotonin homeostasis, as well as its altered expression in autistic subjects, have implicated the HTR2A gene as a major candidate for the serotonin disturbance seen in autism. Several studies, yielding so far inconclusive results, have attempted to associate autism with a functional SNP -1438 G/A (rs6311) in the HTR2A promoter region, while possible contribution of epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, to HTR2A dysregulation in autism has not yet been investigated. In this study, we compared the mean DNA methylation within the regulatory region of the HTR2A gene between autistic and control subjects. DNA methylation was analysed in peripheral blood leukocytes using bisulfite conversion and sequencing of the HTR2A region containing rs6311 polymorphism. Autistic subjects of rs6311 AG genotype displayed higher mean methylation levels within the analysed region than the corresponding controls (P epigenetic mechanisms might contribute to HTR2A dysregulation observed in individuals with ASD. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Clinical Psychology of Corporeality: Principles of Cultural-Historical Subject Analysis


    Valentina V. Nikolaeva; Galina A. Arina


    The psychology of corporeality is a new and intensively elaborated branch of science. The theoretical foundations of its subject diff er signifi cantly from those of medical psychosomatics. In a given article some new concepts of this approaching discipline are introduced and the role of symbolic mediation in genesis of diff erent psychosomatic diseases is discussed.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    This study investigated some aspects of the validity of walking speed recording in 15 normal subjects. 16 trans-femoral empathics and 8 knee disarticulation amputees. The variability and test-retest reliability of walking speed and the influence of simultaneous recording of EMG and goniometry on

  5. Analysis of stability-critical orthotropic cylinders subjected to axial compression (United States)

    Finley, R. L.; Liu, L. S.; Yang, P. B.


    Analytical procedure for determining critical buckling loads of orthotropic cylinders subjected to axial compression loading has been defined. Three modes of instability have been considered - general instability, local instability caused by panel and interframe buckling, and local instability caused by yielding and crippling in areas of stress concentration.

  6. An analysis of subject agreement errors in English: the case of third ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the incorrect sentences they were to underline the error and give the correct answer. The main findings of the study were: subject-verb agreement errors are prominent in simple sentence constructions and in complex linguistic environments. The study also found that performance errors appear frequently in simple ...

  7. Bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells: a pooled analysis of 3600 subjects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ricceri, F.; Godschalk, R. W.; Peluso, M.; Philips, D. H.; Agudo, A.; Georgiadis, P.; Loft, S.; Tjonneland, A.; Raaschau-Nielsen, O.; Palli, D.; Perera, F.; Vermeulen, R.; Taioli, E.; Šrám, Radim; Munnia, A.; Rosa, F.; Allione, A.; Matullo, G.; Vineis, P.


    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2010), s. 3174-3181 ISSN 1055-9965 Grant - others:European Union ECNIS(XE) FOOD-CT-2005-513943 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : DNA adducts * biomarkers of exposure * air pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.190, year: 2010

  8. High-throughput de novo screening of receptor agonists with an automated single-cell analysis and isolation system. (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Tatematsu, Kenji; Iijima, Masumi; Niimi, Tomoaki; Maturana, Andrés D; Fujii, Ikuo; Kondo, Akihiko; Tanizawa, Katsuyuki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi


    Reconstitution of signaling pathways involving single mammalian transmembrane receptors has not been accomplished in yeast cells. In this study, intact EGF receptor (EGFR) and a cell wall-anchored form of EGF were co-expressed on the yeast cell surface, which led to autophosphorylation of the EGFR in an EGF-dependent autocrine manner. After changing from EGF to a conformationally constrained peptide library, cells were fluorescently labeled with an anti-phospho-EGFR antibody. Each cell was subjected to an automated single-cell analysis and isolation system that analyzed the fluorescent intensity of each cell and automatically retrieved each cell with the highest fluorescence. In ~3.2 × 10(6) peptide library, we isolated six novel peptides with agonistic activity of the EGFR in human squamous carcinoma A431 cells. The combination of yeast cells expressing mammalian receptors, a cell wall-anchored peptide library, and an automated single-cell analysis and isolation system might facilitate a rational approach for de novo drug screening.

  9. A Comparative Analysis of the Colour Subject between Canada Saskatchewan State and Visual Arts Education Curriculum in Turkey (United States)

    Dabancal, Meral Per


    A deeper analysis of the art education curriculums applied in developed countries and treating specific subjects within these curriculums holds vital importance in allowing the production of alternative solution methods by providing the educators multiple perspectives in the face of problems concerning art education. In present paper colour…

  10. Optimizing nasal potential difference analysis for CFTR modulator development: assessment of ivacaftor in CF subjects with the G551D-CFTR mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Rowe

    Full Text Available Nasal potential difference (NPD is used as a biomarker of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC activity. We evaluated methods to detect changes in chloride and sodium transport by NPD based on a secondary analysis of a Phase II CFTR-modulator study. Thirty-nine subjects with CF who also had the G551D-CFTR mutation were randomized to receive ivacaftor (Kalydeco™; also known as VX-770 in four doses or placebo twice daily for at least 14 days. All data were analyzed by a single investigator who was blinded to treatment assignment. We compared three analysis methods to determine the best approach to quantify changes in chloride and sodium transport: (1 the average of both nostrils; (2 the most-polarized nostril at each visit; and (3 the most-polarized nostril at screening carried forward. Parameters of ion transport included the PD change with zero chloride plus isoproterenol (CFTR activity, the basal PD, Ringer's PD, and change in PD with amiloride (measurements of ENaC activity, and the delta NPD (measuring CFTR and ENaC activity. The average and most-polarized nostril at each visit were most sensitive to changes in chloride and sodium transport, whereas the most-polarized nostril at screening carried forward was less discriminatory. Based on our findings, NPD studies should assess both nostrils rather than a single nostril. We also found that changes in CFTR activity were more readily detected than changes in ENaC activity, and that rigorous standardization was associated with relatively good within-subject reproducibility in placebo-treated subjects (± 2.8 mV. Therefore, we have confirmed an assay of reasonable reproducibility for detecting chloride-transport improvements in response to CFTR modulation.

  11. Incorporating nonoverlap indices with visual analysis for quantifying intervention effectiveness in single-case experimental designs. (United States)

    Brossart, Daniel F; Vannest, Kimberly J; Davis, John L; Patience, Marc A


    The field of neuropsychological rehabilitation frequently employs single case experimental designs (SCED) in research, but few if any, of the published studies use the effect sizes recommended by the American Psychological Association. Among the available methods for analysing single case designs, this paper focuses on nonoverlap methods. This paper provides examples and suggestions for integrating visual and statistical analysis, pointing out where contradictions may occur and how to be a critical consumer.

  12. Analysis of Installed Measures and Energy Savings for Single-Family Residential Better Buildings Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This report presents an analysis of data for residential single-family projects reported by 37 organizations that were awarded federal financial assistance (cooperative agreements or grants) by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.1 The report characterizes the energy-efficiency measures installed for single-family residential projects and analyzes energy savings and savings prediction accuracy for measures installed in a subset of those projects.

  13. Single crystal growth and X-ray structure analysis of non-peripheral octahexyl phthalocyanine (United States)

    Ohmori, Masashi; Nakano, Chika; Higashi, Takuya; Miyano, Tetsuya; Tohnai, Norimitsu; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori


    The single-crystal structure of metal-free non-peripheral octahexyl-substituted phthalocyanine (C6PcH2) has been investigated by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. Two types of C6PcH2 single crystal, bulk and needle crystals, were separately grown by controlling the recrystallization conditions. The structures of the two types of crystal were determined, and were found to be completely different, that is, C6PcH2 exhibits structural polymorphism. It has been clarified that the C6PcH2 microcrystals in thin films used in previously reported electronic devices have the needle structure.

  14. New insights into human primordial germ cells and early embryonic development from single-cell analysis. (United States)

    Otte, Jörg; Wruck, Wasco; Adjaye, James


    Human preimplantation developmental studies are difficult to accomplish due to associated ethical and moral issues. Preimplantation cells are rare and exist only in transient cell states. From a single cell, it is very challenging to analyse the origination of the heterogeneity and complexity inherent to the human body. However, recent advances in single-cell technology and data analysis have provided new insights into the process of early human development and germ cell specification. In this Review, we examine the latest single-cell datasets of human preimplantation embryos and germ cell development, compare them to bulk cell analyses, and interpret their biological implications. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. Effectiveness of ACT-Based Parenting Training to Mothers on the Depression of Children with Cleft Lip and Palate: A Single Subject Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمد صالح فقیهی


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Parenting Training based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT to mothers on the depression of children with cleft lip and palate. The research method was based on a single case and individual intervention study. The sample was constituted of 65 Isfahanian children with cleft lip and palate. Parenting skills based on ACT were taught to five mothers of children with cleft lip and palate who achieved the minimum score in screening. After three baseline sessions for each child, ACT parenting skills were taught to their mothers in 8 individual sessions companied with testing the child’s depression in every session. Three follow-up sessions after 15 days, 1 month and 3 months were set to evaluate children’s depression. The Kovacs Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI was used to test the children’s depression. The results were analyzed with visual analysis and descriptive statistics. This particular intervention was effective on depression. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that ACT parenting training to mothers of children with cleft lips and palates was effective on reducing depression and that an on-time intervention can improve these children's depression.

  16. Dynamic Analysis of a Timoshenko Beam Subjected to an Accelerating Mass Using Spectral Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangsong Chen


    Full Text Available This paper presents formulations for a Timoshenko beam subjected to an accelerating mass using spectral element method in time domain (TSEM. Vertical displacement and bending rotation of the beam were interpolated by Lagrange polynomials supported on the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre (GLL points. By using GLL integration rule, the mass matrix was diagonal and the dynamic responses can be obtained efficiently and accurately. The results were compared with those obtained in the literature to verify the correctness. The variation of the vibration frequencies of the Timoshenko and moving mass system was researched. The effects of inertial force, centrifugal force, Coriolis force, and tangential force on a Timoshenko beam subjected to an accelerating mass were investigated.

  17. Subjective thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate: analysis and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Dovjak, M.; Kolarik, Jakub


    The exergy approach to design and operation of climate conditioning systems is relatively well established, while its exploitation in connection to human perception of the indoor environment is relatively rare. As a building should provide healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants......, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. There is a need to verify the human-body exergy model with the Thermal-Sensation (TS) response of subjects exposed to different combinations of indoor climate parameters (temperature, humidity, etc.). First results...... available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation showed that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to slightly cool side of thermal sensation. By applying...

  18. Laparoscopic Sacropexy: A Retrospective Analysis of the Subjective Outcome in 310 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bojahr


    Full Text Available Background and Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the subjective outcome following laparoscopic sacropexy. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort study among women treated for descensus with laparoscopic sacropexy between January 2000 and December 2007. 310 patients received questionnaires during followup assessing major pre- and postoperative symptoms and overall satisfaction. Results. 214 (69% patients responded to the questionnaire. Mean followup was 24.5 months. The number of patients with back or lower abdominal pain, foreign body sensation in the vagina and prolapse-related symptoms, urinary symptoms, vaginal and bladder infections, and the need for pessary usage decreased significantly postsurgically. Bowel symptoms increased slightly but not significantly. Two years after surgery, nearly 2 thirds of the women were satisfied or very satisfied with the outcome. Conclusion. Laparoscopic sacropexy is an effective treatment of descensus, with favorable or satisfactory subjective outcomes.

  19. Thermal-Hydraulics analysis of pressurized water reactor core by using single heated channel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akbari


    Full Text Available Thermal hydraulics of nuclear reactor as a basis of reactor safety has a very important role in reactor design and control. The thermal-hydraulic analysis provides input data to the reactor-physics analysis, whereas the latter gives information about the distribution of heat sources, which is needed to perform the thermal-hydraulic analysis. In this study single heated channel model as a very fast model for predicting thermal hydraulics behavior of pressurized water reactor core has been developed. For verifying the results of this model, we used RELAP5 code as US nuclear regulatory approved thermal hydraulics code. The results of developed single heated channel model have been checked with RELAP5 results for WWER-1000. This comparison shows the capability of single heated channel model for predicting thermal hydraulics behavior of reactor core.

  20. Analysis of spatial mobility in subjects from a Dengue endemic urban locality in Morelos State, Mexico (United States)

    Falcón-Lezama, Jorge Abelardo; Santos-Luna, René; Román-Pérez, Susana; Martínez-Vega, Ruth Aralí; Herrera-Valdez, Marco Arieli; Kuri-Morales, Ángel Fernando; Adams, Ben; Kuri-Morales, Pablo Antonio; López-Cervantes, Malaquías


    Introduction Mathematical models and field data suggest that human mobility is an important driver for Dengue virus transmission. Nonetheless little is known on this matter due the lack of instruments for precise mobility quantification and study design difficulties. Materials and methods We carried out a cohort-nested, case-control study with 126 individuals (42 cases, 42 intradomestic controls and 42 population controls) with the goal of describing human mobility patterns of recently Dengue virus-infected subjects, and comparing them with those of non-infected subjects living in an urban endemic locality. Mobility was quantified using a GPS-data logger registering waypoints at 60-second intervals for a minimum of 15 natural days. Results Although absolute displacement was highly biased towards the intradomestic and peridomestic areas, occasional displacements exceeding a 100-Km radius from the center of the studied locality were recorded for all three study groups and individual displacements were recorded traveling across six states from central Mexico. Additionally, cases had a larger number of visits out of the municipality´s administrative limits when compared to intradomestic controls (cases: 10.4 versus intradomestic controls: 2.9, p = 0.0282). We were able to identify extradomestic places within and out of the locality that were independently visited by apparently non-related infected subjects, consistent with houses, working and leisure places. Conclusions Results of this study show that human mobility in a small urban setting exceeded that considered by local health authority’s administrative limits, and was different between recently infected and non-infected subjects living in the same household. These observations provide important insights about the role that human mobility may have in Dengue virus transmission and persistence across endemic geographic areas that need to be taken into account when planning preventive and control measures. Finally

  1. Analysis of variation in few-group cross section behavior subjected to burnup and boron concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zongyao; Li Dongsheng.


    The paper analyzes the variations of few-group cross section behavior in neutron diffusion subjected to fuel burnup and critical boron concentration in a core. The influences of the behavior on the core excess reactivity, crirical boron concentration, power distribution and the yield of isotopes are also analyzed. A reactor core of samll-medium-sized nuclear power plant is analyzed as an example

  2. 3D analysis of facial asymmetry in subjects with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Sune; Hermann, Nuno V.; Darvann, Tron Andre


    of the condyle to the chin than Group 2. The mean facial asymmetry (1 s.d.) for each JIA group was 2.3 (0.9), 2.0 (0.7), 1.7 (0.5) mm for Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively.Conclusion. JIA subjects with TMJ involvement displayed patterns of facial asymmetry consistent with the destruction of the condylar growth...

  3. Designing Oversight for Nanomedicine Research in Human Subjects: Systematic Analysis of Exceptional Oversight for Emerging Technologies (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M.; Jones, Cortney


    The basic procedures and rules for oversight of U.S. human subjects research have been in place since 1981. Certain types of human subjects research, however, have provoked creation of additional mechanisms and rules beyond the Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS) Common Rule and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) equivalent. Now another emerging domain of human subjects research—nanomedicine—is prompting calls for extra oversight. However, in 30 years of overseeing research on human beings, we have yet to specify what makes a domain of scientific research warrant extra oversight. This failure to systematically evaluate the need for extra measures, the type of extra measures appropriate for different challenges, and the usefulness of those measures hampers efforts to respond appropriately to emerging science such as nanomedicine. This article evaluates the history of extra oversight, extracting lessons for oversight of nanomedicine research in human beings. We argue that a confluence of factors supports the need for extra oversight, including heightened uncertainty regarding risks, fast-evolving science yielding complex and increasingly active materials, likelihood of research on vulnerable participants including cancer patients, and potential risks to others beyond the research participant. We suggest the essential elements of the extra oversight needed. PMID:23226969

  4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for sarcopenic obesity (SO) diagnosis in young female subjects (United States)

    González-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; S, Villada-Gomez J.


    Sarcopenia is defined as a loss of muscle mass depending of ageing and affecting physical function (definition A). A new definition considers excluding mass reduction criterion (definition B). Obesity is pandemic and occurs at all ages. Sarcopenic obesity (SO) implies both processes. The purpose of this study was to compare the results obtained after applying these 2 definitions in 66 aged 22 ± 2.8 years overweight or obese young college women. Percentage body fat (%BF) and skeletal mass index (SMI) were estimated by BIA, muscle function by handgrip strength test (HGS) and physical performance by Harvard step test (HST). There were 9.1% and 90.9% overweight or obese subjects. Twenty nine subjects (43.9%) had decreased HGS and 22 (33.3%) had impaired physical performance. One obese subject (1.5%) met the criteria for sarcopenic obesity by definition A and 9 (13.6%) by definition B. Although a linear regression (α obese, the problematic of SO will be found earlier in life.

  5. A Nonimmunosuppressant Approach on Asia Psoriasis Subjects: 5-Year Followup and 11-Year Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Yuqi Tang


    Full Text Available Mono- or combine immunosuppressants are commonly used for psoriasis; however the side effect caused by potent systemic immunosuppressants frequently incurred; moreover the inflammation flares up shortly after immunosuppressants are discontinued. An alternative nonimmunosuppressive therapy was introduced to psoriasis subjects. A retrospective observational study consisted of 1583 psoriasis patients who were treated with Herose Psoria capsule 1440 mg three times daily at two clinical centres, one in China, the other in Singapore, from 1 January 2000 to 1 January 2011. Psoriasis lesion evolution was photographed at monthly visit, and efficacy and safety were assessed using psoriasis area severity index PASI score grading, renal and liver function testing, and adverse event reporting and supplemented by information obtained during targeted telephone interviews. The effectiveness of Herose on psoriasis was inversely associated to prior immunosuppressants exposure (r=0.9154, significant improvements occurred in non-immunosuppressants subjects, and complete clearance was achieved in 8 months (87.5%, 14 of 16; the wavelike evolution of psoriatic lesion appeared in prior immunosuppressants subjects.

  6. Designing oversight for nanomedicine research in human subjects: systematic analysis of exceptional oversight for emerging technologies (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M.; Jones, Cortney M.


    The basic procedures and rules for oversight of U.S. human subjects research have been in place since 1981. Certain types of human subjects research, however, have provoked creation of additional mechanisms and rules beyond the Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS) Common Rule and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) equivalent. Now another emerging domain of human subjects research—nanomedicine—is prompting calls for extra oversight. However, in 30 years of overseeing research on human beings, we have yet to specify what makes a domain of scientific research warrant extra oversight. This failure to systematically evaluate the need for extra measures, the type of extra measures appropriate for different challenges, and the usefulness of those measures hampers efforts to respond appropriately to emerging science such as nanomedicine. This article evaluates the history of extra oversight, extracting lessons for oversight of nanomedicine research in human beings. We argue that a confluence of factors supports the need for extra oversight, including heightened uncertainty regarding risks, fast-evolving science yielding complex and increasingly active materials, likelihood of research on vulnerable participants including cancer patients, and potential risks to others beyond the research participant. We suggest the essential elements of the extra oversight needed.

  7. Designing oversight for nanomedicine research in human subjects: systematic analysis of exceptional oversight for emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Susan M.; Jones, Cortney M.


    The basic procedures and rules for oversight of U.S. human subjects research have been in place since 1981. Certain types of human subjects research, however, have provoked creation of additional mechanisms and rules beyond the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Common Rule and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) equivalent. Now another emerging domain of human subjects research—nanomedicine—is prompting calls for extra oversight. However, in 30 years of overseeing research on human beings, we have yet to specify what makes a domain of scientific research warrant extra oversight. This failure to systematically evaluate the need for extra measures, the type of extra measures appropriate for different challenges, and the usefulness of those measures hampers efforts to respond appropriately to emerging science such as nanomedicine. This article evaluates the history of extra oversight, extracting lessons for oversight of nanomedicine research in human beings. We argue that a confluence of factors supports the need for extra oversight, including heightened uncertainty regarding risks, fast-evolving science yielding complex and increasingly active materials, likelihood of research on vulnerable participants including cancer patients, and potential risks to others beyond the research participant. We suggest the essential elements of the extra oversight needed.

  8. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for sarcopenic obesity (SO) diagnosis in young female subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Correa, C H; Caicedo-Eraso, J C; Villada-Gomez J S


    Sarcopenia is defined as a loss of muscle mass depending of ageing and affecting physical function (definition A). A new definition considers excluding mass reduction criterion (definition B). Obesity is pandemic and occurs at all ages. Sarcopenic obesity (SO) implies both processes. The purpose of this study was to compare the results obtained after applying these 2 definitions in 66 aged 22 ± 2.8 years overweight or obese young college women. Percentage body fat (%BF) and skeletal mass index (SMI) were estimated by BIA, muscle function by handgrip strength test (HGS) and physical performance by Harvard step test (HST). There were 9.1% and 90.9% overweight or obese subjects. Twenty nine subjects (43.9%) had decreased HGS and 22 (33.3%) had impaired physical performance. One obese subject (1.5%) met the criteria for sarcopenic obesity by definition A and 9 (13.6%) by definition B. Although a linear regression (α 2 = 0.094, 0.037 and 0.275 respectively) it was observed a tendency for HGS, HST and SMI deterioration when %BF increases. However, other confounding factors must be investigated. Probably as the population gets more obese, the problematic of SO will be found earlier in life.

  9. RoboSCell: An automated single cell arraying and analysis instrument

    KAUST Repository

    Sakaki, Kelly


    Single cell research has the potential to revolutionize experimental methods in biomedical sciences and contribute to clinical practices. Recent studies suggest analysis of single cells reveals novel features of intracellular processes, cell-to-cell interactions and cell structure. The methods of single cell analysis require mechanical resolution and accuracy that is not possible using conventional techniques. Robotic instruments and novel microdevices can achieve higher throughput and repeatability; however, the development of such instrumentation is a formidable task. A void exists in the state-of-the-art for automated analysis of single cells. With the increase in interest in single cell analyses in stem cell and cancer research the ability to facilitate higher throughput and repeatable procedures is necessary. In this paper, a high-throughput, single cell microarray-based robotic instrument, called the RoboSCell, is described. The proposed instrument employs a partially transparent single cell microarray (SCM) integrated with a robotic biomanipulator for in vitro analyses of live single cells trapped at the array sites. Cells, labeled with immunomagnetic particles, are captured at the array sites by channeling magnetic fields through encapsulated permalloy channels in the SCM. The RoboSCell is capable of systematically scanning the captured cells temporarily immobilized at the array sites and using optical methods to repeatedly measure extracellular and intracellular characteristics over time. The instrument\\'s capabilities are demonstrated by arraying human T lymphocytes and measuring the uptake dynamics of calcein acetoxymethylester-all in a fully automated fashion. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  10. Glycan family analysis for deducing N-glycan topology from single MS. (United States)

    Goldberg, David; Bern, Marshall; North, Simon J; Haslam, Stuart M; Dell, Anne


    In the past few years, mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as the premier tool for identification and quantification of biological molecules such as peptides and glycans. There are two basic strategies: single-MS, which uses a single round of mass analysis, and MS/MS (or higher order MS(n)), which adds one or more additional rounds of mass analysis, interspersed with fragmentation steps. Single-MS offers higher throughput, broader mass coverage and more direct quantitation, but generally much weaker identification. Single-MS, however, does work fairly well for the case of N-glycan identification, which are more constrained than other biological polymers. We previously demonstrated single-MS identification of N-glycans to the level of 'cartoons' (monosaccharide composition and topology) by a system that incorporates an expert's detailed knowledge of the biological sample. In this article, we explore the possibility of ab initio single-MS N-glycan identification, with the goal of extending single-MS, or primarily-single-MS, identification to non-expert users, novel conditions and unstudied tissues. We propose and test three cartoon-assignment algorithms that make inferences informed by biological knowledge about glycan synthesis. To test the algorithms, we used 71 single-MS spectra from a variety of tissues and organisms, containing more than 2800 manually annotated peaks. The most successful of the algorithms computes the most richly connected subgraph within a 'cartoon graph'. This algorithm uniquely assigns the correct cartoon to more than half of the peaks in 41 out of the 71 spectra.

  11. Structure-Based Analysis of Single Nucleotide Variants in the Renin-Angiotensinogen Complex. (United States)

    Brown, David K; Sheik Amamuddy, Olivier; Tastan Bishop, Özlem


    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in regulating blood pressure and controlling sodium levels in the blood. Hyperactivity of this system has been linked to numerous conditions including hypertension, kidney disease, and congestive heart failure. Three classes of drugs have been developed to inhibit RAS. In this study, we provide a structure-based analysis of the effect of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the interaction between renin and angiotensinogen with the aim of revealing important residues and potentially damaging variants for further inhibitor design purposes. To identify SNVs that have functional and potentially damaging effects on the renin-angiotensinogen complex and to use computational approaches to investigate how SNVs might have damaging effects. A comprehensive set of all known SNVs in the renin and angiotensinogen proteins was extracted from the HUMA database. This dataset was filtered by removing synonymous and missense variants and using the VAPOR pipeline to predict which variants were likely to be deleterious. Variants in the filtered dataset were modeled into the renin-angiotensinogen complex using MODELLER and subjected to molecular dynamics simulations using GROMACS. The residue interaction networks of the resultant trajectories were analyzed using graph theory. This research identified important SNVs in the interface of RAS and showed how they might affect the function of the proteins. For instance, the mutant complex containing the variant P40L in angiotensinogen caused instability in the complex, indicating that this mutation plays an important role in disrupting the interaction between renin and angiotensinogen. The mutant complex containing the SNV A188V in renin was shown to have significantly increased fluctuation in the residue interaction networks. D104N in renin, associated with renal tubular dysgenesis, caused increased rigidity in the protein complex comparison to the wild type, which probably in turn

  12. Dual versus single Scheimpflug camera for anterior segment analysis: Precision and agreement. (United States)

    Aramberri, Jaime; Araiz, Luis; Garcia, Ane; Illarramendi, Igor; Olmos, Jaione; Oyanarte, Izaskun; Romay, Amaya; Vigara, Itxaso


    To assess the repeatability, reproducibility, and agreement of the Pentacam HR single-camera and Galilei G2 dual-camera Scheimpflug devices in anterior segment analysis. Begitek Clínica Oftalmológica, San Sebastián, Spain. Prospective randomized observational study. Healthy young individuals had 3 consecutive tests by 2 examiners. Analyzed parameters were anterior and posterior cornea simulated keratometry (K), K flat, K steep, astigmatism magnitude and axis, J(0) and J(45) vectors, asphericity, total corneal higher-order wavefront aberrations (root mean square [RMS], coma, trefoil, spherical aberration), central cornea and thinnest-point thicknesses, and anterior chamber depth. Repeatability and reproducibility were evaluated by calculating the within-subject standard deviation (S(w)), some derived coefficients, and the intraclass correlation coefficient. Agreement was assessed with the Bland-Altman method. The single-camera device reproducibility (S(w)) was simulated K, 0.04 diopter (D); J(0), 0.03 D; J(45), 0.04 D; total power, 0.04 D; spherical aberration, 0.02 μm; higher-order aberrations (HOAs), 0.02 μm; central corneal thickness (CCT), 3.39 μm. The dual-camera device S(w) was simulated K, 0.07 D; J(0), 0.13 D; J(45), 0.04 D; total power, 0.08 D; spherical aberration, 0.02 μm; HOAs, 0.11 μm; CCT, 1.36 μm. Agreement was good for most parameters except total corneal power (mean difference 1.58 D ± 0.22 (SD) and HOA RMS (mean difference 0.48 ± 0.19 μm) (both PAramberri is consultant to Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Firenze, Italy. No other author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Concentrations of garenoxacin in plasma, bronchial mucosa, alveolar macrophages and epithelial lining fluid following a single oral 600 mg dose in healthy adult subjects. (United States)

    Andrews, J; Honeybourne, D; Jevons, G; Boyce, M; Wise, R; Bello, A; Gajjar, D


    A microbiological assay was used to measure concentrations of garenoxacin (BMS-284756) in plasma, bronchial mucosa (BM), alveolar macrophages (AM) and epithelial lining fluid (ELF), following a single 600 mg oral dose. Twenty-four healthy subjects were allocated into four nominal time intervals after the dose, 2.5-3.5, 4.5-5.5, 10.5-11.5 and 23.5-24.5 h. Mean concentrations in plasma, BM, AM and ELF, respectively, for the four nominal time windows were for 2.5-3.5 h 10.0 mg/L (S.D. 2.8), 7.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.3), 106.1 mg/L (S.D. 60.3) and 9.2 mg/L (S.D. 3.6); 4.5-5.5 h 8.7 mg/L (S.D. 2.2), 6.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.9), 158.6 mg/L (S.D. 137.4) and 14.3 mg/L (S.D. 8.2); 10.5-11.5 h 6.1 mg/L (S.D. 1.9), 4.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.4), 76.0 mg/L (S.D. 47.7) and 7.9 mg/L (S.D. 4.6); and 23.5-24.5 h 2.1 mg/L (S.D. 0.5), 1.7 mg/kg (S.D. 0.7), 30.7 mg/L (S.D. 12.9) and 3.3 mg/L (S.D. 2.3). Concentrations at all sites exceeded MIC(90)s for the common respiratory pathogens Haemophilus influenzae (0.03 mg/L), Moraxella catarrhalis (0.015 mg/L) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (0.06 mg/L). These data suggest that garenoxacin should be effective in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  14. Synthesis and single crystal X-ray analysis of two griseofulvin metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Harris, Pernille; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held


    The two phenols, 6-O-desmethyl griseofulvin and 4-O-desmethyl griseofulvin are metabolites of the antifungal drug griseofulvin. Herein, we present an improved synthesis of the 6-phenol derivative, and an unequivocal proof of both structures by single-crystal X-ray analysis.......The two phenols, 6-O-desmethyl griseofulvin and 4-O-desmethyl griseofulvin are metabolites of the antifungal drug griseofulvin. Herein, we present an improved synthesis of the 6-phenol derivative, and an unequivocal proof of both structures by single-crystal X-ray analysis....

  15. Single-phase power distribution system power flow and fault analysis (United States)

    Halpin, S. M.; Grigsby, L. L.


    Alternative methods for power flow and fault analysis of single-phase distribution systems are presented. The algorithms for both power flow and fault analysis utilize a generalized approach to network modeling. The generalized admittance matrix, formed using elements of linear graph theory, is an accurate network model for all possible single-phase network configurations. Unlike the standard nodal admittance matrix formulation algorithms, the generalized approach uses generalized component models for the transmission line and transformer. The standard assumption of a common node voltage reference point is not required to construct the generalized admittance matrix. Therefore, truly accurate simulation results can be obtained for networks that cannot be modeled using traditional techniques.

  16. Microfluidic device for continuous single cells analysis via Raman spectroscopy enhanced by integrated plasmonic nanodimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Candeloro, Patrizio; De Grazia, Antonio


    In this work a Raman flow cytometer is presented. It consists of a microfluidic device that takes advantages of the basic principles of Raman spectroscopy and flow cytometry. The microfluidic device integrates calibrated microfluidic channels-where the cells can flow one-by-one -, allowing single...... cell Raman analysis. The microfluidic channel integrates plasmonic nanodimers in a fluidic trapping region. In this way it is possible to perform Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy on single cell. These allow a label-free analysis, providing information about the biochemical content of membrane and cytoplasm...

  17. Stability boundary analysis in single-phase grid-connected inverters with PLL by LTP theory


    Salis, Valerio; Costabeber, Alessando; Cox, Stephen M.; Zanchetta, Pericle; Formentini, Andrea


    Stability analysis of power converters in AC net¬works is complex due to the non-linear nature of the conversion systems. Whereas interactions of converters in DC networks can be studied by linearising about the operating point, the extension of the same approach to AC systems poses serious challenges, especially for single-phase or unbalanced three-phase systems. A general method for stability analysis of power converters suitable for single-phase or unbalanced AC networks is presented in th...

  18. Analysis of ambulatory blood pressure monitor data using a hierarchical model incorporating restricted cubic splines and heterogeneous within-subject variances. (United States)

    Lambert, P C; Abrams, K R; Jones, D R; Halligan, A W; Shennan, A


    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are associated with significant maternal and foetal morbidity. Measurement of blood pressure remains the standard way of identifying individuals at risk. There is growing interest in the use of ambulatory blood pressure monitors (ABPM), which can record an individual's blood pressure many times over a 24-hour period. From a clinical perspective interest lies in the shape of the blood pressure profile over a 24-hour period and any differences in the profile between groups. We propose a two-level hierarchical linear model incorporating all ABPM data into a single model. We contrast a classical approach with a Bayesian approach using the results of a study of 206 pregnant women who were asked to wear an ABPM for 24 hours after referral to an obstetric day unit with high blood pressure. As the main interest lies in the shape of the profile, we use restricted cubic splines to model the mean profiles. The use of restricted cubic splines provides a flexible way to model the mean profiles and to make comparisons between groups. From examining the data and the fit of the model it is apparent that there were heterogeneous within-subject variances in that some women tend to have more variable blood pressure than others. Within the Bayesian framework it is relatively easy to incorporate a random effect to model the between-subject variation in the within-subject variances. Although there is substantial heterogeneity in the within-subject variances, allowing for this in the model has surprisingly little impact on the estimates of the mean profiles or their confidence/credible intervals. We thus demonstrate a powerful method for analysis of ABPM data and also demonstrate how heterogeneous within-subject variances can be modelled from a Bayesian perspective. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Achilles tendon stress is more sensitive to subject-specific geometry than subject-specific material properties: A finite element analysis. (United States)

    Hansen, Wencke; Shim, Vickie B; Obst, Steven; Lloyd, David G; Newsham-West, Richard; Barrett, Rod S


    This study used subject-specific measures of three-dimensional (3D) free Achilles tendon geometry in conjunction with a finite element method to investigate the effect of variation in subject-specific geometry and subject-specific material properties on tendon stress during submaximal isometric loading. Achilles tendons of eight participants (Aged 25-35years) were scanned with freehand 3D ultrasound at rest and during a 70% maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Ultrasound images were segmented, volume rendered and transformed into subject-specific 3D finite element meshes. The mean (±SD) lengths, volumes and cross-sectional areas of the tendons at rest were 62±13mm, 3617±984mm 3 and 58±11mm 2 respectively. The measured tendon strain at 70% MVIC was 5.9±1.3%. Subject-specific material properties were obtained using an optimisation approach that minimised the difference between measured and modelled longitudinal free tendon strain. Generic geometry was represented by the average mesh and generic material properties were taken from the literature. Local stresses were subsequently computed for combinations of subject-specific and generic geometry and material properties. For a given geometry, changing from generic to subject-specific material properties had little effect on the stress distribution in the tendon. In contrast, changing from generic to subject-specific geometry had a 26-fold greater effect on tendon stress distribution. Overall, these findings indicate that the stress distribution experienced by the living free Achilles tendon of a young and healthy population during voluntary loading are more sensitive to variation in tendon geometry than variation in tendon material properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparative analysis of the decongestive effect of oxymetazoline and xylometazoline in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Eskiizmir, Görkem; Hirçin, Zafer; Ozyurt, Beyhan; Unlü, Halis


    Oxymetazoline and xylometazoline are locally effective and direct acting drugs that relieve nasal congestion. The aim of this study was to objectively determine and compare the decongestive effects of oxymetazoline and xylometazoline in healthy subjects. The study population comprised thirty healthy adults. All subjects underwent active anterior rhinomanometry (AARhm) and acoustic rhinometry (AR) tests following the application of oxymetazoline, xylometazoline, or placebo (physiological saline). The change in nasal resistance, nasal airflow, and different cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the nasal cavity in the subjects were examined for each solution separately. The measurements were obtained over a 1-h period (baseline and 1, 15, 30, and 60 min post-dosing). All results were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test. A total of 6,300 measurements of AARhm and AR were obtained. The application of placebo did not cause a statistically significant change in nasal resistance, nasal airflow, and CSAs (CSA1, 2, and 3, respectively) of the nasal cavity. In contrast, statistically significant changes in nasal resistance (inspiration p = 0.000 and p = 0.004; expiration p = 0.000 and p = 0.000), nasal airflow (inspiration p = 0.000 and p = 0.004; expiration p = 0.000 and p = 0.000), and CSAs of the nasal cavity (CSA2 p = 0.000 and p = 0.000, CSA3 p = 0.000 and p = 0.00), with the exception of CSA1 (p = 0.982 and p = 0.994), were obtained after the application of oxymetazoline and xylometazoline. A comparison of oxymetazoline and xylometazoline based on nasal resistance, nasal airflow, and CSAs of the nasal cavity demonstrated no statistically significant difference, except for CSA3. Oxymetazoline and xylometazoline are fast-acting and potent topical decongestants that have similar decongestive effects.