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Sample records for single structural phase

  1. Structure and single-phase regime of boron carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, D.

    1988-01-01

    The boron carbides are composed of twelve-atom icosahedral clusters which are linked by direct covalent bonds and through three-atom intericosahedral chains. The boron carbides are known to exist as a single phase with carbon concentrations from about 8 to about 20 at. %. This range of carbon concentrations is made possible by the substitution of boron and carbon atoms for one another within both the icosahedra and intericosahedral chains. The most widely accepted structural model for B 4 C (the boron carbide with nominally 20% carbon) has B/sub 11/C icosahedra with C-B-C intericosahedral chains. Here, the free energy of the boron carbides is studied as a function of carbon concentration by considering the effects of replacing carbon atoms within B 4 C with boron atoms. It is concluded that entropic and energetic considerations both favor the replacement of carbon atoms with boron atoms within the intericosahedral chains, C-B-C→C-B-B. Once the carbon concentration is so low that the vast majority of the chains are C-B-B chains, near B/sub 13/C 2 , subsequent substitutions of carbon atoms with boron atoms occur within the icosahedra, B/sub 11/C→B/sub 12/. Maxima of the free energy occur at the most ordered compositions: B 4 C,B/sub 13/C 2 ,B/sub 14/C. This structural model, determined by studying the free energy, agrees with that previously suggested by analysis of electronic and thermal transport data. These considerations also provide an explanation for the wide single-phase regime found for boron carbides

  2. Dynamics Assessment of Advanced Single-Phase PLL Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Monfarad, Mohammad; Freijedo, Francisco D.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several advanced phase locked loop (PLL) techniques have been proposed for single-phase applications. Among these, the Park-PLL, and the second order generalized integrator (SOGI) based PLL are very attractive, owing to their simple digital implementation, low computational burden...

  3. Ultrafast photoinduced structure phase transition in antimony single crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fausti, Daniele; Misochko, Oleg V.; van Loosdrecht, Paul H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Picosecond Raman scattering is used to study the photoinduced ultrafast dynamics in Peierls distorted antimony. We find evidence for an ultrafast nonthermal reversible structural phase transition. Most surprisingly, we find evidence that this transition evolves toward a lower symmetry in contrast to

  4. Structural, vibrational and thermal characterization of phase transformation in L-histidinium bromide monohydrate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, G.M. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Pará, ICEN, Marabá, PA 68505-080 (Brazil); Carvalho, J.O. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Instituto Federal do Tocantins, Araguaína, TO, 77.826-170 (Brazil); Silva, M.C.D.; Façanha Filho, P.F. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Santos, A.O. dos, E-mail: adenilson1@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil)

    2015-09-01

    L-Histidinium bromide monohydrate (LHBr) single crystal is a nonlinear optical material. In this work the high temperature phase transformation and the thermal stability of single crystals of LHBr was investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed the LHBr phase transformation of orthorhombic (P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}) to monoclinic system (P 1 2 1) at 120 °C, with the lattice parameters a = 12.162(1) Å, b = 16.821(2) Å, c = 19.477(2) Å and β = 108.56(2)°. These techniques are complementary and confirm the structural phase transformation due to loss water of crystallization. - Highlights: • -histidinium bromide single crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. • X-ray diffraction characterize the high-temperature phase transformation. • The structural phase transformation occur due to loss of water of crystallization. • The LHBr thermal expansion coefficients exhibit an anisotropic behavior.

  5. Accelerated safety analyses - structural analyses Phase I - structural sensitivity evaluation of single- and double-shell waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1994-11-01

    Accelerated Safety Analyses - Phase I (ASA-Phase I) have been conducted to assess the appropriateness of existing tank farm operational controls and/or limits as now stipulated in the Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs) and Operating Specification Documents, and to establish a technical basis for the waste tank operating safety envelope. Structural sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the response of the different waste tank configurations to variations in loading conditions, uncertainties in loading parameters, and uncertainties in material characteristics. Extensive documentation of the sensitivity analyses conducted and results obtained are provided in the detailed ASA-Phase I report, Structural Sensitivity Evaluation of Single- and Double-Shell Waste Tanks for Accelerated Safety Analysis - Phase I. This document provides a summary of the accelerated safety analyses sensitivity evaluations and the resulting findings

  6. Single-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) are popular for the synchronization and control of single-phase gridconnected converters. They are also widely used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes in the power and energy areas. In recent years, a large number of single-phase PLLs with different stru......-PLLs). The members of each category are then described and their pros and cons are discussed. This work provides a deep insight into characteristics of different single-phase PLLs and, therefore, can be considered as a reference for researchers and engineers....

  7. Gas-phase structure and fragmentation pathways of singly protonated peptides with N-terminal arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bythell, Benjamin J; Csonka, István P; Suhai, Sándor; Barofsky, Douglas F; Paizs, Béla

    2010-11-25

    The gas-phase structures and fragmentation pathways of the singly protonated peptide arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) are investigated by means of collision-induced-dissociation (CID) and detailed molecular mechanics and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is demonstrated that despite the ionizing proton being strongly sequestered at the guanidine group, protonated RGD can easily be fragmented on charge directed fragmentation pathways. This is due to facile mobilization of the C-terminal or aspartic acid COOH protons thereby generating salt-bridge (SB) stabilized structures. These SB intermediates can directly fragment to generate b(2) ions or facilely rearrange to form anhydrides from which both b(2) and b(2)+H(2)O fragments can be formed. The salt-bridge stabilized and anhydride transition structures (TSs) necessary to form b(2) and b(2)+H(2)O are much lower in energy than their traditional charge solvated counterparts. These mechanisms provide compelling evidence of the role of SB and anhydride structures in protonated peptide fragmentation which complements and supports our recent findings for tryptic systems (Bythell, B. J.; Suhai, S.; Somogyi, A.; Paizs, B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 14057-14065.). In addition to these findings we also report on the mechanisms for the formation of the b(1) ion, neutral loss (H(2)O, NH(3), guanidine) fragment ions, and the d(3) ion.

  8. On the combination of molecular replacement and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction phasing for automated structure determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panjikar, Santosh; Parthasarathy, Venkataraman; Lamzin, Victor S.; Weiss, Manfred S.; Tucker, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    The combination of molecular replacement and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction improves the performance of automated structure determination with Auto-Rickshaw. A combination of molecular replacement and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction phasing has been incorporated into the automated structure-determination platform Auto-Rickshaw. The complete MRSAD procedure includes molecular replacement, model refinement, experimental phasing, phase improvement and automated model building. The improvement over the standard SAD or MR approaches is illustrated by ten test cases taken from the JCSG diffraction data-set database. Poor MR or SAD phases with phase errors larger than 70° can be improved using the described procedure and a large fraction of the model can be determined in a purely automatic manner from X-ray data extending to better than 2.6 Å resolution

  9. Direct phase selection of initial phases from single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) for the improvement of electron density and ab initio structure determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chung-De; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Chiang, Hsin-Lin; Hsieh, Yin-Cheng; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2014-01-01

    A novel direct phase-selection method to select optimized phases from the ambiguous phases of a subset of reflections to replace the corresponding initial SAD phases has been developed. With the improved phases, the completeness of built residues of protein molecules is enhanced for efficient structure determination. Optimization of the initial phasing has been a decisive factor in the success of the subsequent electron-density modification, model building and structure determination of biological macromolecules using the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method. Two possible phase solutions (ϕ 1 and ϕ 2 ) generated from two symmetric phase triangles in the Harker construction for the SAD method cause the well known phase ambiguity. A novel direct phase-selection method utilizing the θ DS list as a criterion to select optimized phases ϕ am from ϕ 1 or ϕ 2 of a subset of reflections with a high percentage of correct phases to replace the corresponding initial SAD phases ϕ SAD has been developed. Based on this work, reflections with an angle θ DS in the range 35–145° are selected for an optimized improvement, where θ DS is the angle between the initial phase ϕ SAD and a preliminary density-modification (DM) phase ϕ DM NHL . The results show that utilizing the additional direct phase-selection step prior to simple solvent flattening without phase combination using existing DM programs, such as RESOLVE or DM from CCP4, significantly improves the final phases in terms of increased correlation coefficients of electron-density maps and diminished mean phase errors. With the improved phases and density maps from the direct phase-selection method, the completeness of residues of protein molecules built with main chains and side chains is enhanced for efficient structure determination

  10. Comparison of single distance phase retrieval algorithms by considering different object composition and the effect of statistical and structural noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R C; Rigon, L; Longo, R

    2013-03-25

    Phase retrieval is a technique for extracting quantitative phase information from X-ray propagation-based phase-contrast tomography (PPCT). In this paper, the performance of different single distance phase retrieval algorithms will be investigated. The algorithms are herein called phase-attenuation duality Born Algorithm (PAD-BA), phase-attenuation duality Rytov Algorithm (PAD-RA), phase-attenuation duality Modified Bronnikov Algorithm (PAD-MBA), phase-attenuation duality Paganin algorithm (PAD-PA) and phase-attenuation duality Wu Algorithm (PAD-WA), respectively. They are all based on phase-attenuation duality property and on weak absorption of the sample and they employ only a single distance PPCT data. In this paper, they are investigated via simulated noise-free PPCT data considering the fulfillment of PAD property and weakly absorbing conditions, and with experimental PPCT data of a mixture sample containing absorbing and weakly absorbing materials, and of a polymer sample considering different degrees of statistical and structural noise. The simulation shows all algorithms can quantitatively reconstruct the 3D refractive index of a quasi-homogeneous weakly absorbing object from noise-free PPCT data. When the weakly absorbing condition is violated, the PAD-RA and PAD-PA/WA obtain better result than PAD-BA and PAD-MBA that are shown in both simulation and mixture sample results. When considering the statistical noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio values decreases as the photon number is reduced. The structural noise study shows that the result is progressively corrupted by ring-like artifacts with the increase of structural noise (i.e. phantom thickness). The PAD-RA and PAD-PA/WA gain better density resolution than the PAD-BA and PAD-MBA in both statistical and structural noise study.

  11. Direct phase selection of initial phases from single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) for the improvement of electron density and ab initio structure determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-De; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Chiang, Hsin-Lin; Hsieh, Yin-Cheng; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2014-09-01

    Optimization of the initial phasing has been a decisive factor in the success of the subsequent electron-density modification, model building and structure determination of biological macromolecules using the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method. Two possible phase solutions (φ1 and φ2) generated from two symmetric phase triangles in the Harker construction for the SAD method cause the well known phase ambiguity. A novel direct phase-selection method utilizing the θ(DS) list as a criterion to select optimized phases φ(am) from φ1 or φ2 of a subset of reflections with a high percentage of correct phases to replace the corresponding initial SAD phases φ(SAD) has been developed. Based on this work, reflections with an angle θ(DS) in the range 35-145° are selected for an optimized improvement, where θ(DS) is the angle between the initial phase φ(SAD) and a preliminary density-modification (DM) phase φ(DM)(NHL). The results show that utilizing the additional direct phase-selection step prior to simple solvent flattening without phase combination using existing DM programs, such as RESOLVE or DM from CCP4, significantly improves the final phases in terms of increased correlation coefficients of electron-density maps and diminished mean phase errors. With the improved phases and density maps from the direct phase-selection method, the completeness of residues of protein molecules built with main chains and side chains is enhanced for efficient structure determination.

  12. Microfluidic Manufacturing of Polymeric Nanoparticles: Comparing Flow Control of Multiscale Structure in Single-Phase Staggered Herringbone and Two-Phase Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheqi; Lu, Changhai; Riordon, Jason; Sinton, David; Moffitt, Matthew G

    2016-12-06

    We compare the microfluidic manufacturing of polycaprolactone-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PCL-b-PEO) nanoparticles (NPs) in a single-phase staggered herringbone (SHB) mixer and in a two-phase gas-liquid segmented mixer. NPs generated from two different copolymer compositions in both reactors and at three different flow rates, along with NPs generated using a conventional bulk method, are compared with respect to morphologies, dimensions, and internal crystallinities. Our work, the first direct comparison between alternate microfluidic NP synthesis methods, shows three key findings: (i) NP morphologies and dimensions produced in the bulk are different from those produced in a microfluidic mixer, whereas NP crystallinities produced in the bulk and in the SHB mixer are similar; (ii) NP morphologies, dimensions, and crystallinities produced in the single-phase SHB and two-phase mixers at the lowest flow rate are similar; and (iii) NP morphologies, dimensions, and crystallinities change with flow rate in the two-phase mixer but not in the single-phase SHB mixer. These findings provide new insights into the relative roles of mixing and shear in the formation and flow-directed processing of polymeric NPs in microfluidics, informing future reactor designs for manufacturing NPs of low polydispersity and controlled multiscale structure and function.

  13. The structure of single-phase turbulent flows through closely spaced rod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, J.D.; Rehme, K.

    1983-02-01

    The axial and azimuthal turbulence intensity in the rod gap region has been shown, for developed single-phase turbulent flow through parallel rod arrays, to strongly increase with decreasing rod spacing. Two array geometries are reported, one constructed from a rectangular cross-section duct containing four rods and spaced at five p/d or w/d ratios. The second test section, constructed from six rods set in a regular square-pitch array, represented the interior flow region of a large array. The mean axial velocity, wall shear stress variation and axial pressure distribution were measured, together with hot-wire anemometer measurements of the Reynolds stresses. No significant non-zero secondary flow components were detected, using techniques capable of resolving secondary flow velocities to 1% of the local axial velocity. For the lowest p/d ratio of 1.036, cross-correlation measurements showed the presence of an energetic periodic azimuthal turbulent velocity component, correlated over a significant part of the flow area. The negligible contribution of secondary flows to the axial momentum balance, and the large azimuthal turbulent velocity component in the rod gap area, suggest a different mechanism than Reynolds stress gradient driven secondary flows for the turbulent transport process in the rod gap. (orig.) [de

  14. Detailed Investigation of the Structural, Thermal, and Electronic Properties of Gold Isocyanide Complexes with Mechano-Triggered Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Phase Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Tomohiro; Sakurada, Kenta; Muromoto, Mai; Seki, Shu; Ito, Hajime

    2016-02-01

    Mechano-induced phase transitions in organic crystalline materials, which can alter their properties, have received much attention. However, most mechano-responsive molecular crystals exhibit crystal-to-amorphous phase transitions, and the intermolecular interaction patterns in the daughter phase are difficult to characterize. We have investigated phenyl(phenylisocyanide)gold(I) (1) and phenyl(3,5-dimethylphenylisocyanide)gold(I) (2) complexes, which exhibit a mechano-triggered single-crystal-to-single-crystal phase transition. Previous reports of complexes 1 and 2 have focused on the relationships between the crystalline structures and photoluminescence properties; in this work we have focused on other aspects. The face index measurements of complexes 1 and 2 before and after the mechano-induced phase transitions have indicated that they undergo non-epitaxial phase transitions without a rigorous orientational relationship between the mother and daughter phases. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses revealed the phase transition of complex 1 to be enthalpically driven by the formation of new aurophilic interactions. In contrast, the phase transition of complex 2 was found to be entropically driven, with the closure of an empty void in the mother phase. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that the degree of the charging effect of both complexes 1 and 2 was changed by the phase transitions, which suggests that the formation of the aurophilic interactions affords more effective conductive pathways. Moreover, flash-photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements revealed that complex 1 increased in conductivity after the phase change, whereas the conductivity of complex 2 decreased. These contrasting results were explained by the different patterns in the aurophilic interactions. Finally, an intriguing disappearing polymorphism of complex 2 has been reported, in which a polymorph form could not be obtained again after some period of time

  15. Femtosecond-pulse inscription of fiber Bragg gratings with single or multiple phase-shifts in the structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Alexey; Dostovalov, Alexandr; Skvortsov, Mikhail; Raspopin, Kirill; Parygin, Alexandr; Babin, Sergey

    2018-05-01

    In this work, long high-quality fiber Bragg gratings with phase shifts in the structure are inscribed directly in the optical fiber by point-by-point technique using femtosecond laser pulses. Phase shifts are introduced during the inscription process with a piezoelectric actuator, which rapidly shifts the fiber along the direction of its movement in a chosen point of the grating with a chosen shift value. As examples, single and double π phase shifts are introduced in fiber Bragg gratings with a length up to 34 mm in passive fibers, which provide corresponding transmission peaks with bandwidth less than 1 pm. It is shown that 37 mm π -phase-shifted grating inscribed in an active Er-doped fiber forms high-quality DFB laser cavity generating single-frequency radiation at 1550 nm with bandwidth of 20 kHz and signal-to-noise ratio of >70 dB. The inscription technique has a high degree of performance and flexibility and can be easily implemented in fibers of various types.

  16. Ferroelectric InMnO{sub 3}: Growth of single crystals, structure and high-temperature phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekheet, Maged F., E-mail: maged.bekheet@ceramics.tu-berlin.de [Fachbereich Material‐ und Geowissenschaften, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Fachgebiet Keramische Werkstoffe / Chair of Advanced Ceramic Materials, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaften und -technologien, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 40, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Svoboda, Ingrid; Liu, Na [Fachbereich Material‐ und Geowissenschaften, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Bayarjargal, Lkhamsuren [Institut für Geowissenschaften, Goethe-Universität, Altenhöferallee 1, d-60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Irran, Elisabeth [Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17, Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Dietz, Christian; Stark, Robert W.; Riedel, Ralf [Fachbereich Material‐ und Geowissenschaften, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Gurlo, Aleksander [Fachgebiet Keramische Werkstoffe / Chair of Advanced Ceramic Materials, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaften und -technologien, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 40, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    To understand the origin of the ferroelectricity in InMnO{sub 3}, single crystals with average size of 1 mm were grown in PbF{sub 2} flux at 950 °C. The results of single crystal X-ray diffraction, second harmonic generation and piezoresponse force microscopy studies of high-quality InMnO{sub 3} single crystals reveal that the room-temperature state in this material is ferroelectric with P6{sub 3}cm symmetry. The polar InMnO{sub 3} specimen undergoes a reversible phase transition from non-centrosymmetric P6{sub 3}cm structure to a centrosymmetric P6{sub 3}/mmc structure at 700 °C as confirmed by the in situ high-temperature Raman spectroscopic and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments. - Graphical abstract: Piezoresponse fore microscopy (PFM) studies of high quality InMnO{sub 3} single crystal revealed that the room-temperature state of this material is ferroelectric with a clear cloverleaf pattern corresponding to six antiphase ferroelectric domains with alternating polarization ±P{sub z}. Display Omitted - Highlights: • InMnO{sub 3} single crystals with average size of 1 mm were grown in PbF{sub 2} flux at 950 °C. • The room-temperature state of InMnO{sub 3} is ferroelectric with polar P6{sub 3}cm structure. • PolarInMnO{sub 3} reversibly transforms to a centrosymmetric P6{sub 3}/mmc structure above 700 °C.

  17. Raman scattering study of the structural phase transition in single crystal KDy(MoO4)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschanskii, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Raman scattering of light in single-crystal KDy(MoO4)2 is studied at frequencies of 3-1000 cm-1 for temperatures ranging from 2 to 300 K, including that of a structural phase transition of the cooperative Jahn-Teller type (TC ˜ 14.5 K). During the transition to the low-temperature phase, a series of additional phonon lines corresponding to the Ag, B1g, B2g, and B3g modes is observed which indicates a doubling of the unit cell during the phase transition. An analysis of the symmetry of the phonon modes shows that the low-temperature phase has a predominantly monoclinic symmetry with conservation of a second order axis along the crystallographic b direction, i.e., perpendicular to the layers. Excitations are discovered which correspond to low-energy electronic transitions between levels of the ground-state 6H15/2 multiplet of the Dy3+ ion, which is split in the crystal field with a C2 symmetry. In the vicinity of the first excited Kramers doublet of the Dy3+ ion in crystalline KDy(MoO4)2, the scattered spectrum contains four lines [16.5, 21.0, 24.9, and 29.1 cm-1 (2 K)] at low temperatures, instead of a single line [18.3 cm-1 (25 K)] above the phase transition temperature (14.5 K). This indicates the existence of four nonequivalent dysprosium ions in the low-temperature phase.

  18. Unprecedented Al supersaturation in single-phase rock salt structure VAlN films by Al+ subplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greczynski, G.; Mráz, S.; Hans, M.; Primetzhofer, D.; Lu, J.; Hultman, L.; Schneider, J. M.

    2017-05-01

    Modern applications of refractory ceramic thin films, predominantly as wear-protective coatings on cutting tools and on components utilized in automotive engines, require a combination of excellent mechanical properties, thermal stability, and oxidation resistance. Conventional design approaches for transition metal nitride coatings with improved thermal and chemical stability are based on alloying with Al. It is well known that the solubility of Al in NaCl-structure transition metal nitrides is limited. Hence, the great challenge is to increase the Al concentration substantially while avoiding precipitation of the thermodynamically favored wurtzite-AlN phase, which is detrimental to mechanical properties. Here, we use VAlN as a model system to illustrate a new concept for the synthesis of metastable single-phase NaCl-structure thin films with the Al content far beyond solubility limits obtained with conventional plasma processes. This supersaturation is achieved by separating the film-forming species in time and energy domains through synchronization of the 70-μs-long pulsed substrate bias with intense periodic fluxes of energetic Al+ metal ions during reactive hybrid high power impulse magnetron sputtering of the Al target and direct current magnetron sputtering of the V target in the Ar/N2 gas mixture. Hereby, Al is subplanted into the cubic VN grains formed by the continuous flux of low-energy V neutrals. We show that Al subplantation enables an unprecedented 42% increase in metastable Al solubility limit in V1-xAlxN, from x = 0.52 obtained with the conventional method to 0.75. The elastic modulus is 325 ± 5 GPa, in excellent agreement with density functional theory calculations, and approximately 50% higher than for corresponding films grown by dc magnetron sputtering. The extension of the presented strategy to other Al-ion-assisted vapor deposition methods or materials systems is straightforward, which opens up the way for producing supersaturated single-phase

  19. Nodal structure and phase shifts of zero-incident-energy wave functions: Multiparticle single-channel scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwinski, Z.R.; Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.

    1986-01-01

    For potential scattering, with delta/sub L/(k) the phase shift modulo π for an incident wave number k, Levinson's theorem gives delta/sub L/(0)-delta/sub L/(infinity) in terms of N/sub L/, the number of bound states of angular momentum L, for delta/sub L/(k) assumed to be a continuous function of k. N/sub L/ also determines the number of nodes of the zero-energy wave function u/sub L/(r). A knowledge of the nodal structure and of the absolute value of delta/sub L/(0) is very useful in theoretical studies of low-energy potential scattering. Two preliminary attempts, one formal and one ''physical,'' are made to extend the above results to single-channel scattering by a compound system initially in its ground state. The nodal structure will be of greater interest to us here than an extension of Levinson's theorem

  20. Structural models of increasing complexity for icosahedral boron carbide with compositions throughout the single-phase region from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ektarawong, A.; Simak, S. I.; Alling, B.

    2018-05-01

    We perform first-principles calculations to investigate the phase stability of boron carbide, concentrating on the recently proposed alternative structural models composed not only of the regularly studied B11Cp (CBC) and B12(CBC), but also of B12(CBCB) and B12( B4 ). We find that a combination of the four structural motifs can result in low-energy electron precise configurations of boron carbide. Among several considered configurations within the composition range of B10.5C and B4C , we identify in addition to the regularly studied B11Cp (CBC) at the composition of B4C two low-energy configurations, resulting in a new view of the B-C convex hull. Those are [B12 (CBC)]0.67[B12(B4)] 0.33 and [B12 (CBC)]0.67[ B12 (CBCB)]0.33, corresponding to compositions of B10.5C and B6.67C , respectively. As a consequence, B12(CBC) at the composition of B6.5C , previously suggested in the literature as a stable configuration of boron carbide, is no longer part of the B -C convex hull. By inspecting the electronic density of states as well as the elastic moduli, we find that the alternative models of boron carbide can provide a reasonably good description for electronic and elastic properties of the material in comparison with the experiments, highlighting the importance of considering B12(CBCB) and B12( B4 ), together with the previously proposed B11Cp (CBC) and B12(CBC), as the crucial ingredients for modeling boron carbide with compositions throughout the single-phase region.

  1. Structural study of intermediate phase in layered perovskite SrBi sub 2 Ta sub 2 O sub 9 single crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Onodera, A; Yamashita, H

    2003-01-01

    The crystal structure of an intermediate phase of Bi-layered ferroelectric SrBi sub 2 Ta sub 2 O sub 9 single crystals was studied by means of X-ray diffraction. An analysis of the extinction rules and X-ray intensities demonstrated that the crystal structure is orthorhombic with space group A2 sub 1 am in the ferroelectric phase and Amam in the intermediate phase; this conclusion is in good agreement with the findings of previous powder neutron diffraction studies.

  2. A Fault-Tolerant Parallel Structure of Single-Phase Full-Bridge Rectifiers for a Wound-Field Doubly Salient Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhihui; Chen, Ran; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The fault-tolerance design is widely adopted for high-reliability applications. In this paper, a parallel structure of single-phase full-bridge rectifiers (FBRs) (PS-SPFBR) is proposed for a wound-field doubly salient generator. The analysis shows the potential fault-tolerance capability of the PS...

  3. Protein structure determination by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction phasing of X-ray free-electron laser data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Nass

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs offers unprecedented possibilities for macromolecular structure determination of systems that are prone to radiation damage. However, phasing XFEL data de novo is complicated by the inherent inaccuracy of SFX data, and only a few successful examples, mostly based on exceedingly strong anomalous or isomorphous difference signals, have been reported. Here, it is shown that SFX data from thaumatin microcrystals can be successfully phased using only the weak anomalous scattering from the endogenous S atoms. Moreover, a step-by-step investigation is presented of the particular problems of SAD phasing of SFX data, analysing data from a derivative with a strong anomalous signal as well as the weak signal from endogenous S atoms.

  4. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented......-forward; - and the grid current controller implemented in two different ways, using the classical proportional integral (PI) and the novel proportional resonant (PR) controllers. The control strategy was tested experimentally on 1.5 kW PV inverter....

  5. Simulation of phase structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.

    1995-01-01

    This memo outlines a procedure developed by the author to extract information from phase measurements and produce a simulated phase structure for use in modeling optical systems, including characteristic optics for the Beamlet and NIF laser systems. The report includes an IDL program listing

  6. Berry's Phase and Fine Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, B

    2002-01-01

    Irrational numbers can be assigned to physical entities based on iterative processes of geometric objects. It is likely that iterative round trips of vector signals include a geometric phase component. If so, this component will couple back to the round trip frequency or path length generating an non-linear feedback loop (i.e. induced by precession). In this paper such a quantum feedback mechanism is defined including generalized fine structure constants in accordance with the fundamental gravitomagnetic relation of spin-orbit coupling. Supported by measurements, the general relativistic and topological background allows to propose, that the deviation of the fine structure constant from 1/137 could be assigned to Berry's phase. The interpretation is straightforward: spacetime curvature effects can be greatly amplified by non-linear phase-locked feedback-loops adjusted to single-valued phase relationships in the quantum regime.

  7. Domain switching in single-phase multiferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tingting; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Zhao, Hongyang; Kimura, Hideo

    2018-06-01

    Multiferroics are a time-honoured research subject by reason for their tremendous application potential in the information industry, such as in multi-state information storage devices and new types of sensors. An outburst of studies on multiferroicity has been witnessed in the 21st century, although this field has a long research history since the 19th century. Multiferroicity has now become one of the hottest research topics in condensed matter physics and materials science. Numerous efforts have been made to investigate the cross-coupling phenomena among ferroic orders such as ferroelectricity, (anti-)ferromagnetism, and ferroelasticity, especially the coupling between electric and magnetic orderings that would account for the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in multiferroic materials. The magnetoelectric properties and coupling behavior of single phase multiferroics are dominated by their domain structures. It was also noted that, however, the multiferroic materials exhibit very complicated domain structures. Studies on domain structure characterization and domain switching are a crucial step in the exploration of approaches to the control and manipulation of magnetic (electric) properties using an electric (magnetic) field or other means. In this review, following a concise outline of our current basic knowledge on the magnetoelectric (ME) effect, we summarize some important research activities on domain switching in single-phase multiferroic materials in the form of single crystals and thin films, especially domain switching behavior involving strain and the related physics in the last decade. We also introduce recent developments in characterization techniques for domain structures of ferroelectric or multiferroic materials, which have significantly advanced our understanding of domain switching dynamics and interactions. The effects of a series of issues such as electric field, magnetic field, and stress effects on domain switching are been discussed as well. It

  8. Multiphase forces on bend structures – critical gas fraction for transition single phase gas to multiphase flow behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, S.P.C.; Nennie, E.D.; Lewis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Piping structures are generally subjected to high dynamic loading due to multiphase forces. In particular subsea structures are very vulnerable as large flexibility is required to cope for instance with thermal stresses. The forces due to multiphase flow are characterized by a broadband spectrum

  9. A Finite-Volume approach for compressible single- and two-phase flows in flexible pipelines with fluid-structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daude, F.; Galon, P.

    2018-06-01

    A Finite-Volume scheme for the numerical computations of compressible single- and two-phase flows in flexible pipelines is proposed based on an approximate Godunov-type approach. The spatial discretization is here obtained using the HLLC scheme. In addition, the numerical treatment of abrupt changes in area and network including several pipelines connected at junctions is also considered. The proposed approach is based on the integral form of the governing equations making it possible to tackle general equations of state. A coupled approach for the resolution of fluid-structure interaction of compressible fluid flowing in flexible pipes is considered. The structural problem is solved using Euler-Bernoulli beam finite elements. The present Finite-Volume method is applied to ideal gas and two-phase steam-water based on the Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) in conjunction with a tabulated equation of state in order to demonstrate its ability to tackle general equations of state. The extensive application of the scheme for both shock tube and other transient flow problems demonstrates its capability to resolve such problems accurately and robustly. Finally, the proposed 1-D fluid-structure interaction model appears to be computationally efficient.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and structural control of nano crystalline molybdenum oxide MoO{sub 3} single phase by low cost technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afify, H.H.; Hassan, S.A. [Solid State Department, Physics Division, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouthst. (fromer El Tahrirst.), Dokki, P.O. 12622, Giza (Egypt); Abouelsayed, A., E-mail: as.abouelsayed@gmail.com [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouthst. (fromer El Tahrirst.), Dokki, P.O. 12622, Giza (Egypt); Demian, S.E. [Solid State Department, Physics Division, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouthst. (fromer El Tahrirst.), Dokki, P.O. 12622, Giza (Egypt); Zayed, H.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Girls for Art, Sciences and Education, Ain Shams University (Egypt)

    2016-06-15

    Thermodynamically stable α- MoO{sub 3} thin film is prepared without any other phases of the molybdenum oxides. Simple and low coast spray pyrolysis technique is used. Growth conditions are optimized to produce pure α- MoO{sub 3} with controlled crystallite size and surface morphology. Small angle (GAXRD) diffractometer is used to elucidate the structure. Profile shape function (PSF) model is made for the experimental data. WinFit software is going first to fit (PSF) to use the refined profile parameters for determination of crystallite size and internal residual strain. The (GAXRD) patterns prove the existence of α- MoO{sub 3} only with layered structure, indicated by the appearance of only (0k0). The calculated crystallite sizes and the strain are found to range from 10 to 28 nm and 0.28%–0.05% respectively. Ultraviolet and Visible transmission measurements were performed over a wavelength range 190–2500 nm on the MoO{sub 3} thin films synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique at different substrate temperature. The two sub-bands corresponds to the electronic transition between the molybdenum oxidation states Mo{sup 4+}, Mo{sup 5+} and Mo{sup 6+} are observed. Quantitative information on the temperature-induced blue shift of the sub-bands was obtained by fitting the spectra with Lorentz functions. The transition from Mo{sup 5+} to Mo{sup 6+} oxidation states show a blue shift up to Tc = 325 °C. Above Tc, the transition Mo{sup 5+} to Mo{sup 6+} increases more drastically, resulting in an anomaly in the temperature-induced shift at Tc. The anomaly can be attributed to the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition at 325 °C. In addition, both refractive index and extinction coefficient are calculated as a function of substrate temperature. - Highlights: • Single phase α-MoO{sub 3} nano crystalline MoO{sub 3} thin films have been synthesized. • Amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition occurs at 325 °C for MoO{sub 3} thin films. • A clear

  11. Evidence for existence of spin glass state in single phase polycrystalline Gd0.99Sr0.01MnO3 through structural and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, Lija K.; Anantharaman, M.R.; Thomas, Senoy

    2013-01-01

    Single phase rare earth manganites have attracted scientific interest due to their interesting magnetic, electrical and structural properties. Bulk GdMnO 3 has metamagnetic features with a transition from antiferromagnetic to weak-ferromagnetic state upon cooling. Recently we have found promising magnetic behaviour when GdMnO 3 is doped with strontium. Magnetic behaviour of doped rare earth manganites in the form of Gd 1-x SrMnO 3 has attracted scientific interest due to their promising technological applications in data storage, as catalysts, as electrode materials and sensors. Irreversibility and sharp anomalies has been observed in the magnetization studies of polycrystalline Gd 0.99 Sr 0.01 MnO 3 perovskite synthesized by wet solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction pattern of the system confirms the single phase orthorhombically distorted perovskite structure. The Field Cooled (FC) and Zero Field Cooled (ZFC) magnetization obtained as a function of temperature with external magnetic field 25Oe, 50Oe, and 200Oe showed thermal irreversibility along with a cusp below the ordering temperature indicating the appearance of spin glass state. The origin of this spin glass state is attributed to spin frustrations, due to the rare earth ions forming a deformed Kagome lattice. Under a magnetic field of 25Oe, the splitting between FC and ZFC magnetization is observed at 70K with a cusp in M ZFC at 45K and when the field is increased to 50Oe and 200Oe, the splitting becomes narrower and shows a shift in the irreversible temperature (T irr ) to lower temperatures 59K and 50K respectively. The spins are frozen in random directions due to a lack of long range magnetic interactions, when the system is cooled through its freezing temperature T f to T f . Room temperature variation of magnetization with applied field indicates the existence of ferromagnetic clusters of glass over antiferromagnetic background. Thermal irreversibility between FC and ZFC below T irr with a

  12. Preparation of single phase molybdenum boride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camurlu, Hasan Erdem

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Formation of Mo and a mixture of molybdenum boride phases take place in preparation of molybdenum borides. → It is intricate to prepare single phase molybdenum borides. → Formation of single phase MoB from MoO 3 + B 2 O 3 + Mg mixtures has not been reported previously. → Single phase MoB was successfully prepared through a combination of mechanochemical synthesis and annealing process. - Abstract: The formation of MoB through volume combustion synthesis (VCS), and through mechanochemical synthesis (MCS) followed by annealing has been investigated. MoO 3 , B 2 O 3 and Mg were used as reactants while MgO and NaCl were introduced as diluents. Products were leached in dilute HCl solution and were subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations. Mo was the major phase component in the VCS products under all the experimental conditions. Mo 2 B, MoB, MoB 2 and Mo 2 B 5 were found as minor phases. Products of MCS contained a mixture of Mo 2 B, MoB, MoB 2 and Mo. After annealing the MCS product at 1400 deg. C for 3 h, single phase α-MoB was obtained.

  13. Investigation of structural phase transition in strontium titanate single crystal by methods of generation of coherent and incoherent second optical harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishina, E.D.; Morozov, A.I.; Sigov, A.S.; Sherstyuk, N.Eh.; Aktsipetrov, O.A.; Lemanov, V.V.; Rasing, Th.

    2002-01-01

    The surface phase transition in the SrTiO 3 crystal is studied through the method of the second optical harmonic generation. The peculiarities in the nonlinear-optical response are identified at the temperature of T* = 145 K, which by 40 K exceeds the T c temperature of the structural phase transition in the crystal volume. The phenomenon of the nonlinear critical opalescence, caused by availability of the point defects, is studied. The second harmonic field and critical opalescence intensity are calculated on the basis of the phenomenological model of the nonlinear-optical processes with application of the Landau phase transition theory [ru

  14. Single phase induction motor with starting performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, M.; Demeter, E. [Research Institute for Electrical Machines, ICPE-ME, Bucharest (Romania); Navrapescu, V. [University `Politehnica` Bucharest, Electrical Engineering Faculty Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    The paper presents problems related to a special type of single phase induction motor. The main novelty consists in the use of a conducting (aluminium casted) shell distributed on the periferic region of the rotor. As a result the starting performance, as well as the rated ones, is much improved in comparison with the conventional construction. (orig.) 4 refs.

  15. Unconventional phase transitions in a constrained single polymer chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klushin, L I; Skvortsov, A M

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions were recognized among the most fascinating phenomena in physics. Exactly solved models are especially important in the theory of phase transitions. A number of exactly solved models of phase transitions in a single polymer chain are discussed in this review. These are three models demonstrating the second order phase transitions with some unusual features: two-dimensional model of β-structure formation, the model of coil–globule transition and adsorption of a polymer chain grafted on the solid surface. We also discuss models with first order phase transitions in a single macromolecule which admit not only exact analytical solutions for the partition function with explicit finite-size effects but also the non-equilibrium free energy as a function of the order parameter (Landau function) in closed analytical form. One of them is a model of mechanical desorption of a macromolecule, which demonstrates an unusual first order phase transition with phase coexistence within a single chain. Features of first and second order transitions become mixed here due to phase coexistence which is not accompanied by additional interfacial free energy. Apart from that, there exist several single-chain models belonging to the same class (adsorption of a polymer chain tethered near the solid surface or liquid–liquid interface, and escape transition upon compressing a polymer between small pistons) that represent examples of a highly unconventional first order phase transition with several inter-related unusual features: no simultaneous phase coexistence, and hence no phase boundary, non-concave thermodynamic potential and non-equivalence of conjugate ensembles. An analysis of complex zeros of partition functions upon approaching the thermodynamic limit is presented for models with and without phase coexistence. (topical review)

  16. Load compensation for single phase system using series active filter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Active power filter (APF), current source type of harmonic load ... Single phase active filters could attract less attention than three phase due to its low ..... Generalised single-phase p-q theory for active power filtering: simulation and.

  17. X-ray and neutron single crystal diffraction on (NH4)3H(SO4)2. II. Refinement of crystal structure of phase II at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reehuis, M.; Wozniak, K.; Dominiak, P.; Smirnov, L.S.; Natkaniec, I.; Baranov, A.I.; Dolbinina, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    The (NH 4 ) 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 is of special interest due to the possible influence of ammonium ions on a series of phase transitions: I => II => III => IV => V => VII. Earlier, the X-ray single crystal diffraction study of phase II of (NH 4 ) 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 showed that the crystal structure of this compound has two crystallographically independent groups of ammonium ions NH 4 (1) and NH 4 (2), but orientational positions of these ammonium ions were not determined exactly. The refinement of NH 4 (1) and NH 4 (2) orientational positions in phase II is carried out with the help of the X-ray and neutron single crystal diffraction study. The analyses of differential Fourier maps of electron charge density and nuclear density point out the possibility of disordering of NH 4 (2) ammonium ions

  18. Single-Receiver GPS Phase Bias Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertiger, William I.; Haines, Bruce J.; Weiss, Jan P.; Harvey, Nathaniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Existing software has been modified to yield the benefits of integer fixed double-differenced GPS-phased ambiguities when processing data from a single GPS receiver with no access to any other GPS receiver data. When the double-differenced combination of phase biases can be fixed reliably, a significant improvement in solution accuracy is obtained. This innovation uses a large global set of GPS receivers (40 to 80 receivers) to solve for the GPS satellite orbits and clocks (along with any other parameters). In this process, integer ambiguities are fixed and information on the ambiguity constraints is saved. For each GPS transmitter/receiver pair, the process saves the arc start and stop times, the wide-lane average value for the arc, the standard deviation of the wide lane, and the dual-frequency phase bias after bias fixing for the arc. The second step of the process uses the orbit and clock information, the bias information from the global solution, and only data from the single receiver to resolve double-differenced phase combinations. It is called "resolved" instead of "fixed" because constraints are introduced into the problem with a finite data weight to better account for possible errors. A receiver in orbit has much shorter continuous passes of data than a receiver fixed to the Earth. The method has parameters to account for this. In particular, differences in drifting wide-lane values must be handled differently. The first step of the process is automated, using two JPL software sets, Longarc and Gipsy-Oasis. The resulting orbit/clock and bias information files are posted on anonymous ftp for use by any licensed Gipsy-Oasis user. The second step is implemented in the Gipsy-Oasis executable, gd2p.pl, which automates the entire process, including fetching the information from anonymous ftp

  19. Phase gradients in acceleration structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.; Jobe, R.K.

    1990-05-01

    In linear accelerators with two or more bunches the beam loading of one bunch will influence the energy and energy spread the following bunches. This can be corrected by quickly changing the phase of a travelling wave structure, so that each bunch recieves a slightly different net phase. At the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) three bunches, two (e + ,e - ) for the high energy collisions and one (e - -scavenger) for producing positrons should sit at different phases, due to their different tasks. The two e - -bunches are extracted from the damping ring at the same cycle time about 60 ns apart. Fast phase switching of the RF to the bunch length compressor in the Ring-To-Linac (RTL) section can produce the necessary advance of the scavenger bunch (about 6 degree in phase). This allows a low energy spread of this third bunch at the e + -production region at 2/3 of the linac length, while the other bunches are not influenced. The principles and possible other applications of this fast phase switching as using it for multi-bunches, as well as the experimental layout for the actual RTL compressor are presented

  20. Instability of single-phase natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Heng; Zhang Jinling; Jia Dounan

    1997-01-01

    The author has investigated the instability of single-phase flows in natural circulation loops. The momentum equation and energy equation are made dimensionless according to some definitions, and some important dimensionless parameters are gotten. The authors decomposed the mean mass flowrate and temperature into a steady solution and a small disturbance equations. Through solving the disturbance equations, the authors get the neutral stability curves. The authors have studied the effect of the two parameters which represent the ratio of buoyancy force to the friction loss in the loop on the stability of loops. The authors also have studied the effect of the difference of height between the center of heat source and the heat sink on the stability

  1. Hybrid Three-Phase/Single-Phase Microgrid Architecture with Power Management Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Qiuye; Zhou, Jianguo; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    With the fast proliferation of single-phase distributed generation (DG) units and loads integrated into residential microgrids, independent power sharing per phase and full use of the energy generated by DGs have become crucial. To address these issues, this paper proposes a hybrid microgrid...... architecture and its power management strategy. In this microgrid structure, a power sharing unit (PSU), composed of three single-phase back-to-back (SPBTB) converters, is proposed to be installed at the point of common coupling (PCC). The aim of the PSU is mainly to realize the power exchange and coordinated...... control of load power sharing among phases, as well as to allow fully utilization of the energy generated by DGs. Meanwhile, the method combining the modified adaptive backstepping-sliding mode control approach and droop control is also proposed to design the SPBTB system controllers. With the application...

  2. Microstructure and strengthening mechanisms in an FCC structured single-phase nanocrystalline Co25Ni25Fe25Al7.5Cu17.5 high-entropy alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Weiping; Wen, Haiming; Zhang, Dalong; Chen, Zhen; Zheng, Baolong; Zhou, Yizhang; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a study of the design, phase formation, microstructure, mechanical behavior and strengthening mechanisms of a novel single-phase Co 25 Ni 25 Fe 25 Al 7.5 Cu 17.5 (at.%) high-entropy alloy (HEA). In this investigation, a bulk nanocrystalline (nc) Co 25 Ni 25 Fe 25 Al 7.5 Cu 17.5 HEA with the face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure was fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) followed by consolidation via spark plasma sintering (SPS). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results revealed that a single FCC solid-solution phase with an average grain diameter of 24 nm was produced following MA. Following SPS, bulk samples exhibiting a bimodal microstructure with both nanoscale grains and ultra-fine grains (UFGs) and with an average grain diameter of 95 nm were obtained, possessing a single FCC solid-solution phase identical to that in the milled powders. The single-phase feature of the Co 25 Ni 25 Fe 25 Al 7.5 Cu 17.5 HEA principally resulted from remarkably high mutual solubility in most binary atom-pairs of the constituent elements, which appears to correspond to a high entropy of mixing. Approximately 5 vol.% of nanoscale twins were observed in the bulk nc samples. The bulk nc Co 25 Ni 25 Fe 25 Al 7.5 Cu 17.5 HEA exhibits a compressive yield strength of 1795 MPa with a hardness of 454 Hv, which is dramatically higher than the yield strength of most previously reported FCC structured HEAs (∼130–700 MPa). Compared to those of the bulk coarse-grained (CG) Co 25 Ni 25 Fe 25 Al 7.5 Cu 17.5 HEA fabricated by arc-melting, the yield strength and Vickers hardness values of the bulk nc samples increased by 834.9% and 251.9%, respectively. Quantitative calculations of the respective contributions from each strengthening mechanism demonstrate that grain boundary strengthening and dislocation strengthening are principally responsible for the measured ultra-high strength of the bulk nc Co 25 Ni 25 Fe 25 Al 7.5 Cu 17.5 HEA.

  3. Spectral decomposition of single-tone-driven quantum phase modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capmany, Jose; Fernandez-Pousa, Carlos R

    2011-01-01

    Electro-optic phase modulators driven by a single radio-frequency tone Ω can be described at the quantum level as scattering devices where input single-mode radiation undergoes energy changes in multiples of ℎΩ. In this paper, we study the spectral representation of the unitary, multimode scattering operator describing these devices. The eigenvalue equation, phase modulation being a process preserving the photon number, is solved at each subspace with definite number of photons. In the one-photon subspace F 1 , the problem is equivalent to the computation of the continuous spectrum of the Susskind-Glogower cosine operator of the harmonic oscillator. Using this analogy, the spectral decomposition in F 1 is constructed and shown to be equivalent to the usual Fock-space representation. The result is then generalized to arbitrary N-photon subspaces, where eigenvectors are symmetrized combinations of N one-photon eigenvectors and the continuous spectrum spans the entire unit circle. Approximate normalizable one-photon eigenstates are constructed in terms of London phase states truncated to optical bands. Finally, we show that synchronous ultrashort pulse trains represent classical field configurations with the same structure as these approximate eigenstates, and that they can be considered as approximate eigenvectors of the classical formulation of phase modulation.

  4. Spectral decomposition of single-tone-driven quantum phase modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capmany, Jose [ITEAM Research Institute, Univ. Politecnica de Valencia, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Fernandez-Pousa, Carlos R, E-mail: c.pousa@umh.es [Signal Theory and Communications, Department of Physics and Computer Science, Univ. Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Spain)

    2011-02-14

    Electro-optic phase modulators driven by a single radio-frequency tone {Omega} can be described at the quantum level as scattering devices where input single-mode radiation undergoes energy changes in multiples of {h_bar}{Omega}. In this paper, we study the spectral representation of the unitary, multimode scattering operator describing these devices. The eigenvalue equation, phase modulation being a process preserving the photon number, is solved at each subspace with definite number of photons. In the one-photon subspace F{sub 1}, the problem is equivalent to the computation of the continuous spectrum of the Susskind-Glogower cosine operator of the harmonic oscillator. Using this analogy, the spectral decomposition in F{sub 1} is constructed and shown to be equivalent to the usual Fock-space representation. The result is then generalized to arbitrary N-photon subspaces, where eigenvectors are symmetrized combinations of N one-photon eigenvectors and the continuous spectrum spans the entire unit circle. Approximate normalizable one-photon eigenstates are constructed in terms of London phase states truncated to optical bands. Finally, we show that synchronous ultrashort pulse trains represent classical field configurations with the same structure as these approximate eigenstates, and that they can be considered as approximate eigenvectors of the classical formulation of phase modulation.

  5. X-ray and neutron single-crystal diffraction on [Rbx(NH4)1-x]3H(SO4)2. I. Refinement of crystal structure of phase II with x=0.11 at 300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loose, A.; Wozniak, K.; Dominiak, P.; Smirnov, L.S.; Natkaniec, I.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pomyakushina, E.V.; Baranov, A.I.; Dolbinina, V.V

    2006-01-01

    The study of [Rb x (NH 4 ) 1-x ] 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 mixed crystals by X-ray single-crystal diffraction is known up to now only for x=0.57 at the temperatures 293 and 180 K. The crystal structures at these temperatures as was determined [1] belong to monoclinic phase II (C2/c sp. gr., Z=4). In accordance with this work, ammonium ions should be considered as deformed tetrahedra. Monoclinic phase II on the x-T phase diagram of [Rb x (NH 4 ) 1-x ] 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 mixed crystals, which has earlier been determined by the dielectric spectroscopy, is stabilized below room temperature if Rb concentration exceeds 9%. The presented results of X-ray and neutron single-crystal diffraction of the [Rb 0.11 (NH 4 ) 0.89 ] 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 mixed crystal at T= 300 K show that ammonium ions could be considered as regular tetrahedra

  6. Single-superfield helical-phase inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketov, Sergei V., E-mail: ketov@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-ohsawa 1-1, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Institute of Physics and Technology, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Terada, Takahiro, E-mail: takahiro@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-01-10

    Large-field inflation in supergravity requires the approximate global symmetry needed to protect flatness of the scalar potential. In helical-phase inflation, the U(1) symmetry of the Kähler potential is assumed, the phase part of the complex scalar of a chiral superfield plays the role of inflaton, and the radial part is strongly stabilized. The original model of helical phase inflation, proposed by Li, Li and Nanopoulos (LLN), employs an extra (stabilizer) superfield. We propose a more economical new class of the helical phase inflationary models without a stabilizer superfield. As the specific examples, the quadratic, the natural, and the Starobinsky-type inflationary models are studied in our approach.

  7. Current Harmonics from Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Environmental conditions and operational modes may significantly impact the distortion level of the injected current from single-phase grid-connected inverter systems, such as photovoltaic (PV) inverters, which may operate in cloudy days with a maximum power point tracking, in a non-unity power...... factor, or in the low voltage ride through mode with reactive current injection. In this paper, the mechanism of the harmonic current injection from grid-connected single-phase inverter systems is thus explored, and the analysis is conducted on single-phase PV systems. In particular, the analysis...... is focused on the impacts of the power factor and the feed-in grid current level on the quality of the feed-in grid current from single-phase inverters. As a consequence, an internal model principle based high performance current control solution is tailor-made and developed for single-phase grid-connected...

  8. Unexpectedly normal phase behavior of single homopolymer chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, W.; Strauch, T.; Rampf, F.; Binder, K.

    2007-01-01

    Employing Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the topology of the phase diagram of a single flexible homopolymer chain changes in dependence on the range of an attractive square well interaction between the monomers. For a range of attraction larger than a critical value, the equilibrium phase diagram of the single polymer chain and the corresponding polymer solution phase diagram exhibit vapor (swollen coil, dilute solution), liquid (collapsed globule, dense solution), and solid phases. Otherwise, the liquid-vapor transition vanishes from the equilibrium phase diagram for both the single chain and the polymer solution. This change in topology of the phase diagram resembles the behavior known for colloidal dispersions. The interplay of enthalpy and conformational entropy in the polymer case thus can lead to the same topology of phase diagrams as the interplay of enthalpy and translational entropy in simple liquids

  9. Phase equilibria and phase structures of polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalykh, Anatolii E; Gerasimov, Vladimir K

    2004-01-01

    Experimental, methodical and theoretical studies dealing with phase equilibria and phase structures of polymer blends are generalised. The general and specific features of the change in solubility of polymers with changes in the molecular mass and copolymer composition and upon the formation of three-dimensional cross-linked networks are described. The results of the effect of the prehistory on the phase structure and the non-equilibrium state of polymer blends are considered in detail.

  10. Expanded potential of seleno-carbohydrates as a molecular tool for X-ray structural determination of a carbohydrate-protein complex with single/multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tatsuya; Makyio, Hisayoshi; Ando, Hiromune; Komura, Naoko; Menjo, Masanori; Yamada, Yusuke; Imamura, Akihiro; Ishida, Hideharu; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Kato, Ryuichi; Kiso, Makoto

    2014-04-01

    Seleno-lactoses have been successfully synthesized as candidates for mimicking carbohydrate ligands for human galectin-9 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (NCRD). Selenium was introduced into the mono- or di-saccharides using p-methylselenobenzoic anhydride (Tol2Se) as a novel selenating reagent. The TolSe-substituted monosaccharides were converted into selenoglycosyl donors or acceptors, which were reacted with coupling partners to afford seleno-lactoses. The seleno-lactoses were converted to the target compounds. The structure of human galectin-9 NCRD co-crystallized with 6-MeSe-lactose was determined with single/multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD/MAD) phasing and was similar to that of the co-crystal with natural lactose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive system is proposed. It integrated a single phase hybrid SRM and a novel single phase boost converter. This motor can reduce the number of phase switch. And the permanent magnet which is used in the motor can improve...... the performance and efficiency of SR motor. However, the inherent characteristic of this motor is that the negative torque is very sensitive with the excitation current near the turn-on angle. The slow excitation current limits the torque generation region and reduces the average torque. Therefore, a novel single...... phase boost converter is applied to improve the performance of this motor. It is easy to generate a double dclink voltage and dc-link voltage and switch both of them. The voltage of boost capacitor is self balance, so the protective circuit is not need to consider. The fast excitation mode helps hybrid...

  12. Synthesizing lattice structures in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Lingzhen; Marthaler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In one dimensional systems, it is possible to create periodic structures in phase space through driving, which is called phase space crystals (Guo et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 205303). This is possible even if for particles trapped in a potential without periodicity. In this paper we discuss ultracold atoms in a driven optical lattice, which is a realization of such a phase space crystals. The corresponding lattice structure in phase space is complex and contains rich physics. A phase space lattice differs fundamentally from a lattice in real space, because its coordinate system, i.e., phase space, has a noncommutative geometry, which naturally provides an artificial gauge (magnetic) field. We study the behavior of the quasienergy band structure and investigate the dissipative dynamics. Synthesizing lattice structures in phase space provides a new platform to simulate the condensed matter phenomena and study the intriguing phenomena of driven systems far away from equilibrium. (paper)

  13. High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...

  14. LENA Conversion Foils Using Single-Layer Graphene, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our key innovation will be the use of single-layer graphene as LENA conversion foils, with appropriate microgrids and nanogrids to support the foils. Phase I...

  15. Non Invasive Instrumentation For Single Event Effects (NIISEE), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — On this Phase 1 project, Adventium will identify and address key hurdles to achieve Radiation Hardening by Software (RHS) for Single Event Effects (SEEs) for modern...

  16. Improvement of Torque Production in Single-Phase Induction Motors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    PID controller. Simulation results show the starting torque of the motor increased by 75% under the developed drive .... The model equations of the capacitor-run single phase induction .... process using the MATLAB pidtool command (Control.

  17. Load compensation for single phase system using series active filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Load compensation for single phase system using series active filter. ... KK Mishra, R Gupta ... load varies from time to time, the non linear load ranging from voltage source type harmonic load (VSHL) dominant to current source type harmonic ...

  18. The crystal structure and the phase transitions of pyridinium trifluoromethanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesariew, Dominik; Ilczyszyn, Maria M; Pietraszko, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The calorimetric and optical studies and the structural properties of pyridinium trifluoromethanesulfonate (abbreviated as PyHOTf) are reported. A sequence of four fully reversible solid–solid phase transitions, at 223.0, 309.0, 359.9 and 394.3 K, has been discovered. The phase transition sequence was confirmed by x-ray diffraction data. The crystal structures of three phases (V, IV and III) have been determined from the single crystal x-ray diffraction data. Structural properties of the high temperature phases are characterized using powder x-ray diffraction data measured in the 290–425 K temperature range. The structural changes triggered by the temperature change are discussed in relation to the phase transitions. Two low temperature phases (V and IV) belong to the P4 3 2 1 2 space group of the tetragonal system. The intermediate phases (III and II) are monoclinic and the prototype high temperature phase (I) is a pseudo-cubic (tetragonal) one. The low temperature phases (V and IV) are well ordered. The crystal structure of intermediate (III and II) and prototype (I) phases are characterized by high disorder of the pyridinium cations and triflate anions. (papers)

  19. Computing optimal interfacial structure of modulated phases

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jie; Wang, Chu; Shi, An-Chang; Zhang, Pingwen

    2016-01-01

    We propose a general framework of computing interfacial structures between two modulated phases. Specifically we propose to use a computational box consisting of two half spaces, each occupied by a modulated phase with given position and orientation. The boundary conditions and basis functions are chosen to be commensurate with the bulk structures. It is observed that the ordered nature of modulated structures stabilizes the interface, which enables us to obtain optimal interfacial structures...

  20. Thin film structures and phase stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, B.M.; Johnson, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    This was a two day symposium, with invited and contributed papers as well as an evening poster session. The first day concentrated on solid state reactions with invited talks by Lindsay Greer from the University of Cambridge, King Tu from IBM Yorktown Heights, and Carl Thompson from MIT. Professor Greer observed that the diffusion of Zr is 10 6 times slower than that of Ni in amorphous NiZr, confirming that Ni is the mobile species in solid state amorphization. King Tu explained the formation of metastable phases in this film diffusion couples by the concept of maximum rate of free energy change. Carl Thompson discussed the formation of amorphous phases in metal silicon systems, and discussed a two stage nucleation and growth process. The contributed papers also generated discussion on topics such as phase segregation, amorphous silicide formation, room temperature oxidation of silicon, and nucleation during ion beam irradiation. There was a lively poster session on Monday evening with papers on a wide variety of topics covering the general area of thin film science. The second day had sessions Epitaxy and Multilayer Structure I and II, with the morning focussing on epitaxial and heteroepitaxial growth of thin films. Robin Farrow of IBM Almaden led off with an invited talk where he reported on some remarkable success he and his co-workers have had in growing single crystal epitaxial thin films and superlattices of silver, iron, cobalt and platinum on GaAs. This was followed by several talks on epitaxial growth and characterization. The afternoon focused on interfaces and structure of multilayered materials. A session on possible stress origins of the supermodulus effect was highlighted by lively interaction from the audience. Most of the papers presented at the symposium are presented in this book

  1. Structural Nervous System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GTL's SNS technology aids in the operation of new or existing structural health monitoring (SHM) systems by integrating data and power pathways into the structure....

  2. Structural phase transitions and Huang scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yasusada

    1980-01-01

    The usefulness of the application of the concept of Huang scattering to the understandings of the origin of diffuse scatterings near structural phase transitions are discussed. It is pointed out that in several phase transitions, the observed diffuse scatterings can not be interpreted in terms of critical fluctuations of the order parameters associated with the structural phase transitions, and that they are rather interpreted as Huang scattering due to random distribution of individual order parameter which is 'dressed' by strain fields. Examples to show effective applications of this concept to analyze the experimental X-ray data and whence to understand microscopic mechanisms of structural phase transitions are presented. (author)

  3. Comparative Study of Phase Transformation in Single-Crystal Germanium during Single and Cyclic Nanoindentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Kosai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal germanium is a semiconductor material which shows complicated phase transformation under high pressure. In this study, new insight into the phase transformation of diamond-cubic germanium (dc-Ge was attempted by controlled cyclic nanoindentation combined with Raman spectroscopic analysis. Phase transformation from dc-Ge to rhombohedral phase (r8-Ge was experimentally confirmed for both single and cyclic nanoindentation under high loading/unloading rates. However, compared to single indentation, double cyclic indentation with a low holding load between the cycles caused more frequent phase transformation events. Double cyclic indentation caused more stress in Ge than single indentation and increased the possibility of phase transformation. With increase in the holding load, the number of phase transformation events decreased and finally became less than that under single indentation. This phenomenon was possibly caused by defect nucleation and shear accumulation during the holding process, which were promoted by a high holding load. The defect nucleation suppressed the phase transformation from dc-Ge to r8-Ge, and shear accumulation led to another phase transformation pathway, respectively. A high holding load promoted these two phenomena, and thus decreased the possibility of phase transformation from dc-Ge to r8-Ge.

  4. A simple output voltage control scheme for single phase wavelet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    of the wavelet modulated (WM) scheme is that a single synthesis function, derived ... a single-phase H-bridge voltage-source (VS) inverter using MATLAB simulations. ... reconstruction process has been suggested to device a new class of ...

  5. Single-phase DECT with VNCT compared with three-phase CTU in patients with haematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Jae; Park, Byung Kwan; Kim, Chan Kyo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance of single-phase dual-energy CT (DECT) with virtual non-contrast CT (VNCT) compared with three-phase CT urography (CTU) in patients with haematuria. A total of 296 patients underwent three-phase CTU (NCT at 120 kVp; nephrographic phase and excretory phase DECTs at 140 kVp and 80 kVp) owing to haematuria. Diagnostic performances of CT scans were compared for detecting urothelial tumours and urinary stones. Dose-length product (DLP) was compared in relation to single-phase DECT and three-phase CTU Dose-length product (DLP) was compared in relation to single-phase DECT and three-phase CTU. Sensitivity and specificity for tumour were 95 % (19/20) and 98.9 % (273/276) on CTU, 95 % (19/20) and 98.2 % (271/276) on nephrographic phase DECT, and 90 % (18/20) and 98.2 % (271/276) on excretory phase DECT (P > 0.1). Of the 148 stones detected on NCT, 108 (73 %) and 100 (67.6 %) were detected on nephrographic phase and excretory phase VNCTs, respectively. The mean size of stones undetected on nephrographic and excretory VNCTs was measured as 1.5 ± 0.5 mm and 1.6 ± 0.6 mm, respectively. The mean DLPs of three-phase CTU, nephrographic phase DECT and excretory phase DECT were 1076 ± 248 mGy . cm, 410 ± 98 mGy . cm, and 360 ± 87 mGy . cm, respectively (P < 0.001). Single-phase DECT has a potential to replace three-phase CTU for detecting tumours with a lower radiation dose. (orig.)

  6. Nuclear structure and the single charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oset, E.; Strottman, D.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of nuclear structure on meson-induced single-charge-exchange reactions on light nuclei is discussed within the context of the Glauber approximation. Selection rules which are expected to be approximately obeyed in elastic and inelastic pion and kaon scattering are proposed. Theoretical predictions are presented for (π + ,π 0 ) and (K + ,K 0 ) reactions on 13 C. 14 figures

  7. Deterministic nonlinear phase gates induced by a single qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kimin; Marek, Petr; Filip, Radim

    2018-05-01

    We propose deterministic realizations of nonlinear phase gates by repeating a finite sequence of non-commuting Rabi interactions between a harmonic oscillator and only a single two-level ancillary qubit. We show explicitly that the key nonclassical features of the ideal cubic phase gate and the quartic phase gate are generated in the harmonic oscillator faithfully by our method. We numerically analyzed the performance of our scheme under realistic imperfections of the oscillator and the two-level system. The methodology is extended further to higher-order nonlinear phase gates. This theoretical proposal completes the set of operations required for continuous-variable quantum computation.

  8. Self-assembled single-phase perovskite nanocomposite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Bi, Lei; Paik, Hanjong; Yang, Dae-Jin; Park, Yun Chang; Dionne, Gerald F; Ross, Caroline A

    2010-02-10

    Thin films of perovskite-structured oxides with general formula ABO(3) have great potential in electronic devices because of their unique properties, which include the high dielectric constant of titanates, (1) high-T(C) superconductivity in cuprates, (2) and colossal magnetoresistance in manganites. (3) These properties are intimately dependent on, and can therefore be tailored by, the microstructure, orientation, and strain state of the film. Here, we demonstrate the growth of cubic Sr(Ti,Fe)O(3) (STF) films with an unusual self-assembled nanocomposite microstructure consisting of (100) and (110)-oriented crystals, both of which grow epitaxially with respect to the Si substrate and which are therefore homoepitaxial with each other. These structures differ from previously reported self-assembled oxide nanocomposites, which consist either of two different materials (4-7) or of single-phase distorted-cubic materials that exhibit two or more variants. (8-12) Moreover, an epitaxial nanocomposite SrTiO(3) overlayer can be grown on the STF, extending the range of compositions over which this microstructure can be formed. This offers the potential for the implementation of self-organized optical/ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic/ferroelectric hybrid nanostructures integrated on technologically important Si substrates with applications in magnetooptical or spintronic devices.

  9. An absorbing phase transition from a structured active particle phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Cristobal [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Ramos, Francisco [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Fisica de la Materia and Instituto de Fisica Teorica y Computacional Carlos I, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Hernandez-GarcIa, Emilio [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2007-02-14

    In this work we study the absorbing state phase transition of a recently introduced model for interacting particles with neighbourhood-dependent reproduction rates. The novelty of the transition is that as soon as the active phase is reached by increasing a control parameter a periodically arranged structure of particle clusters appears. A numerical study in one and two dimensions shows that the system falls into the directed percolation universality class.

  10. The Structural Phase Transition in Solid DCN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, O. W.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Pawley, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron scattering measurements on deuterated hydrogen cyanide have shown that the structural phase change from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic form at 160K is a first-order transition. A transverse acoustic phonon mode, which has the symmetry of the phase change, was observed at very low energies...

  11. Single phase inverter for a three phase power generation and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindena, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A breadboard design of a single-phase inverter with sinusoidal output voltage for a three-phase power generation and distribution system was developed. The three-phase system consists of three single-phase inverters, whose output voltages are connected in a delta configuration. Upon failure of one inverter the two remaining inverters will continue to deliver three-phase power. Parallel redundancy as offered by two three-phase inverters is substituted by one three-phase inverter assembly with high savings in volume, weight, components count and complexity, and a considerable increase in reliability. The following requirements must be met: (1) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of being synchronized to a three-phase reference system such that its output voltage remains phaselocked to its respective reference voltage. (2) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of accepting leading and lagging power factors over a range from -0.7 through 1 to +0.7.

  12. The Single-Phase ProtoDUNE Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi, B. [Univ. of Padova (Italy); et al.

    2017-06-21

    ProtoDUNE-SP is the single-phase DUNE Far Detector prototype that is under construction and will be operated at the CERN Neutrino Platform (NP) starting in 2018. ProtoDUNE-SP, a crucial part of the DUNE effort towards the construction of the first DUNE 10-kt fiducial mass far detector module (17 kt total LAr mass), is a significant experiment in its own right. With a total liquid argon (LAr) mass of 0.77 kt, it represents the largest monolithic single-phase LArTPC detector to be built to date. It's technical design is given in this report.

  13. 30 CFR 77.806 - Connection of single-phase loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.806 Connection of single-phase loads. Single-phase loads, such as transformer primaries, shall be connected phase to phase in resistance grounded systems. ...

  14. 30 CFR 77.905 - Connection of single-phase loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.905 Connection of single-phase loads. Single-phase loads shall be connected phase-to-phase in resistance grounded systems. ...

  15. Single-shot quantitative phase microscopy with color-multiplexed differential phase contrast (cDPC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary F Phillips

    Full Text Available We present a new technique for quantitative phase and amplitude microscopy from a single color image with coded illumination. Our system consists of a commercial brightfield microscope with one hardware modification-an inexpensive 3D printed condenser insert. The method, color-multiplexed Differential Phase Contrast (cDPC, is a single-shot variant of Differential Phase Contrast (DPC, which recovers the phase of a sample from images with asymmetric illumination. We employ partially coherent illumination to achieve resolution corresponding to 2× the objective NA. Quantitative phase can then be used to synthesize DIC and phase contrast images or extract shape and density. We demonstrate amplitude and phase recovery at camera-limited frame rates (50 fps for various in vitro cell samples and c. elegans in a micro-fluidic channel.

  16. The Structural Phase Transition in Octaflournaphtalene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Arthur, J. W.; Pawley, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    The phase transition in octafluoronaphthalene has been investigated by Raman scattering and neutron powder diffraction. The weight of the experimental evidence points to a unit cell doubling in the a direction, but with no change in space group symmetry. Lattice dynamics calculations support...... this evidence and indicate that the mechanism of the phase transition may well be the instability of a zone boundary acoustic mode of librational character. The structure of the low-temperature phase has been refined and the Raman spectra of the upper and lower phases are reported....

  17. Investigation of effect of single phase electrical faults at LOFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeates, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    This LTR presents the general basic engineering facts related to an open phase fault in a three phase power system commonly referred to as a single phase condition. It describes the probable results to electrical motors and describes the LOFT system design factors which minimize the likelihood of such a fault occurring at LOFT. It recognizes that the hazard of such a fault is a realistic threat and notes the types of relays designed to provide protection. Recommendations are made to perform a detailed engineering study to determine the most advantageous protective relay design, and to implement such a design by installation of the necessary devices and controls

  18. Ultrafast electric phase control of a single exciton qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widhalm, Alex; Mukherjee, Amlan; Krehs, Sebastian; Sharma, Nandlal; Kölling, Peter; Thiede, Andreas; Reuter, Dirk; Förstner, Jens; Zrenner, Artur

    2018-03-01

    We report on the coherent phase manipulation of quantum dot excitons by electric means. For our experiments, we use a low capacitance single quantum dot photodiode which is electrically controlled by a custom designed SiGe:C BiCMOS chip. The phase manipulation is performed and quantified in a Ramsey experiment, where ultrafast transient detuning of the exciton energy is performed synchronous to double pulse π/2 ps laser excitation. We are able to demonstrate electrically controlled phase manipulations with magnitudes up to 3π within 100 ps which is below the dephasing time of the quantum dot exciton.

  19. Tunable phase transition in single-layer TiSe2 via electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhuang, Houlong L.

    2018-06-01

    Phase transition represents an intriguing physical phenomenon that exists in a number of single-layer transition-metal dichalcogenides. This phenomenon often occurs below a critical temperature and breaks the long-range crystalline order leading to a reconstructed superstructure called the charge-density wave (CDW) structure, which can therefore be recovered by external stimuli such as temperature. Alternatively, we show here that another external stimulation, electric field can also result in the phase transition between the regular and CDW structures of a single-layer transition-metal dichalcogenide. We used single-layer TiSe2 as an example to elucidate the mechanism of the CDW followed by calculations of the electronic structure using a hybrid density functional. We found that applying electric field can tune the phase transition between the 1T and CDW phases of single-layer TiSe2. Our work opens up a route of tuning the phase transition of single-layer materials via electric field.

  20. A Transformer-less Single Phase Inverter For photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostaan, Ali; Alizadeh, Ebrahim; Qu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    A single phase transformer-less inverter is introduced in this paper. The negative polarities of the input voltage and output terminal have common ground. Therefore, the leakage current problem that is common in PV systems is eliminated naturally. In addition, the proposed inverter has fewer comp...

  1. experimental implementation of single-phase, three-level, sinusoidal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Page 1 ... of many multilevel inverter configurations. This paper presents an experimental report of a simplified topology for single-phase, SPWM, three-level voltage source inverter wit R-L load. To keep the power circuit ... employed in many industrial applications such as variable speed drives, uninterruptible power sup-.

  2. An Asymmetrical Space Vector Method for Single Phase Induction Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Yuanhai; Blaabjerg, Frede; Andersen, Gert Karmisholt

    2002-01-01

    Single phase induction motors are the workhorses in low-power applications in the world, and also the variable speed is necessary. Normally it is achieved either by the mechanical method or by controlling the capacitor connected with the auxiliary winding. Any above method has some drawback which...

  3. Single-phase high-entropy alloys. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, Roksolana; Steurer, Walter [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Lab. of Crystallography; Sologubenko, Alla [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Lab. of Nanotechnology

    2015-02-01

    The term 'high-entropy alloys (HEAs)' first appeared about 10 years ago defining alloys composed of n=5-13 principal elements with concentrations of approximately 100/n at.% each. Since then many equiatomic (or near equiatomic) single- and multi-phase multicomponent alloys were developed, which are reported for a combination of tunable properties: high hardness, strength and ductility, oxidation and wear resistance, magnetism, etc. In our paper, we focus on probably single-phase HEAs (solid solutions) out of all HEAs studied so far, discuss ways of their prediction, mechanical properties. In contrast to classical multielement/multiphase alloys, only single-phase multielement alloys (solid solutions) represent the basic concept underlying HEAs as mixing-entropy stabilized homogenous materials. The literature overview is complemented by own studies demonstrating that the alloys CrFeCoNi, CrFeCoNiAl{sub 0.3} and PdFeCoNi homogenized at 1300 and 1100 C, respectively, for 1 week are not single-phase HEAs, but a coherent mixture of two solid solutions.

  4. Solar-Based Boost Differential Single Phase Inverter | Eya | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar-Based Boost Differential Single Phase Inverter. ... Solar-based boost differential inverter is reduced down to 22.37% in closed loop system with the aid of Proportional –integral-Differential (PID) ... The dc power source is photovoltaic cell.

  5. A single phase photovoltaic inverter control for grid connected system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a control scheme for single phase grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system operating under both grid connected and isolated grid mode. The control techniques include voltage and current control of grid-tie PV inverter. During grid connected mode, grid controls the amplitude and frequency of the PV ...

  6. Reconstructive structural phase transitions in dense Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yansun; Klug, Dennis D

    2012-01-01

    The question raised recently about whether the high-pressure phase transitions of Mg follow a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) → body centered cubic (bcc) or hcp → double hexagonal close-packed (dhcp) → bcc sequence at room temperature is examined by the use of first principles density functional methods. Enthalpy calculations show that the bcc structure replaces the hcp structure to become the most stable structure near 48 GPa, whereas the dhcp structure is never the most stable structure in the pressure range of interest. The characterized phase-transition mechanisms indicate that the hcp → dhcp transition is also associated with a higher enthalpy barrier. At room temperature, the structural sequence hcp → bcc is therefore more energetically favorable for Mg. The same conclusion is also reached from the simulations of the phase transitions using metadynamics methods. At room temperature, the metadynamics simulations predict the onset of a hcp → bcc transition at 40 GPa and the transition becomes more prominent upon further compression. At high temperatures, the metadynamics simulations reveal a structural fluctuation among the hcp, dhcp, and bcc structures at 15 GPa. With increasing pressure, the structural evolution at high temperatures becomes more unambiguous and eventually settles to a bcc structure once sufficient pressure is applied. (paper)

  7. protoDUNE-Single Phase and protDUNE-DualPhase

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2016-01-01

    At the EHN1 two big 8m x 8m x8m detector prototypes (protoDUNE-Single Phase and protDUNE-DualPhase) are being constructed. The aim is to test technologies and detector performances for DUNE, a new generation of LBN neutr

  8. Changing optical band structure with single photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Caneva, Tommaso; Chang, Darrick E.

    2017-11-01

    Achieving strong interactions between individual photons enables a wide variety of exciting possibilities in quantum information science and many-body physics. Cold atoms interfaced with nanophotonic structures have emerged as a platform to realize novel forms of nonlinear interactions. In particular, when atoms are coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide, long-range atomic interactions can arise that are mediated by localized atom-photon bound states. We theoretically show that in such a system, the absorption of a single photon can change the band structure for a subsequent photon. This occurs because the first photon affects the atoms in the chain in an alternating fashion, thus leading to an effective period doubling of the system and a new optical band structure for the composite atom-nanophotonic system. We demonstrate how this mechanism can be engineered to realize a single-photon switch, where the first incoming photon switches the system from being highly transmissive to highly reflective, and analyze how signatures can be observed via non-classical correlations of the outgoing photon field.

  9. The Physics of Structural Phase Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2005-01-01

    Phase transitions in which crystalline solids undergo structural changes present an interesting problem in the interplay between the crystal structure and the ordering process that is typically nonlinear. Intended for readers with prior knowledge of basic condensed-matter physics, this book emphasizes the physics behind spontaneous structural changes in crystals. Starting with the relevant thermodynamic principles, the text discusses the nature of order variables in collective motion in structural phase transitions, where a singularity in such a collective mode is responsible for lattice instability as revealed by soft phonons. In this book, critical anomalies at second-order structural transitions are first analyzed with the condensate model. Discussions on the nonlinear ordering mechanism are followed with the soliton theory, thereby interpreting the role of long-range order. Relevant details for nonlinear mathematics are therefore given for minimum necessity. The text also discusses experimental methods fo...

  10. Corundum-to-spinel structural phase transformation in alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Shogo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan); Ishimaru, Manabu, E-mail: ishimaru@post.matsc.kyutech.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan); Sina, Younes; McHargue, Carl J.; Sickafus, Kurt E. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 (United States); Alves, Eduardo [Unit of Physics and Accelerators, Ion Beam Laboratory, Instituto Superior Técnico/Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN. 10 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2015-09-01

    Several polymorphs exist in alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and they transform to a stable α-phase with a hexagonal corundum structure on thermal annealing. This structural change is irreversible as a function of temperature, and transformation of corundum to another metastable crystalline phase has never been observed by heat treatments. In this study, we irradiated single crystals of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with Zr ions and obtained an irradiated microstructure consisting of a buried α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer surrounded on top and bottom by layers of a defect cubic spinel Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. We examined the thermal stability of this microstructure using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. We found that the corundum phase completely transforms to the spinel phase following annealing at 1173 K for 1 h: the thermodynamically stable phase transforms to the metastable phase by heat treatments. We discuss this unusual structural change within the context of our results as well as previous observations.

  11. Laser doppler anemometry in single- and two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durst, F.

    1976-01-01

    The present report gives an introduction into laser-Doppler anemometry and tries to explain the basic physical principles of this measuring technique. Moire fringe patterns are used in order to visually model LDA-signals and to explain the basic difference in optical systems. It is pointed out that LDA measurements in highly turbulent flows and in two-phase flows should be attempted with direction sensitive instruments only. Some of the optical systems developed by the author and his collaborators are introduced and their functioning in measurements is demonstrated. These measurements embrace investigations in a number of single-phase flows including flames. (orig.) [de

  12. Pressure Drop Correlations of Single-Phase and Two-Phase Flow in Rolling Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia-xin Cao; Chang-qi Yan; Pu-zhen Gao; Zhong-ning Sun

    2006-01-01

    A series of experimental studies of frictional pressure drop for single phase and two-phase bubble flow in smooth rolling tubes were carried out. The tube inside diameters were 15 mm, 25 mm and 34.5 mm respectively, the rolling angles of tubes could be set as 10 deg. and 20 deg., and the rolling periods could be set as 5 s, 10 s and 15 s. Combining with the analysis of single-phase water motion, it was found that the traditional correlations for calculating single-phase frictional coefficient were not suitable for the rolling condition. Based on the experimental data, a new correlation for calculating single-phase frictional coefficient under rolling condition was presented, and the calculations not only agreed well with the experimental data, but also could display the periodically dynamic characteristics of frictional coefficients. Applying the new correlation to homogeneous flow model, two-phase frictional pressure drop of bubble flow in rolling tubes could be calculated, the results showed that the relative error between calculation and experimental data was less than ± 25%. (authors)

  13. Overview of Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    A continuous booming installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has been witnessed worldwide. It is mainly driven by the imperative demand of “clean” power generation from renewables. Grid-connected PV systems will thus become an even more active player in the future mixed power systems, which...... systems. This chapter thus gives an overview of the advancement of power electronics converters in single-phase grid-connected PV systems, being commonly used in residential applications. Demands to single-phase grid-connected PV systems and the general control strategies are also addressed...... are linked together by a vast of power electronics converters and the power grid. In order to achieve a reliable and efficient power generation from PV systems, more stringent demands have been imposed on the entire PV system. It, in return, advances the development of the power converter technology in PV...

  14. Permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-08-14

    A permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor achieves balanced operation at more than one operating point by adjusting the voltage supplied to the main and auxiliary windings and adjusting the capacitance in the auxiliary winding circuit. An intermediate voltage tap on an autotransformer supplies voltage to the main winding for low speed operation while a capacitive voltage divider is used to adjust the voltage supplied to the auxiliary winding for low speed operation. 4 figs.

  15. Stability characteristics of a single-phase free convection loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creveling, H. F.; De Paz, J. F.; Baladi, J. Y.; Schoenhals, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments investigating the stability characteristics of a single-phase free convection loop are reported. Results of the study confirm the contention made by previous workers that instabilities near the thermodynamic critical point can occur for ordinary fluids as well as those with unusual behavior in the near-critical region. Such a claim runs counter to traditional beliefs, but it is supported by the observation of such instabilities for water at atmospheric pressure and moderate temperatures in the present work.

  16. Berry-phase blockade in single-molecule magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Gabriel; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2006-01-01

    We formulate the problem of electron transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM) in the Coulomb blockade regime taking into account topological interference effects for the tunneling of the large spin of a SMM. The interference originates from spin Berry phases associated with different tunneling paths. We show that in the case of incoherent spin states it is essential to place the SMM between oppositely spin-polarized source and drain leads in order to detect the spin tunneling in the s...

  17. Single beam Fourier transform digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, A., E-mail: arun-nair-in@yahoo.com; Chhaniwal, V. K.; Mahajan, S.; Trivedi, V. [Optics Laboratory, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001 (India); Faridian, A.; Pedrini, G.; Osten, W. [Institut für Technische Optik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 9, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Dubey, S. K. [Siemens Technology and Services Pvt. Ltd, Corporate Technology—Research and Technology Centre, Bangalore 560100 (India); Javidi, B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, U-4157, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-2157 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Quantitative phase contrast microscopy reveals thickness or height information of a biological or technical micro-object under investigation. The information obtained from this process provides a means to study their dynamics. Digital holographic (DH) microscopy is one of the most used, state of the art single-shot quantitative techniques for three dimensional imaging of living cells. Conventional off axis DH microscopy directly provides phase contrast images of the objects. However, this process requires two separate beams and their ratio adjustment for high contrast interference fringes. Also the use of two separate beams may make the system more vulnerable to vibrations. Single beam techniques can overcome these hurdles while remaining compact as well. Here, we describe the development of a single beam DH microscope providing whole field imaging of micro-objects. A hologram of the magnified object projected on to a diffuser co-located with a pinhole is recorded with the use of a commercially available diode laser and an arrayed sensor. A Fourier transform of the recorded hologram directly yields the complex amplitude at the image plane. The method proposed was investigated using various phase objects. It was also used to image the dynamics of human red blood cells in which sub-micrometer level thickness variation were measurable.

  18. High Quality Model Predictive Control for Single Phase Grid Connected Photovoltaic Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangeneh Bighash, Esmaeil; Sadeghzadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil

    2018-01-01

    Single phase grid-connected inverters with LCL filter are widely used to connect the photovoltaic systems to the utility grid. Among the presented control schemes, predictive control methods are faster and more accurate but are more complex to implement. Recently, the model-predictive control...... algorithm for single-phase inverter has been presented, where the algorithm implementation is straightforward. In the proposed approach, all switching states are tested in each switching period to achieve the control objectives. However, since the number of the switching states in single-phase inverter...... is low, the inverter output current has a high total harmonic distortions. In order to reduce the total harmonic distortions of the injected current, this paper presents a high-quality model-predictive control for one of the newest structure of the grid connected photovoltaic inverter, i.e., HERIC...

  19. 100-nm thick single-phase wurtzite BAlN films with boron contents over 10%

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xiaohang

    2017-01-11

    Growing thicker BAlN films while maintaining single-phase wurtzite structure and boron content over 10% has been challenging. In this study, we report on the growth of 100 nm-thick single-phase wurtzite BAlN films with boron contents up to 14.4% by MOCVD. Flow-modulated epitaxy was employed to increase diffusion length of group-III atoms and reduce parasitic reactions between the metalorganics and NH3. A large growth efficiency of ∼2000 μm mol−1 was achieved as a result. Small B/III ratios up to 17% in conjunction with high temperatures up to 1010 °C were utilized to prevent formation of the cubic phase and maintain wurtzite structure.

  20. 100-nm thick single-phase wurtzite BAlN films with boron contents over 10%

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xiaohang; Wang, Shuo; Liu, Hanxiao; Ponce, Fernando A.; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.

    2017-01-01

    Growing thicker BAlN films while maintaining single-phase wurtzite structure and boron content over 10% has been challenging. In this study, we report on the growth of 100 nm-thick single-phase wurtzite BAlN films with boron contents up to 14.4% by MOCVD. Flow-modulated epitaxy was employed to increase diffusion length of group-III atoms and reduce parasitic reactions between the metalorganics and NH3. A large growth efficiency of ∼2000 μm mol−1 was achieved as a result. Small B/III ratios up to 17% in conjunction with high temperatures up to 1010 °C were utilized to prevent formation of the cubic phase and maintain wurtzite structure.

  1. Improved state observers for sensorless single phase BLDC-PM motor drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepure, Liviu L.; Boldea, Ion; Andreescu, Gheorghe Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Two methods of extracting the rotor position and speed for a sensorless single phase BLDC-PM motor drive by measuring only the phase current are presented here. Both methods are based on a generated orthogonal flux system. The first method extracts the position information by using the tan−1...... function and then an improved observer is created by adding a 4th order harmonic term in the estimated position, while the second method uses a phase locked loop structure. The proposed state observers are detailed using simulation results and then validated by experimental results....

  2. Atomistic simulation of fcc—bcc phase transition in single crystal Al under uniform compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Liang Jiu-Qing; Shao Jian-Li; Duan Su-Qing; Li Yan-Fang

    2012-01-01

    By molecular dynamics simulations employing an embedded atom model potential, we investigate the fcc-to-bcc phase transition in single crystal Al, caused by uniform compression. Results show that the fcc structure is unstable when the pressure is over 250 GPa, in reasonable agreement with the calculated value through the density functional theory. The morphology evolution of the structural transition and the corresponding transition mechanism are analysed in detail. The bcc (011) planes are transited from the fcc (111-bar) plane and the (11-bar1) plane. We suggest that the transition mechanism consists mainly of compression, shear, slid and rotation of the lattice. In addition, our radial distribution function analysis explicitly indicates the phase transition of Al from fcc phase to bcc structure. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  3. Periodic orbits and TDHF phase space structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Yukio; Iwasawa, Kazuo [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Physics; Tsukuma, Hidehiko; Sakata, Fumihiko

    1998-03-01

    The collective motion of atomic nuclei is closely coupled with the motion of nucleons, therefore, it is nonlinear, and the contents of the motion change largely with the increase of its amplitude. As the framework which describes the collective motion accompanied by the change of internal structure, time-dependent Hurtley Fock (TDHF) method is suitable. At present, the authors try to make the method for studying the large region structure in quantum system by utilizing the features of the TDHF phase space. The studies made so far are briefed. In this report, the correspondence of the large region patterns appearing in the band structure chart of three-level model with the periodic orbit group in the TDHF phase space is described. The Husimi function is made, and it possesses the information on the form of respective corresponding intrinsic state. The method of making the band structure chart is explained. There are three kinds of the tendency in the intrinsic state group. The E-T charts are made for the band structure charts to quantitatively express the large region tendency. The E-T chart and the T{sub r}-T chart are drawn for a selected characteristic orbit group. It became to be known that the large region properties of the quantum intrinsic state group of three-level model can be forecast by examining the properties of the periodic orbit group in the TDHF phase space. (K.I.)

  4. Structural Encoding of Static Single Assignment Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian; Franz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Static Single Assignment (SSA) form is often used as an intermediate representation during code optimization in Java Virtual Machines. Recently, SSA has successfully been used for bytecode verification. However, constructing SSA at the code consumer is costly. SSAbased mobile code transport formats...... Java bytecode. While the resulting bytecode sequence can still be directly executed by traditional Virtual Machines, our novel VM can infer SSA form and confirm its safety with virtually no overhead....... have been shown to eliminate this cost by shifting SSA creation to the code producer. These new formats, however, are not backward compatible with the established Java class-file format. We propose a novel approach to transport SSA information implicitly through structural code properties of standard...

  5. Electronic structure of single crystal C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.; Shen, Z.X.; Dessau, D.S.; Cao, R.; Marshall, D.S.; Pianetta, P.; Lindau, I.; Yang, X.; Terry, J.; King, D.M.; Wells, B.O.; Elloway, D.; Wendt, H.R.; Brown, C.A.; Hunziker, H.; Vries, M.S. de

    1992-01-01

    We report angle-resolved photoemission data from single crystals of C 60 cleaved in UHV. Unlike the other forms of pure carbon, the valence band spectrum of C 60 consists of many sharp features that can be essentially accounted for by the quantum chemical calculations describing individual molecules. This suggests that the electronic structure of solid C 60 is mainly determined by the bonding interactions within the individual molecules. We also observe remarkable intensity modulations of the photoemission features as a function of photon energy, suggesting strong final state effects. Finally, we address the issue of the band width of the HOMO state of C 60 . We assert that the width of the photoemission peak of C 60 does not reflect the intrinsic band width because it is broadened by the non 0-0 transitions via the Franck-Condon principle. Our view point provides a possible reconciliation between these photoemission data and those measured by other techniques. (orig.)

  6. Investigation on a Novel Discontinuous Pulse-Width Modulation Algorithm for Single-phase Voltage Source Rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Hao; Yang, Xijun; Guo, Yougui

    2014-01-01

    Single-phase voltage source converter (VSC) is an important power electronic converter (PEC), including single-phase voltage source inverter (VSI), single-phase voltage source rectifier (VSR), single-phase active power filter (APF) and single-phase grid-connection inverter (GCI). Single-phase VSC...

  7. Simulation of the phenomenon of single-phase and two-phase natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castrillo, Lazara Silveira

    1998-02-01

    Natural convection phenomenon is often used to remove the residual heat from the surfaces of bodies where the heat is generated e.g. during accidents or transients of nuclear power plants. Experimental study of natural circulation can be done in small scale experimental circuits and the results can be extrapolated for larger operational facilities. The numerical analysis of transients can be carried out by using large computational codes that simulate the thermohydraulic behavior in such facilities. The computational code RELAP5/MOD2, (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program) was developed by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions's. Division of Reactor Safety Research with the objective of analysis of transients and postulated accidents in the light water reactor (LWR) systems, including small and large ruptures with loss of coolant accidents (LOCA's). The results obtained by the simulation of single-phase and two-phase natural circulation, using the RELAP5/MOD2, are presented in this work. The study was carried out using the experimental circuit built at the 'Departamento de Engenharia Quimica da Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo'. In the circuit, two experiments were carried out with different conditions of power and mass flow, obtaining a single-phase regime with a level of power of 4706 W and flow of 5.10 -5 m 3 /s (3 l/min) and a two-phase regime with a level of power of 6536 W and secondary flow 2,33.10 -5 m 3 /s (1,4 l/min). The study allowed tio evaluate the capacity of the code for representing such phenomena as well as comparing the transients obtained theoretically with the experimental results. The comparative analysis shows that the code represents fairly well the single-phase transient, but the results for two-phase transients, starting from the nodalization and calibration used for the case single-phase transient, did not reproduce faithfully some experimental results. (author)

  8. Structural phase transitions in BaMo6S8: Evidence for an incommensurate phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, J.D.; Hinks, D.G.; Hatch, D.M.; Putnam, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The structure of BaMo 6 S 8 has been studied over the temperature range 19 K to 573 K by time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction. Below 175 K the data can be suitably refined in a triclinic, P1, cell with volume equal to the rhombohedral, R3, cell common to most Chevrel-phase structures. At temperatures immediately above 175 K, the rhombohedral, R3, Bragg peaks are broadened by satellite reflections which appear to be identical to those recently observed at low temperature in PbMo 6 S 8 and SnMo 6 S 8 . An abrupt change in the sign of the temperature dependence of the hexagonal c axis (∂c/∂T) signals the transition to an undistorted rhombohedral, R3, structure at temperatures above about 350 K. An extended Landau theory determines both continuous and discontinuous transitions from R3 induced by a single order parameter. Analysis of the order parameters inducing commensurate transitions imposes symmetry restrictions on the atomic displacements in the lower symmetry phases. The assumption of an R3 commensurate phase is not consistent with the bond lengths obtained for the distortions to the P1 (or P1) phase for any of the possible cells preserving order parameters. Thus the phase immediately above 175 K cannot be a commensurate R3 structure. This is consistent with experimental evidence. 25 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs

  9. Potential pitfalls of single phasing operation in a three phase distribution network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, V S

    1986-07-01

    Finding it difficult to cope with the increased demand for electric power, some electricity boards have resorted to single phasing techniques in distribution system. This practice is harmful to the equipment in the power system. Some of the potential dangers associated with this undesirable practice are briefly discussed.

  10. Total robotic radical rectal resection with da Vinci Xi system: single docking, single phase technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamhankar, Anup Sunil; Jatal, Sudhir; Saklani, Avanish

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to assess the advantages of Da Vinci Xi system in rectal cancer surgery. It also assesses the initial oncological outcomes after rectal resection with this system from a tertiary cancer center in India. Robotic rectal surgery has distinct advantages over laparoscopy. Total robotic resection is increasing following the evolution of hybrid technology. The latest Da Vinci Xi system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, USA) is enabled with newer features to make total robotic resection possible with single docking and single phase. Thirty-six patients underwent total robotic resection in a single phase and single docking. We used newer port positions in a straight line. Median distance from the anal verge was 4.5 cm. Median robotic docking time and robotic procedure time were 9 and 280 min, respectively. Median blood loss was 100 mL. One patient needed conversion to an open approach due to advanced disease. Circumferential resection margin and longitudinal resection margins were uninvolved in all other patients. Median lymph node yield was 10. Median post-operative stay was 7 days. There were no intra-operative adverse events. The latest Da Vinci Xi system has made total robotic rectal surgery feasible in single docking and single phase. With the new system, four arm total robotic rectal surgery may replace the hybrid technique of laparoscopic and robotic surgery for rectal malignancies. The learning curve for the new system appears to be shorter than anticipated. Early perioperative and oncological outcomes of total robotic rectal surgery with the new system are promising. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Phase transitions and structures of methylammonium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamuro, Osamu; Onoda-Yamamuro, Noriko; Matsuo, Takasuke; Suga, Hiroshi; Kamiyama, Takashi; Asano, Hajime; Ibberson, R.M.; David, W.I.F.

    1993-01-01

    The structures of CD 3 ND 3 Cl, CD 3 ND 3 I, CD 3 ND 3 BF 4 , (CD 3 ND 3 ) 2 SnCl 6 , and CD 3 ND 3 SnBr 3 crystals were studied with time-of-flight type high-resolution powder diffractometers using spallation pulsed neutron sources. The orientations of the CD 3 ND 3 cations, including the positions of the D atoms, were determined at all the room temperature phases and at the low temperature phases of CD 3 ND 3 I and (CD 3N D 3 ) 2 SnCl 6 . The heat capacity experiments were also performed for both protonated and deuterated analogs of these compounds. From both structural and thermodynamic points of view, it was found that the transitions are mainly associated with the order-disorder change of the orientations of the CD 3 ND 3 cations. (author)

  12. Total energy calculations for structural phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Y.Y.; Chan, C.T.; Ho, K.M.; Harmon, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    The structural integrity and physical properties of crystalline solids are frequently limited or enhanced by the occurrence of phase transformations. Martensitic transformations involve the collective displacement of atoms from one ordered state to another. Modern methods to determine the microscopic electronic changes as the atoms move are now accurate enough to evaluate the very small energy differences involved. Extensive first principles calculations for the prototypical martensitic transformation from body-centered cubic (bcc) to closepacked 9R structure in sodium metal are described. The minimum energy coordinate or configuration path between the bcc and 9R structures is determined as well as paths to other competing close-packed structures. The energy barriers and important anharmonic interactions are identified and general conclusions drawn. The calculational methods used to solve the Schrodinger equation include pseudopotentials, fast Fourier transforms, efficient matrix diagnonalization, and supercells with many atoms

  13. Influence of strong single-ion anisotropy on phase states of 3D and 2D frustrated magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Yu.A.; Kosmachev, O.A.; Matunin, D.A.; Gorelikov, G.A.; Klevets, Ph.N.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the influence of strong single-ion anisotropy, exceeding exchange interaction, and frustrated exchange interaction on spin-wave excitation spectra and phase states using the Hubbard operators' technique, allowing the exact account of single-ion anisotropy. The results show that both the homogeneous phases (ferromagnetic and quadrupolar) and the spatially inhomogeneous phase (spiral structure) are possible in the 3D magnetic crystal. The region of existence of the spiral structure is considerably smaller than that in the analogues system, but with weak single-ion anisotropy. The situation is more complex in the 2D system; another spatially inhomogeneous state (the domain structure) can be realized in addition to the spiral magnetic structure. The phase diagrams for both the 3D and 2D systems were plotted.

  14. Structural phase transitions in niobium oxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvakkumar, R.; Hong, Sun Ig

    2015-09-01

    Niobium oxide nanocrystals were successfully synthesized employing the green synthesis method. Phase formation, microstructure and compositional properties of 1, 4 and 7 days incubation treated samples after calcinations at 450 °C were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman, photoluminescence (PL), infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectra and transmission electron microscopic characterizations. It was observed that phase formation of Nb2O5 nanocrystals was dependent upon the incubation period required to form stable metal oxides. The characteristic results clearly revealed that with increasing incubation and aging, the transformation of cubic, orthorhombic and monoclinic phases were observed. The uniform heating at room temperature (32 °C) and the ligation of niobium atoms due to higher phenolic constituents of utilized rambutan during aging processing plays a vital role in structural phase transitions in niobium oxide nanocrystals. The defects over a period of incubation and the intensities of the PL spectra changing over a period of aging were related to the amount of the defects induced by the phase transition.

  15. Optical study of phase transitions in single-crystalline RuP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. Y.; Shi, Y. G.; Zheng, P.; Wang, L.; Dong, T.; Wang, N. L.

    2015-03-01

    RuP single crystals of MnP-type orthorhombic structure were synthesized by the Sn flux method. Temperature-dependent x-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the compound experiences two structural phase transitions, which are further confirmed by enormous anomalies shown in temperature-dependent resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. Particularly, the resistivity drops monotonically upon temperature cooling below the second transition, indicating that the material shows metallic behavior, in sharp contrast with the insulating ground state of polycrystalline samples. Optical conductivity measurements were also performed in order to unravel the mechanism of these two transitions. The measurement revealed a sudden reconstruction of band structure over a broad energy scale and a significant removal of conducting carriers below the first phase transition, while a charge-density-wave-like energy gap opens below the second phase transition.

  16. Ultrafast Switching Superjunction MOSFETs for Single Phase PFC Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a guide on characterizing state-of-the-art silicon superjunction (SJ) devices in the 600V range for single phase power factor correction (PFC) applications. The characterization procedure is based on a minimally inductive double pulse tester (DPT) with a very low intrusive...... current measurement method, which enables reaching the switching speed limits of these devices. Due to the intrinsic low and non-linear capacitances in vertical SJ MOSFETs, special attention needs to be paid to the gate drive design to minimize oscillations and limit the maximum at turn off. This paper...

  17. Critical flow rate in a single phase flow. Blocking concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giot, Michel

    1978-01-01

    After referring to the phenomena accompanying the appearance of a critical flow rate in a nozzle and presenting equations governing single phase flows, the critical condition is defined. Several particular cases are then examined; the horizontal and vertical isentropic flow, Fanno's flow and Raleigh's and the isothermal flow. The entropy deviation is calculated on either side of a normal impact. To conclude, the link existing between the concepts of critical flow and the propagation rate of small perturbations is demonstrated. To do so, the method of perturbations, that of Prandtl and that of characteristic directions are applied in turn [fr

  18. Berry-Phase Blockade in Single-Molecule Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Gabriel; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2007-06-01

    We formulate the problem of electron transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM) in the Coulomb blockade regime taking into account topological interference effects for the tunneling of the large spin of a SMM. The interference originates from spin Berry phases associated with different tunneling paths. We show that, in the case of incoherent spin states, it is essential to place the SMM between oppositely spin-polarized source and drain leads in order to detect the spin tunneling in the stationary current, which exhibits topological zeros as a function of the transverse magnetic field.

  19. An investigation of subchannel analysis models for single-phase and two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dae Hyun

    1996-01-01

    The governing equations and lateral transport modelings of subchannel analysis code, which is the most widely used tool for the analysis of thermal hydraulics fields in reactor cores, have been thoroughly investigated in this study. The procedure for the derivation of subchannel integral balance equations from the local instantaneous phase equations was investigated by stages. The characteristics of governing equations according to the treatment of phase velocity were studies, and the equations based on the drift-flux equilibrium formulation have been derived. Turbulent mixing and void drift modeling, which affect considerably to the accuracy of subchannel analysis code, have been reviewed. In addition, some representative modelings of single-phase and two-phase turbulent mixing models have been introduced. (author). 5 tabs., 4 figs., 16 refs.

  20. Adaptive nonlinear control of single-phase to three-phase UPS system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissaoui M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the problems of uninterruptible power supplies (UPS based on the single-phase to three-phase converters built in two stages: an input bridge rectifier and an output three phase inverter. The two blocks are joined by a continuous intermediate bus. The objective of control is threefold: i power factor correction “PFC”, ii generating a symmetrical three-phase system at the output even if the load is unknown, iii regulating the DC bus voltage. The synthesis of controllers has been reached by two nonlinear techniques that are the sliding mode and adaptive backstepping control. The performances of regulators have been validated by numerical simulation in MATLAB / SIMULINK.

  1. Differentiating the growth phases of single bacteria using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strola, S. A.; Marcoux, P. R.; Schultz, E.; Perenon, R.; Simon, A.-C.; Espagnon, I.; Allier, C. P.; Dinten, J.-M.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present a longitudinal study of bacteria metabolism performed with a novel Raman spectrometer system. Longitudinal study is possible with our Raman setup since the overall procedure to localize a single bacterium and collect a Raman spectrum lasts only 1 minute. Localization and detection of single bacteria are performed by means of lensfree imaging, whereas Raman signal (from 600 to 3200 cm-1) is collected into a prototype spectrometer that allows high light throughput (HTVS technology, Tornado Spectral System). Accomplishing time-lapse Raman spectrometry during growth of bacteria, we observed variation in the net intensities for some band groups, e.g. amides and proteins. The obtained results on two different bacteria species, i.e. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis clearly indicate that growth affects the Raman chemical signature. We performed a first analysis to check spectral differences and similarities. It allows distinguishing between lag, exponential and stationary growth phases. And the assignment of interest bands to vibration modes of covalent bonds enables the monitoring of metabolic changes in bacteria caused by growth and aging. Following the spectra analysis, a SVM (support vector machine) classification of the different growth phases is presented. In sum this longitudinal study by means of a compact and low-cost Raman setup is a proof of principle for routine analysis of bacteria, in a real-time and non-destructive way. Real-time Raman studies on metabolism and viability of bacteria pave the way for future antibiotic susceptibility testing.

  2. Modelling a single phase voltage controlled rectifier using Laplace transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, L. Alan; Kankam, M. David

    1992-01-01

    The development of a 20 kHz, AC power system by NASA for large space projects has spurred a need to develop models for the equipment which will be used on these single phase systems. To date, models for the AC source (i.e., inverters) have been developed. It is the intent of this paper to develop a method to model the single phase voltage controlled rectifiers which will be attached to the AC power grid as an interface for connected loads. A modified version of EPRI's HARMFLO program is used as the shell for these models. The results obtained from the model developed in this paper are quite adequate for the analysis of problems such as voltage resonance. The unique technique presented in this paper uses the Laplace transforms to determine the harmonic content of the load current of the rectifier rather than a curve fitting technique. Laplace transforms yield the coefficient of the differential equations which model the line current to the rectifier directly.

  3. SINGLE-PHASE AND TWO-PHASE SECONDARY COOLANTS: SIMULATION AND EVALUATION OF THEIR THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Samuel Gomes Medeiros

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a comparative analysis of the thermophysical properties of ice slurry with conventional single-phase secondary fluids used in thermal storage cooling systems. The ice slurry is a two-phase fluid consisting of water, antifreeze and ice crystals. It is a new technology that has shown great energy potential. In addition to transporting energy as a heat transfer fluid, it has thermal storage properties due to the presence of ice, storing coolness by latent heat of fusion. The single-phase fluids analyzed are water-NaCl and water-propylene glycol solutions, which also operate as carrier fluids in ice slurry. The presence of ice changes the thermophysical properties of aqueous solutions and a number of these properties were determined: density, thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity. Data were obtained by software simulation. The results show that the presence of 10% by weight of ice provides a significant increase in thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity, without causing changes in density. The rheological behavior of ice slurries, associated with its high viscosity, requires higher pumping power; however, this was not significant because higher thermal conductivity allows a lower mass flow rate without the use of larger pumps. Thus, the ice slurry ensures its high potential as a secondary fluid in thermal storage cooling systems, proving to be more efficient than single-phase secondary fluids.

  4. Single phase and two-phase flow pressure losses through restrictions, expansions and inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenat, P.; Solignac, P.

    1984-11-01

    We give a selection of methods to predict pressure losses through retrictions, expansions and inserts. In single phase flow, we give the classical method based on the one-dimensional momentum and mass balances. In two-phase flow, we propose the method given by Harshe et al. and an empirical approach suggested by Chisholm. We notice the distinction between long and short inserts depends upon wether or not the vena contracta lies within insert. Finally, we propose three correlations to calculate void fraction through the singularities which have been considered [fr

  5. Single-Phase Phase-Locked Loop Based on Derivative Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Qingxin; Zhang, Yu; Kang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    High-performance phase-locked loops (PLLs) are critical for power control in grid-connected systems. This paper presents a new method of designing a PLL for single-phase systems based on derivative elements (DEs). The quadrature signal generator (QSG) is constructed by two DEs with the same...... PLL to achieve high performance when the grid frequency changes rapidly. This paper presents the model of the PLL and a theoretical performance analysis with respect to both the frequency-domain and time-domain behavior. The error arising from the discretization process is also compensated, ensuring...

  6. Modification of electronic structure, magnetic structure, and topological phase of bismuthene by point defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Yelda; Kilic, Sevket Berkay; Demirci, Salih; Aktürk, O. Üzengi; Aktürk, Ethem; Ciraci, Salim

    2017-12-01

    This paper reveals how the electronic structure, magnetic structure, and topological phase of two-dimensional (2D), single-layer structures of bismuth are modified by point defects. We first showed that a free-standing, single-layer, hexagonal structure of bismuth, named h-bismuthene, exhibits nontrivial band topology. We then investigated interactions between single foreign adatoms and bismuthene structures, which comprise stability, bonding, electronic structure, and magnetic structures. Localized states in diverse locations of the band gap and resonant states in band continua of bismuthene are induced upon the adsorption of different adatoms, which modify electronic and magnetic properties. Specific adatoms result in reconstruction around the adsorption site. Single vacancies and divacancies can form readily in bismuthene structures and remain stable at high temperatures. Through rebondings, Stone-Whales-type defects are constructed by divacancies, which transform into a large hole at high temperature. Like adsorbed adatoms, vacancies induce also localized gap states, which can be eliminated through rebondings in divacancies. We also showed that not only the optical and magnetic properties, but also the topological features of pristine h-bismuthene can be modified by point defects. The modification of the topological features depends on the energies of localized states and also on the strength of coupling between point defects.

  7. Magnetic phase transitions in Er7Rh3 studied on single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutaoka, Takanori; Obata, Keisuke; Cheyvuth, Seng; Koyama, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Magnetic and electrical properties of Er 7 Rh 3 were studied on single crystals. • The magnetic phase diagram along the c-axis was constructed. • The field-induced magnetic transitions in Er 7 Rh 3 can be explained by the magnetic structure with two magnetic propagation vectors. • The anomalies of electrical resistivity can also be described by the magnetic structure in Er 7 Rh 3 . - Abstract: Magnetic phase transitions in Er 7 Rh 3 with the Th 7 Fe 3 type hexagonal structure have been studied on single crystals by measuring magnetization, magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity. Er 7 Rh 3 possesses antiferromagnetic state below T N = 13 K. In the ordered state, the two successive magnetic transitions at T t1 = 6.2 K and T t2 = 4.5 K were observed. Several field-induced magnetic transitions were also observed along the a- and c-axes below T N ; magnetic field H – temperature T phase diagram along the c-axis was constructed. The field-induced magnetic transitions in Er 7 Rh 3 can be explained by the magnetic structure with two magnetic propagation vectors which were derived by the previous neutron diffraction studies. Electrical resistivity shows humps just below the magnetic transition temperatures, T N and T t1 due to the super-zone gap formation at the Fermi level; these anomalies can also be described by the magnetic structure changes in Er 7 Rh 3

  8. Equivalence of two models in single-phase multicomponent flow simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yuanqing

    2016-02-28

    In this work, two models to simulate the single-phase multicomponent flow in reservoirs are introduced: single-phase multicomponent flow model and two-phase compositional flow model. Because the single-phase multicomponent flow is a special case of the two-phase compositional flow, the two-phase compositional flow model can also simulate the case. We compare and analyze the two models when simulating the single-phase multicomponent flow, and then demonstrate the equivalence of the two models mathematically. An experiment is also carried out to verify the equivalence of the two models.

  9. Equivalence of two models in single-phase multicomponent flow simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yuanqing; Sun, Shuyu

    2016-01-01

    In this work, two models to simulate the single-phase multicomponent flow in reservoirs are introduced: single-phase multicomponent flow model and two-phase compositional flow model. Because the single-phase multicomponent flow is a special case of the two-phase compositional flow, the two-phase compositional flow model can also simulate the case. We compare and analyze the two models when simulating the single-phase multicomponent flow, and then demonstrate the equivalence of the two models mathematically. An experiment is also carried out to verify the equivalence of the two models.

  10. Time domain spectral phase encoding/DPSK data modulation using single phase modulator for OCDMA application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Gao, Zhensen; Kataoka, Nobuyuki; Wada, Naoya

    2010-05-10

    A novel scheme using single phase modulator for simultaneous time domain spectral phase encoding (SPE) signal generation and DPSK data modulation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Array- Waveguide-Grating and Variable-Bandwidth-Spectrum-Shaper based devices can be used for decoding the signal directly in spectral domain. The effects of fiber dispersion, light pulse width and timing error on the coding performance have been investigated by simulation and verified in experiment. In the experiment, SPE signal with 8-chip, 20GHz/chip optical code patterns has been generated and modulated with 2.5 Gbps DPSK data using single modulator. Transmission of the 2.5 Gbps data over 34km fiber with BEROCDMA) and secure optical communication applications. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  11. About the dynamics of structural phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, J.T.N.

    1975-01-01

    The dynamics of structural phase transitions with a fourth order interaction between the soft phonon fields is studied in the 1/n approximation, using many body methods at finite temperatures. Two limits are considered: high transition temperature T sub(c) (classical limit) and T sub(c) = 0 (quantum limit). The dynamical contribution to the critical coefficient eta of the correlation function is calculated in these limits. It is found that there is no dynamical contribution to eta in the classical limit, whereas in the quantum limit eta is non-zero only for dimensions of the system d [pt

  12. Magnetic phases in Pt/Co/Pt films induced by single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisielewski, J., E-mail: jankis@uwb.edu.pl; Kurant, Z.; Sveklo, I.; Tekielak, M.; Maziewski, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Białystok, Ciołkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Białystok (Poland); Wawro, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-05-21

    Ultrathin Pt/Co/Pt trilayers with initial in-plane magnetization were irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses. In this way, an irreversible structural modification was introduced, which resulted in the creation of numerous pulse fluence-dependent magnetic phases. This was particularly true with the out-of-plane magnetization state, which exhibited a submicrometer domain structure. This effect was studied in a broad range of pulse fluences up to the point of ablation of the metallic films. In addition to this single-pulse experiment, multiple exposure spots were also investigated, which exhibited an extended area of out-of-plane magnetization phases and a decreased damage threshold. Using a double exposure with partially overlapped spots, a two-dimensional diagram of the magnetic phases as a function of the two energy densities was built, which showed a strong inequality between the first and second incoming pulses.

  13. Magnetic phases in Pt/Co/Pt films induced by single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisielewski, J.; Kurant, Z.; Sveklo, I.; Tekielak, M.; Maziewski, A.; Wawro, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrathin Pt/Co/Pt trilayers with initial in-plane magnetization were irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses. In this way, an irreversible structural modification was introduced, which resulted in the creation of numerous pulse fluence-dependent magnetic phases. This was particularly true with the out-of-plane magnetization state, which exhibited a submicrometer domain structure. This effect was studied in a broad range of pulse fluences up to the point of ablation of the metallic films. In addition to this single-pulse experiment, multiple exposure spots were also investigated, which exhibited an extended area of out-of-plane magnetization phases and a decreased damage threshold. Using a double exposure with partially overlapped spots, a two-dimensional diagram of the magnetic phases as a function of the two energy densities was built, which showed a strong inequality between the first and second incoming pulses.

  14. Structure analysis of turbulent liquid phase by POD and LSE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munir, S., E-mail: shahzad-munir@comsats.edu.pk; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Siddiqui, M. I. [Department of Fundamental and Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia); Heikal, M. R., E-mail: morgan.heikal@petronas.com.my; Aziz, A. Rashid A., E-mail: morgan.heikal@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    In this paper, vortical structures and turbulence characteristics of liquid phase in both single liquid phase and two-phase slug flow in pipes were studied. Two dimensional velocity vector fields of liquid phase were obtained by Particle image velocimetry (PIV). Two cases were considered one single phase liquid flow at 80 l/m and second slug flow by introducing gas at 60 l/m while keeping liquid flow rate same. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and Linear stochastic estimation techniques were used for the extraction of coherent structures and analysis of turbulence in liquid phase for both cases. POD has successfully revealed large energy containing structures. The time dependent POD spatial mode coefficients oscillate with high frequency for high mode numbers. The energy distribution of spatial modes was also achieved. LSE has pointed out the coherent structured for both cases and the reconstructed velocity fields are in well agreement with the instantaneous velocity fields.

  15. Structure analysis of turbulent liquid phase by POD and LSE techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, S.; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Siddiqui, M. I.; Heikal, M. R.; Aziz, A. Rashid A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, vortical structures and turbulence characteristics of liquid phase in both single liquid phase and two-phase slug flow in pipes were studied. Two dimensional velocity vector fields of liquid phase were obtained by Particle image velocimetry (PIV). Two cases were considered one single phase liquid flow at 80 l/m and second slug flow by introducing gas at 60 l/m while keeping liquid flow rate same. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and Linear stochastic estimation techniques were used for the extraction of coherent structures and analysis of turbulence in liquid phase for both cases. POD has successfully revealed large energy containing structures. The time dependent POD spatial mode coefficients oscillate with high frequency for high mode numbers. The energy distribution of spatial modes was also achieved. LSE has pointed out the coherent structured for both cases and the reconstructed velocity fields are in well agreement with the instantaneous velocity fields

  16. Phase locking of a semiconductor double-quantum-dot single-atom maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.-Y.; Hartke, T. R.; Stehlik, J.; Petta, J. R.

    2017-11-01

    We experimentally study the phase stabilization of a semiconductor double-quantum-dot (DQD) single-atom maser by injection locking. A voltage-biased DQD serves as an electrically tunable microwave frequency gain medium. The statistics of the maser output field demonstrate that the maser can be phase locked to an external cavity drive, with a resulting phase noise L =-99 dBc/Hz at a frequency offset of 1.3 MHz. The injection locking range, and the phase of the maser output relative to the injection locking input tone are in good agreement with Adler's theory. Furthermore, the electrically tunable DQD energy level structure allows us to rapidly switch the gain medium on and off, resulting in an emission spectrum that resembles a frequency comb. The free running frequency comb linewidth is ≈8 kHz and can be improved to less than 1 Hz by operating the comb in the injection locked regime.

  17. Simplified paraboloid phase model-based phase tracker for demodulation of a single complex fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, A; Deepan, B; Quan, C

    2017-09-01

    A regularized phase tracker (RPT) is an effective method for demodulation of single closed-fringe patterns. However, lengthy calculation time, specially designed scanning strategy, and sign-ambiguity problems caused by noise and saddle points reduce its effectiveness, especially for demodulating large and complex fringe patterns. In this paper, a simplified paraboloid phase model-based regularized phase tracker (SPRPT) is proposed. In SPRPT, first and second phase derivatives are pre-determined by the density-direction-combined method and discrete higher-order demodulation algorithm, respectively. Hence, cost function is effectively simplified to reduce the computation time significantly. Moreover, pre-determined phase derivatives improve the robustness of the demodulation of closed, complex fringe patterns. Thus, no specifically designed scanning strategy is needed; nevertheless, it is robust against the sign-ambiguity problem. The paraboloid phase model also assures better accuracy and robustness against noise. Both the simulated and experimental fringe patterns (obtained using electronic speckle pattern interferometry) are used to validate the proposed method, and a comparison of the proposed method with existing RPT methods is carried out. The simulation results show that the proposed method has achieved the highest accuracy with less computational time. The experimental result proves the robustness and the accuracy of the proposed method for demodulation of noisy fringe patterns and its feasibility for static and dynamic applications.

  18. Soft modes and structural phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataraman, G [Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam (India)

    1979-12-01

    A survey of soft modes and their relationship to structural phase transitions is presented. After introducing the concept of a soft mode, the origin of softening is considered from a lattice-dynamical point. The Landau theory approach to structural transitions is then discussed, followed by a generalisation of the soft-mode concept through the use of the dynamic order-parameter susceptibility. The relationship of soft modes to broken symmetry is also examined. Experimental results for several classes of crystals are next presented, bringing out various features such as the co-operative Jahn-Teller effect. The survey concludes with a discussion of the central peak, touching upon both the experimental results and the theoretical speculations.

  19. Hydrostatic pressure study of the structural phase transitions and superconductivity in single crystals of (Ba1-xKx)Fe2As2 (x=0 and 0.45) and CaFe2As2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torikachvili, M.S.; Bud'ko, S.L.; Ni Ni; Canfield, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of hydrostatic pressure (P) on the structural phase transitions and superconductivity in the ternary and pseudo-ternary iron arsenides CaFe 2 As 2 , BaFe 2 As 2 , and (Ba 0.55 K 0.45 )Fe 2 As 2 , by means of measurements of electrical resistivity (ρ) in the 1.8-300 K temperature (T) range, pressures up to 20 kbar, and magnetic fields up to 9 T. CaFe 2 As 2 and BaFe 2 As 2 (lightly doped with Sn) display structural phase transitions near 170 and 85 K, respectively, and do not exhibit superconductivity in ambient pressure, while K-doped (Ba 0.55 K 0.45 )Fe 2 As 2 is superconducting for T 2 As 2 is to shift the onset of the crystallographic transformation down in temperature at the rate of ∼-1.04 K/kbar, while shifting the whole ρ(T) curves downward, whereas its effect on superconducting (Ba 0.55 K 0.45 )Fe 2 As 2 is to shift the onset of superconductivity to lower temperatures at the rate of ∼-0.21 K/kbar. The effect of pressure on CaFe 2 As 2 is first to suppress the crystallographic transformation and induce superconductivity with onset near 12 K very rapidly, i.e., for P c2 ) data in (Ba 0.55 K 0.45 )Fe 2 As 2 and CaFe 2 As 2 are discussed.

  20. MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS WITH SINGLE-PHASE POWER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Malyar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Development of a method for calculating mechanical characteristics of three-phase induction motors with single-phase power supply. Methods. The developed algorithm is based on the high-adequacy mathematical model of motor and projection method for solving the boundary problem for equations of electrical circuits balance presented in the three-phase coordinate system. As a result of asymmetry of power supply to the stator windings, in steady state, flux-linkage and current change according to the periodic law. They are determined by solving the boundary problem. Results. The developed mathematical model allows determining periodic dependence of coordinates as a function of slip and, based on them, mechanical characteristics of motors. Academic novelty. The developed method relies on a completely new mathematical approach to calculation of stationary modes of nonlinear electromagnetic circuits, which allows obtaining periodic solution in a timeless domain. Practical value. Using the developed calculation algorithm, one can select capacitance required to start an induction motor with single-phase power supply and calculate static mechanical characteristics at a given capacitance.

  1. Single Photon Sensitive HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detector (APD), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging Phase I SBIR successes, in Phase II, a single photon sensitive LIDAR receiver will be fabricated and delivered to NASA. In Phase I, high-gain,...

  2. A grid-connected single-phase photovoltaic micro inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, X. Y.; Lin, P. J.; Chen, Z. C.; Wu, L. J.; Cheng, S. Y.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the topology of a single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverter is proposed. The PV micro-inverter consists of DC-DC stage with high voltage gain boost and DC-AC conversion stage. In the first stage, we apply the active clamp circuit and two voltage multipliers to achieve soft switching technology and high voltage gain. In addition, the flower pollination algorithm (FPA) is employed for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in the PV module in this stage. The second stage cascades a H-bridge inverter and LCL filter. To feed high quality sinusoidal power into the grid, the software phase lock, outer voltage loop and inner current loop control method are adopted as the control strategy. The performance of the proposed topology is tested by Matlab/Simulink. A PV module with maximum power 300W and maximum power point voltage 40V is applied as the input source. The simulation results indicate that the proposed topology and the control strategy are feasible.

  3. Boron incorporation into rutile: phase equilibria and structural considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, I.E.; Li, C.; MacRae, C.M.; Bursill, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Reduction of rutile in the presence of borate flux stabilised the rutile phase relative to reduced rutiles due to incorporation of boron from the flux. In the presence of borates the rutile phase is stabilised to oxygen fugacities that are lower by almost two orders of magnitude compared with fugacities at the limit of the single-phase rutile phase field in the pure Ti-O system. Boron incorporation is accompanied by reduction of titanium to the trivalent state, according to the charge compensation relation: 3Ti 4+ ≡ 3 Ti 3+ + B 3+ . Results of powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies on samples prepared in the temperature range 1100 to 1300 deg C have been used to establish a model for boron incorporation. It is proposed that at the temperatures studied, local defects in boron doped rutile result from displacement of titanium atoms to adjacent interstitial sites coupled with occupation by boron of the triangular face of the vacated octahedral sites. This atomic grouping represents a small element of the TiBO 3 (calcite-type) structure. Annealing at a lower temperature results in ordering of the local defects to form (101) r planar intergrowths of rutile and calcite-type structures. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs

  4. Boron incorporation into rutile: phase equilibria and structural considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grey, I.E.; Li, C.; MacRae, C.M. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), East Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Div of Minerals; Bursill, L.A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-06-01

    Reduction of rutile in the presence of borate flux stabilised the rutile phase relative to reduced rutiles due to incorporation of boron from the flux. In the presence of borates the rutile phase is stabilised to oxygen fugacities that are lower by almost two orders of magnitude compared with fugacities at the limit of the single-phase rutile phase field in the pure Ti-O system. Boron incorporation is accompanied by reduction of titanium to the trivalent state, according to the charge compensation relation: 3Ti{sup 4+}{identical_to} 3 Ti{sup 3+} + B{sup 3+}. Results of powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies on samples prepared in the temperature range 1100 to 1300 deg C have been used to establish a model for boron incorporation. It is proposed that at the temperatures studied, local defects in boron doped rutile result from displacement of titanium atoms to adjacent interstitial sites coupled with occupation by boron of the triangular face of the vacated octahedral sites. This atomic grouping represents a small element of the TiBO{sub 3} (calcite-type) structure. Annealing at a lower temperature results in ordering of the local defects to form (101){sub r} planar intergrowths of rutile and calcite-type structures. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  5. Sliding three-phase contact line of printed droplets for single-crystal arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Minxuan; Wu, Lei; Li, Yifan; Gao, Meng; Zhang, Xingye; Jiang, Lei; Song, Yanlin

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the behaviours of printed droplets is an essential requirement for inkjet printing of delicate three-dimensional (3D) structures or high-resolution patterns. In this work, molecular deposition and crystallization are regulated by manipulating the three-phase contact line (TCL) behaviour of the printed droplets. The results show that oriented single-crystal arrays are fabricated based on the continuously sliding TCL. Owing to the sliding of the TCL on the substrate, the outward capillary flow within the evaporating droplet is suppressed and the molecules are brought to the centre of the droplet, resulting in the formation of a single crystal. This work provides a facile strategy for controlling the structures of printed units by manipulating the TCL of printed droplets, which is significant for realizing high-resolution patterns and delicate 3D structures. (paper)

  6. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort will develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular structures...

  7. Pressure-induced phase transitions in single-crystalline Cu4Bi4S9 nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jing-Yu; Li Jing; Zhao Qing; Shi Li-Jie; Zou Bing-Suo; Zhang Si-Jia; Zhao Hao-Fei; Zhang Qing-Hua; Yao Yuan; Zhu Ke; Liu Yu-Long; Jin Chang-Qing; Yu Ri-Cheng; Li Yan-Chun; Li Xiao-Dong; Liu Jing

    2013-01-01

    In situ angle dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements under pressure are employed to study the structural evolution of Cu 4 Bi 4 S 9 nanoribbons, which are fabricated by using a facile solvothermal method. Both experiments show that a structural phase transition occurs near 14.5 GPa, and there is a pressure-induced reversible amorphization at about 25.6 GPa. The electrical transport property of a single Cu 4 Bi 4 S 9 nanoribbon under different pressures is also investigated

  8. Analytical prediction of the electromagnetic torques in single-phase and two-phase ac motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, M.

    2004-07-01

    The single-phase and two-phase versions of AC motors can be modelled by means of the two-axis (d-q) theory with sufficient accuracy when the equivalent circuit parameters are correctly estimated. This work attempts to present a unified approach to the analytical prediction of the electromagnetic torque of these machines. Classical d-q axes formulation requires that the reference frame should be fixed on the frame where the asymmetries arise, i.e. the stator and rotor. The asynchronous torques that characterize the induction motors are modelled in a stationary reference frame, where the d-q axes coincide with the physical magnetic axes of the stator windings. For the permanent magnet motors, that may exhibit asymmetries on both stator and rotor, the proposed solution includes: a series of frame transformations, followed by symmetrical components decomposition. As in single-phase and two-phase systems the homopolar component is zero; each symmetrical component - negative and positive - is further analysed using d-q axes theory. The superposition principle is employed to consider the magnets and rotor cage effects. The developed models account for the most important asymmetries of the motor configuration. These are, from the stator point of view, different distribution, conductors' dimensions and number of effective turns, non-orthogonal magnetic axes windings and from the rotor point of view, asymmetrical rotor cage, variable reluctance, and permanent magnets effect. The time and space harmonics effect is ignored. Test data are compared with the computed data in order to observe how the simplifying assumptions affect the level of accuracy. The analytical prediction methods make possible torque computation according to the nature of the torque being computed, namely, induction, reluctance and excitation (permanent magnet). The results are available for quasi steady-state, steady-state (rated or synchronous speed) and dynamic analyses. All the developed

  9. Improved Design Methods for Robust Single- and Three-Phase ac-dc-ac Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian

    . The approaches for improving their performance, in terms of the voltage stress, efficiency, power density, cost, loss distribution, and temperature, will be studied. The structure of the thesis is as follows, Chapter 1 presents the introduction and motivation of the whole project as well as the background...... becomes a emerging challenge. Accordingly, installation of sustainable power generators like wind turbines and solar panels has experienced a large increase during the last decades. Meanwhile, power electronics converters, as interfaces in electrical system, are delivering approximately 80 % electricity...... back-to-back, and meanwhile improve the harmonics, control flexibility, and thermal distribution between the switches. Afterwards, active power decoupling methods for single-phase inverters or rectifiers that are similar to the single-phase ac-dc-ac converter, are studied in Chapter 4...

  10. Photoluminescence Polarization Anisotropy in a Single Heterostructured III-V Nanowire with Mixed Crystal Phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, A. F.; Hoang, T. B.; Ahtapodov, L.; Dheeraj, D. L.; Fimland, B. O.; Weman, H.; Helvoort, A. T. J. van

    2011-01-01

    Low temperature (10 K) micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) of single GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires with single GaAsSb inserts were measured. The PL emission from the zinc blende GaAsSb insert is strongly polarized along the nanowire axis while the PL emission from the wurtzite GaAs nanowire is perpendiculary polarized to the nanowire axis. The result indicates that the crystal phase, through the optical selection rules, has significant effect on the polarization of the PL from NWs besides the dielectric mismatch. The analysis of the PL results based on the electronic structure of these nanowires supports the correlation between the crystal phase and the PL emission.

  11. Single Intravenous Dose of Oritavancin for Treatment of Acute Skin and Skin Structure Infections Caused by Gram-Positive Bacteria: Summary of Safety Analysis from the Phase 3 SOLO Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, G Ralph; Loutit, Jeffery; Moeck, Greg; Wikler, Matthew; Dudley, Michael N; O'Riordan, William

    2018-04-01

    Oritavancin is a lipoglycopeptide with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms. Its rapid concentration-dependent bactericidal activity and long elimination half-life allow single-dose treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). SOLO I and SOLO II were randomized, double-blind studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of a single 1,200-mg intravenous (i.v.) dose of oritavancin versus twice-daily i.v. vancomycin for 7 to 10 days in ABSSSI patients. Safety data from both studies were pooled for safety analysis. The database comprised pooled safety data for 976 oritavancin-treated patients and 983 vancomycin-treated patients. The incidences of adverse events, serious adverse events, and discontinuations due to adverse events were similar for oritavancin (55.3, 5.8, and 3.7%, respectively) and vancomycin (56.9, 5.9, and 4.2%, respectively). The median time to onset (3.8 days versus 3.1 days, respectively) and the duration (3.0 days for both groups) of adverse events were also similar between the two groups. The most frequently reported events were nausea, headache, and vomiting. Greater than 90% of all events were mild or moderate in severity. There were slightly more infections and infestations, abscesses or cellulitis, and hepatic and cardiac adverse events in the oritavancin group; however, more than 80% of these events were mild or moderate. Subgroup analyses did not identify clinically meaningful differences in the incidence of adverse events attributed to oritavancin. A single 1,200-mg dose of oritavancin was well tolerated and had a safety profile similar to that of twice-daily vancomycin. The long elimination half-life of oritavancin compared to that of vancomycin did not result in a clinically meaningful delay to the onset or prolongation of adverse events. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01252719 and NCT01252732.). Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Molecular structure of the lecithin ripple phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Alex H.; Yefimov, Serge; Mark, Alan E.; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2005-04-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of lecithin lipid bilayers in water as they are cooled from the liquid crystalline phase show the spontaneous formation of rippled bilayers. The ripple consists of two domains of different length and orientation, connected by a kink. The organization of the lipids in one domain of the ripple is found to be that of a splayed gel; in the other domain the lipids are gel-like and fully interdigitated. In the concave part of the kink region between the domains the lipids are disordered. The results are consistent with the experimental information available and provide an atomic-level model that may be tested by further experiments. molecular dynamics simulation | structural model

  13. Patent portfolio structure for single technology companies

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwell, Ian P.

    2004-01-01

    Single technology companies (STCs) are defined in this thesis as companies that (a) have the fundamental rights to a new technology, (b) have development of that technology as their core competence, (c) seek to exploit that technology primarily by licensing the patent rights, and (d) are driven primarily by 'technology push'. These factors often result in much of the value of the STC residing in its patent portfolio. This in turn may place significant - and often conflicting - ...

  14. Orientational Phase Transition Around 274 K in C60 Single Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚伯; 何丕模; 杨宏顺; 郑萍; 余朝文; 陈兆甲; 张宣嘉; 李文铸

    1994-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of a C60 single crystal around 274 K and the specific heat of C60 crystals from 150 to 340 K have been measured.The delta-like specific heat peak at about 251 K related to the first-order phase transition has been reported.The activation energy change around 274 K and the lambda-like specific heat peak beginning at 270 K and ending at 310 K show that there is an orientational phase transition in fcc C60 crystals above 251 K.By taking the symmetry into consideration and further analyzing lambda-like specific heat peak and the activation energy change around 274 K,the conclusion has been reached that this new phase transition is an orientational structure transition from the merohedral twinning fcc to the orientationally disordered fcc.The temperature of free rotation of C60 molecules is about 281 K.

  15. Crystalline structure in the confined-deconfined mixed phase: Neutron stars as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    We review the differences in first order phase transition of single and multi-component systems, and then discuss the crystalline structure expected to exist in the mixed confined deconfined phase of hadronic matter. The particular context of neutron stars is chosen for illustration. The qualitative results are general and apply for example to the vapor-liquid transition in subsaturated asymmetric nuclear matter

  16. Single-phase convective heat transfer in rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, Mary V.; Beasley, Donald E.; Conner, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    The convective heat transfer for turbulent flow through rod bundles representative of nuclear fuel rods used in pressurized water reactors is examined. The rod bundles consist of a square array of parallel rods that are held on a constant pitch by support grids spaced axially along the rod bundle. Split-vane pair support grids, which create swirling flow in the rod bundle, as well as disc and standard support grids are investigated. Single-phase convective heat transfer coefficients are measured for flow downstream of support grids in a rod bundle. The rods are heated using direct resistance heating, and a bulk axial flow of air is used to cool the rods in the rod bundle. Air is used as the working fluid instead of water to reduce the power required to heat the rod bundle. Results indicate heat transfer enhancement for up to 10 hydraulic diameters downstream of the support grids. A general correlation is developed to predict the heat transfer development downstream of support grids. In addition, circumferential variations in heat transfer coefficients result in hot streaks that develop on the rods downstream of split-vane pair support grids

  17. Single-phase convective heat transfer in rod bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Mary V. [Mechanical Engineering Department, United States Naval Academy, 590 Holloway Rd., Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States)], E-mail: holloway@usna.edu; Beasley, Donald E. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Conner, Michael E. [Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel, 5801 Bluff Road, Columbia, SC 29250 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    The convective heat transfer for turbulent flow through rod bundles representative of nuclear fuel rods used in pressurized water reactors is examined. The rod bundles consist of a square array of parallel rods that are held on a constant pitch by support grids spaced axially along the rod bundle. Split-vane pair support grids, which create swirling flow in the rod bundle, as well as disc and standard support grids are investigated. Single-phase convective heat transfer coefficients are measured for flow downstream of support grids in a rod bundle. The rods are heated using direct resistance heating, and a bulk axial flow of air is used to cool the rods in the rod bundle. Air is used as the working fluid instead of water to reduce the power required to heat the rod bundle. Results indicate heat transfer enhancement for up to 10 hydraulic diameters downstream of the support grids. A general correlation is developed to predict the heat transfer development downstream of support grids. In addition, circumferential variations in heat transfer coefficients result in hot streaks that develop on the rods downstream of split-vane pair support grids.

  18. Single particle detection: Phase control in submicron Hall sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Michele, Lorenzo; Shelly, Connor; Gallop, John; Kazakova, Olga

    2010-01-01

    We present a phase-sensitive ac-dc Hall magnetometry method which allows a clear and reliable separation of real and parasitic magnetic signals of a very small magnitude. High-sensitivity semiconductor-based Hall crosses are generally accepted as a preferential solution for non-invasive detection of superparamagnetic nanobeads used in molecular biology, nanomedicine, and nanochemistry. However, detection of such small beads is often hindered by inductive pick-up and other spurious signals. The present work demonstrates an unambiguous experimental route for detection of small magnetic moments and provides a simple theoretical background for it. The reliability of the method has been tested for a variety of InSb Hall sensors in the range 600 nm-5 μm. Complete characterization of empty devices, involving Hall coefficients and noise measurements, has been performed and detection of a single FePt bead with diameter of 140 nm and magnetic moment of μ≅10 8 μ B has been achieved with a 600 nm-wide sensor.

  19. ESTABLISHED MODES AND STATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE-PHASE ASYNCHRONOUS MOTOR POWERED WITH SINGLE PHASE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Malyar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is developed to study the operation of three-phase asynchronous motor with squirrel-cage rotor when the stator winding is powered from a single phase network. To create a rotating magnetic field one of the phases is fed through the capacitor. Due to the asymmetry of power feed not only transients, but the steady-state regimes are dynamic, so they are described by differential equations in any coordinate system. Their study cannot be carried out with sufficient adequacy on the basis of known equivalent circuits and require the use of dynamic parameters. In the mathematical model the state equations of the circuits of the stator and rotor are composed in the stationary three phase coordinate system. Calculation of the established mode is performed by solving the boundary problem that makes it possible to obtain the coordinate dependences over the period, without calculation of the transient process. In order to perform it, the original nonlinear differential equations are algebraized by approximating the variables with the use of cubic splines. The resulting nonlinear system of algebraic equations is a discrete analogue of the initial system of differential equations. It is solved by parameter continuation method. To calculate the static characteristics as a function of a certain variable, the system is analytically differentiated, and then numerically integrated over this variable. In the process of integration, Newton's refinement is performed at each step or at every few steps, making it possible to implement the integration in just a few steps using Euler's method. Jacobi matrices in both cases are the same. To account for the current displacement in the rods of the squirrel-cage rotor, each of them, along with the squirrel-cage rings, is divided in height into several elements. This results in several squirrel-cage rotor windings which are represented by three-phase windings with magnetic coupling between them.

  20. Phase diagram of the Ge-rich of the Ba–Ge system and characterisation of single-phase BaGe4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokofieva, Violetta K.; Pavlova, Lydia M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Ba-Ge phase diagram for the range 50–100 at.% Ge was constructed. • Single-phase BaGe 4 grown by the Czochralski method was characterised. • A phenomenological model for a liquid-liquid phase transition is proposed. - Abstract: The Ba–Ge binary system has been investigated by several authors, but some uncertainties remain regarding phases with Ba/Ge ⩽ 2. The goal of this work was to resolve the uncertainty about the current phase diagram of Ba–Ge by performing DTA, X-ray powder diffraction, metallographic and chemical analyses, and measurements of the electrical conductivity and viscosity. The experimental Ba–Ge phase diagram over the composition range of 50–100 at.% Ge was constructed from the cooling curves and single-phase BaGe 4 grown by the Czochralski crystal pulling method was characterised. Semiconducting BaGe 4 crystallised peritectically from the liquid phase near the eutectic. In the liquid state, the caloric effects were observed in the DTA curves at 1050 °C where there are no definite phase lines in the Ba–Ge phase diagram. These effects are confirmed by significant changes in the viscosity and electrical conductivity of a Ba–Ge alloy with eutectic composition at this temperature. A phenomenological model based on two different approaches, a phase approach and a chemical approach, is proposed to explain the isothermal liquid–liquid phase transition observed in the Ba–Ge system from the Ge side. Our results suggest that this transition is due to the peritectic reactions in the liquid phase. This reversible phase transition results in the formation of precursors of various metastable clathrate phases and is associated with sudden changes in the structure of Ba–Ge liquid alloys. Characteristics of both first- and second-order phase transitions are observed. Charge transfer appears to play an important role in this transition

  1. The Globular State of the Single-Stranded RNA: Effect of the Secondary Structure Rearrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, Zareh A.; Karapetian, Armen T.

    2015-01-01

    The mutual influence of the slow rearrangements of secondary structure and fast collapse of the long single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) in approximation of coarse-grained model is studied with analytic calculations. It is assumed that the characteristic time of the secondary structure rearrangement is much longer than that for the formation of the tertiary structure. A nonequilibrium phase transition of the 2nd order has been observed. PMID:26345143

  2. The Globular State of the Single-Stranded RNA: Effect of the Secondary Structure Rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareh A. Grigoryan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mutual influence of the slow rearrangements of secondary structure and fast collapse of the long single-stranded RNA (ssRNA in approximation of coarse-grained model is studied with analytic calculations. It is assumed that the characteristic time of the secondary structure rearrangement is much longer than that for the formation of the tertiary structure. A nonequilibrium phase transition of the 2nd order has been observed.

  3. Formamidinium iodide: crystal structure and phase transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Petrov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available At a temperature of 100 K, CH5N2+·I− (I, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c. The formamidinium cation adopts a planar symmetrical structure [the r.m.s. deviation is 0.002 Å, and the C—N bond lengths are 1.301 (7 and 1.309 (8 Å]. The iodide anion does not lie within the cation plane, but deviates from it by 0.643 (10 Å. The cation and anion of I form a tight ionic pair by a strong N—H...I hydrogen bond. In the crystal of I, the tight ionic pairs form hydrogen-bonded zigzag-like chains propagating toward [20-1] via strong N—H...I hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen-bonded chains are further packed in stacks along [100]. The thermal behaviour of I was studied by different physicochemical methods (thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and powder diffraction. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed three narrow endothermic peaks at 346, 387 and 525 K, and one broad endothermic peak at ∼605 K. The first and second peaks are related to solid–solid phase transitions, while the third and fourth peaks are attributed to the melting and decomposition of I. The enthalpies of the phase transitions at 346 and 387 K are estimated as 2.60 and 2.75 kJ mol−1, respectively. The X-ray powder diffraction data collected at different temperatures indicate the existence of I as the monoclinic (100–346 K, orthorhombic (346–387 K and cubic (387–525 K polymorphic modifications.

  4. Single-phase and two phase bubbly flow in a T connection: theoretical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervieu, Eric

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to highlight the driving factors of the separation of phases of a bubbly flow in a T junction, and to develop a prediction model. In a first part, the author reports the rigorous formulation of equations averaged on the T volume. He shows that it's not possible to solve globally the problem with these equations. Then, he reports a bibliographical study on the modelling of a bubbly flow, and, based upon this study, highlights intrinsic characteristics of the flow, and explains its dynamic mechanisms. He reports the development of the theoretical model, and describes the experimental installation used to validate it. In the third part, he reports the study of the liquid-gas interaction, and presents the adopted approach: study of the behaviour of an isolated bubble within a single-phase flow. Experimentation is used to check theoretical predictions. Results are used to compute phase separation. The obtained results are again compared with experimental results to validate the global relevance of the model [fr

  5. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of turbulent single-phase and two-phase flow in curved pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, R.C.; Dong, Z.F.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, three-dimensional single-phase and two-phase flows in curved pipes have been investigated numerically. Two different pipe configurations were computed. When the results of the single-phase flow simulation were compared with the experimental data, a fairly good agreement was achieved. A flow-developing process has been suggested in single-phase flow, in which the turbulence is stronger near the outer tube wall than near the inner tube wall. For two-phase flow, the Eulerian multiphase model was used to simulate the phase distribution of a three-dimensional gas-liquid bubble flow in curved pipe. The RNG/κ-ε turbulence model was used to determine the turbulence field. An inlet gas void fraction of 5 percent was simulated. The gas phase effects on the liquid phase flow velocity have been examined by comparing the results of single-phase flow and two-phase flow. The findings show that for the downward flow in the U bend, the gas concentrates at the inner portion of the cross section at φ = π/18 - π/6 in most cases. The results of the phase distribution simulation are compared to experimental observations qualitatively and topologically

  6. Paramagnetism and antiferromagnetic interactions in single-phase Fe-implanted ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Lino Miguel da Costa; Correia, João Guilherme; Van Bael, M J; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André; Araújo, João Pedro

    2013-01-01

    As the intrinsic origin of the high temperature ferromagnetism often observed in wide-gap dilute magnetic semiconductors becomes increasingly debated, there is a growing need for comprehensive studies on the single-phase region of the phase diagram of these materials. Here we report on the magnetic and structural properties of Fe-doped ZnO prepared by ion implantation of ZnO single crystals. A detailed structural characterization shows that the Fe impurities substitute for Zn in ZnO in a wurtzite Zn$_{1−x}$Fe$_{x}$O phase which is coherent with the ZnO host. In addition, the density of beam-induced defects is progressively decreased by thermal annealing up to 900$^{\\circ}$C, from highly disordered after implantation to highly crystalline upon subsequent annealing. Based on a detailed analysis of the magnetometry data, we demonstrate that isolated Fe impurities occupying Zn substitutional sites behave as localized paramagnetic moments down to 2$^{\\circ}$K, irrespective of the Fe concentration and the density...

  7. Single Electron Transistor Platform for Microgravity Proteomics, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II program builds from the successful Phase I efforts to demonstrate that Quantum Logic Devices' nanoelectronic platform for biological detection could...

  8. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies of {sigma} phase in Ni-based single crystal superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Fei [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang Jianxin, E-mail: jianxin@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Pan [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Feng Qiang [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Han Xiaodong; Mao Shengcheng [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2012-09-25

    Graphical abstract: (a) TEM micrograph of {sigma} phase; (b) HRTEM image of {sigma}/{gamma} interface corresponding to the area of the white frame in (a); (c) an enlarged image of area from the white frame in (b). The combination of {sigma}/{gamma} interface appears very well, and a two-atomic-layer step is shown on the {sigma}/{gamma} interface. In addition, {sigma} phase has the orientation relationship of [0 0 1]{sub {gamma}}//[1 1 2{sup Macron }]{sub {sigma}}, (2{sup Macron} 2 0){sub {gamma}}//(1{sup Macron} 1 0){sub {sigma}}, (2{sup Macron }2{sup Macron} 0){sub {gamma}}//(1 1 1){sub {sigma}}; [0 1 1]{sub {gamma}}//[1 1 0]{sub {sigma}}, (1 1{sup Macron} 1){sub {gamma}}//(0 0 1{sup Macron }){sub {sigma}} with the {gamma} phase. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elemental characteristic of {sigma} phase is studied by HAADF techniques and EDS analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interfacial characteristics of {sigma}/{gamma} interface are revealed by HRTEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An atomic structural {sigma}/{gamma} interface with a two-atomic-layer step has been proposed. - Abstract: By means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and high-angle annular dark-field image technique (HAADF), morphological of plate-shaped {sigma} phase and interfacial characteristics between plate-shaped {sigma} phase and {gamma} phase in Ni-based single crystal superalloys have been studied. On the basis of HRTEM observations, an atomic structural interface between {sigma} phase and {gamma} phase with a step has been proposed. {sigma} Phase has the relationship of [0 0 1]{sub {gamma}}//[1 1 2{sup Macron }]{sub {sigma}}, (2{sup Macron} 2 0){sub {gamma}}//(1{sup Macron} 1 0){sub {sigma},} (2{sup Macron }2{sup Macron} 0){sub {gamma}}//(1 1 1){sub {sigma}}; [0 1 1]{sub {gamma}}//[1 1 0]{sub {sigma}}, (1 1{sup Macron} 1){sub {gamma}}//(0 0 1{sup Macron }){sub {sigma}} with the {gamma} phase. The compositional characteristics of the {sigma} phase which

  9. European developments in single phase turbulence for innovative reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, F., E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [NRG, Petten (Netherlands); Rohde, M. [DUT, Delft (Netherlands); and others

    2011-07-01

    Thermal-hydraulics is recognized as a key scientific subject in the development of different innovative nuclear reactor systems. From the thermal-hydraulic point of view, different innovative reactors are mainly characterized by their coolants (gas, water, liquid metals and molten salt). They result in specific behavior of flow and heat transfer, which requires specific models and advanced analysis tools. However, many common thermal-hydraulic issues are identified among various innovative nuclear systems. In Europe, such cross-cutting thermal-hydraulics topics are the motivation for the THINS (Thermal-Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems) project which is sponsored by the European Commission from 2010 to 2014. This paper describes the ongoing developments in an important part of this project devoted to single phase turbulence issues. To this respect, the two main issues have been identified: Non-unity Prandtl number turbulence. In case of liquid metals, molten salts or supercritical fluids, the commonly applied constant turbulent Prandtl number concept is not applicable and robust engineering turbulence models are needed. This paper will report on the progress achieved with respect to the development and validation of turbulence models available in commonly used engineering tools. The paper also reports about the supporting experiments and direct numerical simulations; and, Temperature fluctuations possibly leading to thermal fatigue in innovative reactors. The status is described of a fundamental experiment dealing with the mixing of different density gases in a rectangular channel, an experiment in a more complex geometry of a small mixing plenum using a supercritical fluid, and direct numerical simulations of conjugate heat transfer on temperature fluctuations in liquid metal. (author)

  10. European developments in single phase turbulence for innovative reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofs, F.; Rohde, M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulics is recognized as a key scientific subject in the development of different innovative nuclear reactor systems. From the thermal-hydraulic point of view, different innovative reactors are mainly characterized by their coolants (gas, water, liquid metals and molten salt). They result in specific behavior of flow and heat transfer, which requires specific models and advanced analysis tools. However, many common thermal-hydraulic issues are identified among various innovative nuclear systems. In Europe, such cross-cutting thermal-hydraulics topics are the motivation for the THINS (Thermal-Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems) project which is sponsored by the European Commission from 2010 to 2014. This paper describes the ongoing developments in an important part of this project devoted to single phase turbulence issues. To this respect, the two main issues have been identified: Non-unity Prandtl number turbulence. In case of liquid metals, molten salts or supercritical fluids, the commonly applied constant turbulent Prandtl number concept is not applicable and robust engineering turbulence models are needed. This paper will report on the progress achieved with respect to the development and validation of turbulence models available in commonly used engineering tools. The paper also reports about the supporting experiments and direct numerical simulations; and, Temperature fluctuations possibly leading to thermal fatigue in innovative reactors. The status is described of a fundamental experiment dealing with the mixing of different density gases in a rectangular channel, an experiment in a more complex geometry of a small mixing plenum using a supercritical fluid, and direct numerical simulations of conjugate heat transfer on temperature fluctuations in liquid metal. (author)

  11. Single-crystal neutron diffraction study of ammonium nitrate phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C.S.; Prask, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    The crystal structure of ammonium nitrate phase III has been studied at room temperature by neutron diffraction using a single crystal containing 5% KNO 3 in solid-solution form. The space group is Pnma, with a = 7.6772 (4), b = 5.8208 (4), c = 7.1396 (5) A, Z = 4. The final residual after full-matrix least-squares refinement was R = 0.042 for 348 observed reflections. The ammonium ions are thermally disordered into two orientations, displaced by an angle of approximately 42 0 about an axis parallel to the c axis. (Auth.)

  12. Single Phase Current-Source Active Rectifier for Traction: Control System Design and Practical Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michalik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been motivated by industrial demand for single phase current-source active rectifier dedicated for reconstruction of older types of dc machine locomotives. This paper presents converters control structure design and simulations. The proposed converter control is based on the mathematical model and due to possible interaction with railway signaling and required low switching frequency employs synchronous PWM. The simulation results are verified by experimental tests performed on designed laboratory prototype of power of 7kVA

  13. Rich magnetoelectric phase diagrams of multiferroic single-crystal α -NaFeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Noriki; Ikedo, Yuta; Sato, Hirohiko; Khalyavin, Dmitry D.; Manuel, Pascal; Miyake, Atsushi; Matsuo, Akira; Tokunaga, Masashi; Kindo, Koichi

    2017-07-01

    The magnetic and dielectric properties of the multiferroic triangular lattice magnet compound α -NaFeO2 were studied by magnetization, specific heat, dielectric permittivity, and pyroelectric current measurements and by neutron diffraction experiments using single crystals grown by a hydrothermal synthesis method. This work produced magnetic field (in the monoclinic a b -plane, Ba b, and along the c*-axis, Bc) versus temperature magnetic phase diagrams, including five and six magnetically ordered phases in Ba b and along Bc, respectively. In zero magnetic field, two spin-density-wave orderings with different k vectors—(0 ,q ,1/2 ) in phase I and (qa,qb,qc ) in phase II—appeared at T =9.5 and 8.25 K, respectively. Below T =5 K, a commensurate order with k =(0.5 ,0 ,0.5 ) was stabilized as the ground state in phase III. Both Ba b≥3 T and Bc≥5 T were found to induce ferroelectric phases at the lowest temperature (2 K), with an electric polarization that was not confined to any highly symmetric directions in phases IVa b (3.3 ≤Ba b≤8.5 T), Va b (8.5 ≤Ba b≤13.6 T), IVc (5.0 ≤Bc≤8.5 T), and Vc (8.5 ≤Bc≤13.5 T). In phase VIc, within a narrow temperature region in Bc, the polarization was confined to the a b plane. For each of the ferroelectric phases, the k vector was (qa,qb,qc ), and noncollinear structures were identified, including a general spiral in IVa b an a b cycloid in IVc and Vc, and a proper screw in VIc, along with a triclinic 11' magnetic point group allowing polarization in the general direction. Comparing the polarization direction to the magnetic structures in the ferroelectric phases, we conclude that the extended inverse Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya mechanism expressed by the orthogonal components p1∝ri j×(Si×Sj) and p2∝Si×Sj can explain the polarization directions. Based on calculations incorporating exchange interactions up to fourth-nearest-neighbor (NN) couplings, we infer that competition among antiferromagnetic second NN

  14. Structural defect generation in indium antimonide single crystals during electro-erosion cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravetskij, M.Yu.; Matsas, E.P.; Skorokhod, M.Ya.; Fomin, A.V.; Khromyak, K.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    Using X-ray topography structural defects generating during electro-erosion cutting of InSb single crystals are studied. It is shown that dislocations, are introduced into so cut dislocation-free ingot plates, nucleation centers being located on their surfaces. It is detected that foreign phase inclusions in InSb are efficient sources of dislocations during cutting

  15. RF Breakdown in Normal Conducting Single-cell Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgashev, Valery A; Higo, Toshiyasu; Nantista, Christopher D; Tantawi, Sami G

    2005-01-01

    Operating accelerating gradient in normal conducting accelerating structures is often limited by rf breakdown. The limit depends on multiple parameters, including input rf power, rf circuit, cavity shape and material. Experimental and theoretical study of the effects of these parameters on the breakdown limit in full scale structures is difficult and costly. We use 11.4 GHz single-cell traveling wave and standing wave accelerating structures for experiments and modeling of rf breakdown behavior. These test structures are designed so that the electromagnetic fields in one cell mimic the fields in prototype multicell structures for the X-band linear collider. Fields elsewhere in the test structures are significantly lower than that of the single cell. The setup uses matched mode converters that launch the circular TM01 mode into short test structures. The test structures are connected to the mode launchers with vacuum rf flanges. This setup allows economic testing of different cell geometries, cell materials an...

  16. The gas phase structure of α -pinene, a main biogenic volatile organic compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeman, Elias M.; Avilés Moreno, Juan Ramón; Huet, Thérèse R.

    2017-12-01

    The gas phase structure of the bicyclic atmospheric aerosol precursor α-pinene was investigated employing a combination of quantum chemical calculation and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy coupled to a supersonic jet expansion. The very weak rotational spectra of the parent species and all singly substituted 13C in natural abundance have been identified, from 2 to 20 GHz, and fitted to Watson's Hamiltonian model. The rotational constants were used together with geometrical parameters from density functional theory and ab initio calculations to determine the rs, r0, and rm(1 ) structures of the skeleton, without any structural assumption in the fit concerning the heavy atoms. The double C=C bond was found to belong to a quasiplanar skeleton structure containing 6 carbon atoms. Comparison with solid phase structure is reported. The significant differences of α-pinene in gas phase and other gas phase bicyclic monoterpene structures (β-pinene, nopinone, myrtenal, and bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane) are discussed.

  17. Hierarchical structure of correlation functions for single jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupia, S.; Giovannini, A.; Ugoccioni, R.

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical basis of void scaling function properties of hierarchical structure in rapidity and p T intervals are explored. Their phenomenological consequences are analyzed at single jet level by using Monte Carlo methods in e + e - annihilation. It is found that void scaling function study provides an interesting alternative approach for characterizing single jets of different origin. (orig.)

  18. Hierarchical structure of correlation functions for single jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupia, S. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. di Torino, and INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)); Giovannini, A. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. di Torino, and INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)); Ugoccioni, R. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. di Torino, and INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy))

    1993-08-01

    Theoretical basis of void scaling function properties of hierarchical structure in rapidity and p[sub T] intervals are explored. Their phenomenological consequences are analyzed at single jet level by using Monte Carlo methods in e[sup +]e[sup -] annihilation. It is found that void scaling function study provides an interesting alternative approach for characterizing single jets of different origin. (orig.)

  19. Phase transitions and domain structures in multiferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Eftihia

    2011-12-01

    Thin film ferroelectrics and multiferroics are two important classes of materials interesting both from a scientific and a technological prospective. The volatility of lead and bismuth as well as environmental issues regarding the toxicity of lead are two disadvantages of the most commonly used ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) materials such as Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and SrBi2Ta2O9. Therefore lead-free thin film ferroelectrics are promising substitutes as long as (a) they can be grown on technologically important substrates such as silicon, and (b) their T c and Pr become comparable to that of well established ferroelectrics. On the other hand, the development of functional room temperature ferroelectric ferromagnetic multiferroics could lead to very interesting phenomena such as control of magnetism with electric fields and control of electrical polarization with magnetic fields. This thesis focuses on the understanding of material structure-property relations using nonlinear optical spectroscopy. Nonlinear spectroscopy is an excellent tool for probing the onset of ferroelectricity, and domain dynamics in strained ferroelectrics and multiferroics. Second harmonic generation was used to detect ferroelectricity and the antiferrodistortive phase transition in thin film SrTiO3. Incipient ferroelectric CaTiO3 has been shown to become ferroelectric when strained with a combination of SHG and dielectric measurements. The tensorial nature of the induced nonlinear polarization allows for probing of the BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 polarization contributions in nanoscale BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices. In addition, nonlinear optics was used to demonstrate ferroelectricity in multiferroic EuTiO3. Finally, confocal SHG and Raman microscopy were utilized to visualize polar domains in incipient ferroelectric and ferroelastic CaTiO3.

  20. Study of a new static mixer for two-phase and single-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucrier, Michel

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this work is the study of OptimiX, a new static mixer, which is fully designed using an inverse method taking the final product features as input and based on the physical properties of the fluid to mix. The work began with the construction of an experimental loop which allowed us to qualify the mixer in two-phase and single-phase flow conditions. Next, a chemical method using a new test reaction and a micro-mixing model have been used to further characterise the mixer. This test reaction and the micro-mixing model have been developed by the 'Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique' of Nancy. The mixer OptimiX has proved to be an excellent device for both macro- and micro-mixing. The capability of this mixer to foster rapid reactions was also demonstrated. The well organised flow pattern of OptimiX, which results from its design, provides it with the unusual feature of being fully calculable. This work emphasizes the internal hydrodynamics of this mixer, justifies the universality of the design procedures, which validation is supported by the completed qualification work. (author) [fr

  1. Graphene for Expandable Space Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Graphene's tightly bonded impermeable single atomic layer of carbon offers unrivalled potential for lightweight flexible gas barrier applications. Graphene has been...

  2. Power coordinated control method with frequency support capability for hybrid single/three-phase microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Xiaoping; Chen, Yandong; Zhou, Leming

    2018-01-01

    storage unit (ESU) are added into hybrid single/three-phase microgrid, and a power coordinated control method with frequency support capability is proposed for hybrid single/three-phase microgrid in this study. PEU is connected with three single-phase microgrids to coordinate power exchange among three...... phases and provide frequency support for hybrid microgrid. Meanwhile, a power coordinated control method based on the droop control is proposed for PEU to alleviate three-phase power imbalance and reduce voltage fluctuation of hybrid microgrid. Besides, ESU is injected into the DC-link to buffer......Due to the intermittent output power of distributed generations (DGs) and the variability of loads, voltage fluctuation and three-phase power imbalance easily occur when hybrid single/three-phase microgrid operates in islanded mode. To address these issues, the power exchange unit (PEU) and energy...

  3. Conceptual Design of a Single Phase 33 MVA HTS Transformer with a Tertiary Winding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. W.; Kim, W. S.; Hahn, S. Y.; Hwang, Y. I.; Choi, K. D.

    2006-01-01

    We have proposed a 3 phase, 100 MVA, 154 kV class HTS transformer substituting for a 60 MVA conventional transformer. The power transformer of 154 kV class has a tertiary winding besides primary and secondary windings. So the HTS transformer should have the 3rd superconducting winding. In this paper, we designed conceptually the structure of the superconducting windings of a single phase 33 MVA transformer. The electrical characteristics of the HTS transformer such as % impedance and AC loss vary with the arrangement of the windings and gaps between windings. We analyzed the effects of the winding parameters, evaluated the cost of each design, and proposed a suitable HTS transformer model for future power distribution system.

  4. Phase transitions in trajectories of a superconducting single-electron transistor coupled to a resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genway, Sam; Garrahan, Juan P; Lesanovsky, Igor; Armour, Andrew D

    2012-05-01

    Recent progress in the study of dynamical phase transitions has been made with a large-deviation approach to study trajectories of stochastic jumps using a thermodynamic formalism. We study this method applied to an open quantum system consisting of a superconducting single-electron transistor, near the Josephson quasiparticle resonance, coupled to a resonator. We find that the dynamical behavior shown in rare trajectories can be rich even when the mean dynamical activity is small, and thus the formalism gives insights into the form of fluctuations. The structure of the dynamical phase diagram found from the quantum-jump trajectories of the resonator is studied, and we see that sharp transitions in the dynamical activity may be related to the appearance and disappearance of bistabilities in the state of the resonator as system parameters are changed. We also demonstrate that for a fast resonator, the trajectories of quasiparticles are similar to the resonator trajectories.

  5. Single phase and two phase erosion corrosion in broilers of gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, G.S.; Fountain, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Erosion-corrosion is a phenomenon causing metal wastage in a variety of locations in water and water-steam circuits throughout the power generation industry. Erosion-corrosion can occur in a number of regions of the once-through boiler designs used in the later Magnox and AGR type of gas cooled nuclear reactor. This paper will consider two cases of erosion-corrosion damage (single and two phase) in once through boilers of gas cooled reactors and will describe the solutions that have been developed. The single phase problem is associated with erosion-corrosion damage of mild steel downstream of a boiler inlet flow control orifice. With metal loss rates of up to 1 mm/year at 150 deg. C and pH in the range 9.0-9.4 it was found that 5 μg/kg oxygen was sufficient to reduce erosion-corrosion rates to less than 0.02 mm/year. A combined oxygen-ammonia-hydrazine feedwater regime was developed and validated to eliminate oxygen carryover and hence give protection from stress corrosion in the austenitic section of the AGR once through boiler whilst still providing erosion-corrosion control. Two phase erosion-corrosion tube failures have occurred in the evaporator of the mild steel once through boilers of the later Magnox reactors operating at pressures in the range 35-40 bar. Rig studies have shown that amines dosed in the feedwater can provide a significant reduction in metal loss rates and a tube lifetime assessment technique has been developed to predict potential tube failure profiles in a fully operational boiler. The solutions identified for both problems have been successfully implemented and the experience obtained following implementation including any problems or other benefits arising from the introduction of the new regimes will be presented. Methods for monitoring and evaluating the efficiency of the solutions have been developed and the results from these exercises will also be discussed. Consideration will also be given to the similarities in the metal loss

  6. Single phase and two phase erosion corrosion in broilers of gas-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, G S; Fountain, M J [Operational Engineering Division (Northern Area), Central Electricity Generating Board, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1988-07-01

    Erosion-corrosion is a phenomenon causing metal wastage in a variety of locations in water and water-steam circuits throughout the power generation industry. Erosion-corrosion can occur in a number of regions of the once-through boiler designs used in the later Magnox and AGR type of gas cooled nuclear reactor. This paper will consider two cases of erosion-corrosion damage (single and two phase) in once through boilers of gas cooled reactors and will describe the solutions that have been developed. The single phase problem is associated with erosion-corrosion damage of mild steel downstream of a boiler inlet flow control orifice. With metal loss rates of up to 1 mm/year at 150 deg. C and pH in the range 9.0-9.4 it was found that 5 {mu}g/kg oxygen was sufficient to reduce erosion-corrosion rates to less than 0.02 mm/year. A combined oxygen-ammonia-hydrazine feedwater regime was developed and validated to eliminate oxygen carryover and hence give protection from stress corrosion in the austenitic section of the AGR once through boiler whilst still providing erosion-corrosion control. Two phase erosion-corrosion tube failures have occurred in the evaporator of the mild steel once through boilers of the later Magnox reactors operating at pressures in the range 35-40 bar. Rig studies have shown that amines dosed in the feedwater can provide a significant reduction in metal loss rates and a tube lifetime assessment technique has been developed to predict potential tube failure profiles in a fully operational boiler. The solutions identified for both problems have been successfully implemented and the experience obtained following implementation including any problems or other benefits arising from the introduction of the new regimes will be presented. Methods for monitoring and evaluating the efficiency of the solutions have been developed and the results from these exercises will also be discussed. Consideration will also be given to the similarities in the metal loss

  7. Structure of single-chain single crystals of isotactic polystyrene and their radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Haishan; Cao Jie; Xu Shengyong; Zhang Ze

    1997-01-01

    The structure of the single-chain single crystals of isotactic polystyrene (i-PS) was investigated by electron diffraction (ED) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). The nano-scale single-chain single crystals were found to be very stable to electron irradiation. According to the unit cell of i-PS crystals, the reflection rings in ED pattern and the lattice fringes in HREM images could be indexed, but the lower-index diffractions were not found. It is proposed that the single-chain single crystals are very small, thus secondary electrons may be allowed to escape and radiation damage is highly reduced, and that there are less lower-index lattice planes in the single-chain single crystals to provide sufficient diffraction intensity for recording. HREM images can be achieved at room temperature in the case of single-chain single crystals because of its stability to electron irradiation, therefore, this might be a novel experimental approach to the study of crystal structure of macromolecules

  8. Application of Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) on Single V-Butt Weld Integrity Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohd Kamal Shah Shamsudin; Norhazleena Azaman

    2015-01-01

    Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) utilizes arrays of piezoelectric elements that are embedded in an epoxy base. The benefit of having such kind of array is that beam forming such as steering and focusing the beam front possible. This enables scanning patterns such as linear scan, sectorial scan and depth focusing scan to be performed. Ultrasonic phased array systems can potentially be employed in almost any test where conventional ultrasonic flaw detectors have traditionally been used. Weld inspection and crack detection are the most important applications, and these tests are done across a wide range of industries including aerospace, power generation, petrochemical, metal billet and tubular goods suppliers, pipeline construction and maintenance, structural metals, and general manufacturing. Phased arrays can also be effectively used to profile remaining wall thickness in corrosion survey applications. The benefits of PAUT are simplifying inspection of components of complex geometry, inspection of components with limited access, testing of welds with multiple angles from a single probe and increasing the probability of detection while improving signal-to-noise ratio. This paper compares the result of inspection on several specimens using PAUT as to digital radiography. The specimens are welded plates with single V-butt weld made of carbon steel. Digital radiography is done using blue imaging plate with x-ray source. PAUT is done using Olympus MX2 with 5 MHz probe consisting of 64 elements. The location, size and length of defect is compared. (author)

  9. Single-crystal FCC and DHCP phases in Ce/Pr superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Goff, J.P.; Ward, R.C.C.; Wells, M.R.; McIntyre, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Cerium usually comprises a mixture of polycrystalline FCC and DHCP allotropes. Single-crystal Ce has been stabilised in Ce/Pr superlattices grown using molecular beam epitaxy. It is found that FCC or DHCP phases can be obtained depending on superlattice composition and growth conditions. Low-temperature neutron scattering was performed on Ce/Pr samples using the triple-axis spectrometer D10 at the ILL. Such measurements revealed one sample, [Ce 20 Pr 20 ] 60 , to be a single crystal with a DHCP unit cell; while another, [Ce 30 Pr 10 ] 56 , was a mixture of FCC and DHCP phases. Antiferromagnetic ordering of magnetic moments was observed in the DHCP sample (T N =11.1 K) with a magnetic structure similar to that found in bulk β-Ce. Surprisingly, the magnetic ordering was found to be confined to single Ce blocks. Furthermore, it was found that, at low temperatures, the lattice contraction observed for bulk FCC Ce was suppressed in Ce/Pr superlattices. (orig.)

  10. Power Based Phase-Locked Loop Under Adverse Conditions with Moving Average Filter for Single-Phase System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menxi Xie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High performance synchronization methord is citical for grid connected power converter. For single-phase system, power based phase-locked loop(pPLL uses a multiplier as phase detector(PD. As single-phase grid voltage is distorted, the phase error information contains ac disturbances oscillating at integer multiples of fundamental frequency which lead to detection error. This paper presents a new scheme based on moving average filter(MAF applied in-loop of pPLL. The signal characteristic of phase error is dissussed in detail. A predictive rule is adopted to compensate the delay induced by MAF, thus achieving fast dynamic response. In the case of frequency deviate from nomimal, estimated frequency is fed back to adjust the filter window length of MAF and buffer size of predictive rule. Simulation and experimental results show that proposed PLL achieves good performance under adverse grid conditions.

  11. Shape Memory Alloy Adaptive Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort will demonstrate and scale up an innovative manufacturing process that yields aerospace grade shape memory alloy (SMA) solids and periodic...

  12. new topology for single-phase, three-level, spwm vsi with lc filter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    level PWM inverter. However, this is not the case with single-phase PWM inverters. In these days, the popular single-phase inverters adopt the full-bridge type using approximate sinusoidal modulation technique. The output voltage in them has two values: zero and pos- itive supply dc voltage levels in the positive half cycle.

  13. Torque Analysis With Saturation Effects for Non-Salient Single-Phase Permanent-Magnet Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Ritchie, Ewen

    2011-01-01

    The effects of saturation on torque production for non-salient, single-phase, permanent-magnet machines are studied in this paper. An analytical torque equation is proposed to predict the instantaneous torque with saturation effects. Compared to the existing methods, it is computationally faster......-element results, and experimental results obtained on a prototype single-phase permanent-magnet machine....

  14. Large conditional single-photon cross-phase modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mahdi; Duan, Yiheng; Vuletić, Vladan

    2016-01-01

    Deterministic optical quantum logic requires a nonlinear quantum process that alters the phase of a quantum optical state by π through interaction with only one photon. Here, we demonstrate a large conditional cross-phase modulation between a signal field, stored inside an atomic quantum memory, and a control photon that traverses a high-finesse optical cavity containing the atomic memory. This approach avoids fundamental limitations associated with multimode effects for traveling optical photons. We measure a conditional cross-phase shift of π/6 (and up to π/3 by postselection on photons that remain in the system longer than average) between the retrieved signal and control photons, and confirm deterministic entanglement between the signal and control modes by extracting a positive concurrence. By upgrading to a state-of-the-art cavity, our system can reach a coherent phase shift of π at low loss, enabling deterministic and universal photonic quantum logic. PMID:27519798

  15. the steady-state performance characteristics of single phase transfer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... field (SPTF) machine operating in the asynchronous mode from which the performance charac- teristics could be ... motor from a poly-phase induction motor by discon- necting one of its .... tating magnetic field. The pulsating ...

  16. Structural Changes of PVDF Membranes by Phase Separation Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Semin; Kim, Sung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) and nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS) were simultaneously induced for the preparation of flat PVDF membranes. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was used as a solvent and dibutyl-phthlate (DBP) was used as a diluent for PVDF. When PVDF was melt blended with NMP and DBP, crystallization temperature was lowered for TIPS and unstable region was expanded for NIPS. Ratio of solvent to diluent changed the phase separation mechanism to obtain the various membrane structures. Contact mode of dope solution with nonsolvent determined the dominant phase separation behavior. Since heat transfer rate was greater than mass transfer rate, surface structure was formed by NIPS and inner structure was by TIPS. Quenching temperature of dope solution also affected the phase separation mechanism and phase separation rate to result in the variation of structure

  17. 1.26 Single Frequency Fiber Laser, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of an innovative compact, high power, and extremely reliable 1.26 micron Ho-doped single frequency fiber laser. The proposed...

  18. 1.26 Single Frequency Fiber Laser, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of an innovative compact, high power, and extremely reliable 1.26 micron Ho-doped single frequency fiber laser. The proposed...

  19. Single Molecule Scanning of DNA Radiation Oxidative Damage, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal will develop an assay to map genomic DNA, at the single molecule level and in a nanodevice, for oxidative DNA damage arising from radiation exposure;...

  20. Liquid Phase Deposition of Single-Phase Alpha-Copper-Indium-Diselenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Bailey, S.; Cowen, Jonathan; Lucas, L.; Ernst, Frank; Pirouz, P.

    2004-01-01

    The success of exploratory missions in outer space often depends on a highly efficient renewable energy supply, as provided by solar cells. Since future missions will demand large aggregates of solar cells, and space flight is expensive, the solar cells must furthermore be available at low costs and have a long lifetime and high resistance against structural damage introduced by irradiation with high energy electrons and protons. The photovoltaic materials that are presently available only partly fulfill all these requirements. Therefore, we propose to explore a new method for fabricating thin-films for cost-efficient solar cells with very high specific power,high irradiation resistance and long lifetime based on the alpha-phase of the Cu-In-Se system "alpha-CIS."

  1. Natural circulation in single-phase and two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Natural circulation usually arises in a closed loop between a heat source and a heat sink were the fluid motion is driven by density difference. It may also occur in enclosures or cavities where the flow is induced primarily by temperature or concentration gradients within the fluid. The subject has recently received special attention by the heat transfer and nuclear reactor safety communities because of it importance to the areas of energy extraction, decay, heat removal in nuclear reactors, solar and geothermal heating, and cooling of electronic equipment. Although many new results and physical insights have been gained of the various natural circulation phenomena, a number of critical issues remain unresolved. These include, for example, transition from laminar to turbulent flow, buoyancy-induced turbulent flow modeling, change of flow regimes, flow field visualization, variable property effects, and flow instability. This symposium volume contains papers presented in the Natural Circulation in Single-Phase and Two-Phase Flow session at the 1989 Winter Annual Meeting of ASME, by authors from different countries including the United States, Japan, Canada, and Brazil. The papers deal with experimental and theoretical studies as well as state-of-the-art reviews, covering a broad spectrum of topics in natural circulation including: variable-conductance thermosyphons, microelectronic chip cooling, natural circulation in anisotropic porous media and in cavities, heat transfer in flat plat solar collectors, shutdown heat removal in fast reactors, cooling of light-water and heavy-water reactors. The breadth of papers contained in this volume clearly reflect the importance of the current interest in natural circulation as a means for passive cooling and heating

  2. Structural transformation and multiferroic properties of single-phase Bi{sub 0.89}Tb{sub 0.11}Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Guohua; Tan, Guoqiang, E-mail: tan3114@163.com; Luo, Yangyang; Liu, Wenlong; Ren, Huijun; Xia, Ao

    2014-01-30

    Pure BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) and Tb, Mn co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} (BTFMO) thin films were deposited on SnO{sub 2}: F (FTO)/glass substrates using a chemical solution deposition method. Detailed investigations were made on the influence of (Tb, Mn) co-doping on the structure change and the electric properties of the BFO films. With the co-doping of Tb and Mn, the structural transformation from rhombohedral R3c to triclinic P1 is confirmed through XRD, Rietveld refinement and Raman analysis. XPS analysis clarifies that (Tb, Mn) co-doping avails to decrease oxygen vacancy concentration, showing less Fe{sup 2+} ions in the co-doped BTFMO thin films than that of the pure BFO thin film. Among the co-doped thin films, the BTFM{sub 1}O film shows the highly enhanced ferroelectric properties with a giant remnant polarization value (2P{sub r} = 180.3 μC/cm{sup 2}). The structural transformation, the well-distributed fine grains and the reduction of leakage current favor enhanced ferroelectric property of (Tb, Mn) co-doped BFO films. It is also found that the BTFM{sub 1}O film shows the enhanced ferromagnetism with the saturated magnetization (M{sub s} = 2.5 emu/cm{sup 3}) as a result of the collapse of space modulated spin structure by the structure transformation.

  3. 16 channel WDM regeneration in a single phase-sensitive amplifier through optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Da Ros, Francesco; Lillieholm, Mads

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous phase regeneration of 16-WDM DPSK channels using optical Fourier transformation and a single phase-sensitive amplifier. The BERs of 16-WDM×10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK signals are improved by 0.4-1.3 orders of magnitude...

  4. Analysis and MPPT control of a wind-driven three-phase induction generator feeding single-phase utility grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Arthishri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a three-phase diode bridge rectifier and a single-phase voltage source inverter topology has been proposed for feeding single-phase utility grid employing a three-phase induction generator fed from wind energy. A self-excited induction generator configuration has been chosen for wide speed operation of wind turbine system, which gives the scope for extracting maximum power available in the wind. In addition to maximum power point tracking (MPPT, the generator can be loaded to its rated capacity for feeding single-phase utility grid using a three-phase induction machine, whereas it is not possible with existing configurations because of the absence of power converters. For the proposed system, MPPT algorithm has been devised by continuously monitoring the grid current and a proportional resonant controller has been employed for grid synchronisation of voltage source inverter with single-phase grid. A MATLAB/Simulink model of the proposed system has been developed to ascertain its successful working by predetermining the overall performance characteristics. The present proposal has also been tested with sag, swell and distortion in the grid voltage. The control strategy has been implemented using field programmable gate array (FPGA controller with modularised programming approach. The efficacy of the system has been demonstrated with the results obtained from an experimental set-up in the laboratory.

  5. Electronic structure theory of alloy phase stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchi, P.E.A.; Sluiter, M.

    1992-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the advanced methodology which has been developed and applied to the study of phase stability properties in substitutional alloys. The approach is based on the real space version of the Generalized Perturbation Method within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker multiple scattering formulation of the Coherent Potential Approximation. Temperature effects are taken into account with a generalized meanfield approach, namely the Cluster Variation Method, or with Monte-Carlo simulations. We show that this approach is well suited for studying ground state properties of substitutional alloys, for calculating energies of idealized interfaces and antiphase boundaries, and finally to compute alloy phase diagrams

  6. Circadian phase resetting via single and multiple control targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Bagheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Circadian entrainment is necessary for rhythmic physiological functions to be appropriately timed over the 24-hour day. Disruption of circadian rhythms has been associated with sleep and neuro-behavioral impairments as well as cancer. To date, light is widely accepted to be the most powerful circadian synchronizer, motivating its use as a key control input for phase resetting. Through sensitivity analysis, we identify additional control targets whose individual and simultaneous manipulation (via a model predictive control algorithm out-perform the open-loop light-based phase recovery dynamics by nearly 3-fold. We further demonstrate the robustness of phase resetting by synchronizing short- and long-period mutant phenotypes to the 24-hour environment; the control algorithm is robust in the presence of model mismatch. These studies prove the efficacy and immediate application of model predictive control in experimental studies and medicine. In particular, maintaining proper circadian regulation may significantly decrease the chance of acquiring chronic illness.

  7. Effect of Large Negative Phase of Blast Loading on Structural Response of RC Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zubair Iman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural response of reinforced concrete (RC elements for analysis and design are often obtained using the positive phase of the blast pressure curve disregarding the negative phase assuming insignificant contribution from the negative phase of the loading. Although, some insight on the effect of negative phase of blast pressure based on elastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF analysis was presented before, the influence of negative phase on different types of resistance functions of SDOF models and on realistic finite element analysis has not been explored. In this study, the effects of inclusion of pulse negative phase on structural response of RC elements from SDOF analysis and from more detailed finite element analysis have been investigated. Investigation of SDOF part has been conducted using MATLAB code that utilizes non-linear resistance functions of SDOF model. Detailed numerical investigation using finite element code DIANA was conducted on the significance of the negative phase on structural response. In the FE model, different support stiffness was used to explore the effect of support stiffness on the structural response due to blast negative phase. Results from SDOF and FE analyses present specific situations where the effect of large negative phase was found to be significant on the structural response of RC elements.

  8. Problem of phase transitions in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharff-Goldhaber, G.

    1980-01-01

    Phase transitions between rotational and vibrational nuclei are discussed from the point of view of the variable moment of inertia model. A three-dimensional plot of the ground-state moments of inertia of even-even nuclei vs N and Z is shown. 3 figures

  9. On the structure of phase synchronized chaos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; Laugesen, Jakob L.

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that the transition to chaotic phase synchronization for a periodically driven chaotic oscillator of spiral type involves a dense set of saddle-node bifurcations. However, the way of formation and precise organization of these saddle node bifurcation curves have only recently bee...

  10. Molecular structure of the lecithin ripple phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, AH; Yefimov, S; Mark, AE; Marrink, SJ

    2005-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of lecithin lipid bilayers in water as they are cooled from the liquid crystalline phase show the spontaneous formation of rippled bilayers. The ripple consists of two domains of different length and orientation, connected by a kink. The organization of the lipids in

  11. Theoretical modelling and experimental investigation of single-phase and two-phase flow division at a tee-junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemonnier, H.; Hervieu, E.

    1991-01-01

    Phase separation in a tee-junction is modelled in the particular case of bubbly-flow. The model is based on a two-dimensional approach and hence, uses local equations. The first step consists in modelling the single-phase flow in the tee-junction. The free streamline theory is used to predict the flow of the continuous phase. The two recirculation zones which are presented in this case are predicted by the model. The second step consists in predicting the gas bubble paths as a result of the actions of the single-phase flow. Finally, the trajectories of gas bubbles are used to predict the separation characteristics of the tee-junction. Each step of the modelling procedure has been carefully tested by an in-depth experimental investigation. Excellent quantitative agreement is obtained between experimental results and model predictions. Moreover, the phase separation phenomenon is found to be clearly described by the model. (orig.)

  12. Phase transitions of single polymer chains and of polymer solutions: insights from Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, K; Paul, W; Strauch, T; Rampf, F; Ivanov, V; Luettmer-Strathmann, J

    2008-01-01

    The statistical mechanics of flexible and semiflexible macromolecules is distinct from that of small molecule systems, since the thermodynamic limit can also be approached when the number of (effective) monomers of a single chain (realizable by a polymer solution in the dilute limit) is approaching infinity. One can introduce effective attractive interactions into a simulation model for a single chain such that a swollen coil contracts when the temperature is reduced, until excluded volume interactions are effectively canceled by attractive forces, and the chain conformation becomes almost Gaussian at the theta point. This state corresponds to a tricritical point, as the renormalization group theory shows. Below the theta temperature a fluid globule is predicted (at nonzero concentration then phase separation between dilute and semidilute solutions occurs), while at still lower temperature a transition to a solid phase (crystal or glass) occurs. Monte Carlo simulations have shown, however, that the fluid globule phase may become suppressed, when the range of the effective attractive forces becomes too short, with the result that a direct (ultimately first-order) transition from the swollen coil to the solid occurs. This behavior is analogous to the behavior of colloidal particles with a very short range of attractive forces, where liquid-vapor-type phase separation may be suppressed. Analogous first-order transitions from swollen coils to dense rodlike or toroidal structures occur for semiflexible polymers. Finally, the modifications of the behavior discussed when the polymers are adsorbed at surfaces are also mentioned, and possible relations to wetting behavior of polymer solutions are addressed.

  13. Method of manufacture of single phase ceramic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jitrenda P.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Goretta, Kenneth C.; Chen, Nan

    1995-01-01

    A ceramic superconductor is produced by close control of oxygen partial pressure during sintering of the material. The resulting microstructure of YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x indicates that sintering kinetics are enhanced at reduced p(O.sub.2) and that because of second phase precipitates, grain growth is prevented. The density of specimens sintered at 910.degree. C. increased from 79 to 94% theoretical when p(O.sub.2) was decreased from 0.1 to 0.0001 MPa. The increase in density with decrease in p(O.sub.2) derives from enhanced sintering kinetics, due to increased defect concentration and decreased activation energy of the rate-controlling species undergoing diffusion. Sintering at 910.degree. C resulted in a fine-grain microstructure, with an average grain size of about 4 .mu.m. Post sintering annealing in a region of stability for the desired phase converts the second phases and limits grain growth. The method of pinning grain boundaries by small scale decompositive products and then annealing to convert its product to the desired phase can be used for other complex asides. Such a microstructure results in reduced microcracking, strengths as high as 230 MPa and high critical current density capacity.

  14. Photon Cascade from a Single Crystal Phase Nanowire Quantum Dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouwes Bavinck, Maaike; Jöns, Klaus D; Zieliński, Michal

    2016-01-01

    . We notice that the emission spectra consist often of two peaks close in energy, which we explain with a comprehensive theory showing that the symmetry of the system plays a crucial role for the hole levels forming hybridized orbitals. Our results state that crystal phase quantum dots have promising...

  15. Overview of Hanford Single Shell Tank (SST) Structural Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rast, Richard S.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.

    2013-11-14

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford Single-Shell Tanks. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS. The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford Single-Shell Tanks has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analysis of the remaining Hanford Single-Shell Tanks is scheduled for FY2014. Hanford Single-Shell Tanks are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior surface of

  16. Overview of Hanford Single Shell Tank (SST) Structural Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rast, Richard S.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford Single-Shell Tanks. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS. The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford Single-Shell Tanks has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analysis of the remaining Hanford Single-Shell Tanks is scheduled for FY2014. Hanford Single-Shell Tanks are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior surface of

  17. Neutrino opacities and the pasta phase structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, D.P.; Alloy, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    The diffusion coefficients that are related to the neutrino opacities are calculated in such a way that the formation of nuclear pasta and homogeneous matter at low densities are taken into account. Two methods are developed to build the pasta phase and their differences are outlined. One of them is chosen as part of a complete equation of state used in the calculation of the diffusion coefficients. Our results show that the mean free paths are significantly altered by the presence of nuclear pasta in stellar matter when compared with the results obtained with pure homogeneous matter. These differences in neutrino opacities will have consequences in the calculation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz phase of protoneutron stars. (author)

  18. Film boiling from spheres in single- and two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Theofanous, T.G.; Yuen, W.W.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental data on film boiling heat transfer from single, inductively heated, spheres in single- and two-phase flow (saturated water and steam, respectively) are presented. In the single-phase-flow experiments water velocities ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 m/s; in the two-phase-flow experiments superficial water and steam velocities covered 0.1 to 0.6 m/s and 4 to 10 m/s, respectively. All experiments were run at atmospheric pressure and with sphere temperatures from 900C down to quenching. Limited interpretations of the single-phase- flow data are possible, but the two-phase-flow data are new and unique

  19. Hydrostatic-pressure induced phase transition of phonons in single-walled nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Peng; Meng Qingchao

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect of the hydrostatic pressure on the phonons in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in a magnetic field. We calculate the magnetic moments of the phonons using a functional integral technique, and find that the phonons in SWNTs undergo a pressure-induced phase transition from the paramagnetic phase to the diamagnetic phase under hydrostatic pressure 2 GPa. We explain the mechanism of generating this phase transition.

  20. Ternary systems Sr-{Ni,Cu}-Si: Phase equilibria and crystal structure of ternary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, Navida; Melnychenko-Koblyuk, Nataliya; Grytsiv, Andriy; Rogl, Peter; Giester, Gerald; Wosik, Jaroslaw; Nauer, Gerhard E.

    2010-01-01

    Phase relations were established in the Sr-poor part of the ternary systems Sr-Ni-Si (900 deg. C) and Sr-Cu-Si (800 deg. C) by light optical microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction on as cast and annealed alloys. Two new ternary compounds SrNiSi 3 (BaNiSn 3 -type) and SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type) were found in the Sr-Ni-Si system along with previously reported Sr(Ni x Si 1-x ) 2 (AlB 2 -type). The crystal structure of SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type, x=2.7, a=0.78998(3), c=1.1337(2) nm; space group P4/nbm) was determined from X-ray single crystal counter to be a low symmetry derivative of the cubic, parent NaZn 13 -type. At higher Si-content X-ray Rietveld refinements reveal the formation of a vacant site (□) corresponding to a formula SrNi 5.5 Si 6.5 □ 1.0 . Phase equilibria in the Sr-Cu-Si system are characterized by the compounds SrCu 2-x Si 2+x (ThCr 2 Si 2 -type), Sr(Cu x Si 1-x ) 2 (AlB 2 -type), SrCu 9-x Si 4+x (0≤x≤1.0; CeNi 8.5 Si 4.5 -type) and SrCu 13-x Si x (4≤x≤1.8; NaZn 13 -type). The latter two structure types appear within a continuous solid solution. Neither a type-I nor a type-IX clathrate compound was encountered in the Sr-{Cu,Ni}-Si systems. Structural details are furthermore given for about 14 new ternary compounds from related alloy systems with Ba. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type, x=2.7, a=0.78998(3), c=1.1337(2) nm; space group P4/nbm) was determined from X-ray single crystal counter to be a low symmetry derivative of the cubic, parent NaZn 13 -type and is related to CeNi 8.5 Si 4.5 -type.

  1. Get phases from arsenic anomalous scattering: de novo SAD phasing of two protein structures crystallized in cacodylate buffer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of two proteins, a putative pyrazinamidase/nicotinamidase from the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans (SmPncA and the human caspase-6 (Casp6, were solved by de novo arsenic single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (As-SAD phasing method. Arsenic (As, an uncommonly used element in SAD phasing, was covalently introduced into proteins by cacodylic acid, the buffering agent in the crystallization reservoirs. In SmPncA, the only cysteine was bound to dimethylarsinoyl, which is a pentavalent arsenic group (As (V. This arsenic atom and a protein-bound zinc atom both generated anomalous signals. The predominant contribution, however, was from the As anomalous signals, which were sufficient to phase the SmPncA structure alone. In Casp6, four cysteines were found to bind cacodyl, a trivalent arsenic group (As (III, in the presence of the reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT, and arsenic atoms were the only anomalous scatterers for SAD phasing. Analyses and discussion of these two As-SAD phasing examples and comparison of As with other traditional heavy atoms that generate anomalous signals, together with a few arsenic-based de novo phasing cases reported previously strongly suggest that As is an ideal anomalous scatterer for SAD phasing in protein crystallography.

  2. Fabrication and Characterization of Single Phase α-Alumina Membranes with Tunable Pore Diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tatsuya; Asoh, Hidetaka; Haraguchi, Satoshi; Ono, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Nanoporous and single phase α-alumina membranes with pore diameters tunable over a wide range of approximately 60–350 nm were successfully fabricated by optimizing the conditions for anodizing, subsequent detachment, and heat treatment. The pore diameter increased and the cell diameter shrunk upon crystallization to α-alumina by approximately 20% and 3%, respectively, in accordance with the 23% volume shrinkage resulting from the change in density associated with the transformation from the amorphous state to α-alumina. Nevertheless, flat α-alumina membranes, each with a diameter of 25 mm and a thickness of 50 μm, were obtained without thermal deformation. The α-alumina membranes exhibited high chemical resistance in various concentrated acidic and alkaline solutions as well as when exposed to high temperature steam under pressure. The Young’s modulus and hardness of the single phase α-alumina membranes formed by heat treatment at 1250 °C were notably decreased compared to the corresponding amorphous membranes, presumably because of the nodular crystallite structure of the cell walls and the substantial increase in porosity. Furthermore, when used for filtration, the α-alumina membrane exhibited a level of flux higher than that of the commercial ceramic membrane. PMID:28788005

  3. Fabrication and Characterization of Single Phase α-Alumina Membranes with Tunable Pore Diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Masuda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous and single phase α-alumina membranes with pore diameters tunable over a wide range of approximately 60–350 nm were successfully fabricated by optimizing the conditions for anodizing, subsequent detachment, and heat treatment. The pore diameter increased and the cell diameter shrunk upon crystallization to α-alumina by approximately 20% and 3%, respectively, in accordance with the 23% volume shrinkage resulting from the change in density associated with the transformation from the amorphous state to α-alumina. Nevertheless, flat α-alumina membranes, each with a diameter of 25 mm and a thickness of 50 μm, were obtained without thermal deformation. The α-alumina membranes exhibited high chemical resistance in various concentrated acidic and alkaline solutions as well as when exposed to high temperature steam under pressure. The Young’s modulus and hardness of the single phase α-alumina membranes formed by heat treatment at 1250 °C were notably decreased compared to the corresponding amorphous membranes, presumably because of the nodular crystallite structure of the cell walls and the substantial increase in porosity. Furthermore, when used for filtration, the α-alumina membrane exhibited a level of flux higher than that of the commercial ceramic membrane.

  4. Simplified thermal-hydraulic analysis of single phase natural circulation circuit with two heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Larissa Cunha; Su, Jian, E-mail: larissa@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenhraria Nuclear; Cotta, Renato Machado, E-mail: cotta@mecanica.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (POLI/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2015-07-01

    Single phase natural circulation circuits composed of two convective heat exchangers and connecting tubes are important for the passive heat removal from spent fuel pools (SFP). To keep the structural integrity of the stored spent fuel assemblies, continuously cooling has to be provided in order to avoid increase at the pool temperature and subsequent uncovering of the fuel and enhanced reaction between water and metal releasing hydrogen. Decay heat can achieve considerably high amounts of energy e.g. in the AP1000, considering the emergency fuel assemblies, the maximum heat decay will reach 13 MW in the 15th day (Westinghouse Electric Company, 2010). A highly efficient alternative to do so is by means of natural circulation, which is cost-effective compared to active cooling systems and is inherently safer since presents less associated devices and no external work is required. Many researchers have investigated safety and stability aspects of natural circulation loops (NCL). However, there is a lack of literature concerning the improvement of NCL through a standard unified methodology, especially for natural circulation circuits with two heat exchangers. In the present study, a simplified thermal-hydraulic analysis of single phase natural circulation circuit with two heat exchanges is presented. Relevant dimensionless key groups were proposed to for the design and safety analysis of a scaled NCL for the cooling of spent fuel storage pool with convective cooling and heating. (author)

  5. Lightweight Structures Utilizing CNFs, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AxNano proposes a novel method for producing robust, high-volume, cost-effective carbon fibers in support of next-generation materials for structural composite space...

  6. Expandable Habitat Outfit Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Topic H3.01 captures the need for robust, multipurpose deployable structures with high packing efficiencies for next generation orbital habitats. Multiple launch and...

  7. NONA Cure of Prepreg Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CRG's no-oven, no-autoclave (NONA) cure of OoA or autoclave prepreg materials allows the manufacture of large composite structures without the expensive and...

  8. Nano-Engineered Structural Joints, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A versatile class of high-performance structural joints is proposed where massive interatomic bonds over the large surface areas of nanostructured surfaces...

  9. Analysis of free-surface flows through energy considerations: Single-phase versus two-phase modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, Salvatore; Colagrossi, Andrea; Di Mascio, Andrea; Le Touzé, David

    2016-05-01

    The study of energetic free-surface flows is challenging because of the large range of interface scales involved due to multiple fragmentations and reconnections of the air-water interface with the formation of drops and bubbles. Because of their complexity the investigation of such phenomena through numerical simulation largely increased during recent years. Actually, in the last decades different numerical models have been developed to study these flows, especially in the context of particle methods. In the latter a single-phase approximation is usually adopted to reduce the computational costs and the model complexity. While it is well known that the role of air largely affects the local flow evolution, it is still not clear whether this single-phase approximation is able to predict global flow features like the evolution of the global mechanical energy dissipation. The present work is dedicated to this topic through the study of a selected problem simulated with both single-phase and two-phase models. It is shown that, interestingly, even though flow evolutions are different, energy evolutions can be similar when including or not the presence of air. This is remarkable since, in the problem considered, with the two-phase model about half of the energy is lost in the air phase while in the one-phase model the energy is mainly dissipated by cavity collapses.

  10. Alcohol sensor based on single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefina Yulias, R.; Hatta, A. M.; Sekartedjo, Sekartedjo

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol sensor based on Single-mode -Multimode-Single-mode (SMS) fiber structure is being proposed to sense alcohol concentration in alcohol-water mixtures. This proposed sensor uses refractive index sensing as its sensing principle. Fabricated SMS fiber structure had 40 m of multimode length. With power input -6 dBm and wavelength 1550 nm, the proposed sensor showed good response with sensitivity 1,983 dB per % v/v with measurement range 05 % v/v and measurement span 0,5% v/v.

  11. RF Breakdown in Normal Conducting Single-Cell Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgashev, V.A.; Nantista, C.D.; Tantawi, S.G.; Higashi, Y.; Higo, T.

    2006-01-01

    Operating accelerating gradient in normal conducting accelerating structures is often limited by rf breakdown. The limit depends on multiple parameters, including input rf power, rf circuit, cavity shape and material. Experimental and theoretical study of the effects of these parameters on the breakdown limit in full scale structures is difficult and costly. We use 11.4 GHz single-cell traveling wave and standing wave accelerating structures for experiments and modeling of rf breakdown behavior. These test structures are designed so that the electromagnetic fields in one cell mimic the fields in prototype multicell structures for the X-band linear collider. Fields elsewhere in the test structures are significantly lower than that of the single cell. The setup uses matched mode converters that launch the circular TM 01 mode into short test structures. The test structures are connected to the mode launchers with vacuum rf flanges. This setup allows economic testing of different cell geometries, cell materials and preparation techniques with short turn-around time. Simple 2D geometry of the test structures simplifies modeling of the breakdown currents and their thermal effects

  12. Phase structure of strongly correlated Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscher, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Strongly correlated fermionic many-body systems are ubiquitous in nature. Their theoretical description poses challenging problems which are further complicated when imbalances in, e.g., the particle numbers of the involved species or their masses are introduced. In this thesis, a number of different approaches is developed and applied in order to obtain predictions for physical observables of such systems that mutually support and confirm each other. In a first step, analytically well-founded mean-field analyses are carried through. One- and three-dimensional ultracold Fermi gases with spin and mass imbalance as well as Gross-Neveu and NJL-type relativistic models at finite baryon chemical potential are investigated with respect to their analytic properties in general and the occurrence of spontaneous breaking of translational invariance in particular. Based on these studies, further methods are devised or adapted allowing for investigations also beyond the mean-field approximation. Lattice Monte Carlo simulations with imaginary imbalance parameters are employed to surmount the infamous sign problem and compute the equation of state of the respective unitary Fermi gases. Moreover, in-medium two-body analyses are used to confirm and explain the characteristics of inhomogeneously ordered phases. Finally, functional RG methods are applied to the unitary Fermi gas with spin and mass imbalance. Besides quantitatively competitive predictions for critical temperatures for the superfluid state, strong hints on the stability of inhomogeneous phases with respect to order parameter fluctuations in the regime of large mass imbalance are obtained. Combining the findings from these different theoretical studies suggests the possibility to find such phases in experiments presently in preparation.

  13. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of single-phase Ni ferrite nanoparticles dispersed in SiO2 matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, K.; Traussnig, T.; Letofsky-Papst, I.; Krenn, H.; Brossmann, U.; Wuerschum, R.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles of NiFe 2 O 4 dispersed in SiO 2 (25 wt%) matrix were synthesized by sol-gel method using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), as a precursor for SiO 2 . The sol-gel method for nanocomposites normally provides multi-phase nanoparticles. We investigated by a synopsis of different analysis methods, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and SQUID-magnetometry, how the various chemical phases are transformed to a single-phase spinel structure during the various stages of annealing from 300 to 900 o C. We have developed a full phase diagram of chemical phases as a function of annealing temperature. The average particle size lies in the range 16-27 nm. The chemical phases formed below 900 o C are NiFe, NiO, γ-Fe 2 O 3 , α-Fe 2 O 3 , and NiFe 2 O 4 , respectively. The role of the TEOS prepared SiO 2 matrix is to restrict the particle size in a small range in order to rule out particle size effects. In the mid-infrared, a shift of the vibrational Fe-O bond is observed from 568 to 586 cm -1 for annealing between 500 and 700 o C which indicates an increasing NiFe 2 O 4 phase formation. A systematic study of coercivity field (ranging from 32 to 200 Oe) and saturation magnetic moment (ranging from 12.2 to 32.1 emu/g) for differently annealed samples supports our findings about the evolution of single-phase NiFe 2 O 4 at 900 o C. The opposite trend of saturation magnetic moment and coercivity with respect to annealing temperature clearly separates the different phases of metallic, antiferromagnetic, and finally single-phase spinel NiFe 2 O 4 .

  14. High-quality single crystalline NiO with twin phases grown on sapphire substrate by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Uchida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available High-quality single crystalline twin phase NiO grown on sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy is reported. X-ray rocking curve analysis of NiO films grown at different temperatures indicates a minimum full width at half maximum of the cubic (111 diffraction peak of 0.107° for NiO film grown at as low as 550 °C. Detailed microstructural analysis by Φ scan X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal that the NiO film consists of large single crystalline domains with two different crystallographic orientations which are rotated relative to each other along the [111] axis by 60°. These single crystal domains are divided by the twin phase boundaries.

  15. Single-shot femtosecond-pulsed phase-shifting digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakue, Takashi; Itoh, Seiya; Xia, Peng; Tahara, Tatsuki; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Kubota, Toshihiro; Matoba, Osamu

    2012-08-27

    Parallel phase-shifting digital holography is capable of three-dimensional measurement of a dynamically moving object with a single-shot recording. In this letter, we demonstrated a parallel phase-shifting digital holography using a single femtosecond light pulse whose central wavelength and temporal duration were 800 nm and 96 fs, respectively. As an object, we set spark discharge in atmospheric pressure air induced by applying a high voltage to between two electrodes. The instantaneous change in phase caused by the spark discharge was clearly reconstructed. The reconstructed phase image shows the change of refractive index of air was -3.7 × 10(-4).

  16. Discontinuous structural phase transition of liquid metal and alloys (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Liu, Jiantong

    2004-01-01

    The diameter (d f ) of diffusion fluid cluster before and after phase transition has been calculated in terms of the paper ''Discontinuous structural phase transition of liquid metal and alloy (1)'' Physics Letters. A 326 (2004) 429-435, to verify quantitatively the discontinuity of structural phase transition; the phenomena of thermal contraction and thermal expansion during the phase transition, together with the evolution model of discontinuous structural phase transition are also discussed in this Letter to explore further the nature of structural transition; In addition, based on the viscosity experimental result mentioned in paper [Y. Waseda, The Structure of Non-Crystalline Materials--Liquids and Amorphous Solids, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980], we present an approach to draw an embryo of the liquid-liquid (L-L) phase diagram for binary alloys above liquidus in the paper, expecting to guide metallurgy process so as to improve the properties of alloys. The idea that controls amorphous structure and its properties by means of the L-L phase diagram for alloys and by the rapid cooling technique to form the amorphous alloy has been brought forward in the end

  17. Initial transformer sizing for single-phase residential load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.C.; Hoad, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The purchase of distribution transformers represents a significant capital investment per year for an electric utility. Choosing the correct thermal and economic size transformer can help control this investment. This paper describes a method for determining the correct economic size of distribution transformers using end-use appliance load profiles and the ANSI/IEEE Standard C57.91-1981 thermal model. Although applied only to single family and multifamily residential load in this paper, the method can be extended to other types of load such as commercial or industrial

  18. Evolution of single-particle structure of silicon isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalova, O. V.; Fedorov, N. A.; Klimochkina, A. A.; Markova, M. L.; Spasskaya, T. I.; Tretyakova, T. Yu.

    2018-01-01

    New data on proton and neutron single-particle energies E_{nlj} of Si isotopes with neutron number N from 12 to 28 as well as occupation probabilities N_{nlj} of single-particle states of stable isotopes 28, 30Si near the Fermi energy were obtained by the joint evaluation of the stripping and pick-up reaction data and excited state decay schemes of neighboring nuclei. The evaluated data indicate the following features of single-particle structure evolution: persistence of Z = 14 subshell closure with N increase, the new magicity of the number N = 16, and the conservation of the magic properties of the number N = 20 in Si isotopic chain. The features were described by the dispersive optical model. The calculation also predicts the weakening of N = 28 shell closure and demonstrates evolution of a bubble-like structure of the proton density distributions in neutron-rich Si isotopes.

  19. Evolution of single-particle structure of silicon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bespalova, O.V.; Klimochkina, A.A.; Spasskaya, T.I.; Tretyakova, T.Yu. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fedorov, N.A.; Markova, M.L. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2018-01-15

    New data on proton and neutron single-particle energies E{sub nlj} of Si isotopes with neutron number N from 12 to 28 as well as occupation probabilities N{sub nlj} of single-particle states of stable isotopes {sup 28,30}Si near the Fermi energy were obtained by the joint evaluation of the stripping and pick-up reaction data and excited state decay schemes of neighboring nuclei. The evaluated data indicate the following features of single-particle structure evolution: persistence of Z = 14 subshell closure with N increase, the new magicity of the number N = 16, and the conservation of the magic properties of the number N = 20 in Si isotopic chain. The features were described by the dispersive optical model. The calculation also predicts the weakening of N = 28 shell closure and demonstrates evolution of a bubble-like structure of the proton density distributions in neutron-rich Si isotopes. (orig.)

  20. Structural science using single crystal and pulse neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Yukio; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masashi; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa; Tamura, Itaru; Arai, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Miwako; Ohshima, Ken-ichi; Abe, Hiroshi; Kamiyama, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    The application to single crystal neutron structural analysis is overviewed. Special attention is paid to the pulse neutron method, which will be available soon under J-PARC project in Japan. New proposal and preliminary experiment using Sirius at KENS are described. (author)

  1. Divorce, Single Parenthood and Stepfamilies: Structural Implications of These Transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Gerda L.

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on change in the family structure during divorce as well as stages of single parenthood and the reconstituted family. Special characteristics of these families and tasks to be undertaken to enable the new unit to function are discussed. Suggests family therapy is helpful during the crisis stage. (Author)

  2. Magnetic structure of URhSi single crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokeš, K.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Honda, F.; Sechovský, V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 261, - (2003), s. 131-138 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0739 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : URhSi single crystal * magnetization * neutron diffraction * magnetic structure determination Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.910, year: 2003

  3. Regio-Regular Oligo and Poly(3-hexyl thiophene): Precise Structural Markers from the Vibrational Spectra of Oligomer Single Crystals.

    KAUST Repository

    Brambilla, Luigi

    2014-10-14

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. In this work, we report a comparative analysis of the infrared and Raman spectra of octa(3-hexylthiophene) (3HT)8, trideca(3-hexylthiophene) (3HT)13, and poly(3-hexylthiophene) P3HT recorded in various phases, namely, amorphous, semicrystalline, polycrystalline and single crystal. We have based our analysis on the spectra of the (3HT)8 single crystal (whose structure has been determined by selected area electron diffraction) taken as reference and on the results of DFT calculations and molecular vibrational dynamics. New and precise spectroscopic markers of the molecular structures show the existence of three phases, namely: hairy (phase 1), ordered (phase 2), and disordered/amorphous (phase 3). Conceptually, the identified markers can be used for the molecular structure analysis of other similar systems.

  4. Phase structure rewrite systems in information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbiel, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Operational level automatic indexing requires an efficient means of normalizing natural language phrases. Subject switching requires an efficient means of translating one set of authorized terms to another. A phrase structure rewrite system called a Lexical Dictionary is explained that performs these functions. Background, operational use, other applications and ongoing research are explained.

  5. Low-temperature synthesis of single-phase Co7Sb2O12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, M.S.L.; Escote, M.T.; Santos, C.O.P.; Lisboa-Filho, P.N.; Leite, E.R.; Oliveira, J.B.L.; Gama, L.; Longo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Polycrystalline Co 7 Sb 2 O 12 compounds have been synthesized by a chemical route, which is based on a modified polymeric precursor method. In order to study the physical properties of the samples, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analyses (TG and DSC), infrared spectroscopy (IR), specific surface area (BET), and magnetization measurements were performed on these materials. Characterization through XRD revealed that the samples are single-phase after a heat-treatment at 1100 deg. C for 2 h, while the X-ray patterns of the samples heat-treated at lower temperatures revealed the presence of additional Bragg reflections belonging to the Co 6 Sb 2 O 6 phase. These data were analyzed by means of Rietveld refinement and further analyze showed that Co 7 Sb 2 O 12 displays an inverse spinel crystalline structure. In this structure, the Co 2+ ions occupy the eight tetrahedral positions, and the sixteen octahedral positions are randomly occupied by the Sb 5+ and Co 2+ ions. IR studies disclosed two strong absorption bands, ν 1 and ν 2 , in the expected spectral range for a spinel-type binary oxide with space group Fd3m. Exploratory studies concerning the magnetic properties indicated that this sample presents a spin-glass transition at T f ∼ 64 K

  6. A Single Phase to Three Phase PFC Half-Bridge Converter Using BLDC Drive with SPWM Technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Srinu Duvvada; Manmadha Kumar B

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a buck half-bridge DC-DC converter is used as a single-stage power factor correction (PFC) converter for feeding a voltage source inverter (VSI) based permanent magnet brushless DC motor (BLDC) drive. The front end of this PFC converter is a diode bridge rectifier (DBR) fed from single-phase AC mains. The BLDC is used to drive a compressor load of an air conditioner through a three-phase VSI fed from a controlled DC link voltage. The speed of the compressor is controlled to ach...

  7. A Fuzzy Logic Based Three phase Inverter with Single DC Source for Grid Connected PV System Employing Three Phase Transformer

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, venkatesan; Ramachandran, Rajeswari; N, Deverajan

    2016-01-01

    A fuzzy based three phase inverter with single DC source for grid connected photo voltaic (PV) system employing three phase transformer is presented in this paper. Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) control scheme is effectively used to generate the appropriate switching sequences to the inverter switches. The intend of the fuzzy logic approach is to meet high quality output, fast response and high robustness. Finally Total Harmonics Distortion (THD) generated by the inverter is comp...

  8. Adaptive Hysteresis Band Current Control for Transformerless Single-Phase PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vázquez, Gerardo; Rodriguez, Pedro; Ordoñez, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Current control based on hysteresis algorithms are widely used in different applications, such as motion control, active filtering or active/reactive power delivery control in distributed generation systems. The hysteresis current control provides to the system a fast and robust dynamic response......, and requires a simple implementation in standard digital signal platforms. On the other hand, the main drawback of classical hysteresis current control lies in the fact that the switching frequency is variable, as the hysteresis band is fixed. In this paper a variable band hysteresis control algorithm...... different single-phase PV inverter topologies, by means of simulations performed with PSIM. In addition, the behavior of the thermal losses when using each control structure in such converters has been studied as well....

  9. Solution-phase synthesis of chromium-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Kalinina, Irina V.

    2015-03-01

    The solution phase reactions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with Cr(CO)6 and benzene-Cr(CO)3 can lead to the formation of small chromium clusters. The cluster size can be varied from less than 1 nm to about 4 nm by increasing the reaction time. TEM images suggest that the clusters are deposited predominantly on the exterior walls of the nanotubes. TGA analysis was used to obtain the Cr content and carbon to chromium ratio in the Cr-complexed SWNTs. It is suggested that the carbon nanotube benzenoid structure templates the condensation of chromium atoms and facilitates the loss of carbon monoxide leading to well defined metal clusters.

  10. Solution-phase synthesis of chromium-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Kalinina, Irina V.; Al-Hadeethi, Yas Fadel; Bekyarova, Elena; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Qingxiao; Zhang, Xixiang; Al-Zahrani, Ali; Al-Agel, Faisal Abdulaziz M; Al-Marzouki, Fahad M.; Haddon, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The solution phase reactions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with Cr(CO)6 and benzene-Cr(CO)3 can lead to the formation of small chromium clusters. The cluster size can be varied from less than 1 nm to about 4 nm by increasing the reaction time. TEM images suggest that the clusters are deposited predominantly on the exterior walls of the nanotubes. TGA analysis was used to obtain the Cr content and carbon to chromium ratio in the Cr-complexed SWNTs. It is suggested that the carbon nanotube benzenoid structure templates the condensation of chromium atoms and facilitates the loss of carbon monoxide leading to well defined metal clusters.

  11. Composite Structure Monitoring using Direct Write Sensors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA SBIR Phase II project seeks to develop and demonstrate a suite of sensor products to monitor the health of composite structures. Sensors will be made using...

  12. Structural Integrity Inspection and Visualization System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Based on the successful feasibility demonstration in Phase I, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to continue the development of a novel Structural Integrity...

  13. Higher Strength, Lighter Weight Aluminum Spacecraft Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I program proposes to develop a bulk processing technology for producing ultra fine grain (UFG) aluminum alloy structures. The goal is to demonstrate...

  14. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II effort will continue to develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular...

  15. Structure determination at room temperature and phase transition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. MS received 9 May 2002 ... exhibit a ferroelectric–paraelectric phase transition at ele- ..... The pattern decomposition and peak extraction methods ...

  16. Simulating Nonlinear Dynamics of Deployable Space Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To support NASA's vital interest in developing much larger solar array structures over the next 20 years, MotionPort LLC's Phase I SBIR project will strengthen...

  17. Phase relations, crystal structures and physical properties of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Hiroaki; Fujino, Takeo; Tateno, Jun

    1975-07-01

    Phase relations, crystal structures and physical properties of the compounds for nuclear fuels are presented, including melting point, thermal expansion, diffusion and magnetic and electric properties. Emphasis is on oxides, carbides and nitrides of thorium, uranium and plutonium. (auth.)

  18. A novel single-phase flux-switching permanent magnet linear generator used for free-piston Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ping; Sui, Yi; Tong, Chengde; Bai, Jingang; Yu, Bin; Lin, Fei

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates a novel single-phase flux-switching permanent-magnet (PM) linear machine used for free-piston Stirling engines. The machine topology and operating principle are studied. A flux-switching PM linear machine is designed based on the quasi-sinusoidal speed characteristic of the resonant piston. Considering the performance of back electromotive force and thrust capability, some leading structural parameters, including the air gap length, the PM thickness, the ratio of the outer radius of mover to that of stator, the mover tooth width, the stator tooth width, etc., are optimized by finite element analysis. Compared with conventional three-phase moving-magnet linear machine, the proposed single-phase flux-switching topology shows advantages in less PM use, lighter mover, and higher volume power density.

  19. A High Energy and High Efficiency Spectral Shaping Single Frequency Fiber Laser, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a tunable single frequency high energy fiber laser system for coherent Lidar systems for remote sensing. Current state-of-art...

  20. A High Energy and High Efficiency Spectral Shaping Single Frequency Fiber Laser, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase II project proposes a single frequency high energy fiber laser system for coherent Lidar systems for remote sensing. Current state-of-art...

  1. A Novel Model Predictive Control for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangeneh Bighash, Esmaeil; Sadeghzadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase grid-connected inverters with LCL filter are widely used to connect photovoltaic systems to the utility grid. Among the existing control schemes, predictive control methods are faster and more accurate but also more complicated to implement. Recently, the Model Predictive Control (MPC......) algorithm for single-phase inverter has been presented, where the algorithm implementation is straightforward. In the MPC approach, all switching states are considered in each switching period to achieve the control objectives. However, since the number of switching states in single-phase inverters is small......, the inverter output current has a high Total Harmonic Distortions (THD). In order to reduce this, this paper presents an improved MPC for single-phase grid-connected inverters. In the proposed approach, the switching algorithm is changed and the number of the switching states is increased by means of virtual...

  2. Standard Specification for Sampling Single-Phase Geothermal Liquid or Steam for Purposes of Chemical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the basic requirements for equipment to be used for the collection of uncontaminated and representative samples from single-phase geothermal liquid or steam. Geopressured liquids are included. See Fig 1.

  3. High Power Compact Single-Frequency Volume Bragg Er-Doped Fiber Laser, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this NASA SBIR Phase I proposal is to develop the prototype of a compact single-frequency mode one longitudinal and one transverse mode laser...

  4. POD-Galerkin Model for Incompressible Single-Phase Flow in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi; Yu, Bo; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    Fast prediction modeling via proper orthogonal decomposition method combined with Galerkin projection is applied to incompressible single-phase fluid flow in porous media. Cases for different configurations of porous media, boundary conditions

  5. Single dose pharmacokinetics of fenspiride hydrochloride: phase I clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, B; Catalan, M; Roces, A; Jeanniot, J P; Honorato, J M

    1993-01-01

    The absolute bioavailability of fenspiride has been studied in twelve healthy volunteers. It was administered IV and orally in single doses of 80 mg fenspiride hydrochloride according to a randomised crossover pattern. Following IV administration, the plasma clearance of fenspiride was about 184 ml.min-1, and its apparent volume of distribution was moderately large (215 l). When given orally as a tablet, fenspiride exhibited fairly slow ab- sorption; the maximum plasma concentration (206 ng.ml-1) was achieved 6 h after administration. The absolute bioavailability was almost complete (90%). The tablet had slow release characteristics. The elimination half-life obtained from the plasma data was 14 to 16 h independent of the route of administration.

  6. Traveling wave accelerating structures with a large phase advance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramonov, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    The cells RF parameters for the well known Disk Loaded Waveguide (DLW) are considered in higher pass bands of TM01 wave, providing operating phase advance between 180 o - 1230 o per cell. With an appropriate shape optimization and some additional elements proposed traveling wave structures with such large phase advance overlap the classical first band DLW in RF efficiency. Examples of proposed structures together with RF and dispersion properties are presented.

  7. Reducing Electromagnetic Interference in a Grid Tied Single Phase Power Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    With the growing demand for a reliable electrical grid, backup power supplies and energy management systems are a necessity. Systems such as server...ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE IN A GRID TIED SINGLE PHASE POWER INVERTER by Jason Hassan Valiani September 2016 Thesis Advisor: Giovanna Oriti...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE REDUCING ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE IN A GRID TIED SINGLE PHASE POWER

  8. Shear-induced structural transitions in Newtonian non-Newtonian two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristobal, G.; Rouch, J.; Colin, A.; Panizza, P.

    2000-09-01

    We show the existence under shear flow of steady states in a two-phase region of a brine-surfactant system in which lyotropic dilute lamellar (non-Newtonian) and sponge (Newtonian) phases are coexisting. At high shear rates and low sponge phase-volume fractions, we report on the existence of a dynamic transition corresponding to the formation of a colloidal crystal of multilamellar vesicles (or ``onions'') immersed in the sponge matrix. As the sponge phase-volume fraction increases, this transition exhibits a hysteresis loop leading to a structural bistability of the two-phase flow. Contrary to single phase lamellar systems where it is always 100%, the onion volume fraction can be monitored continuously from 0 to 100 %.

  9. The effect of relativity on stability of Copernicium phases, their electronic structure and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čenčariková, Hana; Legut, Dominik

    2018-05-01

    The phase stability of the various crystalline structures of the super-heavy element Copernicium was determined based on the first-principles calculations with different levels of the relativistic effects. We utilized the Darwin term, mass-velocity, and spin-orbit interaction with the single electron framework of the density functional theory while treating the exchange and correlation effects using local density approximations. It is found that the spin-orbit coupling is the key component to stabilize the body-centered cubic (bcc) structure over the hexagonal closed packed (hcp) structure, which is in accord with Sol. Stat. Comm. 152 (2012) 530, but in contrast to Atta-Fynn and Ray (2015) [11], Gaston et al. (2007) [10], Papaconstantopoulos (2015) [9]. It seems that the main role here is the correct description of the semi-core relativistic 6p1/2 orbitals. The all other investigated structures, i.e. face-centered cubic (fcc) , simple cubic (sc) as well as rhombohedral (rh) structures are higher in energy. The criteria of mechanical stability were investigated based on the calculated elastic constants, identifying the phase instability of fcc and rh structures, but surprisingly confirm the stability of the energetically higher sc structure. In addition, the pressure-induced structural transition between two stable sc and bcc phases has been detected. The ground-state bcc structure exhibits the highest elastic anisotropy from single elements of the Periodic table. At last, we support the experimental findings that Copernicium is a metal.

  10. Searching for Next Single-Phase High-Entropy Alloy Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Alman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable technological interest in high-entropy alloys (HEAs since the initial publications on the topic appeared in 2004. However, only several of the alloys investigated are truly single-phase solid solution compositions. These include the FCC alloys CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeMnNi based on 3d transition metals elements and BCC alloys NbMoTaW, NbMoTaVW, and HfNbTaTiZr based on refractory metals. The search for new single-phase HEAs compositions has been hindered by a lack of an effective scientific strategy for alloy design. This report shows that the chemical interactions and atomic diffusivities predicted from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations which are closely related to primary crystallization during solidification can be used to assist in identifying single phase high-entropy solid solution compositions. Further, combining these simulations with phase diagram calculations via the CALPHAD method and inspection of existing phase diagrams is an effective strategy to accelerate the discovery of new single-phase HEAs. This methodology was used to predict new single-phase HEA compositions. These are FCC alloys comprised of CoFeMnNi, CuNiPdPt and CuNiPdPtRh, and HCP alloys of CoOsReRu.

  11. Coordinated single-phase control scheme for voltage unbalance reduction in low voltage network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullaguram, Deepak; Mishra, Sukumar; Senroy, Nilanjan

    2017-08-13

    Low voltage (LV) distribution systems are typically unbalanced in nature due to unbalanced loading and unsymmetrical line configuration. This situation is further aggravated by single-phase power injections. A coordinated control scheme is proposed for single-phase sources, to reduce voltage unbalance. A consensus-based coordination is achieved using a multi-agent system, where each agent estimates the averaged global voltage and current magnitudes of individual phases in the LV network. These estimated values are used to modify the reference power of individual single-phase sources, to ensure system-wide balanced voltages and proper power sharing among sources connected to the same phase. Further, the high X / R ratio of the filter, used in the inverter of the single-phase source, enables control of reactive power, to minimize voltage unbalance locally. The proposed scheme is validated by simulating a LV distribution network with multiple single-phase sources subjected to various perturbations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Phase space structure of triatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.; Kellman, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    The bifurcation structure is investigated for a Hamiltonian for the three coupled nonlinear vibrations of a highly excited triatomic molecule. The starting point is a quantum Hamiltonian used to fit experimental spectra. This Hamiltonian includes 1:1 Darling endash Dennison resonance coupling between the stretches, and 2:1 Fermi resonance coupling between the stretches and bend. A classical Hamiltonian is obtained using the Heisenberg correspondence principle. Surfaces of section show a pronounced degree of chaos at high energies, with a mixture of chaotic and regular dynamics. The large-scale bifurcation structure is found semianalytically, without recourse to numerical solution of Hamilton close-quote s equations, by taking advantage of the fact that the spectroscopic Hamiltonian has a conserved polyad quantum number, corresponding to an approximate constant of the motion of the molecule. Bifurcation diagrams are analyzed for a number of molecules including H 2 O, D 2 O, NO 2 , ClO 2 , O 3 , and H 2 S. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  13. Gas phase structure of transition metal dihydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demuynck, J.; Schaefer, H.F. III

    1980-01-01

    ESR and infrared spectroscopic measurements on matrix isolated MnH 2 and CrH 2 have recently suggested that these simple molecules may be bent. This result would be the opposite of that found experimentally for the transition metal dihalides MX 2 , known to be linear. Here the geometrical structure of MnH 2 has been investigated by molecular electronic structure theory. A large contracted Gaussian basis set [Mn(14s11p6p/9s8p3d), H(5s1p/3s1p)] was used in conjunction with self-consistent field and configuration interaction methods. These suggest that the 6 A 1 ground state of MnH 2 is linear. Further studies of the 3 A 1 state (one of several low-lying states) of TiH 2 also favor linearity, although this potential energy surface is extremely flat with respect to bending. Thus it appears probable that most MH 2 molecules, like the related MX 2 family, are linear

  14. Reduction of waveform distortion in grid-injection current from single-phase utility interactive PV-inverter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Muhammad Imran; Jusoh, Awang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A reduction scheme for harmonics from utility interactive PV-inverter is proposed. • Single-phase conditioner with 3-phase expandability structure is used. • The single-phase conditioner in 3-phase structure work independently. • The scheme works effectively within overall operation range of the PV-inverter. • Conditioner in the scheme also improves the PV-inverter and plant’s utility factor. - Abstract: As the natural behavior of energy source and design characteristic, the current generated by a grid-interactive PV-inverter may contain harmonics. This distortion component will be carried on from the PV-inverter during injection power into the grid. Excessive harmonics in a grid will lead to a variety of power quality problems. This paper presents a distortion reduction scheme, utilizing a fed forward single-phase, generation-side power conditioner with a structure that can be expanded for use in a three-phase system and can work independently under imbalanced condition. Conditioner is placed in parallel with the photovoltaic plant and it functions to compensate the plant’s output current distortion, so that the total current flow to the grid is sinusoidal. This method also includes the implementation of a simpler control system for the conditioner, which consists of a combination of distortion current extraction, synchronization and a current control system, and realized through a TMS320F28335: a 150 MHz floating point DSP controller. Testing of the conditioner prototype, which was conducted on a real operation of a PV plant, showed that the scheme worked effectively within the overall operation range of the PV plant. This paper also discusses the potential of utility factor improvement of the PV-inverter and plant due to implementation of conditioner in the scheme

  15. Single jet structure in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, F.; Giovannini, A.; Lupia, S.; Ugoccioni, R.

    1993-01-01

    By using JETSET 7.2 as e + e - event generator at different c.m. energies, we studied single jet multiplicity distributions in different rapidity and p T intervals. Good NB behavior is found and related clan structure analysis is performed. Observed differences in the behavior of the 2- and 3-jet samples can be understood in terms of the relative contribution of single quark and gluon jet to the 3-jet sample, which are obtained by selecting event by event in this sample the highest and the lowest energy jet respectively. (orig.)

  16. Neutron scattering studies of pretransitional phenomena in structural phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.M.

    1979-03-01

    Materials exhibiting structural phase transformations are well known to possess pretransitional phenomena. Below the transition temperature, T/sub c/, an order parameter appears and the pretransitional effects are associated with the fluctuations of the order parameter. Neutron scattering techniques have proved invaluable in studying the temporal and spatial dependence of these fluctuations. SrTiO 3 is the prototypical example of a structural phase transformation exhibiting features observable in other transformations such as martensitic and order-disorder. The experimental evolution of the understanding of the phase transformation in SrTiO 3 will be reviewed and the features observed will be shown to typify other systems

  17. Directed self-assembly of liquid crystalline blue-phases into ideal single-crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Jose A.; Li, Xiao; Sadati, Monirosadat; Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Rui; Nealey, Paul F.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2017-06-01

    Chiral nematic liquid crystals are known to form blue phases--liquid states of matter that exhibit ordered cubic arrangements of topological defects. Blue-phase specimens, however, are generally polycrystalline, consisting of randomly oriented domains that limit their performance in applications. A strategy that relies on nano-patterned substrates is presented here for preparation of stable, macroscopic single-crystal blue-phase materials. Different template designs are conceived to exert control over different planes of the blue-phase lattice orientation with respect to the underlying substrate. Experiments are then used to demonstrate that it is indeed possible to create stable single-crystal blue-phase domains with the desired orientation over large regions. These results provide a potential avenue to fully exploit the electro-optical properties of blue phases, which have been hindered by the existence of grain boundaries.

  18. Theoretical description of the properties of magnetization fluctuations in the vicinity of phase transition from paramagnetic phase to ferromagnetic phase with domain structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasilewski, W.

    1983-08-01

    This paper presents a theoretical description of the phase transition from a paramagnetic phase P to the homogeneous and domain structure ferromagnetic phases within the phenomenological theory of phase transitions

  19. Results of single borehole hydraulic testing in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daimaru, Shuji; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Onoe, Hironori; Saegusa, Hiromitsu

    2012-09-01

    This report summarize the results of the single borehole hydraulic tests of 79 sections conducted as part of the Construction phase (Phase 2) in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project. The details of each test (test interval depth, geology, etc.) as well as the interpreted hydraulic parameters and analytical method used are presented in this report. (author)

  20. Multi-scale Modeling of Compressible Single-phase Flow in Porous Media using Molecular Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Saad, Ahmed Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    potential model that accounts for the molecular quadrupole moment of fluids with non-spherical molecules such as CO2. The potential model was used to simulate the thermodynamic equilibrium properties for single-phase and two-phase systems using the canonical

  1. Dynamics Assessment of Grid-Synchronization Algorithms for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yang; Luo, Mingyu; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Several advanced phase-lock-loop (PLL) algorithms have been proposed for single-phase power electronic systems. Among these algorithms, the orthogonal signal generators (OSGs) are widely utilized to generate a set of in-quadrature signals, owing to its benefit of simple digital implementation and...

  2. Comparative Performance Evaluation of Orthogonal-Signal-Generators-Based Single-Phase PLL Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yang; Luo, Mingyu; Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The orthogonal signal generator based phase-locked loops (OSG-PLLs) are among the most popular single-phase PLLs within the areas of power electronics and power systems, mainly because they are often easy to be implement and offer a robust performance against the grid disturbances. The main aim o...

  3. Local structure, composition, and crystallization mechanism of a model two-phase “composite nanoglass”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Soma; Shibata, Tomohiro [CSRRI-IIT, MRCAT, Sector 10, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kelly, S. D. [EXAFS Analysis, Bolingbrook, Illinois 60440 (United States); Balasubramanian, M. [Sector 20 XOR, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Srinivasan, S. G.; Du, Jincheng; Banerjee, Rajarshi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203-5017 (United States); Ayyub, Pushan, E-mail: pushan@tifr.res.in [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2016-02-14

    We report a detailed study of the local composition and structure of a model, bi-phasic nanoglass with nominal stoichiometry Cu{sub 55}Nb{sub 45}. Three dimensional atom probe data suggest a nanoscale-phase-separated glassy structure having well defined Cu-rich and Nb-rich regions with a characteristic length scale of ≈3 nm. However, extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis indicates subtle differences in the local environments of Cu and Nb. While the Cu atoms displayed a strong tendency to cluster and negligible structural order beyond the first coordination shell, the Nb atoms had a larger fraction of unlike neighbors (higher chemical order) and a distinctly better-ordered structural environment (higher topological order). This provides the first experimental indication that metallic glass formation may occur due to frustration arising from the competition between chemical ordering and clustering. These observations are complemented by classical as well as ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our study indicates that these nanoscale phase-separated glasses are quite distinct from the single phase nanoglasses (studied by Gleiter and others) in the following three respects: (i) they contain at least two structurally and compositionally distinct, nanodispersed, glassy phases, (ii) these phases are separated by comparatively sharp inter-phase boundaries, and (iii) thermally induced crystallization occurs via a complex, multi-step mechanism. Such materials, therefore, appear to constitute a new class of disordered systems that may be called a composite nanoglass.

  4. Structural evolution of calcite at high temperatures: Phase V unveiled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Nobuo; Setoguchi, Hayato; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi

    2013-01-01

    The calcite form of calcium carbonate CaCO3 undergoes a reversible phase transition between Rc and Rm at ~1240 K under a CO2 atmosphere of ~0.4 MPa. The joint probability density function obtained from the single-crystal X-ray diffraction data revealed that the oxygen triangles of the CO3 group in the high temperature form (Phase V) do not sit still at specified positions in the space group Rm, but migrate along the undulated circular orbital about carbon. The present study also shows how the room temperature form (Phase I) develops into Phase V through an intermediate form (Phase IV) in the temperature range between ~985 K and ~1240 K. PMID:24084871

  5. Temperature Dependent Surface Structures and Electronic Properties of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, M.-H.; Teague, M. L.; Huang, J.-S.; Tseng, W.-S.; Yeh, N.-C.

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, arising from research of low-cost high performance photovoltaics, have become promising materials not only for solar cells but also for various optoelectronic and spintronic applications. An interesting aspect of the hybrid perovskites is that their material properties, such as the band gap, can be easily tuned by varying the composition, temperature, and the crystalline phases. Additionally, the surface structure is critically important for their optoelectronic applications. It is speculated that different crystalline facets could show different trap densities, thus resulting in microscopically inhomogeneous performance. Here we report direct studies of the surface structures and electronic properties of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS). We found long-range spatially homogeneous tunneling conductance spectra with a well-defined energy gap of (1.55 +/- 0.1) eV at 300 K in the tetragonal phase, suggesting high quality of the single crystals. The energy gap increased to (1.81 +/- 0.1) eV in the orthorhombic phase, below the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition temperature at 150 K. Detailed studies of the temperature evolution in the spatially resolved surface structures and local density of states will be discussed to elucidate how these properties may influence the optoelectronic performance of the hybrid perovskites. We thank the support from NTU in Taiwan and from NSF in the US.

  6. Crustal Viscosity Structure Estimated from Multi-Phase Mixing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinevar, W. J.; Behn, M. D.; Hirth, G.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of lower crustal viscosity are typically constrained by analyses of isostatic rebound, post seismic creep, and laboratory-derived flow laws for crustal rocks and minerals. Here we follow a new approach for calculating the viscosity structure of the lower continental crust. We use Perple_X to calculate mineral assemblages for different crustal compositions. Effective viscosity is then calculated using the rheologic mixing model of Huet et al. (2014) incorporating flow laws for each mineral phase. Calculations are performed along geotherms appropriate for the Basin and Range, Tibetan Plateau, Colorado Plateau, and the San Andreas Fault. To assess the role of crustal composition on viscosity, we examined two compositional gradients extending from an upper crust with ~67 wt% SiO2 to a lower crust that is either: (i) basaltic with ~53 wt% SiO2 (Rudnick and Gao, 2003), or (ii) andesitic with ~64% SiO2 (Hacker et al., 2011). In all cases, the middle continental crust has a viscosity that is 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than that inferred for wet quartz, a common proxy for mid-crustal viscosities. An andesitic lower crust results in viscosities of 1020-1021 Pa-s and 1021-1022 Pa-s for hotter and colder crustal geotherms, respectively. A mafic lower crust predicts viscosities that are an order of magnitude higher for the same geotherm. In all cases, the viscosity calculated from the mixing model decreases less with depth compared to single-phase estimates. Lastly, for anhydrous conditions in which alpha quartz is stable, we find that there is a strong correlation between Vp/Vs and bulk viscosity; in contrast, little to no correlation exists for hydrous conditions.

  7. A combined single-multiphase flow formulation of the premixing phase using the level set method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, M.; Marn, J.

    1999-01-01

    The premixing phase of a steam explosion covers the interaction of the melt jet or droplets with the water prior to any steam explosion occurring. To get a better insight of the hydrodynamic processes during the premixing phase beside hot premixing experiments, where the water evaporation is significant, also cold isothermal premixing experiments are performed. The specialty of isothermal premixing experiments is that three phases are involved: the water, the air and the spheres phase, but only the spheres phase mixes with the other two phases whereas the water and air phases do not mix and remain separated by a free surface. Our idea therefore was to treat the isothermal premixing process with a combined single-multiphase flow model. In this combined model the water and air phase are treated as a single phase with discontinuous phase properties at the water air interface, whereas the spheres are treated as usually with a multiphase flow model, where the spheres represent the dispersed phase and the common water-air phase represents the continuous phase. The common water-air phase was described with the front capturing method based on the level set formulation. In the level set formulation, the boundary of two-fluid interfaces is modeled as the zero set of a smooth signed normal distance function defined on the entire physical domain. The boundary is then updated by solving a nonlinear equation of the Hamilton-Jacobi type on the whole domain. With this single-multiphase flow model the Queos isothermal premixing Q08 has been simulated. A numerical analysis using different treatments of the water-air interface (level set, high-resolution and upwind) has been performed for the incompressible and compressible case and the results were compared to experimental measurements.(author)

  8. Effect of multiple Higgs fields on the phase structure of the SU(2)-Higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtz, Mark; Steele, T. G.; Lewis, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The SU(2)-Higgs model, with a single Higgs field in the fundamental representation and a quartic self-interaction, has a Higgs region and a confinement region which are analytically connected in the parameter space of the theory; these regions thus represent a single phase. The effect of multiple Higgs fields on this phase structure is examined via Monte Carlo lattice simulations. For the case of N≥2 identical Higgs fields, there is no remaining analytic connection between the Higgs and confinement regions, at least when Lagrangian terms that directly couple different Higgs flavors are omitted. An explanation of this result in terms of enhancement from overlapping phase transitions is explored for N=2 by introducing an asymmetry in the hopping parameters of the Higgs fields. It is found that an enhancement of the phase transitions can still occur for a moderate (10%) asymmetry in the resulting hopping parameters.

  9. Single Phase Transformer-less Buck-Boost Inverter with Zero Leakage Current for PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostaan, Ali; Abdelhakim, Ahmed; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single-stage single-phase transformer-less buck-boost inverter is proposed, in which a reduced number of passive components is used. The proposed inverter combines the conventional buck, boost, and buck-boost converters in one converter in order to obtain a sinusoidal output...

  10. Lyapunov-Based Control Scheme for Single-Phase Grid-Connected PV Central Inverters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meza, C.; Biel, D.; Jeltsema, D.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    A Lyapunov-based control scheme for single-phase single-stage grid-connected photovoltaic central inverters is presented. Besides rendering the closed-loop system globally stable, the designed controller is able to deal with the system uncertainty that depends on the solar irradiance. A laboratory

  11. A Direct Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Single-Phase Grid Connected PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EL Aamri, Faicel; Maker, Hattab; Sera, Dezso

    2018-01-01

    in dynamic conditions, especially in low irradiance when the measurement of signals becomes more sensitive to noise. The proposed MPPT is designed for single-phase single-stage grid-connected PV inverters, and is based on estimating the instantaneous PV power and voltage ripples, using second...

  12. Fully tunable 360° microwave photonic phase shifter based on a single semiconductor optical amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Juan; Lloret, Juan; Gasulla, Ivana; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José

    2011-08-29

    A fully tunable microwave photonic phase shifter involving a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is proposed and demonstrated. 360° microwave phase shift has been achieved by tuning the carrier wavelength and the optical input power injected in an SOA while properly profiting from the dispersion feature of a conveniently designed notch filter. It is shown that the optical filter can be advantageously employed to switch between positive and negative microwave phase shifts. Numerical calculations corroborate the experimental results showing an excellent agreement.

  13. Revealing the hidden structural phases of FeRh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinwoong; Ramesh, R.; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2016-11-01

    Ab initio electronic structure calculations reveal that tetragonal distortion has a dramatic effect on the relative stability of the various magnetic structures (C-, A-, G-, A'-AFM, and FM) of FeRh giving rise to a wide range of novel stable/metastable structures and magnetic phase transitions between these states. We predict that the cubic G-AFM structure, which was believed thus far to be the ground state, is metastable and that the tetragonally expanded G-AFM is the stable structure. The low energy barrier separating these states suggests phase coexistence at room temperature. We propose an A'-AFM phase to be the global ground state among all magnetic phases which arises from the strain-induced tuning of the exchange interactions. The results elucidate the underlying mechanism for the recent experimental findings of electric-field control of magnetic phase transition driven via tetragonal strain. The magnetic phase transitions open interesting prospects for exploiting strain engineering for the next-generation memory devices.

  14. Fabrication of single phase 2D homologous perovskite microplates by mechanical exfoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junze; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yingjun; Wang, Haizhen; Lin, Gaoming; Xiong, Xuan; Zhou, Weihang; Luo, Hongmei; Li, Dehui

    2018-04-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) Ruddlesden-Popper type perovskites have attracted intensive interest for their great environmental stability and various potential optoelectronic applications. Fundamental understanding of the photophysical and electronic properties of the 2D perovskites with pure single phase is essential for improving the performance of the optoelectronic devices and designing devices with new architectures. Investigating the optical and electronic properties of these materials with pure single phase is required to obtain pure single phase 2D perovskites. Here, we report on an alternative approach to fabricate (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3) n-1Pb n I3n+1 microplates with pure single n-number perovskite phase for n  >  2 by mechanical exfoliation. Micro-photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy studies reveal that the as-synthesized 2D perovskite plates for n  >  2 are comprised by dominant n-number phase and small inclusions of hybrid perovskite phases with different n values, which is supported by excitation power dependent photoluminescence. By mechanical exfoliation method, 2D perovskite microplates with the thickness of around 20 nm are obtained, which surprisingly have single n-number perovskite phase for n  =  2-5. In addition, we have demonstrated that the exfoliated 2D perovskite microplates can be integrated with other 2D layered materials such as boron nitride, and are able to be transferred to prefabricated electrodes for photodetections. Our studies not only provide a strategy to prepare 2D perovskites with a single n-number perovskite phase allowing us to extract the basic optical and electronic parameters of pure phase perovskites, but also demonstrate the possibility to integrate the 2D perovskites with other 2D layered materials to extend the device’s functionalities.

  15. A single-phase axially-magnetized permanent-magnet oscillating machine for miniature aerospace power sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Sui

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A single-phase axially-magnetized permanent-magnet (PM oscillating machine which can be integrated with a free-piston Stirling engine to generate electric power, is investigated for miniature aerospace power sources. Machine structure, operating principle and detent force characteristic are elaborately studied. With the sinusoidal speed characteristic of the mover considered, the proposed machine is designed by 2D finite-element analysis (FEA, and some main structural parameters such as air gap diameter, dimensions of PMs, pole pitches of both stator and mover, and the pole-pitch combinations, etc., are optimized to improve both the power density and force capability. Compared with the three-phase PM linear machines, the proposed single-phase machine features less PM use, simple control and low controller cost. The power density of the proposed machine is higher than that of the three-phase radially-magnetized PM linear machine, but lower than the three-phase axially-magnetized PM linear machine.

  16. A single-phase axially-magnetized permanent-magnet oscillating machine for miniature aerospace power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yi; Zheng, Ping; Cheng, Luming; Wang, Weinan; Liu, Jiaqi

    2017-05-01

    A single-phase axially-magnetized permanent-magnet (PM) oscillating machine which can be integrated with a free-piston Stirling engine to generate electric power, is investigated for miniature aerospace power sources. Machine structure, operating principle and detent force characteristic are elaborately studied. With the sinusoidal speed characteristic of the mover considered, the proposed machine is designed by 2D finite-element analysis (FEA), and some main structural parameters such as air gap diameter, dimensions of PMs, pole pitches of both stator and mover, and the pole-pitch combinations, etc., are optimized to improve both the power density and force capability. Compared with the three-phase PM linear machines, the proposed single-phase machine features less PM use, simple control and low controller cost. The power density of the proposed machine is higher than that of the three-phase radially-magnetized PM linear machine, but lower than the three-phase axially-magnetized PM linear machine.

  17. LIDAR forest inventory with single-tree, double- and single-phase procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Parker; David L. Evans

    2009-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data at 0.5- to 2-m postings were used with doublesample, stratified inventory procedures involving single-tree attribute relationships in mixed, natural, and planted species stands to yield sampling errors (one-half the confidence interval expressed as a percentage of the mean) ranging from ±2.1 percent to ±11.5...

  18. A single grain approach applied to modelling recrystallization kinetics in a single-phase metal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.P.; Zwaag, van der S.

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive model for the recrystallization kinetics is proposed which incorporates both microstructure and the textural components in the deformed state. The model is based on the single-grain approach proposed previously. The influence of the as-deformed grain orientation, which affects the

  19. Performance Evaluation of Low/Zero Voltage Ride-Through Operations for Single-Stage Single-Phase Photovoltaic Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    With the fast development of distributed power generations, stability and security have attracted extensive attention in the recent years. As a representative of clean energies, Photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed extensively worldwide. This drives grid-connected requirements...... to be continuously updated. In current active grid requirements/codes, PV systems should be more intelligent in the considerations of the grid stability, reliability and fault protection. In this paper, two control strategies (i.e., the single-phase PQ control and power phase-angle control) are evaluated for grid...

  20. Correlation between modulation structure and electronic inhomogeneity on Pb-doped Bi-2212 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, A.; Kashiwaya, S.; Eisaki, H.; Yamaguchi, H.; Oka, K.; Kashiwaya, H.; Tsuchiura, H.; Tanaka, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The correlation between nanometer-size electronic states and surface structure is investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S) on Pb-doped Bi 2-x Pb x Sr 2 CaCu2O 8+y (Pb-Bi-2212) single crystals. The advantage of the Pb-Bi-2212 samples is that the modulation structure can be totally or locally suppressed depending on the Pb contents and annealing conditions. The superconducting gap (Δ) distribution on modulated Pb-Bi-2212 samples showed the lack of correlation with modulation structure except a slight reduction of superconducting island size for the b-axis direction. On the other hand, the optimal doped Pb-Bi-2212 (x = 0.6) samples obtained by reduced-annealing showed totally non-modulated structure in topography, however, the spatial distribution of Δ still showed inhomogeneity of which features were quite similar to those of modulated samples. These results suggest that the modulation structure is not the dominant origin of inhomogeneity although it modifies the streaky Δ structure sub-dominantly. From the gap structure variation around the border of narrow gap and broad gap regions, a trend of the coexistence of two separated phases i.e., superconducting phase and pseudogap like phase, is detected

  1. SINGLE PHASE ANALYTICAL MODELS FOR TERRY TURBINE NOZZLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin; Zou, Ling; O' Brien, James

    2016-11-01

    benchmarked with CFD simulations. The analytical models generally agree well with the experimental data and CFD simulations. The analytical models are suitable for implementation into a reactor system analysis code or severe accident code as part of mechanistic and dynamical models to understand the RCIC behaviors. The cases with two-phase flow at the turbine inlet will be pursued in future work.

  2. X-ray quality increasing system controlled by single-chip microcomputer in single phase fluoroscopy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiaolin; Gu Hongmei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To decrease the amount of radiation that doctor and patient receives by increasing X-ray quality. Methods: Using Single-chip Microcomputer technology, test and modulate AC(Alternating Current) from high voltage generator by IGBT. X-ray tube generates X-rays only at high energy area. Thus the amount of radiation decreases. Results: The tube current decreases remarkably and the amount of radiation that doctor and patient receives decreases effectively. Conclusion: the system can effectively decrease the amount of radiation and is widely applicable to the upgrade of all kinds of single phase X-ray units. (authors)

  3. Phase Structure Of Fuzzy Field Theories And Multi trace Matrix Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekel, J.

    2015-01-01

    We review the interplay of fuzzy field theories and matrix models, with an emphasis on the phase structure of fuzzy scalar field theories. We give a self-contained introduction to these topics and give the details concerning the saddle point approach for the usual single trace and multi trace matrix models. We then review the attempts to explain the phase structure of the fuzzy field theory using a corresponding random matrix ensemble, showing the strength and weaknesses of this approach. We conclude with a list of challenges one needs to overcome and the most interesting open problems one can try to solve. (author)

  4. Designing Multifunctionality into Single Phase and Multiphase Metal-Oxide-Selective Propylene Ammoxidation Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Brazdil

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctionality is the hallmark of most modern commercial heterogeneous catalyst systems in use today, including those used for the selective ammoxidation of propylene to acrylonitrile. It is the quintessential principle underlying commercial catalyst design efforts since petrochemical process development is invariably driven by the need to reduce manufacturing costs. This is in large part achieved through new and improved catalysts that increase selectivity and productivity. In addition, the future feedstocks for chemical processes will be invariably more refractory than those currently in use (e.g., replacing alkenes with alkanes or using CO2, thus requiring a disparate combination of chemical functions in order to effect multiple chemical transformations with the fewest separate process steps. This review summarizes the key chemical phenomena behind achieving the successful integration of multiple functions into a mixed-metal-oxide-selective ammoxidation catalyst. An experiential and functional catalyst design model is presented that consists of one or both of the following components: (1 a mixed-metal-oxide–solid solution where the individual metal components serve separate and necessary functions in the reaction mechanism through their atomic level interaction in the context of a single crystallographic structure; (2 the required elemental components and their catalytic function existing in separate phases, where these phases are able to interact for the purposes of electron and lattice oxygen transfer through the formation of a structurally coherent interface (i.e., epitaxy between the separate crystal structures. Examples are provided from the literature and explained in the context of this catalyst design model. The extension of the model concepts to the design of heterogeneous catalysts in general is also discussed.

  5. Similarity analysis and scaling criteria for LWRs under single-phase and two-phase natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; Kataoka, I.

    1983-03-01

    Scaling criteria for a natural circulation loop under single phase and two-phase flow conditions have been derived. For a single phase case the continuity, integral momentum, and energy equations in one-dimensional area average forms have been used. From this, the geometrical similarity groups, friction number, Richardson number, characteristic time constant ratio, Biot number, and heat source number are obtained. The Biot number involves the heat transfer coefficient which may cause some difficulties in simulating the turbulent flow regime. For a two-phase flow case, the similarity groups obtained from a perturbation analysis based on the one-dimensional drift-flux model have been used. The physical significance of the phase change number, subcooling number, drift-flux number, friction number are discussed and conditions imposed by these groups are evaluated. In the two-phase flow case, the critical heat flux is one of the most important transients which should be simulated in a scale model. The above results are applied to the LOFT facility in case of a natural circulation simulation. Some preliminary conclusions on the feasibility of the facility have been obtained

  6. Similarity analysis and scaling criteria for LWRs under single-phase and two-phase natural circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, M.; Kataoka, I.

    1983-03-01

    Scaling criteria for a natural circulation loop under single phase and two-phase flow conditions have been derived. For a single phase case the continuity, integral momentum, and energy equations in one-dimensional area average forms have been used. From this, the geometrical similarity groups, friction number, Richardson number, characteristic time constant ratio, Biot number, and heat source number are obtained. The Biot number involves the heat transfer coefficient which may cause some difficulties in simulating the turbulent flow regime. For a two-phase flow case, the similarity groups obtained from a perturbation analysis based on the one-dimensional drift-flux model have been used. The physical significance of the phase change number, subcooling number, drift-flux number, friction number are discussed and conditions imposed by these groups are evaluated. In the two-phase flow case, the critical heat flux is one of the most important transients which should be simulated in a scale model. The above results are applied to the LOFT facility in case of a natural circulation simulation. Some preliminary conclusions on the feasibility of the facility have been obtained.

  7. Hybrid Testing of Composite Structures with Single-Axis Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldbjørn, Jacob Paamand; Høgh, Jacob Herold; Stang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Correlation (DIC) is therefore implemented for displacement control of the experimental setup. The hybrid testing setup was verified on a multicomponent structure consisting of a beam loaded in three point bending and a numerical structure of a frame. Furthermore, the stability of the hybrid testing loop......Hybrid testing is a substructuring technique where a structure is emulated by modelling a part of it in a numerical model while testing the remainder experimentally. Previous research in hybrid testing has been performed on multi-component structures e.g. damping fixtures, however in this paper...... a hybrid testing platform is introduced for single-component hybrid testing. In this case, the boundary between the numerical model and experimental setup is defined by multiple Degrees-Of-Freedoms (DOFs) which highly complicate the transferring of response between the two substructures. Digital Image...

  8. Crystal structure and magnetic susceptibility of UOSe single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczorowski, D.; Muenster Univ.; Poettgen, R.; Jeitschko, W.; Gajek, Z.; Zygmunt, A.

    1993-01-01

    The crystal structure and magnetic susceptibility behaviour of UOSe single crystals have been studied. UOSe crystalizes in the tetragonal PbFC1-type structure (space group P4/nmm) with the lattice parameters: a = 390.38(5) pm and c = 698.05(9) pm. It orders antiferromagnetically at T N =100±2 K and exhibits a very strong anisotropy in the susceptibility vs temperature variation. The magnetic and thermodynamic properties of UOSe are successfully interpreted in the framework of a perturbative ab initio crystal field approach. (Author)

  9. Crystal structure and magnetic susceptibility of UOSe single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczorowski, D. (Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. for Low Temperature and Structure Research Muenster Univ. (Germany). Anorganisch-Chemisches Inst.); Poettgen, R.; Jeitschko, W. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Anorganisch-Chemisches Inst.); Gajek, Z.; Zygmunt, A. (Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. for Low Temperature and Structure Research)

    1993-01-01

    The crystal structure and magnetic susceptibility behaviour of UOSe single crystals have been studied. UOSe crystalizes in the tetragonal PbFC1-type structure (space group P4/nmm) with the lattice parameters: a = 390.38(5) pm and c = 698.05(9) pm. It orders antiferromagnetically at T[sub N]=100[+-]2 K and exhibits a very strong anisotropy in the susceptibility vs temperature variation. The magnetic and thermodynamic properties of UOSe are successfully interpreted in the framework of a perturbative ab initio crystal field approach. (Author).

  10. Benchmarking of Grid Fault Modes in Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    Pushed by the booming installations of singlephase photovoltaic (PV) systems, the grid demands regarding the integration of PV systems are expected to be modified. Hence, the future PV systems should become more active with functionalities of Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) and grid support...... phase systems under grid faults. The intent of this paper is to present a benchmarking of grid fault modes that might come in future single-phase PV systems. In order to map future challenges, the relevant synchronization and control strategies are discussed. Some faulty modes are studied experimentally...... and provided at the end of this paper. It is concluded that there are extensive control possibilities in single-phase PV systems under grid faults. The Second Order General Integral based PLL technique might be the most promising candidate for future single-phase PV systems because of its fast adaptive...

  11. Single-step gas phase synthesis of stable iron aluminide nanoparticles with soft magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernieres, Jerome, E-mail: Jerome.vernieres@oist.jp; Benelmekki, Maria; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Diaz, Rosa E. [Nanoparticles by Design Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna Son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Bobo, Jean-François [Centre d’Elaboration de Materiaux et d’Etudes Structurales (CEMES), 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Sowwan, Mukhles, E-mail: Mukhles@oist.jp [Nanoparticles by Design Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna Son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Nanotechnology Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, P.O. Box 51000, East Jerusalem, Palestine (Country Unknown)

    2014-11-01

    Soft magnetic alloys at the nanoscale level have long generated a vivid interest as candidate materials for technological and biomedical purposes. Consequently, controlling the structure of bimetallic nanoparticles in order to optimize their magnetic properties, such as high magnetization and low coercivity, can significantly boost their potential for related applications. However, traditional synthesis methods stumble upon the long standing challenge of developing true nanoalloys with effective control over morphology and stability against oxidation. Herein, we report on a single-step approach to the gas phase synthesis of soft magnetic bimetallic iron aluminide nanoparticles, using a versatile co-sputter inert gas condensation technique. This method allowed for precise morphological control of the particles; they consisted of an alloy iron aluminide crystalline core (DO{sub 3} phase) and an alumina shell, which reduced inter-particle interactions and also prevented further oxidation and segregation of the bimetallic core. Remarkably, the as-deposited alloy nanoparticles show interesting soft magnetic properties, in that they combine a high saturation magnetization (170 emu/g) and low coercivity (less than 20 Oe) at room temperature. Additional functionality is tenable by modifying the surface of the particles with a polymer, to ensure their good colloidal dispersion in aqueous environments.

  12. System and method for single-phase, single-stage grid-interactive inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Li, Hui

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides for the integration of distributed renewable energy sources/storages utilizing a cascaded DC-AC inverter, thereby eliminating the need for a DC-DC converter. The ability to segment the energy sources and energy storages improves the maintenance capability and system reliability of the distributed generation system, as well as achieve wide range reactive power compensation. In the absence of a DC-DC converter, single stage energy conversion can be achieved to enhance energy conversion efficiency.

  13. Growth of NH4Cl Single Crystal from Vapor Phase in Vertical Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigara, Yutaka; Yoshizawa, Masahito; Fujimura, Tadao

    1983-02-01

    A pure and internally stress-free single crystal of NH4Cl was grown successfully from the vapor phase. The crystal measured 1.6 cmφ× 2 cm and had the disordered CsCl structure, which was stable below 184°C. The crystal was grown in an ampoule in a vertical furnace, in which the vapor was efficiently transported both by diffusion and convection. In line with the growth mechanism of a single crystal, the temperature fluctuation (°C/min) on the growth interface was kept smaller than the product of the temperature gradient (°C/cm) and the growth rate (cm/min). The specific heat of the crystal was measured around -31°C (242 K) during cooling and heating cycles by AC calorimetry. The thermal hysteresis (0.4 K) obtained here was smaller than that (0.89 K) of an NH4Cl crystal grown from its aqueous solution with urea added as a habit modifier.

  14. Single-phase and two-phase gas-liquid turbulent mixing between subchannels in a simulated rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadatomi, Michio; Kawahara, Akimaro; Sato, Yoshifusa; Tomino, Takayoshi.

    1996-01-01

    This study is concerned with turbulent mixing which is one of the three mechanisms of cross flows between subchannels in a nuclear fuel rod bundle. The channel used in this experiments was a vertical simulated rod bundle having two subchannels connected through 1 to 3 gaps between two rods and/or rod and channel wall. The number of the gaps was changed to investigate the effect of the number on the turbulent mixing. Turbulent mixing rates of air and water and fluctuations of pressure difference between the subchannels were measured for single-phase and two-phase gas-liquid flows under hydrodynamic equilibrium flow conditions. It has been confirmed that the turbulent mixing rate is affected strongly by the fluctuations especially for liquid phase in two-phase slug or churn flow. (author)

  15. Synthesis and characterization of single-phase Mn-doped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Dutta, S.; Banerjee, A.; Jana, D.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Sarkar, A.

    2009-05-01

    Different samples of Zn 1-xMn xO series have been prepared using conventional solid-state sintering method. We identified up to what extent doping will enable us to synthesize single-phase polycrystalline Mn-doped ZnO sample, which is one of the prerequisites for dilute magnetic semiconductor, and we have analyzed its some other physical aspects. In synthesizing the samples, proportion of Mn varies from 1 to 5 at%. However, the milling time varied (6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h) only for 2 at% Mn-doped samples while for other samples (1, 3, 4 and 5 at% Mn doped) the milling time has been fixed to 96 h. Room-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) data reveal that all of the prepared samples up to 3 at% of Mn doping exhibit wurtzite-type structure, and no segregation of Mn and/or its oxides has been found. The 4 at% Mn-doped samples show a weak peak of ZnMn 2O 4 apart from the other usual peaks of ZnO and the intensity of this impurity peak has been further increased for 5 at% of Mn doping. So beyond 3 at% doping, single-phase behavior is destroyed. Band gap for all the 2 at% Mn-doped samples has been estimated to be between 3.21 and 3.19 eV and the reason for this low band gap values has been explained through the grain boundary trapping model. The room-temperature resistivity measurement shows an increase of resistivity up to 48 h of milling and with further milling it saturates. The defect state of these samples has been investigated using the positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy technique. Here all the relevant lifetime parameters of positron i.e. free annihilation ( τ1) at defect site ( τ2) and average ( τav) increases with milling time.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of single-phase Mn-doped ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Dutta, S.; Banerjee, A.; Jana, D.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Sarkar, A.

    2009-01-01

    Different samples of Zn 1-x Mn x O series have been prepared using conventional solid-state sintering method. We identified up to what extent doping will enable us to synthesize single-phase polycrystalline Mn-doped ZnO sample, which is one of the prerequisites for dilute magnetic semiconductor, and we have analyzed its some other physical aspects. In synthesizing the samples, proportion of Mn varies from 1 to 5 at%. However, the milling time varied (6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h) only for 2 at% Mn-doped samples while for other samples (1, 3, 4 and 5 at% Mn doped) the milling time has been fixed to 96 h. Room-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) data reveal that all of the prepared samples up to 3 at% of Mn doping exhibit wurtzite-type structure, and no segregation of Mn and/or its oxides has been found. The 4 at% Mn-doped samples show a weak peak of ZnMn 2 O 4 apart from the other usual peaks of ZnO and the intensity of this impurity peak has been further increased for 5 at% of Mn doping. So beyond 3 at% doping, single-phase behavior is destroyed. Band gap for all the 2 at% Mn-doped samples has been estimated to be between 3.21 and 3.19 eV and the reason for this low band gap values has been explained through the grain boundary trapping model. The room-temperature resistivity measurement shows an increase of resistivity up to 48 h of milling and with further milling it saturates. The defect state of these samples has been investigated using the positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy technique. Here all the relevant lifetime parameters of positron i.e. free annihilation (τ 1 ) at defect site (τ 2 ) and average (τ av ) increases with milling time.

  17. Cone-beam X-ray phase-contrast tomography for the observation of single cells in whole organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenkel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    X-ray imaging enables the nondestructive investigation of interior structures in otherwise opaque samples. In particular the use of computed tomography (CT) allows for arbitrary virtual slices through the object and 3D information about intricate structures can be obtained. However, when it comes to image very small structures like single cells, the classical CT approach is limited by the weak absorption of soft-tissue. The use of phase information, encoded in measureable intensity images by free-space propagation of coherent X-rays, allows a huge increase in contrast, which enables 3D reconstructions at higher resolutions. In this work the application of propagation-based phase-contrast tomography to lung tissue samples is demonstrated in close to in vivo conditions. Reconstructions of the lung structure of whole mice at down to 5 µm resolution are obtained at a selfbuilt CT setup, which is based on a liquid-metal jet X-ray source. To reach even higher resolutions, synchrotron radiation in combination with suitable holographic phase-retrieval algorithms is employed. Due to optimized cone-beam geometry, field of view and resolution can be varied over a wide range of parameters, so that information on different length scales can be achieved, covering several millimeters field of view down to a 3D resolution of 50 nm. Thus, the sub-cellular 3D imaging of single cells embedded in large pieces of tissue is enabled, which paves the way for future biomedical research.

  18. Criterion for traffic phases in single vehicle data and empirical test of a microscopic three-phase traffic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Hiller, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Based on empirical and numerical microscopic analyses, the physical nature of a qualitatively different behaviour of the wide moving jam phase in comparison with the synchronized flow phase-microscopic traffic flow interruption within the wide moving jam phase-is found. A microscopic criterion for distinguishing the synchronized flow and wide moving jam phases in single vehicle data measured at a single freeway location is presented. Based on this criterion, empirical microscopic classification of different local congested traffic states is performed. Simulations made show that the microscopic criterion and macroscopic spatiotemporal objective criteria lead to the same identification of the synchronized flow and wide moving jam phases in congested traffic. Microscopic models in the context of three-phase traffic theory have been tested based on the microscopic criterion for the phases in congested traffic. It is found that microscopic three-phase traffic models can explain both microscopic and macroscopic empirical congested pattern features. It is obtained that microscopic frequency distributions for vehicle speed difference as well as fundamental diagrams and speed correlation functions can depend on the spatial co-ordinate considerably. It turns out that microscopic optimal velocity (OV) functions and time headway distributions are not necessarily qualitatively different, even if local congested traffic states are qualitatively different. The reason for this is that important spatiotemporal features of congested traffic patterns are lost in these as well as in many other macroscopic and microscopic traffic characteristics, which are widely used as the empirical basis for a test of traffic flow models, specifically, cellular automata traffic flow models

  19. Single particle analysis based on Zernike phase contrast transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danev, Radostin; Nagayama, Kuniaki

    2008-02-01

    We present the first application of Zernike phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy to single-particle 3D reconstruction of a protein, using GroEL chaperonin as the test specimen. We evaluated the performance of the technique by comparing 3D models derived from Zernike phase contrast imaging, with models from conventional underfocus phase contrast imaging. The same resolution, about 12A, was achieved by both imaging methods. The reconstruction based on Zernike phase contrast data required about 30% fewer particles. The advantages and prospects of each technique are discussed.

  20. Single-phase ProtoDUNE, the Prototype of a Single-Phase Liquid Argon TPC for DUNE at the CERN Neutrino Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Cavanna, F; Touramanis, C

    2017-01-01

    ProtoDUNE-SP is the single-phase DUNE Far Detector prototype that is under construction and will be operated at the CERN Neutrino Platform (NP) starting in 2018. It was proposed to the CERN SPSC in June 2015 (SPSC-P-351) and was approved in December 2015 as experiment NP04 (ProtoDUNE). ProtoDUNE-SP, a crucial part of the DUNE effort towards the construction of the first DUNE 10-kt fiducial mass far detector module (17 kt total LAr mass), is a significant experiment in its own right. With a total liquid argon (LAr) mass of 0.77 kt, it represents the largest monolithic single phase LArTPC detector to be built to date. It is housed in an extension to the EHN1 hall in the North Area, where the CERN NP is providing a new dedicated charged-particle test beamline. ProtoDUNE-SP aims to take its first beam data before the LHC long shutdown (LS2) at the end of 2018. ProtoDUNE-SP prototypes the designs of most of the single-phase DUNE far detector module (DUNE-SP) components at a 1:1 scale, with an extrapolation of abo...

  1. A neutron diffraction study on deuterated Rochelle salt structure at - 195degC paraelectric phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Yutaka; Mitani, Shigeshi; Fukui, Susumu; Shibuya, Iwao

    1989-01-01

    Neutron diffraction study on the low temperature paraelectric phase of Rochelle salt was performed using deuterated single crystal specimen. Large anisotropic thermal motions of atoms are found to be prevailing in the lower paraelectric phase. This indicates the disordering of atoms and the analysis by two-site split-atom method showed that a split atom model holds equally well with an ordinary non-split model. By connecting split positions selectively, a disordered paraelectric structure, which is composed of half-occupied units, was obtained. These units can be regarded as ones in the ferroelectric phase according to a deduction from an order-disorder phase transition scheme. A possibility of existence of the 'local disorder' of O(5)-H group in the tartrate molecule was examined by Fourier method and a result proved to be negative. Present disordered model gives better understanding to the phase transition scheme of Rochelle salt than the local disorder model case. (author)

  2. Symmetries of nonrelativistic phase space and the structure of quark-lepton generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenczykowski, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    According to the Hamiltonian formalism, nonrelativistic phase space may be considered as an arena of physics, with momentum and position treated as independent variables. Invariance of x 2 + p 2 constitutes then a natural generalization of ordinary rotational invariance. We consider Dirac-like linearization of this form, with position and momentum satisfying standard commutation relations. This leads to the identification of a quantum-level structure from which some phase space properties might emerge. Genuine rotations and reflections in phase space are tied to the existence of new quantum numbers, unrelated to ordinary 3D space. Their properties allow their identification with the internal quantum numbers characterising the structure of a single quark-lepton generation in the Standard Model. In particular, the algebraic structure of the Harari-Shupe preon model of fundamental particles is reproduced exactly and without invoking any subparticles. Analysis of the Clifford algebra of nonrelativistic phase space singles out an element which might be associated with the concept of lepton mass. This element is transformed into a corresponding element for a single coloured quark, leading to a generalization of the concept of mass and a different starting point for the discussion of quark unobservability.

  3. Structural phase transition and electronic properties in samarium chalcogenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, Y. S., E-mail: yspanwar2011@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. New Science College Dewas-455001 (India); Aynyas, Mahendra [Department of Physics, C.S.A. Govt. P.G. College, Sehore, 466001 (India); Pataiya, J.; Sanyal, Sankar P. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, 462026 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The electronic structure and high pressure properties of samarium monochalcogenides SmS, SmSe and SmTe have been reported by using tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA). The total energy as a function of volume is evaluated. It is found that these monochalcogenides are stable in NaCl-type structure under ambient pressure. We predict a structural phase transition from NaCl-type (B{sub 1}-phase) structure to CsCl-type (B{sub 2}-type) structure for these compounds. Phase transition pressures were found to be 1.7, 4.4 and 6.6 GPa, for SmS, SmSe and SmTe respectively. Apart from this, the lattice parameter (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B{sub 0}), band structure (BS) and density of states (DOS) are calculated. From energy band diagram we observed that these compounds exhibit metallic character. The calculated values of equilibrium lattice parameter and phase transition pressure are in general good agreement with available data.

  4. Some new possibilities for the diagnostics of single-phase and two-phase plasma jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldfarb, V M

    1979-02-01

    The literature on three classes of methods for the diagnostics of plasma jets is reviewed. These classes include nonintrusive measurements (spectroscopy, refractometry, scatterometry, and plasma velocimetry) intrusive measurements (electrostatic probes and calorimeters) and measurements of solid-phase properties (pyrometry, particle track records, diffractometry, light attenuation measurements, and laser Doppler velocimeters).

  5. A Simple and Consistent Equation of State for Sodium in the Single Phase and Two Phase Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    An equation of state valid over an extended temperature and density range has been derived. Then, the following properties have been deduced: coefficient of thermal expansion, isothermal coefficient of bulk compressibility, thermal pressure coefficient, heat capacity at constant pressure, at constant volume, along the saturation curve for liquid, for vapor, heat of vaporization, speed of sound, and finally the Mollier diagram and the entropy diagram. All the obtained properties are thermodynamically consistent and satisfy the basic relations of thermodynamics for both single phase and two-phase regions. Experimental results were always used when available

  6. A simple and consistent equation of state for sodium in the single phase and two phase regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    An equation of state valid over an extended temperature and density range has been derived. Then, the following properties have been deduced : coefficient of thermal expansion, isothermal coefficient of bulk compressibility, thermal pressure coefficient, heat capacity at constant pressure, at constant volume, along the saturation curve for liquid, for vapor, heat of vaporization, speed of sound, and finally the Mollier diagram and the entropy diagram. All the obtained properties are thermodynamically consistent and satisfy the basic relations of thermodynamics for both single phase and two-phase regions. Experimental results were always used when available. (auth.)

  7. Notes on qubit phase space and discrete symplectic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livine, Etera R

    2010-01-01

    We start from Wootter's construction of discrete phase spaces and Wigner functions for qubits and more generally for finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. We look at this framework from a non-commutative space perspective and we focus on the Moyal product and the differential calculus on these discrete phase spaces. In particular, the qubit phase space provides the simplest example of a four-point non-commutative phase space. We give an explicit expression of the Moyal bracket as a differential operator. We then compare the quantum dynamics encoded by the Moyal bracket to the classical dynamics: we show that the classical Poisson bracket does not satisfy the Jacobi identity thus leaving the Moyal bracket as the only consistent symplectic structure. We finally generalize our analysis to Hilbert spaces of prime dimensions d and their associated d x d phase spaces.

  8. Hydrogen-induced structural transition in single layer ReS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagmurcukardes, M.; Bacaksiz, C.; Senger, R. T.; Sahin, H.

    2017-09-01

    By performing density functional theory-based calculations, we investigate how structural, electronic and mechanical properties of single layer ReS2 can be tuned upon hydrogenation of its surfaces. It is found that a stable, fully hydrogenated structure can be obtained by formation of strong S-H bonds. The optimized atomic structure of ReS2H2 is considerably different than that of the monolayer ReS2 which has a distorted-1T phase. By performing phonon dispersion calculations, we also predict that the Re2-dimerized 1T structure (called 1T {{}\\text{R{{\\text{e}}2}}} ) of the ReS2H2 is dynamically stable. Unlike the bare ReS2 the 1T {{}\\text{R{{\\text{e}}2}}} -ReS2H2 structure which is formed by breaking the Re4 clusters into separated Re2 dimers, is an indirect-gap semiconductor. Furthermore, mechanical properties of the 1T {{}\\text{R{{\\text{e}}2}}} phase in terms of elastic constants, in-plane stiffness (C) and Poisson ratio (ν) are investigated. It is found that full hydrogenation not only enhances the flexibility of the single layer ReS2 crystal but also increases anisotropy of the elastic constants.

  9. Atomic structure of a decagonal Al-Pd-Mn phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalkovič, Marek; Roth, Johannes; Trebin, Hans-Rainer

    2017-12-01

    We present a detailed structure solution for the 16 -Å decagonal quasicrystal in the Al-Pd-Mn system by means of cluster decoration and ab initio energy minimization. It is based on structure models of the ɛ and other approximant phases. The ɛ phases can be represented as subsets of a hexagon-boat-star (HBS) tiling. The decagonal phase comprises further HBS tiles. We have constructed several fictitious HBS approximants and optimized their structures individually. All tiles are decorated by two types of atomic clusters: the pseudo-Mackay icosahedron (PMI) and the large bicapped pentagonal prism (LBPP). It turns out that, whereas the PMI clusters can be kept essentially unchanged, the LBPP clusters must be adjusted in occupancy with Al atoms depending on their positions in the various tiles. In this way we obtain cluster decorations for all tiles of the decagonal quasicrystal. The calculations were confirmed by evaluation of an effective tile Hamiltonian.

  10. Single Nanostructure Electrochemical Devices for Studying Electronic Properties and Structural Changes in Lithiated Si Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured Si is a promising anode material for the next generation of Li-ion batteries, but few studies have focused on the electrical properties of the Li-Si alloy phase, which are important for determining power capabilities and ensuring sufficient electrical conduction in the electrode structure. Here, we demonstrate an electrochemical device framework suitable for testing the electrical properties of single Si nanowires (NWs) at different lithiation states and correlating these properties with structural changes via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We fi nd that single Si NWs usually exhibit Ohmic I - V response in the lithiated state, with conductivities two to three orders of magnitude higher than in the delithiated state. After a number of sequential lithiation/delithiation cycles, the single NWs show similar conductivity after each lithiation step but show large variations in conductivity in the delithiated state. Finally, devices with groups of NWs in physical contact were fabricated, and structural changes in the NWs were observed after lithiation to investigate how the electrical resistance of NW junctions and the NWs themselves affect the lithiation behavior. The results suggest that electrical resistance of NW junctions can limit lithiation. Overall, this study shows the importance of investigating the electronic properties of individual components of a battery electrode (single nanostructures in this case) along with studying the nature of interactions within a collection of these component structures. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Single Nanostructure Electrochemical Devices for Studying Electronic Properties and Structural Changes in Lithiated Si Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.

    2011-07-19

    Nanostructured Si is a promising anode material for the next generation of Li-ion batteries, but few studies have focused on the electrical properties of the Li-Si alloy phase, which are important for determining power capabilities and ensuring sufficient electrical conduction in the electrode structure. Here, we demonstrate an electrochemical device framework suitable for testing the electrical properties of single Si nanowires (NWs) at different lithiation states and correlating these properties with structural changes via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We fi nd that single Si NWs usually exhibit Ohmic I - V response in the lithiated state, with conductivities two to three orders of magnitude higher than in the delithiated state. After a number of sequential lithiation/delithiation cycles, the single NWs show similar conductivity after each lithiation step but show large variations in conductivity in the delithiated state. Finally, devices with groups of NWs in physical contact were fabricated, and structural changes in the NWs were observed after lithiation to investigate how the electrical resistance of NW junctions and the NWs themselves affect the lithiation behavior. The results suggest that electrical resistance of NW junctions can limit lithiation. Overall, this study shows the importance of investigating the electronic properties of individual components of a battery electrode (single nanostructures in this case) along with studying the nature of interactions within a collection of these component structures. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Synthesis and structural characterization of bulk Sb2Te3 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Rabia; Gahtori, Bhasker; Meena, R. S.; Awana, V. P. S.

    2018-05-01

    We report the growth and characterization of bulk Sb2Te3 single crystal synthesized by the self flux method via solid state reaction route from high temperature melt (850˚C) and slow cooling (2˚C/hour) of constituent elements. The single crystal X-ray diffraction pattern showed the 00l alignment and the high crystalline nature of the resultant sample. The rietveld fitted room temperature powder XRD revealed the phase purity and rhombohedral structure of the synthesized crystal. The formation and analysis of unit cell structure further verified the rhombohedral structure composed of three quintuple layers stacked one over the other. The SEM image showed the layered directional growth of the synthesized crystal carried out using the ZEISS-EVOMA-10 scanning electron microscope The electrical resistivity measurement was carried out using the conventional four-probe method on a quantum design Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS). The temperature dependent electrical resistivity plot for studied Sb2Te3 single crystal depicts metallic behaviour in the absence of any applied magnetic field. The synthesis as well as the structural characterization of as grown Sb2Te3 single crystal is reported and discussed in the present letter.

  13. Structural and phase studies of stainless wire after electroplastic drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, O.A.; Baldokhin, Yu.V.; Kir'yanchev, N.E.; Ryzhkov, V.G.; Kalugin, V.D.; Sokolov, N.V.; Klekovkin, A.A.; Klevtsur, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Structural and phase properties of the 12Kh18N10T steel wire are studied after usual and electroplastic drawing from 0.40 up to 0.11 mm with 18-22% reduction per pass with passing 250 A/mm 2 electric current. The earlier made observation on a sharp decrease in content of deformation-induced martensite of α-phase takes place in the wire from stainless metastable austenitic steel as a result of electroplastic drawing. Distribution of the remained α-phase by the wire cross section is established

  14. Phase structure of the SU(5) Coleman-Weinberg theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, I.I.

    1984-01-01

    The phase structure of the SU(5) Coleman-Weinberg theory in the one-loop approximation is obtained with account of temperature and space-time curvature. We show that the most essential contribution is that from the interaction between 5 and 24 scalar fields which reflects the existence of two strongly different mass scales in the model. A stability boundary of the SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) phase is found. It is shown that the SU(4) x U(1) phase in the Coleman-Weinberg theory is unstable. (orig.)

  15. High pressure structural phase transition of neodymium mono pnictides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagare, Gitanjali; Ojha, P.; Sanyal, S.P.; Aynyas, Mahendra

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated theoretically the high-pressure structural phase transition of two neodymium mono NdX (X=As, Sb) using an interionic potential theory with necessary modification to include the effect of Coulomb screening by the delocalized f electrons of Nd ion. These compounds exhibits first order crystallographic phase transition from their NaCl (B 1 ) phase to body centered tetragonal (BCT) at 27 GPa and 15.3 GPa respectively. We also calculated the Nd-Nd distance as a function of pressure. (author)

  16. Phase structure of lattice QCD for general number of flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Y.; Kanaya, K.; Yoshie, T.; Kaya, S.; Sakai, S.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the phase structure of lattice QCD for the general number of flavors in the parameter space of gauge coupling constant and quark mass, employing the one-plaquette gauge action and the standard Wilson quark action. Performing a series of simulations for the number of flavors N F =6-360 with degenerate-mass quarks, we find that when N F ≥7 there is a line of a bulk first order phase transition between the confined phase and a deconfined phase at a finite current quark mass in the strong coupling region and the intermediate coupling region. The massless quark line exists only in the deconfined phase. Based on these numerical results in the strong coupling limit and in the intermediate coupling region, we propose the following phase structure, depending on the number of flavors whose masses are less than Λ d which is the physical scale characterizing the phase transition in the weak coupling region: When N F ≥17, there is only a trivial IR fixed point and therefore the theory in the continuum limit is free. On the other hand, when 16≥N F ≥7, there is a nontrivial IR fixed point and therefore the theory is nontrivial with anomalous dimensions, however, without quark confinement. Theories which satisfy both quark confinement and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the continuum limit exist only for N F ≤6

  17. Heterophase fluctuation of omega phase and X-ray diffuse scattering from dual phase structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farjami, Susan; Kubo, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Heterophase fluctuation of athermal omega embryos has been analyzed by assuming a dual phase structure of omega embryos composed of omega and bcc matrix phase. The two-dimensional modulation of dual phase was suggested from the quantitative estimation of coherent free energy of omega embryos using microscopic theory of elasticity and the Landau anharmonic theory for phase transformation. The X-ray diffraction theory was developed in connection to the formation of omega embryos having the dual phase structure. The offset of the diffuse peak position from the ideal omega point in the X-ray diffraction pattern is attributed to the dual phase (incommensurate phase) of omega embryos. It was also shown that the ellipsoidal shape of the diffuse intensity tailing toward the fundamental spot of the matrix phase is originated from the equilibrium shape of the omega embryo. The quantitative estimation of elastic energy modulus (EEM) in the disordered bcc matrix and in the ordered bcc matrix indicates a difference in the deviation amount of the minimum point k(q m ) from the ideal omega point k(q ω ) and a difference in the elliptical shape of embryos

  18. Structural formation of aluminide phases on titanium alloy during annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamaeva, A.A.; Romankov, S.E.; Sagdoldina, Zh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The aluminum layer on the surface of titanium alloy has been formed by thermal deposition. The structural formation of aluminide phases on the surface has been studied. The sequence of structural transformations at the Ti/Al interface is limited by the reaction temperature and time. The sequence of aluminide phase formation is occurred in compliance with Ti-Al equilibrium phase diagram. At the initial stages at the Ti/Al interface the Al3Ti alloy starts forming as a result of interdiffusion, and gradually the whole aluminum films is spent on the formation of this layer. The Al3Ti layer decomposes with the increase of temperature (>600C). At 800C the two-phase (Ti3Al+TiAl) layer is formed on the titanium surface. The TiAl compound is unstable and later on with the increase of the exposure time at 800C gradually transforms into the Ti3Al. The chain of these successive transformations leads to the formation of the continuous homogeneous layer consisting of the Ti3Al compound on the surface. At temperatures exceeding the allotropic transformation temperature (>900C) the Ti3Al compound starts decomposing. All structural changes taking place at the Ti/Al interface are accompanied by considerable changes in micro hardness. The structure of initial substrate influences on kinetics of phase transformation and microstructure development. (author)

  19. Phase-and-amplitude recovery from a single phase-contrast image using partially spatially coherent x-ray radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Mario A.; Paganin, David M.; Pelliccia, Daniele

    2018-05-01

    A simple method of phase-and-amplitude extraction is derived that corrects for image blurring induced by partially spatially coherent incident illumination using only a single intensity image as input. The method is based on Fresnel diffraction theory for the case of high Fresnel number, merged with the space-frequency description formalism used to quantify partially coherent fields and assumes the object under study is composed of a single-material. A priori knowledge of the object’s complex refractive index and information obtained by characterizing the spatial coherence of the source is required. The algorithm was applied to propagation-based phase-contrast data measured with a laboratory-based micro-focus x-ray source. The blurring due to the finite spatial extent of the source is embedded within the algorithm as a simple correction term to the so-called Paganin algorithm and is also numerically stable in the presence of noise.

  20. Microstructure and structural phase transitions in iron-based superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhen; Cai Yao; Yang Huai-Xin; Tian Huan-Fang; Wang Zhi-Wei; Ma Chao; Chen Zhen; Li Jian-Qi

    2013-01-01

    Crystal structures and microstructural features, such as structural phase transitions, defect structures, and chemical and structural inhomogeneities, are known to have profound effects on the physical properties of superconducting materials. Recently, many studies on the structural properties of Fe-based high-T c superconductors have been published. This review article will mainly focus on the typical microstructural features in samples that have been well characterized by physical measurements. (i) Certain common structural features are discussed, in particular, the crystal structural features for different superconducting families, the local structural distortions in the Fe 2 Pn 2 (Pn = P As, Sb) or Fe 2 Ch 2 (Ch = S, Se, Te) blocks, and the structural transformations in the 122 system. (ii) In FeTe(Se) (11 family), the superconductivity, chemical and structural inhomogeneities are investigated and discussed in correlation with superconductivity. (iii) In the K 0.8 Fe 1.6+x Se 2 system, we focus on the typical compounds with emphasis on the Fe-vacancy order and phase separations. The microstructural features in other superconducting materials are also briefly discussed. (topical review - iron-based high temperature superconductors)

  1. Applicability of LET to single events in microelectronic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael A.

    1992-12-01

    LET is often used as a single parameter to determine the energy deposited in a microelectronic structure by a single event. The accuracy of this assumption is examined for ranges of ion energies and volumes of silicon appropriate for modern microelectronics. It is shown to be accurate only under very restricted conditions. Significant differences arise because (1) LET is related to energy lost by the ion, not energy deposited in the volume; and (2) LET is an average value and does not account for statistical variations in energy deposition. Criteria are suggested for determining when factors other than LET should be considered, and new analytical approaches are presented to account for them. One implication of these results is that improvements can be made in space upset rate predictions by incorporating the new methods into currently used codes such as CREME and CRUP.

  2. Overview Of Hanford Single Shell Tank (SST) Structural Integrity - 12123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rast, R.S.; Rinker, M.W.; Washenfelder, D.J.; Johnson, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration. Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford SSTs. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford SSTs is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS(reg s ign) The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford SSTs has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analyses of the remaining Hanford SSTs are scheduled for FY2013. Hanford SSTs are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior surface of the concrete tank domes, looking for cracks and

  3. OVERVIEW OF HANFORD SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY - 12123

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAST RS; RINKER MW; WASHENFELDER DJ; JOHNSON JB

    2012-01-25

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration. Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford SSTs. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford SSTs is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS{reg_sign} The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford SSTs has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analyses of the remaining Hanford SSTs are scheduled for FY2013. Hanford SSTs are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior surface of the concrete tank domes, looking for cracks and

  4. Reliability Evaluation of a Single-phase H-bridge Inverter with Integrated Active Power Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Junchaojie; Wang, Haoran; Ma, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    it with the traditional passive DC-link solution. The converter level reliability is obtained by component level electro-thermal stress modeling, lifetime model, Weibull distribution, and Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) method. The results are demonstrated by a 2 kW single-phase inverter application.......Various power decoupling methods have been proposed recently to replace the DC-link Electrolytic Capacitors (E-caps) in single-phase conversion system, in order to extend the lifetime and improve the reliability of the DC-link. However, it is still an open question whether the converter level...... reliability becomes better or not, since additional components are introduced and the loading of the existing components may be changed. This paper aims to study the converter level reliability of a single-phase full-bridge inverter with two kinds of active power decoupling module and to compare...

  5. Guidelines for the formulation of Lagrangian stochastic models for particle simulations of single-phase and dispersed two-phase turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minier, Jean-Pierre; Chibbaro, Sergio; Pope, Stephen B.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we establish a set of criteria which are applied to discuss various formulations under which Lagrangian stochastic models can be found. These models are used for the simulation of fluid particles in single-phase turbulence as well as for the fluid seen by discrete particles in dispersed turbulent two-phase flows. The purpose of the present work is to provide guidelines, useful for experts and non-experts alike, which are shown to be helpful to clarify issues related to the form of Lagrangian stochastic models. A central issue is to put forward reliable requirements which must be met by Lagrangian stochastic models and a new element brought by the present analysis is to address the single- and two-phase flow situations from a unified point of view. For that purpose, we consider first the single-phase flow case and check whether models are fully consistent with the structure of the Reynolds-stress models. In the two-phase flow situation, coming up with clear-cut criteria is more difficult and the present choice is to require that the single-phase situation be well-retrieved in the fluid-limit case, elementary predictive abilities be respected and that some simple statistical features of homogeneous fluid turbulence be correctly reproduced. This analysis does not address the question of the relative predictive capacities of different models but concentrates on their formulation since advantages and disadvantages of different formulations are not always clear. Indeed, hidden in the changes from one structure to another are some possible pitfalls which can lead to flaws in the construction of practical models and to physically unsound numerical calculations. A first interest of the present approach is illustrated by considering some models proposed in the literature and by showing that these criteria help to assess whether these Lagrangian stochastic models can be regarded as acceptable descriptions. A second interest is to indicate how future

  6. Guidelines for the formulation of Lagrangian stochastic models for particle simulations of single-phase and dispersed two-phase turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minier, Jean-Pierre; Chibbaro, Sergio; Pope, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we establish a set of criteria which are applied to discuss various formulations under which Lagrangian stochastic models can be found. These models are used for the simulation of fluid particles in single-phase turbulence as well as for the fluid seen by discrete particles in dispersed turbulent two-phase flows. The purpose of the present work is to provide guidelines, useful for experts and non-experts alike, which are shown to be helpful to clarify issues related to the form of Lagrangian stochastic models. A central issue is to put forward reliable requirements which must be met by Lagrangian stochastic models and a new element brought by the present analysis is to address the single- and two-phase flow situations from a unified point of view. For that purpose, we consider first the single-phase flow case and check whether models are fully consistent with the structure of the Reynolds-stress models. In the two-phase flow situation, coming up with clear-cut criteria is more difficult and the present choice is to require that the single-phase situation be well-retrieved in the fluid-limit case, elementary predictive abilities be respected and that some simple statistical features of homogeneous fluid turbulence be correctly reproduced. This analysis does not address the question of the relative predictive capacities of different models but concentrates on their formulation since advantages and disadvantages of different formulations are not always clear. Indeed, hidden in the changes from one structure to another are some possible pitfalls which can lead to flaws in the construction of practical models and to physically unsound numerical calculations. A first interest of the present approach is illustrated by considering some models proposed in the literature and by showing that these criteria help to assess whether these Lagrangian stochastic models can be regarded as acceptable descriptions. A second interest is to indicate how future

  7. Wake structure of a single vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posa, Antonio; Parker, Colin M.; Leftwich, Megan C.; Balaras, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The wake structure of an isolated Vertical Axis Wind Turbine is studied by both Particle Imaging Velocimetry and Large Eddy Simulation. • The wake structure is investigated for two values of tip speed ratio, TSR_1=1.35 and TSR_2=2.21. • A displacement of the momentum deficit towards the windward side is verified in the wake. • Higher turbulence and coherence is observed on the leeward side of the wake, due to the upwind stall of the blades. • Coherence in the wake core, associated to the downwind stall, decays quickly downstream. - Abstract: The wake structure behind a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) is both measured in a wind tunnel using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and computed with large-eddy simulation (LES). Geometric and dynamic conditions are closely matched to typical applications of VAWTs (Re_D ∼ 1.8 × 10"5). The experiments and computations were highly coordinated with continuous two-way feedback to produce the most insightful results. Good qualitative agreement is seen between the computational and experimental results. The dependence of the wake structure on the tip speed ratio, TSR, is investigated, showing higher asymmetry and larger vortices at the lower rotational speed, due to stronger dynamic stall phenomena. Instantaneous, ensemble-averaged and phase-averaged fields are discussed, as well as the dynamics of coherent structures in the rotor region and downstream wake.

  8. Ab-initio study of pressure evolution of structural, mechanical and magnetic properties of cementite (Fe3C) phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, S.; Ghosh, P. S.; Bhattacharya, C.; Arya, A.

    2018-04-01

    The pressure evolution of phase stability, structural and mechanical properties of Fe3C in ferro-magnetic (FM) and high pressure non magnetic (NM) phase is investigated from first principle calculations. The 2nd order FM to NM phase transition of Fe3C is identified around 60 GPa. Pressure (or density) variation of sound velocities from our ab-initio calculated single crystal elastic constants are determined to predict these parameters at Earth's outer core pressure.

  9. Phase retrieval from a single fringe pattern by using empirical wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Phase retrieval from a single fringe pattern is one of the key tasks in optical metrology. In this paper, we present a new method for phase retrieval from a single fringe pattern based on empirical wavelet transform. In the proposed method, a fringe pattern can be effectively divided into three components: nonuniform background, fringes and random noise, which are described in different sub-pass. So the phase distribution information can be robustly extracted from fringes representing a fundamental frequency component. In simulation and a practical projection fringes test, the performance of the present method is successfully verified by comparing with the conventional wavelet transform method in terms of both image quality and phase estimation errors. (paper)

  10. Algorithms for image recovery calculation in extended single-shot phase-shifting digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Shin-ya; Hirata, Ryo

    2018-04-01

    The single-shot phase-shifting method of image recovery using an inclined reference wave has the advantages of reducing the effects of vibration, being capable of operating in real time, and affording low-cost sensing. In this method, relatively low reference angles compared with that in the conventional method using phase shift between three or four pixels has been required. We propose an extended single-shot phase-shifting technique which uses the multiple-step phase-shifting algorithm and the corresponding multiple pixels which are the same as that of the period of an interference fringe. We have verified the theory underlying this recovery method by means of Fourier spectral analysis and its effectiveness by evaluating the visibility of the image using a high-resolution pattern. Finally, we have demonstrated high-contrast image recovery experimentally using a resolution chart. This method can be used in a variety of applications such as color holographic interferometry.

  11. Single-phase dual-energy CT urography in the evaluation of haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenti, G; Mileto, A; Gaeta, M; Blandino, A; Mazziotti, S; Scribano, E

    2013-02-01

    To assess the value of a single-phase dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) urography protocol with synchronous nephrographic-excretory phase enhancement and to calculate the potential dose reduction by omitting the unenhanced scan. Eighty-four patients referred for haematuria underwent CT urography using a protocol that included single-energy unenhanced and dual-energy contrast-enhanced with synchronous nephrographic-excretory phase scans. DECT-based images [virtual unenhanced (VUE), weighted average, and colour-coded iodine overlay] were reconstructed. Opacification degree by contrast media of the upper urinary tract, and image quality of virtual unenhanced images were independently evaluated using a four-point scale. The diagnostic accuracy in detecting urothelial tumours on DECT-based images was determined. The dose of a theoretical dual-phase single-energy protocol was obtained by multiplying the effective dose of the unenhanced single-energy acquisition by two. Radiation dose saving by omitting the unenhanced scan was calculated. The degree of opacification was scored as optimal or good in 86.9% of cases (k = 0.72); VUE image quality was excellent or good in 83.3% of cases (k = 0.82). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for urothelial tumours detection were 85.7, 98.6, 92.3, and 97.1%. Omission of the unenhanced scan led to a mean dose reduction of 42.7 ± 5%. Single-phase DECT urography with synchronous nephrographic-excretory phase enhancement represents an accurate "all-in-one'' approach with a radiation dose saving up to 45% compared with a standard dual-phase protocol. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  12. Single-phase dual-energy CT urography in the evaluation of haematuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascenti, G.; Mileto, A.; Gaeta, M.; Blandino, A.; Mazziotti, S.; Scribano, E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the value of a single-phase dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) urography protocol with synchronous nephrographic–excretory phase enhancement and to calculate the potential dose reduction by omitting the unenhanced scan. Materials and methods: Eighty-four patients referred for haematuria underwent CT urography using a protocol that included single-energy unenhanced and dual-energy contrast-enhanced with synchronous nephrographic–excretory phase scans. DECT-based images [virtual unenhanced (VUE), weighted average, and colour-coded iodine overlay] were reconstructed. Opacification degree by contrast media of the upper urinary tract, and image quality of virtual unenhanced images were independently evaluated using a four-point scale. The diagnostic accuracy in detecting urothelial tumours on DECT-based images was determined. The dose of a theoretical dual-phase single-energy protocol was obtained by multiplying the effective dose of the unenhanced single-energy acquisition by two. Radiation dose saving by omitting the unenhanced scan was calculated. Results: The degree of opacification was scored as optimal or good in 86.9% of cases (k = 0.72); VUE image quality was excellent or good in 83.3% of cases (k = 0.82). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for urothelial tumours detection were 85.7, 98.6, 92.3, and 97.1%. Omission of the unenhanced scan led to a mean dose reduction of 42.7 ± 5%. Conclusion: Single-phase DECT urography with synchronous nephrographic–excretory phase enhancement represents an accurate “all-in-one’’ approach with a radiation dose saving up to 45% compared with a standard dual-phase protocol.

  13. Single-Walled Carbon-Nanotubes-Based Organic Memory Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundes Fakher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The electrical behaviour of organic memory structures, based on single-walled carbon-nanotubes (SWCNTs, metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS and thin film transistor (TFT structures, using poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA as the gate dielectric, are reported. The drain and source electrodes were fabricated by evaporating 50 nm gold, and the gate electrode was made from 50 nm-evaporated aluminium on a clean glass substrate. Thin films of SWCNTs, embedded within the insulating layer, were used as the floating gate. SWCNTs-based memory devices exhibited clear hysteresis in their electrical characteristics (capacitance–voltage (C–V for MIS structures, as well as output and transfer characteristics for transistors. Both structures were shown to produce reliable and large memory windows by virtue of high capacity and reduced charge leakage. The hysteresis in the output and transfer characteristics, the shifts in the threshold voltage of the transfer characteristics, and the flat-band voltage shift in the MIS structures were attributed to the charging and discharging of the SWCNTs floating gate. Under an appropriate gate bias (1 s pulses, the floating gate is charged and discharged, resulting in significant threshold voltage shifts. Pulses as low as 1 V resulted in clear write and erase states.

  14. Collapsing cycloidal structures in the magnetic phase diagram of erbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jehan, D.A.; McMorrow, D.F.; Simpson, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic structure of Er with a magnetic field applied in the hexagonal basal plane has been studied using a combination of experimental techniques and mean-field modeling. From neutron-scattering and magnetization measurements, phase diagrams are constructed. At temperatures above...... approximately 20 K, the application of a field is found to favor cycloidal structures with modulation wave vectors of q(c) = (6/23)c*, (4/15)c*, and (2/7)c*. For fields above almost-equal-to 40 kOe, the (2/7) structure dominates the phase diagram. From a detailed study of this most stable cycloid, we determine...... how it distorts as the field is increased. In low fields, there is a spin reorientation, so that the plane of the cycloid becomes perpendicular to the applied field, while in larger fields, the cycloid collapses through a series of fanlike structures. At lower temperatures, as the field is increased...

  15. Negative thermal expansion near two structural quantum phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Occhialini, Connor A.; Handunkanda, Sahan U.; Said, Ayman; Trivedi, Sudhir; Guzmán-Verri, G. G.; Hancock, Jason N.

    2017-12-01

    Recent experimental work has revealed that the unusually strong, isotropic structural negative thermal expansion in cubic perovskite ionic insulator ScF3 occurs in excited states above a ground state tuned very near a structural quantum phase transition, posing a question of fundamental interest as to whether this special circumstance is related to the anomalous behavior. To test this hypothesis, we report an elastic and inelastic x-ray scattering study of a second system Hg2I2 also tuned near a structural quantum phase transition while retaining stoichiometric composition and high crystallinity. We find similar behavior and significant negative thermal expansion below 100 K for dimensions along the body-centered-tetragonal c axis, bolstering the connection between negative thermal expansion and zero-temperature structural transitions.We identify the common traits between these systems and propose a set of materials design principles that can guide discovery of newmaterials exhibiting negative thermal expansion

  16. Single-Phase Single-Stage Grid Tied Solar PV System with Active Power Filtering Using Power Balance Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yashi; Hussain, Ikhlaq; Singh, Bhim; Mishra, Sukumar

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, power quality features such as harmonics mitigation, power factor correction with active power filtering are addressed in a single-stage, single-phase solar photovoltaic (PV) grid tied system. The Power Balance Theory (PBT) with perturb and observe based maximum power point tracking algorithm is proposed for the mitigation of power quality problems in a solar PV grid tied system. The solar PV array is interfaced to a single phase AC grid through a Voltage Source Converter (VSC), which provides active power flow from a solar PV array to the grid as well as to the load and it performs harmonics mitigation using PBT based control. The solar PV array power varies with sunlight and due to this, the solar PV grid tied VSC works only 8-10 h per day. At night, when PV power is zero, the VSC works as an active power filter for power quality improvement, and the load active power is delivered by the grid to the load connected at the point of common coupling. This increases the effective utilization of a VSC. The system is modelled and simulated using MATLAB and simulated responses of the system at nonlinear loads and varying environmental conditions are also validated experimentally on a prototype developed in the laboratory.

  17. Indirect Matrix Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Application with Three-Phase and Single-Phase Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeongsu Bak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an indirect matrix converter (IMC topology for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV application with three-phase and single-phase outputs. The HEV includes mechanical, electrical, control, and electrochemical systems among others. In the mechanical system, a traction motor and a compressor motor are used to drive the HEV. The traction motor and the compressor motor are usually operated as three-phase and single-phase motors, respectively. In this respect, a dual AC-drive system can operate the traction and the compressor motor simultaneously. Furthermore, compared to a conventional dual matrix converter system, the proposed topology can reduce the number of switches that the dual outputs share with a DC-link. The application of this system for HEV has advantages, like long lifetime and reduced volume due to the lack of a DC-link. The proposed control strategy and modulation schemes ensure the sinusoidal input and output waveforms and bidirectional power transmission. The proposed system for the HEV application is verified by simulation and experiments.

  18. A review of single-phase grid-connected inverters for photovoltaic modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Soren Baekhoej; Pedersen, John Kim; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    -phase grid; 3) whether they utilizes a transformer (either line or high frequency) or not; and 4) the type of grid-connected power stage. Various inverter topologies are presented, compared, and evaluated against demands, lifetime, component ratings, and cost. Finally, some of the topologies are pointed out......This review focuses on inverter technologies for connecting photovoltaic (PV) modules to a single-phase grid. The inverters are categorized into four classifications: 1) the number of power processing stages in cascade; 2) the type of power decoupling between the PV module(s) and the single...

  19. Synchronization in single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic systems under grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The highly increasing penetration of single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems pushes the grid requirements related to the integration of PV power systems to be updated. These upcoming regulations are expected to direct the grid-connected renewable generators to support the grid operation and stabil......The highly increasing penetration of single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems pushes the grid requirements related to the integration of PV power systems to be updated. These upcoming regulations are expected to direct the grid-connected renewable generators to support the grid operation...

  20. Single phase cascaded H5 inverter with leakage current elimination for transformerless photovoltaic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Jia, X.; Lu, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Leakage current reduction is one of the important issues for the transformelress PV systems. In this paper, the transformerless single-phase cascaded H-bridge PV inverter is investigated. The common mode model for the cascaded H4 inverter is analyzed. And the reason why the conventional cascade H4...... inverter fails to reduce the leakage current is clarified. In order to solve the problem, a new cascaded H5 inverter is proposed to solve the leakage current issue. Finally, the experimental results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed topology with the leakage current reduction...... for the single-phase transformerless PV systems....

  1. Challenges in thermal design of industrial single-phase power inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of thermal aspects in design process of an industrial single-phase inverter, choice of its topology and components. Stringent design inputs like very high overload level, demand for natural cooling and very wide input voltage range have made conventional circuit topology inappropriate therefore asking for alternative solution. Different power losses calculations in semiconductors are performed and compared, outlining the guidelines how to choose the final topology. Some recommendations in power magnetic components design are given. Based on the final project, a 20kVA single-phase inverter for thermal power plant supervisory and control system is designed and commissioned.

  2. Single-Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor for Low-Power Low-Cost Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Jakobsen, Uffe

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new single-phase, Hybrid Switched Reluctance (HSR) motor for low-cost, low-power, pump or fan drive systems. Its single-phase configuration allows use of a simple converter to reduce the system cost. Cheap ferrite magnets are used and arranged in a special flux concentration...... manner to increase effectively the torque density and efficiency of this machine. The efficiency of this machine is comparable to the efficiency of a traditional permanent magnet machine in the similar power range. The cogging torque, due to the existence of the permanent magnetic field, is beneficially...

  3. An Open-Loop Grid Synchronization Approach for Single-Phase Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2018-01-01

    in the presence of frequency drifts. This is particularly true in single-phase applications, where the lack of multiple independent input signals makes the implementation of the synchronization technique difficult. The aim of this paper is to develop an effective OLS technique for single-phase power and energy...... applications. The proposed OLS method benefits from a straightforward implementation, a fast dynamic response (a response time less than two cycles of the nominal frequency), and a complete immunity against the DC component in the grid voltage. In addition, the designed OLS method totally blocks (significantly...

  4. Fractional single-phase-lagging heat conduction model for describing anomalous diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Mishra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fractional single-phase-lagging (FSPL heat conduction model is obtained by combining scalar time fractional conservation equation to the single-phase-lagging (SPL heat conduction model. Based on the FSPL heat conduction model, anomalous diffusion within a finite thin film is investigated. The effect of different parameters on solution has been observed and studied the asymptotic behavior of the FSPL model. The analytical solution is obtained using Laplace transform method. The whole analysis is presented in dimensionless form. Numerical examples of particular interest have been studied and discussed in details.

  5. Modeling and Stability Assessment of Single-Phase Grid Synchronization Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Vasquez, Juan

    2018-01-01

    (GSTs) is of vital importance. This task is most often based on obtaining a linear time-invariant (LTI) model for the GST and applying standard stability tests to it. Another option is modeling and dynamics/stability assessment of GSTs in the linear time-periodic (LTP) framework, which has received...... a very little attention. In this letter, the procedure of deriving the LTP model for single-phase GSTs is first demonstrated. The accuracy of the LTP model in predicting the GST dynamic behavior and stability is then evaluated and compared with that of the LTI one. Two well-known single-phase GSTs, i...

  6. Zero-Voltage Ride-Through Capability of Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Distributed renewable energy systems play an increasing role in today’s energy paradigm. Thus, intensive research activities have been centered on improving the performance of renewable energy systems, including photovoltaic (PV systems, which should be of multiple-functionality. That is, the PV systems should be more intelligent in the consideration of grid stability, reliability, and fault protection. Therefore, in this paper, the performance of single-phase grid-connected PV systems under an extreme grid fault (i.e., when the grid voltage dips to zero is explored. It has been revealed that combining a fast and accurate synchronization mechanism with appropriate control strategies for the zero-voltage ride-through (ZVRT operation is mandatory. Accordingly, the representative synchronization techniques (i.e., the phase-locked loop (PLL methods in the ZVRT operation are compared in terms of detection precision and dynamic response. It shows that the second-order generalized integrator (SOGI-PLL is a promising solution for single-phase systems in the case of fault ride-through. A control strategy by modifying the SOGI-PLL scheme is then introduced to single-phase grid-connected PV systems for ZVRT operation. Simulations are performed to verify the discussions. The results have demonstrated that the proposed method can help single-phase PV systems to temporarily ride through zero-voltage faults with good dynamics.

  7. Spin and lattice structures of single-crystalline SrFe2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Ratcliff, W., II; Lynn, J. W.; Chen, G. F.; Luo, J. L.; Wang, N. L.; Hu, Jiangping; Dai, Pengcheng

    2008-10-01

    We use neutron scattering to study the spin and lattice structure of single-crystal SrFe2As2 , the parent compound of the FeAs-based superconductor (Sr,K)Fe2As2 . We find that SrFe2As2 exhibits an abrupt structural phase transition at 220 K, where the structure changes from tetragonal with lattice parameters c>a=b to orthorhombic with c>a>b . At almost the same temperature, Fe spins develop a collinear antiferromagnetic structure along the orthorhombic a axis with spin direction parallel to this a axis. These results are consistent with earlier work on the RFeAsO ( R=rare earth) families of materials and on BaFe2As2 , and therefore suggest that static antiferromagnetic order is ubiquitous for the parent compounds of these FeAs-based high-transition temperature superconductors.

  8. Crystal structure of the Al2CuIr phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshi, L.; Ezersky, V.; Kapush, D.; Grushko, B.

    2010-01-01

    A new ternary Al 2 CuIr phase was revealed in the Al-Cu-Ir system. It is formed below 1063 o C from the β-phase (CsCl-type structure) extending at elevated temperatures from AlIr. The crystal structure of the Al 2 CuIr phase was determined using a combination of precession electron diffraction and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The phase has an orthorhombic C-centered unit cell with lattice parameters a = 8.1196(7) A, b = 5.0646(2) A and c = 5.18513(3) A; its crystal symmetry can be described by the Cmme (no. 67) space group (Pearson symbol oC16). The unit cell of the new phase contains 8 Al, 4 Cu and 4 Ir atoms and exhibits a new structure type. The reliability factors characterizing the Rietveld refinement procedure are: R p = 4.45%, R wp = 6.45%, R B = 3.69% and R f = 2.41%.

  9. Quantum phase transitions in spin-1 X X Z chains with rhombic single-ion anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Wang, Yimin; You, Wen-Long

    2018-04-01

    We explore numerically the inverse participation ratios in the ground state of one-dimensional spin-1 X X Z chains with the rhombic single-ion anisotropy. By employing the techniques of density-matrix renormalization group, effects of the rhombic single-ion anisotropy on various information theoretical measures are investigated, such as the fidelity susceptibility, the quantum coherence, and the entanglement entropy. Their relations with the quantum phase transitions are also analyzed. The phase transitions from the Y -Néel phase to the large-Ex or the Haldane phase can be well characterized by the fidelity susceptibility. The second-order derivative of the ground-state energy indicates all the transitions are of second order. We also find that the quantum coherence, the entanglement entropy, the Schmidt gap, and the inverse participation ratios can be used to detect the critical points of quantum phase transitions. Results drawn from these quantum information observables agree well with each other. Finally we provide a ground-state phase diagram as functions of the exchange anisotropy Δ and the rhombic single-ion anisotropy E .

  10. Hydrodynamics of single- and two-phase flow in inclined rod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeling-Koning, D.B.; Todreas, N.E.

    1983-09-01

    Required inputs for thermal-hydraulic codes are constitutive relations for fluid-solid flow resistance, in single-phase flow, and interfacial momentum exchange (relative phase motion), in two-phase flow. An inclined rod array air-water experiment was constructed to study the hydrodynamics of multidimensional porous medium flow in rod arrays. Velocities, pressures, and bubble distributions were measured in square rod arrays of P/d = 1.5, at 0, 30, 45, and 90 degree inclinations to the vertical flow direction. Constitutive models for single-phase flow resistance are reviewed, new comprehensive models developed, and an assessment with previously published and new data made. The principle of superimposing one-dimensional correlations proves successful for turbulent single-phase inclined flow. For bubbly two-phase incline flow a new flow separation phenomena was observed and modeled. A two-region liquid velocity model is developed to explain the experimentally observed phenomena. Fundamental data for bubbles rising in rod arrays were also taken

  11. Effect of completion geometry and phasing on single-phase liquid flow behaviour in horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, H.; Sarica, C.; Brill, P. [Tulsa Unov., OK (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The effects of completion geometries and the phasing and density of injection openings in horizontal wells was studied. A total of 1,257 tests were conducted for no fluid injections, no main flow at the test section inlet, and with fluid injection for Reynolds numbers ranging from 4,000 to 60,000 and for influx to main flow rate ratios ranging from 1/5 to 1/2000. Results demonstrated the dramatic effects of completion geometry, phasing density, Reynolds number and main flow rate on the pressure behaviour and therefore on the production behaviour of the well. A general friction factor expression for horizontal wells with multiple injection openings was developed based on the conservation of mass and momentum and using a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computer program to determine the length of the flow developing region in a horizontal well. A field example is presented to show the importance of using the proper friction factor correlation to calculate the pressure drop in a horizontal well. 32 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  12. The influence of phase transfer catalyst structure on reaction selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demlov, Eh.V.

    1995-01-01

    A concise review is given of systematic studies which are concerned with the tuning of regio, frequentio-, chemo-, and diastereoselectivity by the structure or type of phase transfer catalyst. Use of MEI as an alkylating agent is described. Refs. 36, figs. 11

  13. Spontaneous phase transitions in magnetic films with a modulated structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzamastseva, G. V.; Evtikhov, M. G.; Lisovskii, F. V.; Mansvetova, E. G.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of monoperiodic and biperiodic bias fields on the nucleation of domain structures in quasi-uniaxial magnetic films near the Curie point has been studied experimentally. The main types of observed nonuniform magnetic moment distributions have been established and chains of a devil’s staircase phase transitions are shown to be realized when the films are slowly cooled.

  14. Phase stability and electronic structure of transition-metal aluminides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will describe the interplay between die electronic structure and structural energetics in simple, complex, and quasicrystalline Al-transition metal (T) intermetallics. The first example is the Ll 2 -DO 22 competition in Al 3 T compounds. Ab-initio electronic total-energy calculations reveal surprisingly large structural-energy differences, and show that the phase stability of both stoichiometric and ternary-substituted compounds correlates closely with a quasigap in the electronic density of states (DOS). Secondly, ab-initio calculations for the structural stability of the icosahedrally based Al 12 W structure reveal similar quasigap effects, and provide a simple physical explanation for the stability of the complex aluminide structures. Finally, parametrized tight-binding model calculations for the Al-Mn quasicrystal reveal a large spread in the local Mn DOS behavior, and support a two-site model for the quasicrystal's magnetic behavior

  15. Shot-noise-limited monitoring and phase locking of the motion of a single trapped ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushev, P; Hétet, G; Slodička, L; Rotter, D; Wilson, M A; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Eschner, J; Blatt, R

    2013-03-29

    We perform a high-resolution real-time readout of the motion of a single trapped and laser-cooled Ba+ ion. By using an interferometric setup, we demonstrate a shot-noise-limited measurement of thermal oscillations with a resolution of 4 times the standard quantum limit. We apply the real-time monitoring for phase control of the ion motion through a feedback loop, suppressing the photon recoil-induced phase diffusion. Because of the spectral narrowing in the phase-locked mode, the coherent ion oscillation is measured with a resolution of about 0.3 times the standard quantum limit.

  16. Theory of phase transformation and reorientation in single crystalline shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J J; Liang, N G; Cai, M; Liew, K M; Huang, W M

    2008-01-01

    A constitutive model, based on an (n+1)-phase mixture of the Mori–Tanaka average theory, has been developed for stress-induced martensitic transformation and reorientation in single crystalline shape memory alloys. Volume fractions of different martensite lattice correspondence variants are chosen as internal variables to describe microstructural evolution. Macroscopic Gibbs free energy for the phase transformation is derived with thermodynamics principles and the ensemble average method of micro-mechanics. The critical condition and the evolution equation are proposed for both the phase transition and reorientation. This model can also simulate interior hysteresis loops during loading/unloading by switching the critical driving forces when an opposite transition takes place

  17. Universal holonomic single quantum gates over a geometric spin with phase-modulated polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Naoki; Nakamura, Takaaki; Tanaka, Touta; Mishima, Shota; Kano, Hiroki; Kuroiwa, Ryota; Sekiguchi, Yuhei; Kosaka, Hideo

    2018-05-15

    We demonstrate universal non-adiabatic non-abelian holonomic single quantum gates over a geometric electron spin with phase-modulated polarized light and 93% average fidelity. This allows purely geometric rotation around an arbitrary axis by any angle defined by light polarization and phase using a degenerate three-level Λ-type system in a negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. Since the control light is completely resonant to the ancillary excited state, the demonstrated holonomic gate not only is fast with low power, but also is precise without the dynamical phase being subject to control error and environmental noise. It thus allows pulse shaping for further fidelity.

  18. Berry phase of primordial scalar and tensor perturbations in single-field inflationary models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajany, Hamideh; Mehrafarin, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    In the framework of the single-field slow-roll inflation, we derive the Hamiltonian of the linear primordial scalar and tensor perturbations in the form of time-dependent harmonic oscillator Hamiltonians. We find the invariant operators of the resulting Hamiltonians and use their eigenstates to calculate the adiabatic Berry phase for sub-horizon modes in terms of the Lewis-Riesenfeld phase. We conclude by discussing the discrepancy in the results of Pal et al. (2013) [21] for these Berry phases, which is resolved to yield agreement with our results.

  19. Understanding surface structure and chemistry of single crystal lanthanum aluminate

    KAUST Repository

    Pramana, Stevin S.

    2017-03-02

    The surface crystallography and chemistry of a LaAlO3 single crystal, a material mainly used as a substrate to deposit technologically important thin films (e.g. for superconducting and magnetic devices), was analysed using surface X-ray diffraction and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The surface was determined to be terminated by Al-O species, and was significantly different from the idealised bulk structure. Termination reversal was not observed at higher temperature (600 °C) and chamber pressure of 10−10 Torr, but rather an increased Al-O occupancy occurred, which was accompanied by a larger outwards relaxation of Al from the bulk positions. Changing the oxygen pressure to 10−6 Torr enriched the Al site occupancy fraction at the outermost surface from 0.245(10) to 0.325(9). In contrast the LaO, which is located at the next sub-surface atomic layer, showed no chemical enrichment and the structural relaxation was lower than for the top AlO2 layer. Knowledge of the surface structure will aid the understanding of how and which type of interface will be formed when LaAlO3 is used as a substrate as a function of temperature and pressure, and so lead to improved design of device structures.

  20. Elastic properties of nano structured AZrO3 (A=Ba, Sr) single perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazhani, R.; Thomas, J.K.; Moses Ezhil Raj, A.; Solomon, S.; Bena Jothy, V.; Mathai, K.C.

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystals of barium zirconate and strontium zirconate AZrO 3 (A=Ba and Sr) were synthesized by a unique self-sustained single-step combustion of an aqueous solution, containing Ba, Sr and Zr ions by using citric acid as complexing agent and liquor ammonia as fuel, thus giving rise to phase pure AZrO 3 nanopowder. In this process, a single phase pure nanopowder of AZrO 3 has been obtained without the need of calcination steps. The formation and stability of the compound was confirmed through the tolerance factor on the basis of the ionic radii of all the atoms of the compound. Phase-purity of the as-prepared powders was examined using X-ray diffraction. As-prepared powder was single phase, crystalline, and composed of uniform particles with sizes 20-30 nm. The crystal structure of AZrO 3 are respective cubic (Pm3-bar m, a=4.1839A) and orthorhombic (Pnma, a=5.7937A, b=8.17648A and c=5.7694A). Annealed samples of SrZrO 3 has improved crystal structure with a=5.764A, b=8.2292A and c=5.7989A, comparable to the standards. Microstrain acting on all the planes of the material is positive which indicates presence of tensile stress on the material. The calculated compressive stress on the surface of' the nanopowder is of the order 0.213 GPa to -0.274 GPa for BaZrO 3 and 4.443 GPa to -0.220 GPa for SrZrO 3 along various planes of the particles. (author)

  1. Single and two-phase flow pressure drop for CANFLEX bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Ji Su; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dimmick, G R; Bullock, D E [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-12-31

    Friction factor and two-phase flow frictional multiplier for a CANFLEX bundle are newly developed and presented in this paper. CANFLEX as a 43-element fuel bundle has been developed jointly by AECL/KAERI to provide greater operational flexibility for CANDU reactor operators and designers. Friction factor and two-phase flow frictional multiplier have been developed by using the experimental data of pressure drops obtained from two series of Freon-134a (R-134a) CHF tests with a string of simulated CANFLEX bundles in a single phase and a two-phase flow conditions. The friction factor for a CANFLEX bundle is found to be about 20% higher than that of Blasius for a smooth circular pipe. The pressure drop predicted by using the new correlations of friction factor and two-phase frictional multiplier are well agreed with the experimental pressure drop data of CANFLEX bundle within {+-} 5% error. 11 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  2. Single and two-phase flow pressure drop for CANFLEX bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Ji Su; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dimmick, G. R.; Bullock, D. E. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    Friction factor and two-phase flow frictional multiplier for a CANFLEX bundle are newly developed and presented in this paper. CANFLEX as a 43-element fuel bundle has been developed jointly by AECL/KAERI to provide greater operational flexibility for CANDU reactor operators and designers. Friction factor and two-phase flow frictional multiplier have been developed by using the experimental data of pressure drops obtained from two series of Freon-134a (R-134a) CHF tests with a string of simulated CANFLEX bundles in a single phase and a two-phase flow conditions. The friction factor for a CANFLEX bundle is found to be about 20% higher than that of Blasius for a smooth circular pipe. The pressure drop predicted by using the new correlations of friction factor and two-phase frictional multiplier are well agreed with the experimental pressure drop data of CANFLEX bundle within {+-} 5% error. 11 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  3. Formation of structure, phase composition and properties of electro explosion resistant coatings using electron-beam processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanov, Denis A.; Sosnin, Kirill V.; Budovskikh, Evgenij A.; Gromov, Viktor E.; Semin, Alexander P.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, the high intensity electron beam modification of electroexplosion composite coatings of MoSingle-Bond' name='Single-Bond' value='Single-Bond'/>Cu, MoSingle-Bond' name='Single-Bond' value='Single-Bond'/>CSingle-Bond' name='Single-Bond' value='Single-Bond'/>Cu, WSingle-Bond' name='Single-Bond' value='Single-Bond'/>Cu, WSingle-Bond' name='Single-Bond' value='Single-Bond'/>CSingle-Bond' name='Single-Bond' value='Single-Bond'/>Cu and TiB 2 Single-Bond' name='Single-Bond' value='Single-Bond'/>Cu systems was done. The studies of phase and elemental composition, defective structure conditions of these coatings were carried out. The regimes of electron-beam processing making possible to form the dense, specular luster surface layers having a submicrocrystalline structure were revealed. It was established that electron-beam processing of elecroexplosion spraying of layer of elecroexplosion spraying carried out in the regime of melting results in the formation of structurally and contrationally homogeneous surface layer. Investigation of the effect of electron-beam processing of electroexplosion electroerosion resistant coatings on their tribological properties (wear resistanse and coefficient of friction) and electroerosion resistance was done. It was shown that all the examined costings demonstrate the increase of electroerosion resistance in spark erosion up to 10 times

  4. Formation of structure, phase composition and properties of electro explosion resistant coatings using electron-beam processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, Denis A., E-mail: romanov-da@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: kos2906@mail.ru, E-mail: budovskih-ea@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: da-rom@live.ru; Sosnin, Kirill V., E-mail: romanov-da@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: kos2906@mail.ru, E-mail: budovskih-ea@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: da-rom@live.ru; Budovskikh, Evgenij A., E-mail: romanov-da@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: kos2906@mail.ru, E-mail: budovskih-ea@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: da-rom@live.ru; Gromov, Viktor E., E-mail: romanov-da@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: kos2906@mail.ru, E-mail: budovskih-ea@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: da-rom@live.ru; Semin, Alexander P., E-mail: romanov-da@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: kos2906@mail.ru, E-mail: budovskih-ea@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru, E-mail: da-rom@live.ru [Siberian State Industrial University, Novokuznetsk, 654007 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    For the first time, the high intensity electron beam modification of electroexplosion composite coatings of MoSingle-Bond' name='Single-Bond' value='Single-Bond'/>Cu, MoSingle-Bond' name='Single-Bond' value='Single-Bond'/>CSingle-Bond' name='Single-Bond' value='Single-Bond'/>Cu, WSingle-Bond' name='Single-Bond' value='Single-Bond'/>Cu, WSingle-Bond' name='Single-Bond' value='Single-Bond'/>CSingle-Bond' name='Single-Bond' value='Single-Bond'/>Cu and TiB{sub 2}Single-Bond' name='Single-Bond' value='Single-Bond'/>Cu systems was done. The studies of phase and elemental composition, defective structure conditions of these coatings were carried out. The regimes of electron-beam processing making possible to form the dense, specular luster surface layers having a submicrocrystalline structure were revealed. It was established that electron-beam processing of elecroexplosion spraying of layer of elecroexplosion spraying carried out in the regime of melting results in the formation of structurally and contrationally homogeneous surface layer. Investigation of the effect of electron-beam processing of electroexplosion electroerosion resistant coatings on their tribological properties (wear resistanse and coefficient of friction) and electroerosion resistance was done. It was shown that all the examined costings demonstrate the increase of electroerosion resistance in spark erosion up to 10 times.

  5. A phase transition in energy-filtered RNA secondary structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Hillary Siwei; reidys, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the effect of energy parameters on minimum free energy (mfe) RNA secondary structures. Employing a simplified combinatorial energy model, that is only dependent on the diagram representation and that is not sequence specific, we prove the following dichotomy result. Mfe...... this phase transition from a discrete limit to a central limit distribution and subsequently put our result into the context of quantifying the effect of sparsification of the folding of these respective mfe-structures. We show that the sparsification of realistic mfe-structures leads to a constant time...

  6. Comparison of the quench and fault current limiting characteristics of the flux-coupling type SFCL with single and three-phase transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Byung Ik; Cho, Yong Sun; Park, Hyoung Min; Chung, Dong Chul; Choi, Hyo Sang

    2013-01-01

    The South Korean power grid has a network structure for the flexible operation of the system. The continuously increasing power demand necessitated the increase of power facilities, which decreased the impedance in the power system. As a result, the size of the fault current in the event of a system fault increased. As this increased fault current size is threatening the breaking capacity of the circuit breaker, the main protective device, a solution to this problem is needed. The superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) has been designed to address this problem. SFCL supports the stable operation of the circuit breaker through its excellent fault-current-limiting operation [1-5]. In this paper, the quench and fault current limiting characteristics of the flux-coupling-type SFCL with one three-phase transformer were compared with those of the same SFCL type but with three single-phase transformers. In the case of the three-phase transformers, both the superconducting elements of the fault and sound phases were quenched, whereas in the case of the single-phase transformer, only that of the fault phase was quenched. For the fault current limiting rate, both cases showed similar rates for the single line-to-ground fault, but for the three-wire earth fault, the fault current limiting rate of the single-phase transformer was over 90% whereas that of the three-phase transformer was about 60%. It appears that when the three-phase transformer was used, the limiting rate decreased because the fluxes by the fault current of each phase were linked in one core. When the power loads of the superconducting elements were compared by fault type, the initial (half-cycle) load was great when the single-phase transformer was applied, whereas for the three-phase transformer, its power load was slightly lower at the initial stage but became greater after the half fault cycle.

  7. Inertial piezoelectric linear motor driven by a single-phase harmonic wave with automatic clamping mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liangguo; Chu, Yuheng; Hao, Sai; Zhao, Xiaoyong; Dong, Yuge; Wang, Yong

    2018-05-01

    A novel, single-phase, harmonic-driven, inertial piezoelectric linear motor using an automatic clamping mechanism was designed, fabricated, and tested to reduce the sliding friction and simplify the drive mechanism and power supply control of the inertial motor. A piezoelectric bimorph and a flexible hinge were connected in series to form the automatic clamping mechanism. The automatic clamping mechanism was used as the driving and clamping elements. A dynamic simulation by Simulink was performed to prove the feasibility of the motor. The finite element method software COMSOL was used to design the structure of the motor. An experimental setup was built to validate the working principle and evaluate the performance of the motor. The prototype motor outputted a no-load velocity of 3.178 mm/s at a voltage of 220 Vp-p and a maximum traction force of 4.25 N under a preload force of 8 N. The minimum resolution of 1.14 μm was achieved at a driving frequency of 74 Hz, a driving voltage of 50 Vp-p, and a preload force of 0 N.

  8. Single phase computed tomography is equivalent to dual phase method for localizing hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: a retrospective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Morón

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to compare the sensitivity of dual phase (non-contrast and arterial versus single phase (arterial CT for detection of hyper-functioning parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Methods The CT scans of thirty-two patients who have biochemical evidence of primary hyperparathyroidism, pathologically proven parathyroid adenomas, and pre-operative multiphase parathyroid imaging were evaluated retrospectively in order to compare the adequacy of single phase vs. dual phase CT scans for the detection of parathyroid adenomas. Results The parathyroid adenomas were localized in 83% of cases on single arterial phase CT and 80% of cases on dual phase CT. The specificity for localization of parathyroid tumor was 96% for single phase CT and 97% for dual phase CT. The results were not significantly different (p = 0.695. These results are similar to those found in the literature for multiphase CT of 55–94%. Conclusions Our study supports the use of a single arterial phase CT for the detection of hyperfunctioning parathyroid adenomas. Advances in knowledge: a single arterial phase CT has similar sensitivity for localizing parathyroid adenomas as dual phase CT and significantly reduces radiation dose to the patient.

  9. An efficiency improved single-phase PFC converter for electric vehicle charger applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Dexuan; Tang, Yi; Jin, Chi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency improved single-phase power factor correction (PFC) converter with its target application to plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging systems. The proposed PFC converter features sinusoidal input current, three-level output characteristic, and wide range...

  10. A double parameters measurement of steam-water two-phase flow with single orifice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Shuoping; Tong Yunxian; Yu Meiying

    1992-08-01

    A double parameters measurement of steam-water two-phase flow with single orifice is described. An on-line measurement device based on micro-computer has been developed. The measured r.m.s error of steam quality is less than 6.5% and the measured relative r.m.s. error of mass flow rate is less than 9%

  11. Design and Implementation of Wireless Energy Meter System for Monitoring the Single Phase Supply

    OpenAIRE

    U. V, Prashanth B.

    2013-01-01

    Wireless energy meter is a system developed to serve as a basic single-phase energy meter with advanced functionalities such as Peak hour setting, Peak load setting Wireless reading transmission; further the system eliminates the role of a Meter Reader.

  12. Novel Motion Sensorless Control of Single Phase Brushless D.C. PM Motor Drive, with experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepure, Liviu Ioan; Boldea, Ion; Andreescu, Gheorghe Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A motion sensorless control for single phase permanent magnet brushless d.c. (PM-BLDC) motor drives, based on flux integration and prior knowledge of the PM flux/position characteristic is proposed here and an adequate correction algorithm is adopted, in order to increase the robustness to noise...

  13. Single-Phase 3L PR Controlled qZS Inverter Connected to the Distorted Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovenko, Elena; Husev, Oleksandr; Roncero-Clemente, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a single-phase three-level NPC qZS inverter connected to a distorted grid using PID and PR regulators. A case study system along with the control strategy are described. Tuning approaches for PID and PR regulators are addressed and validated by means of simulation results...

  14. PI and repetitive control for single phase inverter based on virtual rotating coordinate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengqi; Tong, Yibin; Jiang, Jiuchun; Liang, Jiangang

    2018-03-01

    Microgrid technology developed rapidly and nonlinear loads were connected increasingly. A new control strategy was proposed for single phase inverter when connected nonlinear loads under island condition. PI and repetitive compound controller was realized under synchronous rotating coordinate system and acquired high quality sinusoidal voltage output without voltage spike when loads step changed. Validity and correctness were verified by simulation using MATLAB/Simulink.

  15. Forest resources of southeast Alaska, 2000: results of a single-phase systematic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    2003-01-01

    A baseline assessment of forest resources in southeast Alaska was made by using a single-phase, unstratified, systematic-grid sample, with ground plots established at each grid intersection. Ratio-of-means estimators were used to develop population estimates. Forests cover an estimated 48 percent of the 22.9-million-acre southeast Alaska inventory unit. Dominant forest...

  16. Modeling and Control of a Single-Phase Marine Cooling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents two model-based control design approaches for a single-phase marine cooling system. Models are derived from first principles and aim at describing significant system dynamics including nonlinearities and transport delays, while keeping the model complexity low. The two...

  17. Benchmarking of grid fault modes in single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2012-01-01

    Pushed by the booming installations of single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems, the grid demands regarding the integration of PV systems are expected to be modified. Hence, the future PV systems should become more active with functionalities of low voltage ride-through (LVRT) and the grid support...

  18. Frequency Adaptive Repetitive Control of Grid-Tied Single-Phase PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Keliang; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    . This paper thus explores a frequency adaptive repetitive control strategy for grid converters, which employs fractional delay filters in order to adapt to the change of the grid frequency. Case studies with experimental results of a single-phase grid-connected PV inverter system are provided to verify...

  19. The Effect of Grain Size on Mechanical Instability in Single-Phase Li-Alloy Anodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolfenstine, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    .... The results of this study suggest that decreasing the particle and/or grain size is not a practical approach to solving the mechanical instability problem of single phase Li alloys that are intended to be used as anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  20. Decoupling of fluctuating power in single-phase systems through a symmetrical half-bridge circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Single-phase AC/DC or DC/AC systems inherently subject to harmonic disturbance which is caused by the well-known double line frequency ripple power. This issue can be eased through the installation of bulky electrolytic capacitors in the dc-link, but such passive filtering approach may inevitably...

  1. Hybrid Control Method for a Single Phase PFC using a Low Cost Microcontroller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Nielsen, Nils; Wolf, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid control method for single phase boost PFCs. The high bandwidth current loop is analog while the voltage loop is implemented in an 8-bit microcontroller. The design focuses on minimizing the number of calculations done in the microcontroller. A 1kW prototype has been...

  2. A Generic Topology Derivation Method for Single-phase Converters with Active Capacitive DC-links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haoran; Wang, Huai; Zhu, Guorong

    2016-01-01

    capacitive DCDC- link solutions, but important aspects of the topology assess-ment, such as the total energy storage, overall capacitive energy buffer ratio, cost, and reliability are still not available. This paper proposes a generic topology derivation method of single-phase power converters...

  3. Flux Concentration and Pole Shaping in a Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2010-01-01

    The single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor (HSRM) may be a good candidate for low-cost drives used for pump applications. This paper presents a new design of the HSRM with improved starting torque achieved by stator pole shaping, and a better arrangement of the embedded stator permanent...

  4. Modelling and simulation of multiple single - phase induction motor in parallel connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujitjorn, S.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for parallel connected n-multiple single-phase induction motors in generalized state-space form is proposed in this paper. The motor group draws electric power from one inverter. The model is developed by the dq-frame theory and was tested against four loading scenarios in which satisfactory results were obtained.

  5. Single-phase CFD applicability for estimating fluid hot-spot locations in a 5 x 5 fuel rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kazuo; Makino, Yasushi; Hoshi, Masaya

    2006-01-01

    High-thermal performance PWR spacer grids require both of low pressure loss and high critical heat flux (CHF) properties. Therefore, a numerical study using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was carried out to estimate pressure loss in strap and mixing vane structures. Moreover, a CFD simulation under single-phase flow condition was conducted for one specific condition in a water departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) test to examine the applicability of the CFD model for predicting the CHF rod position. Energy flux around the rod surface in a water DNB test is the sum of the intrinsic energy flux from a rod and the extrinsic energy flux from other rods, and increments of the enthalpy and decrements of flow velocity near the rod surface are assumed to affect CHF performance. CFD makes it possible to model the complicated flow field consisting of a spacer grid and a rod bundle and evaluate the local velocity and enthalpy distribution around the rod surface, which are assumed to determine the initial conditions for the two-phase structure. The results of this study indicate that single-phase CFD can play a significant role in designing PWR spacer grids for improved CHF performance

  6. A Review of Structure Construction of Silk Fibroin Biomaterials from Single Structures to Multi-Level Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological performance of artificial biomaterials is closely related to their structure characteristics. Cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation are all strongly affected by the different scale structures of biomaterials. Silk fibroin (SF, extracted mainly from silkworms, has become a popular biomaterial due to its excellent biocompatibility, exceptional mechanical properties, tunable degradation, ease of processing, and sufficient supply. As a material with excellent processability, SF can be processed into various forms with different structures, including particulate, fiber, film, and three-dimensional (3D porous scaffolds. This review discusses and summarizes the various constructions of SF-based materials, from single structures to multi-level structures, and their applications. In combination with single structures, new techniques for creating special multi-level structures of SF-based materials, such as micropatterning and 3D-printing, are also briefly addressed.

  7. Experimental and theoretical study of CO adsorption on the surface of single phase hexagonally plate ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Amin; Firooz, Azam Anaraki [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, PO Box 16785-163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beheshtian, Javad, E-mail: j.beheshtian@srttu.edu [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, PO Box 16785-163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi, Abbas Ali [Oil and Gas Processing Center of Excellence, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, 11155-4563 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Hexagonally plate ZnO microstructure was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. • HRTEM images indicated a single crystal with a [0 0 1] direction growth. • DFT calculations were performed to reveal structure and electronic properties of ZnO. • The CO sensor response was close to obtained theoretical results. - Abstract: A simple low temperature hydrothermal method has been investigated for synthesis of single phase hexagonally plate ZnO microstructure. The synthesized ZnO was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) photoluminescence spectrum (PL) and ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV–vis) to investigate the surface morphology, crystallographic phase, optical properties and used as a sensor for detection of CO gas molecules. It was observed that the ZnO microstructures were uniform size, single phase and symmetrical, with a hexagonal shape and height of ∼250 nm. The optical band gap value of this sample was calculated to be about 3.22 eV, which show a red shift with theoretical method. High-resolution TEM images indicate that all the microstructures are single crystals with a [0 0 1] direction growth. We studied the gas response of this sample to 500 ppm CO over a temperature range of 200–400 °C and compared with theoretical results. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to investigate the structure and electronic properties of ZnO with simulating the adsorption process of CO gas on the ZnO (1 0 1) surface. The theoretical results were in good agreement with experimental results.

  8. The Relation between Structure and Quantum Interference in Single Molecule Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Stadler, Robert; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2010-01-01

    Quantum interference (QI) of electron pathways has recently attracted increased interest as an enabling tool for single-molecule electronic devices. Although various molecular systems have been shown to exhibit QI effects and a number of methods have been proposed for its analysis, simple...... guidelines linking the molecular structure to QI effects in the phase-coherent transport regime have until now been lacking. In the present work we demonstrate that QI in aromatic molecules is intimately related to the topology of the molecule’s π system and establish a simple graphical scheme to predict...

  9. Structure of cleaved (001) USb2 single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shao-ping [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hawley, Marilyn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bauer, Eric D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stockum, Phil B [STANFORD UNIV.; Manoharan, Hari C [STANFORD UNIV

    2009-01-01

    We have achieved what we believe to be the first atomic resolution STM images for a uranium compound taken at room temperature. The a, b, and c lattice parameters in the images confirm that the USb{sub 2} crystals cleave on the (001) basal plane as expected. The a and b dimensions were equal, with the atoms arranged in a cubic pattern. Our calculations indicate a symmetric cut between Sb planes to be the most favorable cleavage plane and U atoms to be responsible for most of the DOS measured by STM. Some strange features observed in the STM will be discussed in conjunction with ab initio calculations. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the power of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) techniques combined with a theoretical underpinning to determine the surface atomic structure and properties of actinide materials, such as the quasi 2-dimensional uranium dipnictide USb{sub 2} single crystal, thereby contributing to the understanding of their surface structural and electronic properties. The members of this interesting UX{sub 2} (X=P, As, Sb, Bi) series of compounds display dual localized and itinerant 5f electron behavior within the same compound due to the hybridization of the 5f orbitals with the conduction band. With the exception of UO{sub 2}, which has to be studied at elevated temperature to generate enough carriers for STM imaging, STM techniques have not been applied successfully to the characterization of the surface atomic structure of any other single crystal actinide compound, to the best of our knowledge. However, STM has been used to a limited extent for the study of some cerium compounds. STM probes electronic properties at the atomic level and can directly provide information about the local density of filled and empty states (LDOS) states simultaneously. A STM topograph provides the local atomic arrangement and spacing of the atoms on the surface, local defect structures (e.g. steps, vacancies, and kink sites) and the presence of contaminants

  10. Synthesis and characterization of single-phase Mn-doped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Dutta, S.; Banerjee, A.; Jana, D. [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009, West Bengal (India); Bandyopadhyay, S., E-mail: sbaphy@caluniv.ac.i [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009, West Bengal (India); Chattopadhyay, S. [Department of Physics, Taki Government College, Taki 743 429, West Bengal (India); Sarkar, A. [Department of Physics, Bangabasi Morning College, 19 Rajkumar Chakraborty Sarani, Kolkata 700 009, West Bengal (India)

    2009-05-01

    Different samples of Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O series have been prepared using conventional solid-state sintering method. We identified up to what extent doping will enable us to synthesize single-phase polycrystalline Mn-doped ZnO sample, which is one of the prerequisites for dilute magnetic semiconductor, and we have analyzed its some other physical aspects. In synthesizing the samples, proportion of Mn varies from 1 to 5 at%. However, the milling time varied (6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h) only for 2 at% Mn-doped samples while for other samples (1, 3, 4 and 5 at% Mn doped) the milling time has been fixed to 96 h. Room-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) data reveal that all of the prepared samples up to 3 at% of Mn doping exhibit wurtzite-type structure, and no segregation of Mn and/or its oxides has been found. The 4 at% Mn-doped samples show a weak peak of ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} apart from the other usual peaks of ZnO and the intensity of this impurity peak has been further increased for 5 at% of Mn doping. So beyond 3 at% doping, single-phase behavior is destroyed. Band gap for all the 2 at% Mn-doped samples has been estimated to be between 3.21 and 3.19 eV and the reason for this low band gap values has been explained through the grain boundary trapping model. The room-temperature resistivity measurement shows an increase of resistivity up to 48 h of milling and with further milling it saturates. The defect state of these samples has been investigated using the positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy technique. Here all the relevant lifetime parameters of positron i.e. free annihilation (tau{sub 1}) at defect site (tau{sub 2}) and average (tau{sub av}) increases with milling time.

  11. Diffusion in porous structures containing three fluid phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galani, A.N.; Kainourgiakis, M.E.; Stubos, A.K.; Kikkinides, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, the tracer diffusion in porous media filled by three fluid phases (a non-wetting, an intermediate wetting and a wetting phase) is investigated. The disordered porous structure of porous systems like random sphere packing and the North Sea chalk, is represented by three-dimensional binary images. The random sphere pack is generated by a standard ballistic deposition procedure, while the chalk matrix by a stochastic reconstruction technique. Physically sound spatial distributions of the three phases filling the pore space are determined by the use of a simulated annealing algorithm, where those phases are initially randomly distributed in the pore space and trial-and-error swaps are performed in order to attain the global minimum of the total interfacial energy. The acceptance rule for a trial move during the annealing is modified properly improving the efficiency of the technique. The diffusivities of the resulting domains are computed by a random walk method. A parametric study with respect to the pore volume fraction occupied by each fluid phase and the ratio of the diffusivities in the fluid phases is performed. (authors)

  12. Certain peculiarities of structural inheritance in phase recrystallization of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The structural inheritance in phase recrystallization of previously overheated to various temperatures industrially melted 40Kh steel and of Armco-iron has been investigated. The steels have been heated to 100O, 11O0, 1200 and 1260 deg C and cooled in the air, and in some instances, hardened (quenched) in water. The physical broadening of X-ray lines points to a nonmonotonous variation of fine structure parameters as a function of the temperature and the heating time. The inheritance effect of fine structure defects affects the steel properties obtained in a final heat treatment. The structural inheritance effect has an important bearing upon the wear resistance of steel. A purpose-oriented use of the structural inheritance effect can enhance service properties of steel parts

  13. Photon-counting-based diffraction phase microscopy combined with single-pixel imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Kyuki; Araki, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Tetsuo

    2018-04-01

    We propose a photon-counting (PC)-based quantitative-phase imaging (QPI) method for use in diffraction phase microscopy (DPM) that is combined with a single-pixel imaging (SPI) scheme (PC-SPI-DPM). This combination of DPM with the SPI scheme overcomes a low optical throughput problem that has occasionally prevented us from obtaining quantitative-phase images in DPM through use of a high-sensitivity single-channel photodetector such as a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The introduction of a PMT allowed us to perform PC with ease and thus solved a dynamic range problem that was inherent to SPI. As a proof-of-principle experiment, we performed a comparison study of analogue-based SPI-DPM and PC-SPI-DPM for a 125-nm-thick indium tin oxide (ITO) layer coated on a silica glass substrate. We discuss the basic performance of the method and potential future modifications of the proposed system.

  14. Control of the structural parameters in the (Zn – Zn16Ti single crystal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wołczyński

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The (Zn - single crystal was obtained by means of the Bridgman system. Several growth rates were applied during the experiment. The graphite crucible was used in order to perform the solidification process. The unidirectional solidification occurred with the presence of the moving temperature field. The thermal gradient was positive so that the constrained growth of the single crystal was ensured. The (Zn single crystal was doped with small addition of titanium and copper. The titanium formed an intermetallic compound Zn16-Ti. The copper was solved in the solid solution (Zn. The precipitates of (Zn and Zn16-Ti formed a stripes localized cyclically along the single crystal length. The intermetallic compound Zn16-Ti strengthened the (Zn single crystal. The structural transitions were observed in the stripes with the increasing solidification rate. Within the first range of the solidification rates ( the irregular L-shape rod-like intermetalliccompoundwas revealed. At the- threshold growth rate branches disappear continuously till the growth rate equal to. At the same range of growth rates the regular lamellar eutectic structure (Zn – Zn16-Ti appeared continuously and it existed exclusively till the second threshold growth rate equal to. Above the second threshold growth rate the regular rod-like eutectic structure was formed, only. Thegeneral theory for the stationary eutectic solidification was developed. According to this theory the eutectic structure localized within the stripes is formed under stationary state. Therefore, the criterion of the minimum entropy production defines well the stationary solidification. The entropy production was calculated for the regular rod-like eutectic structure formation and for the regular lamellar eutectic structure formation. It was postulated that the observed structure are subjected to the competition. That is why the structural transitionwere observed at therevealedthreshold growth rates.Moreover, it was

  15. Development of a single-phase thermosiphon for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dongliang; Martini, Christine Elizabeth; Jiang, Siyu; Ma, Yaoguang; Zhai, Yao; Tan, Gang; Yin, Xiaobo; Yang, Ronggui

    2017-11-01

    A single-phase thermosiphon is developed for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling. Compared to the conventional nocturnal radiative cooling systems that use an electric pump to drive the heat transfer fluid, the proposed single-phase thermosiphon uses the buoyancy force to drive heat transfer fluid. This solution does not require electricity, therefore improving the net gain of the radiative cooling system. A single-phase thermosiphon was built, which consists of a flat panel, a cold collection tank, a water return tube, and a water distribution tank. Considering that outdoor radiative cooling flux is constantly changing (i.e. uncontrollable), an indoor testing facility was developed to provide a controllable cooling flux (comparable to a radiative cooling flux of 100 W/m2) for the evaluation of thermosiphon performance. The testing apparatus is a chilled aluminum flat plate that has a controlled air gap separation relative to the flat panel surface of the thermosiphon to emulate radiative cooling. With an average of 105 W/m2 cooling flux, the 18 liters of water in the thermosiphon was cooled to an average temperature of 12.5 degrees C from an initial temperature of 22.2 degrees C in 2 h, with a cold collection efficiency of 96.8%. The results obtained have demonstrated the feasibility of using a single-phase thermosiphon for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling. Additionally, the effects of the thermosiphon operation conditions, such as tilt angle of the flat panel, initial water temperature, and cooling energy flux, on the performance have been experimentally investigated. Modular design of the single-phase thermosiphon gives flexibility for its scalability. A radiative cooling system with multiple thermosiphon modules is expected to play an important role in cooling buildings and power plant condensers.

  16. Influence of microstructure on low cycle fatigue in some single phase and biphasic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolarz, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, Centre SMS, URA CNRS 1884, Saint-Etienne (France)

    2004-07-01

    This overview deals with the effects of microstructural parameters in different single phase and biphasic stainless steels on short crack behaviour and on fatigue life in the low cycle regime. The effect of the grain size is investigated in a single phase austenitic stainless steel. Under plastic strain control, the fatigue life increases when the grain size decreases. The results are discussed by analysing the distributions of crack depths as a function of the grain size. The second type of material is a metastable austenitic steel which partially transforms into martensite during LCF at temperatures between -50 C and +120 C. The grain size of the initially single phase austenitic microstructure has a combined influence on the volume fraction of martensite produced during fatigue and on the fatigue life. In this case, the grain size effect is still considerable but totally indirect because all fatigue cracks grow exclusively in the martensite. The cyclic behaviour analysis in biphasic alloys in which two phases undergo plastic deformation during LCF is considerably more complex because the conventional concept of microstructural barriers cannot be applied. The possible damage patterns in a pair of grains with different mechanical properties are discussed on the example of a solution treated and aged superduplex austenitic-ferritic stainless steel (SDSS). The hardening of one phase (ferrite) through ageing at 475 C changes the cyclic behaviour of the initial ''quasi single phase'' microstructure. Consequently, the fatigue life under plastic strain control decreases compared with the solution treated SDSS. The discussion is focussed on LCF damage mechanisms at the microstructure size scale with a particular accent put on the propagation of short cracks in the bulk. All the microstructures exhibit some common features with respect to the behaviour of short cracks. In particular a strong effect of microstructural barriers in the bulk and the

  17. Two rhodamine 6G derivative compounds: a structural and fluorescence single-crystal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Matias; Bossi, Mariano L; Baggio, Ricardo; Suarez, Sebastián A

    2016-10-01

    The synthesis, characterization, structural analysis and fluorescence properties of two rhodamine 6G derivatives are described, namely a propargylamine derivative, 3',6'-bis(ethylamino)-2',7'-dimethyl-2-(methylcyanide)spiro[isoindole-1,9'-xanthen]-3(2H)-one (I), and a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) derivative, 3',6'-bis(ethylamino)-2',7'-dimethyl-3-oxospiro[isoindole-1,9'-xanthen]-2(3H)-yl)butyricacid (II). Both structures are compared with four similar ones from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD), and the interactions involved in the stabilization are analyzed using the atoms in molecules (AIM) theory. Finally, a single-crystal in-situ reaction study is presented, carried out by fluorescence methods, which enabled the `opening' of the spirolactam ring in the solid phase.

  18. Nonlinear evolution of single spike structure and vortex in Richtmeyer-Meshkov instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Yuko O.; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Okamoto, Masayo; Nagatomo, Hideo; Matsuoka, Chihiro; Ishizaki, Ryuichi; Sakagami, Hitoshi

    1999-01-01

    Nonlinear evolution of single spike structure and vortex in the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is investigated for two dimensional case, and axial symmetric and non axial symmetric cases with the use of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic code. It is shown that singularity appears in the vorticity left by transmitted and reflected shocks at a corrugated interface. This singularity results in opposite sign of vorticity along the interface that causes double spiral structure of the spike. Difference of nonlinear growth rate and double spiral structure among three cases is also discussed by visualization of simulation data. In a case that there is no slip-off of initial spike axis, vorticity ring is relatively stable, but phase rotation occurs. (author)

  19. Introducing site-specific cysteines into nanobodies for mercury labelling allows de novo phasing of their crystal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Simon Boje; Laursen, Nick Stub; Andersen, Gregers Rom

    2017-01-01

    of the presence of free cysteines in the target protein could considerably facilitate the process of obtaining unbiased experimental phases. Nanobodies (single-domain antibodies) have recently been shown to promote the crystallization and structure determination of flexible proteins and complexes. To extend...... phased using single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) and single isomorphous replacement with anomalous signal (SIRAS), taking advantage of radiation-induced changes in Cys-Hg bonding. Importantly, Hg labelling influenced neither the interaction of Nb36 with its antigen complement C5 nor its...

  20. Cationic Phospholipids Forming Cubic Phases: Lipoplex Structure and Transfection Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koynova, Rumiana; Wang, Li; MacDonald, Robert C. (NWU)

    2008-10-29

    The transfection activity and the phase behavior of two novel cationic O-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-hexylphosphocholine (C6-DOPC) and 1,2-dierucoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (di22:1-EPC), have been examined with the aim of more completely understanding the mechanism of lipid-mediated DNA delivery. Both lipids form cubic phases: C6-DOPC in the entire temperature range from -10 to 90 C, while di22:1-EPC exhibits an irreversible lamellar-cubic transition between 50 and 70 C on heating. The lipoplexes formed by C6-DOPC arrange into hexagonal phase, while the lipoplexes of di22:1-EPC are lamellar. Both lipids exhibit lower transfection activity than the lamellar-forming 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EDOPC). Thus, for the studied cationic phospholipid-DNA systems, the lipoplex phase state is a factor that does not seem to correlate with transfection activity. The parameter that exhibits better correlation with the transfection activity within the present data set is the phase state of the lipid dispersion prior to the addition of DNA. Thus, the lamellar lipid dispersion (EDOPC) produces more efficient lipoplexes than the dispersion with coexisting lamellar and cubic aggregates (diC22:1-EPC), which is even more efficient than the purely cubic dispersions (C6-DOPC; diC22:1-EPC after heating). It could be inferred from these data and from previous research that cubic phase lipid aggregates are unlikely to be beneficial to transfection. The lack of correlation between the phase state of lipoplexes and their transfection activity observed within the present data set does not mean that lipid phase state is generally unimportant for lipofection: a viewpoint now emerging from our previous studies is that the critical factor in lipid-mediated transfection is the structural evolution of lipoplexes within the cell, upon interacting and mixing with cellular lipids.

  1. Cationic phospholipids forming cubic phases: lipoplex structure and transfection efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koynova, Rumiana; Wang, Li; Macdonald, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    The transfection activity and the phase behavior of two novel cationic O-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines, 1,2-dioleoyl- sn-glycero-3-hexylphosphocholine (C6-DOPC) and 1,2-dierucoyl- sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (di22:1-EPC), have been examined with the aim of more completely understanding the mechanism of lipid-mediated DNA delivery. Both lipids form cubic phases: C6-DOPC in the entire temperature range from -10 to 90 degrees C, while di22:1-EPC exhibits an irreversible lamellar-cubic transition between 50 and 70 degrees C on heating. The lipoplexes formed by C6-DOPC arrange into hexagonal phase, while the lipoplexes of di22:1-EPC are lamellar. Both lipids exhibit lower transfection activity than the lamellar-forming 1,2-dioleoyl- sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EDOPC). Thus, for the studied cationic phospholipid-DNA systems, the lipoplex phase state is a factor that does not seem to correlate with transfection activity. The parameter that exhibits better correlation with the transfection activity within the present data set is the phase state of the lipid dispersion prior to the addition of DNA. Thus, the lamellar lipid dispersion (EDOPC) produces more efficient lipoplexes than the dispersion with coexisting lamellar and cubic aggregates (diC22:1-EPC), which is even more efficient than the purely cubic dispersions (C6-DOPC; diC22:1-EPC after heating). It could be inferred from these data and from previous research that cubic phase lipid aggregates are unlikely to be beneficial to transfection. The lack of correlation between the phase state of lipoplexes and their transfection activity observed within the present data set does not mean that lipid phase state is generally unimportant for lipofection: a viewpoint now emerging from our previous studies is that the critical factor in lipid-mediated transfection is the structural evolution of lipoplexes within the cell, upon interacting and mixing with cellular lipids.

  2. Liquid-Phase Deposition of Single-Phase Alpha-Copper-Indium-Diselenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, J.; Lucas, L.; Ernst, F.; Pirouz, P.; Hepp, A.; Bailey, S.

    2005-01-01

    The success of exploratory missions in outer space often depends on a highly efficient renewable energy supply, as provided by solar cells. Figure 1 shows a well-known example: The robotic vehicle "Rover," constructed for NASA s "Mars Pathfinder" mission. The solar cells for such applications not only need to have high conversion efficiency, but must possess a high specific power, thus a high power output per unit mass. Since future missions will demand for large aggregates of solar cells and space flights are expensive, the solar cells must furthermore be available at low costs (per unit power output) and - very important in outer space - have a long lifetime and a high resistance against structural damage introduced by irradiation with high-energy electrons and protons.

  3. Studies on Single-phase and Multi-phase Heat Pipe for LED Panel for Efficient Heat Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyshnave, K. C.; Rohit, G.; Maithreya, D. V. N. S.; Rakesh, S. G.

    2017-08-01

    The popularity of LED panel as a source of illumination has soared recently due to its high efficiency. However, the removal of heat that is produced in the chip is still a major challenge in its design since this has an adverse effect on its reliability. If high junction temperature develops, the colour of the emitted light may diminish over prolonged usage or even a colour shift may occur. In this paper, a solution has been developed to address this problem by using a combination of heat pipe and heat fin technology. A single-phase and a two-phase heat pipes have been designed theoretically and computational simulations carried out using ANSYS FLUENT. The results of the theoretical calculations and those obtained from the simulations are found to be in agreement with each other.

  4. Automated selection of the optimal cardiac phase for single-beat coronary CT angiography reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stassi, D.; Ma, H.; Schmidt, T. G.; Dutta, S.; Soderman, A.; Pazzani, D.; Gros, E.; Okerlund, D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Reconstructing a low-motion cardiac phase is expected to improve coronary artery visualization in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) exams. This study developed an automated algorithm for selecting the optimal cardiac phase for CCTA reconstruction. The algorithm uses prospectively gated, single-beat, multiphase data made possible by wide cone-beam imaging. The proposed algorithm differs from previous approaches because the optimal phase is identified based on vessel image quality (IQ) directly, compared to previous approaches that included motion estimation and interphase processing. Because there is no processing of interphase information, the algorithm can be applied to any sampling of image phases, making it suited for prospectively gated studies where only a subset of phases are available. Methods: An automated algorithm was developed to select the optimal phase based on quantitative IQ metrics. For each reconstructed slice at each reconstructed phase, an image quality metric was calculated based on measures of circularity and edge strength of through-plane vessels. The image quality metric was aggregated across slices, while a metric of vessel-location consistency was used to ignore slices that did not contain through-plane vessels. The algorithm performance was evaluated using two observer studies. Fourteen single-beat cardiac CT exams (Revolution CT, GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) reconstructed at 2% intervals were evaluated for best systolic (1), diastolic (6), or systolic and diastolic phases (7) by three readers and the algorithm. Pairwise inter-reader and reader-algorithm agreement was evaluated using the mean absolute difference (MAD) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) between the reader and algorithm-selected phases. A reader-consensus best phase was determined and compared to the algorithm selected phase. In cases where the algorithm and consensus best phases differed by more than 2%, IQ was scored by three

  5. Single-Carrier Modulation for Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters in Three-Phase Transformerless Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Cavalcanti, Marcelo C.; Farias, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-01

    Modulation strategy is one of the most important issues for three-level neutral-point-clamped inverters in three-phase transformerless photovoltaic systems. A challenge for modulation is how to keep the common-mode voltages constant to reduce the leakage currents. A single-carrier modulation...... strategy is proposed. It has a very simple structure, and the common-mode voltages can be kept constant with no need of complex space-vector modulation or multicarrier pulsewidth modulation. Experimental results verify the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the presented method....

  6. Twinning structures in near-stoichiometric lithium niobate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Shuhua; Chen, Yanfeng

    2010-01-01

    A near-stoichiometric lithium niobate single crystal has been grown by the Czochralski method in a hanging double crucible with a continuous powder supply system. Twins were found at one of the three characteristic growth ridges of the as-grown crystal. The twin structure was observed and analyzed by transmission synchrotron topography. The image shifts ΔX and ΔY in the transmission synchrotron topograph were calculated for the 3 anti 2 anti 12 and 0 anti 222 reflections based on results from high-resolution X-ray diffractometry. It is confirmed that one of the {01 anti 1 anti 2} m planes is the composition face of the twin and matrix crystals. The formation mechanism of these twins is discussed. (orig.)

  7. Hydrodynamics of single- and two-phase flow in inclined rod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todreas, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    Required inputs for thermal-hydraulic codes are constitutive relations for fluid-solid flow resistance, in single-phase flow, and interfacial momentum exchange (relative phase motion), in two-phase flow. An inclined rod array air-water experiment was constructed to study the hydrodynamics of multidimensional porous medium flow in rod arrays. Velocities, pressures, bubble distributions, and void fractions were measured in inline and rotational square rod arrays of P/d = 1.5, at 0, 30, 45, and 90 degree inclinations to the vertical flow direction. Constitutive models for single-phase flow resistance are reviewed, new comprehensive models developed, and an assessment with previously published and new data made. The principle of superimposing one-dimensional correlations proves successful for turbulent single-phase inclined flow. For bubbly two-phase yawed flow through incline rod arrays a new flow separation phenomena was observed and modeled. Bubbles of diameters significantly smaller than the rod diameter travel along the rod axis, while larger diameter bubbles move through the rod array gaps. The outcome is a flow separation not predictable with current interfacial momentum exchange models. This phenomenon was not observed in rotated square rod arrays. Current interfacial momentum exchange models were confirmed for this rod arrangement. Models for the two phase flow resistance multiplier for cross flow were reviewed and compared with data from cross and yawed flow rod arrays. Both drag and lift components of the multiplier were well predicted by the homogenous model. Other models reviewed overpredicted the data by a factor of two

  8. Thermal analysis of hybrid single-phase, two-phase and heat pump thermal control system (TCS) for future spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Mudawar, I.; Hasan, Mohammad M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid Thermal Control System (H-TCS) is proposed for future spacecraft. • Thermodynamic performance of H-TCS is examined for different space missions. • Operational modes including single-phase, two-phase and heat pump are explored. • R134a is deemed most appropriate working fluid. - Abstract: An urgent need presently exists to develop a new class of versatile spacecraft capable of conducting different types of missions and enduring varying gravitational and temperature environments, including Lunar, Martian and Near Earth Object (NEOs). This study concerns the spacecraft's Thermal Control System (TCS), which tackles heat acquisition, especially from crew and avionics, heat transport, and ultimate heat rejection by radiation. The primary goal of the study is to explore the design and thermal performance of a Hybrid Thermal Control System (H-TCS) that would satisfy the diverse thermal requirements of the different space missions. The H-TCS must endure both ‘cold’ and ‘hot’ environments, reduce weight and size, and enhance thermodynamic performance. Four different operational modes are considered: single-phase, two-phase, basic heat pump and heat pump with liquid-side, suction-side heat exchanger. A thermodynamic trade study is conducted for six different working fluids to assess important performance parameters including mass flow rate of the working fluid, maximum pressure, radiator area, compressor/pump work, and coefficient of performance (COP). R134a is determined to be most suitable based on its ability to provide a balanced compromise between reducing flow rate and maintaining low system pressure, and a moderate coefficient of performance (COP); this fluid is also both nontoxic and nonflammable, and features zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) and low global warming potential (GWP). It is shown how specific mission stages dictate which mode of operation is most suitable, and this information is used to size the radiator for the

  9. Crystal structure and phase transitions of sodium potassium niobate perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, J.; Malic, B.; Dkhil, B.; Jenko, D.; Cilensek, J.; Kosec, M.

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents the crystal structure and the phase transitions of K xNa 1- xNbO 3 (0.4 ≤ x ≤ 0.6). X-ray diffraction measurements were used to follow the change of the unit-cell parameters and the symmetry in the temperature range 100-800 K. At room temperature all the compositions exhibited a monoclinic metric of the unit cell with a small monoclinic distortion (90.32° ≤ β ≤ 90.34°). No major change of symmetry was evidenced in the investigated compositional range, which should be characteristic of the morphotropic phase-boundary region. With increasing temperature, the samples underwent first-order monoclinic-tetragonal and tetragonal-cubic transitions. Only the potassium-rich phases were rhombohedral at 100 K.

  10. Hamiltonian flow over saddles for exploring molecular phase space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farantos, Stavros C.

    2018-03-01

    Despite using potential energy surfaces, multivariable functions on molecular configuration space, to comprehend chemical dynamics for decades, the real happenings in molecules occur in phase space, in which the states of a classical dynamical system are completely determined by the coordinates and their conjugate momenta. Theoretical and numerical results are presented, employing alanine dipeptide as a model system, to support the view that geometrical structures in phase space dictate the dynamics of molecules, the fingerprints of which are traced by following the Hamiltonian flow above saddles. By properly selecting initial conditions in alanine dipeptide, we have found internally free rotor trajectories the existence of which can only be justified in a phase space perspective. This article is part of the theme issue `Modern theoretical chemistry'.

  11. Temperature effect on phase states of quartz nano-crystals in silicon single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalanov, M.U.; Ibragimova, E.M.; Khamraeva, R.N.; Rustamova, V.M.; Ummatov, Kh.D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Oxygen penetrates into the silicon lattice up to the concentration of 2·10 18 cm -3 in the course of growing [1]. By the author's opinion at a low oxygen content the formation of solid solution is possible in the local defect places of the silicon single crystal lattice due to the difference in effective ion radius of oxygen and silicon (r O 0.176 and r Si = 0.065 nm). Upon reaching some critical content (∼ 10 17 cm -3 ), it becomes favorable energetically for oxygen ions to form precipitates (SiO x ) and finally a dielectric layer (stoichiometric inclusions of SiO 2 ). It was shown later that depending on the growth conditions, indeed the quartz crystal inclusions are formed in the silicon single crystals at an amount of 0.3 /0.5 wt. % [2]. However the authors did not study a phase state of the quartz inclusions. Therefore the aim of this work was to study a phase state of the quartz inclusions in silicon crystal at various temperatures. We examined the silicon single crystals grown by Czochralski technique, which were cut in (111) plane in the form of disk of 20 mm diameter and 1.5 thickness and had hole conductivity with the specific resistance ρ o ≅ 1/10 Ohm cm. The dislocation density was N D ≅ 10 1 /10 3 cm -2 , the concentrations of oxygen and boron were N 0 ≅ 2/ 4·10 17 cm -3 and N B ≅ 3*10 15 cm -3 . Structure was analyzed at the set-up DRON-UM1 with high temperature supply UVD-2000 ( CuK = 0.1542 nm) at the temperatures of 300, 1173 and 1573 K measured with platinum-platinum-rhodium thermocouple. The high temperature diffraction spectrum measured at 1573 K in the angle range (2Θ≅10/70 d egree ) there is only one main structure reflection (111) with a high intensity and d/n ≅ 0.3136 nm (2 Θ≅ 28.5 d egree ) from the matrix lattice of silicon single crystal. The weak line at 2 Θ≅ 25.5 d egree ( d/n≅0.3136 nm) is β component of the main reflection (111), and the weak structure peak at 2Θ≅59 d egree ( d/n≅ 0.1568 nm

  12. Scaling of the steady state and stability behaviour of single and two-phase natural circulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, P.K.; Nayak, A.K.; Bade, M.H.; Kumar, N.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Scaling methods for both single-phase and two-phase natural circulation systems have been presented. For single-phase systems, simulation of the steady state flow can be achieved by preserving just one nondimensional parameter. For uniform diameter two-phase systems also, it is possible to simulate the steady state behaviour with just one non-dimensional parameter. Simulation of the stability behaviour requires geometric similarity in addition to the similarity of the physical parameters appearing in the governing equations. The scaling laws proposed have been tested with experimental data in case of single-phase natural circulation. (author)

  13. First-order phase transitions in CaFe2As2 single crystal: a local probe study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzamora, M; Munevar, J; Baggio-Saitovitch, E; Bud'ko, S L; Ni Ni; Canfield, P C; Sanchez, D R

    2011-01-01

    57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy has been used to investigate the structural and magnetic phase transitions of CaFe 2 As 2 (T N = 173 K) single crystals. For this compound we found that V ZZ is positive and parallel to the c-axis of the tetragonal structure. For CaFe 2 As 2 a magnetic hyperfine field B hf was observed at the 57 Fe nucleus below T N ∼ 173 K. Analysis of the temperature dependence of B hf data using the Bean-Rodbell model shows that the Fe spins undergo a first-order magnetic transition at ∼ 173 K. A collinear antiferromagnetic structure is established below this temperature with the Fe spin lying in the (a, b) plane. Below T N the paramagnetic fraction of Fe decreases down to 150 K and for lower temperatures all the Fe spins are magnetically ordered.

  14. Optical π phase shift created with a single-photon pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiarks, Daniel; Schmidt, Steffen; Rempe, Gerhard; Dürr, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    A deterministic photon-photon quantum logic gate is a long-standing goal. Building such a gate becomes possible if a light pulse containing only one photon imprints a phase shift of π onto another light field. We experimentally demonstrate the generation of such a π phase shift with a single-photon pulse. A first light pulse containing less than one photon on average is stored in an atomic gas. Rydberg blockade combined with electromagnetically induced transparency creates a phase shift for a second light pulse, which propagates through the medium. We measure the π phase shift of the second pulse when we postselect the data upon the detection of a retrieved photon from the first pulse. This demonstrates a crucial step toward a photon-photon gate and offers a variety of applications in the field of quantum information processing.

  15. Rapid synthesis of single-phase bismuth ferrite by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Wenqian [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Chen, Zhi, E-mail: zchen0@gmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Gao, Tong; Zhou, Dantong; Leng, Xiaonan; Niu, Feng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhu, Yuxiang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Chemistry, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin (China); Qin, Laishun, E-mail: qinlaishun@yeah.net [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang, Jiangying; Huang, Yuexiang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes on the fast synthesis of bismuth ferrite by the simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The phase transformation and the preferred growth facets during the synthetic process have been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Bismuth ferrite can be quickly prepared by microwave hydrothermal method by simply controlling the reaction time, which is further confirmed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and magnetic measurement. - Graphical abstract: Single-phase BiFeO{sub 3} could be realized at a shortest reaction time of 65 min. The reaction time has strong influences on the phase transformation and the preferred growth facets. - Highlights: • Rapid synthesis (65 min) of BiFeO{sub 3} by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. • Reaction time has influence on the purity and preferred growth facets. • FTIR and magnetic measurement further confirm the pure phase.

  16. Single-reactor process for producing liquid-phase organic compounds from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; Simonetti, Dante A [Middleton, WI; Kunkes, Edward L [Madison, WI

    2011-12-13

    Disclosed is a method for preparing liquid fuel and chemical intermediates from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. The method includes the steps of reacting in a single reactor an aqueous solution of a biomass-derived, water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon reactant, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, at a temperature, and a pressure, and for a time sufficient to yield a self-separating, three-phase product stream comprising a vapor phase, an organic phase containing linear and/or cyclic mono-oxygenated hydrocarbons, and an aqueous phase.

  17. Rapid synthesis of single-phase bismuth ferrite by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wenqian; Chen, Zhi; Gao, Tong; Zhou, Dantong; Leng, Xiaonan; Niu, Feng; Zhu, Yuxiang; Qin, Laishun; Wang, Jiangying; Huang, Yuexiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes on the fast synthesis of bismuth ferrite by the simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The phase transformation and the preferred growth facets during the synthetic process have been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Bismuth ferrite can be quickly prepared by microwave hydrothermal method by simply controlling the reaction time, which is further confirmed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and magnetic measurement. - Graphical abstract: Single-phase BiFeO_3 could be realized at a shortest reaction time of 65 min. The reaction time has strong influences on the phase transformation and the preferred growth facets. - Highlights: • Rapid synthesis (65 min) of BiFeO_3 by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. • Reaction time has influence on the purity and preferred growth facets. • FTIR and magnetic measurement further confirm the pure phase.

  18. Single-Cycle Terahertz Pulse Generation from OH1 Crystal via Cherenkov Phase Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hirohisa; Oota, Kengo; Okimura, Koutarou; Kawase, Kodo; Takeya, Kei

    2018-06-01

    OH1 crystal is an organic nonlinear optical crystal with a large nonlinear optical constant. However, it has dispersion of refractive indices in the terahertz (THz) frequency. This limits the frequencies that satisfy the phase matching conditions for THz wave generation. In this study, we addressed the phase matching conditions for THz wave generation by combining an OH1 crystal with prism-coupled Cherenkov phase matching. We observed the generation of single-cycle THz pulses with a spectrum covering a frequency range of 3 THz. These results prove that combining prism-coupled Cherenkov phase matching with nonlinear optical crystals yields a THz wave generation method that is insusceptible to crystal dispersion.

  19. Investigation on phase noise of the signal from a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinxia, Feng; Yuanji, Li; Kuanshou, Zhang

    2018-04-01

    The phase noise of the signal from a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) is investigated theoretically and experimentally. An SRO based on periodically poled lithium niobate is built up that generates the signal with a maximum power of 5.2 W at 1.5 µm. The intensity noise of the signal reaches the shot noise level for frequencies above 5 MHz. The phase noise of the signal oscillates depending on the analysis frequency, and there are phase noise peaks above the shot noise level at the peak frequencies. To explain the phase noise feature of the signal, a semi-classical theoretical model of SROs including the guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering effect within the nonlinear crystal is developed. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  20. Room Temperature Monoclinic Phase in BaTiO3 Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denev, Sava; Kumar, Amit; Barnes, Andrew; Vlahos, Eftihia; Shepard, Gabriella; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2010-03-01

    BaTiO3 is a well studied ferroelectric material for the last half century. It is well known to show phase transitions to tetragonal, orthorhombic and rhombohedral phases upon cooling. Yet, some old and some recent studies have argued that all these phases co-exist with a second phase with monoclinic distortion. Using optical second harmonic generation (SHG) at room temperature we directly present evidence for such monoclininc phase co-existing with tetragonal phase at room temperature. We observe domains with the expected tetragonal symmetry exhibiting 90^o and 180^o domain walls. However, at points of higher stress at the tips of the interpenetrating tetragonal domains we observe a well pronounced metastable ``staircase pattern'' with a micron-scale fine structure. Polarization studies show that this phase can be explained only by monoclinic symmetry. This phase is very sensitive to external perturbations such as temperature and fields, hence stabilizing this phase at room temperature could lead to large properties' tunability.

  1. Phase synchronization on small-world networks with community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Hua, Wang; Li-Cheng, Jiao; Jian-She, Wu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple model that can generate small-world network with community structure. The network is introduced as a tunable community organization with parameter r, which is directly measured by the ratio of inter- to intra-community connectivity, and a smaller r corresponds to a stronger community structure. The structure properties, including the degree distribution, clustering, the communication efficiency and modularity are also analysed for the network. In addition, by using the Kuramoto model, we investigated the phase synchronization on this network, and found that increasing the fuzziness of community structure will markedly enhance the network synchronizability; however, in an abnormal region (r ≤ 0.001), the network has even worse synchronizability than the case of isolated communities (r = 0). Furthermore, this network exhibits a remarkable synchronization behaviour in topological scales: the oscillators of high densely interconnected communities synchronize more easily, and more rapidly than the whole network. (general)

  2. Invariant molecular-dynamics approach to structural phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wentzcovitch, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Two fictitious Lagrangians to be used in molecular-dynamics simulations with variable cell shape and suitable to study problems like structural phase transitions are introduced. Because they are invariant with respect to the choice of the simulation cell edges and eliminate symmetry breaking associated with the fictitious part of the dynamics, they improve the physical content of numerical simulations that up to now have been done by using Parrinello-Rahman dynamics

  3. Charge density wave instabilities and incommensurate structural phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axe, J.D.

    1977-10-01

    Incommensurate structural phase transformations involve the appearance of modulated atomic displacements with spatial periodicity unrelated to the fundamental periodicity of the basic lattice. In the case of some quasi one- or two-dimensional metals such transformations are the result of Fermi-surface instabilities that also produce electronic charge density waves (CDW's) and soft phonon modes due to metallic electron screening singularities. Incommensurate soft mode instabilities have been found in insulators as well. Recent neutron scattering studies of both the statics and dynamics of incommensurate structural instabilities will be reviewed

  4. Elucidating the vacuum structure of the Aoki phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azcoiti, Vicente; Di Carlo, Giuseppe; Follana, Eduardo; Vaquero, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the vacuum structure of QCD with two flavors of Wilson fermions, inside the Aoki phase. We provide numerical evidence, coming from HMC simulations in 4 4 , 6 4 and 8 4 lattices, supporting a vacuum structure for this model at strong coupling more complex than the one assumed in the standard wisdom, with new vacua where the expectation value of iψ ¯ γ 5 ψ can take non-zero values, and which can not be connected with the Aoki vacua by parity–flavor symmetry transformations

  5. Optimal multi-photon phase sensing with a single interference fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, G. Y.; Hofmann, H. F.; Pryde, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum entanglement can help to increase the precision of optical phase measurements beyond the shot noise limit (SNL) to the ultimate Heisenberg limit. However, the N-photon parity measurements required to achieve this optimal sensitivity are extremely difficult to realize with current photon detection technologies, requiring high-fidelity resolution of N + 1 different photon distributions between the output ports. Recent experimental demonstrations of precision beyond the SNL have therefore used only one or two photon-number detection patterns instead of parity measurements. Here we investigate the achievable phase sensitivity of the simple and efficient single interference fringe detection technique. We show that the maximally-entangled “NOON” state does not achieve optimal phase sensitivity when N > 4, rather, we show that the Holland-Burnett state is optimal. We experimentally demonstrate this enhanced sensitivity using a single photon-counted fringe of the six-photon Holland-Burnett state. Specifically, our single-fringe six-photon measurement achieves a phase variance three times below the SNL. PMID:24067490

  6. Effects of temperature and void on the dynamics and microstructure of structural transition in single crystal iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jian-Li; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Feng-Guo; He, An-Min

    2018-06-01

    With classic molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the effects of temperature and void on the bcc to hcp/fcc structural transition in single crystal iron driven by 1D ([0 0 1]) and 3D (uniform) compressions. The results show that the pressure threshold does not reduce monotonously with temperature. The pressure threshold firstly increases and then decreases in the range of 60–360 K under 1D compression, while the variation trend is just opposite under 3D compression. As expected, the initial defect may lower the pressure threshold via heterogenous nucleation. This effect is found to be more distinct at lower temperature, and the heterogenous nucleation mainly results in hcp structure. Under the condition of strain constraint, the products of structural transition will respectively form flaky hcp twin structure ((1 0 0) or (0 1 0)) and lamellar structure ({1 1 0}) of mixed phases under 1D and 3D compressions. During the structural transition, we find the shear stress (1D compression) of hcp phase is always lower than that of bcc phase. The cold energy calculations indicate that the hcp phase is the most stable under high pressure. However, we observe the evident metastable state of bcc phase, whose energy will be much higher than both hcp and fcc phases, and then provides the possibility for the occurrence of fcc nucleation.

  7. Non-Resonant Magnetoelectric Energy Harvesting Utilizing Phase Transformation in Relaxor Ferroelectric Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Finkel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in phase transition transduction enabled the design of a non-resonant broadband mechanical energy harvester that is capable of delivering an energy density per cycle up to two orders of magnitude larger than resonant cantilever piezoelectric type generators. This was achieved in a [011] oriented and poled domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal, mechanically biased to a state just below the ferroelectric rhombohedral (FR-ferroelectric orthorhombic (FO phase transformation. Therefore, a small variation in an input parameter, e.g., electrical, mechanical, or thermal will generate a large output due to the significant polarization change associated with the transition. This idea was extended in the present work to design a non-resonant, multi-domain magnetoelectric composite hybrid harvester comprised of highly magnetostrictive alloy, [Fe81.4Ga18.6 (Galfenol or TbxDy1-xFe2 (Terfenol-D], and lead indium niobate–lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. A small magnetic field applied to the coupled device causes the magnetostrictive element to expand, and the resulting stress forces the phase change in the relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. We have demonstrated high energy conversion in this magnetoelectric device by triggering the FR-FO transition in the single crystal by a small ac magnetic field in a broad frequency range that is important for multi-domain hybrid energy harvesting devices.

  8. Two-phase flow induced parametric vibrations in structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Fumio

    1980-01-01

    This paper is divided into two parts concerning piping systems and a nuclear fuel pin system. The significant experimental results concerning the random vibration induced in an L-shaped pipe by air-water two-phase flow and the theoretical analysis of the vibration are described in the first part. It was clarified for the first time that the parametric excitation due to the periodic changes of system mass, centrifugal force and Coriolis force was the mechanism of exciting the vibration. Moreover, the experimental and theoretical analyses of the mechanism of exciting vibration by air-water two-phase flow in a straight, horizontal pipe were carried out, and the first natural frequency of the piping system was strongly related to the dominant frequency of void signals. The experimental results on the vibration of a nuclear fuel pin model in parallel air-water two-phase flow are reported in the latter part. The relations between vibrational strain variance and two-phase flow velocity or pressure fluctuation, and the frequency characteristics of vibrational strain variance were obtained. The theoretical analysis of the dynamic interaction between air-water two-phase flow and a fuel pin structure, and the vibrational instability of fuel pins in alternate air and water slugs or in large bubble flow are also reported. (Kako, I.)

  9. Duality, phase structures, and dilemmas in symmetric quantum games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Tsutsui, Izumi

    2007-01-01

    Symmetric quantum games for 2-player, 2-qubit strategies are analyzed in detail by using a scheme in which all pure states in the 2-qubit Hilbert space are utilized for strategies. We consider two different types of symmetric games exemplified by the familiar games, the Battle of the Sexes (BoS) and the Prisoners' Dilemma (PD). These two types of symmetric games are shown to be related by a duality map, which ensures that they share common phase structures with respect to the equilibria of the strategies. We find eight distinct phase structures possible for the symmetric games, which are determined by the classical payoff matrices from which the quantum games are defined. We also discuss the possibility of resolving the dilemmas in the classical BoS, PD, and the Stag Hunt (SH) game based on the phase structures obtained in the quantum games. It is observed that quantization cannot resolve the dilemma fully for the BoS, while it generically can for the PD and SH if appropriate correlations for the strategies of the players are provided

  10. Low-temperature structural phase transition in synthetic libethenite Cu2PO4OH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belik, Alexei A.; Naumov, Pance; Kim, Jungeun; Tsuda, Shunsuke

    2011-01-01

    Low-temperature structural properties of the synthetic mineral libethenite Cu 2 PO 4 OH were investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, specific heat measurements, and Raman spectroscopy. A second-order structural phase transition from the Pnnm symmetry (a=8.0553(8) A, b=8.3750(9) A, c=5.8818(6) A at 180 K) to the P2 1 /n symmetry (a=8.0545(8) A, b=8.3622(9) A, c=5.8755(6) A, β=90.0012(15) at 120 K) was found at 160 K during cooling. At 120 K, the monoclinic angle is 90.0012(15) from single crystal X-ray data vs 90.083(1) from powder X-ray diffraction data. The P2 1 /n-to-Pnnm transition may be a general feature of the adamite-type compounds, M 2 XO 4 OH. - Graphical Abstract: Fragments of experimental synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction patterns of Cu 2 PO 4 OH between 100 and 280 K. Arrows show additional reflections that appear below 160 K in the monoclinic P2 1 /n phase. Highlights: → A low-temperature phase transition was found in the mineral libethenite Cu 2 PO 4 OH. → No magnetic anomalies and weak specific heat anomalies are detected. → Phase transition is of the second order. → Libethenite may exemplify a general feature of the adamite-type compounds.

  11. Single-image phase retrieval using an edge illumination X-ray phase-contrast imaging setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diemoz, Paul C., E-mail: p.diemoz@ucl.ac.uk; Vittoria, Fabio A. [University College London, London WC1 E6BT (United Kingdom); Research Complex at Harwell, Oxford Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); Hagen, Charlotte K.; Endrizzi, Marco [University College London, London WC1 E6BT (United Kingdom); Coan, Paola [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich 81377 (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Garching 85748 (Germany); Brun, Emmanuel [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Garching 85748 (Germany); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble 38043 (France); Wagner, Ulrich H.; Rau, Christoph [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Oxford Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Robinson, Ian K. [Research Complex at Harwell, Oxford Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, London WC1 H0AH (United Kingdom); Bravin, Alberto [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble 38043 (France); Olivo, Alessandro [University College London, London WC1 E6BT (United Kingdom); Research Complex at Harwell, Oxford Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-25

    A method enabling the retrieval of thickness or projected electron density of a sample from a single input image is derived theoretically and successfully demonstrated on experimental data. A method is proposed which enables the retrieval of the thickness or of the projected electron density of a sample from a single input image acquired with an edge illumination phase-contrast imaging setup. The method assumes the case of a quasi-homogeneous sample, i.e. a sample with a constant ratio between the real and imaginary parts of its complex refractive index. Compared with current methods based on combining two edge illumination images acquired in different configurations of the setup, this new approach presents advantages in terms of simplicity of acquisition procedure and shorter data collection time, which are very important especially for applications such as computed tomography and dynamical imaging. Furthermore, the fact that phase information is directly extracted, instead of its derivative, can enable a simpler image interpretation and be beneficial for subsequent processing such as segmentation. The method is first theoretically derived and its conditions of applicability defined. Quantitative accuracy in the case of homogeneous objects as well as enhanced image quality for the imaging of complex biological samples are demonstrated through experiments at two synchrotron radiation facilities. The large range of applicability, the robustness against noise and the need for only one input image suggest a high potential for investigations in various research subjects.

  12. Protein Data Bank (PDB): The Single Global Macromolecular Structure Archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Stephen K; Berman, Helen M; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Markley, John L; Nakamura, Haruki; Velankar, Sameer

    2017-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB)--the single global repository of experimentally determined 3D structures of biological macromolecules and their complexes--was established in 1971, becoming the first open-access digital resource in the biological sciences. The PDB archive currently houses ~130,000 entries (May 2017). It is managed by the Worldwide Protein Data Bank organization (wwPDB; wwpdb.org), which includes the RCSB Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB; rcsb.org), the Protein Data Bank Japan (PDBj; pdbj.org), the Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe; pdbe.org), and BioMagResBank (BMRB; www.bmrb.wisc.edu). The four wwPDB partners operate a unified global software system that enforces community-agreed data standards and supports data Deposition, Biocuration, and Validation of ~11,000 new PDB entries annually (deposit.wwpdb.org). The RCSB PDB currently acts as the archive keeper, ensuring disaster recovery of PDB data and coordinating weekly updates. wwPDB partners disseminate the same archival data from multiple FTP sites, while operating complementary websites that provide their own views of PDB data with selected value-added information and links to related data resources. At present, the PDB archives experimental data, associated metadata, and 3D-atomic level structural models derived from three well-established methods: crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and electron microscopy (3DEM). wwPDB partners are working closely with experts in related experimental areas (small-angle scattering, chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry, Forster energy resonance transfer or FRET, etc.) to establish a federation of data resources that will support sustainable archiving and validation of 3D structural models and experimental data derived from integrative or hybrid methods.

  13. Routine phasing of coiled-coil protein crystal structures with AMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens M. H. Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coiled-coil protein folds are among the most abundant in nature. These folds consist of long wound α-helices and are architecturally simple, but paradoxically their crystallographic structures are notoriously difficult to solve with molecular-replacement techniques. The program AMPLE can solve crystal structures by molecular replacement using ab initio search models in the absence of an existent homologous protein structure. AMPLE has been benchmarked on a large and diverse test set of coiled-coil crystal structures and has been found to solve 80% of all cases. Successes included structures with chain lengths of up to 253 residues and resolutions down to 2.9 Å, considerably extending the limits on size and resolution that are typically tractable by ab initio methodologies. The structures of two macromolecular complexes, one including DNA, were also successfully solved using their coiled-coil components. It is demonstrated that both the ab initio modelling and the use of ensemble search models contribute to the success of AMPLE by comparison with phasing attempts using single structures or ideal polyalanine helices. These successes suggest that molecular replacement with AMPLE should be the method of choice for the crystallographic elucidation of a coiled-coil structure. Furthermore, AMPLE may be able to exploit the presence of a coiled coil in a complex to provide a convenient route for phasing.

  14. Deuterium resonance of KD3(SeO3)2 single crystals above and below phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, S.; Mecke, H.D.; Shuvalov, L.A.

    1978-01-01

    Deuterium resonance investigations of KD 3 (SeO 3 ) 2 single crystals are performed both in the paraelectric and ferroelastic phase. The electric quadrupole coupling constants lie between 120 and 180 kHz. The directions of the qsub(zz)-components of the EFG-tensors are in good agreement with the hydrogen bond directions determined by X-ray structure analysis and neutron scattering. There are two types of hydrogen bonds with different behaviour at phase transition. The O(2)...H...O(2) bond shows an order-disorder process in contrast to the O(3)-H...O(1) bond being present below Tsub(c) in two bond lengths. The first bond turns out of the ac-plane by the monoclinic angle. The temperature dependence of the spectra is examined at a defined orientation between room temperature and -40 0 C. (author)

  15. Phase transition sequence in ferroelectric Aurivillius compounds investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullay, P.; Tellier, J.; Mercurio, D.; Manier, M.; Zuñiga, F. J.; Perez-Mato, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    The investigation of the phase transition sequence in SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) and SrBi2Nb2O9 (SBN) is reported using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. By monitoring specific reflections as a function of temperature, sensitive either to the superstructure formation or to polar displacements, it was possible to check the existence or not of an intermediate phase. This latter was confirmed in SBT, but within experimental accuracy could not be detected in SBN.

  16. Reaction kinetics of oxygen on single-phase alloys, oxidation of nickel and niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalauze, Rene

    1973-01-01

    This research thesis first addresses the reaction kinetics of oxygen on alloys. It presents some generalities on heterogeneous reactions (conventional theory, theory of jumps), discusses the core reaction (with the influence of pressure), discusses the influence of metal self-diffusion on metal oxidation kinetics (equilibrium conditions at the interface, hybrid diffusion regime), reports the application of the hybrid diffusion model to the study of selective oxidation of alloys (Wagner model, hybrid diffusion model) and the study of the oxidation kinetics of an alloy forming a solid solution of two oxides. The second part reports the investigation of the oxidation of single phase nickel and niobium alloys (phase α, β and γ)

  17. Dispersed single-phase-step Michelson interferometer for Doppler imaging using sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian

    2012-09-15

    A Michelson interferometer is dispersed with a fiber array-fed spectrograph, providing 59 Doppler sensing channels using sunlight in the 510-570 nm wavelength region. The interferometer operates at a single-phase-step mode, which is particularly advantageous in multiplexing and data processing compared to the phase-stepping mode of other interferometer spectrometer instruments. Spectral templates are prepared using a standard solar spectrum and simulated interferometer modulations, such that the correlation function with a measured 1D spectrum determines the Doppler shift. Doppler imaging of a rotating cylinder is demonstrated. The average Doppler sensitivity is ~12 m/s, with some channels reaching ~5 m/s.

  18. Benchmarking of small-signal dynamics of single-phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chong; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Phase-looked Loop (PLL) is a critical component for the control and grid synchronization of grid-connected power converters. This paper presents a benchmarking study on the small-signal dynamics of three commonly used PLLs for single-phase converters, including enhanced PLL, second......-order generalized integrator based PLL, and the inverse-PLL. First, a unified small-signal model of those PLLs is established for comparing their dynamics. Then, a systematic design guideline for parameters tuning of the PLLs is formulated. To confirm the validity of theoretical analysis, nonlinear time...

  19. Crystal growth and electronic structure of low-temperature phase SrMgF{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atuchin, Victor V. [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Functional Electronics Laboratory, Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Semiconductor and Dielectric Materials, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Goloshumova, Alina A. [Laboratory of Crystal Growth, Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Isaenko, Ludmila I. [Laboratory of Semiconductor and Dielectric Materials, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Crystal Growth, Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Jiang, Xingxing [BCCRD, Key Laboratory of Functional Crystals and Laser Technology, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Lobanov, Sergey I. [Laboratory of Crystal Growth, Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Zhang, Zhaoming [Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Lin, Zheshuai, E-mail: zslin@mail.ipc.ac.cn [BCCRD, Key Laboratory of Functional Crystals and Laser Technology, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Using the vertical Bridgman method, the single crystal of low temperature phase SrMgF{sub 4} is obtained. The crystal is in a very good optical quality with the size of 10×7×5 mm{sup 3}. Detailed photoemission spectra of the element core levels are determined by a monochromatic AlKa (1486.6 eV) X-ray source. Moreover, the first-principles calculations are performed to investigate the electronic structure of SrMgF{sub 4}. A good agreement between experimental and calculated results is achieved. It is demonstrated that almost all the electronic orbitals are strongly localized and the hybridization with the others is very small, but the Mg–F bonds covalency is relatively stronger than that of Sr–F bonds. - Graphical abstract: Large size of low-temperature phase SrMgF{sub 4} crystal was obtained (right) and its electronic structure was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles calculation (left). - Highlights: • Large size single crystal of low-temperature phase SrMgF{sub 4} is obtained. • Electronic structure of SrMgF{sub 4} is measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. • Partial densities of states are determined by first-principles calculation. • Good agreement between experimental and calculated results is achieved. • Strong ionic characteristics of chemical bonds are exhibited in SrMgF{sub 4}.

  20. State-Space Equations and the First-Phase Algorithm for Signal Control of Single Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jinyuan; PAN Xin; WANG Xiqin

    2007-01-01

    State-space equations were applied to formulate the queuing and delay of traffic at a single intersection in this paper. The signal control of a single intersection was then modeled as a discrete-time optimal control problem, with consideration of the constraints of stream conflicts, saturation flow rate, minimum green time, and maximum green time. The problem cannot be solved directly due to the nonlinear constraints.However, the results of qualitative analysis were used to develop a first-phase signal control algorithm. Simulation results show that the algorithm substantially reduces the total delay compared to fixed-time control.

  1. Self-phase modulation of a single-cycle THz pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate self-phase modulation (SPM) of a single-cycle THz pulse in a semiconductor, using bulk n-GaAs as a model system. The SPM arises from the heating of free electrons in the electric field of the THz pulse. Electron heating leads to an ultrafast reduction of the plasma frequency, which...... results in a strong modification of the THz-range dielectric function of the material. THz SPM is observed directly in the time domain as a characteristic reshaping of single-cycle THz pulse. In the frequency domain, it corresponds to a strong frequency-dependent refractive index nonlinearity of n...

  2. Single-crystal structure determination of hydrous minerals and insights into a wet deep lower mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Yuan, H.; Meng, Y.; Popov, D.

    2017-12-01

    Water enters the Earth's interior through hydrated subducting slabs. How deep within the lower mantle (670-2900 km depth) can water be transported down and stored depends upon the availability of hydrous phases that is thermodynamically stable under the high P-T conditions and have a sufficiently high density to sink through the lower mantle. Phase H [MgSiH2O4] (1) and the δ-AlOOH (2) form solid solutions that are stable in the deep lower mantle (3), but the solid solution phase is 10% lighter than the corresponding lower mantle. Recent experimental discoveries of the pyrite (Py) structured FeO2 and FeOOH (4-6) suggest that these Fe-enriched phases can be transported to the deepest lower mantle owing to their high density. We have further discovered a very dense hydrous phase in (Fe,Al)OOH with a previously unknown hexagonal symmetry and this phase is stable relative to the Py-phase under extreme high P-T conditions in the deep lower mantle. Through in situ multigrain analysis (7) and single-crystal structure determination of the hydrous minerals at P-Tconditions of the deep lower mantle, we can obtain detailed structure information of the hydrous phases and therefore provide insights into the hydration mechanism in the deep lower mantle. These highly stable hydrous minerals extend the water cycle at least to the depth of 2900 km. 1. M. Nishi et al., Nature Geoscience 7, 224-227 (2014). 2. E. Ohtani, K. Litasov, A. Suzuki, T. Kondo, Geophysical Research Letters 28, 3991-3993 (2001). 3. I. Ohira et al., Earth and Planetary Science Letters 401, 12-17 (2014). 4. Q. Hu et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114, 1498-1501 (2017). 5. M. Nishi, Y. Kuwayama, J. Tsuchiya, T. Tsuchiya, Nature 547, 205-208 (2017). 6. Q. Hu et al., Nature 534, 241-244 (2016). 7. L. Zhang et al., American Mineralogist 101, 231-234 (2016).

  3. ITER vacuum vessel structural analysis completion during manufacturing phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, J.-M., E-mail: jean-marc.martinez@live.fr [ITER Organization, Route Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90046, 13067, St. Paul lez Durance, Cedex (France); Alekseev, A.; Sborchia, C.; Choi, C.H.; Utin, Y.; Jun, C.H.; Terasawa, A.; Popova, E.; Xiang, B.; Sannazaro, G.; Lee, A.; Martin, A.; Teissier, P.; Sabourin, F. [ITER Organization, Route Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90046, 13067, St. Paul lez Durance, Cedex (France); Caixas, J.; Fernandez, E.; Zarzalejos, J.M. [F4E, c/Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019, Barcelona (Spain); Kim, H.-S.; Kim, Y.G. [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Privalova, E. [NTC “Sintez”, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) is a part of the first barrier to confine the plasma. • A Nuclear Pressure Equipment necessitates Agreed Notified Body to assure design, fabrication, and conformance testing and quality assurance. • Some supplementary RCC-MR margin targets have been considered to guarantee considerable structural margins in areas not inspected in operation. • Many manufacturing deviation requests (MDR) and project change requests (PCR) impose to re-evaluate the structural margin. • Several structural analyses were performed with global and local models to guarantee the structural integrity of the whole ITER Vacuum Vessel. - Abstract: Some years ago, analyses were performed by ITER Organization Central Team (IO-CT) to verify the structural integrity of the ITER vacuum vessel baseline design fixed in 2010 and classified as a Protection Important Component (PIC). The manufacturing phase leads the ITER Organization domestic agencies (IO-DA) and their contracted manufacturers to propose detailed design improvements to optimize the manufacturing or inspection process. These design and quality inspection changes can affect the structural margins with regards to the Codes&Standards and thus oblige to evaluate one more time the modified areas. This paper proposes an overview of the additional analyses already performed to guarantee the structural integrity of the manufacturing designs. In this way, CT and DAs have been strongly involved to keep the considerable margins obtained previously which were used to fix reasonable compensatory measures for the lack of In Service Inspections of a Nuclear Pressure Equipment (NPE).

  4. ITER vacuum vessel structural analysis completion during manufacturing phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.-M.; Alekseev, A.; Sborchia, C.; Choi, C.H.; Utin, Y.; Jun, C.H.; Terasawa, A.; Popova, E.; Xiang, B.; Sannazaro, G.; Lee, A.; Martin, A.; Teissier, P.; Sabourin, F.; Caixas, J.; Fernandez, E.; Zarzalejos, J.M.; Kim, H.-S.; Kim, Y.G.; Privalova, E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) is a part of the first barrier to confine the plasma. • A Nuclear Pressure Equipment necessitates Agreed Notified Body to assure design, fabrication, and conformance testing and quality assurance. • Some supplementary RCC-MR margin targets have been considered to guarantee considerable structural margins in areas not inspected in operation. • Many manufacturing deviation requests (MDR) and project change requests (PCR) impose to re-evaluate the structural margin. • Several structural analyses were performed with global and local models to guarantee the structural integrity of the whole ITER Vacuum Vessel. - Abstract: Some years ago, analyses were performed by ITER Organization Central Team (IO-CT) to verify the structural integrity of the ITER vacuum vessel baseline design fixed in 2010 and classified as a Protection Important Component (PIC). The manufacturing phase leads the ITER Organization domestic agencies (IO-DA) and their contracted manufacturers to propose detailed design improvements to optimize the manufacturing or inspection process. These design and quality inspection changes can affect the structural margins with regards to the Codes&Standards and thus oblige to evaluate one more time the modified areas. This paper proposes an overview of the additional analyses already performed to guarantee the structural integrity of the manufacturing designs. In this way, CT and DAs have been strongly involved to keep the considerable margins obtained previously which were used to fix reasonable compensatory measures for the lack of In Service Inspections of a Nuclear Pressure Equipment (NPE).

  5. Nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys. Phase transformations, structure and magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubina, J.V.

    2006-12-21

    This work has been devoted to the study of phase transformations involving chemical ordering and magnetic properties evolution in bulk Fe-Pt alloys composed of nanometersized grains. Nanocrystalline Fe{sub 100-x}Pt{sub x} (x=40-60) alloys have been prepared by mechanical ball milling of elemental Fe and Pt powders at liquid nitrogen temperature. The as-milled Fe-Pt alloys consist of {proportional_to} 100 {mu}m sized particles constituted by randomly oriented grains having an average size in the range of 10-40 nm. Depending on the milling time, three major microstructure types have been obtained: samples with a multilayer-type structure of Fe and Pt with a thickness of 20-300 nm and a very thin (several nanometers) A1 layer at their interfaces (2 h milled), an intermediate structure, consisting of finer lamellae of Fe and Pt (below approximately 100 nm) with the A1 layer thickness reaching several tens of nanometers (4 h milled) and alloys containing a homogeneous A1 phase (7 h milled). Subsequent heat treatment at elevated temperatures is required for the formation of the L1{sub 0} FePt phase. The ordering develops via so-called combined solid state reactions. It is accompanied by grain growth and thermally assisted removal of defects introduced by milling and proceeds rapidly at moderate temperatures by nucleation and growth of the ordered phases with a high degree of the long-range order. In a two-particle interaction model elaborated in the present work, the existence of hysteresis in recoil loops has been shown to arise from insufficient coupling between the low- and the high-anisotropy particles. The model reveals the main features of magnetisation reversal processes observed experimentally in exchange-coupled systems. Neutron diffraction has been used for the investigation of the magnetic structure of ordered and partially ordered nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys. (orig.)

  6. Single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste: Comparison of start-up, reactor stability and process performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Torrijos, Michel; Sousbie, Philippe; Lugardon, Aurelien; Steyer, Jean Philippe; Delgenes, Jean Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Single-phase and two-phase systems were compared for fruit and vegetable waste digestion. • Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m 3 CH 4 /kg VS and 83% VS removal. • Substrate solubilization was high in acidification conditions at 7.0 kg VS/m 3 d and pH 5.5–6.2. • Energy yield was lower by 33% for two-phase system compared to the single-phase system. • Simple and straight-forward operation favored single phase process over two-phase process. - Abstract: Single-phase and two-phase digestion of fruit and vegetable waste were studied to compare reactor start-up, reactor stability and performance (methane yield, volatile solids reduction and energy yield). The single-phase reactor (SPR) was a conventional reactor operated at a low loading rate (maximum of 3.5 kg VS/m 3 d), while the two-phase system consisted of an acidification reactor (TPAR) and a methanogenic reactor (TPMR). The TPAR was inoculated with methanogenic sludge similar to the SPR, but was operated with step-wise increase in the loading rate and with total recirculation of reactor solids to convert it into acidification sludge. Before each feeding, part of the sludge from TPAR was centrifuged, the centrifuge liquid (solubilized products) was fed to the TPMR and centrifuged solids were recycled back to the reactor. Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m 3 CH 4 /kg VS fed and VS removal of 83%. The TPAR shifted to acidification mode at an OLR of 10.0 kg VS/m 3 d and then achieved stable performance at 7.0 kg VS/m 3 d and pH 5.5–6.2, with very high substrate solubilization rate and a methane yield of 0.30 m 3 CH 4 /kg COD fed. The two-phase process was capable of high VS reduction, but material and energy balance showed that the single-phase process was superior in terms of volumetric methane production and energy yield by 33%. The lower energy yield of the two-phase system was due to the loss of energy during hydrolysis in the TPAR and the

  7. An Overview of 2014 SBIR Phase I and Phase II Materials Structures for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights nine of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and Phase II projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Materials and Structures for Extreme Environments. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as high temperature environmental barrier coating systems, deployable space structures, solid oxide fuel cells, and self-lubricating hard coatings for extreme temperatures. Each featured technology describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  8. Assessing the measurement of aerosol single scattering albedo by Cavity Attenuated Phase-Shift Single Scattering Monitor (CAPS PMssa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perim de Faria, Julia; Bundke, Ulrich; Onasch, Timothy B.; Freedman, Andrew; Petzold, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The necessity to quantify the direct impact of aerosol particles on climate forcing is already well known; assessing this impact requires continuous and systematic measurements of the aerosol optical properties. Two of the main parameters that need to be accurately measured are the aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo (SSA, defined as the ratio of particulate scattering to extinction). The measurement of single scattering albedo commonly involves the measurement of two optical parameters, the scattering and the absorption coefficients. Although there are well established technologies to measure both of these parameters, the use of two separate instruments with different principles and uncertainties represents potential sources of significant errors and biases. Based on the recently developed cavity attenuated phase shift particle extinction monitor (CAPS PM_{ex) instrument, the CAPS PM_{ssa instrument combines the CAPS technology to measure particle extinction with an integrating sphere capable of simultaneously measuring the scattering coefficient of the same sample. The scattering channel is calibrated to the extinction channel, such that the accuracy of the single scattering albedo measurement is only a function of the accuracy of the extinction measurement and the nephelometer truncation losses. This gives the instrument an accurate and direct measurement of the single scattering albedo. In this study, we assess the measurements of both the extinction and scattering channels of the CAPS PM_{ssa through intercomparisons with Mie theory, as a fundamental comparison, and with proven technologies, such as integrating nephelometers and filter-based absorption monitors. For comparison, we use two nephelometers, a TSI 3563 and an Aurora 4000, and two measurements of the absorption coefficient, using a Particulate Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) and a Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP). We also assess the indirect absorption coefficient

  9. Creep in single crystals of γ single phase Ni-20Cr alloy and evolution of dynamic recrystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, T.; Terada, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Ishiwari, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The creep rate - time and the creep rate - strain curves of the single crystals of γ single phase Ni-20 mass%Cr alloy have been investigated at 1173 K under the wide stress range of 19.6 to 98 MPa, and compared with those of polycrystals. The orientation corresponding to the stress axis of the single crystals were chosen within the standard stereographic triangle. The creep curve in the Ni-20 mass%Cr single crystal consists of a transient stage and an accelerating stage without a steady state stage. The transient stage has two steps. In the first step, the creep rate slightly decreases, and in the second step, the decrease in creep rate becomes prominent with increasing the testing time. With decreasing the stress, the extension of transient stage becomes prominent, and by this extension, the decreasing ratio of the creep rate in transient stage is enlarged. At the lowest stress of 19.6 MPa, the most prominent extension of transient stage and the more than two order decrease in creep rate in transient stage are detected. The creep interrupting tests have been conducted at the stress of 29.4 MPa in the strain range of 0.1 to 0.6 to examine the appearance of dynamically recrystallized grains. At the strain of 0.1 corresponding to the end of the first step in transient stage, a straight subboundary parallel to slip plane appears in a wide distance of a few hundreds micrometers. With increasing the strain, the straight subboundary turns to waved one. At the strain showing the minimum creep rate, a lot of evolved subgrains appear. At the strain corresponding to the early stage of accelerating creep, dynamically recrystallized grains appear. It is confirmed that the onset of accelerating creep well corresponds to the appearance of dynamically recrystallized grains. In the single crystal creep ruptured, the whole gage portion turns to polycrystal with equiaxed grains having a diameter of 150 μm. (orig.)

  10. A New Power Calculation Method for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    A new method to calculate average active power and reactive power for single-phase systems is proposed in this paper. It can be used in different applications where the output active power and reactive power need to be calculated accurately and fast. For example, a grid-connected photovoltaic...... system in low voltage ride through operation mode requires a power feedback for the power control loop. Commonly, a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) based power calculation method can be adopted in such systems. However, the DFT method introduces at least a one-cycle time delay. The new power calculation...... method, which is based on the adaptive filtering technique, can achieve a faster response. The performance of the proposed method is verified by experiments and demonstrated in a 1 kW single-phase grid-connected system operating under different conditions.Experimental results show the effectiveness...

  11. Fourier phase retrieval with a single mask by Douglas-Rachford algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengwen; Fannjiang, Albert

    2018-05-01

    The Fourier-domain Douglas-Rachford (FDR) algorithm is analyzed for phase retrieval with a single random mask. Since the uniqueness of phase retrieval solution requires more than a single oversampled coded diffraction pattern, the extra information is imposed in either of the following forms: 1) the sector condition on the object; 2) another oversampled diffraction pattern, coded or uncoded. For both settings, the uniqueness of projected fixed point is proved and for setting 2) the local, geometric convergence is derived with a rate given by a spectral gap condition. Numerical experiments demonstrate global, power-law convergence of FDR from arbitrary initialization for both settings as well as for 3 or more coded diffraction patterns without oversampling. In practice, the geometric convergence can be recovered from the power-law regime by a simple projection trick, resulting in highly accurate reconstruction from generic initialization.

  12. Stability analysis of single-phase thermosyphon loops by finite difference numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, W.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, examples of the application of finite difference numerical methods in the analysis of stability of single-phase natural circulation loops are reported. The problem is here addressed for its relevance for thermal-hydraulic system code applications, in the aim to point out the effect of truncation error on stability prediction. The methodology adopted for analysing in a systematic way the effect of various finite difference discretization can be considered the numerical analogue of the usual techniques adopted for PDE stability analysis. Three different single-phase loop configurations are considered involving various kinds of boundary conditions. In one of these cases, an original dimensionless form of the governing equations is proposed, adopting the Reynolds number as a flow variable. This allows for an appropriate consideration of transition between laminar and turbulent regimes, which is not possible with other dimensionless forms, thus enlarging the field of validity of model assumptions. (author). 14 refs., 8 figs

  13. Microcontroller Based SPWM Single-Phase Inverter For Wind Power Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Ohmar Lin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper microcontroller based sinusoidal pulse width modulation SPWM single-phase inverter is emphasized to constant frequency conversion scheme for wind power application. The wind-power generator output voltage and frequency are fluctuated due to the variation of wind velocity. Therefore the AC output voltage of wind-generator is converted into DC voltage by using rectifier circuit and this DC voltage is converted back to AC voltage by using inverter circuit. SPWM technique is used in inverter to get nearly sine wave and reduce harmonic content. The rating of inverter is 500W single-phase 220V 50 Hz. The required SPWM timing pulses for the inverter are generated from the PIC16F877A microcontroller. Circuit simulation was done by using Proteus 7 Professional and MATLABR 2008 software. The software for microcontroller is implemented by using MPASM assembler.

  14. A High Power Density Single-Phase PWM Rectifier With Active Ripple Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruxi [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Wang, Fei [ORNL; Boroyevich, Dushan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Burgos, Rolando [ABB; Lai, Rixin [General Electric; Ning, Puqi [ORNL; Rajashekara, Kaushik [Rolls Royce

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that single-phase pulse width modulation rectifiers have second-order harmonic currents and corresponding ripple voltages on the dc bus. The low-frequency harmonic current is normally filtered using a bulk capacitor in the bus, which results in low power density. However, pursuing high power density in converter design is a very important goal in the aerospace applications. This paper studies methods for reducing the energy storage capacitor for single-phase rectifiers. The minimum ripple energy storage requirement is derived independently of a specific topology. Based on theminimum ripple energy requirement, the feasibility of the active capacitor s reduction schemes is verified. Then, we propose a bidirectional buck boost converter as the ripple energy storage circuit, which can effectively reduce the energy storage capacitance. The analysis and design are validated by simulation and experimental results.

  15. Experimental research on single phase convection heat transfer in micro-fin tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guangming; Sun Zhongning; Zhu Sheng

    2011-01-01

    An experimental investigation of heat transfer and flow resistance characteristics of single phase water in three micro-fin tubes with different fin height was conducted. At the same time, the efficiency of micro-fin tubes within the experimental scope was evaluated and the optimal working region was determined. Based on the experimental data in the optimal working region, correlations for predicting the heat transfer and flow resistance were also given by multiple regression method. The result indicates that the micro-fin tubes can greatly enhance the single-phase heat transfer in turbulent flow, and the increase of heat transfer coefficient is higher than the increase of flow resistance. The accuracy of the correlation is very high, of which the deviation from the experimental value is very small. (authors)

  16. Experimental research of inclined-micro-fin flat tube on single phase convection heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guangming; Sun Zhongning; Wang Meng

    2011-01-01

    The experimental research of heat transfer and flow resistance characteristics of single phase water in four inclined-micro-fin flat tubes with different physical dimensions was conducted. At the same time,suitable criteria were selected to evaluate the efficiency of inclined-micro-fin flat tubes within the experimental scope and the optimal working region was determined. The results indicate that inclined-micro-fin flat tubes can greatly enhance the single-phase heat transfer in turbulent flow and the maximum heat transfer coefficient attains to 5.9 times of that in smooth tube. The quantities of heat transfer for inclined-micro-fin flat tubes are three times higher than that of smooth tube with the same of heat exchange area and pump power. (authors)

  17. A Synchronization Method for Single-Phase Grid-Tied Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Yang, Yongheng

    2016-01-01

    The controllers of single-phase grid-tied inverters require improvements to enable distribution generation systems to meet the grid codes/standards with respect to power quality and the fault ride through capability. In that case, the response of the selected synchronization technique is crucial...... for the performance of the entire grid-tied inverter. In this paper, a new synchronization method with good dynamics and high accuracy under a highly distorted voltage is proposed. This method uses a Multi-Harmonic Decoupling Cell (MHDC), which thus can cancel out the oscillations on the synchronization signals due...... to the harmonic voltage distortion while maintaining the dynamic response of the synchronization. Therefore, the accurate and dynamic response of the proposed MHDC-PLL can be beneficial for the performance of the whole single-phase grid-tied inverter....

  18. Phase domain structures in cylindrical magnets under conditions of a first-order magnetic phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhezherya, Yu.I.; Klymuk, O.S.

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic and resonance properties of cylindrical magnets at first-order phase transition from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic state were theoretically studied. It has been shown that in the external magnetic field directed perpendicularly to the rotation axis, formation of a specific domain structure of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic layers can be energetically favorable. The parameters of cylindrical phase domains as well as their dependences on temperature, magnetic field and material characteristics have been calculated. Peculiarities of the magnetic resonance spectra appearing as a result of the phase domain formation have been considered. Dependence of the resonance field of the system of ferromagnetic domains on magnetization and temperature has been obtained. - Highlights: → Parameters of the equilibrium system of cylindrical phase domains are calculated. → The range of fields for PM and FM phases coexistence is found. → FMR field of the disk domains is found to be lower than that of the PMR field.→ The resonance field increases with the decrease of temperature lower than T || .

  19. The structural phases and vibrational properties of Mo1-xWxTe2 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Sean M.; Beams, Ryan; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Kalish, Irina; Singh, Arunima K.; Bruma, Alina; Tavazza, Francesca; Joshi, Jaydeep; Stone, Iris R.; Stranick, Stephan J.; Davydov, Albert V.; Vora, Patrick M.

    2017-12-01

    The structural polymorphism in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) provides exciting opportunities for developing advanced electronics. For example, MoTe2 crystallizes in the 2H semiconducting phase at ambient temperature and pressure, but transitions into the 1T‧ semimetallic phase at high temperatures. Alloying MoTe2 with WTe2 reduces the energy barrier between these two phases, while also allowing access to the T d Weyl semimetal phase. The \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloy system is therefore promising for developing phase change memory technology. However, achieving this goal necessitates a detailed understanding of the phase composition in the MoTe2-WTe2 system. We combine polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopy with x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to study bulk \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys over the full compositional range x from 0 to 1. We identify Raman and XRD signatures characteristic of the 2H, 1T‧, and T d structural phases that agree with density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, and use them to identify phase fields in the MoTe2-WTe2 system, including single-phase 2H, 1T‧, and T d regions, as well as a two-phase 1T‧  +  T d region. Disorder arising from compositional fluctuations in \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys breaks inversion and translational symmetry, leading to the activation of an infrared 1T‧-MoTe2 mode and the enhancement of a double-resonance Raman process in \\text{2H-M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys. Compositional fluctuations limit the phonon correlation length, which we estimate by fitting the observed asymmetric Raman lineshapes with a phonon confinement model. These observations reveal the important role of disorder in \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys, clarify the structural phase boundaries, and provide a foundation for future explorations of phase transitions and electronic phenomena in this

  20. Single phase in Ba-dopped Bi-based high-T/sub c/ compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, M.A.; Maqsood, A.

    2001-01-01

    Ba-doped, Bi-based, high-Tc superconductor was prepared by a solid state reaction method. The nominal composition used was Bi/sub 1.6/Pb/sub 0.4/Sr/sub 1.6/Ba/sub 0.4/Ca/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub y/. The samples were characterized by dc electrical resistivity and ac magnetic susceptibility both as a function of temperature (T). Room temperature x-ray diffraction studies were also done. Binder chemicals do affect the properties of the samples and it was observed that samples prepared with polyvinyl alcohol binder chemical showed good reproducible results. All the Above measurements showed that in the compound Bi/sub 1.6/Pb/sub 0.4/Ca/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub y/ there exists a single high-T/sub c/ phase with T/sub c.0≅/109 plus minus 1K. It behaves like an ideal metal before the superconducting transition in ρ-T plot and the Mathiessen's rule could be fitted. The ac susceptibility measurements support the observations of electrical resistivity. The lattice constants of the material are a=5.416(7) degree A, b=5.455(6) degree A, and c=37.26(8) degree A. The c-axis lattice constant slightly increased with Ba-doping. This fact indicated that Ba was probably incorporated into the Sr site of the crystal structure. Large sized samples (Diameter '28mm and length' 11mm) are under investigation for thermal transport properties by transient Plane Source (TPS) method. (author)

  1. Single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast electron diffraction for structure dynamic studies of warm dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, M. Z., E-mail: mmo09@slac.stanford.edu; Shen, X.; Chen, Z.; Li, R. K.; Dunning, M.; Zheng, Q.; Weathersby, S. P.; Reid, A. H.; Coffee, R.; Makasyuk, I.; Edstrom, S.; McCormick, D.; Jobe, K.; Hast, C.; Glenzer, S. H.; Wang, X. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Sokolowski-Tinten, K. [Faculty of Physics and Centre for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstrasse 1, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    We have developed a single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast-electron-diffraction system to measure the structural dynamics of warm dense matter. The electron probe in this system is featured by a kinetic energy of 3.2 MeV and a total charge of 20 fC, with the FWHM pulse duration and spot size at sample of 350 fs and 120 μm respectively. We demonstrate its unique capability by visualizing the atomic structural changes of warm dense gold formed from a laser-excited 35-nm freestanding single-crystal gold foil. The temporal evolution of the Bragg peak intensity and of the liquid signal during solid-liquid phase transition are quantitatively determined. This experimental capability opens up an exciting opportunity to unravel the atomic dynamics of structural phase transitions in warm dense matter regime.

  2. Structural phase transitions in boron carbide under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotaev, P; Pokatashkin, P; Yanilkin, A

    2016-01-01

    Structural transitions in boron carbide B 4 C under stress were studied by means of first-principles molecular dynamics in the framework of density functional theory. The behavior depends strongly on degree of non-hydrostatic stress. Under hydrostatic stress continuous bending of the three-atom C–B–C chain was observed up to 70 GPa. The presence of non-hydrostatic stress activates abrupt reversible chain bending, which is displacement of the central boron atom in the chain with the formation of weak bonds between this atom and atoms in the nearby icosahedra. Such structural change can describe a possible reversible phase transition in dynamical loading experiments. High non-hydrostatic stress achieved in uniaxial loading leads to disordering of the initial structure. The formation of carbon chains is observed as one possible transition route. (paper)

  3. Removal of Direct Current Link Harmonic Ripple in Single Phase Voltage Source Inverter Systems Using Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Khaligh, “Optimization of sizing and battery cycle life in battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems for electric vehicle applications...depth cycling operation in photovoltaic system ,” in 22nd International Conference “Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems ,” Toruń, Poland...CURRENT LINK HARMONIC RIPPLE IN SINGLE-PHASE VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER SYSTEMS USING SUPERCAPACITORS by Gabriel D. Hernandez September 2016

  4. Geometric relationships for homogenization in single-phase binary alloy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnam, J.; Tenney, D. R.; Stein, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    A semiempirical relationship is presented which describes the extent of interaction between constituents in single-phase binary alloy systems having planar, cylindrical, or spherical interfaces. This relationship makes possible a quick estimate of the extent of interaction without lengthy numerical calculations. It includes two parameters which are functions of mean concentration and interface geometry. Experimental data for the copper-nickel system are included to demonstrate the usefulness of this relationship.

  5. Single-phase flow and flow boiling of water in horizontal rectangular microchannels

    OpenAIRE

    Mirmanto

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University The current study is part of a long term experimental project devoted to investigating single-phase flow pressure drop and heat transfer, flow boiling pressure drop and heat transfer, flow boiling instability and flow visualization of de-ionized water flow in microchannels. The experimental facility was first designed and constructed by S. Gedupudi (2009) and in the present study; ...

  6. A facility for the experimental investigation of single substance two phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, P.F.; Dickinson, D.A.; Nikitopoulos, D.E.; DiPippo, R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes a research facility dedicated to single-substance two-phase flow. The working fluid is dichlorotetrafluoroethane (or refrigerant R-114), allowing both operation at manageable pressures, temperatures and flowrates, and application of results to practical situations through similarity. Operation is in the blowdown mode. The control and data acquisition systems are fully automated and computer controlled. A range of flow conditions from predominantly liquid flow to high velocity, high void fraction choked flow can be attained

  7. Analysis of Lipoplex Structure and Lipid Phase Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koynova, Rumiana

    2012-07-18

    Efficient delivery of genetic material to cells is needed for tasks of utmost importance in the laboratory and clinic, such as gene transfection and gene silencing. Synthetic cationic lipids can be used as delivery vehicles for nucleic acids and are now considered the most promising nonviral gene carriers. They form complexes (lipoplexes) with the polyanionic nucleic acids. A critical obstacle for clinical application of the lipid-mediated DNA delivery (lipofection) is its unsatisfactory efficiency for many cell types. Understanding the mechanism of lipid-mediated DNA delivery is essential for their successful application, as well as for a rational design and synthesis of novel cationic lipoid compounds for enhanced gene delivery. A viewpoint now emerging is that the critical factor in lipid-mediated transfection is the structural evolution of lipoplexes within the cell, upon interacting and mixing with cellular lipids. In particular, recent studies showed that the phase evolution of lipoplex lipids upon interaction and mixing with membrane lipids appears to be decisive for transfection success: specifically, lamellar lipoplex formulations, which were readily susceptible to undergoing lamellar-nonlamellar phase transition upon mixing with cellular lipids and were found rather consistently associated with superior transfection potency, presumably as a result of facilitated DNA release. Thus, understanding the lipoplex structure and the phase changes upon interacting with membrane lipids is important for the successful application of the cationic lipids as gene carriers.

  8. Multipodal Structure and Phase Transitions in Large Constrained Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Richard; Radin, Charles; Ren, Kui; Sadun, Lorenzo

    2017-07-01

    We study the asymptotics of large, simple, labeled graphs constrained by the densities of two subgraphs. It was recently conjectured that for all feasible values of the densities most such graphs have a simple structure. Here we prove this in the special case where the densities are those of edges and of k-star subgraphs, k≥2 fixed. We prove that under such constraints graphs are "multipodal": asymptotically in the number of vertices there is a partition of the vertices into M < ∞ subsets V_1, V_2, \\ldots , V_M, and a set of well-defined probabilities g_{ij} of an edge between any v_i \\in V_i and v_j \\in V_j. For 2≤ k≤ 30 we determine the phase space: the combinations of edge and k-star densities achievable asymptotically. For these models there are special points on the boundary of the phase space with nonunique asymptotic (graphon) structure; for the 2-star model we prove that the nonuniqueness extends to entropy maximizers in the interior of the phase space.

  9. Phase structure of NJL model with weak renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ken-Ichi; Kumamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2018-06-01

    We analyze the chiral phase structure of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model at finite temperature and density by using the functional renormalization group (FRG). The renormalization group (RG) equation for the fermionic effective potential V (σ ; t) is given as a partial differential equation, where σ : = ψ bar ψ and t is a dimensionless RG scale. When the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DχSB) occurs at a certain scale tc, V (σ ; t) has singularities originated from the phase transitions, and then one cannot follow RG flows after tc. In this study, we introduce the weak solution method to the RG equation in order to follow the RG flows after the DχSB and to evaluate the dynamical mass and the chiral condensate in low energy scales. It is shown that the weak solution of the RG equation correctly captures vacuum structures and critical phenomena within the pure fermionic system. We show the chiral phase diagram on temperature, chemical potential and the four-Fermi coupling constant.

  10. On the development of a grid-enhanced single-phase convective heat transfer correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.J.; Cheung, F.B.; Bajorek, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    A new single-phase convective heat transfer augmentation correlation has been developed using single phase steam cooling experimental data obtained from the Penn State/NRC Rod Bundle Heat Transfer (RBHT) facility. Experimental data obtained from the RBHT single phase steam cooling tests have been evaluated and new findings identified. Previous rod bundle tests showed the importance of spacer grid on the local heat transfer, and that the augmentation in heat transfer downstream of a grid decays exponentially. The RBHT data also shows that the Reynolds number affects the rate at which this augmentation decays. The new correlation includes the strong dependence of heat transfer on both the Reynolds number and the grid blockage ratio. While the effects of both parameters were clearly evident in the RBHT experimental data, existing correlations do not account for the Reynolds number effect. The developed correlation incorporates Reynolds number in the decay curve of heat transfer. The newly developed correlation adequately accounts for the dependence of the heat transfer augmentation decay rate on the local flow Reynolds number. (author)

  11. Identification of the partitioning characteristics of refractory elements in σ and γ phases of Ni-based single crystal superalloys based on first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Mao, Shengcheng [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Zhang, Jianxin, E-mail: jianxin@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2014-10-15

    The impurity formation energies of the σ and γ phases of Ni-based single crystal superalloys doped with W, Cr and Co in different sublattices have been investigated using first-principles based on the density functional theory. The bonding characteristics of the doped σ phase were analyzed with the valence charge densities and the density of the states. The results of the calculations indicated that the typical refractory element W, which has a large atomic size, preferentially partitions into the σ phase due to the nature of the bonding and the unique crystal structure with close-packed planes and large interstitial spaces. In addition, the site preference of refractory elements in γ phase was in the order of W, Cr and Co. - Highlights: • A reasonable σ phase model was adopted in our calculation. • The site preference of refractory elements in σ and γ phases was investigated. • The bonding characteristic was analyzed on the basis of electronic microstructures.

  12. A single frequency component-based re-estimated MUSIC algorithm for impact localization on complex composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Shenfang; Bao, Qiao; Qiu, Lei; Zhong, Yongteng

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of composite materials on aircraft structures has attracted much attention for impact monitoring as a kind of structural health monitoring (SHM) method. Multiple signal classification (MUSIC)-based monitoring technology is a promising method because of its directional scanning ability and easy arrangement of the sensor array. However, for applications on real complex structures, some challenges still exist. The impact-induced elastic waves usually exhibit a wide-band performance, giving rise to the difficulty in obtaining the phase velocity directly. In addition, composite structures usually have obvious anisotropy, and the complex structural style of real aircrafts further enhances this performance, which greatly reduces the localization precision of the MUSIC-based method. To improve the MUSIC-based impact monitoring method, this paper first analyzes and demonstrates the influence of measurement precision of the phase velocity on the localization results of the MUSIC impact localization method. In order to improve the accuracy of the phase velocity measurement, a single frequency component extraction method is presented. Additionally, a single frequency component-based re-estimated MUSIC (SFCBR-MUSIC) algorithm is proposed to reduce the localization error caused by the anisotropy of the complex composite structure. The proposed method is verified on a real composite aircraft wing box, which has T-stiffeners and screw holes. Three typical categories of 41 impacts are monitored. Experimental results show that the SFCBR-MUSIC algorithm can localize impact on complex composite structures with an obviously improved accuracy. (paper)

  13. Selectivity of single, mixed, and modified pseudostationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Bosch, Elisabeth; Abraham, Michael H; Rosés, Martí

    2006-05-01

    The selectivity of a compilation of single, mixed, and modified EKC pseudostationary phases, described in the literature and characterized through the solvation parameter model, is analyzed. Not only have micellar systems of different nature been included but also microemulsions, polymeric, and liposomial phases. In order to compare the systems, a principal component analysis of the coefficients of the solvation equation is performed. From this analysis, direct information of the system properties, differences in selectivity, as well as evidence of lack of accuracy in some system characterizations are obtained. These results become a very useful tool to perform separations with mixtures of surfactants, since it is possible to know which mixtures will provide a greater selectivity variation by changing only the composition of the pseudostationary phases. Furthermore, the variation of the selectivity of some mixtures, as well as the effect of the addition of organic solvents on selectivity, is also discussed.

  14. Creating diversified response profiles from a single quenchometric sensor element by using phase-resolved luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehan, Elizabeth C; Bukowski, Rachel M; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Titus, Albert H; Cartwright, Alexander N; Bright, Frank V

    2015-01-05

    We report a new strategy for generating a continuum of response profiles from a single luminescence-based sensor element by using phase-resolved detection. This strategy yields reliable responses that depend in a predictable manner on changes in the luminescent reporter lifetime in the presence of the target analyte, the excitation modulation frequency, and the detector (lock-in amplifier) phase angle. In the traditional steady-state mode, the sensor that we evaluate exhibits a linear, positive going response to changes in the target analyte concentration. Under phase-resolved conditions the analyte-dependent response profiles: (i) can become highly non-linear; (ii) yield negative going responses; (iii) can be biphasic; and (iv) can exhibit super sensitivity (e.g., sensitivities up to 300 fold greater in comparison to steady-state conditions).

  15. Influence of modulation method on using LC-traps with single-phase voltage source converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Min, Huang; Bai, Haofeng

    2015-01-01

    The switching-frequency LC-trap filter has recently been employed with high-order passive filters for Voltage Source Inverters (VSIs). This paper investigates the influence of modulation method on using the LC-traps with single-phase VSIs. Two-level (bipolar) and three-level (unipolar) modulations...... that include phase distortion and alternative phase opposition distortion methods are analyzed. Harmonic filtering performances of four LC-trap-based filters with different locations of LC-traps are compared. It is shown that the use of parallel-LC-traps in series with filter inductors, either grid...... or converter side, has a worse harmonic filtering performance than using series-LC-trap in the shunt branch. Simulations and experimental results are presented for verifications....

  16. Scintigraphic demonstration of single- or two-phase gastric emptying in diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikman, E.A.; Leichter, S.; Waldholtz, B.; Tenorio, L.; Brady, P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how a modified scintigraphic test of gastric emptying revealed two types of abnormal gastric emptying in diabetic patients. After ingestion of 100 mL of cooked egg whites labeled with 0.5 mCi of Tc-99m sulfur colloid, the geometric mean stomach radioactivity was recorded serially for 90 minutes. Linear regression computed for the log of radioactivity versus time facilitated recognition of changes in gastric emptying. In 16 of 25 consecutive diabetic patients with postprandial symptoms, initial slow emptying (half-life,>100 minutes) was observed. Single-phase emptying was shown in seven of these patients. In nine patients, the slow-emptying phase lasted up to 50 minutes, followed by a distinct second phase of normal or rapid emptying (half-life, <40 minutes). The existence of different gastric emptying implies differing mechanisms of delay and may be important in treatment

  17. A Nonadaptive Window-Based PLL for Single-Phase Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2018-01-01

    The rectangular window filter, typically known as the moving average filter (MAF), is a quasi-ideal low-pass filter that has found wide application in designing advanced single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs). Most often, the MAF is employed as an in-loop filter within the control loop of the sin......The rectangular window filter, typically known as the moving average filter (MAF), is a quasi-ideal low-pass filter that has found wide application in designing advanced single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs). Most often, the MAF is employed as an in-loop filter within the control loop...... response is avoided. Nevertheless, the PLL implementation complexity considerably increases as MAFs are frequency-adaptive and, therefore, they require an additional frequency detector for estimating the grid frequency. To reduce the implementation complexity while maintaining a good performance, using...... a nonadaptive MAF-based QSG with some error compensators is suggested in this letter. The effectiveness of the resultant PLL, which is briefly called the nonadaptive MAF-based PLL, is verified using experimental results....

  18. Solar cell structure incorporating a novel single crystal silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankove, Jacques I.; Wu, Chung P.

    1983-01-01

    A novel hydrogen rich single crystal silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystal silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semiconductor devices such as single crystal silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystal silicon without hydrogen.

  19. A compact seven switches topology and reduced DC-link capacitor size for single-phase stand-alone PV system with hybrid energy storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Single-phase stand-alone PV system is suitable for household applications in remote area. Hybrid battery/ultra-capacitor energy storage can reduce charge and discharge cycles and avoid deep discharges of battery. This paper proposes a compact seven switches structure for stand-alone PV system......, which otherwise needs nine switches configuration, inclusive of one switch for boost converter, four switches for single-phase inverter and four switches for two DC/DC converters of battery and ultra-capacitor. It is well-known that a bulky DC-link capacitor is always required to absorb second......-order harmonic current caused by single-phase inverter. In the proposed compact topology, a small size DC-link capacitor can achieve the same function through charging/discharging control of ultra-capacitor to mitigate second-order ripple current. Simulation results are provided to validate the effectiveness...

  20. Single-sphere multiple-detector neutron spectrometer. Final report on Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, F.; Stern, I.; Hahn, R.W.; Entine, G.

    1987-07-01

    To address the problem of accurate, timely estimates of the neutron spectral flux, researchers are developing a monitoring instrument based on a single moderating sphere with a large number of independent sensors. Such a single-sphere spectrometer would allow easy measurement of quality factors. This is made possible by the recent development of a novel digital sensor which detects radiation induced errors in a dynamic random-access memory. During Phase I of the SBIR program, researchers constructed a first prototype of the single-sphere spectrometer, measured its response in a neutron flux from an isotopic Am-Be source in several geometries, and compared these with the results of Monte Carlo simulations of neutron transport. The preliminary results show that the approach is feasible and relatively straightforward