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Sample records for single strategies improving

  1. Improving the Reliability of Network Metrics in Structural Brain Networks by Integrating Different Network Weighting Strategies into a Single Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros I. Dimitriadis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain networks estimated from diffusion MRI (dMRI via tractography have been widely studied in healthy controls and patients with neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, few studies have addressed the reliability of derived network metrics both node-specific and network-wide. Different network weighting strategies (NWS can be adopted to weight the strength of connection between two nodes yielding structural brain networks that are almost fully-weighted. Here, we scanned five healthy participants five times each, using a diffusion-weighted MRI protocol and computed edges between 90 regions of interest (ROI from the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL template. The edges were weighted according to nine different methods. We propose a linear combination of these nine NWS into a single graph using an appropriate diffusion distance metric. We refer to the resulting weighted graph as an Integrated Weighted Structural Brain Network (ISWBN. Additionally, we consider a topological filtering scheme that maximizes the information flow in the brain network under the constraint of the overall cost of the surviving connections. We compared each of the nine NWS and the ISWBN based on the improvement of: (a intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC of well-known network metrics, both node-wise and per network level; and (b the recognition accuracy of each subject compared to the remainder of the cohort, as an attempt to access the uniqueness of the structural brain network for each subject, after first applying our proposed topological filtering scheme. Based on a threshold where the network level ICC should be >0.90, our findings revealed that six out of nine NWS lead to unreliable results at the network level, while all nine NWS were unreliable at the node level. In comparison, our proposed ISWBN performed as well as the best performing individual NWS at the network level, and the ICC was higher compared to all individual NWS at the node

  2. An improved labeling strategy enables automated detection of single-virus fusion and assessment of HIV-1 protease activity in single virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Chetan; Francis, Ashwanth C; Desai, Tanay M; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2017-12-08

    Enveloped viruses transfer their genomes into host cells by fusing their membrane to that of the cell. To visualize single-virus fusion in living cells, researchers take advantage of the proteolytic maturation of HIV, type 1 (HIV-1), which can generate free fluorescent proteins within the viral particle. Co-labeling viruses with a content marker and a fluorescently tagged Vpr (a viral core protein) enables detection of single-virus fusions, but a major limitation of this approach is that not all viral particles incorporate both markers. Here we designed a labeling strategy based on the bifunctional mCherry-2xCL-YFP-Vpr construct, in which 2xCL denotes a tandem cleavage site for the viral protease. This bifunctional marker was efficiently cleaved during virus maturation, producing free mCherry and the core-associated YFP-Vpr. A nearly perfect colocalization of these two markers in virions and their fixed 1:1 ratio enabled automated detection of single-particle fusion in both fixed and live cells based on loss of the mCherry signal. Furthermore, a drop in FRET efficiency between YFP and mCherry because of cleavage of the bifunctional marker, which manifested as a marked shift in the normalized YFP/mCherry fluorescence ratio, reliably predicted viral protease activity in single virions. This feature could discriminate between the particles containing free mCherry, and therefore likely representing mature viruses, and immature particles whose fusion cannot be detected. In summary, our new labeling strategy offers several advantages compared with previous approaches, including increased reliability and throughput of detection of viral fusion. We anticipate that our method will have significant utility for studying viral fusion and maturation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Strategies to improve performance od SW-SAGD (Single Well-Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage); Estrategias para melhor desempenho do SW-SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Richard Douglas Ribeiro [Norse Energy do Brasil S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Trevisan, Osvair Vidal [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present work presents an extensive numerical study, using a commercial reservoir simulator, on the recovery of heavy oil by steam injection assisted by gravity drainage in single horizontal wells. The goal is to study several strategies to improve performance of the Single Well - Steam Assisted Drainage Gravity (SW-SAGD), a new but promising thermal recovery technique aimed at exploitation of heavy oils. The strategies are basically made up of two measures: cyclic steam injection prior to the main injection-production process; and well bore splitting into injection and production zones by packer settings. The measures are scrutinized when used separately or together. Cyclic injection is varied according to cycle duration. Comparisons are made between the performance of oil recovery for the developed strategies and the performance of the traditional dual well SAGD technique with similar operating parameters and field conditions. The results point out the best strategy regarding key parameters such as the oil recovery factor and the steam oil ratio. Results were also verified for variations of rock and fluid properties in the range of a typical heavy oil reservoir. As a result, a new strategy for the SW-SAGD process is presented, providing oil recovery, which is higher than that yielded by the equivalent DW-SAGD. (author)

  4. Non-oblivious Strategy Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Fearnley, John

    2010-01-01

    We study strategy improvement algorithms for mean-payoff and parity games. We describe a structural property of these games, and we show that these structures can affect the behaviour of strategy improvement. We show how awareness of these structures can be used to accelerate strategy improvement algorithms. We call our algorithms non-oblivious because they remember properties of the game that they have discovered in previous iterations. We show that non-oblivious strategy improvement algorit...

  5. Non-oblivious Strategy Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, John

    We study strategy improvement algorithms for mean-payoff and parity games. We describe a structural property of these games, and we show that these structures can affect the behaviour of strategy improvement. We show how awareness of these structures can be used to accelerate strategy improvement algorithms. We call our algorithms non-oblivious because they remember properties of the game that they have discovered in previous iterations. We show that non-oblivious strategy improvement algorithms perform well on examples that are known to be hard for oblivious strategy improvement. Hence, we argue that previous strategy improvement algorithms fail because they ignore the structural properties of the game that they are solving.

  6. A strategy for company improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, L

    2000-03-01

    Strategies based on the kaizen methodology are designed to continuously improve company performance without the need for large capital investments. This article looks at how one company used simple kaizen principles to its advantage, achieving 67% increase in productivity and 10% reduction in the standard cost of product.

  7. Mnemonic strategy training improves memory for object location associations in both healthy elderly and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized, single-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampstead, Benjamin M; Sathian, Krish; Phillips, Pamela A; Amaraneni, Akshay; Delaune, William R; Stringer, Anthony Y

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of mnemonic strategy training versus a matched-exposure control condition and to examine the relationship between training-related gains, neuropsychological abilities, and medial temporal lobe volumetrics in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and age-matched healthy controls. Twenty-three of 45 screened healthy controls and 29 of 42 screened patients with aMCI were randomized to mnemonic strategy or matched-exposure groups. Groups were run in parallel, with participants blind to the other intervention. All participants completed five sessions within 2 weeks. Memory testing for object-location associations (OLAs) was performed during sessions one and five and at a 1-month follow-up. During Sessions 2-4, participants received either mnemonic strategy training or a matched number of exposures with corrective feedback for a total of 45 OLAs. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was performed in most participants, and medial temporal lobe volumetrics were acquired. Twenty-one healthy controls and 28 patients with aMCI were included in data analysis. Mnemonic strategy training was significantly more beneficial than matched exposure immediately after training, p = .006, partial η2 = .16, and at 1 month, p Mnemonic strategy-related improvement was correlated positively with baseline memory and executive functioning and negatively with inferior lateral ventricle volume in patients with aMCI; no significant relationships were evident in matched-exposure patients. Mnemonic strategies effectively improve memory for specific content for at least 1 month in patients with aMCI.

  8. Strategies to improve running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kyle R; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    Running economy (RE) represents a complex interplay of physiological and biomechanical factors that is typically defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running and expressed as the submaximal oxygen uptake (VO2) at a given running velocity. This review considered a wide range of acute and chronic interventions that have been investigated with respect to improving economy by augmenting one or more components of the metabolic, cardiorespiratory, biomechanical or neuromuscular systems. Improvements in RE have traditionally been achieved through endurance training. Endurance training in runners leads to a wide range of physiological responses, and it is very likely that these characteristics of running training will influence RE. Training history and training volume have been suggested to be important factors in improving RE, while uphill and level-ground high-intensity interval training represent frequently prescribed forms of training that may elicit further enhancements in economy. More recently, research has demonstrated short-term resistance and plyometric training has resulted in enhanced RE. This improvement in RE has been hypothesized to be a result of enhanced neuromuscular characteristics. Altitude acclimatization results in both central and peripheral adaptations that improve oxygen delivery and utilization, mechanisms that potentially could improve RE. Other strategies, such as stretching should not be discounted as a training modality in order to prevent injuries; however, it appears that there is an optimal degree of flexibility and stiffness required to maximize RE. Several nutritional interventions have also received attention for their effects on reducing oxygen demand during exercise, most notably dietary nitrates and caffeine. It is clear that a range of training and passive interventions may improve RE, and researchers should concentrate their investigative efforts on more fully understanding the types and mechanisms that

  9. Bglbrick strategy for the construction of single domain antibody fusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R. Goldman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Single domain antibodies, recombinantly expressed variable domains derived from camelid heavy chain antibodies, are often expressed as multimers for detection and therapeutic applications. Constructs in which several single domain antibodies are genetically fused serially, as well as those in which single domain antibodies are genetically linked with domains that naturally form multimers, yield improvement in apparent binding affinity due to avidity. Here, using a single domain antibody that binds envelope protein from the Dengue virus, we demonstrated the construction of single domain antibody dimers using the Bglbrick cloning strategy. Constructing single domain antibodies and multimerization domains as Bglbrick parts enables the easy mixing and matching of parts. The dimeric constructs provided enhanced fluorescent signal in assays for detection of Dengue virus like particles over the monomeric single domain antibody.

  10. An Improved Single-Step Cloning Strategy Simplifies the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation (ATMT)-Based Gene-Disruption Method for Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Xing, Haiying; Hua, Chenlei; Guo, Hui-Shan; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The soilborne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae infects a broad range of plant species to cause severe diseases. The availability of Verticillium genome sequences has provided opportunities for large-scale investigations of individual gene function in Verticillium strains using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT)-based gene-disruption strategies. Traditional ATMT vectors require multiple cloning steps and elaborate characterization procedures to achieve successful gene replacement; thus, these vectors are not suitable for high-throughput ATMT-based gene deletion. Several advancements have been made that either involve simplification of the steps required for gene-deletion vector construction or increase the efficiency of the technique for rapid recombinant characterization. However, an ATMT binary vector that is both simple and efficient is still lacking. Here, we generated a USER-ATMT dual-selection (DS) binary vector, which combines both the advantages of the USER single-step cloning technique and the efficiency of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase negative-selection marker. Highly efficient deletion of three different genes in V. dahliae using the USER-ATMT-DS vector enabled verification that this newly-generated vector not only facilitates the cloning process but also simplifies the subsequent identification of fungal homologous recombinants. The results suggest that the USER-ATMT-DS vector is applicable for efficient gene deletion and suitable for large-scale gene deletion in V. dahliae.

  11. Strategies to improve retention in randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueton, Valerie C; Tierney, Jayne; Stenning, Sally; Harding, Seeromanie; Meredith, Sarah; Nazareth, Irwin; Rait, Greta

    2013-12-03

    management, behavioural and methodological interventions. For 34 of the included trials, retention was response to postal and electronic questionnaires with or without medical test kits. For four trials, retention was the number of participants remaining in the trial. Included trials were conducted across a spectrum of disease areas, countries, healthcare and community settings. Strategies that improved trial retention were addition of monetary incentives compared with no incentive for return of trial-related postal questionnaires (RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.28, P value strategies with reminder letters appeared to be better than standard procedures (RR 1.43; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.67, P value retention. There was also no evidence that a telephone survey was either more or less effective than a monetary incentive and a questionnaire. As our analyses are based on single trials, the effect on questionnaire response of using offers of charity donations, sending reminders to trial sites and when a questionnaire is sent, may need further evaluation. Case management and behavioural strategies used for trial retention may also warrant further evaluation. Most of the retention trials that we identified evaluated questionnaire response. There were few evaluations of ways to improve participants returning to trial sites for trial follow-up. Monetary incentives and offers of monetary incentives increased postal and electronic questionnaire response. Some other strategies evaluated in single trials looked promising but need further evaluation. Application of the findings of this review would depend on trial setting, population, disease area, data collection and follow-up procedures.

  12. Application of an improved operational strategy for a high temperature-proton exchange membrane fuel cell-based micro-combined heat and power system for Danish single-family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    characteristics. Based on these findings, an improved operational strategy is formulated and applied in an attempt to minimize the shortcomings of conventional strategies. System parameters, such as electrical and thermal efficiencies, heat dumping, and import/export of electricity, are analyzed. The applied load......A proposed residential energy system based on the PBI (Polybenzimidazole) fuel cell technology is analyzed in terms of operational performance. Conventional operational strategies, such as heat-led and electricity-led, are applied to the simulated system to investigate their performance...... profile is based on average data for a single-family household in Denmark and includes consumption data for electricity and heat demands. The study analyzes the potential of the proposed system on market penetration in the area of residential heat-and-power generation and whether this deployment can...

  13. Strategies for improving employee retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlander, Edward G; Evans, Martin R

    2007-03-28

    This article proposes a solution to the perennial problem of talent retention in the clinical laboratory. It includes the presentation of 12 strategies that may be used to significantly improve institutional identity formation and establishment of the psychological contract that employees form with laboratory management. Identity formation and psychological contracting are deemed as essential in helping reduce employee turnover and increase retention. The 12 conversational strategies may be used as a set of best practices for all employees, but most importantly for new employees, and should be implemented at the critical moment when employees first join the laboratory. This time is referred to as "retention on-boarding"--the period of induction and laboratory orientation. Retention on-boarding involves a dialogue between employees and management that is focused on the psychological, practical, cultural, and political dimensions of the laboratory. It is placed in the context of the modern clinical laboratory, which is faced with employing and managing Generation X knowledge workers. Specific topics and broad content areas of those conversations are outlined.

  14. Teaching Strategies to Improve Algebra Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbiek, Rose Mary; Larson, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Improving student learning is the primary goal of every teacher of algebra. Teachers seek strategies to help all students learn important algebra content and develop mathematical practices. The new Institute of Education Sciences[IES] practice guide, "Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students"…

  15. Strategies for improving traveler information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This project developed a clear, concise, and fiscally sound plan to improve traveler information : for the Michigan Department of Transportation (DOT). The DOT has a long history of innovation : in the field of ITS, including a robust traveler inform...

  16. Strategies to improve recruitment to randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treweek, Shaun; Pitkethly, Marie; Cook, Jonathan; Fraser, Cynthia; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Frank; Jackson, Catherine; Taskila, Tyna K; Gardner, Heidi

    2018-02-22

    Recruiting participants to trials can be extremely difficult. Identifying strategies that improve trial recruitment would benefit both trialists and health research. To quantify the effects of strategies for improving recruitment of participants to randomised trials. A secondary objective is to assess the evidence for the effect of the research setting (e.g. primary care versus secondary care) on recruitment. We searched the Cochrane Methodology Review Group Specialised Register (CMR) in the Cochrane Library (July 2012, searched 11 February 2015); MEDLINE and MEDLINE In Process (OVID) (1946 to 10 February 2015); Embase (OVID) (1996 to 2015 Week 06); Science Citation Index & Social Science Citation Index (ISI) (2009 to 11 February 2015) and ERIC (EBSCO) (2009 to 11 February 2015). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of methods to increase recruitment to randomised trials. This includes non-healthcare studies and studies recruiting to hypothetical trials. We excluded studies aiming to increase response rates to questionnaires or trial retention and those evaluating incentives and disincentives for clinicians to recruit participants. We extracted data on: the method evaluated; country in which the study was carried out; nature of the population; nature of the study setting; nature of the study to be recruited into; randomisation or quasi-randomisation method; and numbers and proportions in each intervention group. We used a risk difference to estimate the absolute improvement and the 95% confidence interval (CI) to describe the effect in individual trials. We assessed heterogeneity between trial results. We used GRADE to judge the certainty we had in the evidence coming from each comparison. We identified 68 eligible trials (24 new to this update) with more than 74,000 participants. There were 63 studies involving interventions aimed directly at trial participants, while five evaluated interventions aimed at people recruiting participants. All studies were in

  17. Improvement of Torque Production in Single-Phase Induction Motors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Existing single phase induction motors exhibit low starting torque. Moreover, during accelerating time and at steady state, they produce a significant level of torque pulsations which gives rise to noise and vibration in the machine. As part of efforts to mitigate these problems, a performance improvement strategy using a PWM ...

  18. An improved AVC strategy applied in distributed wind power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. N.; Liu, Q. H.; Song, S. Y.; Mao, W.

    2016-08-01

    Traditional AVC strategy is mainly used in wind farm and only concerns about grid connection point, which is not suitable for distributed wind power system. Therefore, this paper comes up with an improved AVC strategy applied in distributed wind power system. The strategy takes all nodes of distribution network into consideration and chooses the node having the most serious voltage deviation as control point to calculate the reactive power reference. In addition, distribution principles can be divided into two conditions: when wind generators access to network on single node, the reactive power reference is distributed according to reactive power capacity; when wind generators access to network on multi-node, the reference is distributed according to sensitivity. Simulation results show the correctness and reliability of the strategy. Compared with traditional control strategy, the strategy described in this paper can make full use of generators reactive power output ability according to the distribution network voltage condition and improve the distribution network voltage level effectively.

  19. Using an energy management strategy to drive improved business results and improve manufacturing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroux, Marc

    2010-09-15

    Energy typically represents the single largest controllable cost in manufacturing, and is under constant scrutiny by all levels of management. In this paper we will examine the role and components of an energy management strategy, and focus on the benefits of looking at the strategy from a business perspective. We will then examine the role that an effective program, either existing or new, can play in a collaborative manufacturing environment, and how these improvements can reduce energy requirements while maintaining, or improving productivity.

  20. Steps and Strategies in Process Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mast, Jeroen de; Schippers, Werner A.J.; Does, Ronald J.M.M.; Heuvel, Edwin R. van den

    2000-01-01

    It has been recognized that it is profitable to apply statistical methods in quality improvement projects. The statistical methods that have been developed for that purpose in the 20th century have been made operational in the form of improvement strategies. In the literature various examples of

  1. Strategies to improve retention in randomised trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueton, Valerie C; Tierney, Jayne; Stenning, Sally; Harding, Seeromanie; Meredith, Sarah; Nazareth, Irwin; Rait, Greta

    2013-01-01

    were incentives, communication strategies, new questionnaire format, participant case management, behavioural and methodological interventions. For 34 of the included trials, retention was response to postal and electronic questionnaires with or without medical test kits. For four trials, retention was the number of participants remaining in the trial. Included trials were conducted across a spectrum of disease areas, countries, healthcare and community settings. Strategies that improved trial retention were addition of monetary incentives compared with no incentive for return of trial-related postal questionnaires (RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.28, P value < 0.0001), addition of an offer of monetary incentive compared with no offer for return of electronic questionnaires (RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.38, P value < 0.00001) and an offer of a GBP20 voucher compared with GBP10 for return of postal questionnaires and biomedical test kits (RR 1.12; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22, P value < 0.005). The evidence that shorter questionnaires are better than longer questionnaires was unclear (RR 1.04; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.08, P value = 0.07) and the evidence for questionnaires relevant to the disease/condition was also unclear (RR 1.07; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.14). Although each was based on the results of a single trial, recorded delivery of questionnaires seemed to be more effective than telephone reminders (RR 2.08; 95% CI 1.11 to 3.87, P value = 0.02) and a 'package' of postal communication strategies with reminder letters appeared to be better than standard procedures (RR 1.43; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.67, P value < 0.0001). An open trial design also appeared more effective than a blind trial design for return of questionnaires in one fracture prevention trial (RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.63, P value = 0.0003). There was no good evidence that the addition of a non-monetary incentive, an offer of a non-monetary incentive, 'enhanced' letters, letters delivered by priority post, additional reminders, or

  2. Strategies for Teacher and School Leader Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Everett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Book review of Supervision and Evaluation for Learning and Growth: Strategies for Teacher and School Leader Improvement. By Daniel R. Tomal, Robert K. Wilhite, Barbara J. Phillips, Paul A. Sims, and Nancy P. Gibson. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2015.

  3. Didactic Strategies to Improve Reading and Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elide del Rosario Castellanos Santiago

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the present article is that it tries to reflect on generating theoretical orientations on didactic strategies to improve the literacy in the students of the school Mercedes Diaz of the parish Sabana de Mendoza, municipality Sucre, Trujillo state. Methodologically, the research was documentary, descriptive, supported by the postulates of Lev Vygotsky (1993, Piaget (1978 and Emilia Ferreiro (2000, Ortiz, (2008 Flower and Hayes (2009. The obtained results evidenced the effective participation by the teachers and the commitment acquired through the management and application of didactic strategies of reading and writing that can favor the learning of the subject that learns.

  4. Does reading strategy instruction improve students’ comprehension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyetunji, Christianah Oluwatoyin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effect of reading strategy instruction on Second Language (L2 students’ reading comprehension in a Botswana College of Education. The intervention programme was implemented based on the observation that some trainee teachers failed to improve on their L2 proficiency after spending a year in the L2 classroom. Prior to the intervention, difficulty in reading and comprehending had been identified as one of the contributing factors to their failure to improve on their proficiency level. A reading comprehension test was used to collect data from participants who were trainee teachers at a College of Education in Botswana before and after the intervention. The six-week intervention programme focused on seven reading strategies, namely the use of background knowledge, self-questioning, inferencing, rereading, drawing conclusions, identifying main ideas and summarising. The findings suggest that strategy training can increase L2 students’ reading comprehension. Based on the findings, it is recommended that strategy training be introduced into the L2 syllabus of the primary school teacher trainees in all Botswana Colleges of Education.

  5. Efficient Parallel Strategy Improvement for Parity Games

    OpenAIRE

    Fearnley, John

    2017-01-01

    We study strategy improvement algorithms for solving parity games. While these algorithms are known to solve parity games using a very small number of iterations, experimental studies have found that a high step complexity causes them to perform poorly in practice. In this paper we seek to address this situation. Every iteration of the algorithm must compute a best response, and while the standard way of doing this uses the Bellman-Ford algorithm, we give experimental results that show that o...

  6. Performance-improvement strategies can reduce costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, C; Ormsby, S; Marsh, T

    2001-01-01

    Hospitals continue to be challenged to reduce costs while providing high-quality care. Cost-reduction methods that hospitals can use successfully include cost data, interdisciplinary approaches, benchmarking, clinical pathways, physician profiling, and case management. Cost reduction also can be achieved through performance inprovement. One performance-improvement-strategy is the FOCUS-PDCA model. The letters in the model's name refer to the following steps: Find a process that needs improvement, Organize a team that knows the process, Clarify current knowledge of the process, Understand the process and learn the causes of the variation, Select the improvement opportunities, Plan the change, Do, Check the results, and Act by implementing the change. The FOCUS-PDCA model was used by an East Texas regional hospital to reduce the costs relaed to cholecystectomy surgeries performed there.

  7. An improved single-plaquette gauge action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.; Bögli, M.; Holland, K.; Niedermayer, F.; Pepe, M.; Wenger, University; Wiese, UniversityJ.

    2016-01-01

    We describe and test a nonperturbatively improved single-plaquette lattice action for 4-d SU(2) and SU(3) pure gauge theory, which suppresses large fluctuations of the plaquette, without requiring the naive continuum limit for smooth fields. We tune the action parameters based on torelon masses in moderate cubic physical volumes, and investigate the size of cut-off effects in other physical quantities, including torelon masses in asymmetric spatial volumes, the static quark potential, and gradient flow observables. In 2-d O(N) models similarly constructed nearest-neighbor actions have led to a drastic reduction of cut-off effects, down to the permille level, in a wide variety of physical quantities. In the gauge theories, we find significant reduction of lattice artifacts, and for some observables, the coarsest lattice result is very close to the continuum value. We estimate an improvement factor of 40 compared to using the Wilson gauge action to achieve the same statistical accuracy and suppression of cut-off effects.

  8. TPM- A KEY STRATEGY FOR PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. DUREJA

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During high growth era companies are making technical progress in automation and centralization of the plants, which needs large amount of manual work to maintain the automation systems. The strategy of maintaining the equipment of a plant is crucial for the effectiveness of manufacturing. Total productive maintenance (TPM is a maintenance program, which involves concepts for maintaining plant and equipments effectively. In this paper detailed implementation of TPM in the cold rolling plant is discussed. Results achieved are quite encouraging in terms of motivated employees, improvement in overall equipment effectiveness (OEE and reduction in no. of accidents on shop floor.

  9. The Effect of Single Versus Repeated Previous Strategy Use on Individuals' Subsequent Strategy Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viki Schillemans

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that participants' strategy choices can be influenced by the previously-used strategy. This'perseveration effect' has been demonstrated both after a repeated use of the previous strategy (e.g., Schillemans, Luwel, Bulté, Onghena, & Verschaffel, 2009, but also after a single use of the previous strategy (Lemaire & Lecacheur, 2010. In the present study, we tested whether this perseveration effect would be stronger after a repeated than after a single previous strategy application. We were able to replicate the perseveration effect but we did not find evidence for an influence of the number of previous strategy applications on the strength of this effect. An additional cluster analysis revealed that only about one third of the participants was susceptible for the perseveration effect. The theoretical, methodological, and educational implications of these results are discussed.

  10. Strategies to improve phase-stability of ultrafast swept source optical coherence tomography for single shot imaging of transient mechanical waves at 16 kHz frame rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Shaozhen; Wei, Wei; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Pelivanov, Ivan; O' Donnell, Matthew [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Shen, Tueng T.; Wang, Ruikang K., E-mail: wangrk@uw.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104 (United States)

    2016-05-09

    We present single-shot phase-sensitive imaging of propagating mechanical waves within tissue, enabled by an ultrafast optical coherence tomography (OCT) system powered by a 1.628 MHz Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) swept laser source. We propose a practical strategy for phase-sensitive measurement by comparing the phases between adjacent OCT B-scans, where the B-scan contains a number of A-scans equaling an integer number of FDML buffers. With this approach, we show that micro-strain fields can be mapped with ∼3.0 nm sensitivity at ∼16 000 fps. The system's capabilities are demonstrated on porcine cornea by imaging mechanical wave propagation launched by a pulsed UV laser beam, promising non-contact, real-time, and high-resolution optical coherence elastography.

  11. Opioid adjuvant strategy: improving opioid effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihel, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Opioid analgesics continue to be the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment of moderate to severe pain. Many patients, particularly those suffering from chronic pain, require chronic high-dose analgesic therapy. Achieving clinical efficacy and tolerability of such treatment regimens is hampered by the appearance of opioid-induced side effects such as tolerance, hyperalgesia and withdrawal syndrome. Among the therapeutic options to improve the opioid effectiveness, this current review focuses on strategies combining opioids to other drugs that can modulate opioid-mediated effects. We will discuss about experimental evidences reported for several potential opioid adjuvants, including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, 5-HT7 agonists, sigma-1 antagonists, I2-R ligands, cholecystokinin antagonists, neuropeptide FF-R antagonists and toll-like receptor 4 antagonists.

  12. Evaluation of two communication strategies to improve udder health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J; Renes, R J; Lam, T J G M

    2010-02-01

    Worldwide, programs to improve udder health are implemented using communication tools and methods that inform and persuade dairy farmers. This study evaluated 2 communication strategies used in a mastitis control program in the Netherlands. To improve farmers' udder health management, tools such as instruction cards, treatment plans, checklists and software were developed following an argument-based comprehensive "central route." These tools were used during on-farm study group meetings for farmers organized by veterinarians and also during individual veterinarian-farmer interactions. The second strategy aimed at adopting a single management practice to increase the use of milking gloves during milking. This approach followed a straightforward "peripheral" route that used implicit persuasion techniques. Results of an online survey of 374 Dutch dairy farmers showed that most farmers were able and willing to use the educational management tools to increase udder health on their farms. They evaluated the tools positively regardless of the mastitis problems on their farms. This seems to indicate that the central route of communication is most effective when farmers are motivated to work on udder health in general. Results of repeated random telephone surveys before, during, and after the campaign on the use of milking gloves showed that the use of gloves increased from 20.9 to 42.0% of the respondents. Respondents' opinions about milking gloves also changed favorably, indicating that a relatively short peripheral campaign on a single action can have a sustained effect on farmers' behavior. Both communication strategies seem to be potentially successful in disseminating knowledge to a specific target group of farmers and in changing that group's behavior. However, to reach as many farmers as possible, the strategies should be combined. When optimizing these strategies, both the farmers' motivation to work on udder health and the aim of the campaign should be considered

  13. Directed evolution strategies for improved enzymatic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalby Paul A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The engineering of enzymes with altered activity, specificity and stability, using directed evolution techniques that mimic evolution on a laboratory timescale, is now well established. However, the general acceptance of these methods as a route to new biocatalysts for organic synthesis requires further improvement of the methods for both ease-of-use and also for obtaining more significant changes in enzyme properties than is currently possible. Recent advances in library design, and methods of random mutagenesis, combined with new screening and selection tools, continue to push forward the potential of directed evolution. For example, protein engineers are now beginning to apply the vast body of knowledge and understanding of protein structure and function, to the design of focussed directed evolution libraries, with striking results compared to the previously favoured random mutagenesis and recombination of entire genes. Significant progress in computational design techniques which mimic the experimental process of library screening is also now enabling searches of much greater regions of sequence-space for those catalytic reactions that are broadly understood and, therefore, possible to model. Biocatalysis for organic synthesis frequently makes use of whole-cells, in addition to isolated enzymes, either for a single reaction or for transformations via entire metabolic pathways. As many new whole-cell biocatalysts are being developed by metabolic engineering, the potential of directed evolution to improve these initial designs is also beginning to be realised.

  14. Implementation of multidimensional knowledge translation strategies to improve procedural pain in hospitalized children

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Bonnie J; Yamada, Janet; Promislow, Sara; Stinson, Jennifer; Harrison, Denise; Victor, J Charles

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive research, institutional policies, and practice guidelines, procedural pain remains undertreated in hospitalized children. Knowledge translation (KT) strategies have been employed to bridge the research to practice gap with varying success. The most effective single or combination of KT strategies has not been found. A multifaceted KT intervention, Evidence-based Practice for Improving Quality (EPIQ), that included tailored KT strategies was effective in improving ...

  15. Functional dysphonia: strategies to improve patient outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlau, Mara; Madazio, Glaucya; Oliveira, Gisele

    2015-01-01

    Functional dysphonia (FD) refers to a voice problem in the absence of a physical condition. It is a multifaceted voice disorder. There is no consensus with regard to its definition and inclusion criteria for diagnosis. FD has many predisposing and precipitating factors, which may include genetic susceptibility, psychological traits, and the vocal behavior itself. The assessment of voice disorders should be multidimensional. In addition to the clinical examination, auditory-perceptual, acoustic, and self-assessment analyses are very important. Self-assessment was introduced in the field of voice 25 years ago and has produced a major impact in the clinical and scientific scenario. The choice of treatment for FD is vocal rehabilitation by means of direct therapy; however, compliance has been an issue, except for cases of functional aphonia or when an intensive training is administered. Nevertheless, there are currently no controlled studies that have explored the different options of treatment regimens for these patients. Strategies to improve patient outcome involve proper multidisciplinary diagnosis in order to exclude neurological and psychiatric disorders, careful voice documentation with quantitative measurement and qualitative description of the vocal deviation for comparison after treatment, acoustic evaluation to gather data on the mechanism involved in voice production, self-assessment questionnaires to map the impact of the voice problem on the basis of the patient’s perspective, referral to psychological evaluation in cases of suspected clinical anxiety and/or depression, identification of dysfunctional coping strategies, self-regulation data to assist patients with their vocal load, and direct and intensive vocal rehabilitation to reduce psychological resistance and to reassure patient’s recovery. An international multicentric effort, involving a large population of voice-disordered patients with no physical pathology, could produce enough data for

  16. Improved Sensing with a Single Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekatski, P.; Skotiniotis, M.; Dür, W.

    2017-04-01

    We consider quantum metrology with arbitrary prior knowledge of the parameter. We demonstrate that a single sensing two-level system can act as a virtual multilevel system that offers increased sensitivity in a Bayesian single-shot metrology scenario, and that allows one to estimate (arbitrary) large parameter values by avoiding phase wraps. This is achieved by making use of additional degrees of freedom or auxiliary systems not participating in the sensing process. The joint system is manipulated by intermediate control operations in such a way that an effective Hamiltonian, with an arbitrary spectrum, is generated that mimics the spectrum of a multisystem interacting with the field. We show how to use additional internal degrees of freedom of a single trapped ion to achieve a high-sensitivity magnetic field sensor for fields with arbitrary prior knowledge.

  17. Improving Single Event Effects Testing Through Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, M. W.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation encountered in space environments can be damaging to microelectronics and potentially cause spacecraft failure. Single event effects (SEE) are a type of radiation effect that occur when an ion strikes a device. Single event gate rupture (SEGR) is a type of SEE that can cause failure in power transistors. Unlike other SEE rates in which a constant linear energy transfer (LET) can be used, SEGR rates sometimes require a non-uniform LET to be used to be accurate. A recent analysis shows that SEGR rates are most easily calculated when the environment is described as a stopping rate per unit volume for each ion species. Stopping rates in silicon for pertinent ions were calculated using the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) software and CREME-MC software. A reference table was generated and can be used by others to calculate SEGR rates for a candidate device. Additionally, lasers can be used to simulate SEEs, providing more control and information at lower cost than heavy ion testing. The electron/hole pair generation rate from a laser pulse in a semiconductor can be related to the LET of an ion. MATLAB was used to generate a plot to easily make this comparison.

  18. Using Appropriate Strategies to Improve Students' Comprehension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unfortunately, contemporary research insight into science reading is lacking and science educators tend to focus on methods of teaching specific subject matter and students misconceptions. As a result, learners lack the skills and strategies involved in reading and hence having reading comprehension difficulties. To help ...

  19. 214 Using Appropriate Strategies to Improve Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... learners lack the skills and strategies involved in reading and hence having reading comprehension difficulties. ... The development of strategic reading comprehension of chemistry texts is crucial for science students ..... Journal of Memory and Language, 29, 566-581. Freeman, D.L. (2003). Teaching and ...

  20. Acoustic Feedback and Echo Cancellation Strategies for Multiple-Microphone and Single-Loudspeaker Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng; Elmedyb, Thomas Bo; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic feedback/echo cancellation in a multiple-microphone and single-loudspeaker system is often carried out using a cancellation filter for each microphone channel, and the filters are adaptively estimated, independently of each other. In this work, we consider another strategy by estimating...... all the cancellation filters jointly and in this way exploit information from all microphone channels. We determine the statistical system behavior for the joint estimation strategy in terms of the convergence rate and steady-state behavior across time and frequency. We assess if an improved...

  1. 214 Using Appropriate Strategies to Improve Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Keene and Zimmerman, 1997; Tovani, 2000). Previous research has shown that actively processing difficult texts improves comprehension (Einstein, McDaniel, Owen and Cote, 1990: Chi, de Leeuw,. Chiu and Levancher, 1994).

  2. Implementation of improvement strategies in palliative care: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riet Paap, Jasper; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Sommerbakk, Ragni; Moyle, Wendy; Hjermstad, Marianne J; Leppert, Wojciech; Vissers, Kris; Engels, Yvonne

    2015-07-26

    The European population is ageing, and as a consequence, an increasing number of patients are in need of palliative care, including those with dementia. Although a growing number of new insights and best practices in palliative care have been published, they are often not implemented in daily practice. The aim of this integrative review is to provide an overview of implementation strategies that have been used to improve the organisation of palliative care. Using an integrative literature review, we evaluated publications with strategies to improve the organisation of palliative care. Qualitative analysis of the included studies involved categorisation of the implementation strategies into subgroups, according to the type of implementation strategy. From the 2379 publications identified, 68 studies with an experimental or quasi-experimental design were included. These studies described improvements using educational strategies (n = 14), process mapping (n = 1), feedback (n = 1), multidisciplinary meetings (n = 1) and multi-faceted implementation strategies (n = 51). Fifty-three studies reported positive outcomes, 11 studies reported mixed effects and four studies showed a limited effect (two educational and two multi-faceted strategies). This review is one of the first to provide an overview of the available literature in relation to strategies used to improve the organisation of palliative care. Since most studies reported positive results, further research is needed to identify and improve the effects of strategies aiming to improve the organisation of palliative care.

  3. A preferential attachment strategy for connectivity link addition strategy in improving the robustness of interdependent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingyuan; Cao, Jianye; Li, Rui; Zhao, Tianfang

    2017-10-01

    Given the same two networks and only one-to-one interlinks are allowed, apparently interdependent networks coupled by these two networks has the optimal robustness when we connect every pair of the same nodes in these two networks. According to the structure of this interdependent network with the optimal robustness, we propose a preferential attachment strategy. And by applying this preferential attachment strategy to three existing connectivity link addition strategies RA (random addition strategy), LD (low degree addition strategy) and LIDD (low inter degree-degree difference addition strategy), we find that each improved strategy is obviously better than before in improving the robustness of interdependent networks. Our findings can provide guidance on connectivity link addition strategy to improve robustness of interdependent networks against cascading failures.

  4. [Abdominal organ retrieval: strategies to improve quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, M; Bald, C; Breidenbach, T; Engehausen, D; Guba, M; Klein, I; Matevossian, E; Müller, V; Vergho, D; Kleespies, A

    2013-04-01

    The blatant problem of organ shortage leads to an increasing acceptance of organs from extended criteria donors. This increases the importance of the process of organ donation and retrieval. A working group of representatives of Bavarian retrieval surgeons and the procurement organization German Foundation of Organ Transplantation (DSO) was initiated to develop consensus-based recommendations for quality improvements in the field of organ retrieval on the basis of regional data. The main aim was to professionalize retrieval teams by specified training standards and to define objective qualifications for retrieval surgeons. Initial measures of the working group included agreement on standardized retrieval techniques and improvement of documentation in terms of quality forms and the return rate of the forms. Quality data are being analyzed prospectively with a new categorization of complications. Communication among centers and teams and complication reporting has already been improved and initial structural changes have been set up.

  5. Current strategies for improving food bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, O P; Buist, Girbe; Kok, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Novel concepts and methodologies are emerging that hold great promise for the directed improvement of food-related bacteria, specifically lactic acid bacteria. Also, the battle against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria can now be fought more effectively. Here we describe recent advances in

  6. Workforce strategies to improve children's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Kristine

    2014-12-01

    (1) Tooth decay is the most common chronic disease for children. (2) As millions receive dental coverage under the Affordable Care Act, the demand for dental services is expected to strain the current workforce's ability to meet their needs. (3) States have adopted various workforce approaches to improve access to dental care for underserved populations.

  7. Improving Screening Strategies for Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Wolters (Tineke)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTh is thesis describes research on screening for prostate cancer. To improve understanding of the thesis, some background information will be provided in this introduction. First, a short description of the prostate and of prostate cancer will be given in Chapter 1, followed by

  8. Pharmacy management strategies for improving drug adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, William K

    2008-07-01

    Significant gaps in quality pervade U.S. health care, leading to suboptimal care and rising costs. One key factor driving the apparent quality gaps and rising costs in the current health care system is the issue of nonadherence to prescription medications. To describe quality gaps in managed care that are driven by nonadherence to prescription medications and characterize the components of successful pharmacy management strategies for overcoming nonadherence. Collaborative networks and medication therapy management (MTM) programs are 2 pharmacy management initiatives that are useful in reducing medication nonadherence among plan members. The Pharmacy Quality Alliance has laid the foundation for developing useful pharmacy quality metrics, aggregating data, and reporting to both consumers and pharmacies. At the same time, the National Committee for Quality Assurance has developed MTM measures to monitor pharmacy quality. Both organizations have used Medicare Part D as an impetus for these initiatives in an effort to assess the value of the high-cost investment in prescription drugs resulting from the government mandate. Managed care stakeholders should strive toward a valuebased health care system by investing more on appropriate medication use, including initiatives to reduce nonadherence and avoid the high costs of treating severe disease in the future.

  9. Improvement strategies in ovine artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anel, L; Alvarez, M; Martinez-Pastor, F; Garcia-Macias, V; Anel, E; de Paz, P

    2006-10-01

    Artificial insemination in ram is scarcely widespread comparing with other domestic species. This has been due not only to fertility results being irregular and low but also because of the difficulty in the application of enhancements such as the use of frozen-thawed sperm. Although there is a lot of information on the use of different options to improve these AI results (such as transcervical application, the use of thawed sperm, etc.) commercial programmes can be classified on two general categories: those using refrigerated semen (15 degrees C) by superficial intracervical deposition (vaginal), and, more restricted, those using thawed sperm by intrauterine deposition (laparoscopy). In the present work, we have summarized our viewpoint on three general research lines for the improvement of AI results in sheep: semen preservation, AI procedures and semen assessment. Briefly, in ram it is necessary to develop a medium term methodology of sperm refrigeration (3-5 days), which would allow the distribution of sperm doses to a widespread area. Nevertheless, it is also necessary to develop an intrauterine transcervical AI technique, which allows thawed semen to be applied by vaginal insemination. Besides, the low predictive value of classic assessment techniques limits the ability to adjust the number of spermatozoa per dose according to its actual fertility.

  10. Novel strategies to improve the patency of vascular prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyligers, J.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Two novel strategies to improve the patency of vascular prostheses are described in this thesis. To improve the outcome of synthetic vascular bypass surgery, cell seeding is a promising concept that has extensively been investigated and is still evolving. To improve the short term effects due to

  11. Contribution to the improvement of control strategies | Benachaiba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, a comparative survey will be done among three control strategies to determine the compensation current in a shunt active filter. We have introduced a fuzzy regulator for each strategy to improve the DC capacitor voltage response. The first one is based on the PQ theory proposed by Akagi et al., in 1983. In the ...

  12. Strategies for improving library user education programme in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determines strategies for improving library user education in universities in Benue State. The main purpose of this study is to determine the strategies for students' positive attitudes towards library user education. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Population of the study was 6,253 and ...

  13. Research Publication as a Strategy to Improve International Academic Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Fatt Hee

    2012-01-01

    Many universities in Asia are now focused on enhancing their global academic competitiveness. Various strategies are implemented to restructure, reform and transform universities aimed at improving ranking in the global university league. One significant strategy is to encourage academicians to place priority on publishing in high-impact…

  14. Teaching Written Communication Strategies: A Training to Improve Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Benali Taouis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research can be described as an experimental quantitative one including: a strategy training; two homogenous experimental groups with different levels of proficiency; and two homogenous control groups. The subjects are 60 Spanish high school students, who have been selected after taking the Oxford Quick Placement-Test. The study aims at investigating the possible relationship between the effect of the strategy training and the subjects' level of proficiency. It is also designed to analyze the effect of the training on the use of communication strategies in the written medium. It is meant to study the effect of the strategy training on the subjects' writing skill in English. The results show that the students' level of proficiency exerts a strong effect on the subjects' use of written communication strategies (CSs and on their strategy preference in written production. They also demonstrate how strategy training improves the subjects' written communication ability.

  15. Strategy to improve the burden of gestational diabetes in African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategy to improve the burden of gestational diabetes in African women: Rwandan perspective. Herbert T. Mapira, David K. Tumusiime, Kevin Yarasheski, Nadine Rujeni, Todd W. Cade, Eugene Mutimura ...

  16. Strategy to Support Improvement of Healthcare Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Andrea Zejdlova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the latest market-based solutions to the rising costs and quality gaps in health care is pay for performance. Pay for performance is the use of financial incentives to promote the delivery of designated standards of care. It is an emerging movement in health insurance (initially in Britain and United States. Providers under this arrangement are rewarded for meeting pre-established targets for delivery of healthcare services. This is a fundamental change from fee for service payment.Also known as "P4P" or “value-based purchasing,” this payment model rewards physicians, hospitals, medical groups, and other healthcare providers for meeting certain performance measures for quality and efficiency. Disincentives, such as eliminating payments for negative consequences of care (medical errors or increased costs, have also been proposed. In the developed nations, the rapidly aging population and rising health care costs have recently brought P4P to the forefront of health policy discussions. Pilot studies underway in several large healthcare systems have shown modest improvements in specific outcomes and increased efficiency, but no cost savings due to added administrative requirements. Statements by professional medical societies generally support incentive programs to increase the quality of health care, but express concern with the validity of quality indicators, patient and physician autonomy and privacy, and increased administrative burdens. This article serves as an introduction to pay for performance. We discuss the goals and structure of pay for performance plans and their limitations and potential consequences in the health care area.

  17. Evaluating Fidelity to a Modified NIATx Process Improvement Strategy for Improving HIV Services in Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Jennifer; Willett, Jennifer; Yang, Yang; Swan, Holly; Dembo, Richard; Burdon, William M; Patterson, Yvonne; Pearson, Frank S; Belenko, Steven; Frisman, Linda K

    2018-04-01

    In a study aimed at improving the quality of HIV services for inmates, an organizational process improvement strategy using change teams was tested in 14 correctional facilities in 8 US states and Puerto Rico. Data to examine fidelity to the process improvement strategy consisted of quantitative ratings of the structural and process components of the strategy and qualitative notes that explicate challenges in maintaining fidelity to the strategy. Fidelity challenges included (1) lack of communication and leadership within change teams, (2) instability in team membership, and (3) issues with data utilization in decision-making to implement improvements to services delivery.

  18. Improved Droop Control Strategy for Grid-Connected Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abusara, Mohammad; Sharkh, Suleiman; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    An improved control strategy for grid-connected inverters within microgrids is presented in this paper. The strategy is based on the classical P-ω and Q-V droop method. The improvement in the proposed control strategy is twofold: Firstly, the transient response of the droop controller is improved...... by replacing the traditional method of measuring average power, which is based on using a first order low pass filter, by a real time integration filter. This is shown to reduce the imported transient energy when connecting to the grid. Secondly, the steady state output current quality is improved by utilising...... a virtual inductance, which is shown to reject grid voltage harmonics disturbance and thus improve the output current THD. A small signal model of the inverter based on the transfer function approach is developed to analyse is stability and determine droop gains. Simulation and experimental results...

  19. Improvement of Torque Production in Single-Phase Induction Motors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    and at steady state, they produce a significant level of torque pulsations which gives rise to noise and vibration in the machine. As part of efforts to mitigate these problems, a performance improvement strategy using a PWM inverter to drive the existing motor is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink environment in this work.

  20. Improving CMD Areal Density Analysis: Algorithms and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Wilson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential ideas, successes, and difficulties of Areal Density Analysis (ADA for color-magnitude diagrams (CMD’s of resolved stellar populations are examined, with explanation of various algorithms and strategies for optimal performance. A CMDgeneration program computes theoretical datasets with simulated observational error and a solution program inverts the problem by the method of Differential Corrections (DC so as to compute parameter values from observed magnitudes and colors, with standard error estimates and correlation coefficients. ADA promises not only impersonal results, but also significant saving of labor, especially where a given dataset is analyzed with several evolution models. Observational errors and multiple star systems, along with various single star characteristics and phenomena, are modeled directly via the Functional Statistics Algorithm (FSA. Unlike Monte Carlo, FSA is not dependent on a random number generator. Discussions include difficulties and overall requirements, such as need for fast evolutionary computation and realization of goals within machine memory limits. Degradation of results due to influence of pixelization on derivatives, Initial Mass Function (IMF quantization, IMF steepness, low Areal Densities (A, and large variation in A are reduced or eliminated through a variety of schemes that are explained sufficiently for general application. The Levenberg-Marquardt and MMS algorithms for improvement of solution convergence are contained within the DC program. An example of convergence, which typically is very good, is shown in tabular form. A number of theoretical and practical solution issues are discussed, as are prospects for further development.

  1. Improving CMD Areal Density Analysis: Algorithms and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. E.

    2014-06-01

    Essential ideas, successes, and difficulties of Areal Density Analysis (ADA) for color-magnitude diagrams (CMD¡¯s) of resolved stellar populations are examined, with explanation of various algorithms and strategies for optimal performance. A CMDgeneration program computes theoretical datasets with simulated observational error and a solution program inverts the problem by the method of Differential Corrections (DC) so as to compute parameter values from observed magnitudes and colors, with standard error estimates and correlation coefficients. ADA promises not only impersonal results, but also significant saving of labor, especially where a given dataset is analyzed with several evolution models. Observational errors and multiple star systems, along with various single star characteristics and phenomena, are modeled directly via the Functional Statistics Algorithm (FSA). Unlike Monte Carlo, FSA is not dependent on a random number generator. Discussions include difficulties and overall requirements, such as need for fast evolutionary computation and realization of goals within machine memory limits. Degradation of results due to influence of pixelization on derivatives, Initial Mass Function (IMF) quantization, IMF steepness, low Areal Densities (A ), and large variation in A are reduced or eliminated through a variety of schemes that are explained sufficiently for general application. The Levenberg-Marquardt and MMS algorithms for improvement of solution convergence are contained within the DC program. An example of convergence, which typically is very good, is shown in tabular form. A number of theoretical and practical solution issues are discussed, as are prospects for further development.

  2. Orthopaedic Surgeons' View on Strategies for Improving Patient Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Stein J.; Teunis, Teun; Guitton, Thierry G.; Ring, David; Herndon, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many strategies have been introduced to improve safety in health care, but it is not clear that these efforts have reduced errors. This study assessed the experienced safety culture and preferred means of improving safety among orthopaedists. Methods: Members of the Science of Variation

  3. Evaluation of two communication strategies to improve udder health management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Renes, R.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, programs to improve udder health are implemented using communication tools and methods that inform and persuade dairy farmers. This study evaluated 2 communication strategies used in a mastitis control program in the Netherlands. To improve farmers’ udder health management, tools such as

  4. Strategies to Improve the Quality of Health Care - Learning from ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strategies to Improve the Quality of Health Care - Learning from Experiences in Uruguay and Chile. Improving access to primary health care and the quality of services in Latin American countries is urgently needed to address high health inequities in the region. Lessons learned from two successful campaigns promoting ...

  5. Improved PLL structures for single-phase grid inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    of the reference signals. This paper presents two improved phase-locked-loop (PLL) methods for single-phase grid connected systems. The investigated PLL methods are based on a transport delay method and an inverse Park transformation method. The improvements in the case of using the delay-based PLL are: non......-frequency dependent and better filtering of the harmonics. For the other investigated PLL method based on inverse Park transformation the improvement consists of better filtering of the harmonics. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the two proposed methods....

  6. Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Strategy for Single-Phase Three-Level CIC T-source Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shults, Tatiana E.; Husev, Oleksandr O.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel space vector pulse-width modulation strategy for a single-phase three-level buck-boost inverter based on an impedance-source network. The case study system is based on T-source inverter with continuous input current. To demonstrate the improved performance of the inver...

  7. Teacher’s comprehensive training strategy for improving didactics performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozas, W. J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a Teacher’s comprehensive training strategy for improving didactics performance, together with its theoretical foundations. The strategy is structured into several dimensions related to teachers’ development (lesson planning, continuing education and research. It is organized into two phases and seven stages intended to improve leadership in the teaching-learning process. The finding are the expression of a comprehensive approach to school organization at Services Polytechnic School “Horacio Cobiellas Domínguez” resulting in teachers’ academic and scientific development and a significant growth of the staff scientific potentials manifested in scientific forum enrolment. The resulting impact should lead to a general use of the proposed strategy in the Polytechnic school web. Key words: professional performance, pedagogic professional performance, didactic professional performance, teachers’ developmental strategy

  8. Energetic and exergetic Improvement of geothermal single flash cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Nazari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed analysis of a new method for improving energetic and exergetic efficiencies of single flash cycle. The thermodynamic process of the new method consists of extracting a fraction of hot wellhead geothermal brine for the purpose of superheating saturated steam entering the turbine. Computer programming scripts were developed and optimized based on mathematical proposed models for the different components of the systems. The operating parameters such as separator temperature, geofluid wellhead enthalpy and geothermal source temperature are varied to investigate their effects on both net power output and turbine exhaust quality of the systems. Also, full exergy assessment was performed for the new design. The results of separator temperature optimization revealed that specific net power output of the new design can be boosted up to 8% and turbine exhaust quality can be diminished up to 50% as compared to common single flash cycle. In addition, for wells with higher discharge enthalpy, superheating process improve specific net power output even up to 10%. Finally, it was observed that the overall system exergy efficiency was approximately raised 3%. Article History: Received January 5th 2016; Received in revised form June 25th 2016; Accepted July 3rd 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Nazari, N. and Porkhial, S. (2016. Energetic and Exergetic Improvement of Geothermal Single Flash Cycle. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2,129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.129-138 

  9. Identifying strategies to improve the effectiveness of booster seat laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this project was to identify strategies to improve the effectiveness of booster seat laws. The project explored the possible factors that relate to the use and nonuse of booster seats, and examined the attitudes of law enforcement of...

  10. Nature-based strategies for improving urban health and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Eugenia C. South; Charles C. Branas

    2015-01-01

    Place-based programs are being noticed as key opportunities to prevent disease and promote public health and safety for populations at-large. As one key type of place-based intervention, nature-based and green space strategies can play an especially large role in improving health and safety for dwellers in urban environments such as US legacy cities that lack nature...

  11. Citizen-based Strategies to Improve Community Security: Working ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Citizen-based Strategies to Improve Community Security: Working with Vulnerable Populations to Address Urban Violence in Medellin ... Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  12. Strategies for improving the economic status of female-headed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in seven districts in Manicaland and Mashonaland East Provinces of Zimbabwe. It sought to analyse the situation of female smallholder farmers with a view to determining innovative strategies that could be employed to improve their socioeconomic status. A sample of 600 smallholder communal ...

  13. Oxygen uptake rate (OUR) control strategy for improving avermectin B

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glucose metabolism plays a crucial role in the process of avermectin B1a biosynthesis. Controlling glucose feeding based on oxygen uptake rate (OUR) was established to improve the efficiency of avermectin B1a production. The result showed that avermectin B1a production was greatly enhanced by OUR control strategy.

  14. Strategies for improving job security: decreasing anxiety from restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A

    1995-12-01

    Nurses are worried about the future of nursing and, more specifically, about the future of their own job. This author who is experienced in working with nurses on job security issues and clarifying layoff policies suggests strategies that can help improve nurses' feelings of job security even during this time of restructuring.

  15. strategies for improving supervisory skills for effective primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    certain basic concepts such as inspection and supervision, the responsibility of supervisors, relevant areas in ... Strategies For Improving Supervisory Skills For Effective Primary Education In Nigeria. Enaigbe A. P. 236 ... book, attendance book etc. 6) Managerial Skills: These are skills on time management, good use.

  16. Peer Review as a Strategy for Improving Students' Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    Peer review is an established strategy for improving the quality of students' writing. This study moves beyond the focus on outcomes to assess the peer-review process. In particular, this study focuses on the timing of the peer review, a highly structured feedback form, and student writers' revisions after engaging in peer review. This study draws…

  17. Coping strategies for managing occupational stress for improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occupational stress is receiving increasing concern as killer of workers and productivity deterrent. This paper assessed its management and some coping strategies, with a view to improving productivity among workers. The paper adopted literature review approach to x-ray the concept of occupational stress, symptoms of ...

  18. Implementation of multidimensional knowledge translation strategies to improve procedural pain in hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Bonnie J; Yamada, Janet; Promislow, Sara; Stinson, Jennifer; Harrison, Denise; Victor, J Charles

    2014-11-25

    Despite extensive research, institutional policies, and practice guidelines, procedural pain remains undertreated in hospitalized children. Knowledge translation (KT) strategies have been employed to bridge the research to practice gap with varying success. The most effective single or combination of KT strategies has not been found. A multifaceted KT intervention, Evidence-based Practice for Improving Quality (EPIQ), that included tailored KT strategies was effective in improving pain practices and clinical outcomes at the unit level in a prospective comparative cohort study in 32 hospital units (16 EPIQ intervention and 16 Standard Care), in eight pediatric hospitals in Canada. In a study of the 16 EPIQ units (two at each hospital) only, the objectives were to: determine the effectiveness of evidence-based KT strategies implemented to achieve unit aims; describe the KT strategies implemented and their influence on pain assessment and management across unit types; and identify facilitators and barriers to their implementation. Data were collected from each EPIQ intervention unit on targeted pain practices and KT strategies implemented, through chart review and a process evaluation checklist, following four intervention cycles over a 15-month period. Following the completion of the four cycle intervention, 78% of 23 targeted pain practice aims across units were achieved within 80% of the stated aims. A statistically significant improvement was found in the proportion of children receiving pain assessment and management, regardless of pre-determined aims (p strategies implemented was 35 and included reminders, educational outreach and materials, and audit and feedback. Units successful in achieving their aims implemented more KT strategies than units that did not. No specific type of single or combination of KT strategies was more effective in improving pain assessment and management outcomes. Tailoring KT strategies to unit context, support from unit leadership

  19. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES USED BY MANAGERS IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raþiu Patricia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: There are many situations in professional life when for various reasons we are employed in jobs that do not meet our emotional expectations our professional capabilities, our passions and therefore performance on that job will not be high. Analysis of the causes of under-utilization of human potential and adoption of appropriate strategies according to employee needs help reduce staff turnover costs. The main objective of the present paper consists in identifying managerial strategies which contribute to the improvement of the employees’ performances by stimulating their motivation, and the extent to which they are used in the managerial practice. Based on literature review we realized an integrated model and developed a classification, that present our own vision regarding performance improvement strategies. Our classification divides strategies for improving employees’ performances into four main groups: by employees’ development, by rewarding employees, by modifying the job description, by employee involvement in the organization. Starting from this model, through two types of questionnaires we have made an empirical research among managers as well as among office personnel, in order to capture both perspectives regarding the pursued objectives. For the present paper we will present only research results obtained for performance improvement strategies by employees’ development because support a higher degree of generality and do not depend on the organization characteristics. A quantitative data analize from the two samples show that there are differences between managers and employees perception when it comes to strategies used in their organizations and also manager did not know which determines employees to strive in order to improve their performance and obtain better results. The strategies to improve the employee’s performances, proposed within this article have the role to show the fact that managers cannot

  20. Strategies for improving drug delivery: nanocarriers and microenvironmental priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Ayesha; Persano, Stefano; Shen, Haifa; Zhao, Yuliang; Blanco, Elvin; Ferrari, Mauro; Wolfram, Joy

    2017-07-01

    The ultimate goal in the field of drug delivery is to exclusively direct therapeutic agents to pathological tissues in order to increase therapeutic efficacy and eliminate side effects. This goal is challenging due to multiple transport obstacles in the body. Strategies that improve drug transport exploit differences in the characteristics of normal and pathological tissues. Within the field of oncology, these concepts have laid the groundwork for a new discipline termed transport oncophysics. Areas covered: Efforts to improve drug biodistribution have mainly focused on nanocarriers that enable preferential accumulation of drugs in diseased tissues. A less common approach to enhance drug transport involves priming strategies that modulate the biological environment in ways that favor localized drug delivery. This review discusses a variety of priming and nanoparticle design strategies that have been used for drug delivery. Expert opinion: Combinations of priming agents and nanocarriers are likely to yield optimal drug distribution profiles. Although priming strategies have yet to be widely implemented, they represent promising solutions for overcoming biological transport barriers. In fact, such strategies are not restricted to priming the tumor microenvironment but can also be directed toward healthy tissue in order to reduce nanoparticle uptake.

  1. IMPROVING THE READING COMPREHENSION ABILITY THROUGH WEBBING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suud Purnomo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to improve the students’ reading comprehension ability through webbing strategy which is designed to find a strategy of teaching reading skills in expository texts. The study employed a collaborative classroom action research design in which the researcher and the collaborator worked together designing the lesson plan, implementing the action, observing the action, and reflecting the action. The subjects of this research were 40 students the eleventh grade students of SMA PGRI Mojosari in the 2010/2011 academic year. The webbing strategy was successful in improving both the students’ ability in comprehending expository texts and the students’ involvement in reading activities. The strategy increased students’ mean scores and the students’ individual score percentage from preliminary study to Cycle 2 ranging from 64.83 to 78.17 or the students’ individual score percentage extended from 42.50% to 85% equal or greater than 70% of 40 students. The results of the second cycle indicated higher scores in which predetermined criteria of success met in the second cycle. The majority students showed active involvement (92.50% in the third meeting of Cycle 2. Keywords: reading comprehension, expository texts, webbing strategy

  2. Improvement of Source Number Estimation Method for Single Channel Signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Dong

    Full Text Available Source number estimation methods for single channel signal have been investigated and the improvements for each method are suggested in this work. Firstly, the single channel data is converted to multi-channel form by delay process. Then, algorithms used in the array signal processing, such as Gerschgorin's disk estimation (GDE and minimum description length (MDL, are introduced to estimate the source number of the received signal. The previous results have shown that the MDL based on information theoretic criteria (ITC obtains a superior performance than GDE at low SNR. However it has no ability to handle the signals containing colored noise. On the contrary, the GDE method can eliminate the influence of colored noise. Nevertheless, its performance at low SNR is not satisfactory. In order to solve these problems and contradictions, the work makes remarkable improvements on these two methods on account of the above consideration. A diagonal loading technique is employed to ameliorate the MDL method and a jackknife technique is referenced to optimize the data covariance matrix in order to improve the performance of the GDE method. The results of simulation have illustrated that the performance of original methods have been promoted largely.

  3. Paths to continuous improvement of a CRM strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís G. Renart

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of relationship marketing has led to a paradigm change in marketing. Over the last few decades, numerous studies have analyzed the impact of customer relationship management (CRM programs on customer satisfaction and loyalty. Quite a few CRM programs have been found to have little or no impact. Having already published several articles and cases on the subject, in this paper we set out to answer the following question: assuming a company already has a reasonably successful CRM strategy in place, how can it continuously adapt and improve that strategy? Our recommendation is that such companies implement a continuous improvement process at four different but complementary levels: first, review and reinforce the company’s mission, culture and values; second, reconsider and, if necessary, redesign the CRM strategy; third, manage the various relationship-building activities more effectively; and lastly, review and, if necessary, improve the quality of material and human resources, program execution and process governance. A systematic review of these four levels or “paths” of improvement should help generate and maintain high quality relationships over time.

  4. Structural Design Strategies for Improved Small Overlap Crashworthiness Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Becky C; Brethwaite, Andrew S; Zuby, David S; Nolan, Joseph M

    2014-11-01

    In 2012, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) began a 64 km/h small overlap frontal crash test consumer information test program. Thirteen automakers already have redesigned models to improve test performance. One or more distinct strategies are evident in these redesigns: reinforcement of the occupant compartment, use of energy-absorbing fender structures, and the addition of engagement structures to induce vehicle lateral translation. Each strategy influences vehicle kinematics, posing additional challenges for the restraint systems. The objective of this two-part study was to examine how vehicles were modified to improve small overlap test performance and then to examine how these modifications affect dummy response and restraint system performance. Among eight models tested before and after design changes, occupant compartment intrusion reductions ranged from 6 cm to 45 cm, with the highest reductions observed in models with the largest number of modifications. All redesigns included additional occupant compartment reinforcement, one-third added structures to engage the barrier, and two modified a shotgun load path. Designs with engagement structures produced greater glance-off from the barrier and exhibited lower delta Vs but experienced more lateral outboard motion of the dummy. Designs with heavy reinforcement of the occupant compartment had higher vehicle accelerations and delta V. In three cases, these apparent trade-offs were not well addressed by concurrent changes in restraint systems and resulted in increased injury risk compared with the original tests. Among the 36 models tested after design changes, the extent of design changes correlated to structural performance. Half of the vehicles with the lowest intrusion levels incorporated aspects of all three design strategies. Vehicle kinematics and dummy and restraint system characteristics were similar to those observed in the before/after pairs. Different combinations of structural

  5. A single bout of exercise improves motor memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Skriver, Kasper Christen; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity has a positive impact on cognition and brain function. Here we investigated if a single bout of exercise can improve motor memory and motor skill learning. We also explored if the timing of the exercise bout in relation to the timing of practice has any impact...... of a motor skill. The positive effects of acute exercise on motor memory are maximized when exercise is performed immediately after practice, during the early stages of memory consolidation. Thus, the timing of exercise in relation to practice is possibly an important factor regulating the effects of acute...... exercise on long-term motor memory....

  6. [Lead compound optimization strategy (3)--Structure modification strategies for improving water solubility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeng; Wang, Jiang; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Hong

    2014-09-01

    Water solubility is an essential physical chemistry property of organic small molecule drug and is also a very important issue in drug discovery. Good water solubility often leads to a good drug potency and pleasant pharmacokinetic profiles. To improve water solubility, structure modification is a straight and effective way based on the theory of water solubility. This review summarized valid structure modification strategies for improving water solubility including salt formation, polar group introduction, liposolubility reduction, conformation optimization and prodrug.

  7. Evolution of strategies to improve preclinical cardiac safety testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gintant, Gary; Sager, Philip T; Stockbridge, Norman

    2016-07-01

    The early and efficient assessment of cardiac safety liabilities is essential to confidently advance novel drug candidates. This article discusses evolving mechanistically based preclinical strategies for detecting drug-induced electrophysiological and structural cardiotoxicity using in vitro human ion channel assays, human-based in silico reconstructions and human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. These strategies represent a paradigm shift from current approaches, which rely on simplistic in vitro assays that measure blockade of the Kv11.1 current (also known as the hERG current or IKr) and on the use of non-human cells or tissues. These new strategies have the potential to improve sensitivity and specificity in the early detection of genuine cardiotoxicity risks, thereby reducing the likelihood of mistakenly discarding viable drug candidates and speeding the progression of worthy drugs into clinical trials.

  8. An improved MIMO-SAR simulator strategy with ray tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xingyu; Mo, Zijian; Wang, Zhonghai; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2016-05-01

    High resolution and wide-swath imaging can be obtained by Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with the state of the art technologies. The time division multiple access (TDMA) MIMO SAR mimics the motion of the antenna of SAR systems by switching the array channels to transmit the radar signals at different time slots. In this paper, we develop a simulation tool with ray tracing techniques to retrieve high resolution and accurate SAR images for development of MIMO SAR imaging methods. Without loss of generality, in the proposed simulator, we apply a TDMA MIMO SAR system with 13 transmitting antennas and 8 receiving antennas, where all transmitting antennas share a single transmitter and the receiving antennas share a single receiver. By comparing with the normal simulation MIMO SAR strategies, the simulation image using ray tracing results validate that the proposed method provides more accurate and higher resolution SAR images.

  9. [Health professionals facing hand hygiene improvement: state-of-the-art strategies versus extended strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Usagre, Manuel; Pérez-Pérez, Pastora; Vázquez-Vázquez, Marta; Santana-López, Vicente

    2014-10-01

    The hand hygiene (HH) is one of the preventive practices more .widely and effectively implemented in the control of healthcare associated infections. However, there are several barriers to compliance. To assess which strategy, state-of-the-art strategies (availability of alcohol-based preparations, posters, instructions and training) or extended strategies (feedbacks, formal and informal leadership), are seen as more effective to improve hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Analytical study using a self-completed questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. 2,068 questionnaires, completed by healthcare professionals (HP) in Andalusia (Spain), were received from 2010 to 2012. Analytical technique: Structural equation modeling and multi group measurement invariance. Once the reliability of the proposed constructs was achieved (Cronbach α=0.73, 0.84, 0.70), it was found that those HP working in centers with the highest level of commitment with HH are those who see extended strategies as more effective (χ2=298.3, df=39, CFI=0.972, TLI=0.961, RMSEA=0.057, SRMR=0.028). Our results have shown that hospitals' HP, compared to primary care HP, see state-of-the-art strategies as more effective, as well as they give less importance to HH, meanwhile nurses, compared to physicians, see effective both strategies. HP contemplate the combination of state-of-the-art and extended strategies as an effective way to improve the HH compliance. In addition, extended strategies are considered more effective amongst the most "advanced" healthcare settings in terms of their commitment to HH. The results highlight the need for commitment at management, collective and individual level in order to maintain patient safety.

  10. Peer Assisted Learning Strategy for Improving Students’ Physiologic Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, S.

    2017-09-01

    Research about the implementation of the Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) strategy in Plant Physiology lecture has carried out, in which it aims to improve students’ physiologic literacy. The PAL strategy began with a briefing by the lecturers to the students tutor about pretest questions, followed by the interaction between student tutors with their peers to discuss response problems, terminated by answering responsiveness questions individually. This study used a quasi-experimental method, one - group pre-test post-test design. This design includes a group of students observed in the pre-test phase (tests carried out before PAL treatment) which is then followed by treatment with PAL and ends with post-test. The other students group (control) was given the pre-test and post-test only. The results showed that the PAL strategy can increase student’s physiologic literacy significantly. One of the weaknesses of students’ physiologic literacy is that they have not been able to read the graph. The faculties are encouraged to begin introducing and teaching material using a variety of strategies with scientific literacy aspects, for example teaching research-based material. All students respond positively to the PAL strategy.

  11. Strategies for improved French-language health services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Alain P.; Timony, Patrick E.; Serresse, Suzanne; Goodale, Natalie; Prpic, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify strategies to improve the quality of health services for Francophone patients. Design A series of semistructured key informant interviews. Setting Northeastern Ontario. Participants A total of 18 physicians were interviewed. Ten physicians were interviewed in French, 7 physicians were women, and 10 physicians were located in urban communities. Methods Purposive and snowball sampling strategies were used to conduct a series of semistructured key informant interviews with family physicians practising in communities with a large Francophone population. Principles of grounded theory were applied, guided by a framework for patient-professional communication. Results were inductively derived following an iterative data collection–data analysis process and were analyzed using a detailed thematic approach. Main findings Respondents identified several strategies for providing high-quality French-language health services. Some were unique to non–French-speaking physicians (eg, using appropriate interpreter services), some were unique to French-speaking physicians (eg, using a flexible dialect), and some strategies were common to all physicians serving French populations (eg, hiring bilingual staff or having pamphlets and posters in both French and English). Conclusion Physicians interviewed for this study provided high-quality health care by attributing substantial importance to effective communication. While linguistic patient-to-physician concordance is ideal, it might not always be possible. Thus, conscious efforts to attenuate communication barriers are necessary, and several effective strategies exist. PMID:26505060

  12. Competitive Strategies and Improved Performance of Selected Nigeria Telecommunication Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waidi Adeniyi Akingbad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The influence of globalization in telecommunication companies has greatly increased the level of competition in the industry and they are forced to be competitive to survive. Different types of strategies are put in place in order to be profitable and competitive. All these strategies are directed to attract, retain and maintain customers for continuous profitability. However, majority of them hardly measure the impact of their strategic innovation on their customers. The paper seeks to explore the influence of competitive strategies embarked upon by selected telecommunication companies in Nigeria on their performance. The paper also examines how competitive strategies could be implemented for improved customer satisfaction, retention and loyalty. Three null hypotheses were postulated to test the relationship between lower prices and customer satisfaction, uninterrupted trunk services and customer loyalty, and customer complaint handling and retention. Only customers using telephone service were selected as respondents from Lagos State. The state was stratified in to 20 local government council area and questionnaires were distributed to 125 respondents in each of them. The completion rate of the questionnaire in each of them is between 103 and 110. Survey research design was adopted to carry out the study. A structured questionnaire was designed and validated through the construct validity and tested for confirmation using the KMO measure of sampling adequacy. It was also made reliable using Cronbach’s Alpha test. From the study, findings revealed relationship between competitive strategies and customer satisfaction, retention and loyalty. The findings revealed that there is a relationship between competitive strategies, its constituents and performance of telecommunication companies. It is recommended that universal mobile telecommunication services (UMTS operators should adopt the culture of competitive strategies since it can

  13. Engineering Single-Atom Cobalt Catalysts toward Improved Electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gang; Yu, Pengfei; Chen, Hangrong; Wen, Jianguo; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Zhou, Hua; Zhang, Nian; Li, Qianru; Zhao, Wanpeng; Xie, Bing; Li, Tao; Shi, Jianlin

    2018-04-01

    The development of cost-effective catalysts to replace noble metal is attracting increasing interests in many fields of catalysis and energy, and intensive efforts are focused on the integration of transition-metal sites in carbon as noble-metal-free candidates. Recently, the discovery of single-atom dispersed catalyst (SAC) provides a new frontier in heterogeneous catalysis. However, the electrocatalytic application of SAC is still subject to several theoretical and experimental limitations. Further advances depend on a better design of SAC through optimizing its interaction with adsorbates during catalysis. Here, distinctive from previous studies, favorable 3d electronic occupation and enhanced metal-adsorbates interactions in single-atom centers via the construction of nonplanar coordination is achieved, which is confirmed by advanced X-ray spectroscopic and electrochemical studies. The as-designed atomically dispersed cobalt sites within nonplanar coordination show significantly improved catalytic activity and selectivity toward the oxygen reduction reaction, approaching the benchmark Pt-based catalysts. More importantly, the illustration of the active sites in SAC indicates metal-natured catalytic sites and a media-dependent catalytic pathway. Achieving structural and electronic engineering on SAC that promotes its catalytic performances provides a paradigm to bridge the gap between single-atom catalysts design and electrocatalytic applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Production strategies and applications of microbial single cell oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Ochsenreither

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of the -3 and -6 class (e.g. -linolenic acid, linoleic acid are essential for maintaining biofunctions in mammalians like humans. Due to the fact that humans cannot synthesize these essential fatty acids, they must be taken up from different food sources. Classical sources for these fatty acids are porcine liver and fish oil. However, microbial lipids or single cell oils, produced by oleaginous microorganisms such as algae, fungi and bacteria, are a promising source as well. These single cell oils can be used for many valuable chemicals with applications not only for nutrition but also for fuels and are therefore an ideal basis for a bio-based economy. A crucial point for the establishment of microbial lipids utilization is the cost-effective production and purification of fuels or products of higher value. The fermentative production can be realized by submerged (SmF or solid state fermentation (SSF. The yield and the composition of the obtained microbial lipids depend on the type of fermentation and the particular conditions (e.g. medium, pH-value, temperature, aeration, nitrogen source. From an economical point of view, waste or by-product streams can be used as cheap and renewable carbon and nitrogen sources. In general, downstream processing costs are one of the major obstacles to be solved for full economic efficiency of microbial lipids. For the extraction of lipids from microbial biomass cell disruption is most important, because efficiency of cell disruption directly influences subsequent downstream operations and overall extraction efficiencies. A multitude of cell disruption and lipid extraction methods are available, conventional as well as newly emerging methods, which will be described and discussed in terms of large scale applicability, their potential in a modern biorefinery and their influence on product quality. Furthermore, an overview is given about applications of microbial lipids

  15. Production Strategies and Applications of Microbial Single Cell Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsenreither, Katrin; Glück, Claudia; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz; Syldatk, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the ω-3 and ω-6 class (e.g., α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid) are essential for maintaining biofunctions in mammalians like humans. Due to the fact that humans cannot synthesize these essential fatty acids, they must be taken up from different food sources. Classical sources for these fatty acids are porcine liver and fish oil. However, microbial lipids or single cell oils, produced by oleaginous microorganisms such as algae, fungi and bacteria, are a promising source as well. These single cell oils can be used for many valuable chemicals with applications not only for nutrition but also for fuels and are therefore an ideal basis for a bio-based economy. A crucial point for the establishment of microbial lipids utilization is the cost-effective production and purification of fuels or products of higher value. The fermentative production can be realized by submerged (SmF) or solid state fermentation (SSF). The yield and the composition of the obtained microbial lipids depend on the type of fermentation and the particular conditions (e.g., medium, pH-value, temperature, aeration, nitrogen source). From an economical point of view, waste or by-product streams can be used as cheap and renewable carbon and nitrogen sources. In general, downstream processing costs are one of the major obstacles to be solved for full economic efficiency of microbial lipids. For the extraction of lipids from microbial biomass cell disruption is most important, because efficiency of cell disruption directly influences subsequent downstream operations and overall extraction efficiencies. A multitude of cell disruption and lipid extraction methods are available, conventional as well as newly emerging methods, which will be described and discussed in terms of large scale applicability, their potential in a modern biorefinery and their influence on product quality. Furthermore, an overview is given about applications of microbial lipids or derived fatty

  16. Critical care medicine: opportunities and strategies for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I L; Fitzpatrick, M; Booth, F V

    1996-02-01

    Like other areas of health care, critical care faces increasing pressure to improve the quality while reducing the cost of care. Strategies drawn from the literature and the authors' experiences are presented. Ten process- or structure-related areas are targeted as strategically important focuses of improvement: (1) restructuring administrative lines to better suit key processes; (2) physician leadership in critical care units; (3) management training for critical care managers; (4) triage; (5) multidisciplinary critical care; (6) standardization of care; (7) developing alternatives to critical care units; (8) timeliness of care delivery; (9) appropriate use of critical care resources; and (10) tracking quality improvement. Whatever the root cause(s) of unnecessary delays, the result is inefficient use of critical care resources-and ultimately either a need for more resources or longer wait times. Innovations designed to reduce wait times and waste, such as the establishment of a microchemistry stat laboratory, may prove valuable. Possible strategies for the appropriate use of critical care resources include better selection of well-informed patients who undergo procedures. Reduction in variation among physicians and organizations in providing therapies will also likely lead to a reduction in some high-risk procedures offering little or no benefit, and therefore a reduction in need for critical care services. Better preparation of patients and families should also make end-of-life decisions easier when questions of "futility" arise. Better information on outcomes and cost-effectiveness and consensus on withdrawal of critical care treatments represent two additional strategies.

  17. Improvements in Production of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzano, Leandro; Resasco, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    A continuing program of research and development has been directed toward improvement of a prior batch process in which single-walled carbon nanotubes are formed by catalytic disproportionation of carbon monoxide in a fluidized-bed reactor. The overall effect of the improvements has been to make progress toward converting the process from a batch mode to a continuous mode and to scaling of production to larger quantities. Efforts have also been made to optimize associated purification and dispersion post processes to make them effective at large scales and to investigate means of incorporating the purified products into composite materials. The ultimate purpose of the program is to enable the production of high-quality single-walled carbon nanotubes in quantities large enough and at costs low enough to foster the further development of practical applications. The fluidized bed used in this process contains mixed-metal catalyst particles. The choice of the catalyst and the operating conditions is such that the yield of single-walled carbon nanotubes, relative to all forms of carbon (including carbon fibers, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and graphite) produced in the disproportionation reaction is more than 90 weight percent. After the reaction, the nanotubes are dispersed in various solvents in preparation for end use, which typically involves blending into a plastic, ceramic, or other matrix to form a composite material. Notwithstanding the batch nature of the unmodified prior fluidized-bed process, the fluidized-bed reactor operates in a continuous mode during the process. The operation is almost entirely automated, utilizing mass flow controllers, a control computer running software specific to the process, and other equipment. Moreover, an important inherent advantage of fluidized- bed reactors in general is that solid particles can be added to and removed from fluidized beds during operation. For these reasons, the process and equipment were amenable to

  18. Winning strategies for pseudo-telepathy games using single non-local box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkri, S.; Kar, G.; Ghosh, S.; Roy, A.

    2006-12-01

    Using a single NL-box, a winning strategy is given for the impossible colouring pseudo-telepathy game for the set of vectors having Kochen-Specker property in four dimension. A sufficient condition given regarding the structure of the impossible colouring pseudo-telepathy game for general d-dimension. A winning strategy for this game is then described with single use of NL-box. (author)

  19. Overlay improvement by ASML HOWA 5th alignment strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Raf; Chiang, CY; Hsu, Wilson; Yang, Richer; Shih, Todd; Chen, Jackie; Chiu, Jonathan; Lin, Wythe

    2009-12-01

    Overlay control is more challenging when DRAM volume production continues to shrink its critical dimention (CD) to 70nm and beyond. Effected by process, the overlay behavior at wafer edge is quite different from wafer center. The big contribution to worse overlay at wafer edge which causes yield loss is misalignment. The analysis in wafer edge suggests that high order uncorrectable overlay residuals are often observed by certain process impact. Therefore, the basic linear model used for alignment correction is not sufficient and it is necessary to introduce an advanced alignment correction model for wafer edge overlay improvement. In this study, we demonstrated the achievement of moderating the poor overlay at wafer edge area by using a high order wafer alignment strategy. The mechanism is to use non-linear correction methods of high order models ( up to 5th order), with support by the function High Order Wafer Alignment (known as HOWA) in scanner. Instead of linear model for the 6 overlay parameters which come from average result, HOWA alignment strategy can do high order fitting through the wafer to get more accurate overlay parameters which represent the local wafer grid distortion better. As a result, the overlay improvement for wafer edge is achieved. Since alignment is a wafer dependent correction, with HOWA the wafer to wafer overlay variation can be improved dynamically as well. In addition, the effects of different mark quantity and sampling distribution from HOWA are also introduced in this paper. The results of this study indicate that HOWA can reduce uncorrectable overlay residual by 30~40% and improve wafer-to-wafer overlay variation significantly. We conclude that HOWA is a noteworthy strategy for overlay improvement. Moreover, optimized alignment mark numbers and distribution layout are also key factors to make HOWA successful.

  20. Pictorial mnemonic-strategy interventions for children with special needs: Illustration of a multiply randomized single-case crossover design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yooyeun; Levin, Joel R; Johnson, Evan W

    2016-01-25

    An innovative single-case crossover design containing multiple forms of randomization was implemented with eight participants in seven weekly sessions, during which instruction was given in the use of two different pictorial mnemonic (memory-enhancing) strategies: one designed to improve the children's learning of the dates of various inventions and the other designed to improve the children's acquisition of unfamiliar vocabulary items. A composite randomization statistical test revealed that when compared with the children's own preferred learning methods, the mnemonic-strategy approach produced the predicted facilitation effects. At the same time, it was evident that mnemonic instruction enhanced children's performance to a greater extent on the vocabulary task than on the inventions task. In-depth examination of both individual student performance profiles and the tasks/procedures were conducted, yielding recommendations and challenges for follow-up single-case intervention research on the topic.

  1. Revised control strategies to improve sulphur plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    As a lower cost alternative to process additions or modifications for improving sulfur plant performance, strategies can yield impressive results. Traditional control strategies are discussed, including reaction furnace control (combustion air, H 2 S content compensation, acid gas), blower surge control, and the use of process measurement and control valves. Revised control strategies are then presented. In controlling the furnace combustion air, the objective is to use the fast-acting trim air valve to handle any rapid small disturbances while using the main air valve to handle base load. H 2 content compensation is performed by monitoring the reaction furnace temperature, which provides a means of detecting H 2 S changes immediately. A temperature control loop is configured to adjust the air to acid gas ratio. An alternative to controlling acid gas during startup is bringing in the acid gas under flow control rather than pressure control, and let the flare pressure controller maintain the back pressure on the regeneration unit. Blower surge control is more effective using a blower flow as the control variable. New and existing instrumentation should be calibrated for the current plant load, not the design load. High resolution characterized ball valves are more desirable than the traditional butterfly valves. The revised control strategies cannot be practically implemented in pneumatic equipment and require electronic controllers. Applying the revised strategies has enabled a 0.5% increase in sulfur recovery, equivalent to a 33% decrease in stack SO 2 emissions. The revised strategies also make the sulfur plants more stable during process upsets and normal operation. 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Improved targeted immunization strategies based on two rounds of selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling-Ling; Song, Yu-Rong; Li, Chan-Chan; Jiang, Guo-Ping

    2018-04-01

    In the case of high degree targeted immunization where the number of vaccine is limited, when more than one node associated with the same degree meets the requirement of high degree centrality, how can we choose a certain number of nodes from those nodes, so that the number of immunized nodes will not exceed the limit? In this paper, we introduce a new idea derived from the selection process of second-round exam to solve this problem and then propose three improved targeted immunization strategies. In these proposed strategies, the immunized nodes are selected through two rounds of selection, where we increase the quotas of first-round selection according the evaluation criterion of degree centrality and then consider another characteristic parameter of node, such as node's clustering coefficient, betweenness and closeness, to help choose targeted nodes in the second-round selection. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategies, we compare them with the degree immunizations including the high degree targeted and the high degree adaptive immunizations using two metrics: the size of the largest connected component of immunized network and the number of infected nodes. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed strategies based on two rounds of sorting are effective for heterogeneous networks and their immunization effects are better than that of the degree immunizations.

  3. High performance control strategy for single-phase three-level neutral-point-clamped traction four-quadrant converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejian, Song; Konstantinou, Georgios; Jing, Li

    2017-01-01

    multiple unit traction system is proposed in this study. The strategy is based on a multiple frequency tuned quasi-proportional resonant controller in the ac-side current loop and a multiple frequency tuned notch filter in the dc-link voltage loop. Under the typical supply voltage distortion present......Operational data from Chinese railways indicate a number of challenges for traction four-quadrant converter (4QC) control including low-order voltage and current harmonics and reference tracking. A control strategy for a single-phase three-level neutral-point-clamped 4QC employed in the electric...... in the network, the proposed control strategy improves the current tracking performance and reduces the line current harmonics, when compared with conventional control strategies. Experimental results, both under purely sinusoidal and distorted supply voltages, validate the effectiveness of the proposed control...

  4. Improving basic math skills through integrated dynamic representation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, Paloma; Cueli, Marisol; Cabeza, Lourdes; Álvarez-García, David; Rodríguez, Celestino

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effectiveness of the Integrated Dynamic Representation strategy (IDR) to develop basic math skills. The study involved 72 students, aged between 6 and 8 years. We compared the development of informal basic skills (numbers, comparison, informal calculation, and informal concepts) and formal (conventionalisms, number facts, formal calculus, and formal concepts) in an experimental group (n = 35) where we applied the IDR strategy and in a Control group (n = 37) in order to identify the impact of the procedure. The experimental group improved significantly in all variables except for number facts and formal calculus. It can therefore be concluded that IDR favors the development of the skills more closely related to applied mathematics than those related to automatic mathematics and mental arithmetic.

  5. Current Strategies to Improve the Bioactivity of PEEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Tang, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    The synthetic thermoplastic polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is becoming a popular component of clinical orthopedic and spinal applications, but its practical use suffers from several limitations. Although PEEK is biocompatible, chemically stable, radiolucent and has an elastic modulus similar to that of normal human bone, it is biologically inert, preventing good integration with adjacent bone tissues upon implantation. Recent efforts have focused on increasing the bioactivity of PEEK to improve the bone-implant interface. Two main strategies have been used to overcome the inert character of PEEK. One approach is surface modification to activate PEEK through surface treatment alone or in combination with a surface coating. Another strategy is to prepare bioactive PEEK composites by impregnating bioactive materials into PEEK substrate. Researchers believe that modified bioactive PEEK will have a wide range of orthopedic applications. PMID:24686515

  6. [Strategies to improve influenza vaccination coverage in Primary Health Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, F; Richart, M J; Serrano, S; Martínez, A M; Pruteanu, D F

    2016-04-01

    Vaccination coverage reached in adults is insufficient, and there is a real need for new strategies. To compare strategies for improving influenza vaccination coverage in persons older than 64 years. New strategies were introduced in our health care centre during 2013-2014 influenza vaccination campaign, which included vaccinating patients in homes for the aged as well as in the health care centre. A comparison was made on vaccination coverage over the last 4 years in 3 practices of our health care centre: P1, the general physician vaccinated patients older than 64 that came to the practice; P2, the general physician systematically insisted in vaccination in elderly patients, strongly advising to book appointments, and P3, the general physician did not insist. These practices looked after P1: 278; P2: 320; P3: 294 patients older than 64 years. Overall/P1/P2/P3 coverages in 2010: 51.2/51.4/55/46.9% (P=NS), in 2011: 52.4/52.9/53.8/50.3% (P=NS), in 2012: 51.9/52.5/55.3/47.6% (P=NS), and in 2013: 63.5/79.1/59.7/52.7 (P=.000, P1 versus P2 and P3; P=NS between P2 and P3). Comparing the coverages in 2012-2013 within each practice P1 (P=.000); P2 (P=.045); P3 (P=.018). In P2 and P3 all vaccinations were given by the nurses as previously scheduled. In P3, 55% of the vaccinations were given by the nurses, 24.1% by the GP, 9.7% rejected vaccination, and the remainder did not come to the practice during the vaccination period (October 2013-February 2014). The strategy of vaccinating in the homes for the aged improved the vaccination coverage by 5% in each practice. The strategy of "I've got you here, I jab you here" in P1 improved the vaccination coverage by 22%. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Mitral regurgitation — Unmet need for improved management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Noel Trochu

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The current review represents one of the most comprehensive conducted in the medical/conservative management of MR. An increased risk of mortality and morbidity, which appeared to rise with greater severity, was associated with MR (versus no MR. An unmet need exists in the management of patients with severe symptomatic MR and a high surgical risk as they have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Further research into alternative medical strategies and patient management is needed to improve prognoses and reduce mortality and morbidity.

  9. Dental Emergencies: Management Strategies That Improve Outcomes [Digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, Ryan Anthony; Zaurova, Milana

    2017-06-22

    Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice . Acute dental emergencies are a common chief complaint presenting to emergency departments, and they are increasing substantially in frequency. The diagnosis and management of dental emergencies is a core competency of the emergency clinician, and proper therapeutic strategies can significantly improve cosmetic and functional outcomes for patients. This issue provides a systematic review of the literature on common acute traumatic and atraumatic dental emergencies with a focus on the historical and physical examination findings that must be understood to identify life-threatening infections, relieve pain, salvage natural teeth, and communicate with specialists in the further management of patients after emergency treatment.

  10. Single-reviewer electronic phenotyping validation in operational settings: Comparison of strategies and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhareva, Polina; Staes, Catherine; Noonan, Kevin W; Mueller, Heather L; Warner, Phillip; Shields, David E; Weeks, Howard; Kawamoto, Kensaku

    2017-02-01

    Develop evidence-based recommendations for single-reviewer validation of electronic phenotyping results in operational settings. We conducted a randomized controlled study to evaluate whether electronic phenotyping results should be used to support manual chart review during single-reviewer electronic phenotyping validation (N=3104). We evaluated the accuracy, duration and cost of manual chart review with and without the availability of electronic phenotyping results, including relevant patient-specific details. The cost of identification of an erroneous electronic phenotyping result was calculated based on the personnel time required for the initial chart review and subsequent adjudication of discrepancies between manual chart review results and electronic phenotype determinations. Providing electronic phenotyping results (vs not providing those results) was associated with improved overall accuracy of manual chart review (98.90% vs 92.46%, preview duration per test case (62.43 vs 76.78s, preview and electronic phenotyping results was higher when the phenotyping results were provided (Cohen's kappa 0.98 vs 0.88, previewer chart review of electronic phenotyping can be conducted more accurately, quickly, and at lower cost when supported by electronic phenotyping results. However, human reviewers tend to agree with electronic phenotyping results even when those results are wrong. Thus, the value of providing electronic phenotyping results depends on the accuracy of the underlying electronic phenotyping algorithm. We recommend using a mix of phenotyping validation strategies, with the balance of strategies based on the anticipated electronic phenotyping error rate, the tolerance for missed electronic phenotyping errors, as well as the expertise, cost, and availability of personnel involved in chart review and discrepancy adjudication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An improved system of detecting single event effect in SRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Teng; Wang Xiaohui; Zhang Zhangang; Liu Tianqi; Gu Song; Yang Zhenlei; Su Hong; Liu Jie

    2014-01-01

    The material research center in Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMP, CAS) have made a fruitful achievements in the research of single event effects (SEEs) occurring in static random access memory (SRAM). However, there are some drawbacks exist in the two systems of detecting SEE owning by the material research center. Therefore, an improved method of detecting SEE is proposed, and the method functionality is implemented in a circuit. Further, a sequence of experiments are carried out in the beam radiation terminal of the Heavy Ion Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), and a bunch of experimental data are collected. The irradiation tests were carried out using 129 Xe for the SEE research of 65 nm SRAMs; Using 12 C for the SEE research of the 65, 130 and 150 nm SRAMs with ECC module; Using 129 Xe for the SEL research of the common commercial SRAMs and so on. These experiments provide a statistical evidence of the effectiveness and robustness of the improved system. It is believed that the proposed system will be beneficial for detecting SEE in diverse settings, and it could be taken advantage of as a platform for future research on SEE tests in more intricate devices. (authors)

  12. New strategies to improve food marketing to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, William H

    2013-09-01

    Federal efforts to address the impact of food marketing on children began more than thirty years ago, when the Federal Trade Commission sought comment on strategies to reduce young children's exposure to food advertising. The food, advertising, and television industries mounted a virulent response, and Congress withdrew the commission's authority to regulate unfair advertising to children. The same industries and Congress responded equally aggressively to the proposed nutrition criteria for food products marketed to children drafted by a working group of federal agencies in 2011. Although federal efforts over the past thirty years have led to modest improvements in food quality and marketing practices, commercial interests have consistently overridden the health concerns of children. Mobilization of parents as a political force to improve standards for food marketed to children, use of social media for counteradvertising, and the development of new technologies to decrease exposure to food advertisements could reduce the impact of food marketing to children.

  13. [Strategies for improving care of oncologic patients: SHARE Project results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reñones Crego, María de la Concepción; Fernández Pérez, Dolores; Vena Fernández, Carmen; Zamudio Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cancer treatment is a major burden for the patient and its family that requires an individualized management by healthcare professionals. Nurses are in charge of coordinating care and are the closest healthcare professionals to patient and family; however, in Spain, there are not standard protocols yet for the management of oncology patients. The Spanish Oncology Nursing Society developed between 2012 and 2014 the SHARE project, with the aim of establishing strategies to improve quality of life and nursing care in oncology patients. It was developed in 3 phases. First, a literature search and review was performed to identify nursing strategies, interventions and tools to improve cancer patients' care. At the second stage, these interventions were agreed within a group of oncology nursing experts; and at the third phase, a different group of experts in oncology care categorized the interventions to identify the ones with highest priority and most feasible to be implemented. As a result, 3 strategic actions were identified to improve nursing care during cancer treatment: To provide a named nurse to carry out the follow up process by attending to the clinic or telephonic consultation, develop therapeutic education with adapted protocols for each tumor type and treatment and ensure specific training for nurses on the management of the cancer patients. Strategic actions proposed in this paper aim to improve cancer patients' healthcare and quality of life through the development of advanced nursing roles based on a higher level of autonomy, situating nurses as care coordinators to assure an holistic care in oncology patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Gynecologic oncology group strategies to improve timeliness of publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialy, Sally; Blessing, John A; Stehman, Frederick B; Reardon, Anne M; Blaser, Kim M

    2013-08-01

    The Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) is a multi-institution cooperative group funded by the National Cancer Institute to conduct clinical trials encompassing clinical and basic scientific research in gynecologic malignancies. These results are disseminated via publication in peer-reviewed journals. This process requires collaboration of numerous investigators located in diverse cancer research centers. Coordination of manuscript development is positioned within the Statistical and Data Center (SDC), thus allowing the SDC personnel to manage the process and refine strategies to promote earlier dissemination of results. A major initiative to improve timeliness utilizing the assignment, monitoring, and enforcement of deadlines for each phase of manuscript development is the focus of this investigation. Document improvement in timeliness via comparison of deadline compliance and time to journal submission due to expanded administrative and technologic initiatives implemented in 2006. Major steps in the publication process include generation of first draft by the First Author and submission to SDC, Co-author review, editorial review by Publications Subcommittee, response to journal critique, and revision. Associated with each step are responsibilities of First Author to write or revise, collaborating Biostatistician to perform analysis and interpretation, and assigned SDC Clinical Trials Editorial Associate to format/revise according to journal requirements. Upon the initiation of each step, a deadline for completion is assigned. In order to improve efficiency, a publications database was developed to track potential steps in manuscript development that enables the SDC Director of Administration and the Publications Subcommittee Chair to assign, monitor, and enforce deadlines. They, in turn, report progress to Group Leadership through the Operations Committee. The success of the strategies utilized to improve the GOG publication process was assessed by comparing the

  15. A Free-Piston Linear Generator Control Strategy for Improving Output Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control strategy to improve the output power for a single-cylinder two-stroke free-piston linear generator (FPLG. The comprehensive simulation model of this FPLG is established and the operation principle is introduced. The factors that affect the output power are analyzed theoretically. The characteristics of the piston motion are studied. Considering the different features of the piston motion respectively in acceleration and deceleration phases, a ladder-like electromagnetic force control strategy is proposed. According to the status of the linear electric machine, the reference profile of the electromagnetic force is divided into four ladder-like stages during one motion cycle. The piston motions, especially the dead center errors, are controlled by regulating the profile of the electromagnetic force. The feasibility and advantage of the proposed control strategy are verified through comparison analyses with two conventional control strategies via MatLab/Simulink. The results state that the proposed control strategy can improve the output power by around 7–10% with the same fuel cycle mass.

  16. A new reconstruction strategy for image improvement in pinhole SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeniya, Tsutomu; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong Min; Teramoto, Noboru; Hayashi, Takuya; Iida, Hidehiro [Department of Investigative Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1 Fujishiro-dai, 565-8565, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Aoi, Toshiyuki [Department of Investigative Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1 Fujishiro-dai, 565-8565, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Department of System Science, Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Sohlberg, Antti [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Kudo, Hiroyuki [Institute of Information Sciences and Electronics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2004-08-01

    Pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is able to provide information on the biodistribution of several radioligands in small laboratory animals, but has limitations associated with non-uniform spatial resolution or axial blurring. We have hypothesised that this blurring is due to incompleteness of the projection data acquired by a single circular pinhole orbit, and have evaluated a new strategy for accurate image reconstruction with better spatial resolution uniformity. A pinhole SPECT system using two circular orbits and a dedicated three-dimensional ordered subsets expectation maximisation (3D-OSEM) reconstruction method were developed. In this system, not the camera but the object rotates, and the two orbits are at 90 and 45 relative to the object's axis. This system satisfies Tuy's condition, and is thus able to provide complete data for 3D pinhole SPECT reconstruction within the whole field of view (FOV). To evaluate this system, a series of experiments was carried out using a multiple-disk phantom filled with {sup 99m}Tc solution. The feasibility of the proposed method for small animal imaging was tested with a mouse bone study using {sup 99m}Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. Feldkamp's filtered back-projection (FBP) method and the 3D-OSEM method were applied to these data sets, and the visual and statistical properties were examined. Axial blurring, which was still visible at the edge of the FOV even after applying the conventional 3D-OSEM instead of FBP for single-orbit data, was not visible after application of 3D-OSEM using two-orbit data. 3D-OSEM using two-orbit data dramatically reduced the resolution non-uniformity and statistical noise, and also demonstrated considerably better image quality in the mouse scan. This system may be of use in quantitative assessment of bio-physiological functions in small animals. (orig.)

  17. Quality improvement strategies and tools: A comparative analysis between Italy and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Stefano; Restuccia, Joseph D; Anessi-Pessina, Eugenio; Rizzo, Marco Giovanni; Cohen, Alan B

    2018-01-01

    Italian and American hospitals, in two different periods, have been urged by external circumstances to extensively redesign their quality improvement strategies. This paper, through the use of a survey administered to chief quality officers in both countries, aims to identify commonalities and differences between the two systems and to understand which approaches are effective in improving quality of care. In both countries chief quality officers report quality improvement has become a strategic priority, clinical governance approaches, and tools-such as disease-specific quality improvement projects and clinical pathways-are commonly used, and there is widespread awareness that clinical decision making must be supported by protocols and guidelines. Furthermore, the study clearly outlines the critical importance of adopting a system-wide approach to quality improvement. To this extent Italy seems lagging behind compared to US in fact: (i) responsibilities for different dimensions of quality are spread across different organizational units; (ii) quality improvement strategies do not typically involve administrative staff; and (iii) quality performance measures are not disseminated widely within the organization but are reported primarily to top management. On the other hand, in Italy chief quality officers perceive that the typical hospital organizational structure, which is based on clinical directories, allows better coordination between clinical specialties than in the United States. In both countries, the results of the study show that it is not the single methodology/model that makes the difference but how the different quality improvement strategies and tools interact to each other and how they are coherently embedded with the overall organizational strategy.

  18. Strategies to improve sleep during extended search and rescue operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer Lee; Fredericksen, Kim; Stone, Roger; Tang, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated strategies to improve sleeping conditions during search and rescue operations during disaster response. Forty members of the Montgomery County (Maryland) Urban Search and Rescue Team were surveyed for individual sleep habits and sleeping aids used during extended deployments. Team members were also asked to suggest methods to improve sleep on future deployments. The average amount of sleep during field operations was 5.4 hours with a range of 4-8 hours. Eight percent surveyed would prefer another schedule besides the 12-hour work day, all of whom proposed three 8-hour shifts. Fifteen percent of participants were interested in a pharmacological sleeping aid. Fifty percent of search and rescue members interviewed would consider using nonpharmacological sleeping aids. Furthermore, 40% of participants stated they had successfully devised self-employed methods of sleep aids for previous deployments, such as ear plugs, massage, mental imagery, personal routines, music and headphones, reading, and blindfolds. This study suggests that availability of both pharmacological and nonpharmacological sleeping aids to search and rescue workers via the team cache could impact the quantity of sleep. Further investigation into methods of optimizing sleep during field missions could theoretically show enhanced performance through various aspects of missions including mitigation of errors, improved productivity, and improved overall physiological and emotional well-being of search and rescue personnel.

  19. Guidewires used in first intentional single wiring strategy for chronic total occlusions of the left anterior descending coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Yasser S; Boudou, Nicolas; Dumonteil, Nicolas; Lhermusier, Thibault; Carrie, Didier

    2013-04-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the left anterior descending (LAD) specifically is associated with improved long-term 5 year survival as compared to PCI failure. The procedure is associated with usage of different types of dedicated guidewires by simple or complex techniques aiming to reopen the occluded artery. To describe types and outcome of guidewires used in LAD-CTO utilizing a first intentional single wiring simple strategy. A single center prospective registry for all consecutive patients with a PCI attempt to a native LAD CTO. The initial strategy for lesion crossing was Single wiring. A total of 30 patients with LAD CTO lesions (100%), were recorded. Mean age was 71.6 + 15 years, 77% were Males, risk factors Hypertension in 63%, Diabetes 27%, Dyslipidemia 57%, smoking 40%, hereditary in 13% of patients. Isolated guidewire (GW) success rate was very high 93%. Single wiring was the prevailing technique used in 97% of successfull lesions (83% of total cases) while only 3% were by multiple wiring techniques. Successful single antegrade wiring represented 63% with a GW success rate of 92% of cases. Successful single retrograde wiring represented 13% with a GW success rate of 67%. Successful Crossing GW types in our patients were 44% Soft Tapered GWs; fielder XT (44%), 36% were Soft Non Tapered Pilot 50 (28%), whisper (8%), while 16% were Stiff Non tapered GWs; Miracle 12 (8%), Miracle 6 (4%), Miracle 3 (4%), and 4% were Stiff Tapered GWs; Progress 200 (4%). Single wiring as an initial strategy in PCI for LAD-CTO lesions has a high success rate and is associated with a 44% majority of Soft Tapered GWs, 36% Soft Non Tapered, 16% Stiff Non tapered GWs, and 4% Stiff Tapered GWs.

  20. Strategies for improving approximate Bayesian computation tests for synchronous diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overcast, Isaac; Bagley, Justin C; Hickerson, Michael J

    2017-08-24

    Estimating the variability in isolation times across co-distributed taxon pairs that may have experienced the same allopatric isolating mechanism is a core goal of comparative phylogeography. The use of hierarchical Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) and coalescent models to infer temporal dynamics of lineage co-diversification has been a contentious topic in recent years. Key issues that remain unresolved include the choice of an appropriate prior on the number of co-divergence events (Ψ), as well as the optimal strategies for data summarization. Through simulation-based cross validation we explore the impact of the strategy for sorting summary statistics and the choice of prior on Ψ on the estimation of co-divergence variability. We also introduce a new setting (β) that can potentially improve estimation of Ψ by enforcing a minimal temporal difference between pulses of co-divergence. We apply this new method to three empirical datasets: one dataset each of co-distributed taxon pairs of Panamanian frogs and freshwater fishes, and a large set of Neotropical butterfly sister-taxon pairs. We demonstrate that the choice of prior on Ψ has little impact on inference, but that sorting summary statistics yields substantially more reliable estimates of co-divergence variability despite violations of assumptions about exchangeability. We find the implementation of β improves estimation of Ψ, with improvement being most dramatic given larger numbers of taxon pairs. We find equivocal support for synchronous co-divergence for both of the Panamanian groups, but we find considerable support for asynchronous divergence among the Neotropical butterflies. Our simulation experiments demonstrate that using sorted summary statistics results in improved estimates of the variability in divergence times, whereas the choice of hyperprior on Ψ has negligible effect. Additionally, we demonstrate that estimating the number of pulses of co-divergence across co-distributed taxon

  1. Improving the Patron Experience: Sterling Memorial Library's Single Service Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sider, Laura Galas

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the planning process and implementation of a single service point at Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library. While much recent scholarship on single service points (SSPs) has focused on the virtues or hazards of eliminating reference desks in libraries nationwide, this essay explores the ways in which single service…

  2. A two-magnet strategy for improved mixing and capture from biofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Andrew B.; Haselton, Frederick R.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic beads are a popular method for concentrating biomolecules from solution and have been more recently used in multistep pre-arrayed microfluidic cartridges. Typical processing strategies rely on a single magnet, resulting in a tight cluster of beads and requiring long incubation times to achieve high capture efficiencies, especially in highly viscous patient samples. This report describes a two-magnet strategy to improve the interaction of the bead surface with the surrounding fluid inside of a pre-arrayed, self-contained assay-in-a-tube. In the two-magnet system, target biomarker capture occurs at a rate three times faster than the single-magnet system. In clinically relevant biomatrices, we find a 2.5-fold improvement in biomarker capture at lower sample viscosities with the two-magnet system. In addition, we observe a 20% increase in the amount of protein captured at high viscosity for the two-magnet configuration relative to the single magnet approach. The two-magnet approach offers a means to achieve higher biomolecule extraction yields and shorter assay times in magnetic capture assays and in self-contained processor designs. PMID:27158286

  3. The Work Compatibility Improvement Framework: theory and application of improvement action and intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Magda M; Sequeira, Reynold; A-Rehim, Amal D

    2009-05-01

    Challenges facing management of manufacturing firms can be transformed into asset gains by giving careful consideration to the worker-work environment interface. The benefits of a 'healthy' interface may lead to sizable reductions in rising health care costs and retention of highly qualified workers. This paper presents a novel approach for the 'improve' phase of the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework. The work tasks of this research consisted of: (a) fundamentals of cognitive-based improvement action and intervention; (b) design concepts and process of improvement action/intervention generation; (c) assessment model of estimated gains in company's assets; (d) application demonstration in the manufacturing sector. The process of improvement action/intervention generation is described, preceded by a description of the fundamentals of cognitive-based improvement action and intervention and system architecture. This is followed by a documentation of estimated asset gains as a result of the improvement plan. The results showed that expert workers were, on average, 78% in agreement with the algorithm-identified improvement actions. Their knowledge was used to update the recommended actions as well as to detail the multiple strategies required to address the improvement actions. As a result, an integrated improvement plan was developed resulting in estimated asset gains of $1.6 million, which was validated by the general manager. The research reported herein documented the theory and application of the 'improve' phase of the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework. The economic assessment of the suggested improvement is also reported and this has proved to be an important driver to secure the firm collaboration of manufacturing enterprise management. An integrated improvement solution plan backed by a detailed economic assessment of suggested improvements is essential to demonstrate the full potential of workplace micro- and macro-ergonomic interventions.

  4. A 3D Reconstruction Strategy of Vehicle Outline Based on Single-Pass Single-Polarization CSAR Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leping Chen; Daoxiang An; Xiaotao Huang; Zhimin Zhou

    2017-11-01

    In the last few years, interest in circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR) acquisitions has arisen as a consequence of the potential achievement of 3D reconstructions over 360° azimuth angle variation. In real-world scenarios, full 3D reconstructions of arbitrary targets need multi-pass data, which makes the processing complex, money-consuming, and time expending. In this paper, we propose a processing strategy for the 3D reconstruction of vehicle, which can avoid using multi-pass data by introducing a priori information of vehicle's shape. Besides, the proposed strategy just needs the single-pass single-polarization CSAR data to perform vehicle's 3D reconstruction, which makes the processing much more economic and efficient. First, an analysis of the distribution of attributed scattering centers from vehicle facet model is presented. And the analysis results show that a smooth and continuous basic outline of vehicle could be extracted from the peak curve of a noncoherent processing image. Second, the 3D location of vehicle roofline is inferred from layover with empirical insets of the basic outline. At last, the basic line and roofline of the vehicle are used to estimate the vehicle's 3D information and constitute the vehicle's 3D outline. The simulated and measured data processing results prove the correctness and effectiveness of our proposed strategy.

  5. Idebenone: Novel Strategies to Improve Its Systemic and Local Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Montenegro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The key role of antioxidants in treating and preventing many systemic and topical diseases is well recognized. One of the most potent antioxidants available for pharmaceutical and cosmetic use is Idebenone (IDE, a synthetic analogue of Coenzyme Q10. Unfortunately, IDE’s unfavorable physicochemical properties such as poor water solubility and high lipophilicity impair its bioavailability after oral and topical administration and prevent its parenteral use. In recent decades, many strategies have been proposed to improve IDE effectiveness in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and skin disorders. After a brief description of IDE potential therapeutic applications and its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile, this review will focus on the different approaches investigated to overcome IDE drawbacks, such as IDE incorporation into different types of delivery systems (liposomes, cyclodextrins, microemulsions, self-micro-emulsifying drug delivery systems, lipid-based nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles and IDE chemical modification. The results of these studies will be illustrated with emphasis on the most innovative strategies and their future perspectives.

  6. Strategies to Improve Cancer Photothermal Therapy Mediated by Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo-Diogo, Duarte; Pais-Silva, Cleide; Dias, Diana R; Moreira, André F; Correia, Ilídio J

    2017-05-01

    The deployment of hyperthermia-based treatments for cancer therapy has captured the attention of different researchers worldwide. In particular, the application of light-responsive nanomaterials to mediate hyperthermia has revealed promising results in several pre-clinical assays. Unlike conventional therapies, these nanostructures can display a preferential tumor accumulation and thus mediate, upon irradiation with near-infrared light, a selective hyperthermic effect with temporal resolution. Different types of nanomaterials such as those based on gold, carbon, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, iron, palladium and conjugated polymers have been used for this photothermal modality. This progress report summarizes the different strategies that have been applied so far for increasing the efficacy of the photothermal therapeutic effect mediated by nanomaterials, namely those that improve the accumulation of nanomaterials in tumors (e.g. by changing the corona composition or through the functionalization with targeting ligands), increase nanomaterials' intrinsic capacity to generate photoinduced heat (e.g. by synthesizing new nanomaterials or assembling nanostructures) or by optimizing the parameters related to the laser light used in the irradiation process (e.g. by modulating the radiation wavelength). Overall, the development of new strategies or the optimization and combination of the existing ones will surely give a major contribution for the application of nanomaterials in cancer PTT. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Improving Stewardship of Marine Resources: Linking Strategy to Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciska von Heland

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for improved stewardship of coastal and marine resources is evident worldwide. However, complex ecosystem dynamics, institutional inertia, and budgetary constraints impede such action. This study explores how networks of change-oriented individuals or “institutional entrepreneurs” can introduce new types of human-environment interaction. The focus is on investigating the interplay between the strategies of institutional entrepreneurs and broader system dynamics that shape the context in which they are working, and possible impacts of institutional entrepreneurship on marine governance. We explore these issues in the context of Wakatobi National Park in eastern Indonesia. We suggest that creating links between different social spheres, such as between marine resource management and spirituality or between marine resource management and education, may accelerate the development of a new ecosystem stewardship. We further suggest that the use of media has significant power to show alternative futures, but that media may also serve to objectify certain resource users and increase the complexity of marine resource management. In general, institutional entrepreneurs play an important role in capturing and managing opportunity to open up space for experimentation and novel ideas, for example by linking their ideas to broader political priorities. Yet, such strategies bear the risk of institutional capture. Finally, institutional entrepreneurs sometimes have vested interests in certain solutions that may forsake experimentation toward a sustainable future.

  8. Allelopathy as a potential strategy to improve microalgae cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    One of the main obstacles for continuous productivity in microalgae cultivation is the presence of biological contaminants capable of eliminating large numbers of cells in a matter of days or even hours. However, a number of strategies are being used to combat and prevent contamination in microalgae cultivation. These strategies include the use of extreme conditions in the culture media such as high salinity and high pH to create an unfavorable environment for the competitive organisms or predators of the microalgae. Numerous studies have explored the potential of naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites, which are natural products from plants and microorganisms, as a source of such compounds. Some of these compounds are herbicides, and marine and freshwater microalgae are a source of these compounds. Microalgae produce a remarkable diversity of biologically active metabolites. Results based on the allelopathic potential of algae have only been described for laboratory-scale production and not for algae cultivation on a pilot scale. The adoption of allelopathy on microalgal strains is an unexplored field and may be a novel solution to improve algae production. Here we present information showing the diversity of allelochemicals from microalgae and the use of an allelopathic approach to control microalgae cultivation on a pilot scale based on R&D activities being carried out in Brazil for biodiesel production. PMID:24499580

  9. Systemic lupus erythematosus: strategies to improve pregnancy outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuriko; Aoki, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease with a high prevalence in females of childbearing age. Thus, reproduction in SLE patients is a major concern for clinicians. In the past, SLE patients were advised to defer pregnancy because of poor pregnancy outcomes and fear of SLE flares during pregnancy. Investigations to date show that maternal and fetal risks are higher in females with SLE than in the general population. However, with appropriate management of the disease, sufferers may have a relatively uncomplicated pregnancy course. Factors such as appropriate preconception counseling and medication adjustment, strict disease control prior to pregnancy, intensive surveillance during and after pregnancy by both the obstetrician and rheumatologist, and appropriate interventions when necessary play a key role. This review describes the strategies to improve pregnancy outcomes in SLE patients at different time points in the reproduction cycle (preconception, during pregnancy, and postpartum period) and also details the neonatal concerns. PMID:27468250

  10. Hydrogeological modeling for improving groundwater monitoring network and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Jay Krishna

    2017-10-01

    The research aimed to investigate a new approach for spatiotemporal groundwater monitoring network optimization using hydrogeological modeling to improve monitoring strategies. Unmonitored concentrations were incorporated at different potential monitoring locations into the groundwater monitoring optimization method. The proposed method was applied in the contaminated megasite, Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Germany. Based on an existing 3-D geological model, 3-D groundwater flow was obtained from flow velocity simulation using initial and boundary conditions. The 3-D groundwater transport model was used to simulate transport of α-HCH with an initial ideal concentration of 100 mg/L injected at various hydrogeological layers in the model. Particle tracking for contaminant and groundwater flow velocity realizations were made. The spatial optimization result suggested that 30 out of 462 wells in the Quaternary aquifer (6.49 %) and 14 out of 357 wells in the Tertiary aquifer (3.92 %) were redundant. With a gradual increase in the width of the particle track path line, from 0 to 100 m, the number of redundant wells remarkably increased, in both aquifers. The results of temporal optimization showed different sampling frequencies for monitoring wells. The groundwater and contaminant flow direction resulting from particle tracks obtained from hydrogeological modeling was verified by the variogram modeling through α-HCH data from 2003 to 2009. Groundwater monitoring strategies can be substantially improved by removing the existing spatio-temporal redundancy as well as incorporating unmonitored network along with sampling at recommended interval of time. However, the use of this model-based method is only recommended in the areas along with site-specific experts' knowledge.

  11. Successful strategy to improve glucose tolerance in Thai obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numbenjapon, Nawaporn; Nakavachara, Pairunyar; Santiprabhob, Jeerunda; Kiattisakthavee, Pornpimol; Wongarn, Renu; Likitmaskul, Supawadee

    2010-11-01

    Childhood obesity is an emerging national health problem in Thailand. Our previous study found that one third of obese children and adolescents had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 2.6 percent had already developed type 2 diabetes mellitus. An immediate strategy needs to be established in order to improve these metabolic problems. To determine whether diet and exercise education for lifestyle modification with or without metformin therapy in our diabetes clinic is enable to improve these metabolic problems. Twenty-six Thai obese children and adolescents with IGT, who received at least 6 months of treatment consisting of lifestyle modification alone or lifestyle modification and metformin (combined treatment) were enrolled into this study. Each patient underwent the second 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose, insulin levels, HbA1C and lipid profiles were measured. The results were compared with historical pre-treatment data. Approximately 1 year after intervention, 19 out of 26 patients with IGT completed the second 2-hour OGTT. Sixteen patients (84.2%) successfully reversed to be normal glucose tolerance whereas 3 patients (15.8%) remained IGT. Body mass index (BMI), BMISDS, 2-hour plasma glucose, basal insulin level, 2-hour insulin level were significantly decreased after treatment in normal OGTT group (Ps youth is a reversible abnormality by lifestyle modification with or without metformin.

  12. Biotechnological Strategies to Improve Plant Biomass Quality for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Mario Peña-Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition from an economy dependent on nonrenewable energy sources to one with higher diversity of renewables will not be a simple process. It requires an important research effort to adapt to the dynamics of the changing energy market, sort costly processes, and avoid overlapping with social interest markets such as food and livestock production. In this review, we analyze the desirable traits of raw plant materials for the bioethanol industry and the molecular biotechnology strategies employed to improve them, in either plants already under use (as maize or proposed species (large grass families. The fundamentals of these applications can be found in the mechanisms by which plants have evolved different pathways to manage carbon resources for reproduction or survival in unexpected conditions. Here, we review the means by which this information can be used to manipulate these mechanisms for commercial uses, including saccharification improvement of starch and cellulose, decrease in cell wall recalcitrance through lignin modification, and increase in plant biomass.

  13. Strategies to improve self-management in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toback, Mehnosh; Clark, Nancy

    2017-02-01

    Heart failure is one of the most common causes of hospitalization, hospital readmission and death. Patients with heart failure have many complications, with multiple co-existing diagnoses which result in polypharmacy. Following instructions provided by many physicians, medication adjustments based on changes in their symptoms are required. Behavioral adjustments concerning diet and exercise regime are recommended. Therefore, the patient plays a crucial role in the management of heart failure. To review the available studies on heart failure self-management, and investigate educational, behavioral and psychosocial strategies that plays an important role to improve patient self-management. A literature review was conducted based upon the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidance. The articles identified through an extensive search using PubMed and UpToDate from 1999 to 2016. Improved self-management will increase compliance, promote patient quality-of-life, advance clinical outcomes, reduce hospital re-admission and will decrease hospitalization costs.

  14. Improved Control Strategy for Microgrid Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Dou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultracapacitors (UCs, with their features of high power density and high current charge-discharge, have become the best choice for dynamic power compensation to improve the stability of microgrids and are increasingly being applied in microgrids. This paper presents the control of an energy storage system (ESS based on ultracapacitors in the context of grid-connected microgrids. The ESS is composed of DC/AC and DC/DC converters tied by a dc link. An improved dynamic model for the ESS is proposed. Based on the proposed model a Proportional-Integral-Resonant (PIR DC link voltage controller is proposed to maintain the DC link voltage through the charging-discharging control of ultracapacitors, capable of working properly under all operating conditions. An extra double frequency component is injected into the UC current by a R controller to dynamically compensate for DC instantaneous power and double frequency AC instantaneous power due to unbalanced grid conditions and disturbances. This feature maintains the DC link voltage constant under unbalanced conditions and increases the degrees of freedom of the DC/AC converter and thus facilitates the application of UCs in microgrids. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  15. Extending the moral economy beyond households: Gendered livelihood strategies of single migrant women in Accra, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tufuor, T.; Niehof, A.; Sato, C.; Horst, van der H.M.

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights how single migrant women (SMW) from rural northern Ghana generate livelihoods through the adoption of both market and non-market based strategies by extending and then prioritising moral obligations to community members beyond their immediate households instead of focusing on

  16. An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Single-Machine Inverse Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Mou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the scheduling is to arrange operations on suitable machines with optimal sequence for corresponding objectives. In order to meet market requirements, scheduling systems must own enough flexibility against uncertain events. These events can change production status or processing parameters, even causing the original schedule to no longer be optimal or even to be infeasible. Traditional scheduling strategies, however, cannot cope with these cases. Therefore, a new idea of scheduling called inverse scheduling has been proposed. In this paper, the inverse scheduling with weighted completion time (SMISP is considered in a single-machine shop environment. In this paper, an improved genetic algorithm (IGA with a local searching strategy is proposed. To improve the performance of IGA, efficient encoding scheme, fitness evaluation mechanism, feasible initialization methods, and a local search procedure have been employed in the paper. Because of the local improving method, the proposed IGA can balance its exploration ability and exploitation ability. We adopt 27 instances to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results illustrated that the proposed algorithm can generate satisfactory solutions. This approach also has been applied to solve the scheduling problem in the real Chinese shipyard and can bring some benefits.

  17. Improving elution strategies for Chelex®-DGT passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, Delphine; Buzier, Rémy; Charriau, Adeline; Guibaud, Gilles

    2017-12-01

    Elution of Chelex® binding layers, commonly used for the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT), is recognized as the most important contributor to the uncertainty of DGT measurements. Limiting uncertainty requires the use of optimized procedures and suitable elution recoveries (f e ). This work therefore investigated elution robustness to propose improved strategies. A wide range of conditions were investigated for the main elution parameters (Chelex® particle size, elution time, Chelex® loading, and eluent concentration and volume) on Al(III), Cd(II), Co(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II). Results showed that the choice of elution conditions should be a compromise driven by study constrains in terms of accuracy, repeatability, sensitivity, and targeted elements. Using experimentally determined recoveries should improve accuracy by approximately 5 to 10% compared to the use of recoveries from the literature. Fast elution of 1 h can be achieved without significant loss of recovery and repeatability except for Cr(III) (8 h minimum). Elution recovery depended on Chelex® loading for Zn and Cr and introducing recoveries adapted to the loading could improve accuracy up to, respectively, 11 and 27%. When standard recoveries are used, a 0.85 f e value would be more appropriate than the common value of 0.8 to minimize inaccuracy (except for Cr). Some flexibility can be applied to elution conditions without a significant change in recovery for most elements: HNO 3 concentration of 1-15 M, volume of 1-2 mL, duration of 8-48 h. Cr(III) was unique in its sensitivity to elution condition variations; thus, choice is more restricted for this element. Graphical abstract Decisional tree for choosing elution procedure and recoveries for Chelex®-DGT.

  18. Gene transfer strategies for improving radiolabeled peptide imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.E.; Buchsbaum, D.J.; Zinn, K.R.

    2000-01-01

    Utilization of molecular biology techniques offers attractive options in nuclear medicine for improving cancer imaging and therapy with radiolabeled peptides. Two of these options include utilization of phage-panning to identify novel tumor specific peptides or single chain antibodies and gene transfer techniques to increase the antibodies and gene transfer techniques to increase the number of antigen/receptor sites expressed on malignant cells. The group has focused on the latter approach for improving radiolabeled peptide imaging and therapy. The most widely used gene transfer vectors in clinical gene therapy trials include retrovirus, cationic lipids and adenovirus. It has been utilized adenovirus vectors for gene transfer because of their ability to accomplish efficient in vivo gene transfer. Adenovirus vectors encoding the genes for a variety of antigens/receptors (carcinoembryonic antigen, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTr2) have all shown that their expression is increased on cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo following adenovirus infection. Of particular interest has been the adenovirus encoding for SSTr2 (AdCMVSSTr2). Various radioisotopes have been attached to somatostatin analogues for imaging and therapy of SSTr2-positive tumors both clinically and in animal models. The use of these analogues in combination with AdCMVSSTr2 is a promising approach for improving the detection sensitivity and therapeutic efficacy of these radiolabeled peptides against solid tumors. In addition, it has been proposed the use of SSTr2 as a marker for imaging the expression of another cancer therapeutic transgene (e.g. cytosine deaminase, thymidine kinase) encoded within the same vector. This would allow for non-invasive monitoring of gene delivery to tumor sites

  19. Improving Recall Using Database Management Systems: A Learning Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of microcomputer database management systems to facilitate the instructional uses of learning strategies relating to information processing skills, especially recall. Two learning strategies, cross-classification matrixing and node acquisition and integration, are highlighted. (Author/LRW)

  20. Fusion Peptide Improves Stability and Bioactivity of Single Chain Antibody against Rabies Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Hualong; Zhang, Kaixin; Yin, Yanchun; Gu, Tiejun; Sun, Qing; Shi, Linqing; Zhang, Renxia; Jiang, Chunlai; Kong, Wei; Wu, Yongge

    2017-04-28

    The combination of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) with a vaccine is currently effective against rabies infections, but improvements are needed. Genetic engineering antibody technology is an attractive approach for developing novel antibodies to replace RIG. In our previous study, a single-chain variable fragment, scFv57R, against rabies virus glycoprotein was constructed. However, its inherent weak stability and short half-life compared with the parent RIG may limit its diagnostic and therapeutic application. Therefore, an acidic tail of synuclein (ATS) derived from the C-terminal acidic tail of human alpha-synuclein protein was fused to the C-terminus of scFv57R in order to help it resist adverse stress and improve the stability and halflife. The tail showed no apparent effect on the preparation procedure and affinity of the protein, nor did it change the neutralizing potency in vitro. In the ELISA test of molecular stability, the ATS fusion form of the protein, scFv57R-ATS, showed an increase in thermal stability and longer half-life in serum than scFv57R. The protection against fatal rabies virus challenge improved after fusing the tail to the scFv, which may be attributed to the improved stability. Thus, the ATS fusion approach presented here is easily implemented and can be used as a new strategy to improve the stability and half-life of engineered antibody proteins for practical applications.

  1. Metal (Hydr)oxides@Polymer Core-Shell Strategy to Metal Single-Atom Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maolin; Wang, Yang-Gang; Chen, Wenxing; Dong, Juncai; Zheng, Lirong; Luo, Jun; Wan, Jiawei; Tian, Shubo; Cheong, Weng-Chon; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2017-08-16

    Preparing metal single-atom materials is currently attracting tremendous attention and remains a significant challenge. Herein, we report a novel core-shell strategy to synthesize single-atom materials. In this strategy, metal hydroxides or oxides are coated with polymers, followed by high-temperature pyrolysis and acid leaching, metal single atoms are anchored on the inner wall of hollow nitrogen-doped carbon (CN) materials. By changing metal precursors or polymers, we demonstrate the successful synthesis of different metal single atoms dispersed on CN materials (SA-M/CN, M = Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, FeCo, FeNi, etc.). Interestingly, the obtained SA-Fe/CN exhibits much higher catalytic activity for hydroxylation of benzene to phenol than Fe nanoparticles/CN (45% vs 5% benzene conversion). First-principle calculations further reveal that the high reactivity originates from the easier formation of activated oxygen species at the single Fe site. Our methodology provides a convenient route to prepare a variety of metal single-atom materials representing a new class of catalysts.

  2. Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems Considering Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    . Those advanced features can be provided by next-generation PV systems, and will be enhanced in the future to ensure an even efficient and reliable utilization of PV systems. In the light of this, Reactive Power Injection (RPI) strategies for single-phase PV systems are explored in this paper. The RPI...... like what the conventional power plants do today in the grid regulation participation. Requirements of ancillary services like Low-Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) associated with reactive current injection and voltage support through reactive power control, have been in effectiveness in some countries...... possibilities are: a) constant average active power control, b) constant active current control, c) constant peak current control and d) thermal optimized control strategy. All those strategies comply with the currently active grid codes, but are with different objectives. The thermal optimized control strategy...

  3. A strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.

    1992-07-01

    Established pump and treat ground water remediation has a reputation for being too expensive and time consuming, especially when cleanup standards are set at very low levels, e.g., 50 ft below ground surface) widespread ground water contamination. The perceived shortcomings of pump and treat result from the (1) tendency of most contaminants to sorb to formation materials, thus retarding contaminant removal; (2) geologic complexity, which requires detailed characterization for the design of optimal extraction systems within available resources; and (3) failure to apply dynamic well field management techniques. An alternative strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation consists of (1) detailed characterization of the geology, hydrology, and chemistry; (2) use of computer-aided data interpretation, data display, and decision support systems; (3) removal of sources, if possible; (4) initial design for plume containment and source remediation; (5) phased installation of the well field; (6) detailed monitoring of the remediation; (7) active ongoing re-evaluation of the operating well field, including redesign as appropriate (dynamic management); (8) re-injection of treated ground water to speed the flushing of contaminants; and (9) setting of appropriate cleanup levels or goals. Use of some or all of these techniques can dramatically reduce the time required to achieve cleanup goals and thus the cost of ground water remediation

  4. Nature-Based Strategies for Improving Urban Health and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C; South, Eugenia C; Branas, Charles C

    2015-10-01

    Place-based programs are being noticed as key opportunities to prevent disease and promote public health and safety for populations at-large. As one key type of place-based intervention, nature-based and green space strategies can play an especially large role in improving health and safety for dwellers in urban environments such as US legacy cities that lack nature and greenery. In this paper, we describe the current understanding of place-based influences on public health and safety. We focus on nonchemical environmental factors, many of which are related to urban abandonment and blight. We then review findings from studies of nature-based interventions regarding impacts on health, perceptions of safety, and crime. Based on our findings, we suggest that further research in this area will require (1) refined measures of green space, nature, and health and safety for cities, (2) interdisciplinary science and cross-sector policy collaboration, (3) observational studies as well as randomized controlled experiments and natural experiments using appropriate spatial counterfactuals and mixed methods, and (4) return-on-investment calculations of potential economic, social, and health costs and benefits of urban greening initiatives.

  5. Optimizing strategies to improve interprofessional practice for veterans, part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya SB

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Shelley B Bhattacharya,1–3 Michelle I Rossi,1,2 Jennifer M Mentz11Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center (GRECC, Veteran's Affairs Pittsburgh Healthcare System, 2University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3Albert Schweitzer Fellowship Program, Pittsburgh, PA, USAIntroduction: Interprofessional patient care is a well-recognized path that health care systems are striving toward. The Veteran's Affairs (VA system initiated interprofessional practice (IPP models with their Geriatric Evaluation and Management (GEM programs. GEM programs incorporate a range of specialties, including but not limited to, medicine, nursing, social work, physical therapy and pharmacy, to collaboratively evaluate veterans. Despite being a valuable resource, they are now faced with significant cut-backs, including closures. The primary goal of this project was to assess how the GEM model could be optimized at the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania VA to allow for the sustainability of this important IPP assessment. Part 1 of the study evaluated the IPP process using program, patient, and family surveys. Part 2 examined how well the geriatrician matched patients to specialists in the GEM model. This paper describes Part 1 of our study.Methods: Three strategies were used: 1 a national GEM program survey; 2 a veteran/family satisfaction survey; and 3 an absentee assessment.Results: Twenty-six of 92 programs responded to the GEM IPP survey. Six strategies were shared to optimize IPP models throughout the country. Of the 34 satisfaction surveys, 80% stated the GEM clinic was beneficial, 79% stated their concerns were addressed, and 100% would recommend GEM to their friends. Of the 24 absentee assessments, the top three reasons for missing the appointments were transportation, medical illnesses, and not knowing/remembering about the appointment. Absentee rate diminished from 41% to 19% after instituting a reminder phone call policy.Discussion: Maintaining the

  6. Inventory Management Strategies For Productivity Improvement In Equipment Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.T Amachree

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined and developed Inventory Management Strategies IMS which could be creatively employed for Productivity Improvement in Equipment Firms PIEMF Equipment manufacturing projects suffer from declining productivity and inability to effectively satisfy customized order batch quantity within schedules budgeted cost and quality specifications due to lack of robust and well defined IMS as well as none code classification of vast number of inventory item. Survey and expost-facto research designs were adopted on the four identified IMS in three EMF. The method used for primary data collection and measurement on four IMS and inventory management parameters was questionnaire modelled into likert five point scale from the target respondents being experts in the subject matter. The secondary data was obtained from the computerised inventory status file of the three equipment manufacturing firms. The methods of primary data analysis and test of research used were Pearsons product moment correlation coefficient and oneway. Analysis of variance ANOVA computer software via Statistical Program for Social Science SPSS version 17 ABC analysis and classification of materials was used for code categorization of secondary data also with the aid of Microsoft excel. The results of the analyses highlighted and isolated A class of inventory items which are 137 out of 543 for Siemens Nig. Ltd 154 out of 551 for Dresser-Rand Nig. Ltd and 162 of 551 for Nigerian Engineering Works Ltd. The results of Pearson product moment correlation analysis and test of research hypotheses indicate that Materials Requirements Planning MRP followed by Supply Chain Management SCM are the most significant IMS as they correlate strongly with PIEMF. The study recommends IMS adoption by code classification of materials in which MRP or SCM could be deployed for management of A class of inventories while classical IMS could be used for management B and C classes of inventory items.

  7. Ethiopia's national strategy for improving water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Ethiopia's current approach to assessing and managing water resources, including geothermal, assigns very high priority to the use of isotope hydrology. Incorporation of this technology into government planning began with a few activities, in local groundwater assessment and in geothermal studies, kicked off by a 1993 National Isotope Hydrology Training Workshop that the IAEA helped arrange. The first results of isotope studies were useful in characterizing the Aluto Geothermal Field, where a 7.2 MW(e) power plant was later built with support from the UNDP and the EEC. And the Government is now hoping to introduce isotope techniques to improve utilization of the field. Isotope hydrology has successfully aided attempts to better understand ground water occurrence, flow and quality problems in arid regions of Ethiopia. These efforts are continuing through studies in the Dire Dawa, Mekelle and Afar regions. Rising water levels in Lake Beseka are threatening to submerge vital rail and highway links. Isotope hydrology made a unique contribution to understanding the surface and subsurface factors responsible, leading to an engineering plan for mitigating the problem. The Government has allocated substantial funding and construction work has begun. A similar success story is emerging at Awassa Lake, where isotope hydrology is proving a very useful complement to conventional techniques. Another promising application of isotope hydrology is taking place as part of the Akaki Groundwater Study near Addis Ababa. Preliminary isotopic results indicate that earlier conclusions based on conventional techniques may have to be revised. If so, there will be significant implications for the exploitation and management strategy of the resource. Based on these encouraging results, the Government is proceeding with the preparation of a project document for the Ethiopian Groundwater Resource Assessment Programme. With the assistance of the IAEA, the U.S. Geological Survey

  8. Improved heart function from older donors using pharmacologic conditioning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasinghe, Gayathri; Gao, Ling; Hicks, Mark; Villanueva, Jeanette; Doyle, Aoife; Rao, Padmashree; Ru Qiu, Min; Jabbour, Andrew; Iyer, Arjun; Chew, Hong Chee; Hayward, Christopher S; Macdonald, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Hearts from older donors are increasingly being referred for transplantation. However, these hearts are more susceptible to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), reflected in higher rates of primary graft dysfunction. We assessed a strategy of pharmacologic conditioning, supplementing Celsior (Genzyme, Naarden, The Netherlands) preservation solution with glyceryl trinitrate (GTN; Hospira Australia Pty, Ltd, Mulgrave, VIC, Australia), erythropoietin (EPO; Eprex; Janssen-Cilag, North Ryde, NSW, Australia), and zoniporide (ZON; Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT), to protect older hearts against IRI and improve graft function. Wistar rats, aged 3, 12, and 18 months old, were used to represent adolescent, 30-year-old, and 45-year-old human donors, respectively. Animals were subjected to brain death (BD) and hearts stored for 6 hours at 2° to 3°C in Celsior or Celsior supplemented with GTN+EPO+ZON. Cardiac function and lactate dehydrogenase before and after storage were assessed during ex vivo perfusion. Western blots and histopathology were also analyzed. After BD, 18-month hearts demonstrated impaired aortic flow, coronary flow, and cardiac output compared with 3-month hearts (p < 0.001 to p < 0.0001). After storage in Celsior, the recovery of aortic flow, coronary flow, and cardiac output in 18-month BD hearts was further impaired (p < 0.01 vs 3-month hearts). Percentage functional recovery of 18-month BD hearts stored in Celsior supplemented with GTN+EPO+ZON was equivalent to that of 3-month hearts and significantly improved compared with 18-month hearts stored in Celsior alone (p < 0.01 to p < 0.001), with reduced lactate dehydrogenase release (p < 0.01) and myocardial edema (p < 0.05) and elevated phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (p < 0.05) and phosphorylated Akt (p < 0.01). Older hearts are more susceptible to IRI induced by BD and prolonged hypothermic storage. Supplemented Celsior activates cell survival signaling in older hearts, reduces IRI, and

  9. A communication strategy to improve nutrition in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M; Nobbe, E

    1985-01-01

    As an experimental project, the Nutrition Communication and Behavior Change Component (NCBC) of the Indonesian Nutrition Development Program (UPGK) showed how social marketing could further the national program's goal of significantly improving the nutrition of Indonesia's young children and pregnant and nursing women. The social marketing approach successfully developed nutrition communication materials that were responsive to the needs, desires, and resources of the communities, particularly of the mothers and volunteer nutrition workers. Between 1977-79 Dr. I.B. Mantra, NCBC Director, established administrative and community infrastructures modeled after UPGK in 5 culturally diverse areas in Indonesia. In mid-1979, with technical assistance from Manoff International, the project departed from the approach of the national plan and embarked upon an unprecedented course with the formative evaluation of educational messages and a communication strategy. The success of the NCBC Component was to be judged by whether education -- as the sole intervention -- could produce significant improvements in the nutritional status of children and the improved nutrient intake of pregnant and lactating women in project communities. The 1st step was to design and execute qualitative research on the health and nutritional problems of children under 3 and pregnant and nursing women, consisting of in-depth household interviews, concept testing with mothers, and focus group interviews with kaders and community opinion leaders. Surveying was based on issues identified earlier by the Ministry of Health as most severe for the population overall. The qualitative investigation identified the need for change or reinforcement in particular nutrition-related behaviors. The target audience of mothers was segmented according to their needs during designated maternal stages and by the age-related dietary needs of their children under 3 years of age. This meant that only the most useful

  10. Improved single-strand DNA sizing accuracy in capillary electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenblum, B B; Oaks, F; Menchen, S; Johnson, B

    1997-01-01

    Interpolation algorithms can be developed to size unknown single-stranded (ss) DNA fragments based on their electrophoretic mobilities, when they are compared with the mobilities of standard fragments of known sizes; however, sequence-specific anomalous electrophoretic migration can affect the accuracy and precision of the called sizes of the fragments. We used the anomalous migration of ssDNA fragments to optimize denaturation conditions for capillary electrophoresis. The capillary electroph...

  11. An Instructional Strategy Planning Model to Improve Learning and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    Presents model of instructional strategy planning that links specific cognitive learning and thinking processes with specific computer-based instructional strategies. Topics discussed include memory systems; types of knowledge; drill and practice; tutorials; task-oriented simulations; problem-oriented simulations; and self directed experiences.…

  12. A novel optimal coordinated control strategy for the updated robot system for single port surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Weibang; Cao, Qixin; Leng, Chuntao; Cao, Yang; Fujie, Masakatsu G; Pan, Tiewen

    2017-09-01

    Research into robotic systems for single port surgery (SPS) has become widespread around the world in recent years. A new robot arm system for SPS was developed, but its positioning platform and other hardware components were not efficient. Special features of the developed surgical robot system make good teleoperation with safety and efficiency difficult. A robot arm is combined and used as new positioning platform, and the remote center motion is realized by a new method using active motion control. A new mapping strategy based on kinematics computation and a novel optimal coordinated control strategy based on real-time approaching to a defined anthropopathic criterion configuration that is referred to the customary ease state of human arms and especially the configuration of boxers' habitual preparation posture are developed. The hardware components, control architecture, control system, and mapping strategy of the robotic system has been updated. A novel optimal coordinated control strategy is proposed and tested. The new robot system can be more dexterous, intelligent, convenient and safer for preoperative positioning and intraoperative adjustment. The mapping strategy can achieve good following and representation for the slave manipulator arms. And the proposed novel control strategy can enable them to complete tasks with higher maneuverability, lower possibility of self-interference and singularity free while teleoperating. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Use of single large or several small policies as strategies to manage people-park interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catrina A; Baird, Timothy D; Hartter, Joel

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity conservation has been criticized for undermining or ignoring social well-being. Currently efforts to mutually promote social justice, rural development, and biodiversity conservation, which have been contentious and yielded mixed results, continue to spread despite a general dearth of effective management strategies. We contend that social and economic concerns should be integral to conservation planning and propose that the scale of these phenomena is also critical. To evaluate the merit of this proposal, we adopted and expanded a conservation management strategy framework developed by Joel Heinen and examined how population density, economic disparity, and ethnic heterogeneity vary spatially surrounding 2 contrasting protected areas in East Africa: Kibale National Park in Uganda and Tarangire National Park in Tanzania. Analyses of demographic, wealth, and ethnicity data from regional censuses and household surveys conducted in 2009 and 2010 indicated that choice of scale (landscape or community) changed the management strategies recommended by the model. Therefore, "several small" people-park management strategies varying around a given protected area may be more appropriate than a "single large" people-park strategy applied across an entire protected area. Correspondingly, scale adjusted Heinen recommendations offered new strategies for effective conservation management within these human landscapes not incorporated in current in situ management plans. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. A Single-Degree-of-Freedom Energy Optimization Strategy for Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Xia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single-degree-of-freedom energy optimization strategy to solve the energy management problem existing in power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. The proposed strategy is based on a quadratic performance index, which is innovatively designed to simultaneously restrict the fluctuation of battery state of charge (SOC and reduce fuel consumption. An extended quadratic optimal control problem is formulated by approximating the fuel consumption rate as a quadratic polynomial of engine power. The approximated optimal control law is obtained by utilizing the solution properties of the Riccati equation and adjoint equation. It is easy to implement in real-time and the engineering significance is explained in details. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, the forward-facing vehicle simulation model is established based on the ADVISOR software (Version 2002, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA. The simulation results show that there is only a little fuel consumption difference between the proposed strategy and the Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP-based global optimal strategy, and the proposed strategy also exhibits good adaptability under different initial battery SOC, cargo mass and road slope conditions.

  15. Radial approach and single wiring as first intentional strategies in chronic total occlusions of the left anterior descending coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Yasser; Boudou, Nicolas; Carrie, Didier

    2013-04-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) specifically is associated with improved long-term 5 years survival as compared to PCI failure. Simpler PCI techniques may be successful and safer than complex techniques which are perceived to have high failure rates and technical complexity. We aimed to describe the safety and effectiveness of first intentional single wiring and radial approach in the treatment of patients with a CTO of the native LAD coronary artery at Toulouse Rangueil university hospitals. The study was a single center prospective registry. All patients showed evidence of myocardial viability in LAD territory. The operators' initial strategy was to start by a radial access as a first choice whenever feasible; if not, a femoral access was chosen. The initial strategy for lesion crossing in either antegrade or retrograde approaches was single wiring by lesion crossing using one guidewire (GW) as a simple technique. A total of 30 patients with 30 LAD CTO lesions (100%) were recorded. Mean age was 71.6 + 15 years, 77% were males and 23% were females. The access route was radial 66% of the time and femoral 54% of the time and with double access for contralateral injection in 40% of the patients. Sheaths and catheters sizes 6F were used in 53% of the patients, and 7F in 73% of the patients. Overall lesion success rate was 83% of lesions. Single wiring was the prevailing technique used in 97% of successful lesions (83% of total cases), while only 3% were by multiple wiring techniques. Successful single antegrade wiring represented 63% of our total study cases with a GW success rate of 92% of cases. Successful single retrograde wiring represented 13% of our cases with a GW success rate of 67%. Q-wave myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis, stroke, emergency coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), major bleeding, radiation dermatitis, cardiac tamponade or clinical

  16. Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems Considering Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    .g. Germany and Italy. Those advanced features can be provided by next generation PV systems, and will be enhanced in the future to ensure an even efficient and reliable utilization of PV systems. In light of this, Reactive Power Injection (RPI) strategies for single-phase PV systems are explored...... like what the conventional power plants do today in the grid regulation participation. Requirements of ancillary services like Low-Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) associated with reactive current injection and voltage support through reactive power control, have been in effectiveness in some countries, e...... in this paper. The RPI possibilities are: a) constant average active power control, b) constant active current control, c) constant peak current control and d) thermal optimized control strategy. All those strategies comply with the currently active grid codes, but are with different objectives. The proposed...

  17. Secondary side water chemistry pH control strategy improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roumiguiere, Fernando-Mario; Fandrich, Joerg; Ramminger, Ute; Hoffmann-Wankerl, Stephan; Drexler, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    Over the years the PWR plant operators were aware of the need of optimizing the pH control strategy in the water-steam cycle with the focus on improvement of steam generator performance with the main goal of reducing the corrosion product ingress into the steam generators and their consequences: SG fouling, SG tube corrosion beneath deposits. To achieve this goal, it becomes necessary to harmonize three requirements: a. High overall pH along the circuit for suppression of general corrosion, requiring a volatile amine to ensure a suitable distribution in steam areas and condenser, and b. High local pH at the water phase of two-phase flow areas, requiring an either rather low volatile amine to ensure high pH in the wet steam water film, or larger amounts of a volatile amine. c. Sufficient amount of hydrazine to ensure reducing conditions in the steam generators. The basic strategy of AREVA NP GmbH (formerly KWU), successfully applied in German nuclear power plants since the late seventies consisted on the achievement of the necessary pH by means of ammonia, as generated by thermal decomposition of hydrazine. By dosing of hydrazine at the necessary amounts to ensure reducing conditions, also sufficient ammonia is generated to achieve a high overall pH along the cycle, being the target pH (25 deg. C) ≥ 9.8 resulting in < 1 ppb Fe in final feed water. This treatment is known as H-AVT (High pH - All Volatile Treatment). Main prerequisite for its application is to have a copper-free system. Eventually, H-AVT started to be applied later at some other western nuclear power plants. In some units, the high condenser exhaust flow rate applied caused a considerable amount of ammonia being removed from the cycle, resulting in too low ammonia concentrations to maintain a sufficiently high pH, making the addition of ammonia necessary. AREVA NP GmbH together with plant operators investigated the possibility of complementing the applied classical H-AVT by addition of an advanced

  18. Coding in pigeons: Multiple-coding versus single-code/default strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carlos; Machado, Armando

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the coding strategies that pigeons may use in a temporal discrimination tasks, pigeons were trained on a matching-to-sample procedure with three sample durations (2s, 6s and 18s) and two comparisons (red and green hues). One comparison was correct following 2-s samples and the other was correct following both 6-s and 18-s samples. Tests were then run to contrast the predictions of two hypotheses concerning the pigeons' coding strategies, the multiple-coding and the single-code/default. According to the multiple-coding hypothesis, three response rules are acquired, one for each sample. According to the single-code/default hypothesis, only two response rules are acquired, one for the 2-s sample and a "default" rule for any other duration. In retention interval tests, pigeons preferred the "default" key, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. In no-sample tests, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 2-s sample, a result predicted by multiple-coding. Finally, in generalization tests, when the sample duration equaled 3.5s, the geometric mean of 2s and 6s, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 6-s and 18-s samples, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. The pattern of results suggests the need for models that take into account multiple sources of stimulus control. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  19. Regulation for continuous improvements - the new regulatory strategy of SKI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegberg, L.; Svensson, G.; Viktorsson, C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the new regulatory objectives and strategy of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. Factors that have influenced the development of the regulatory strategy, including an international peer review, are discussed. In addition to general technical requirements for a defence in depth, the new strategy strongly focuses on the quality of plant safety management processes, to be monitored by process-oriented inspections. Also, quality assurance of regulatory activities is stressed. Experience gained so far shows that the regulatory approach chosen in Sweden promotes utility self assessment, quality of safety management and ownership of safety work within the utility staff. (author)

  20. Improving the United States National Security Strategy: An Informed Public

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malackowski, Patrick C

    2005-01-01

    .... This paper discusses the need to have the President build an information and communications strategy that keeps the American public informed and cognizant of the threat to our national security...

  1. Improving offering strategies for wind farms enhanced with storage capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Hu, Zechun; Song, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    the wind power deviation from day-ahead contracts. Taking into account the operation strategy as well as two-price balancing market rules, a day-ahead bidding strategy of WF-ESS system is put forward and formulated. A modified gradient descent algorithm is described to solve the formulations. In the case......Due to the flexible charging and discharging capability, energy storage system (ESS) is thought of as a promising complement to wind farms (WF) in participating into electricity markets. This paper proposes a reserve-based real-time operation strategy of ESS to make arbitrage and to alleviate...... studies, the computational efficiency of the algorithm is validated firstly. Moreover, a number of scenarios with/without considering the temporal dependence of wind power forecast error are designed and employed to compare the proposed strategy with other common ones in terms of profit....

  2. 5 strategies for improving performance of academic medical centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valletta, Robert M; Harkness, Alicia

    2013-06-01

    Academic medical centers should consider five strategies for becoming more cost-efficient and profitable as reforms are implemented: Make faculty responsible for cost and quality. Explore opportunities to collaborate with community hospitals. Extend care and education beyond the walls of the organization, employing technology and innovative teaching practices. Maximize healthcare IT investment by sharing data-rich patient records with other medical centers and research institutes. Align research with business strategy.

  3. Corrective action strategy for single-shell tanks containing organic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.A.

    1993-08-01

    A Waste Tank Organic Safety Program (Program) Plan is to be transmitted to the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) for approval by December 31, 1993. In April 1993 an agreement was reached among cognizant U.S. Department of Energy - Headquarters (HQ), RL and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) staff that the Program Plan would be preceded by a ''Corrective Action Strategy,'' which addressed selected planning elements supporting the Program Plan. The ''Corrective Action Strategy'' would be reviewed and consensus reached regarding the planning elements. A Program Plan reflecting this consensus would then be prepared. A preliminary ''corrective action strategy'' is presented for resolving the organic tanks safety issue based on the work efforts recommended in the ISB (Interim Safety Basis for Hanford Site tank farm facilities). A ''corrective action strategy'' logic was prepared for individual SSTs (single-shell tanks), or a group of SSTs having similar characteristics, as appropriate. Four aspects of the organic tanks safety issue are addressed in the ISB: SSTs with the potential for combustion in the tank's headspace; combustion of a floating organic layer as a pool fire; surface fires in tanks that formerly held floating organic layers; SSTs with the potential for organic-nitrate reactions. A preliminary ''corrective action strategy'' for each aspect of the organic tanks safety issue is presented

  4. Brief educational strategies for improving contraception use in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Laureen M; Grey, Thomas W; Tolley, Elizabeth E; Chen, Mario

    2016-03-30

    Global high rates of unplanned pregnancy and abortion among young women demonstrate the need for increased access to modern contraceptive services. In sub-Saharan Africa, the birth rate for those aged 15 to 19 years is 121 per 1000. In the USA, 6% of teens aged 15 to 19 years became pregnant in 2010. Most pregnancies among young women to age 25 are unintended. The aim was to identify brief educational interventions for improving contraceptive use among young people that are feasible for implementing in a clinic or similar setting with limited resources. To 7 March 2016, we searched for studies in CENTRAL, PubMed, POPLINE, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP. We considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assigned individuals or clusters as well as non-randomized studies (NRS). We included young people to age 25.The intervention had to be sufficiently brief for a clinic, i.e. one to three sessions of 15 to 60 minutes plus potential follow-up. The strategy had to emphasize one or more effective methods of contraception. Primary outcomes were pregnancy and contraceptive use. We assessed titles and abstracts identified during the searches. One author extracted and entered the data into Review Manager; a second author verified accuracy. We examined studies for methodological quality.For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). For continuous variables, we computed the mean difference (MD) with 95% CI. We used adjusted measures for cluster RCTs, typically ORs, that the investigators reported. For NRS, which need to control for confounding, we also used reported adjusted measures. We did not conduct meta-analysis due to varied interventions and outcome measures. We found 11 studies, published from 1983 to 2015, that included a total of 8338 participants. Ten were from the USA and one was from China. We focused here on intervention effects for our primary outcomes. Five studies showed some

  5. A novel control strategy to improve the performances of heated wire humidifiers in artificial neonatal ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schena, E; Saccomandi, P; Ramandi, C; Silvestri, S

    2012-01-01

    Controlling thermo-hygrometric conditions of gas delivered in neonatal mechanical ventilation shows some unresolved issues due to the design and control strategies implemented in heated wire humidifiers. We perform an in vitro evaluation of humidifier performances, which use a control strategy based on a single-point temperature as feedback, and propose a novel design of the control which consists in pre-warming the gas upwards in the humidification chamber. The ad hoc developed control approach based on a theoretical model is implemented in vitro with and without pre-warming for comparative purposes. Without pre-warming, gas at the chamber outlet needs further post-warming and, depending on the flow rate, the vapour content condensates along the breathing circuit. Whereas, with pre-warming, the proposed control strategy allows us to considerably improve steady-state thermo-hygrometric conditions (T = 37 ± 1 °C, RH = 96% ± 4%) of gas, reaching the Y-piece near to ideal ones in the whole flow rate range, even though a high inlet chamber temperature is required at low flow rate values. The proposed solution, as theoretically predicted, also allows us to limit the vapour condensation along the circuit. (paper)

  6. Improving Strategies for Low-Income Family Children's Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Washington, Rodney; Yin, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    This article discussed the significance of improving low-income family children's information literacy, which could improve educational quality, enhance children's self-esteem, adapt children to the future competitive world market, as well as the problems in improving low-income family children's information literacy, such as no home computer and…

  7. Feature Selection Strategy for Classification of Single-Trial EEG Elicited by Motor Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Swati; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Prasad, Ramjee

    2011-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) provides new means of communication for people with motor disabilities by utilizing electroencephalographic activity. Selection of features from Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals for classification plays a key part in the development of BCI systems. In this paper, we...... present a feature selection strategy consisting of channel selection by fisher ratio analysis in the frequency domain and time segment selection by visual inspection in time domain. The proposed strategy achieves an absolute improvement of 7.5% in the misclassification rate as compared with the baseline...

  8. Performance Improvement of Single Phase Inverter using SPWM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaskar Reddy, B., Dr; Maheswari, L., Dr; Ganeswari Kale, Adi

    2017-08-01

    This paper concentrates on modelling and simulation of single phase inverter as a frequency changer modulated by Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). An inverter is a circuit that converts DC sources to AC sources. Pulse Width Modulation is a method that utilization as an approach to abatement add up to harmonic distortion in inverter circuit. The model is executed utilizing MATLAB/Simulink software with the SimPower System Block Set in light of PC simulation. PC simulation assumes an imperative part in the plan, investigation, and assessment of force electronic converter and their controller. MATLAB is a successful instrument to examine a PWM inverter. Preferences of utilizing MATLAB are the accompanying: Faster reaction, accessibility of different simulation devices and utilitarian squares and the nonappearance of joining issues. Safe-replacement methodology need be actualized is to explain exchanging Transients. In this way, Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) is use as exchanging gadgets. IGBT is ideal since it is anything but difficult to control and low misfortunes. The outcome from Simulink was checked utilizing MATLAB simulation.

  9. Identifying strategies to improve research publication output in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The health research community in South Africa annually produces a fair number of research papers in national and international health and related journals. Unfortunately, the proportion of papers produced by authors in health and rehabilitation sciences is insignificant compared with other disciplines. To identify strategies ...

  10. Young doctors' problem solving strategies on call may be improved

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Jens; Malchow-Møller, Axel; Charles, Peder

    2013-01-01

    The first year following graduation from medical school is challenging as learning from books changes to workplace-based learning. Analysis and reflection on experience may ease this transition. We used Significant Event Analysis (SEA) as a tool to explore what pre-registration house officers (PR...... (PRHOs) consider successful and problematic events, and to identify what problem-solving strategies they employ....

  11. Dietary strategies for reduced phosphorus excretion and improved water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maguire, R.O.; Dou, Z.; Sims, J.T.; Brake, J.; Joern, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    Received for publication October 29, 2004. Cost effective feeding strategies are essential to deal with P surpluses associated with intensive animal agriculture and the consequent impact on water quality. Reduction of P overfeeding, use of feed additives to enhance dietary P utilization, and

  12. Improving text comprehension strategies in reading and listening settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand-Gruwel, S; Aarnoutse, CAJ; van den Bos, KP

    Traditional intervention programs for children with decoding and reading comprehension problems often focus on remediation of the decoding ability. The goal of this study was to determine whether it is possible to teach these children text comprehension strategies. The subjects were fourth-grade

  13. Motivation, Volition and Belief Change Strategies to Improve Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.; Keller, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of motivation, volition and belief change strategies, implemented with personal and group email messages, on students' attitudes, study habits and achievement in a calculus course for non-mathematics majors. Eighty four undergraduates enrolled in a calculus course received emails over a…

  14. Improved operating strategies for uranium extraction: a stochastic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekman, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Deterministic and stochastic simulations of a Western Transvaal uranium process are used in this research report to determine more profitable uranium plant operating strategies and to gauge the potential financial benefits of automatic process control. The deterministic simulation model was formulated using empirical and phenomenological process models. The model indicated that profitability increases significantly as the uranium leaching strategy becomes harsher. The stochastic simulation models use process variable distributions corresponding to manually and automatically controlled conditions to investigate the economic gains that may be obtained if a change is made from manual to automatic control of two important process variables. These lognormally distributed variables are the pachuca 1 sulphuric acid concentration and the ferric to ferrous ratio. The stochastic simulations show that automatic process control is justifiable in certain cases. Where the leaching strategy is relatively harsh, such as that in operation during January 1986, it is not possible to justify an automatic control system. Automatic control is, however, justifiable if a relatively mild leaching strategy is adopted. The stochastic and deterministic simulations represent two different approaches to uranium process modelling. This study has indicated the necessity for each approach to be applied in the correct context. It is contended that incorrect conclusions may have been drawn by other investigators in South Africa who failed to consider the two approaches separately

  15. Strategy to improve a conversational isiXhosa module: Insights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, they recognised the role of tutors in their interactions with isiXhosa speakers, and shared broader learning about their experiences. Insights drawn from findings indicate a need to create an interactive learning environment which allows for the use of multilingual strategies when teaching isiXhosa. This study ...

  16. Improving World Health: A Least Cost Strategy. Worldwatch Paper 59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, William U.

    Least-cost health strategies designed to attack the world's leading causes of unnecessary death are explored. Section 1 emphasizes the value of primary health-care procedures--midwifery, maternal education on breastfeeding and weaning, vaccinations, oral rehydration of victims of diarrhea, and antibiotics against respiratory infections--in…

  17. Reciprocal Teaching of Comprehension Strategies Improves EFL Learners' Writing Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Mohammad Reza; Gangeraj, Atefeh Ardeshir; Alavi, Sahar Zahed

    2013-01-01

    Although the importance of reading in developing writing ability is undeniable, few competent readers in EFL contexts develop into competent writers. Since students are not aware that reading can assist them in writing, this study examined the effect of reciprocal teaching--which focuses on four reading comprehension strategies, namely…

  18. Improving occupational physicians' adherence to a practice guideline : feasibility and impact of a tailored implementation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Margot C. W.; van Beurden, Karlijn M.; Terluin, Berend; van Weeghel, Jaap; Brouwers, Evelien P. M.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although practice guidelines are important tools to improve quality of care, implementation remains challenging. To improve adherence to an evidence-based guideline for the management of mental health problems, we developed a tailored implementation strategy targeting barriers perceived

  19. Improving occupational physicians' adherence to a practice guideline : Feasibility and impact of a tailored implementation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.C.W.; van Beurden-Berkers, K.M.; Terluin, B.; van Weeghel, J.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; van der Klink, J.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although practice guidelines are important tools to improve quality of care, implementation remains challenging. To improve adherence to an evidence-based guideline for the management of mental health problems, we developed a tailored implementation strategy targeting barriers perceived

  20. Aeration Strategies To Mitigate Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Single-Stage Nitritation/Anammox Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo Felez, Carlos; Mutlu, A. Gizem; Jensen, Marlene Mark

    2014-01-01

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal is regarded as a resource efficient process to manage nitrogen-rich residual streams. However, nitrous oxide emissions of these processes are poorly documented and strategies to mitigate emissions unknown. In this study, two sequencing batch reactors performing single......-stage nitritation/anammox were operated under different aeration strategies, gradually adjusted over six months. At constant but limiting oxygen loading, synthetic reject water was fed (0.75g-N/L.d) and high nitrogen removal efficiencies (83 +/- 5 and 88 +/- 2%) obtained. Dynamics of liquid phase nitrous (N2O......) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were monitored and N2O emissions calculated. Significant decreases in N2O emissions were obtained when the frequency of aeration was increased while maintaining a constant air flow rate (from >6 to 1.7% Delta N2O/Delta TN). However, no significant effect on the emissions...

  1. Single-Step Ironmaking from Ore to Improve Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.K. Kawatra; B. Anamerie; T.C. Eisele

    2005-10-01

    The pig iron nugget process was developed as an alternative to the traditional blast furnace process by Kobe Steel. The process aimed to produce pig iron nuggets, which have similar chemical and physical properties to blast furnace pig iron, in a single step. The pig iron nugget process utilizes coal instead of coke and self reducing and fluxing dried green balls instead of pellets and sinters. In this process the environmental emissions caused by coke and sinter production, and energy lost between pellet induration (heat hardening) and transportation to the blast furnace can be eliminated. The objectives of this research were to (1) produce pig iron nuggets in the laboratory, (2) characterize the pig iron nugget produced and compare them with blast furnace pig iron, (3) investigate the furnace temperature and residence time effects on the pig iron nugget production, and (4) optimize the operational furnace temperatures and residence times. The experiments involved heat treatment of self reducing and fluxing dried green balls at various furnace temperatures and residence times. Three chemically and physically different products were produced after the compete reduction of iron oxides to iron depending on the operational furnace temperatures and/or residence times. These products were direct reduced iron (DRI), transition direct reduced iron (TDRI), and pig iron nuggets. The increase in the carbon content of the system as a function of furnace temperature and/or residence time dictated the formation of these products. The direct reduced iron, transition direct reduced iron, and pig iron nuggets produced were analyzed for their chemical composition, degree of metallization, apparent density, microstructure and microhardness. In addition, the change in the carbon content of the system with the changing furnace temperature and/or residence time was detected by optical microscopy and Microhardness measurements. The sufficient carbon dissolution required for the

  2. A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, A.; Achterberg, van T.; Bruin, de M.; Grol, R.; Schoonhoven, L.; Hulscher, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address the problem of low hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Which of these strategies are most effective and how they work is still unclear. Here we describe frequently used improvement strategies and related determinants of behaviour

  3. A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, A.; van Achterberg, T.; de Bruin, M.; Grol, R.; Schoonhoven, L.; Hulscher, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address the problem of low hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Which of these strategies are most effective and how they work is still unclear. Here we describe frequently used improvement strategies and related determinants of behaviour

  4. A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, A.M.P.; van Achterberg, T.; de Bruin, M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Schoonhoven, L.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address the problem of low hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Which of these strategies are most effective and how they work is still unclear. Here we describe frequently used improvement strategies and related determinants of

  5. A Dewetting-Induced Assembly Strategy for Precisely Patterning Organic Single Crystals in OFETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Xiaonan; Xiao, Chengyi; Li, Xinmeng; Su, Bin; Wu, Yuchen; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Zhaohui; Jiang, Lei

    2016-07-27

    Simple methods for patterning single crystals are critical to fully realize their applications in electronics. However, traditional vapor and solution methods are deficient in terms of crystals with random spatial and quality distributions. In this work, we report a dewetting-induced assembly strategy for obtaining large-scale and highly oriented organic crystal arrays. We also demonstrate that organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) fabricated from patterned n-alkyl-substituted tetrachloroperylene diimide (R-4ClPDI) single crystals can reach a maximum mobility of 0.65 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for C8-4ClPDI in ambient conditions. This technique constitutes a facile method for fabricating OFETs with high performances for large-scale electronics applications.

  6. Vaginal Radical Trachelectomy for early stage cervical cancer. Results of the Danish National Single Center Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauerberg, L; Høgdall, C; Loft, A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present and evaluate an unselected national single center strategy with fertility preserving trachelectomy in cervical cancer. In 2003 nationwide single-center referral of women for trachelectomies was agreed upon between all Danish departments performing cervical cancer surgery...... with the purpose of increasing volume, to increase surgical safety and facilitate follow-up. METHODS: Prospective data were recorded in the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database of all Vaginal Radical Trachelectomies (VRT) performed in Denmark between 2002 and 2013. Oncologic, fertility and obstetrical outcomes...... of 120 unselected consecutive VRTs were assessed. To obtain complete follow-up about fertility treatment, pregnancy and obstetric outcome the women filled out an electronic questionnaire. Median follow-up: 55.7 months. RESULTS: 85.8% of the patients had stage IB1 disease, 68.3% squamous cell carcinomas...

  7. Improving Students' Achievement in Reading Comprehension Through Think Pair Share Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Umami -

    2014-01-01

    This research is designed to improve the students' reading comprehension in English through Think Pair Share strategy. the objective of the research is to develop Think Pair Share to improve the students' reading comprehension. The research was conducted by using classroom action research. The finding showed that Think Pair Share strategy was successful in improving students' reading comprehension. The improvement couls be seen from the increase of students' reading scores. Besides, the fin...

  8. Transgenic strategies for improving rice disease resistance | Zhang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement of virus resistance can be achieved by generating transgenic rice lines with expression of genes encoding viral coat protein or replication enzymes, expression of RNA interference constructs and suppression of insect vectors. Varieties with improved resistance against fungal and bacterial pathogens can be ...

  9. Using Storytelling Strategies to Improve Student Comprehension in Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Rasby Marlene; Murray, Ottis

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows that presenting class material in story formats can improve student learning in lecture classes. This pilot study of eight sociology classes investigates the efficacy of using storytelling as a means to improve student comprehension in online classes. Our findings show that when material is presented in story format rather…

  10. Improving nuclear plant management effectiveness: Aligning strategy, systems, and people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of any organization requires alignment of the appropriate financial, physical, and human resources. The manager's role is to efficiently utilize the right combination of these resources to achieve organizational objectives. In-depth studies of the nuclear programs of three major investor-owned utilities using a culture assessment process called the communication, values, and rewards (CVR) assessment have shown significant misalignments in those organizations' strategies, systems and people management. The CVR assessment related employees' perceptions of what drives their company's culture with the stated company strategic direction and management philosophies. Specifically, CVR provides a comparison of employee-held work-related values with those desired by management. Data obtained by a CVR assessment can be used to understand organizational misalignment and make changes to bring systems into alignment with corporate strategy and culture

  11. Strategies to improve outcomes from operative childhood management of DDH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedge, John H; Kelley, Simon P

    2012-07-01

    The operative management of DDH is technically challenging. To achieve excellent results, surgeons need to select the most appropriate operative treatment, minimize the risk of complications, and be aggressive in the management of serious complications, such as redislocation and AVN, when they occur. We have described specific steps and strategies to assist in each of these key steps. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving Adenovirus Based Gene Transfer: Strategies to Accomplish Immune Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Amalfitano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenovirus (Ad based gene transfer vectors continue to be the platform of choice for an increasing number of clinical trials worldwide. In fact, within the last five years, the number of clinical trials that utilize Ad based vectors has doubled, indicating growing enthusiasm for the numerous positive characteristics of this gene transfer platform. For example, Ad vectors can be easily and relatively inexpensively produced to high titers in a cGMP compliant manner, can be stably stored and transported, and have a broad applicability for a wide range of clinical conditions, including both gene therapy and vaccine applications. Ad vector based gene transfer will become more useful as strategies to counteract innate and/or pre-existing adaptive immune responses to Ads are developed and confirmed to be efficacious. The approaches attempting to overcome these limitations can be divided into two broad categories: pre-emptive immune modulation of the host, and selective modification of the Ad vector itself. The first category of methods includes the use of immunosuppressive drugs or specific compounds to block important immune pathways, which are known to be induced by Ads. The second category comprises several innovative strategies inclusive of: (1 Ad-capsid-display of specific inhibitors or ligands; (2 covalent modifications of the entire Ad vector capsid moiety; (3 the use of tissue specific promoters and local administration routes; (4 the use of genome modified Ads; and (5 the development of chimeric or alternative serotype Ads. This review article will focus on both the promise and the limitations of each of these immune evasion strategies, and in the process delineate future directions in developing safer and more efficacious Ad-based gene transfer strategies.

  13. Strategies to improve non-haem iron absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Wawer, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is one of the most prevalent nutritional deficiency disorders in the world. Food iron fortification is a widely used strategy to reduce the risk of deficiency but presents a major challenge to the food industry. The more bioavailable forms of iron, such as ferrous gluconate, cause adverse organoleptic changes when added to foods. The primary aim of the work described in this thesis was to test whether alginate would bind soluble forms of iron and thereby...

  14. Training and Hiring Strategies to Improve Firm Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Maliranta, Mika; Asplund, Rita

    2007-01-01

    We study how upgrading the skills of the personnel affects a firms performance. Two different strategies are examined : 1) providing formal training and 2) strategic recruitment and separation policy. The use of register-based longitudinal employer-employee data supplemented with a survey on vocational training provides an opportunity to shed fresh light on the issue and allows us to address the usual econometric problems. We find that internally (but not externally) organized training stimul...

  15. Strategies and Technologies for Improving Air Quality Around Ports

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Mohammad Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Increased activity at ports is an indication of economic development and growth; however, it also puts public health, regional air quality and global climate at risk because the exhaust from the marine diesel engines is not subjected to the stringent regulations as on-road engines. This dissertation characterizes the effectiveness of strategies and technologies to mitigate criteria pollutants and the long-lived greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2) from marine diesel engines. The dissertation ...

  16. Improvement of business performance in restaurants using innovation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Gagić Snježana; Tešanović Dragan; Kalenjuk Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Innovation is an important aspect of contemporary business. Rapid change in guests' preferences and expectations significantly affect the restaurant industry. Meeting the diverse hospitality needs implies making innovative programs in all processes such as technical, technological as well as service oriented. Hospitality industry enters into the process of accelerated changes of modern equipment, updated technology, business strategies and hospitality management. The paper will discuss innova...

  17. Improving adenovirus based gene transfer: strategies to accomplish immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seregin, Sergey S; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2010-09-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) based gene transfer vectors continue to be the platform of choice for an increasing number of clinical trials worldwide. In fact, within the last five years, the number of clinical trials that utilize Ad based vectors has doubled, indicating growing enthusiasm for the numerous positive characteristics of this gene transfer platform. For example, Ad vectors can be easily and relatively inexpensively produced to high titers in a cGMP compliant manner, can be stably stored and transported, and have a broad applicability for a wide range of clinical conditions, including both gene therapy and vaccine applications. Ad vector based gene transfer will become more useful as strategies to counteract innate and/or pre-existing adaptive immune responses to Ads are developed and confirmed to be efficacious. The approaches attempting to overcome these limitations can be divided into two broad categories: pre-emptive immune modulation of the host, and selective modification of the Ad vector itself. The first category of methods includes the use of immunosuppressive drugs or specific compounds to block important immune pathways, which are known to be induced by Ads. The second category comprises several innovative strategies inclusive of: (1) Ad-capsid-display of specific inhibitors or ligands; (2) covalent modifications of the entire Ad vector capsid moiety; (3) the use of tissue specific promoters and local administration routes; (4) the use of genome modified Ads; and (5) the development of chimeric or alternative serotype Ads. This review article will focus on both the promise and the limitations of each of these immune evasion strategies, and in the process delineate future directions in developing safer and more efficacious Ad-based gene transfer strategies.

  18. Improved routing strategy based on gravitational field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-Quan; Guo, Jin

    2015-10-01

    Routing and path selection are crucial for many communication and logistic applications. We study the interaction between nodes and packets and establish a simple model for describing the attraction of the node to the packet in transmission process by using the gravitational field theory, considering the real and potential congestion of the nodes. On the basis of this model, we propose a gravitational field routing strategy that considers the attractions of all of the nodes on the travel path to the packet. In order to illustrate the efficiency of proposed routing algorithm, we introduce the order parameter to measure the throughput of the network by the critical value of phase transition from a free flow phase to a congested phase, and study the distribution of betweenness centrality and traffic jam. Simulations show that, compared with the shortest path routing strategy, the gravitational field routing strategy considerably enhances the throughput of the network and balances the traffic load, and nearly all of the nodes are used efficiently. Project supported by the Technology and Development Research Project of China Railway Corporation (Grant No. 2012X007-D) and the Key Program of Technology and Development Research Foundation of China Railway Corporation (Grant No. 2012X003-A).

  19. Summary of strategies for planning Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement (PIQE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The Summary of NASA Strategies for Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement respond to NASA's eighth top goal: Establish NASA as a leader in the development and application of advanced technology and management practices which contribute to significant increases in both Agency and national productivity. The Strategies provide the framework for development of the agency-wide Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement (PIQE) Plans.

  20. Using Metacognitive Strategies to Improve Reading Comprehension and Solve a Word Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomo Djudin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes briefly the theories of metacognition and the impacts of metacognitive skills on learning. The differences between cognitive strategy and metacognitive strategy were mentioned. Some strategies to improve students’ meta cognition skills in the classroom explored as well. Based on the theories, two models of metacognitive strategies instruction for deeply understanding in reading textbook and for finding a solution of words physics problem solving were developed. These models will enable students to be independent and strategic learners.

  1. Altering Reservoir Wettability to Improve Production from Single Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. W. Weiss

    2006-09-30

    Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured and typically produce less than 10% original oil in place during primary recovery. Spontaneous imbibition has proven an important mechanism for oil recovery from fractured reservoirs, which are usually weak waterflood candidates. In some situations, chemical stimulation can promote imbibition of water to alter the reservoir wettability toward water-wetness such that oil is produced at an economic rate from the rock matrix into fractures. In this project, cores and fluids from five reservoirs were used in laboratory tests: the San Andres formation (Fuhrman Masho and Eagle Creek fields) in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico; and the Interlake, Stony Mountain, and Red River formations from the Cedar Creek Anticline in Montana and South Dakota. Solutions of nonionic, anionic, and amphoteric surfactants with formation water were used to promote waterwetness. Some Fuhrman Masho cores soaked in surfactant solution had improved oil recovery up to 38%. Most Eagle Creek cores did not respond to any of the tested surfactants. Some Cedar Creek anticline cores had good response to two anionic surfactants (CD 128 and A246L). The results indicate that cores with higher permeability responded better to the surfactants. The increased recovery is mainly ascribed to increased water-wetness. It is suspected that rock mineralogy is also an important factor. The laboratory work generated three field tests of the surfactant soak process in the West Fuhrman Masho San Andres Unit. The flawlessly designed tests included mechanical well clean out, installation of new pumps, and daily well tests before and after the treatments. Treatments were designed using artificial intelligence (AI) correlations developed from 23 previous surfactant soak treatments. The treatments were conducted during the last quarter of 2006. One of the wells produced a marginal volume of incremental oil through October. It is interesting to note that the field

  2. Plant-wide Control Strategy for Improving Produced Water Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on investigation and development of an innovative Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technology for offshore oil & gas production by employing the model-based plant-wide control strategy. The key contributions lie in two folds: (i) the advanced anti-slug analysis and control...... quality in a continuous and real-time manner. However, this new solution relies on the availability of reliable Oilin-Water (OiW) real-time measuring technologies, which apparently are still quite challenging and un-matured....

  3. Agile rediscovering values: Similarities to continuous improvement strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Mera, P.; Arenas, J. M.; González, C.

    2012-04-01

    Research in the late 80's on technological companies that develop products of high value innovation, with sufficient speed and flexibility to adapt quickly to changing market conditions, gave rise to the new set of methodologies known as Agile Management Approach. In the current changing economic scenario, we considered very interesting to study the similarities of these Agile Methodologies with other practices whose effectiveness has been amply demonstrated in both the West and Japan. Strategies such as Kaizen, Lean, World Class Manufacturing, Concurrent Engineering, etc, would be analyzed to check the values they have in common with the Agile Approach.

  4. Strategies for Improving Learner Metacognition in Health Professional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Melissa S; Castleberry, Ashley N; Persky, Adam M

    2017-05-01

    Metacognition is an essential skill in critical thinking and self-regulated, lifelong learning. It is important for learners to have skills in metacognition because they are used to monitor and regulate reasoning, comprehension, and problem-solving, which are fundamental components/outcomes of pharmacy curricula. Instructors can help learners develop metacognitive skills within the classroom and experiential setting by carefully designing learning activities within courses and the curriculum. These skills are developed through intentional questioning, modeling techniques, and reflection. This article discusses key background literature on metacognition and identifies specific methods and strategies to develop learners' metacognitive skills in both the classroom and experiential settings.

  5. Improvement of business performance in restaurants using innovation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagić Snježana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is an important aspect of contemporary business. Rapid change in guests' preferences and expectations significantly affect the restaurant industry. Meeting the diverse hospitality needs implies making innovative programs in all processes such as technical, technological as well as service oriented. Hospitality industry enters into the process of accelerated changes of modern equipment, updated technology, business strategies and hospitality management. The paper will discuss innovative offer design, molecular gastronomy, modern food presentation technique as well as authentic culinary products offer. By introducing such innovations, restaurants create the image of organisations following current trends as well as responding to the market requirements.

  6. Sawtooth period control strategies and designs for improved performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witvoet, G.; Steinbuch, M.; De Baar, M.R.; Doelman, N.J.; Westerhof, E.

    2012-01-01

    The sawtooth instability is associated with the triggering of neo-classical tearing modes, core fuelling, α-confinement and the exhaust of thermal helium. Sawtooth control is therefore important for optimal reactor performance in ELMy H-modes. Control schemes for the sawtooth period have been published in the literature, but the systematic design of high-performance controllers (yielding accurate and fast convergent responses) has not been addressed. In this work, three control strategies for high-performance sawtooth control are presented using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). Both degrees of freedom of the ECCD actuator will be explored and combined with advanced controller designs. First, the ECCD deposition location is used as a control variable, for which a gain-scheduled feedback controller and static feedforward control is derived. Second, the use of the driven current as a control variable is explored, and a simple controller is designed based on the identified dynamics. In the third approach both control variables are joined in an overall controller design, which enables the combination of high-performance control of the sawtooth period and control of the gyrotron power. Time-domain simulations with a combined Kadomtsev–Porcelli sawtooth model show that each strategy obtains a better closed-loop performance than standard linear feedback techniques on merely the deposition location. (paper)

  7. Obesity prevention strategies: could food or soda taxes improve health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnação, R; Lloyd-Williams, F; Bromley, H; Capewell, S

    2016-03-01

    Evidence shows that one of the main causes for rising obesity rates is excessive consumption of sugar, which is due in large part to the high sugar content of most soda and juice drinks and junk foods. Worryingly, UK and global populations are consuming increasing amounts of sugary drinks and junk foods (high in salt, sugar and saturated fats). However, there is raised public awareness, and parents in particular want something to be done to curb the alarming rise in childhood obesity. Population-wide policies (i.e. taxation, regulation, legislation, reformulation) consistently achieve greater public health gains than interventions and strategies targeted at individuals. Junk food and soda taxes are supported by increasing evidence from empirical and modelling studies. The strongest evidence base is for a tax on sugar sweetened beverages, but in order to effectively reduce consumption, that taxation needs to be at least 20%. Empirical data from a number of countries which have implemented a duty on sugar or sugary drinks shows rapid, substantial benefits. In the UK, increasing evidence from recent scientific reports consistently support substantial reductions in sugar consumption through comprehensive strategies which include a tax. Furthermore, there is increasing public support for such measures. A sugar sweetened beverages tax will happen in the UK so the question is not 'If?' but 'When?' this tax will be implemented. And, crucially, which nation will get there first? England, Ireland, Scotland or Wales?

  8. Bin recycling strategy for improving the histogram precision on GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Montes, Miguel; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Juan José; Vega-Rodríguez, Miguel A.

    2016-07-01

    Histogram is an easily comprehensible way to present data and analyses. In the current scientific context with access to large volumes of data, the processing time for building histogram has dramatically increased. For this reason, parallel construction is necessary to alleviate the impact of the processing time in the analysis activities. In this scenario, GPU computing is becoming widely used for reducing until affordable levels the processing time of histogram construction. Associated to the increment of the processing time, the implementations are stressed on the bin-count accuracy. Accuracy aspects due to the particularities of the implementations are not usually taken into consideration when building histogram with very large data sets. In this work, a bin recycling strategy to create an accuracy-aware implementation for building histogram on GPU is presented. In order to evaluate the approach, this strategy was applied to the computation of the three-point angular correlation function, which is a relevant function in Cosmology for the study of the Large Scale Structure of Universe. As a consequence of the study a high-accuracy implementation for histogram construction on GPU is proposed.

  9. Psoriasis in childhood: effective strategies to improve treatment adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kara N; Cortina, Sandra; Ernst, Michelle M; Kichler, Jessica C

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a relatively common chronic inflammatory skin disease in children for which there is no cure. Most children have mild disease that can be managed with topical therapy as opposed to phototherapy or systemic therapy. Despite the mild presentation of psoriasis in most children, the disease can have a significant impact on quality of life due to the need for ongoing treatment, the frequently visible nature of the cutaneous manifestations, and the social stigma that is associated with psoriasis. Adherence to treatment, in particular topical therapy, is often poor in adults and compromises response to therapy and medical provider management strategies. Multiple factors that may contribute to nonadherence in adults with psoriasis have been identified, including lack of education on the disease and expectations for management, issues related to ease of use and acceptability of topical medications, and anxiety regarding possible medication side effects. There is currently no published data on adherence in the pediatric psoriasis population; however, poor adherence is often suspected when patients fail to respond to appropriate therapy. General strategies used to assess adherence in other pediatric disease populations can be applied to children with psoriasis, and interventions that reflect experience in other chronic dermatologic disorders such as atopic dermatitis may also be helpful for medical providers caring for children with psoriasis.

  10. Action plans for COPD: strategies to manage exacerbations and improve outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalota L

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Leena Jalota,1 Vipul V Jain1,2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 2Chronic Lung Disease Program, UCSF-Fresno, Community Regional Medical Center, Fresno, CA, USA Abstract: COPD is the third-largest killer in the world, and certainly takes a toll on the health care system. Recurrent COPD exacerbations accelerate lung-function decline, worsen mortality, and consume over US$50 billion in health care spending annually. This has led to a tide of payment reforms eliciting interest in strategies reducing preventable COPD exacerbations. In this review, we analyze and discuss the evidence for COPD action plan-based self-management strategies. Although action plans may provide stabilization of acute symptomatology, there are several limitations. These include patient-centered attributes, such as comprehension and adherence, and nonadherence of health care providers to established guidelines. While no single intervention can be expected independently to translate into improved outcomes, structured together within a comprehensive integrated disease-management program, they may provide a robust paradigm. Keywords: exacerbations, self-management, integrated disease-management program

  11. Single-leg drop landing motor control strategies following acute ankle sprain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, C; Bleakley, C; Hertel, J; Caulfield, B; Ryan, J; Delahunt, E

    2015-08-01

    No research currently exists investigating the effect of acute injury on single-limb landing strategies. The aim of the current study was to analyze the coordination strategies of participants in the acute phase of lateral ankle sprain (LAS) injury. Thirty-seven participants with acute, first-time LAS and 19 uninjured participants completed a single-leg drop landing task on both limbs. Three-dimensional kinematic (angular displacement) and sagittal plane kinetic (moment-of-force) data were acquired for the joints of the lower extremity from 200 ms pre-initial contact (IC) to 200 ms post-IC. The peak magnitude of the vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRF) was also computed. Injured participants displayed a bilateral increase in hip flexion, with altered transverse plane kinematic profiles at the knee and ankle for both limbs (P < 0.05). This coincided with a reduction in the net-supporting flexor moment of the lower extremity (P < 0.05) and magnitude of the peak vertical GRF for the injured limb (21.82 ± 2.44 N/kg vs 24.09 ± 2.77 N/kg; P = 0.013) in injured participants compared to control participants. These results demonstrate that compensatory movement strategies are utilized by participants with acute LAS to successfully reduce the impact forces of landing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Benchmarking of Constant Power Generation Strategies for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    With a still increase of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems, challenges have been imposed on the grid due to the continuous injection of a large amount of fluctuating PV power, like overloading the grid infrastructure (e.g., transformers) during peak power production periods. Hence, advanced...... strategies based on: 1) a power control (P-CPG), 2) a current limit method (I-CPG) and 3) the Perturb and Observe algorithm (P&O-CPG). However, the operational mode changes (e.g., from the maximum power point tracking to a CPG operation) will affect the entire system performance. Thus, a benchmarking...... of the proposed CPG strategies is also conducted on a 3-kW single-phase grid-connected PV system. Comparisons reveal that either the P-CPG or I-CPG strategies can achieve fast dynamics and satisfactory steady-state performance. In contrast, the P&OCPG algorithm is the most suitable solution in terms of high...

  13. Benchmarking of Constant Power Generation Strategies for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    With a still increase of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems, challenges have been imposed on the grid due to the continuous injection of a large amount of fluctuating PV power, like overloading the grid infrastructure (e.g., transformers) during peak power production periods. Hence, advanced...... strategies based on: 1) a power control method (P-CPG), 2) a current limit method (I-CPG) and 3) the Perturb and Observe algorithm (P&O-CPG). However, the operational mode changes (e.g., from the maximum power point tracking to a CPG operation) will affect the entire system performance. Thus, a benchmarking...... of the presented CPG strategies is also conducted on a 3-kW single-phase grid-connected PV system. Comparisons reveal that either the P-CPG or I-CPG strategies can achieve fast dynamics and satisfactory steady-state performance. In contrast, the P&O-CPG algorithm is the most suitable solution in terms of high...

  14. EXPOSING LEARNERS WITH LEARNING STRATEGIES IN STRATEGY TRAING: ONE OF THE WAYS FOR IMPROVING THEIR STUDY SKILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Nuswantara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing our own learning strategies is an effective way to help ourselves to self evaluate for what we have done in our own learning. One among other factors leading to a successful learning is due to the effective learning strategies. However, not all learners are aware of what they have been doing in learning, or they even sometimes do not know how to learn. If this is the problem, learning strategy training can be very beneficial for the learners with this problem. Why should be through strategy training? The answer might lie on the fact that strategy is quite amenable to change, and by nature, teachable as well as learneable (Oxford, 1990. In addition, Nuswantara (2008 also found out that the successful learners (i.e. in learning English were triggered by the courage of using various learning strategies, the more varied the learners are willing to try out, the broader the chance for success. Training is the way that can be selected to present to the learners’ various strategies that they can choose and at the same time employ when learning is taken place. Moreover, by means of training, learners are made aware of the strategy, and they can mend their own strategy, as a result, they become more self - directed rather than dependent. This article attempts to frame out from the perspective of how to bring reading strategies that are applicable for handling various reading content texts to the learners, and present the result of a one-group experimental study. Thus, training is prepared for college learners who are inevitably deal with various English content textbooks and the final aim of the training is to improve learners’ study skills. Then, one group experimental study using correlated sample provides some evidences supporting the effectiveness of the training. Specifying on reading strategies, SQ3R that is joined with other learning strategies involving writing activity, annotating a text and paraphrasing/summarizing is exposed to

  15. High Resolution Bathymetry Estimation Improvement with Single Image Super-Resolution Algorithm Super-Resolution Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-26

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/5514--17-9692 High Resolution Bathymetry Estimation Improvement with Single Image Super... Single Image Super-Resolution Algorithm “Super-Resolution Forests” Dylan Einsidler,* Kristen Nock, Leslie Smith, David Bonanno, Paul Elmore, Warren Wood...release; distribution is unlimited. *Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Rd., Boca Raton, FL 33431 11 Leslie N. Smith (202) 767-9532 Using the single

  16. Strategies for university improvement: The research profile change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Universities worldwide experience continual change in order to achieve what is perceived as improvement. In these changes, there is usually an emphasis on the research function of a university, and the literature contains a number of themes in this regard. We contribute by presenting a detailed case study of a ...

  17. Strategies to Improve the Quality of Health Care - Learning from ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving access to primary health care and the quality of services in Latin American countries is urgently needed to address high health inequities in the region. Lessons learned from two successful campaigns promoting maternal and child health in Chile and Uruguay could provide insights for further health reforms and ...

  18. Innovative strategies to improve human resources for health in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and scaling up health professionals' education and training, calling for sustainable and contextual reforms which will strengthen health systems and improve population health outcomes.[4] The World Health Organization's building blocks for effective health systems include a well-performing health workforce that is ...

  19. Performance in physiology evaluation: possible improvement by active learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrezor, Luís H

    2016-12-01

    The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages interaction with their peers, and stimulates thinking about physiological mechanisms. This study examined the performance of medical students on physiology over four semesters with and without active engagement methodologies. Four activities were used: a puzzle, a board game, a debate, and a video. The results show that engaging in activities with active methodologies before a physiology cognitive monitoring test significantly improved student performance compared with not performing the activities. We integrate the use of these methodologies with classic lectures, and this integration appears to improve the teaching/learning process in the discipline of physiology and improves the integration of physiology with cardiology and neurology. In addition, students enjoy the activities and perform better on their evaluations when they use them. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  20. Performance in Physiology Evaluation: Possible Improvement by Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrezor, Luís H.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages…

  1. Improving Listening Skills through the Use of Active Listening Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engraffia, Margie; Graff, Nora; Jezuit, Sue; Schall, Leslie

    This report describes a program for improving active and critical listening skills for elementary age students. The targeted population consists of middle school children located near a large midwestern city. The problems of poor listening skills are documented through data revealing the need for attending interventions that have been put in…

  2. A Model for Improving the Health and Quality of Life of Single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Model for Improving the Health and Quality of Life of Single Mothers in the Developing World. Rajshri Mainthia, Laura Reppart, Jim Reppart, Elizabeth C Pearce, Jordan J Cohen, James L Netterville ...

  3. Improved Control Strategy for Active Bouncers used in Klystron Modulators

    CERN Document Server

    Aguglia, D; Benedetti, M; Garcia Retegui, R; Maestri, S; Nisbet, D

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a closed-loop control system for klystron modulators. The system is based on the discharge of a capacitor into a step-up voltage transformer and an active bouncer implemented with a multiphase buck converter. In order to obtain a constant Klystron voltage at the at-top, the active bouncer must compensate both the capacitor discharge and the pulse transformer characteristic. The proposed control includes an inner voltage regulation loop that controls the active bouncer output voltage and an outer one that controls the klystron voltage. The primary side current and main capacitor voltage are included in the regulation loops to simplify the controllers. Simulations demonstrate that the strategy adopted allows to obtain a precision better than 0:1% on a 110 kV klystron. Experimental tests have shown that the multiphase converter is able to track a high dynamics reference even under variable output voltage conditions.

  4. Novel Strategy to Improve the Performance of Localization in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vasim Babu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel strategy of discrete energy consumption model for WSN based on quasi Monte Carlo and crude Monte Carlo method is developed. In our model the discrete hidden Markov process plays a major role in analyzing the node location in heterogeneous media. In this energy consumption model we use both static and dynamic sensor nodes to monitor the optimized energy of all sensor nodes in which every sensor state can be considered as the dynamic Bayesian network. By using this method the power is assigned in terms of dynamic manner to each sensor over discrete time steps to control the graphical structure of our network. The simulation and experiment result shows that our proposed methods are better in terms of localization accuracy and possess minimum computational time over existing localization method.

  5. Root Traits and Phenotyping Strategies for Plant Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paez-Garcia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Roots are crucial for nutrient and water acquisition and can be targeted to enhance plant productivity under a broad range of growing conditions. A current challenge for plant breeding is the limited ability to phenotype and select for desirable root characteristics due to their underground location. Plant breeding efforts aimed at modifying root traits can result in novel, more stress-tolerant crops and increased yield by enhancing the capacity of the plant for soil exploration and, thus, water and nutrient acquisition. Available approaches for root phenotyping in laboratory, greenhouse and field encompass simple agar plates to labor-intensive root digging (i.e., shovelomics and soil boring methods, the construction of underground root observation stations and sophisticated computer-assisted root imaging. Here, we summarize root architectural traits relevant to crop productivity, survey root phenotyping strategies and describe their advantages, limitations and practical value for crop and forage breeding programs.

  6. Psoriasis in childhood: effective strategies to improve treatment adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah KN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kara N Shah,1 Sandra Cortina,2,3 Michelle M Ernst,2 Jessica C Kichler2 1Division of Pediatric Dermatology, 2Division of Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology, 3Center for Adherence and Self-Management, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA Abstract: Psoriasis is a relatively common chronic inflammatory skin disease in children for which there is no cure. Most children have mild disease that can be managed with topical therapy as opposed to phototherapy or systemic therapy. Despite the mild presentation of psoriasis in most children, the disease can have a significant impact on quality of life due to the need for ongoing treatment, the frequently visible nature of the cutaneous manifestations, and the social stigma that is associated with psoriasis. Adherence to treatment, in particular topical therapy, is often poor in adults and compromises response to therapy and medical provider management strategies. Multiple factors that may contribute to nonadherence in adults with psoriasis have been identified, including lack of education on the disease and expectations for management, issues related to ease of use and acceptability of topical medications, and anxiety regarding possible medication side effects. There is currently no published data on adherence in the pediatric psoriasis population; however, poor adherence is often suspected when patients fail to respond to appropriate therapy. General strategies used to assess adherence in other pediatric disease populations can be applied to children with psoriasis, and interventions that reflect experience in other chronic dermatologic disorders such as atopic dermatitis may also be helpful for medical providers caring for children with psoriasis. Keywords: adherence, psoriasis, children

  7. Evaluation of an effective multifaceted implementation strategy for elective single-embryo transfer after in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreuwel, I.A.M.; Peperstraten, A.M. van; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the relationship between the rate of elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) and couples' exposure to different elements of a multifaceted implementation strategy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Additional elements in a multifaceted implementation strategy do not result in an increased eSET

  8. The Strategy of Welfare Improvement for Salt Farmers in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudaryana Bambang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now, production of salt in Indonesia is done by salt farmers and PT. Garam Indonesia as the only state company that produces salt. As the perpetrators of production which contribute greatly to the national salt production, salt farmer is considered not prosperous. In general, they depend on marine and coastal resources, use requires large investment and rely heavily on season. Climate and weather conditions that are often hostile, the price mechanism and the salt market tend to be contrast to the condition of farmers, this is what makes salt business is risky. The goals of this research are: 1. Improving the Welfare of salt farmers through a focused and effective empowerment. 2. Improving government’spolicies on salt. To conclude, Empowerment of salt farmers in Indonesia should be focused and effective, salt governance and policy revisions significantly affect the welfare of salt farmers.

  9. An Innovative Strategy to Improve Family-Infant Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Jamie L; Cheeseman, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    To improve family-infant bonding while newborns were separated from their parents, work began to develop a new Childbirth Center policy to guide staff in using Apple's FaceTime application with patients. Multidisciplinary meetings were held to obtain consent for the use of FaceTime and to protect patient information. We acquired two iPads and the support needed for updates. The staff was educated, and implementation began in January, 2014. This program improved bonding as evidenced by feedback received from the parents who utilized it. Several parents commented on how much they preferred seeing images of their babies in motion breathing and crying instead of just still pictures. Physicians also used FaceTime while talking with parents about plans of care. Since our implementation, we have utilized FaceTime with 46 infants to impact bonding in our Special Care nursery. This process enhances the delivery of relationship-based care with our patients.

  10. Single Agent Polysaccharopeptide Delays Metastases and Improves Survival in Naturally Occurring Hemangiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Cimino Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 World Health Organization World Cancer Report describes global cancer incidence soaring with many patients living in countries that lack resources for cancer control. Alternative treatment strategies that can reduce the global disease burden at manageable costs must be developed. Polysaccharopeptide (PSP is the bioactive agent from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor. Studies indicate PSP has in vitro antitumor activities and inhibits the growth of induced tumors in animal models. Clear evidence of clinically relevant benefits of PSP in cancer patients, however, is lacking. The investment of resources required to complete large-scale, randomized controlled trials of PSP in cancer patients is more easily justified if antitumor and survival benefits are documented in a complex animal model of a naturally occurring cancer that parallels human disease. Because of its high metastatic rate and vascular origin, canine hemangiosarcoma is used for investigations in antimetastatic and antiangiogenic therapies. In this double-blind randomized multidose pilot study, high-dose PSP significantly delayed the progression of metastases and afforded the longest survival times reported in canine hemangiosarcoma. These data suggest that, for those cancer patients for whom advanced treatments are not accessible, PSP as a single agent might offer significant improvements in morbidity and mortality.

  11. Postural control strategies during single limb stance following acute lateral ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2014-06-01

    Single-limb stance is maintained via the integration of visual, vestibular and somatosensory afferents. Musculoskeletal injury challenges the somatosensory system to reweight distorted sensory afferents. This investigation supplements kinetic analysis of eyes-open and eyes-closed single-limb stance tasks with a kinematic profile of lower limb postural orientation in an acute lateral ankle sprain group to assess the adaptive capacity of the sensorimotor system to injury. Sixty-six participants with first-time acute lateral ankle sprain completed a 20-second eyes-open single-limb stance task on their injured and non-injured limbs (task 1). Twenty-three of these participants successfully completed the same 20-second single-limb stance task with their eyes closed (task 2). A non-injured control group of 19 participants completed task 1, with 16 completing task 2. 3-dimensional kinematics of the hip, knee and ankle joints, as well as associated fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path were determined for each limb during these tasks. Between trial analyses revealed significant differences in stance limb kinematics and fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path for task 2 only. The control group bilaterally assumed a position of greater hip flexion compared to injured participants on their side-matched "involved"(7.41 [6.1°] vs 1.44 [4.8]°; η(2)=.34) and "uninvolved" (9.59 [8.5°] vs 2.16 [5.6°]; η(2)=.31) limbs, with a greater fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path (involved limb=1.39 [0.16°] vs 1.25 [0.14°]; uninvolved limb=1.37 [0.21°] vs 1.23 [0.14°]). Bilateral impairment in postural control strategies present following a first time acute lateral ankle sprain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Economic analysis of the single-dose immunization strategy against hepatitis A in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzotti, C; Pippo, T; Urueña, A; Altuna, J; Palópoli, G; Hernández, M L; Artola, M F; Fernández, H; Orellano, P; Cañero-Velasco, M C; Ciocca, M; Ramonet, M; Diosque, M

    2015-05-07

    Vaccination against hepatitis A (HA) was carried out only as part of a limited outbreak control strategy in Argentina until June 2005, when universal immunization in infants was introduced into the national immunization calendar. A single-dose strategy was chosen instead of the standard two-dose schedule used elsewhere. This study aimed to estimate preventive, medical, and non-medical costs related to HA and to compare these costs in the periods before and after mass vaccination. A retrospective analysis estimated treatment costs of HA and unspecified hepatitis cases reported to the National Health Surveillance System from 2000 to 2010. Costs related to immunization, fulminant hepatitis (FH), liver transplantation, and death were projected as well. Using a social perspective and a healthcare system perspective, costs in two 5-year periods were compared: 2000-2004 versus 2006-2010. Finally, we evaluated the impact of different discount rates, FH risk, and exclusion of unspecified hepatitis cases in the sensitivity analysis. Total HA and unspecified hepatitis cases decreased from 157,871 in 2000-2004 to 17,784 in 2006-2010. Medical and non-medical costs decreased from US$11,811,600 and US$30,118,222 to US$1,252,694 and US$4,995,895 in those periods, respectively. Immunization costs increased from US$6,506,711 to US$40,912,132. Total preventive, medical, and non-medical costs decreased from US$48,436,534 to US$47,160,721, representing a 2.6% reduction in total costs between the two periods. When a healthcare system perspective was considered or unspecified hepatitis cases were excluded, total costs were 130.2% and 30.8% higher in 2006-2010 than in the previous period, respectively. After implementation of the universal single-dose vaccination against HA in infants in Argentina, an impressive decline was observed in HA cases, with a decrease in medical and non-medical costs in the first 5 years. The single-dose strategy, which is simpler and less expensive than the

  13. Strategies to improve feeding tolerance in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanaro, Silvia

    2012-10-01

    Postnatal growth restriction and failure to thrive is a major issue in preterm, especially extremely low-birth-weight infants. Optimization of enteral nutrition, without increasing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), has thus become a priority for the neonatologist, who often has to face the challenge of interpreting the clinical and prognostic significance of common and aspecific signs of feeding intolerance (FI). The neonatologist often prescribes enteral nutrition as if walking on a tightrope between the purposed attainment of full enteral feeding and the fear of NEC. Despite advances in neonatal intensive care, NEC still remains one of the leading causes of mortality (15-30%) and morbidity in very-low-birth-weight infants. However, the relationship between FI and NEC remains unknown. Feeding intolerance often leads to discontinuation of enteral feeds, delayed attainment of full enteral feeding and prolongation of hospitalization. Strategies aimed at preventing and/or treating episodes of feeding intolerance are diverse and not always supported by scientific evidence.

  14. Instructional strategies to improve women's attitudes toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbill, Phyllis Leary

    Although negative attitudes toward science are common among women and men in undergraduate introductory science classes, women's attitudes toward science tend to be more negative than men's. The reasons for women's negative attitudes toward science include lack of self-confidence, fear of association with social outcasts, lack of women role models in science, and the fundamental differences between traditional scientific and feminist values. Attitudes are psychological constructs theorized to be composed of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. Attitudes serve functions, including social expressive, value expressive, utilitarian, and defensive functions, for the people who hold them. To change attitudes, the new attitudes must serve the same function as the old one, and all three components must be treated. Instructional designers can create instructional environments to effect attitude change. In designing instruction to improve women's attitudes toward science, instructional designers should (a) address the emotions that are associated with existing attitudes, (b) involve credible, attractive women role models, and (c) address the functions of the existing attitudes. Two experimental instructional modules were developed based on these recommendations, and two control modules were developed that were not based on these recommendations. The asynchronous, web-based modules were administered to 281 undergraduate geology and chemistry students at two universities. Attitude assessment revealed that attitudes toward scientists improved significantly more in the experimental group, although there was no significant difference in overall attitudes toward science. Women's attitudes improved significantly more than men's in both the experimental and control groups. Students whose attitudes changed wrote significantly more in journaling activities associated with the modules. Qualitative analysis of journals revealed that the guidelines worked exactly as predicted

  15. Extron prediction method based on improved period-3 feature strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Dou, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Xi-Fang

    2017-07-01

    To improve the accuracy of the gene encoding (exon) prediction, near period-3 feature exons prediction algorithm is proposed. Near period-3 clustering power spectrum of extrons and introns are extracted as template feature, DNA sequence is divided into frames and moved. Compared with the template feature, the prediction of the Euclidean distance with different weights is realized from each frame. By changing the different feature, number, frame length, gene sequence weight and comparing with period-3 algorithm, the experiment results show that the prediction accuracy of the proposed algorithm is better than that period-3 algorithm.

  16. Novel strategies to improve the endocrine therapy of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Bartolome Castrellon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine therapy (ET constitutes the usual first-line of therapy for patients in the treatment of metastatic hormone receptorpositive breast cancer. Unfortunately, not all patients respond to first-line endocrine treatment due to intrinsic resistance, while others may initially respond but eventually progress with secondary acquired resistance leading to disease progression. Mechanisms of resistance to anti-estrogen therapy include, loss of expression for estrogen or progesterone receptor, upregulation of epidermal receptor growth factor 2, increased receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, leading to activation of various intracellular pathways that are involved in signal transduction such as PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin, and others. Growing understanding of the signal cascade of estrogen receptors and the signaling pathways that interact with estrogen receptors has revealed the complex role of these receptors in cell growth and proliferation, and on the mechanism in development of resistance. These insights have led to the development of targeted therapies that may prove to be effective options for the treatment of breast cancer and may overcome hormone therapy resistance. In this review we summarize some of the mechanisms of endocrine resistance, selected clinical trials of ET and targeted therapies, which might interfere with estrogen receptor pathways and might reduce or reverse resistance to traditional, sequential, single-agent ET.

  17. Improving performance of single-path code through a time-predictable memory hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilku, Bekim; Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Prokesch, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    . The single-path code generation overcomes these problems by generating time-predictable code that has a single execution trace. However, the simplicity of this approach comes at the cost of longer execution times. This paper addresses performance improvements for single-path code. We propose a time......-predictable memory hierarchy with a prefetcher that exploits the predictability of execution traces in single-path code to speed up code execution. The new memory hierarchy reduces both the cache-miss penalty time and the cache-miss rate on the instruction cache. The benefit of the approach is demonstrated through...

  18. Strategies for improving chemotherapeutic delivery to solid tumors mediated by vascular permeability modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chaudhuri, Tista

    An essential mode of distribution of blood-borne chemotherapeutic agents within a solid tumor is via the micro-circulation. Poor tumor perfusion, because of a lack of functional vasculature or a lack of microvessels, as well as low tumor vascular permeability, can prevent adequate deposition of even low molecular-weight agents into the tumor. The modulation of tumor vascular function and density can provides numerous strategies for improving intratumor deposition of chemotherapeutic agents. Here we investigated strategies to improve drug delivery to two tumor types that share in common poor drug delivery, but differ in the underlying cause. First, in an angiogenesis-driven brain tumor model of Glioblastoma, the vascular permeability barrier, along with poorly-functional vasculature, hinders drug delivery. A strategy of nanoparticle-based tumor 'priming' to attack the vascular permeability barrier, employing sterically stabilized liposomal doxorubicin (SSL-DXR), was investigated. Functional and histological evaluation of tumor vasculature revealed that after an initial period of depressed vascular permeability and vascular pruning 3--4 days after SSL-DXR administration, vascular permeability and perfusion were restored and then elevated after 5--7 days. As a result of tumor priming, deposition of subsequently-administered nanoparticles was enhanced, and the efficacy of temozolomide (TMZ), if administered during the window of elevated permeability, was increased. The sequenced regimen resulted in a persistent reduction of the tumor proliferative index and a 40% suppression of tumor volume, compared to animals that received both agents simultaneously. Second, in a hypovascular, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma model, disruption of tumor-stromal communication via sonic hedgehog (sHH) signaling pathway inhibition mediated an indirect vascular proliferation and a more than 2-fold increase in intratumor nanoparticle deposition. Enhanced delivery of SSL-DXR in tumors pre

  19. Different screening strategies (single or dual for the diagnosis of suspected latent tuberculosis: a cost effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rook Graham

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous health economic studies recommend either a dual screening strategy [tuberculin skin test (TST followed by interferon-γ-release assay (IGRA] or a single one [IGRA only] for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI, the former largely based on claims that it is more cost-effective. We sought to examine that conclusion through the use of a model that accounts for the additional costs of adverse drug reactions and directly compares two commercially available versions of the IGRA: the Quantiferon-TB-Gold-In-Tube (QFT-GIT and T-SPOT.TB. Methods A LTBI screening model directed at screening contacts was used to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis, from a UK healthcare perspective, taking into account the risk of isoniazid-related hepatotoxicity and post-exposure TB (2 years post contact using the TST, QFT-GIT and T-SPOT.TB IGRAs. Results Examining costs alone, the TST/IGRA dual screening strategies (TST/T-SPOT.TB and TST/QFT-GIT; £162,387 and £157,048 per 1000 contacts, respectively cost less than their single strategy counterparts (T-SPOT.TB and QFT-GIT; £203,983 and £202,921 per 1000 contacts which have higher IGRA test costs and greater numbers of persons undergoing LTBI treatment. However, IGRA alone strategies direct healthcare interventions and costs more accurately to those that are truly infected. Subsequently, less contacts need to be treated to prevent an active case of TB (T-SPOT.TB and QFT-GIT; 61.7 and 69.7 contacts in IGRA alone strategies. IGRA single strategies also prevent more cases of post-exposure TB. However, this greater effectiveness does not outweigh the lower incremental costs associated with the dual strategies. Consequently, when these costs are combined with effectiveness, the IGRA dual strategies are more cost-effective than their single strategy counterparts. Comparing between the IGRAs, T-SPOT.TB-based strategies (single and dual; £39,712 and £37,206 per active TB case prevented

  20. Improving Student Vocabulary Mastery Using Word Mapping Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satuna Indah Wardani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this study was to find out whether the word mapping strategywas able to improve the students’ vocabulary mastery. The process of masteringis mainly affected by the worst thought of the vocational students who said that English as the most difficult subject to learn and was often tracked into boringcondition since theywere not involved in the process of learning. Thisstudy was conducted by using classroom action research in two cycles and each cycleconsisted of four meetings. The subject of the research was the third grade of Accounting Department at State Vocational School 1 Pamekasan whichconsisted of 34 students. The research was carried out for one month.Theinstruments used to obtained primary data and the secondary data were vocabulary test, the students’ observation sheets, and questionnaire of the respondent.The result of test in preliminary until the test in cycle two showed that there was the improvement of the number of students who passed the test. Hopefully, this outcome will certainly be useful for both teachers and students in which its harmony will give the progress for learning English,especially vocabulary mastery. 

  1. Strategies to improve immunization services in urban Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, F T

    1991-01-01

    The urban poor constitute a rapidly increasing proportion of the population in developing countries. Focusing attention on underserved urban slums and squatter settlements will contribute greatly to immunization programme goals, because these areas account for 30-50% of urban populations, usually provide low access to health services, carry a large burden of disease mortality, and act as sources of infection for the city and surrounding rural areas. Improvement of urban immunization programmes requires intersectorial collaboration, use of all opportunities to vaccinate eligible children and mothers, identification of low-coverage neighbourhoods and execution of extra activities in these neighbourhoods, and community mobilization to identify and refer persons for vaccination. Improved disease surveillance helps to identify high-risk populations and document programme impact. New developments in vaccines, such as the high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine, will allow changes in the immunization schedule that facilitate the control of specific diseases. Finally, operational research can assist managers to conduct urban situation assessments, evaluate programme performance at the "micro" level, and design and monitor interventions.

  2. Coating Strategies to Improve Lithium-ion Battery Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, Jonathan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This work investigated the effects of Al2O3 ALD coatings on the performance and thermal abuse tolerance of graphite based anodes and Li(NixMnyCoz)O2 (NMC) based cathodes. It was found that 5 cycles of Al2O3 ALD on the graphite anode increased the onset temperature of thermal runaway by approximately 20 °C and drastically reduced the anode’s contribution to the overall amount of heat released during thermal runaway. Although Al2O3 ALD improves the cycling stability of NMC based cathodes, the thermal abuse tolerance was not greatly improved. A series of conductive aluminum oxide/carbon composites were created and characterized as potential thicker protective coatings for use on NMC based cathode materials. A series of electrodes were coated with manganese monoxide ALD to test the efficacy of an oxygen scavenging coating on NMC based cathodes.

  3. Effective colonoscopy training techniques: strategies to improve patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Karatzas, Pantelis S; Varytimiadis, Lazaros T; Tsigaridas, Athanasios; Galanopoulos, Michail; Viazis, Nikos; Karamanolis, Dimitrios G

    2016-01-01

    Colonoscopy has substantially evolved during the last 20 years and many different training techniques have been developed in order to improve the performance of endoscopists. The most known are mechanical simulators, virtual reality simulators, computer-simulating endoscopy, magnetic endoscopic imaging, and composite and explanted animal organ simulators. Current literature generally indicates that the use of simulators improves performance of endoscopists and enhances safety of patients, especially during the initial phase of training. Moreover, newer endoscopes and imaging techniques such as high-definition colonoscopes, chromocolonoscopy with dyes spraying, and third-eye retroscope have been incorporated in everyday practice, offering better visualization of the colon and detection of polyps. Despite the abundance of these different technological features, training devices are not widely used and no official guideline or specified training algorithm or technique for lower gastrointestinal endoscopy has been evolved. In this review, we present the most important training methods currently available and evaluate these using existing literature. We also try to propose a training algorithm for novice endoscopists.

  4. Effective colonoscopy training techniques: strategies to improve patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papanikolaou IS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ioannis S Papanikolaou,1 Pantelis S Karatzas,2 Lazaros T Varytimiadis,2 Athanasios Tsigaridas,2 Michail Galanopoulos,2 Nikos Viazis,2 Dimitrios G Karamanolis21Hepato-gastroenterology Unit, 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Attikon University General Hospital, University of Athens, 2Gastroenterology Department, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Colonoscopy has substantially evolved during the last 20 years and many different training techniques have been developed in order to improve the performance of endoscopists. The most known are mechanical simulators, virtual reality simulators, computer-simulating endoscopy, magnetic endoscopic imaging, and composite and explanted animal organ simulators. Current literature generally indicates that the use of simulators improves performance of endoscopists and enhances safety of patients, especially during the initial phase of training. Moreover, newer endoscopes and imaging techniques such as high-definition colonoscopes, chromocolonoscopy with dyes spraying, and third-eye retroscope have been incorporated in everyday practice, offering better visualization of the colon and detection of polyps. Despite the abundance of these different technological features, training devices are not widely used and no official guideline or specified training algorithm or technique for lower gastrointestinal endoscopy has been evolved. In this review, we present the most important training methods currently available and evaluate these using existing literature. We also try to propose a training algorithm for novice endoscopists.Keywords: endoscopy, colonoscopy, teaching techniques, simulator, endoscopists, colon, polyps

  5. Preliminary performance assessment strategy for single-shell tank waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnichsen, J.C. Jr.

    1991-10-01

    The disposal of the waste stored in single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site is recognized as a major environmental concern. A comprehensive program has been initiated to evaluate the various alternatives available for disposal of these wastes. Theses wastes will be disposed of in a manner consistent with applicable laws and regulations. Long-term waste isolation is one measure of performance that will be used for purposes of selection. The performance of each disposal alternative will be simulated using numerical models. Contained herein is a discussion of the strategy that has and continues to evolve to establish a general analytical framework to evaluate this performance. This general framework will be used to construct individual models of each waste disposal alternative selected for purposes of evaluation. 30 refs., 3 figs

  6. Strategies to improve local control of resected pancreas adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2017-03-01

    Only approximately one in ten pancreas cancer patients is a candidate for potentially curative resection of this disease. Even this small fraction of patients has a poor prognosis following pancreatico-duodenectomy. The disease has an anatomic location that makes it difficult for the surgeon to maintain adequate margins of resection and prevent tumor spillage at the time of resection. Also, the disease is biologically aggressive and even with a complete visible resection of the disease, micrometastases are likely to remain behind. A survey of the sites for surgical treatment failure of resected pancreas cancer was performed. Also, the multiple modalities used in an attempt to improve the results of cancer resection are scrutinized. The surgical treatment failures are regional in nature and occur at the resection site and on peritoneal surfaces, within the liver, and within the regional lymph nodes. These anatomic sites account for nearly 100% of the initial sites of disease progression. Current hypothesis suggests that micrometastases released from the cancer specimen by the trauma of surgery account for the high incidence of resection site progression and peritoneal metastases. Although surgical trauma may contribute to micrometastases within the liver and lymph nodes, these are most likely present though not detected by preoperative radiologic studies. Adjuvant treatments such as neoadjuvant chemotherapy or combination systemic chemotherapy have not been associated with improved survival. Extended resections such as total pancreatectomy or extended lymphadenectomy have not been associated with benefit. However, resection with a negative margin of excision along with the removal of at least 12 lymph nodes in and around the pancreaticoduodenectomy specimen is associated with superior outcomes. A regional chemotherapy treatment that consists of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) with gemcitabine and long-term normothermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy

  7. Current prodrug strategies for improving oral absorption of nucleoside analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youxi Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nucleoside analogues are first line chemotherapy in various severe diseases: AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome, cytomegalovirus infections, cancer, etc. However, many nucleoside analogues exhibit poor oral bioavailability because of their high polarity and low intestinal permeability. In order to get around this drawback, prodrugs have been utilized to improve lipophilicity by chemical modification of the parent drug. Alternatively, prodrugs targeting transporters present in the intestine have been applied to promote the transport of the nucleoside analogues. Valacyclovir and valganciclovir are two classic valine ester prodrugs transported by oligopeptide transporter 1. The ideal prodrug achieves delivery of a parent drug by attaching a non-toxic moiety that is stable during transport, but is readily degraded to the parent drug once at the target. This article presents advances of prodrug approaches for enhancing oral absorption of nucleoside analogues.

  8. Breeding strategy for the improvement of mustard (Brassica Juncea Coss.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayar, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    Mutants having desirable agronomic characters were obtained in the high yielding, recommended mustard (B. juncea) varieties Rai 5, RL 9 and Varuna (T 59). Following hybridizations between induced mutants or mutants with other promising varieties, recombinants having superior agronomic traits have been developed. The parent varieties are characterised by open pod arrangement and blackish brown seeds. The mutants and the recombinants have desirable agronomic characters like compact plant type, appressed pods with less shattering nature, yellow seeds, higher oil content and lighter coloured oil. Among the 12 new strains developed at this centre, five have been tested at various locations in the country. At many places, TM-(Trombay Mustard-) cultures outyielded or were at par with the local check varieties. TM-2-11 (Appressed pod mutant) and TM-4 (Yellow bold seeded Mutant) have also been included in the Initial Evaluation Trial of the All India Co-ordinated Research Project in Oilseeds (AICORPO) improvement. Reports so far received from various locations in the country indicate that TM-strains, being relatively early cultures, are suited more for states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, U.P. and Bihar. (author)

  9. [Hospital falls, improvement strategy for reducing their incidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Huete, M Eloisa; Sebastián-Viana, Tomás; Lema-Lorenzo, Isabel; Granados-Martín, Mónica; Buitrago-Lobo, Nuria; Heredia-Reina, M del Pilar; Merino-Ruiz, Margarita; Ventosa-Hernández, Esther; Gutiérrez-Fernández, Carmen; Mota-Boada, M Luisa

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the evolution of falls with the implemented measures to improve the attention of patients at risk and to reduce the number of falls. To know the characteristics of patients who have suffered fall-related injuries. All the falls registered between 2008 and 2013 have been analyzed to determine the evolution of these and to describe the implemented measures through the electronic clinical history at University Hospital of Fuenlabrada. The incidence of falls in hospitalized patients has been estimated and the evolution with the chi square test has been studied. The frequencies of the characteristics of patients who fall has been presented: age, length of stay, performed activity, patient companion, mobility level, state of consciousness. 445 registered falls happened. 2009 is the year with the highest number of falls, 86 patients fell of a total of 15,819 discharged patients (0.55%). The statistic drops until 2013, where 55 patients fell out of 15,052 discharged patients (0.37%). This difference was not statistically significant. The deployment of an assessment about fall risk at admission has helped to identify individualized risk factors. Furthermore, the awareness and alerts to the nursing staff have helped to consider fall prevention as a rutinary procedure, hence appropriate measures can be implemented on the most vulnerable patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Strategies for the improvement of rural chicken production in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awuni, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Rural poultry production systems in Ghana and in Africa as a whole are based on the scavenging indigenous domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), the predominant species in the poultry sector. In most African countries scavenging chicken have no regular health control programmes, may or may not have shelter and usually have to scavenge around for their nutritional requirements. In Ghana, the total poultry population is estimated to be over 20 million with 80% of this being rural scavenging chicken. Out of this population, 80% is lost annually due to outbreaks of Newcastle disease and a number of other causes. Reported here are the results of field surveys conducted in the wet and dry seasons in two selected ecological zones (Forest and Coastal) to establish the constraints to improvement of rural chicken production in the country. The survey covered only women farmers who engaged in rural poultry production. During the course of the survey, chicken flocks as well as chicken houses were examined for ectoparasites. Faecal samples were collected for laboratory diagnosis of endo-parasite infestation, as well as serum samples for analysis of antibodies using immunoassay techniques. The survey revealed that Newcastle disease still remains the most important disease of the scavenging rural chickens. (author)

  11. Improving marketing strategies of sea freight forwarding services - Thien Hong Joint Stock company

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Thanh Huyen

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing and improving marketing strategies of Thien Hong Joint Stock company - a newborn company in the field of sea freight forwarding service in Vietnam. This thesis focused on the 4Ps (product, price, placement, promotion) in marketing strategy, how to apply the theory of services marketing in a business to business company and a special industry effectively.

  12. Improved Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) and Academic Performance: The Impact of Feedback on Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haught, Patricia A.; Hill, Lee Ann; Walls, Richard T.; Nardi, Anne H.

    1998-01-01

    In a study strategies course, 69 college freshmen were given individual profiles from the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) and general feedback in a group setting; half also received individualized feedback, including specific suggestions for improving LASSI performance. Students receiving the individualized feedback had higher…

  13. Improving Inappropriate Social Behavior of Autistic Students Using the LISTEN Intervention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shammari, Zaid; Daniel, Cathy; Faulkner, Paula; Yawkey, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    A case study was conducted on the development of the LISTEN intervention strategy for use with autistic students to improve inappropriate social behaviors. The study was conducted in a special education classroom in an autism school in Kuwait. Examination of LISTEN Intervention Strategy applications included: duration of targeted behavior; methods…

  14. What do primary care physicians and researchers consider the most important patient safety improvement strategies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaal, S.; Verstappen, W.H.J.M.; Wensing, M.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although it has been increasingly recognised that patient safety in primary care is important, little is known about the feasibility and effectiveness of different strategies to improve patient safety in primary care. In this study, we aimed to identify the most important strategies by

  15. Long Island Transportation Plan to Manage Congestion: Framework for Developing and Evaluating Improvement Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-20

    The Long Island Transportation Plan to Manage Congestion (LITP 2000) will establish an integrated, multi-modal transportation program of cost-effective strategies to manage congestion and improve the movement of people and goods in Nassau and Suffolk...

  16. Promising Strategy To Improve Charge Separation in Organic Photovoltaics : Installing Permanent Dipoles in PCBM Analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gier, Hilde D.; Jahani, Fatemeh; Broer, Ria; Hummelen, Jan C.; Havenith, Remco W. A.

    2016-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach involving organic synthesis and theoretical chemistry was applied to investigate a promising strategy to improve charge separation in organic photovoltaics: installing permanent dipoles in fullerene derivatives. First, a PCBM analogue with a permanent dipole in the side

  17. Study on improving rail energy efficiency (E2) : best practices and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    A recent Volpe Center report [1] for the Federal Railroad Administrations (FRA) Rail Energy, Environment, and Engine (E3) Technology research and development program reviewed rail industry best practices (BPs) and strategies for improving energy e...

  18. Improving the efficiency of single and multiple teleportation protocols based on the direct use of partially entangled states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Raphael; Rigolin, Gustavo, E-mail: rigolin@ifi.unicamp.br

    2013-09-15

    We push the limits of the direct use of partially pure entangled states to perform quantum teleportation by presenting several protocols in many different scenarios that achieve the optimal efficiency possible. We review and put in a single formalism the three major strategies known to date that allow one to use partially entangled states for direct quantum teleportation (no distillation strategies permitted) and compare their efficiencies in real world implementations. We show how one can improve the efficiency of many direct teleportation protocols by combining these techniques. We then develop new teleportation protocols employing multipartite partially entangled states. The three techniques are also used here in order to achieve the highest efficiency possible. Finally, we prove the upper bound for the optimal success rate for protocols based on partially entangled Bell states and show that some of the protocols here developed achieve such a bound. -- Highlights: •Optimal direct teleportation protocols using directly partially entangled states. •We put in a single formalism all strategies of direct teleportation. •We extend these techniques for multipartite partially entangle states. •We give upper bounds for the optimal efficiency of these protocols.

  19. Improving Grade XI Students' Writing Achievement in Analytical Exposition Through Collaborative Writing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Sidauruk, Sri Lestari; Arifin, Tina Mariany

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the improvement of Grade XI students' writing achievement in analytical exposition through the application of collaborative writing strategy. The objective of this study was to find out whether collaborative writing strategy could improve Grade XI students' writing achievement in analytical exposition text. The study was conducted by using Classroom Action Research (CAR). The subjects of this study were students of Grade XI Class 2 of State Senior High School (Sekola...

  20. Application of quality improvement strategies in 389 European hospitals: results of the MARQuIS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombarts, M J M H; Rupp, I; Vallejo, P; Suñol, R; Klazinga, N S

    2009-02-01

    This study was part of the Methods of Assessing Response to Quality Improvement Strategies (MARQuIS) research project investigating the impact of quality improvement strategies on hospital care in various countries of the European Union (EU), in relation to specific needs of cross-border patients. This paper describes how EU hospitals have applied seven quality improvement strategies previously defined by the MARQuIS study: organisational quality management programmes; systems for obtaining patients' views; patient safety systems; audit and internal assessment of clinical standards; clinical and practice guidelines; performance indicators; and external assessment. A web-based questionnaire was used to survey acute care hospitals in eight EU countries. The reported findings were later validated via on-site survey and site visits in a sample of the participating hospitals. Data collection took place from April to August 2006. 389 hospitals participated in the survey; response rates varied per country. All seven quality improvement strategies were widely used in European countries. Activities related to external assessment were the most broadly applied across Europe, and activities related to patient involvement were the least widely implemented. No one country implemented all quality strategies at all hospitals. There were no differences between participating hospitals in western and eastern European countries regarding the application of quality improvement strategies. Implementation varied per country and per quality improvement strategy, leaving considerable scope for progress in quality improvements. The results may contribute to benchmarking activities in European countries, and point to further areas of research to explore the relationship between the application of quality improvement strategies and actual hospital performance.

  1. Combined Training of One Cognitive and One Metacognitive Strategy Improves Academic Writing Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischgoll, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Academic writing is a challenging task. Expert writers apply various writing skills as they anticipate the reader's view of their text while paying attention to structure and content. Research in the high school setting shows that the acquisition of writing skills can be supported by single-strategy training. However, research in higher education is scarce. We tested whether the development of academic writing skills can also be effectively supported by training single strategies or even combined strategies. As metacognition is an important skill for advanced and adult learners, we focused in this study on the benefit of combined cognitive strategies with and without a metacognitive strategy. An experiment including three conditions was conducted (N = 60 German-speaking psychology undergraduates, M = 22.8, SD = 4.4), which lasted for three hours. Each group received a modeling intervention of a basic cognitive strategy on the application of text structure knowledge. Two groups received an additional modeling intervention with either a cognitive strategy treatment on text summarization or a metacognitive strategy treatment on self-monitoring the writing process. One group received no further strategy treatment. Prior knowledge and learning outcomes were measured with a specially developed test on academic writing skills. In addition, all participants wrote an abstract of an empirical article. We found that learners who received the additional self-monitoring strategy intervention benefited significantly more in terms of acquisition of academic writing skills and the quality of their texts than learners who did not receive this intervention. Thus, the results underline the importance of self-monitoring strategies in academic writing. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed.

  2. Combined Training of One Cognitive and One Metacognitive Strategy Improves Academic Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischgoll, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Academic writing is a challenging task. Expert writers apply various writing skills as they anticipate the reader’s view of their text while paying attention to structure and content. Research in the high school setting shows that the acquisition of writing skills can be supported by single-strategy training. However, research in higher education is scarce. We tested whether the development of academic writing skills can also be effectively supported by training single strategies or even combined strategies. As metacognition is an important skill for advanced and adult learners, we focused in this study on the benefit of combined cognitive strategies with and without a metacognitive strategy. An experiment including three conditions was conducted (N = 60 German-speaking psychology undergraduates, M = 22.8, SD = 4.4), which lasted for three hours. Each group received a modeling intervention of a basic cognitive strategy on the application of text structure knowledge. Two groups received an additional modeling intervention with either a cognitive strategy treatment on text summarization or a metacognitive strategy treatment on self-monitoring the writing process. One group received no further strategy treatment. Prior knowledge and learning outcomes were measured with a specially developed test on academic writing skills. In addition, all participants wrote an abstract of an empirical article. We found that learners who received the additional self-monitoring strategy intervention benefited significantly more in terms of acquisition of academic writing skills and the quality of their texts than learners who did not receive this intervention. Thus, the results underline the importance of self-monitoring strategies in academic writing. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed. PMID:26941671

  3. Location decision strategies for improving SMME business performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Barnard

    2011-12-01

    relationship between electricity tariffs and business performance. Employment and business performance attained the strongest positive relationship; indicating that business owners regarded employment as an important factor to consider when searching for suitable business premises. The relationship between location and business performance obtained the lowest positive correlation. Originality and value of the research: Research on South African SMMEs regarding location decisions and the specific factors identified in this study has not been done previously in South Africa. Therefore, because evidence exists that the macro-environmental factors influence location decisions to varying degrees, this study can provide SMME owners with insight into the factors influencing location choice. It is vital that business owners consider these factors as they could influence business performance, and ultimately, business survival. An increased awareness of the importance of the aspects discussed in this study could consequently lead to improved performance in the SMME sector.

  4. A TOTAL MANUFACTURING SOLUTIONS TECHNIQUE TO SELECT APPROPRIATE IMPROVEMENT STRATEGY: CASE STUDY OF A FOOTWEAR FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezahegn Tesfaye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Ethiopia is promoting the manufacturing sector to join the global market in a large scale. Due to its comparative advantages, the Ethiopian leather and leather products industry have been given due attention. To fully utilize such advantages, the country shifted its export items from hides/skins to footwear products. Nevertheless, the performance of the leather sector in general and footwear sub-sector in particular is far below the desired standards. The improvement strategies applied hitherto were mainly to tackle a small portion of their total problems. If the Ethiopian footwear companies have to become globally competitive, their entire business spectrum has to be assessed and appropriate improvement strategies must be selected. In this research, we used a Total manufacturing solutions (TMS technique to identify areas of improvement and improvement strategy of one of Ethiopian footwear companies. For this purpose, we conducted two surveys using structured questionnaire. The first survey was to test the TMS technique against the context of footwear industry. The result proved that the original TMS model can be used to measure the performance of footwear companies. The second survey was done to identify company's total problems, map its current position and select appropriate improvement strategy. The result revealed that the company has company-wide problems and its current position is a plodder. For plodders which have company-wide problems, the improvement strategy must include aggressive application of BPR; and the implementation of best practices to develop workers skills that encourages networking and promotion, a market-led manufacturing strategy, employee involvement and team work cultures. According to the findings of this research, we suggested that a BPR technique followed by a continuous improvement programme could be an appropriate improvement strategy for this company. The company requires long-term improvement

  5. Selection of Strategy Positioning and Formulation Strategies for Improving Business Performance of Bakery XYZ

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Yigal Allon; Toha, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Economic growth will increase competition among companies in industry, and it happen in Bandung area, with current growth in economic and tourism industry also influence competition level in culinary business in Bandung. Bakery XYZ, that already in Bandung since 1991 affected of the current competition in culinary business. Currently Bakery XYZ is facing decreasing sales volume due to increasing competitors. To improve its business performance, is required to analysis Bakery XYZ's business s...

  6. Improved Control Strategy for DFIG-based Wind Energy Conversion System during Grid Voltage Disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Rongwu

    of stator flux performances and its effects on the DFIG, the improved FOVC and high stability vector-based DPC control are proposed, respectively, to fast decay the transient flux and to improve dynamic responses. By using Bode diagram and root locus, the improved FOVC strategy is designed to fast decay...... and rotor current. The degraded performances of the DFIG may reduce the life time of the drive train, affect the system stability, and even destroy the power converters. To improve the system performance, stability and reliability, it must improve the control strategy for the DFIG experiencing non...... flux is affected by the control strategy of the rotor current and stator time constant. The stator transient flux is harmful to the DFIG, because it may cause oscillations of the electromagnetic torque, stator or rotor current, DC-link voltage, and stator active and reactive power. On the basis...

  7. Stochastic L-BFGS: Improved Convergence Rates and Practical Acceleration Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Renbo; Haskell, William Benjamin; Tan, Vincent Y. F.

    2018-03-01

    We revisit the stochastic limited-memory BFGS (L-BFGS) algorithm. By proposing a new framework for the convergence analysis, we prove improved convergence rates and computational complexities of the stochastic L-BFGS algorithms compared to previous works. In addition, we propose several practical acceleration strategies to speed up the empirical performance of such algorithms. We also provide theoretical analyses for most of the strategies. Experiments on large-scale logistic and ridge regression problems demonstrate that our proposed strategies yield significant improvements vis-\\`a-vis competing state-of-the-art algorithms.

  8. Aspects you should consider in your action plan when implementing an improvement strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Peter; Vinter, Otto

    2017-01-01

    Both ISO/IEC 15504 (SPICE) and ISO/IEC 33014 include a step in their improvement process called: Develop action plan. But which actions should you include, and are you sure that these actions cover all aspects? We have performed a thorough study of the change strategy literature that is the found......Both ISO/IEC 15504 (SPICE) and ISO/IEC 33014 include a step in their improvement process called: Develop action plan. But which actions should you include, and are you sure that these actions cover all aspects? We have performed a thorough study of the change strategy literature...... that is the foundation for the ten overall change strategies defined in ISO/IEC 33014. We have extracted statements from this material that represent generic actions recommended by the authors for each strategy. Through analytic induction we have then identified and validated eight aspects that you should consider when...... choosing your concrete actions for executing the strategy....

  9. Feedback providing improvement strategies and reflection on feedback use: Effects on students' writing motivation, process, and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhouwer, H.; Prins, F.J.; Stokking, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of feedback providing improvement strategies and a reflection assignment on students’ writing motivation, process, and performance. Students in the experimental feedback condition (n = 41) received feedback including improvement strategies, whereas students in the

  10. IMPROVING THE STUDENTS’ EFL WRITING ABILITY THROUGH “PUT YOURSELF IN THE PICTURE” STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Lukman Syafii

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This Action research was intended to improve the students’ EFL writing ability through “Put Yourself in the Picture” strategy. This research involved 33 first year managemen major of students A of Muhammadiyah University of Ponorogo in the academic year 2015/2016. This research was conducted in two cycles by following the procedures of the action research, namely, planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. Each cycle of the research encompassed three meetings. The data of the research were gathered through observation checklists, field notes, questionnaire, and portfolio. The findings of research showed that “Put Yourself in the Picture” strategy has proven effectively to improve the student’ writing ability. The improvement could be seen from the increase of the students’ average writing score. Besides, “Put Yourself in the Picture” strategy can increase the students’ participation during the process of writing. Key words: “Put Yourself in the Picture” strategy, writing ability

  11. A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huis Anita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address the problem of low hand hygiene (HH compliance. Which of these strategies are most effective and how they work is still unclear. Here we describe frequently used improvement strategies and related determinants of behaviour change that prompt good HH behaviour to provide a better overview of the choice and content of such strategies. Methods Systematic searches of experimental and quasi-experimental research on HH improvement strategies were conducted in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases from January 2000 to November 2009. First, we extracted the study characteristics using the EPOC Data Collection Checklist, including study objectives, setting, study design, target population, outcome measures, description of the intervention, analysis, and results. Second, we used the Taxonomy of Behavioural Change Techniques to identify targeted determinants. Results We reviewed 41 studies. The most frequently addressed determinants were knowledge, awareness, action control, and facilitation of behaviour. Fewer studies addressed social influence, attitude, self-efficacy, and intention. Thirteen studies used a controlled design to measure the effects of HH improvement strategies on HH behaviour. The effectiveness of the strategies varied substantially, but most controlled studies showed positive results. The median effect size of these strategies increased from 17.6 (relative difference addressing one determinant to 49.5 for the studies that addressed five determinants. Conclusions By focussing on determinants of behaviour change, we found hidden and valuable components in HH improvement strategies. Addressing only determinants such as knowledge, awareness, action control, and facilitation is not enough to change HH behaviour. Addressing combinations of different determinants showed better results. This indicates that we should be more creative in the application of

  12. Green biotechnology, nanotechnology and bio-fortification: perspectives on novel environment-friendly crop improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashveer, Shikha; Singh, Vikram; Kaswan, Vineet; Kaushik, Amit; Tokas, Jayanti

    2014-10-01

    Food insecurity and malnutrition are prominent issues for this century. As the world's population continues to increase, ensuring that the earth has enough food that is nutritious too will be a difficult task. Today one billion people of the world are undernourished and more than a third are malnourished. Moreover, the looming threat of climate change is exasperating the situation even further. At the same time, the total acreage of arable land that could support agricultural use is already near its limits, and may even decrease over the next few years due to salination and desertification patterns resulting from climate change. Clearly, changing the way we think about crop production must take place on multiple levels. New varieties of crops must be developed which can produce higher crop yields with less water and fewer agricultural inputs. Besides this, the crops themselves must have improved nutritional qualities or become biofortified in order to reduce the chances of 'hidden hunger' resulting from malnourishment. It is difficult to envision the optimum way to increase crop production using a single uniform strategy. Instead, a variety of approaches must be employed and tailored for any particular agricultural setting. New high-impact technologies such as green biotechnology, biofortification, and nanotechnology offer opportunities for boosting agricultural productivity and enhancing food quality and nutritional value with eco-friendly manner. These agricultural technologies currently under development will renovate our world to one that can comfortably address the new directions, our planet will take as a result of climate change.

  13. Genetic diversity and genomic strategies for improving drought and waterlogging tolerance in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliyodan, Babu; Ye, Heng; Song, Li; Murphy, MacKensie; Shannon, J Grover; Nguyen, Henry T

    2017-04-01

    Drought and its interaction with high temperature are the major abiotic stress factors affecting soybean yield and production stability. Ongoing climate changes are anticipated to intensify drought events, which will further impact crop production and food security. However, excessive water also limits soybean production. The success of soybean breeding programmes for crop improvement is dependent on the extent of genetic variation present in the germplasm base. Screening for natural genetic variation in drought- and flooding tolerance-related traits, including root system architecture, water and nitrogen-fixation efficiency, and yield performance indices, has helped to identify the best resources for genetic studies in soybean. Genomic resources, including whole-genome sequences of diverse germplasms, millions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and high-throughput marker genotyping platforms, have expedited gene and marker discovery for translational genomics in soybean. This review highlights the current knowledge of the genetic diversity and quantitative trait loci associated with root system architecture, canopy wilting, nitrogen-fixation ability, and flooding tolerance that contributes to the understanding of drought- and flooding-tolerance mechanisms in soybean. Next-generation mapping approaches and high-throughput phenotyping will facilitate a better understanding of phenotype-genotype associations and help to formulate genomic-assisted breeding strategies, including genomic selection, in soybean for tolerance to drought and flooding stress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. An educational strategy for improving knowledge about breast and cervical cancer prevention among Mexican middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; De León-Leal, Silvia; Vázquez-Martínez, Carlos Alberto; Farías-Calderón, Ana Gabriela; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Elizondo-Zapién, Rosa María; Hernandez-Hernandez, Dulce María; Garza-Moya, Rubén; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo Martín

    2015-01-01

    Prevention programs have not achieved the expected results in preventing mortality from breast and cervical cancer in Mexico. Therefore, we propose a complementary strategy. An educational strategy for high school students in Mexico (2011-2013) was designed (longitudinal design, two measurements and a single intervention). The postintervention assessment included: 1) knowledge acquired by students about cancer prevention and 2) The performance of the student as a health promoter in their household. The strategy was based on analysis of cases and developed in three sessions. An assessment tool was designed and validated (Test-Retest). The levels of knowledge according to the qualifications expected by chance were determined. Wilcoxon test compared results before and after intervention. An assessment instrument with 0.80 reliability was obtained. 831 high school students were analyzed. Wilcoxon rank-sum test showed a significant learning after the intervention (Z = - 2.64, p = 0.008) with improvement of levels of knowledge in a 154.5%. 49% of students had a good performance as health promoters. The learning in preventive measures is important to sensitize individuals to prevention campaigns against cancer. This strategy proved to improve the level of knowledge of students in an easy and affordable way.

  15. Single aortic clamping in coronary artery bypass surgery reduces cerebral embolism and improves neurocognitive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparovic, Hrvoje; Borojevic, Marko; Malojcic, Branko; Gasparovic, Kristina; Biocina, Bojan

    2013-10-01

    Aortic manipulation releases embolic material, thereby enhancing the probability of adverse neurologic outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We prospectively evaluated 59 patients undergoing CABG. Patients in the single (SC, n = 37) and multiple clamp (MC, n = 22) groups were comparable in relation to age and operative risk (p > 0.05). Neurocognitive evaluation consisted of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Color Trails Test A, the Grooved Pegboard test and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Data acquisition was performed preoperatively, early postoperatively and at the 4-month follow-up. Intraoperative transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring was used to quantify the embolic load in relation to different aortic clamping strategies. Preoperative neurocognitive results were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). The incidence of postoperative delirium was greater in the MC group but this failed to reach statistical significance (23% vs 8%, p = 0.14). SC patients had fewer embolization signals (270 ± 181 vs 465 ± 160, p < 0.0001). Early postoperative neurocognitive results were depressed in comparison to preoperative values in both groups (p < 0.05 for multiple comparisons). The magnitude of this cognitive depression was greater in the MC group (p < 0.05 for multiple comparisons). Preoperative levels of neurocognition were restored at follow-up in the SC group in all tests except the AVLT. A trend towards improvements in neurocognitive performances at follow-up was also observed in the MC group. Residual attention, motor skill and memory deficits were, however, documented with multiple tests. In conclusion, the embolic burden was significantly lower in the SC group. This TCD imaging outcome translated into fewer early cognition deficits and superior late restoration of function.

  16. Strategies to improve effectiveness of physical activity coaching systems: Development of personas for providing tailored feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterkamp, Reinoud; van Weering, Marit; Evering, R.M.H.; Tabak, Monique; Timmerman, Josien; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2017-01-01

    Mobile physical activity interventions can be improved by incorporating behavioural change theories. Relations between self-efficacy, stage of change, and physical activity are investigated, enabling development of feedback strategies that can be used to improve their effectiveness. A total of 325

  17. Alternative strategies to improve the beneficial effects of exercise throughout life : dietary and physiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Mankowski (Robert Tomasz)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract It is certain that the aging process leads to death, but decreasing the levels of pathology throughout life improves the quality of life and extends life span. Therefore, this dissertation focuses on alternative strategies that may contribute to improving the aging

  18. Proposed strategy for leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) during Hanford single-shell tank waste retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwatate, D.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-08

    This document proposes a strategy to address issues related to leakage from single-shell tanks (SSTs) during sluicing. A set of criteria are proposed to capture the relevant issues pertaining to leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM), and allow DOE-RL, the Contractor, Ecology, and Hanford Stakeholders to reach consensus on allowable leakage volumes (ALVs). Technical studies and findings that support the proposed strategy, and ALV criteria, are summarized and referenced. This document specifically addresses LDMM for SSTs at Hanford, Washington.

  19. The opportunity and strategy for quality and health-system improvement now and in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherar, Michael; Maley, Oonagh

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004, Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) has played a leadership role in linking funding to quality of care, and in using evidence and administrative and clinical data to drive performance and quality improvement. This article describes how CCO has used its cancer and renal health system strategies to establish an environment of continuous health system improvement. The article also describes how CCO's Corporate Strategy is driving organizational improvement: evolving CCO's capacity and capability to drive quality and value across healthcare settings, and its ability to advance broader health system transformation in support of cancer and renal patients. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  20. An Improved Modulation Strategy for the Three-Phase Z-Source Inverters (ZSIs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelhakim, Ahmed; Davari, Pooya; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    , as the added ST pulses are inserted inside the zero states. Hence, in this digest, an improved modulation strategy is proposed to enhance the performance of the three-phase ZSIs, including all the other improved topologies. The proposed modulation strategy, which is called high-boost-based modified space......Z-source inverters (ZSIs), compared to the two-stage architecture, i.e. boost-converter (BC)-fed voltage source inverter (VSI), embrace some interesting features, like the reduced size and complexity of the entire conversion system. Several research activities have been established to improve...

  1. Adoption of Medications in Substance Abuse Treatment: Priorities and Strategies of Single State Authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Traci; Kovas, Anne E.; Rutkowski, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has confirmed the effectiveness of medications, when used in conjunction with ongoing counseling, to treat substance abuse disorders. This article describes a national, mixed-methods research project designed to investigate single state authorities’ (SSAs) perceptions of adoption of evidence-based practices in substance abuse treatment. Results are focused specifically on medication-assisted treatment, one of five evidence-based practices defined by the National Quality Forum. Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) is an important and effective part of comprehensive care options available to clients who are chronically ill with alcohol and other drug disorders. Despite mounting clinical evidence and increased availability, overall rates of implementation and sustained adoption of medications to treat addiction remain limited. The results illustrate that the SSA representatives who fund public treatment programs believe MAT is a priority and worthy of system-wide implementation. Current strategies utilized by SSAs to support the adoption of MAT are detailed, as are barriers to adoption and implementation. PMID:21138199

  2. The role of message strategy in improving hand hygiene compliance rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald E

    2015-11-01

    Despite increased attention to hand hygiene over the past decade compliance rates remain relatively low. Although there have been a number of improvements in the science of hand hygiene, very little attention has been devoted to the messages that promote it. A total of 86 health care workers who are members of Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology chapters participated in an online evaluation of 6 message strategies. The participants evaluated the strategies on ease of understanding, believability, and whether the message strategies were likely to lead to increased handwashing. Of the 6 strategies--ego, social, sensory, routine, acute need, and ration--the social strategy was rated the most likely to lead to action. The sensory strategy was seen as not only least likely but also counterproductive. ICPs should add a social message strategy to communication programs promoting hand hygiene. Although further testing is needed, ego, routine, and acute need strategies show promise for tapping into motivations that lead to improved compliance. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SKIMMING AND SCANNING IN READING SKILL BY APPLYING METACOGNITIVE STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mariam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reading is one of the main four language skills that a learner needs to master in order to ensure success in learning English. To facilitate students in comprehending a text, the effective strategies should be used. One of the strategies is Meta-cognitive strategies. The objectives of the research are to identify students’ responses during learned process by using Meta-cognitive strategies and to investigate how high students’ improvement of skimming and scanning reading skill after learned by using Meta-cognitive strategies in recount text. Meta-cognitive strategies improve students to reflect on thought processes and to plan, monitor, and evaluate aspects of their learning. The participants were third semester of English department students of Islamic Education and Teacher Training Faculty of Walisongo State Islamic University.The reserch design was Classroom Action Research with 1 preliminary cycle and 2 cycles. This research was conducted from March, 2th 2015 until March, 21th 2015. Data collection technique was tests. Observations were done in each cycle. Tests form was given the students, they should answer 20 questions of multiple choice test. Then, the data were analyzed using mean (descriptive statistics to find out the improvements. Meta-cognitive strategies were applied in the teaching learning process by giving plan (giving task for students, monitoring, evaluating, and problem solving to the students. After collecting the data, the result showed the improvements of the students. Students’ average score in pre cycle test was 60. In the first cycle, the average score increased became 70. This score hadn’t met the minimum standard score yet 75. Therefore, second cycle was conducted. Students’ average score increased became 82.16. Students’ engagements also increased since the first cycle. Consequently, the objectives were reached. Based on the result, it could be concluded that Meta-cognitive strategy can improve the

  4. Improving Students’ Skimming and Scanning in Reading Skill by Applying Metacognitive Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mariam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reading is one of the main four language skills that a learner needs to master in order to ensure success in learning English. To facilitate students in comprehending a text, the effective strategies should be used. One of the strategies is Meta-cognitive strategies. The objectives of the research are to identify students’ responses during learned process by using Meta-cognitive strategies and to investigate how high students’ improvement of skimming and scanning reading skill after learned by using Meta-cognitive strategies in recount text. Meta-cognitive strategies improve students to reflect on thought processes and to plan, monitor, and evaluate aspects of their learning. The participants were third semester of English department students of Islamic Education and Teacher Training Faculty of Walisongo State Islamic University.The reserch design was Classroom Action Research with 1 preliminary cycle and 2 cycles. This research was conducted from March, 2th 2015 until March, 21th 2015. Data collection technique was tests. Observations were done in each cycle. Tests form was given the students, they should answer 20 questions of multiple choice test. Then, the data were analyzed using mean (descriptive statistics to find out the improvements. Meta-cognitive strategies were applied in the teaching learning process by giving plan (giving task for students, monitoring, evaluating, and problem solving to the students. After collecting the data, the result showed the improvements of the students. Students’ average score in pre cycle test was 60. In the first cycle, the average score increased became 70. This score hadn’t met the minimum standard score yet 75. Therefore, second cycle was conducted. Students’ average score increased became 82.16. Students’ engagements also increased since the first cycle. Consequently, the objectives were reached. Based on the result, it could be concluded that Meta-cognitive strategy can improve the

  5. Improving Precision of Proximity Ligation Assay by Amplified Single Molecule Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Rongqin; Nong, Rachel Yuan; Fredriksson, Simon; Landegren, Ulf; Nilsson, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Proximity ligation assay (PLA) has been proven to be a robust protein detection method. The technique is characterized by high sensitivity and specificity, but the assay precision is probably limited by the PCR readout. To investigate this potential limitation and to improve precision, we developed a digital proximity ligation assay for protein measurement in fluids based on amplified single molecule detection. The assay showed significant improvements in precision, and thereby also detection...

  6. An improved single-step lysis protocol to measure luciferase bioluminescence in Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasenkamp Sandra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report describes the optimization and evaluation of a simple single-step lysis protocol to measure luciferase bioluminescence from genetically modified Plasmodium falciparum. This protocol utilizes a modified commercial buffer to improve speed of assay and consistency in the bioluminescence signal measured by reducing the manipulation steps required to release the cytoplasmic fraction. The utility of this improved assay protocol is demonstrated in typical assays that explore absolute and temporal gene expression activity.

  7. A Simplified Semiquantitative Meal Bolus Strategy Combined with Single- and Dual-Hormone Closed-Loop Delivery in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Véronique; Haidar, Ahmad; Messier, Virginie; Legault, Laurent; Ladouceur, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2016-08-01

    Single- and dual-hormone closed-loop systems can improve glycemic control and have the potential to reduce carbohydrate-counting burden for patients with type 1 diabetes; however, simplification of meal insulin calculation should not compromise glycemic control. We compared in a randomized outpatient pilot trial: (1) a single-hormone closed-loop system accompanied with carbohydrate-content matched boluses versus accompanied with a simplified meal bolus strategy, and (2) a dual-hormone closed-loop system accompanied with carbohydrate-content matched boluses versus accompanied with a simplified meal bolus strategy. Carbohydrate-matched boluses were based on the participant's carbohydrate meal content estimation whereas the simplified strategy involved the selection, by participants, of a semi-quantitative meal carbohydrate-content size: snack, regular, large, or very large meal. Each participant also underwent sensor-augmented pump therapy. Basal insulin delivery was more aggressive with the simplified bolus. The primary outcome was mean sensor glucose level over a 15-h daytime period. Twelve participants were recruited (48.2 ± 16.0 years old; HbA1c 7.4% ± 0.9%) to compare the two bolus strategies during single- and dual-hormone closed-loop delivery. A similar mean sensor glucose level (15 h) was achieved with the carbohydrate-matched boluses and simplified strategy using single-hormone (median [interquartile]: 7.6 [7.2-8.1] vs. 8.0 [7.0-8.6] mmol/L; P = 0.90) and dual-hormone closed-loop systems (7.6 [6.7-9.1] vs. 7.0 [6.4-8.2] mmol/L; P = 0.08). Exploratory analyses showed that, as compared with sensor-augmented pump therapy, there was an increased time spent in hypoglycemia with the simplified strategy but not with the carbohydrate-matched boluses. Though the algorithm employed in this pilot study may lead to an increased risk for hypoglycemia, this strategy has the potential to reduce the carbohydrate-counting burden in patients with type

  8. Evaluation of an effective multifaceted implementation strategy for elective single-embryo transfer after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuwel, I A M; van Peperstraten, A M; Hulscher, M E J L; Kremer, J A M; Grol, R P T M; Nelen, W L D M; Hermens, R P M G

    2013-02-01

    What is the relationship between the rate of elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) and couples' exposure to different elements of a multifaceted implementation strategy? Additional elements in a multifaceted implementation strategy do not result in an increased eSET rate. A multifaceted eSET implementation strategy with four different elements is effective in increasing the eSET rate by 11%. It is unclear whether every strategy element contributes equally to the strategy's effectiveness. An observational study was performed among 222 subfertile couples included in a previously performed randomized controlled trial. Of the 222 subfertile couples included, 109 couples received the implementation strategy and 113 couples received standard IVF care. A multivariate regression analysis assessed the effectiveness of four different strategy elements on the decision about the number embryos to be transferred. Questionnaires evaluated the experiences of couples with the different elements. Of the couples who received the implementation strategy, almost 50% (52/109) were exposed to all the four elements of the strategy. The remaining 57 couples who received two or three elements of the strategy could be divided into two further classes of exposure. Our analysis demonstrated that additional elements do not result in an increased eSET rate. In addition to the physician's advice, couples rated a decision aid and a counselling session as more important for their decision to transfer one or two embryos, compared with a phone call and a reimbursement offer (P strategy does not always result in an increased effectiveness, which is in concordance with recent literature. This in-depth evaluation of a multifaceted intervention strategy could therefore help to modify strategies, by making them more effective and less expensive.

  9. Improving throughput of single-relay DF channel using linear constellation precoding

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2014-08-01

    In this letter, we propose a transmission scheme to improve the overall throughput of a cooperative communication system with single decode-and-forward relay. Symbol error rate and throughput analysis of the new scheme are presented to facilitate the performance comparison with the existing decode-and-forward relaying schemes. Simulation results are further provided to corroborate the analytical results. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Improved Control Strategy for T-type Isolated DC/DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Wang, Yanbo

    2017-01-01

    T-type isolated DC/DC converters have recently attracted attention due to their numerous advantages, including few components, low cost, and symmetrical operation of transformers. This study proposes an improved control strategy for increasing the efficiency of T-type isolated DC/DC converters....../DC converters. The operation principles and performances of T-type isolated DC/DC converters under the proposed control strategy are analyzed in detail and verified through the simulation and experimental results....

  11. Information Operations Versus Civilian Marketing and Advertising: A Comparative Analysis to Improve IO Planning and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    concepts, relevant to IO, which are known successful marketing practices. Successful marketing strategy includes the basic “ 4Ps of marketing ...OPERATIONS VERSUS CIVILIAN MARKETING AND ADVERTISING: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS TO IMPROVE IO PLANNING AND STRATEGY by Dan Chilton March 2008...REPORT DATE March 2008 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Information Operations Versus Civilian Marketing and

  12. Improving Undergraduates’ and Postgraduates’ Academic Writing Skills with Strategy Training and Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Wischgoll, Anke

    2017-01-01

    To improve text quality in higher education, training writing strategies (i.e., text structure application, summarization, or language use) and provision of feedback for revising (i.e., informative tutoring feedback or try-again feedback) were tested in combination. The aim was to establish whether first, strategy training affects academic writing skills that promote coherence, second, whether undergraduates and postgraduates benefit differently from feedback for revising, and third, whether ...

  13. What do primary care physicians and researchers consider the most important patient safety improvement strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensing Michel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it has been increasingly recognised that patient safety in primary care is important, little is known about the feasibility and effectiveness of different strategies to improve patient safety in primary care. In this study, we aimed to identify the most important strategies by consulting an international panel of primary care physicians and researchers. Methods A web-based survey was undertaken in an international panel of 58 individuals from eight countries with a strong primary care system. The questionnaire consisted of 38 strategies to improve patient safety. We asked the respondents whether these strategies were currently used in their own country, and whether they felt them to be important. Results Most of the 38 presented strategies were seen as important by a majority of the participants, but the use of strategies in daily practice varied widely. Strategies that yielded the highest scores (>70% regarding importance included a good medical record system (82% felt this was very important, while 83% said it was implemented in more than half of the practices, good telephone access (71% importance, 83% implementation, standards for record keeping (75% importance, 62% implementation, learning culture (74% importance, 10% implementation, vocational training on patient safety for GPs (81% importance, 24% implementation and the presence of a patient safety guideline (81% importance, 15% implementation. Conclusion An international panel of primary care physicians and researchers felt that many different strategies to improve patient safety were important. Highly important strategies with poor implementation included a culture that is positive for patient safety, education on patient safety for physicians, and the presence of a patient safety guideline.

  14. What do primary care physicians and researchers consider the most important patient safety improvement strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaal, Sander; Verstappen, Wim; Wensing, Michel

    2011-05-16

    Although it has been increasingly recognised that patient safety in primary care is important, little is known about the feasibility and effectiveness of different strategies to improve patient safety in primary care. In this study, we aimed to identify the most important strategies by consulting an international panel of primary care physicians and researchers. A web-based survey was undertaken in an international panel of 58 individuals from eight countries with a strong primary care system. The questionnaire consisted of 38 strategies to improve patient safety. We asked the respondents whether these strategies were currently used in their own country, and whether they felt them to be important. Most of the 38 presented strategies were seen as important by a majority of the participants, but the use of strategies in daily practice varied widely. Strategies that yielded the highest scores (>70%) regarding importance included a good medical record system (82% felt this was very important, while 83% said it was implemented in more than half of the practices), good telephone access (71% importance, 83% implementation), standards for record keeping (75% importance, 62% implementation), learning culture (74% importance, 10% implementation), vocational training on patient safety for GPs (81% importance, 24% implementation) and the presence of a patient safety guideline (81% importance, 15% implementation). An international panel of primary care physicians and researchers felt that many different strategies to improve patient safety were important. Highly important strategies with poor implementation included a culture that is positive for patient safety, education on patient safety for physicians, and the presence of a patient safety guideline.

  15. An investigation to find strategies to improve student nurses' maths skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kerri

    Being able to perform drug calculations accurately is an essential skill for nurses. Many studies, however, have demonstrated that nurses need to improve this area of their practice and in particular their mathematical skills. Several strategies have been implemented to develop the drug calculation skills of nurses, with mixed success. This article reports on a study that was carried out to investigate whether strategies implemented within a second-year pre-registration course were perceived by students to be helpful in improving their mathematical skills for drug calculations. The results demonstrated that students felt their mathematics and confidence improved as a result of these strategies. The students' evaluation of the learning strategy that they found most helpful in learning drug calculation gave a mixed result, indicating that students have differing learning styles and needs. The study also indicates that student nurses were able to integrate the mathematical skills into their nursing practice by having different strategies that allowed them to develop conceptual, mathematical and practical skills concurrently. The study recommends the implementation of integrated strategies to address drug calculation skills in student nurses, although further research is still required.

  16. Swarm Robots Search for Multiple Targets Based on an Improved Grouping Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qirong; Ding, Lu; Yu, Fangchao; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Yinghao; Tu, Haibo

    2017-03-14

    Swarm robots search for multiple targets in collaboration in unknown environments has been addressed in this paper. An improved grouping strategy based on constriction factors Particle Swarm Optimization is proposed. Robots are grouped under this strategy after several iterations of stochastic movements, which considers the influence range of targets and environmental information they have sensed. The group structure may change dynamically and each group focuses on searching one target. All targets are supposed to be found finally. Obstacle avoidance is considered during the search process. Simulation compared with previous method demonstrates the adaptability, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed strategy in multiple targets searching.

  17. Research on the control strategy of distributed energy resources inverter based on improved virtual synchronous generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Hai

    2017-08-22

    This paper focus on the power fluctuations of the virtual synchronous generator(VSG) during the transition process. An improved virtual synchronous generator(IVSG) control strategy based on feed-forward compensation is proposed. Adjustable parameter of the compensation section can be modified to achieve the goal of reducing the order of the system. It can effectively suppress the power fluctuations of the VSG in transient process. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy for distributed energy resources inverter, the simulation model is set up in MATLAB/SIMULINK platform and physical experiment platform is established. Simulation and experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed IVSG control strategy.

  18. Strategies to improve homing of mesenchymal stem cells for greater efficacy in stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi-Meshkin, Hojjat; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Bidkhori, Hamid Reza; Mirahmadi, Mahdi; Ahmadiankia, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    Stem/progenitor cell-based therapeutic approach in clinical practice has been an elusive dream in medical sciences, and improvement of stem cell homing is one of major challenges in cell therapy programs. Stem/progenitor cells have a homing response to injured tissues/organs, mediated by interactions of chemokine receptors expressed on the cells and chemokines secreted by the injured tissue. For improvement of directed homing of the cells, many techniques have been developed either to engineer stem/progenitor cells with higher amount of chemokine receptors (stem cell-based strategies) or to modulate the target tissues to release higher level of the corresponding chemokines (target tissue-based strategies). This review discusses both of these strategies involved in the improvement of stem cell homing focusing on mesenchymal stem cells as most frequent studied model in cellular therapies. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  19. Process Improvement Teams: A TQM Strategy for Improving Community College Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Robbie Lee; And Others

    The three principle elements of Total Quality Management (TQM) are a focus on customers; an attitude of continuous improvement of a system; and the involvement of everyone within an organization. At Delaware County Community College (DCCC) in Media, Pennsylvania, the first phase of implementing TQM focused on educating top management for the…

  20. An asymmetric PCR-based, reliable and rapid single-tube native DNA engineering strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Widely used restriction-dependent cloning methods are labour-intensive and time-consuming, while several types of ligase-independent cloning approaches have inherent limitations. A rapid and reliable method of cloning native DNA sequences into desired plasmids are highly desired. Results This paper introduces ABI-REC, a novel strategy combining asymmetric bridge PCR with intramolecular homologous recombination in bacteria for native DNA cloning. ABI-REC was developed to precisely clone inserts into defined location in a directional manner within recipient plasmids. It featured an asymmetric 3-primer PCR performed in a single tube that could robustly amplify a chimeric insert-plasmid DNA sequence with homologous arms at both ends. Intramolecular homologous recombination occurred to the chimera when it was transformed into E.coli and produced the desired recombinant plasmids with high efficiency and fidelity. It is rapid, and does not involve any operational nucleotides. We proved the reliability of ABI-REC using a double-resistance reporter assay, and investigated the effects of homology and insert length upon its efficiency. We found that 15 bp homology was sufficient to initiate recombination, while 25 bp homology had the highest cloning efficiency. Inserts up to 4 kb in size could be cloned by this method. The utility and advantages of ABI-REC were demonstrated through a series of pig myostatin (MSTN) promoter and terminator reporter plasmids, whose transcriptional activity was assessed in mammalian cells. We finally used ABI-REC to construct a pig MSTN promoter-terminator cassette reporter and showed that it could work coordinately to express EGFP. Conclusions ABI-REC has the following advantages: (i) rapid and highly efficient; (ii) native DNA cloning without introduction of extra bases; (iii) restriction-free; (iv) easy positioning of directional and site-specific recombination owing to formulated primer design. ABI-REC is a novel approach to

  1. An asymmetric PCR-based, reliable and rapid single-tube native DNA engineering strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Yanzhen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widely used restriction-dependent cloning methods are labour-intensive and time-consuming, while several types of ligase-independent cloning approaches have inherent limitations. A rapid and reliable method of cloning native DNA sequences into desired plasmids are highly desired. Results This paper introduces ABI-REC, a novel strategy combining asymmetric bridge PCR with intramolecular homologous recombination in bacteria for native DNA cloning. ABI-REC was developed to precisely clone inserts into defined location in a directional manner within recipient plasmids. It featured an asymmetric 3-primer PCR performed in a single tube that could robustly amplify a chimeric insert-plasmid DNA sequence with homologous arms at both ends. Intramolecular homologous recombination occurred to the chimera when it was transformed into E.coli and produced the desired recombinant plasmids with high efficiency and fidelity. It is rapid, and does not involve any operational nucleotides. We proved the reliability of ABI-REC using a double-resistance reporter assay, and investigated the effects of homology and insert length upon its efficiency. We found that 15 bp homology was sufficient to initiate recombination, while 25 bp homology had the highest cloning efficiency. Inserts up to 4 kb in size could be cloned by this method. The utility and advantages of ABI-REC were demonstrated through a series of pig myostatin (MSTN promoter and terminator reporter plasmids, whose transcriptional activity was assessed in mammalian cells. We finally used ABI-REC to construct a pig MSTN promoter-terminator cassette reporter and showed that it could work coordinately to express EGFP. Conclusions ABI-REC has the following advantages: (i rapid and highly efficient; (ii native DNA cloning without introduction of extra bases; (iii restriction-free; (iv easy positioning of directional and site-specific recombination owing to formulated primer design. ABI

  2. Modelling of marketing strategies for the single markets vs marketing strategy for the global market: Case study mobiExplore

    OpenAIRE

    Mate Perisic; Maljic Vinko; Neven Seric

    2010-01-01

    A successful treating of a single, national, market through new challenges of marketing management is notably different than treating of the global market. The paper provides the case study of Gideon Multimedia, IT firm from Croatia. The company’s main product is mobiExplore, touristic guide platform for mobile phones. The application could be adapted to different marketplaces - global and national, for different countries. Because of different dynamic of the growth of national mobile markets...

  3. Can combining different risk interventions into a single formulation contribute to improved cardiovascular disease risk reduction? The single pill of amlodipine/atorvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FD Richard Hobbs

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available FD Richard HobbsUniversity of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.Abstract: In order to prevent cardiovascular events, it is essential to effectively manage overall risk of cardiovascular disease. However, despite guideline recommendations to this effect, current management of the major, modifiable cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidemia is disconnected and patient adherence to therapy is poor. This is particularly important for patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, who are often prescribed multiple medications. The JEWEL study program investigated the use of single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin as a strategy to improve management of these patients. The JEWEL program consisted of two 16-week, international, openlabel, multicenter, titration-to-goal studies in patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. The two studies differed based on country of enrollment and certain tertiary endpoints, but the overall designs were very similar. Patients were enrolled from 255 centers across Canada and 13 European countries. The study was designed to assess the efficacy, safety, and utility of amlodipine/atorvastatin single pill therapy in a real-world setting. Patients were initiated at a dose of amlodipine 5 mg/atorvastatin 10 mg, unless previously treated, and were uptitrated as necessary. The primary efficacy parameter was the percentage of patients, at different levels of cardiovascular risk, achieving country-specific guideline-recommended target levels for blood pressure and lipids. A secondary analysis of efficacy measured attainment of the same single goal for blood pressure across all study participants (JEWEL I and II and the same single goal for LDL-C across all study participants (JEWEL I and II. The program utilized a newly developed questionnaire to gain better understanding of participants’ beliefs and behaviors towards medical treatment of their multiple risk factors. Approximately 2850

  4. Aspects you should consider in your action plan when implementing an improvement strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Peter; Vinter, Otto

    2017-01-01

    Both ISO/IEC 15504 (SPICE) and ISO/IEC 33014 include a step in their improvement process called: Develop action plan. But which actions should you include, and are you sure that these actions cover all aspects? We have performed a thorough study of the change strategy literature that is the found......Both ISO/IEC 15504 (SPICE) and ISO/IEC 33014 include a step in their improvement process called: Develop action plan. But which actions should you include, and are you sure that these actions cover all aspects? We have performed a thorough study of the change strategy literature...

  5. A Strategy for Improving US Middle School Student Mathematics Word Problem Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Valerie L.

    2004-01-01

    U.S. middle school students have difficulty understanding and solving mathematics word problems. Their mathematics performance on the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) is far below their international peers, and minority students are less likely than high socioeconomic status (SES) White/Asian students to be exposed to higher-level mathematics concepts. Research literature also indicates that when students use both In-School and Out-of-School knowledge and experiences to create authentic mathematics word problems, student achievement improves. This researcher developed a Strategy for improving mathematics problem solving performance and a Professional Development Model (PDM) to effectively implement the Strategy.

  6. Strategies for improving the solubility and metabolic stability of griseofulvin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, A B; Konotop, G; Hanafiah, N H M; Hammershøj, P; Raab, M S; Krämer, A; Clausen, M H

    2016-06-30

    We report two types of modifications to the natural product griseofulvin as strategies to improve solubility and metabolic stability: the conversion of aryl methyl ethers into aryl difluoromethyl ethers at metabolic hotspots and the conversion of the C-ring ketone into polar oximes. The syntheses of the analogues are described together with their solubility, metabolic half-life in vitro and antiproliferative effect in two cancer cell lines. We conclude that on balance, the formation of polar oximes is the most promising strategy for improving the properties of the analogues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Embracing technology? Using change management strategies to improve the use of continuous lateral rotation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulski, Pamela; Zantinge, Johanna; Abbott-McNeil, Deanna

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this quality improvement initiative was to improve the utilization of continuous lateral rotation therapy (CLRT) in a nine-bed community hospital ICU within the context of a nurse-driven protocol. Nursing focus groups, analyzed using a strength, weakness, opportunity, threat (SWOT) approach, resulted in the implementation of four interventions over seven weeks. Change management strategies guided all aspects of the project. Results showed a modest increase in the utilization of CLRT. This initiative demonstrates that change management strategies may assist with the incorporation of technology into nursing practice by increasing empowerment and creating an attachment to and responsibility for outcomes.

  8. Do cognitive training strategies improve motor and positive psychological skills development in soccer players? Insights from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Maamer; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Tod, David; Dellal, Alexandre; Hue, Olivier; Cheour, Foued; Taylor, Lee; Chamari, Karim

    2016-12-01

    Soccer players are required to have well-developed physical, technical and cognitive abilities. The present systematic review, adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, examined the effects of cognitive training strategies on motor and positive psychological skills development in soccer performance and identified the potential moderators of the "cognitive training-soccer performance" relationship. Thirteen databases were systematically searched using keywords related to psychological or cognitive training in soccer players. The review is based on 18 studies, employing 584 soccer players aged 7-39 years. Cognitive strategies, particularly imagery, appear to improve sports performance in soccer players. Regarding imagery, the combination of two different types of cognitive imagery training (i.e., cognitive general and cognitive specific) has a positive influence on soccer performance during training, whereas motivational imagery (i.e., motivational general-arousal, motivational general-mastery and motivational specific) enhance competition performance. Younger soccer players employ cognitive general and cognitive specific imagery techniques to a greater extent than older soccer players. Combined cognitive training strategies were more beneficial than a single cognitive strategy relative to motor skills enhancement in elite (particularly midfielders) and amateur (i.e., when practising complex and specific soccer skills in precompetitive period) soccer players. In conclusion, it appears that there are differences in cognitive/psychological training interventions, and their efficacy, according to whether they are directed towards training or competition, and the age, standard and playing position of the players.

  9. Improving Vehicle Ride and Handling Using LQG CNF Fusion Control Strategy for an Active Antiroll Bar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zulkarnain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a comparison of performance for an active antiroll bar (ARB system using two types of control strategy. First of all, the LQG control strategy is investigated and then a novel LQG CNF fusion control method is developed to improve the performances on vehicle ride and handling for an active antiroll bar system. However, the ARB system has to balance the trade-off between ride and handling performance, where the CNF consists of a linear feedback law and a nonlinear feedback law. Typically, the linear feedback is designed to yield a quick response at the initial stage, while the nonlinear feedback law is used to smooth out overshoots in the system output when it approaches the target reference. The half car model is combined with a linear single track model with roll dynamics which are used for the analysis and simulation of ride and handling. The performances of the control strategies are compared and the simulation results show the LQG CNF fusion improves the performances in vehicle ride and handling.

  10. Improved single particle potential for transport model simulations of nuclear reactions induced by rare isotope beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chang; Li Baoan

    2010-01-01

    Taking into account more accurately the isospin dependence of nucleon-nucleon interactions in the in-medium many-body force term of the Gogny effective interaction, new expressions for the single-nucleon potential and the symmetry energy are derived. Effects of both the spin (isospin) and the density dependence of nuclear effective interactions on the symmetry potential and the symmetry energy are examined. It is shown that they both play a crucial role in determining the symmetry potential and the symmetry energy at suprasaturation densities. The improved single-nucleon potential will be useful for more accurate simulation of nuclear reactions induced by rare-isotope beams within transport models.

  11. Unlocking the "black box" of practice improvement strategies to implement surgical safety checklists: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Brigid M; Hamilton, Kyra; Ball, Dianne; Lavin, Joanne; Gardiner, Therese; Withers, Teresa K; Marshall, Andrea P

    2017-01-01

    Compliance with surgical safety checklists (SSCs) has been associated with improvements in clinical processes such as antibiotic use, correct site marking, and overall safety processes. Yet, proper execution has been difficult to achieve. The objective of this study was to undertake a process evaluation of four knowledge translation (KT) strategies used to implement the Pass the Baton (PTB) intervention which was designed to improve utilization of the SSC. As part of the process evaluation, a logic model was generated to explain which KT strategies worked well (or less well) in the operating rooms of a tertiary referral hospital in Queensland, Australia. The KT strategies implemented included change champions/opinion leaders, education, audit and feedback, and reminders. In evaluating the implementation of these strategies, this study considered context, intervention and underpinning assumptions, implementation, and mechanism of impact. Observational and interview data were collected to assess implementation of the KT strategies relative to fidelity, feasibility, and acceptability. Findings from 35 structured observations and 15 interviews with 96 intervention participants suggest that all of the KT strategies were consistently implemented. Of the 220 staff working in the department, that is, nurses, anesthetists, and surgeons, 160 (72.7%) knew about the PTB strategies. Qualitative analysis revealed that implementation was generally feasible and acceptable. A barrier to feasibility was physician engagement. An impediment to acceptability was participants' skepticism about the ability of the KT strategies to effect behavioral change. Overall, results of this evaluation suggest that success of implementation was moderate. Given the probable impact of contextual factors, that is, team culture and the characteristics of participants, the KT strategies may need modification prior to widespread implementation.

  12. Investing in lean to improve basic capabilities: A strategy for system supply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga-Lill Carlsson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper describes the perceived effects of implementing lean production in a Swedish SME contract manufacturer. Especially focused are the effects on, and possible trade-offs between, cost-efficiency and flexibility. Design/methodology/approach: SME suppliers need basic capabilities of qualitative production performance which may then be stepping-stones to develop more system supplier capabilities for added customer value: leadership to manage systems and processes, SCM, communications and relations management. Development of stable production processes is seen as a way to reach stable basic performance, efficient and with higher resource utilization. Quality is a precursor to delivery performance as well as to cost reduction and flexibility. This is a longitudinal single case study of a SME supplier striving to become a system supplier. Two main sources of data collection are used: interviews and the main author’s presence as employee and business developer, participating in and following up the ongoing change process. Findings: Two specific findings appeared: (1 An initial effect was an important “eye-opener” for the balance between cost efficiency and flexibility in the organization. (2 Process orientation, as the basis of both lean and agile approaches, allows many improvements without any conflicts or trade-offs between these two goals. Stability in the production leads to increased controllability, initially resulting in both higher cost-efficiency and higher flexibility. As the organization develops however, strategic considerations relating to the chosen market strategy might occur: cost leadership or differentiation.    Research limitations/implications: These results reflect the experiences of one SME supplier and further studies are needed for generalizability. Originality/value: The study increases the understanding of how a SME may develop stable processes in its different supplier-customer contexts. The study

  13. Tools for improving feeding strategies in a SBR with several species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajardo, Pedro; Ramírez Cabrera, Héctor; Rodríguez, Julio C

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes feeding strategies in a sequential batch reactor (SBR) with the objective of reaching a given (low) substrate level as quickly as possible for a given volume of water. Inside the SBR, several species compete for a single substrate, which leads to a minimal time control problem in which the control variable is the feeding rate. Following Gajardo et al. (2008) SIAM J Control Optim 47(6):2827-2856, we allow the control variable to be a bounded measurable function of time combined with possible impulses associated with instantaneous dilutions. For this problem, the extremal trajectories of the singular arc type are characterized as the strategies used to maintain the substrate at a constant level. Since this optimization problem is difficult to solve, this characterization provides a valuable tool for investigating the optimality of various feeding strategies. Our aim is thus to illustrate the use of this tool by proposing potential optimal feeding strategies, which may then be compared with other more intuitive strategies. This aim was accomplished via several numerical experiments in which two specific strategies are compared.

  14. Novel strategy to improve vanillin tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances of Saccharomycere cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dao-Qiong; Jin, Xin-Na; Zhang, Ke; Fang, Ya-Hong; Wu, Xue-Chang

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a novel strategy for improving the vanillin tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Isogeneic diploid, triploid, and tetraploid S. cerevisiae strains were generated by genome duplication of haploid strain CEN.PK2-1C. Ploidy increments improved vanillin tolerance and diminished proliferation capability. Antimitotic drug methyl benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate (MBC) was used to introduce chromosomal aberrations into the tetraploid S. cerevisiae strain. Interestingly, aneuploid mutants with DNA contents between triploid and tetraploid were more resistant to vanillin and showed faster ethanol fermentation rates than all euploid strains. The physiological characteristics of these mutants suggest that higher bioconversion capacities of vanillin and ergosterol contents might contribute to improved vanillin tolerance. This study demonstrates that genome duplication and MBC treatment is a powerful strategy to improve the vanillin tolerance of yeast strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of soft scaffolding strategy to improve student’s creative thinking ability in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulsari, Novinta; Abdurrahman; Suyatna, Agus

    2017-11-01

    Student’s creative thinking ability in physics learning can be developed through a learning experience. However, many students fail to gain a learning experience because of the lack of teacher roles in providing assistance to students when they face learning difficulties. In this study, a soft scaffolding strategy developed to improve student’s creative thinking ability in physics, especially in optical instruments. The methods used were qualitative and quantitative. The soft scaffolding strategy developed was called the 6E Soft Scaffolding Strategy where 6E stands for Explore real-life problems, Engage students with web technology, Enable experiment using analogies, Elaborate data through multiple representations, Encourage questioning, and Ensure the feedback. The strategy was applied to 60 students in secondary school through cooperative learning. As a comparison, conventional strategies were also applied to 60 students in the same school and grade. The result of the study showed that the soft scaffolding strategy was effective in improving student’s creative thinking ability.

  16. An Improved Current Control Strategy for a Grid-Connected Inverter under Distorted Grid Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoc Bao Lai; Kyeong-Hwa Kim

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an improved current control strategy for a three-phase grid-connected inverter under distorted grid conditions. The main challenge associated with the grid-connected inverter in distributed generation (DG) systems is to maintain the harmonic contents in output current below the specified values even when the grid is subject to uncertain disturbances such as harmonic distortion. To overcome such a challenge, an improved current control scheme is proposed for a grid-connecte...

  17. Proposed strategy for leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation during Hanford single-shell tank waste retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1996-07-18

    The objective of this document is to propose a strategy for addressing applicable LDMM-related criteria in order to determine an allowable leakage volume for SSTs targeted for waste retrieval using sluicing. A strategy is required to work through the individual ALV criterion (and related issues) in a prioritized,orderly, and efficient manner. All components of the strategy are based upon LDMM-related issues, functions and requirements,and technology alternatives.

  18. Improving Reading Comprehension Skills through Reading Strategies Used by a Group of Foreign Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Gómez Torres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A research study included the examination and implementation of a variety of strategies in order to improve students’ reading comprehension skills in a foreign language. Reading is the process of identification, interpretation and perception of written or printed material. Comprehension is the understanding of the meaning of written material and involves the conscious strategies that lead to understanding. The reading strategies are conscious techniques or unconscious processes employed by readers in their attempt to make sense of the written text (Barnett as cited by Gascoigne, 2005. Thus, the main goal of this piece of research was to implement some reading strategies in 2 elementary courses in EFL in order to obtain better results in the middle and long term in class and on ECAES, MICHIGAN, MELICET and PET tests.

  19. Strategies for improving attendance at medical grand rounds at an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Paul S; Litin, Scott C; Sowden, Monica L; Habermann, Thomas M; LaRusso, Nicholas F

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate, in this before-and-after study, the results of 5 strategies for improving attendance at medical grand rounds at a tertiary care academic medical center. The strategies included (1) using electronic card readers to improve understanding of attendance patterns, (2) conducting yearly needs assessment surveys, (3) developing sessions of topical interest, (4) increasing formal participation by residents and faculty researchers, and (5) enhancing publicity. Attendance at medical grand rounds by Mayo Clinic faculty, fellows, residents, and others was measured by card readers between 1998 and 2001. After implementation of the 5 strategies, the mean +/- SD attendance (as measured by card readers) at medical grand rounds increased 39% from 99.0 +/- 24.6 persons in 1998 to 137.4 +/- 25.2 persons in 2001 (P attendance at medical grand rounds at an academic medical center.

  20. Improved Control Strategy for DFIG Wind Turbines for Low Voltage Ride Through

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanxia Zhu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved control strategy for both the rotor side converter (RSC and grid side converter (GSC of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG-based wind turbine (WT system to enhance the low voltage ride through (LVRT capability. Within the proposed control strategy, the RSC control introduces transient feed-forward compensation terms to mitigate the high frequency harmonic components and reduce the surge in the rotor currents. The proposed GSC control scheme also introduces a compensation term reflecting the instantaneous variation of the output power of the rotor side converter with consideration of the instantaneous power of grid filter impendence to keep the dc-link voltage nearly constant during the grid faults. To provide precise control, non-ideal proportional resonant (PR controllers for both the RSC and GSC current regulation are employed to further improve dynamic performance. Simulations performed in Matlab/Simulink verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  1. Strategies to improve adherence to medications for cardiovascular diseases in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laba, Tracey-Lea; Bleasel, Jonathan; Brien, Jo-Anne; Cass, Alan; Howard, Kirsten; Peiris, David; Redfern, Julie; Salam, Abdul; Usherwood, Tim; Jan, Stephen

    2013-09-10

    Medication non-adherence poses a major barrier to reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden globally, and is increasingly recognised as a socioeconomically determined problem. Strategies promoting CVD medication adherence appear of moderate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Potentially, 'one-size-fits-all' measures are ill-equipped to address heterogeneous adherence behaviour between social groups. This review aims to determine the effects of strategies to improve adherence to CVD-related medications in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Randomised/quasi-randomised controlled trials (1996-June 2012, English), testing strategies to increase adherence to CVD-related medications prescribed to adult patients who may experience health inequity (place of residence, occupation, education, or socioeconomic position) were reviewed. 772 abstracts were screened, 111 full-text articles retrieved, and 16 full-text articles reporting on 14 studies, involving 7739 patients (age range 41-66 years), were included. Methodological and clinical heterogeneity precluded quantitative data synthesis. Studies were thematically grouped by targeted outcomes; underlying interventions and policies were classified using Michie et al.'s Behaviour Change Wheel. Contrasting with patient or physician/practice strategies, those simultaneously directed at patients and physicians/practices resulted in statistically significant improvements in relative adherence (16-169%). Comparative cost and cost-effectiveness analyses from three studies did not find cost-saving or cost-effective strategies. Unlike much current evidence in general populations, promising evidence exists about what strategies improve adherence in disadvantaged groups. These strategies were generally complex: simultaneously targeting patients and physicians; addressing social, financial, and treatment-related adherence barriers; and supported by broader guidelines, regulatory and communication-based policies. Given their

  2. Improving skilled attendance at delivery: a preliminary report of the SAFE strategy development tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jacqueline; Hussein, Julia; Jentsch, Birgit; Scotland, Graham; Bullough, Colin; Graham, Wendy

    2003-12-01

    Increasing the proportion of births with skilled attendance is advocated by international agencies as a key factor in reducing maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. The SAFE Strategy Development Tool is designed to enable policy makers and planners to gather and interpret information systematically to develop strategies for improving skilled attendance at birth. Five modules were developed with partners in Bangladesh, Ghana, Jamaica, Malawi, and Mexico to guide the identification of problems related to skilled attendance, the collection of primary and secondary evidence, and the synthesis of this evidence to formulate strategies. The involvement of key players, including policy makers, is emphasized throughout the application of the tool and is vital to its success. The SAFE Strategy Development Tool was field tested in five collaborating countries. The methods employed by this tool were found to be feasible and produced evidence that will be useful in the formulation of strategies. Application of the tool can be completed in 3 to 5 months, and was estimated to cost between US$12,938 and US$15,627 for applications at district or subdistrict level. The final strategy options developed from the findings were presented at an international workshop in Aberdeen, Scotland, in February 2003. The SAFE Strategy Development Tool is now available to governments, organizations, and institutions involved in the implementation of maternal health programs.

  3. Improving Push Belt CVT Efficiency by Control Strategies Based on New Variator Wear Insight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Maaike; van Drogen, Mark; Brandsma, Arjen

    2004-01-01

    Developments in clamping force control for the push belt Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) aim at increased efficiency in combination with improved robustness. Current control strategies attempt to prevent macro slip between elements and pulleys at all times for maximum robustness. In order

  4. Applying the Think-Aloud Strategy to Improve Reading Comprehension of Science Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    This research was designed to investigate the effectiveness of using the think-aloud strategy to improve the reading comprehension in the content area of science. Based on state standards assessments, many early elementary grade students who were considered fluent readers struggled with evaluative science comprehension. In this quasi-experimental…

  5. Improving Reading Comprehension Skills with Children's Books through Metacognitive Strategy: The Turkish Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çer, Erkan; Sahin, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of metacognitive strategy in improving reading comprehension skills through children's literature of literary quality. A quasi-experimental study was carried out in a private secondary school in a city located Middle Black Sea region of Turkey. Two classes were randomly chosen as the study group, and…

  6. Combined Fluency and Cognitive Strategies Instruction Improves Mathematics Achievement in Early Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Martha; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Stroud, Rena; Royer, James M.

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-eight second grade students from two states (Georgia and Massachusetts) participated in an experiment in which they were randomly assigned to either (1) a computer program designed to increase fluency in addition and subtraction, (2) a program designed to improve cognitive strategy use for addition and subtraction, (3) a…

  7. Food for rumination : developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of thesis entitled: “Food for Rumination – Developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves”, Laura Webb Veal calves are typically fed high levels of milk replacer supplemented with solid feed, which tends to contain a relatively small roughage

  8. Differentiating for Struggling Readers and Writers: Improving Motivation and Metacognition through Multisensory Methods & Explicit Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walet, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the issue of struggling readers and writers, and offers suggestions to help teachers increase struggling students' motivation and metacognition. Suggestions include multisensory methods that make use of the visual, auditory and kinesthetic learning pathways, as well as explicit strategy instruction to improve students' ability…

  9. Improving prediction models with new markers: A comparison of updating strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Nieboer (Daan); Y. Vergouwe (Yvonne); D. Ankerst (Donna); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: New markers hold the promise of improving risk prediction for individual patients. We aimed to compare the performance of different strategies to extend a previously developed prediction model with a new marker. Methods: Our motivating example was the extension of a risk

  10. Implicit strategies to improve work and well-being: the social dimensions of organizational excellence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Scheppingen, A.R. van

    2010-01-01

    Significant improvements in health and well-being can be created as implicit by-products of activities from agents other than health professionals, with each of these agents having their own prime (i.e. parallel) interests. For this reason, more relevant strategies and interventions for promoting

  11. Serotonin Transporter Knockout Rats Show Improved Strategy Set-Shifting and Reduced Latent Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonkes, Lourens J. P.; van de Vondervoort, Ilse I. G. M.; de Leeuw, Mark J. C.; Wijlaars, Linda P.; Maes, Joseph H. R.; Homberg, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT[superscript -/-]) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility, extradimensional strategy set-shifting…

  12. Strategies for improving the solubility and metabolic stability of griseofulvin analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Asger Bjørn; Konotop, G.; Hanafiah, N. H. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report two types of modifications to the natural product griseofulvin as strategies to improve solubility and metabolic stability: the conversion of aryl methyl ethers into aryl difluoromethyl ethers at metabolic hotspots and the conversion of the C-ring ketone into polar oximes. The syntheses...

  13. Food for rumination : developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of thesis entitled: “Food for Rumination – Developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves”, Laura Webb

    Veal calves are typically fed high levels of milk replacer supplemented with solid feed, which tends to contain a relatively small roughage component.

  14. Using the Think-Pair-Share Strategy to Improve Students' Speaking Ability at STAIN Ternate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Abdurrahman Hi

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to improve students' English speaking ability by using the think-pair-share strategy designed in CAR. The findings in Cycle 1 was unsuccessful because the students' average scores was 74.18 and classroom atmospheres were "mid" that did not meet the criteria of success. Therefore, the implementation of the…

  15. Speaking and Writing, Strange Bedfellows: Some Strategies for Improving the Teaching of Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Leroy

    1995-01-01

    Explores: (1) expression in talking, particularly as it expands the writing process; (2) spoken traces of culture filtering into writing; and (3) richness and color of expression as writing motivators. Describes four strategies for improving writing instruction that recognize the orality of composition and the duality of language. (SR)

  16. Improved control strategy for the three-phase grid-connected inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Zhilei; Xiao, Lan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    An improved control strategy for the three-phase grid-connected inverter with space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) is proposed. When the grid current contains harmonics, the d- and q-axis grid currents will be interacted, and then the waveform quality of the grid current will be poorer...

  17. Detective Questions: A Strategy for Improving Inference-Making in Children With Mild Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fernández, Gracia

    2015-01-01

    One of the most frequent problems in reading comprehension is the difficulty in making inferences from the text, especially for students with mild disabilities (i.e., children with learning disabilities or with high-functioning autism). It is essential, therefore, that educators include the teaching of reading strategies to improve their students'…

  18. An efficiency improved single-phase PFC converter for electric vehicle charger applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Dexuan; Tang, Yi; Jin, Chi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency improved single-phase power factor correction (PFC) converter with its target application to plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging systems. The proposed PFC converter features sinusoidal input current, three-level output characteristic, and wide range...... of output DC voltage. Moreover, the involved DC/DC buck conversion stage may only need to convert partial input power rather than full scale of input power, and therefore the system overall efficiency can be much improved. Through proper control of the buck converter, it is also possible to mitigate...... the double-line frequency ripple power that is inherent in a single-phase AC/DC system. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of this converter....

  19. Teachers' implementation of gender-inclusive instructional strategies in single-sex and mixed-sex science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lesley H.; Rennie, Léonie J.

    2002-09-01

    Debate continues over the benefits, or otherwise, of single-sex classes in science and mathematics, particularly for the performance of girls. Previous research and analyses of the circumstances surrounding the implementation of single-sex classes warn that the success of the strategy requires due consideration of the nature of the instructional environment for both boys and girls, together with appropriate support for the teachers involved. This article reports the circumstances under which teachers were able to implement gender-inclusive strategies in single-sex science classes in coeducational high schools and documents some of the difficulties faced. The study was part of the Single-Sex Education Pilot Project (SSEPP) in ten high schools in rural and urban Western Australia. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered during the project from teachers, students and classroom observations. Overall, it was apparent that single-sex grouping created environments in which teachers could implement gender-inclusive science instructional strategies more readily and effectively than in mixed-sex settings. Teachers were able to address some of the apparent shortcomings of the students' previous education (specifically, the poor written and oral communication of boys and the limited experience of girls with 'hands-on' activities and open-ended problem solving). Further, in same-sex classrooms, sexual harassment which inhibited girls' learning was eliminated. The extent to which teachers were successful in implementing gender-inclusive instructional strategies, however, depended upon their prior commitment to the SSEPP as a whole, and upon the support or obstacles encountered from a variety of sources, including parents, the community, students, and non-SSEPP teachers.

  20. Effectiveness of Quality Improvement Strategies for the Management of CKD: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Samuel A; Bell, Chaim M; Chertow, Glenn M; Shah, Prakesh S; Shojania, Kaveh; Wald, Ron; Harel, Ziv

    2017-10-06

    Quality improvement interventions have enhanced care for other chronic illnesses, but their effectiveness for patients with CKD is unknown. We sought to determine the effects of quality improvement strategies on clinical outcomes in adult patients with nondialysis-requiring CKD. We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials, searching Medline and the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care database from January of 2003 to April of 2015. Eligible studies evaluated one or more of 11 prespecified quality improvement strategies, and prespecified study outcomes included at least one process of care measure, surrogate outcome, or hard clinical outcome. We used a random effects model to estimate the pooled risk ratio (RR; dichotomous data) or the mean difference (continuous data). We reviewed 15 patient-level randomized trials ( n =3298 patients), and six cluster-randomized trials ( n =30,042 patients). Quality improvement strategies reduced dialysis incidence (seven trials; RR, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.74 to 0.97) and LDL cholesterol concentrations (four trials; mean difference, -17.6 mg/dl; 95% CI, -28.7 to -6.5), and increased the likelihood that patients received renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (nine trials; RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.27). We did not observe statistically significant effects on mortality, cardiovascular events, eGFR, glycated hemoglobin, and systolic or diastolic BP. Quality improvement interventions yielded significant beneficial effects on three elements of CKD care. Estimates of the effectiveness of quality improvement strategies were limited by study number and adherence to quality improvement principles. This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2017_09_06_CJASNPodcast_17_10.mp3. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. An Oxygen Scavenging System for Improvement of Dye Stability in Single-Molecule Fluorescence Experiments☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Colin Echeverría; Marshall, R. Andrew; Puglisi, Joseph D.

    2008-01-01

    The application of single-molecule fluorescence techniques to complex biological systems places demands on the performance of single fluorophores. We present an enzymatic oxygen scavenging system for improved dye stability in single-molecule experiments. We compared the previously described protocatechuic acid/protocatechuate-3,4-dioxygenase system to the currently employed glucose oxidase/catalase system. Under standardized conditions, we observed lower dissolved oxygen concentrations with the protocatechuic acid/protocatechuate-3,4-dioxygenase system. Furthermore, we observed increased initial lifetimes of single Cy3, Cy5, and Alexa488 fluorophores. We further tested the effects of chemical additives in this system. We found that biological reducing agents increase both the frequency and duration of blinking events of Cy5, an effect that scales with reducing potential. We observed increased stability of Cy3 and Alexa488 in the presence of the antioxidants ascorbic acid and n-propyl gallate. This new O2-scavenging system should have wide application for single-molecule fluorescence experiments. PMID:17921203

  2. [Transumbilical single-port laparoscopy combined with improved double hernia needles for pediatric hydrocele].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jin-Chun; Xue, Wen-Yong; Li, Suo-Lin; Lu, Bao-Sai; Jia, Jiang-Hua; Zhang, Yan-Ping; DU, Lei; Li, Meng; Li, Wei

    2016-09-01

    To compare the clinical effect of transumbilical single-port laparoscopy combined with improved double hernia needles with that of traditional open surgery in the treatment of hydrocele in children. We retrospectively analyzed 35 cases (54 sides) of pediatric hydrocele treated by transumbilical single-port laparoscopy combined with improved double hernia needles (laparoscopy group). We recorded the operation time, intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay, scrotal edema, and postoperative complications and compared them with those of another 46 cases (58 sides) treated by traditional open surgery (open surgery group) during the same period. The laparoscopy group showed a significantly shorter operation time, less intraoperative blood loss, milder scrotal edema, and fewer hospital days than the open surgery group (all P0.05). Subcutaneous emphysema developed in 2 patients in the laparoscopy group, which disappeared after 1-3 days of oxygen inhalation and other symptomatic treatment, while scrotal hematoma occurred in 1 and incision fat liquefaction in 2 patients in the open surgery group 3 days postoperatively, which healed after debridement suture and daily dressing, respectively. The patients were followed up for 3-6 months, which revealed no late complications in the laparoscopy group but 1 case of unilateral recurrence and 2 cases of offside recurrence in the open surgery group, all cured by laparoscopic internal ring ligation. Transumbilical single-port laparoscopy combined with improved double hernia needles is superior to traditional open surgery for the treatment of pediatric hydrocele and therefore deserves clinical generalization.

  3. A peptide-retrieval strategy enables significant improvement of quantitative performance without compromising confidence of identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chengjian; Shen, Shichen; Sheng, Quanhu; Shyr, Yu; Qu, Jun

    2017-01-30

    Reliable quantification of low-abundance proteins in complex proteomes is challenging largely owing to the limited number of spectra/peptides identified. In this study we developed a straightforward method to improve the quantitative accuracy and precision of proteins by strategically retrieving the less confident peptides that were previously filtered out using the standard target-decoy search strategy. The filtered-out MS/MS spectra matched to confidently-identified proteins were recovered, and the peptide-spectrum-match FDR were re-calculated and controlled at a confident level of FDR≤1%, while protein FDR maintained at ~1%. We evaluated the performance of this strategy in both spectral count- and ion current-based methods. >60% increase of total quantified spectra/peptides was respectively achieved for analyzing a spike-in sample set and a public dataset from CPTAC. Incorporating the peptide retrieval strategy significantly improved the quantitative accuracy and precision, especially for low-abundance proteins (e.g. one-hit proteins). Moreover, the capacity of confidently discovering significantly-altered proteins was also enhanced substantially, as demonstrated with two spike-in datasets. In summary, improved quantitative performance was achieved by this peptide recovery strategy without compromising confidence of protein identification, which can be readily implemented in a broad range of quantitative proteomics techniques including label-free or labeling approaches. We hypothesize that more quantifiable spectra and peptides in a protein, even including less confident peptides, could help reduce variations and improve protein quantification. Hence the peptide retrieval strategy was developed and evaluated in two spike-in sample sets with different LC-MS/MS variations using both MS1- and MS2-based quantitative approach. The list of confidently identified proteins using the standard target-decoy search strategy was fixed and more spectra/peptides with less

  4. Development of a tailored strategy to improve postpartum hemorrhage guideline adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Suzan M; Woiski, Mallory D; Grol, Richard P; Vandenbussche, Frank P H A; Hulscher, Marlies E J L; Scheepers, Hubertina C J; Hermens, Rosella P M G

    2018-02-08

    Despite the introduction of evidence based guidelines and practical courses, the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage shows an increasing trend in developed countries. Substandard care is often found, which implies an inadequate implementation in high resource countries. We aimed to reduce the gap between evidence-based guidelines and clinical application, by developing a strategy, tailored to current barriers for implementation. The development of the implementation strategy consisted of three phases, supervised by a multidisciplinary expert panel. In the first phase a framework of the strategy was created, based on barriers to optimal adherence identified among professionals and patients together with evidence on effectiveness of strategies found in literature. In the second phase, the tools within the framework were developed, leading to a first draft. In the third phase the strategy was evaluated among professionals and patients. The professionals were asked to give written feedback on tool contents, clinical usability and inconsistencies with current evidence care. Patients evaluated the tools on content and usability. Based on the feedback of both professionals and patients the tools were adjusted. We developed a tailored strategy to improve guideline adherence, covering the trajectory of the third trimester of pregnancy till the end of the delivery. The strategy, directed at professionals, comprehending three stop moments includes a risk assessment checklist, care bundle and time-out procedure. As patient empowerment tools, a patient passport and a website with patient information was developed. The evaluation among the expert panel showed all professionals to be satisfied with the content and usability and no discrepancies or inconsistencies with current evidence was found. Patients' evaluation revealed that the information they received through the tools was incomplete. The tools were adjusted accordingly to the missing information. A usable, tailored

  5. Improving text comprehension strategies in upper primary school children: a design experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Corte, E; Verschaffel, L; Van De Ven, A

    2001-12-01

    With respect to the acquisition of competence in reading, new standards for primary education stress more than before the importance of learning and teaching cognitive and metacognitive strategies that facilitate text comprehension. Therefore, there is a need to design a research-based instructional approach to strategic reading comprehension. The design experiment aimed at developing, implementing and evaluating a research-based, but also practically applicable learning environment for enhancing skilled strategy use in upper primary school children when reading a text. Four text comprehension strategies (activating prior knowledge, clarifying difficult words, making a schematic representation of the text, and formulating the main idea) and a metacognitive strategy (regulating one's own reading process) were trained through a variety of highly interactive instructional techniques, namely modelling, whole class discussion, and small group work in the format of reciprocal teaching. Participants in the study were four experimental 5th grade classes (79 children) and eight comparable control classes (149 pupils). The effects of the learning environment were measured using a pretest-post-test-retention design. Multilevel hierarchical linear regression models were used to analyse the quantitative data of a Reading Strategy Test, a standardised Reading Comprehension Test, a Reading Attitude Scale, a Transfer Test and an interview about strategy use during reading. The data of the Reading Strategy Test, the Transfer Test and the interviews about strategy use showed that the experimental group out-performed the control group in terms of the strategy adoption and application during text reading. Whilst the experimental group also scored higher on the Reading Comprehension Test than the control group, the difference was not significant. This design experiment shows that it is possible to foster pupils' use and transfer of strategic reading comprehension skills in regular

  6. Research on Improved Control Strategy for STATCOM Based on Virtual Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast and accurate detection of reactive current is the precondition for the realization of static synchronous compensator (STATCOM reactive power compensation and harmonic suppression. Aiming at deviation and delay of the traditional reactive current detection algorithm with phase-locked loop (PLL and low-pass filter (LPF of STATCOM, a novel improved reactive current detection algorithm without PLL is proposed, in which the virtual matrix (VM is built to replace the original PLL, and improved current average value filter is used to realize the function of LPF, so as to improve the real-time performance and robustness of reactive current detection. The realization process of VM detection method is derived in this paper, and improved control strategy for STATCOM is designed based on the VM detection method. Simulation analysis of the proposed detection algorithm and control strategy is conducted in Matlab platform so as to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the control strategy. The VM detection has the advantages of simple structure, fast response and easy for digital realization, which provides reference for the improvement of reactive power compensation precision for STATCOM.

  7. A Single Bout of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Improves Motor Skill Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statton, Matthew A.; Encarnacion, Marysol; Celnik, Pablo; Bastian, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exercise is associated with improved performance on a variety of cognitive tasks including attention, executive function, and long-term memory. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that even a single bout of aerobic exercise can lead to immediate improvements in declarative learning and memory, but less is known about the effect of exercise on motor learning. Here we sought to determine the effect of a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on motor skill learning. In experiment 1, we investigated the effect of moderate aerobic exercise on motor acquisition. 24 young, healthy adults performed a motor learning task either immediately after 30 minutes of moderate intensity running, after running followed by a long rest period, or after slow walking. Motor skill was assessed via a speed-accuracy tradeoff function to determine how exercise might differentially affect two distinct components of motor learning performance: movement speed and accuracy. In experiment 2, we investigated both acquisition and retention of motor skill across multiple days of training. 20 additional participants performed either a bout of running or slow walking immediately before motor learning on three consecutive days, and only motor learning (no exercise) on a fourth day. We found that moderate intensity running led to an immediate improvement in motor acquisition for both a single session and on multiple sessions across subsequent days, but had no effect on between-day retention. This effect was driven by improved movement accuracy, as opposed to speed. However, the benefit of exercise was dependent upon motor learning occurring immediately after exercise–resting for a period of one hour after exercise diminished the effect. These results demonstrate that moderate intensity exercise can prime the nervous system for the acquisition of new motor skills, and suggest that similar exercise protocols may be effective in improving the outcomes of movement rehabilitation

  8. Improving Care for Depression & Suicide Risk in Adolescents: Innovative Strategies for Bringing Treatments to Community Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Miranda, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on interventions and services for depression and suicide prevention among adolescents, with the goals of placing this science within the context of current changing health care environments and highlighting innovative models for improving health and mental health. We examine the: challenges and opportunities offered by new initiatives and legislation designed to transform the U.S. health and mental healthcare systems; summarize knowledge regarding the treatment of depression and suicidality/self-harm in adolescents; and describe innovative models for partnering with health systems and communities. This review demonstrates that treatment models and service delivery strategies are currently available for increasing evidence-based care, particularly for depression, and concludes with recommendations for future research and quality improvement initiatives aimed at inspiring additional efforts to put science to work, bridge science and community practice, and develop strategies for partnering with communities to improve care, mental health, and well-being among adolescents. PMID:24437432

  9. Improvement of workíng environment - from a grass-root strategy to institutionalized professionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Improvement of working environment as a tool to promote sustainable development - from a grass-root strategy to institutionalized professionalism. It is now more than 25 years since substitution of organic solvents started to be considered as a meaningful way in Denmark to reduce harmful effects...... on workers. During that period different groups of actors have been involved, new institutions to improve working environment have emerged, and legislation has been changed. The paper will describe the development from a grass-root strategy to improve working environment to a much more complex situation...... where working environment professionals play an important role, and where the concept of ‘cleaner technology’ is generally accepted as a tool to promote sustainable development in the Danish society. The paper will also discuss the necessity of incorporation of working environment considerations...

  10. Optimal sampling strategies to assess inulin clearance in children by the inulin single-injection method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, Lyonne K.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Cransberg, Karlien; Vulto, Arnold G.

    2003-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate in patients can be determined by estimating the plasma clearance of inulin with the single-injection method. In this method, a single bolus injection of inulin is administered and several blood samples are collected. For practical and convenient application of this method

  11. A New V2G Control Strategy for Load Factor Improvement Using Smoothing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANHOM, P.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new vehicle-to-grid (V2G control strategy for improving the load factor in the power network. To operate the proposed strategy, the available storage capacity of the PEVs’ batteries is considered as a battery energy storage system (BESS for charging and discharging an amount of power corresponding to the V2G power command. Due to the remarkable advantages of the technique so-called simple moving average, it is selected for applying in the proposed V2G control strategy. In this research, for investigating the load factor improvement, the essential data including the daily-load profiles with 7-day and 14-day periods are used for the 3 studied cases. These 3 studied cases present the power network with variation of the PEVs locations for describing the PEVs usage and charging or discharging behavior. The performance of the proposed strategy is simulated and verified by the MATPOWER software. The simulation results show that the load factors of the 3 studied cases are improved. Moreover, the encouragement of energy arbitrage for the PEVs owners is also discussed in this paper.

  12. Joyful learning strategy using game method of treasure clue to improve reading comprehension skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vina Anggia Nastitie Ariawan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are (1 to describe steps in the implementation of joyful learning strategy using game method of treasure clue to improve reading comprehension skill for the fourth grade students of elementary school; (2 to improve reading comprehension skill for the fourth grade students of elementary school by implementing joyful learning strategy using game method of treasure clue. This research is collaborative Classroom Action Research (CAR and implemented within two cycles. Each cycle implemented within two meetings. This research impelemented at one of elementary school in Kuningan. Subjects of this research are 31 students of the fourth grade of elementary school. Techniques of collecting data were observation, interview, an document analysis. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis meanwhile data were validated using triangulation, member checking, and reflectivity. The results of this research show that joyful learning strategy using game method of treasure clue can increase students’ reading comprehension skill . The results proved by the increase of reading comprehension outcomes in each cycles. Passing grade percentage of students result in the first cycle is 73,86% and in the second cycle is 87,56%. Therefore, students’ learning outcomes has passed performance indicator research of 85%. The conclusion of this research is the implementation of joyful learning strategy using game method of treasure clue can improve reading comprehension skill for the fourth grade students of elementary school.

  13. Cryptanalysis and Improvement for the Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on Triplet Entangled State and Single-Particle Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Xu; Tian-Yu, Ye

    2017-03-01

    Quantum private comparison (QPC) aims to accomplish the equality comparison of secret inputs from two users on the basis of not leaking their contents out. Recently, Chen et al. proposed the QPC protocol based on triplet GHZ state and single-particle measurement (Optics Communications 283, 1561-1565 (2010)). In this paper, they suggested the standard model of a semi-honest third party (TP) for the first time, and declared that their protocol is secure. Subsequently, Lin et al. pointed out that in Chen et al.'s protocol, one user can extract the other user's secret without being discovered by performing the intercept-resend attack, and suggested two corresponding improvements (Optics Communications 284, 2412-2414 (2011)). However, Yang et al. first pointed out that the model of TP adopted by both Chen et al.'s protocol and Lin et al.'s improved protocols is unreasonable, and thought that a practical TP may also try any possible means to steal the users' secrets except being corrupted by the adversary including the dishonest user (Quantum Inf Process 12, 877-885 (2013). In this paper, after taking the possible attacks from TP into account, we propose the eavesdropping strategy of TP toward Lin et al.'s improved protocols and suggest two feasible solutions accordingly.

  14. A simple clinical coding strategy to improve recording of child maltreatment concerns: an audit study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Peter McGovern

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Recording concerns about child maltreatment, including minor concerns, is recommended by the General Medical Council (GMC and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE but there is evidence of substantial under-recording.Aim To determine whether a simple coding strategy improved recording of maltreatment-related concerns in electronic primary care records.Design and Setting Clinical audit of rates of maltreatment-related coding before January 2010–December 2011 and after January–December 2012 implementation of a simple coding strategy in 11 English family practices. The strategy included encouraging general practitioners to use, always and as a minimum, the Read code ‘Child is cause for concern’. A total of 25,106 children aged 0–18 years were registered with these practices. We also undertook a qualitative service evaluation to investigate barriers to recording.Method Outcomes were recording of 1 any maltreatment-related codes, 2 child protection proceedings and 3 child was a cause for concern.Results We found increased recording of any maltreatment-related code (rate ratio 1.4; 95% CI 1.1–1.6, child protection procedures (RR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1–1.6 and cause for concern (RR 2.5; 95% CI 1.8–3.4 after implementation of the coding strategy. Clinicians cited the simplicity of the coding strategy as the most important factor assisting implementation.Conclusion This simple coding strategy improved clinician’s recording of maltreatment-related concerns in a small sample of practices with some ‘buy-in’. Further research should investigate how recording can best support the doctor–patient relationshipHow this fits in Recording concerns about child maltreatment, including minor concerns, is recommended by the General Medical Council (GMC and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE, but there is evidence of substantial underrecording. We describe a simple clinical coding

  15. A simple clinical coding strategy to improve recording of child maltreatment concerns: an audit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Andrew Peter; Woodman, Jenny; Allister, Janice; van Vlymen, Jeremy; Liyanage, Harshana; Jones, Simon; Rafi, Imran; de Lusignan, Simon; Gilbert, Ruth

    2015-01-14

    Recording concerns about child maltreatment, including minor concerns, is recommended by the General Medical Council (GMC) and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) but there is evidence of substantial under-recording. To determine whether a simple coding strategy improved recording of maltreatment-related concerns in electronic primary care records. Clinical audit of rates of maltreatment-related coding before January 2010-December 2011 and after January-December 2012 implementation of a simple coding strategy in 11 English family practices. The strategy included encouraging general practitioners to use, always and as a minimum, the Read code 'Child is cause for concern'. A total of 25,106 children aged 0-18 years were registered with these practices. We also undertook a qualitative service evaluation to investigate barriers to recording. Outcomes were recording of 1) any maltreatment-related codes, 2) child protection proceedings and 3) child was a cause for concern. We found increased recording of any maltreatment-related code (rate ratio 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.6), child protection procedures (RR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.6) and cause for concern (RR 2.5; 95% CI 1.8-3.4) after implementation of the coding strategy. Clinicians cited the simplicity of the coding strategy as the most important factor assisting implementation. This simple coding strategy improved clinician's recording of maltreatment-related concerns in a small sample of practices with some 'buy-in'. Further research should investigate how recording can best support the doctor-patient relationship. HOW THIS FITS IN: Recording concerns about child maltreatment, including minor concerns, is recommended by the General Medical Council (GMC) and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), but there is evidence of substantial under-recording. We describe a simple clinical coding strategy that helped general practitioners to improve recording of maltreatment-related concerns

  16. Single-particle cryo-EM-Improved ab initio 3D reconstruction with SIMPLE/PRIME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Cyril F; Eager, Michael; Elmlund, Dominika; Elmlund, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single-particle analysis now enables the determination of high-resolution structures of macromolecular assemblies that have resisted X-ray crystallography and other approaches. We developed the SIMPLE open-source image-processing suite for analysing cryo-EM images of single-particles. A core component of SIMPLE is the probabilistic PRIME algorithm for identifying clusters of images in 2D and determine relative orientations of single-particle projections in 3D. Here, we extend our previous work on PRIME and introduce new stochastic optimization algorithms that improve the robustness of the approach. Our refined method for identification of homogeneous subsets of images in accurate register substantially improves the resolution of the cluster centers and of the ab initio 3D reconstructions derived from them. We now obtain maps with a resolution better than 10 Å by exclusively processing cluster centers. Excellent parallel code performance on over-the-counter laptops and CPU workstations is demonstrated. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  17. The discrete strategy improvement algorithm for parity games and complexity measures for directed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Canavoi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available For some time the discrete strategy improvement algorithm due to Jurdzinski and Voge had been considered as a candidate for solving parity games in polynomial time. However, it has recently been proved by Oliver Friedmann that the strategy improvement algorithm requires super-polynomially many iteration steps, for all popular local improvements rules, including switch-all (also with Fearnley's snare memorisation, switch-best, random-facet, random-edge, switch-half, least-recently-considered, and Zadeh's Pivoting rule. We analyse the examples provided by Friedmann in terms of complexity measures for directed graphs such as treewidth, DAG-width, Kelly-width, entanglement, directed pathwidth, and cliquewidth. It is known that for every class of parity games on which one of these parameters is bounded, the winning regions can be efficiently computed. It turns out that with respect to almost all of these measures, the complexity of Friedmann's counterexamples is bounded, and indeed in most cases by very small numbers. This analysis strengthens in some sense Friedmann's results and shows that the discrete strategy improvement algorithm is even more limited than one might have thought. Not only does it require super-polynomial running time in the general case, where the problem of polynomial-time solvability is open, it even has super-polynomial lower time bounds on natural classes of parity games on which efficient algorithms are known.

  18. IMPROVING THE STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION ABILITY THROUGH SQ3R STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabarun Sabarun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at improving the students’ reading comprehension ability in reading English class using SQ3R strategy, which refers to a reading technique covering a five step system developed by Francis P Robinson. Each of the steps stands for Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review. The study employed Classroom Action Research design. The subjects of the study were four of third semester students of the English Department of Palangka Raya State Islamic College of 2009/ 2010 academic year. The study was carried out in two cycles by following the four steps of action research: planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. Each cycle consisted of one meeting focusing pre-reading, whilst reading and post reading. The data of the study are taken from the results of observation checklists, field notes, and the students’ reading score. The result of the study showed that SQ3R strategy could improve the students’ reading comprehension ability. It could be seen from the improvement of the students’ reading scores. The students were actively involved in reading class and they were highly motivated to attend the SQ3R reading class. Keywords: improving, SQ3R strategy, reading comprehension ability

  19. A comprehensive strategy for the analysis of acoustic compressibility and optical deformability on single cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tie; Bragheri, Francesca; Nava, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    We realized an integrated microfluidic chip that allows measuring both optical deformability and acoustic compressibility on single cells, by optical stretching and acoustophoresis experiments respectively. Additionally, we propose a measurement protocol that allows evaluating the experimental ap...

  20. Quality improvement education to improve performance on ulcerative colitis quality measures and care processes aligned with National Quality Strategy priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Laurence; Moreo, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Studies on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have reported suboptimal approaches to patient care. In the United States, the findings have motivated leading gastroenterology organizations to call for initiatives that support clinicians in aligning their practices with quality measures for IBD and priorities of the National Quality Strategy (NQS). We designed and implemented a quality improvement (QI) education program on ulcerative colitis in which patient charts were audited for 30 gastroenterologists before (n = 300 charts) and after (n = 290 charts) they participated in QI-focused educational activities. Charts were audited for nine measures, selected for their alignment with four NQS priorities: making care safer, ensuring patient engagement, promoting communication, and promoting effective treatment practices. Four of the measures, including guideline-directed vaccinations and assessments of disease type and activity, were part of the CMS Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS). The other five measures involved counseling patients on various topics in ulcerative colitis management, documentation of side effects, assessment of adherence status, and simplification of dosing. The gastroenterologists also completed baseline and post-education surveys designed to assess qualitative outcomes. One of the educational interventions was a private audit feedback session conducted for each gastroenterologist. The sessions were designed to support participants in identifying measures reflecting suboptimal care quality and developing action plans for improvement. In continuous improvement cycles, follow-up interventions included QI tools and educational monographs. Across the nine chart variables, post-education improvements ranged from 0% to 48%, with a mean improvement of 15.9%. Survey findings revealed improvements in self-reported understanding of quality measures and intentions to apply them to practice, and lower rates of perceived significant barriers to high

  1. Strategies to improve the implementation of healthy eating, physical activity and obesity prevention policies, practices or programmes within childcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Jones, Jannah; Williams, Christopher M; Finch, Meghan; Wyse, Rebecca J; Kingsland, Melanie; Tzelepis, Flora; Wiggers, John; Williams, Amanda J; Seward, Kirsty; Small, Tameka; Welch, Vivian; Booth, Debbie; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2016-10-04

    assessment via meta-analysis. However, we narratively synthesised the trial findings by describing the effect size of the primary outcome measure for policy or practice implementation (or the median of such measures where a single primary outcome was not stated). We identified 10 trials as eligible and included them in the review. The trials sought to improve the implementation of policies and practices targeting healthy eating (two trials), physical activity (two trials) or both healthy eating and physical activity (six trials). Collectively the implementation strategies tested in the 10 trials included educational materials, educational meetings, audit and feedback, opinion leaders, small incentives or grants, educational outreach visits or academic detailing. A total of 1053 childcare services participated across all trials. Of the 10 trials, eight examined implementation strategies versus a usual practice control and two compared alternative implementation strategies. There was considerable study heterogeneity. We judged all studies as having high risk of bias for at least one domain.It is uncertain whether the strategies tested improved the implementation of policies, practices or programmes that promote child healthy eating, physical activity and/or obesity prevention. No intervention improved the implementation of all policies and practices targeted by the implementation strategies relative to a comparison group. Of the eight trials that compared an implementation strategy to usual practice or a no intervention control, however, seven reported improvements in the implementation of at least one of the targeted policies or practices relative to control. For these trials the effect on the primary implementation outcome was as follows: among the three trials that reported score-based measures of implementation the scores ranged from 1 to 5.1; across four trials reporting the proportion of staff or services implementing a specific policy or practice this ranged from 0% to

  2. Single-Stage Revision Arthroplasty for Infection-An Underutilized Treatment Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negus, Jonathan J; Gifford, Peter B; Haddad, Fares S

    2017-07-01

    The burden of revision arthroplasty surgery for infection is rising as the rate of primary arthroplasty surgery increases. Infected arthroplasty rates are now relatively low, but the sheer increase in volume is leading to considerable patient morbidity and significant increases in costs to the health care system. Single-stage revision for infection is one of the several accepted treatment options, but the indications and results are debated. This review aims to clarify the current evidence. MEDLINE/PubMed databases were reviewed for studies that looked at single- or one-stage revision knee or hip arthroplasty for infection. There is increasing evidence that single-stage revision for infection can control infection and with decreased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs compared with a staged approach. However, the indications are still debated. Recently, there has been a determined effort to define an infected arthroplasty in a manner that will allow for standardization of reporting in the literature. The evidence supporting single stage for knee arthroplasty is catching up with the result with hip arthroplasty. High-quality data from randomized controlled trials are now pending. After the gradual evolution of using the single-stage approach, with the widespread acceptance of this definition, we can now standardize comparisons across the world and move toward a refined definition of the ideal patient population for single-stage arthroplasty revision in both the hip and the knee population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct Training to Improve Educators' Treatment Integrity: A Systematic Review of Single-Case Design Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Lindsay M; Kurtz, Kathryn D; Mueller, Marlana R

    2017-06-15

    In consultation, school psychologists may offer educators direct training to support the implementation of classroom interventions aimed to improve student outcomes. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review of single-case design research studies during which educators received direct training to implement a classroom intervention, specifically instructions, modeling, practice, and feedback. Two doctoral students in school psychology screened 228 articles and evaluated 33 studies to determine if direct training is effective and an evidence-based practice per single-case design standards proposed by the What Works Clearinghouse. Results of the review indicate that there is support for the practice to be deemed evidence-based and associated with better intervention implementation than before its application. Implications include direct training being considered for intensive, complex interventions to promote educator success with implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Improved and Reproducible Flow Cytometry Methodology for Nuclei Isolation from Single Root Meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Cristina Ribeiro Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Root meristems have increasingly been target of cell cycle studies by flow cytometric DNA content quantification. Moreover, roots can be an alternative source of nuclear suspension when leaves become unfeasible and for chromosome analysis and sorting. In the present paper, a protocol for intact nuclei isolation from a single root meristem was developed. This proceeding was based on excision of the meristematic region using a prototypical slide, followed by short enzymatic digestion and mechanical isolation of nuclei during homogenization with a hand mixer. Such parameters were optimized for reaching better results. Satisfactory nuclei amounts were extracted and analyzed by flow cytometry, producing histograms with reduced background noise and CVs between 3.2 and 4.1%. This improved and reproducible technique was shown to be rapid, inexpensive, and simple for nuclear extraction from a single root tip, and can be adapted for other plants and purposes.

  5. Improved Reliability of Single-Phase PV Inverters by Limiting the Maximum Feed-in Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    . The CPG control strategy is activated only when the DC input power from PV panels exceeds a specific power limit. It enables to limit the maximum feed-in power to the electric grids and also to improve the utilization of PV inverters. As a further study, this paper investigates the reliability performance...... of the power devices (e.g. IGBTs) used in PV inverters with the CPG control under different feed-in power limits. A long-term mission profile (i.e. solar irradiance and ambient temperature) based stress analysis approach is extended and applied to obtain the yearly electrical and thermal stresses of the power...

  6. Improved strategies and optimization of calibration models for real-time PCR absolute quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A; Chern, Eunice C; Shanks, Orin C

    2010-09-01

    Real-time PCR absolute quantification applications are becoming more common in the recreational and drinking water quality industries. Many methods rely on the use of standard curves to make estimates of DNA target concentrations in unknown samples. Traditional absolute quantification approaches dictate that a standard curve must accompany each experimental run. However, the generation of a standard curve for each qPCR experiment set-up can be expensive and time consuming, especially for studies with large numbers of unknown samples. As a result, many researchers have adopted a master calibration strategy where a single curve is derived from DNA standard measurements generated from multiple instrument runs. However, a master curve can inflate uncertainty associated with intercept and slope parameters and decrease the accuracy of unknown sample DNA target concentration estimates. Here we report two alternative strategies termed 'pooled' and 'mixed' for the generation of calibration equations from absolute standard curves which can help reduce the cost and time of laboratory testing, as well as the uncertainty in calibration model parameter estimates. In this study, four different strategies for generating calibration models were compared based on a series of repeated experiments for two different qPCR assays using a Monte Carlo Markov Chain method. The hierarchical Bayesian approach allowed for the comparison of uncertainty in intercept and slope model parameters and the optimization of experiment design. Data suggests that the 'pooled' model can reduce uncertainty in both slope and intercept parameter estimates compared to the traditional single curve approach. In addition, the 'mixed' model achieved uncertainty estimates similar to the 'single' model while increasing the number of available reaction wells per instrument run. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Evaluating the enhancement and improvement of China's technology and financial services platform innovation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Sung; Hu, Kuang-Hua; Chen, Fu-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-tech industry has been prosperous around the world in past decades, while technology and finance have already become the most significant issues in the information era. While high-tech firms are a major force behind a country's economic development, it requires a lot of money for the development process, as well as the financing difficulties for its potential problems, thus, how to evaluate and establish appropriate technology and financial services platforms innovation strategy has become one of the most critical and difficult issues. Moreover, how the chosen intertwined financial environment can be optimized in order that high-tech firms financing problems can be decided has seldom been addressed. Thus, this research aims to establish a technology and financial services platform innovation strategy improvement model, as based on the hybrid MADM model, which addresses the main causal factors and amended priorities in order to strengthen ongoing planning. A DEMATEL technique, as based on Analytic Network Process, as well as modified VIKOR, will be proposed for selecting and re-configuring the aspired technology and financial services platform. An empirical study, as based on China's technology and financial services platform innovation strategy, will be provided for verifying the effectiveness of this proposed methodology. Based on expert interviews, technology and financial services platforms innovation strategy improvement should be made in the following order: credit guarantee platform ( C )_credit rating platform ( B )_investment and finance platform ( A ).

  8. Reported care giver strategies for improving drinking water for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, John D; Farrelly, Ashley

    2010-11-01

    Care givers may engage in a variety of strategies to try and improve drinking water for children. However, the pattern of these efforts is not well known, particularly for young children in high-risk situations. The objective of this study was to determine care giver-reported strategies for young children with (1) undernutrition and (2) living in an unplanned poor peri-urban community in the Dominican Republic. Practices reported by care givers of young children from a community and clinic group were extracted from interviews conducted between 2004 and 2008 (n = 563). These results were compared to two previous similar samples interviewed in 1997 (n = 341). Bottled water is currently the most prevalent reported strategy for improving drinking water for young children. Its use increased from 6% to 69% in the community samples over the last decade and from 13% to 79% in the clinic samples. Boiling water continues to be a common strategy, particularly for the youngest children, though its overall use has decreased over time. Household-level chlorination is infrequently used and has dropped over time. Care givers are increasingly turning to bottled water in an attempt to provide safe drinking water for their children. While this may represent a positive trend for protecting children from water-transmitted diseases, it may represent an inefficient approach to safe drinking water provision that may place a financial burden on low-income families.

  9. Improving Eleventh Graders’ Reading Comprehension Through Text Coding and Double Entry Organizer Reading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Mahecha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report on an innovation project developed with a group of eleventh graders at a public school in Bogotá. Its aim was to encourage students to improve reading comprehension of texts in English. It was conducted taking into account students' needs, interests and level of English. To do it, we implemented two reading strategies: text coding and double entry organizer. We observed the students' attitudes during two lesson plans, compared their level of comprehension before and after using the reading strategies and asked them to self-evaluate their performance. At the end, we could see their improvement, how they enjoyed doing the activities and became more confident.

  10. Latent human error analysis and efficient improvement strategies by fuzzy TOPSIS in aviation maintenance tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming-Chuan; Hsieh, Min-Chih

    2016-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a latent human error analysis process, to explore the factors of latent human error in aviation maintenance tasks, and to provide an efficient improvement strategy for addressing those errors. First, we used HFACS and RCA to define the error factors related to aviation maintenance tasks. Fuzzy TOPSIS with four criteria was applied to evaluate the error factors. Results show that 1) adverse physiological states, 2) physical/mental limitations, and 3) coordination, communication, and planning are the factors related to airline maintenance tasks that could be addressed easily and efficiently. This research establishes a new analytic process for investigating latent human error and provides a strategy for analyzing human error using fuzzy TOPSIS. Our analysis process complements shortages in existing methodologies by incorporating improvement efficiency, and it enhances the depth and broadness of human error analysis methodology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Toolpath strategy for cutter life improvement in plunge milling of AISI H13 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesta, E. Y. T.; Avicenna; hilmy, I.; Daud, M. R. H. C.

    2018-01-01

    Machinability of AISI H13 tool steel is a prominent issue since the material has the characteristics of high hardenability, excellent wear resistance, and hot toughness. A method of improving cutter life of AISI H13 tool steel plunge milling by alternating the toolpath and cutting conditions is proposed. Taguchi orthogonal array with L9 (3^4) resolution will be employed with one categorical factor of toolpath strategy (TS) and three numeric factors of cutting speed (Vc), radial depth of cut (ae ), and chip load (fz ). It is expected that there are significant differences for each application of toolpath strategy and each cutting condition factor toward the cutting force and tool wear mechanism of the machining process, and medial axis transform toolpath could provide a better tool life improvement by a reduction of cutting force during machining.

  12. Strategies to Improve Adherence to Dietary Weight Loss Interventions in Research and Real-World Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice A. Gibson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary interventions are the cornerstone of obesity treatment. The optimal dietary approach to weight loss is a hotly debated topic among health professionals and the lay public alike. An emerging body of evidence suggests that a higher level of adherence to a diet, regardless of the type of diet, is an important factor in weight loss success over the short and long term. Key strategies to improve adherence include designing dietary weight loss interventions (such as ketogenic diets that help to control the increased drive to eat that accompanies weight loss, tailoring dietary interventions to a person’s dietary preferences (and nutritional requirements, and promoting self-monitoring of food intake. The aim of this paper is to examine these strategies, which can be used to improve adherence and thereby increase the success of dietary weight loss interventions.

  13. Strategies to Improve Regeneration of the Soft Palate Muscles After Cleft Palate Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal Monroy, Paola L.; Grefte, Sander; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Wagener, Frank A.D.T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children with a cleft in the soft palate have difficulties with speech, swallowing, and sucking. These patients are unable to separate the nasal from the oral cavity leading to air loss during speech. Although surgical repair ameliorates soft palate function by joining the clefted muscles of the soft palate, optimal function is often not achieved. The regeneration of muscles in the soft palate after surgery is hampered because of (1) their low intrinsic regenerative capacity, (2) the muscle properties related to clefting, and (3) the development of fibrosis. Adjuvant strategies based on tissue engineering may improve the outcome after surgery by approaching these specific issues. Therefore, this review will discuss myogenesis in the noncleft and cleft palate, the characteristics of soft palate muscles, and the process of muscle regeneration. Finally, novel therapeutic strategies based on tissue engineering to improve soft palate function after surgical repair are presented. PMID:22697475

  14. A Control Strategy for Flywheel Energy Storage System for Frequency Stability Improvement in Islanded Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Khodadoost Arani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Micro-Grid (MG stability is a significant issue that must be maintained in all operational modes. Usually, two control strategies can be applied to MG; V/f control and PQ control strategies. MGs with V/f control strategy should have some Distributed Generators (DGs which have fast responses versus load changes. The Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS has this characteristic. The FESS, which converts the mechanical energy to electrical form, can generate electrical power or absorb the additional power in power systems or MGs. In this paper, the FESS structure modeled in detail and two control strategies (V/f and PQ control are applied for this application. In addition, in order to improve the MG frequency and voltage stability, two complementary controllers are proposed for the V/f control strategy; conventional PI and Fuzzy Controllers. A typical low voltage network, including FESS is simulated for four distinct scenarios in the MATLAB/ Simulink environment. It is shown that fuzzy controller has better performance than conventional PI controller in islanded microgrid.

  15. Perspectives on engineering strategies for improving biofuel production from microalgae--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Ye, Xiaoting; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Chang, Jo-Shu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-12-01

    Although the potential for biofuel production from microalgae via photosynthesis has been intensively investigated, information on the selection of a suitable operation strategy for microalgae-based biofuel production is lacking. Many published reports describe competitive strains and optimal culture conditions for use in biofuel production; however, the major impediment to further improvements is the absence of effective engineering strategies for microalgae cultivation and biofuel production. This comprehensive review discusses recent advances in understanding the effects of major environmental stresses and the characteristics of various engineering operation strategies on the production of biofuels (mainly biodiesel and bioethanol) using microalgae. The performances of microalgae-based biofuel-producing systems under various environmental stresses (i.e., irradiance, temperature, pH, nitrogen depletion, and salinity) and cultivation strategies (i.e., fed-batch, semi-continuous, continuous, two-stage, and salinity-gradient) are compared. The reasons for variations in performance and the underlying theories of the various production strategies are also critically discussed. The aim of this review is to provide useful information to facilitate development of innovative and feasible operation technologies for effectively increasing the commercial viability of microalgae-based biofuel production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi Stage Strategies for Single Point Incremental Forming of a Cup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Bay, Niels; Endelt, Benny

    2008-01-01

    A five stage forming strategy for forming of a circular cylindrical cup with a height/radius ratio of one is presented. Geometrical relations are discussed and theoretical strains are calculated. The influence of forming direction (upwards or downwards) is investigated for the second stage...... comparing explicit FE analysis with experiments. Good agreement is found between calculated and measured thickness distribution, overall geometry and strains. Using the proposed multi stage strategy it is shown possible to produce a cup with a height close to the radius and side parallel to the symmetry...

  17. Implementing Kwl Strategy to Improve the Students’ English Speaking Skill

    OpenAIRE

    Mantra, Ida Bagus Nyoman

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to attempt at improving Speaking skill through Know, Want, and Learned (KWL) strategy to the students of English Study Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Mahasaraswati Denpasar. The present classroom action study was basically triggered by the fact that the subjects under study still faced problem in speaking skill. The present classroom action study made use of pre-test and post-test research design with descriptive and quantitative analysis. ...

  18. MPPT Control Strategy of PV Based on Improved Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm under Complex Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Xiaohua; Nie, Haoyao

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (PSFLA). The swarm intelligence algorithm (SIA) has vast computing ability. The MPPT control strategies of PV array based on SIA are attracting considerable interests. Firstly, the PSFLA was proposed by adding the inertia weight factor w of PSO in standard SFLA to overcome the defect of falling into the partial optimal solutions and slow convergence ...

  19. An improved strategy for tandem affinity purification-tagging of Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes

    OpenAIRE

    Cipak, Lubos; Spirek, Mario; Novatchkova, Maria; Chen, Zhiming; Rumpf, Cornelia; Lugmayr, Wolfgang; Mechtler, Karl; Ammerer, Gustav; Csaszar, Edina; Gregan, Juraj

    2009-01-01

    Tandem affinity purification (TAP) is a method that allows rapid purification of native protein complexes. We developed an improved technique to fuse the fission yeast genes with a TAP tag. Our technique is based on tagging constructs that contain regions homologous to the target gene cloned into vectors carrying a TAP tag. We used this technique to design strategies for TAP-tagging of predicted Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes (http://mendel.imp.ac.at/Pombe_tagging/). To validate the approach...

  20. Obtaining of coffee varieties with durable resistance to illnesses, using the genetic diversity as improvement strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Ruiz, German

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of producing improved coffee varieties with resistance to the leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix), the national federation of coffee growers of Colombia initiated in 1970 a research program, whose first results achieved in 1982 were the abstention of the Colombia coffee variety. The use of genetic variability as a strategy in plant breeding for a durable resistance is discussed. In addition, the breeding outline is described and the main features of the developed materials are presented

  1. A single position loop control strategy for high-speed voice coil motor based on active disturbance rejection control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhongxu; Wang, Huai; Li, Yong

    2017-01-01

    To improve the dynamic performance of voice coil motor, a single position loop control method based on active disturbance rejection control is proposed in this paper. The feedback law is sufficiently analyzed and well designed considering both sinusoidal input and step reference input. Moreover...

  2. Using a kinesthetic learning strategy to engage nursing student thinking, enhance retention, and improve critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Elissa A

    2014-06-01

    This article reports the outcomes of a kinesthetic learning strategy used during a cardiac lecture to engage students and to improve the use of classroom-acquired knowledge in today's challenging clinical settings. Nurse educators are constantly faced with finding new ways to engage students, stimulate critical thinking, and improve clinical application in a rapidly changing and complex health care system. Educators who deviate from the traditional pedagogy of didactic, content-driven teaching to a concept-based, student-centered approach using active and kinesthetic learning activities can enhance engagement and improve clinical problem solving, communication skills, and critical thinking to provide graduates with the tools necessary to be successful. The goals of this learning activity were to decrease the well-known classroom-clinical gap by enhancing engagement, providing deeper understanding of cardiac function and disorders, enhancing critical thinking, and improving clinical application. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. An improved cut-and-solve algorithm for the single-source capacitated facility location problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, Sune Lauth; Klose, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Relund

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an improved cut-and-solve algorithm for the single-source capacitated facility location problem. The algorithm consists of three phases. The first phase strengthens the integer program by a cutting plane algorithm to obtain a tight lower bound. The second phase uses a two......-level local branching heuristic to find an upper bound, and if optimality has not yet been established, the third phase uses the cut-and-solve framework to close the optimality gap. Extensive computational results are reported, showing that the proposed algorithm runs 10–80 times faster on average compared...

  4. An improved method for the molecular identification of single dinoflagellate cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangchun Gao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Dinoflagellate cysts (i.e., dinocysts are biologically and ecologically important as they can help dinoflagellate species survive harsh environments, facilitate their dispersal and serve as seeds for harmful algal blooms. In addition, dinocysts derived from some species can produce more toxins than vegetative forms, largely affecting species through their food webs and even human health. Consequently, accurate identification of dinocysts represents the first crucial step in many ecological studies. As dinocysts have limited or even no available taxonomic keys, molecular methods have become the first priority for dinocyst identification. However, molecular identification of dinocysts, particularly when using single cells, poses technical challenges. The most serious is the low success rate of PCR, especially for heterotrophic species. Methods In this study, we aim to improve the success rate of single dinocyst identification for the chosen dinocyst species (Gonyaulax spinifera, Polykrikos kofoidii, Lingulodinium polyedrum, Pyrophacus steinii, Protoperidinium leonis and Protoperidinium oblongum distributed in the South China Sea. We worked on two major technical issues: cleaning possible PCR inhibitors attached on the cyst surface and designing new dinoflagellate-specific PCR primers to improve the success of PCR amplification. Results For the cleaning of single dinocysts separated from marine sediments, we used ultrasonic wave-based cleaning and optimized cleaning parameters. Our results showed that the optimized ultrasonic wave-based cleaning method largely improved the identification success rate and accuracy of both molecular and morphological identifications. For the molecular identification with the newly designed dinoflagellate-specific primers (18S634F-18S634R, the success ratio was as high as 86.7% for single dinocysts across multiple taxa when using the optimized ultrasonic wave-based cleaning method, and much higher than that

  5. The Single-Molecule Centroid Localization Algorithm Improves the Accuracy of Fluorescence Binding Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Boyang; Wang, Yanbo; Park, Seongjin; Han, Kyu Young; Singh, Digvijay; Kim, Jin H; Cheng, Wei; Ha, Taekjip

    2018-03-13

    Here, we demonstrate that the use of the single-molecule centroid localization algorithm can improve the accuracy of fluorescence binding assays. Two major artifacts in this type of assay, i.e., nonspecific binding events and optically overlapping receptors, can be detected and corrected during analysis. The effectiveness of our method was confirmed by measuring two weak biomolecular interactions, the interaction between the B1 domain of streptococcal protein G and immunoglobulin G and the interaction between double-stranded DNA and the Cas9-RNA complex with limited sequence matches. This analysis routine requires little modification to common experimental protocols, making it readily applicable to existing data and future experiments.

  6. Implementing practice management strategies to improve patient care: the EPIC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwell, David; Rogers-Warnock, Leslie; Nemis-White, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare gaps, the difference between usual care and best care, are evident in Canada, particularly with respect to our aging, ailing population. Primary care practitioners are challenged to identify, prevent and close care gaps in their practice environment given the competing demands of informed, litigious patients with complex medical needs, ever-evolving scientific evidence with new treatment recommendations across many disciplines and an enhanced emphasis on quality and accountability in healthcare. Patient-centred health and disease management partnerships using measurement, feedback and communication of practice patterns and outcomes have been shown to narrow care gaps. Practice management strategies such as the use of patient registries and recall systems have also been used to help practitioners better understand, follow and proactively manage populations of patients in their practice. The Enhancing Practice to Improve Care project was initiated to determine the impact of a patient-centred health and disease management partnership using practice management strategies to improve patient care and outcomes for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Forty-four general practices from four regions of British Columbia participated and, indeed, demonstrated that care and outcomes for patients with CKD could be improved via the implementation of practice management strategies in a patient-centred partnership measurement model of health and disease management.

  7. Improved motor performance in patients with acute stroke using the optimal individual attentional strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurada, Takeshi; Nakajima, Takeshi; Morita, Mitsuya; Hirai, Masahiro; Watanabe, Eiju

    2017-01-01

    It is believed that motor performance improves when individuals direct attention to movement outcome (external focus, EF) rather than to body movement itself (internal focus, IF). However, our previous study found that an optimal individual attentional strategy depended on motor imagery ability. We explored whether the individual motor imagery ability in stroke patients also affected the optimal attentional strategy for motor control. Individual motor imagery ability was determined as either kinesthetic- or visual-dominant by a questionnaire in 28 patients and 28 healthy-controls. Participants then performed a visuomotor task that required tracing a trajectory under three attentional conditions: no instruction (NI), attention to hand movement (IF), or attention to cursor movement (EF). Movement error in the stroke group strongly depended on individual modality dominance of motor imagery. Patients with kinesthetic dominance showed higher motor accuracy under the IF condition but with concomitantly lower velocity. Alternatively, patients with visual dominance showed improvements in both speed and accuracy under the EF condition. These results suggest that the optimal attentional strategy for improving motor accuracy in stroke rehabilitation differs according to the individual dominance of motor imagery. Our findings may contribute to the development of tailor-made pre-assessment and rehabilitation programs optimized for individual cognitive abilities. PMID:28094320

  8. Improving occupational physicians' adherence to a practice guideline: feasibility and impact of a tailored implementation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Margot C W; van Beurden, Karlijn M; Terluin, Berend; van Weeghel, Jaap; Brouwers, Evelien P M; van der Klink, Jac J L

    2015-04-24

    Although practice guidelines are important tools to improve quality of care, implementation remains challenging. To improve adherence to an evidence-based guideline for the management of mental health problems, we developed a tailored implementation strategy targeting barriers perceived by occupational physicians (OPs). Feasibility and impact on OPs' barriers were evaluated. OPs received 8 training-sessions in small peer-learning groups, aimed at discussing the content of the guideline and their perceived barriers to adhere to guideline recommendations; finding solutions to overcome these barriers; and implementing solutions in practice. The training had a plan-do-check-act (PDCA) structure and was guided by a trainer. Protocol compliance and OPs' experiences were qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. Using a questionnaire, impact on knowledge, attitude, and external barriers to guideline adherence was investigated before and after the training. The training protocol was successfully conducted; guideline recommendations and related barriers were discussed with peers, (innovative) solutions were found and implemented in practice. The participating 32 OPs were divided into 6 groups and all OPs attended 8 sessions. Of the OPs, 90% agreed that the peer-learning groups and the meetings spread over one year were highly effective training components. Significant improvements (p method to enhance guideline adherence. Moreover, the strategy contributed to OPs' knowledge, attitudes, and skills in using the guideline. As a generic approach to overcome barriers perceived in specific situations, this strategy provides a useful method to guideline implementation for other health care professionals too.

  9. A multicomponent strategy to improve the availability of antivenom for treating snakebite envenoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, José María; Burnouf, Thierry; Harrison, Robert A; Calvete, Juan J; Kuch, Ulrich; Warrell, David A; Williams, David J

    2014-07-01

    Snakebite envenoming is a common but neglected public health problem, particularly in impoverished rural regions of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. The only validated treatment for this condition is passive immunotherapy with safe and effective animal-derived antivenoms. However, there is a long-lasting crisis in the availability of these life-saving medications, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia. We herein advocate a multicomponent strategy to substantially improve the availability of safe and effective antivenoms at the global level. This strategy is based on: (i) preparing validated collections of representative venom pools from the most medically dangerous snakes in high-risk regions of the world; (ii) strengthening the capacity of national antivenom manufacturing and quality control laboratories and their regulatory authorities and establishing new facilities in developing countries through technology transfer, as an integral part of efforts to develop their biological products industry; (iii) getting established laboratories to generate antivenoms for various regions of the world; and (iv) getting governments and relevant organizations to give snakebite envenoming due recognition within national and international public health policy frameworks. These ways of making antivenom available should be complemented by actions to improve health information systems, the accessibility of antivenoms, the training of medical and nursing staff, and community-based education. Such a multicomponent strategy involving stakeholders on many levels could help consolidate sustainable improvements in antivenom availability worldwide.

  10. Combinatorial Strategies for Improving Multiple-Stress Resistance in Industrially Relevant Escherichia coli Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennen, Rebecca; Herrgard, Markus

    2014-01-01

    conditions and two combinations of individual stresses. A subset of the identified loss-of-function mutants were selected for a combinatorial approach, where strains with combinations of two and three gene deletions were systematically constructed and tested for single and multistress resistance....... These approaches allowed identification of (i) strain-background-specific stress resistance phenotypes, (ii) novel gene deletion mutants in E. coli that confer single and multistress resistance in a strain-background-dependent manner, and (iii) synergistic effects of multiple gene deletions that confer improved...... resistance over single deletions. The results of this study underscore the suboptimality and strain-specific variability of the genetic network regulating growth under stressful conditions and suggest that further exploration of the combinatorial gene deletion space in multiple strain backgrounds is needed...

  11. Perceived Challenges to Integrating Reading Strategies in Content Areas: A Single Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzolla, Karen

    2017-01-01

    An alarming percentage of middle and high school students find themselves unable to read their textbooks at grade level proficiency; lacking the necessary skills to access and process information, and read critically. The Common Core State Standards require students to apply reading strategies across the curriculum, therefore requiring teachers to…

  12. Development of novel control strategies for single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal: A process oriented approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Gernaey, Krist

    2014-01-01

    The autotrophic nitrogen removing granular sludge process is a novel and intensified process. However, its stable operation and control remain a challenging issue. In this contribution, a process oriented approach was used to develop, evaluate and benchmark novel control strategies to ensure stable...

  13. A novel control strategy for single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal in SBR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    A novel feedforward–feedback control strategy was developed for complete autotrophic nitrogen removal in a sequencing batch reactor. The aim of the control system was to carry out the regulation of the process while keeping the system close to the optimal operation. The controller was designed...

  14. A Single Phase Seven-level Grid-connected inverter Based On Three Reference SPWM Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Wu, Fengjiang; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a seven level grid connected system based on the Three Reference SPWM (TRSPWM) strategy and a Quasi PR current controller has a good output performance with a fast response and compensation for the low order harmonics in grid. With the multilevel output voltage and a high...

  15. Single- and multiple-set resistance training improves skeletal and respiratory muscle strength in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahin, Odilon; Rodrigues, Rejane P; Nascimento, Vanderson C; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E; Sousa, Evitom C; Marçal, Anderson C

    2014-01-01

    Aging involves a progressive reduction of respiratory muscle strength as well as muscle strength. Compare the effects of resistance training volume on the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), functional performance, and muscle strength in elderly women. Thirty elderly women were randomly assigned to a group performing either single sets (1-SET) or three sets (3-SET) of exercises. The sit-to-stand test, MIP, MEP, and muscle strength were assessed before and after 24 training sessions. Progressive resistance training was performed two times per week for a total of 8-12 repetitions, using the main muscle groups of the upper and lower limbs. The main results showed that the participants significantly increased their MEP (Ptraining sessions, muscle strength also significantly increased (Ptraining programs increased MIP, MEP, muscle strength, and sit-to-stand test performance in elderly women after 24 sessions of training. In conclusion, our results suggested that elderly women who are not in the habit of physical activity may start with single-set resistance training programs as a short-term strategy for the maintenance of health.

  16. Identifying quality improvement intervention publications - A comparison of electronic search strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenstein Lisa V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence base for quality improvement (QI interventions is expanding rapidly. The diversity of the initiatives and the inconsistency in labeling these as QI interventions makes it challenging for researchers, policymakers, and QI practitioners to access the literature systematically and to identify relevant publications. Methods We evaluated search strategies developed for MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed based on free text words, Medical subject headings (MeSH, QI intervention components, continuous quality improvement (CQI methods, and combinations of the strategies. Three sets of pertinent QI intervention publications were used for validation. Two independent expert reviewers screened publications for relevance. We compared the yield, recall rate, and precision of the search strategies for the identification of QI publications and for a subset of empirical studies on effects of QI interventions. Results The search yields ranged from 2,221 to 216,167 publications. Mean recall rates for reference publications ranged from 5% to 53% for strategies with yields of 50,000 publications or fewer. The 'best case' strategy, a simple text word search with high face validity ('quality' AND 'improv*' AND 'intervention*' identified 44%, 24%, and 62% of influential intervention articles selected by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ experts, a set of exemplar articles provided by members of the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE group, and a sample from the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group (EPOC register of studies, respectively. We applied the search strategy to a PubMed search for articles published in 10 pertinent journals in a three-year period which retrieved 183 publications. Among these, 67% were deemed relevant to QI by at least one of two independent raters. Forty percent were classified as empirical studies reporting on a QI intervention. Conclusions The presented

  17. How high-performance work systems drive health care value: an examination of leading process improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Julie; Garman, Andrew N; Song, Paula H; McAlearney, Ann Scheck

    2012-01-01

    As hospitals focus on increasing health care value, process improvement strategies have proliferated, seemingly faster than the evidence base supporting them. Yet, most process improvement strategies are associated with work practices for which solid evidence does exist. Evaluating improvement strategies in the context of evidence-based work practices can provide guidance about which strategies would work best for a given health care organization. We combined a literature review with analysis of key informant interview data collected from 5 case studies of high-performance work practices (HPWPs) in health care organizations. We explored the link between an evidence-based framework for HPWP use and 3 process improvement strategies: Hardwiring Excellence, Lean/Six Sigma, and Baldrige. We found that each of these process improvement strategies has not only strengths but also important gaps with respect to incorporating HPWPs involving engaging staff, aligning leaders, acquiring and developing talent, and empowering the front line. Given differences among these strategies, our analyses suggest that some may work better than others for individual health care organizations, depending on the organizations' current management systems. In practice, most organizations implementing improvement strategies would benefit from including evidence-based HPWPs to maximize the potential for process improvement strategies to increase value in health care.

  18. Single excitation-emission fluorescence spectrum (EEF) for determination of cetane improver in diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, Matías; Fernández Band, Beatriz S

    2015-04-05

    A highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate in diesel fuel. Usually, this compound is used as an additive in order to improve cetane number. The analytical method consists in building the chemometric model as a first step. Then, it is possible to quantify the analyte with only recording a single excitation-emission fluorescence spectrum (EEF), whose data are introduced in the chemometric model above mentioned. Another important characteristic of this method is that the fuel sample was used without any pre-treatment for EEF. This work provides an interest improvement to fluorescence techniques using the rapid and easily applicable EEF approach to analyze such complex matrices. Exploding EEF was the key to a successful determination, obtaining a detection limit of 0.00434% (v/v) and a limit of quantification of 0.01446% (v/v). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A single dose of sodium nitrate does not improve oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Naomi M; Hansen, Dominique; Kouw, Imre W K; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Blackwell, Jamie R; Jones, Andrew M; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-08-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation has been proposed as an emerging treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that ingestion of a single bolus of dietary NO3(-) ingestion improves oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin, 7.3% ± 0.2%) participated in a randomized crossover experiment. The subjects ingested a glucose beverage 2.5 hours after consumption of either sodium NO3(-) (0.15 mmol NaNO3(-) · kg(-1)) or a placebo solution. Venous blood samples were collected before ingestion of the glucose beverage and every 30 minutes thereafter during a 2-hour period to assess postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. The results show that plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels were increased after NaNO3(-) as opposed to placebo ingestion (treatment-effect, P = .001). Despite the elevated plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels, ingestion of NaNO3(-) did not attenuate the postprandial rise in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations (time × treatment interaction, P = .41 for glucose, P = .93 for insulin). Despite the lack of effect on oral glucose tolerance, basal plasma glucose concentrations measured 2.5 hours after NaNO3(-) ingestion were lower when compared with the placebo treatment (7.5 ± 0.4 vs 8.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L, respectively; P = .04). We conclude that ingestion of a single dose of dietary NO3(-) does not improve subsequent oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving bone marrow biopsy quality through peer discussion and data comparisons: A single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R K; Nazeef, M; Patel, S S; Mattison, R; Yang, D T; Ranheim, E A; Leith, C P

    2018-03-25

    Bone marrow biopsy (BMB) is crucial for the diagnosis, staging, and monitoring of a variety of hematologic diseases. Obtaining an adequate BMB can be challenging given the need to balance patient comfort with acquisition of high quality specimens. We had observed variable BMB quality at our institution with poor quality specimens sometimes affecting diagnosis. We thus undertook this quality improvement (QI) project to improve the quality of diagnostic BMB specimens. We used an A3 QI process to identify factors possibly influencing BMB quality. We collected baseline data on 211 BMB, with short and long-term follow-up data on a further 382 cases. We used clinical conferences to discuss data, perform peer comparisons and identify strategies to create a sustainable improvement in BMB quality. Baseline data showed that BMB length was influenced most by the individual performer, with some influence of needle gauge. Other factors such as sedation, BMB indication were noncontributory. BMB lengths improved following performer education and individual performer data comparisons (15.2 mm post vs 12.8 mm baseline, P quality, leading to easier pathology diagnosis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A combined strategy improving the expression and solubility of deoxynivalenol single-chain variable fragment antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a secondary metabolite produced by certain species of fungi, in particular Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These fungi can infest small grains causing significant economic damage to cereal crops worldwide. Animal exposure to DON can lead to reduced food or feed consumpt...

  2. Mechanisms of adaptation from a multiple to a single step recovery strategy following repeated exposure to forward loss of balance in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P Carty

    Full Text Available When released from an initial, static, forward lean angle and instructed to recover with a single step, some older adults are able to meet the task requirements, whereas others either stumble or fall. The purpose of the present study was to use the concept of margin of stability (MoS to investigate balance recovery responses in the anterior-posterior direction exhibited by older single steppers, multiple steppers and those that are able to adapt from multiple to single steps following exposure to repeated forward loss of balance. One hundred and fifty-one healthy, community dwelling, older adults, aged 65-80 years, participated in the study. Participants performed four trials of the balance recovery task from each of three initial lean angles. Balance recovery responses in the anterior-posterior direction were quantified at three events; cable release (CR, toe-off (TO and foot contact (FC, for trials performed at the intermediate lean angle. MoS was computed as the anterior-posterior distance between the forward boundary of the Base of Support (BoS and the vertical projection of the velocity adjusted centre of mass position (XCoM. Approximately one-third of participants adapted from a multiple to a single step recovery strategy following repeated exposure to the task. MoS at FC for the single and multiple step trials in the adaptation group were intermediate between the exclusively single step group and the exclusively multiple step group, with the single step trials having a significant, 3.7 times higher MoS at FC than the multiple step trials. Consistent with differences between single and multiple steppers, adaptation from multiple to single steps was attributed to an increased BoS at FC, a reduced XCoM at FC and an increased rate of BoS displacement from TO to FC. Adaptations occurred within a single test session and suggest older adults that are close to the threshold of successful recovery can rapidly improve dynamic stability following

  3. Single-Case Research Design: An Alternative Strategy for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Drue; Hawkins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The trend of utilizing evidence-based practice (EBP) in athletic training is now requiring clinicians, researchers, educators, and students to be equipped to both engage in and make judgments about research evidence. Single-case design (SCD) research may provide an alternative approach to develop such skills and inform clinical and…

  4. Strategies to improve general practitioner well-being: findings from a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Louise H; Johnson, Judith; Heyhoe, Jane; Watt, Ian; Anderson, Kevin; O'Connor, Daryl B

    2017-12-22

    Primary care physicians are particularly prone to high levels of burnout and poor well-being. Despite this, no qualitative studies have specifically investigated the best ways to improve well-being and prevent burnout in primary care physicians. Previous interventions within primary care have been person-oriented and mainly focused on mindfulness, but there has been no prior research on whether general practitioners (GPs) deem this to be the best approach. To explore strategies that could improve GP well-being and reduce or prevent burnout, based on GP perceptions of the workplace factors that affect their levels of well-being and burnout. Five focus groups were conducted, with 25 GPs (locums, salaried, trainees, and partners) in the UK, between September 2015 and February 2016. Focus groups took place in GP practices and private meeting rooms. Discussions were centered on the workplace factors that they perceived to influence their well-being, along with strategies that they use either personally, or as a practice, to try and prevent burnout. Furthermore, strategies that could feasibly be implemented by individuals and practices to improve well-being, as well as changes that are needed by groups or organizations that are external to their practice (e.g., the government) to improve the working conditions, were explored. Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcripts. Based on the contributors to burnout and workplace well-being that the participants identified, the following feasible strategies were suggested: compulsory daily coffee breaks, increasing self- and organizational awareness of the risks of burnout and mentoring or buddy systems. System-level organizational changes were voiced as vital, however, to improve the well-being of all primary care physicians. Increasing resources seemed to be the ideal solution, to allow for more administrative staff and GPs. These strategies merit further consideration by researchers, physicians, healthcare organizations

  5. Single Mode ZnO Whispering-Gallery Submicron Cavity and Graphene Improved Lasing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jitao; Lin, Yi; Lu, Junfeng; Xu, Chunxiang; Wang, Yueyue; Shi, Zengliang; Dai, Jun

    2015-07-28

    Single-mode ultraviolet (UV) laser of ZnO is still in challenge so far, although it has been paid great attention along the past decades. In this work, single-mode lasing resonance was realized in a submicron-sized ZnO rod based on serially varying the dimension of the whispering-gallery mode (WGM) cavities. The lasing performance, such as the lasing quality factor (Q) and the lasing intensity, was remarkably improved by facilely covering monolayer graphene on the ZnO submicron-rod. The mode structure evolution from multimodes to single-mode was investigated systematically based on the total internal-wall reflection of the ZnO microcavities. Graphene-induced optical field confinement and lasing emission enhancement were revealed, indicating an energy coupling between graphene SP and ZnO exciton emission. This result demonstrated the response of graphene in the UV wavelength region and extended its potential applications besides many previous reports on the multifunctional graphene/semiconductor hybrid materials and devices in advanced electronics and optoelectronics areas.

  6. How do NHS organisations plan research capacity development? Strategies, strengths, and opportunities for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Melanie; Cooke, Jo

    2018-03-22

    Research that is integral into a 'learning healthcare system' can promote cost effective services and knowledge creation. As such, research is defined as a 'core function' in UK health service organisations, and is often planned through research and development (R&D) strategies that aim to promote research activity and research capacity development (RCD). The discussion focuses around the content of ten R&D strategies for healthcare organisations in England and Scotland, with respect to RCD. These organisations were engaged with a research interest network called ACORN (Addressing Organisational Capacity to do Research Network) that included two Scottish Health Boards, four community and mental health trusts, two provincial district hospitals, and two teaching hospitals. We undertook a thematic documentary analysis of the R&D strategies which identified 11 'core activities' of RCD. The potential for building research capacity in these 'core activities' was established by reviewing them through the lens of a RCD framework. Core activities aimed to 'hard wire' RCD into health organisations. They demonstrated a complex interplay between developing a strong internal organisational infrastructure, and supporting individual career planning and skills development, in turn enabled by organisational processes. They also included activities to build stronger inter-organisational relationships and networks. Practitioner, manager and patient involvement was a cross cutting theme. The potential to demonstrate progress was included in plans through monitoring activity across all RCD principles. Strategies were primarily aimed at research production rather than research use. Developing 'actionable dissemination' was poorly addressed in the strategies, and represents an area for improvement. We describe strengths of RCD planning activities, and opportunities for improvement. We explore how national policy and research funders can influence health systems' engagement in research.

  7. Single-process versus multiple-strategy models of decision making: evidence from an information intrusion paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söllner, Anke; Bröder, Arndt; Glöckner, Andreas; Betsch, Tilmann

    2014-02-01

    When decision makers are confronted with different problems and situations, do they use a uniform mechanism as assumed by single-process models (SPMs) or do they choose adaptively from a set of available decision strategies as multiple-strategy models (MSMs) imply? Both frameworks of decision making have gathered a lot of support, but only rarely have they been contrasted with each other. Employing an information intrusion paradigm for multi-attribute decisions from givens, SPM and MSM predictions on information search, decision outcomes, attention, and confidence judgments were derived and tested against each other in two experiments. The results consistently support the SPM view: Participants seemingly using a "take-the-best" (TTB) strategy do not ignore TTB-irrelevant information as MSMs would predict, but adapt the amount of information searched, choose alternative choice options, and show varying confidence judgments contingent on the quality of the "irrelevant" information. The uniformity of these findings underlines the adequacy of the novel information intrusion paradigm and comprehensively promotes the notion of a uniform decision making mechanism as assumed by single-process models. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Feedback Providing Improvement Strategies and Reflection on Feedback Use: Effects on Students' Writing Motivation, Process, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijnhouwer, Hendrien; Prins, Frans J.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of feedback providing improvement strategies and a reflection assignment on students' writing motivation, process, and performance. Students in the experimental feedback condition (n = 41) received feedback including improvement strategies, whereas students in the control feedback condition (n = 41) received…

  9. Effectiveness of teaching strategies to improve critical thinking in nurses in clinical practice: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Carbogim, Fábio; de Oliveira, Larissa Bertacchini; de Campos, Guilherme Gushiken; de Araújo Nunes, Esther Alves; Alves, Katiusse Rezende; de Araújo Püschel, Vilanice Alves

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this review is to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of teaching strategies aimed at improving critical thinking (CT) in registered nurses who provide direct patient care. Specifically, the research question is: What are the best teaching strategies to improve CT skills in registered nurses who provide direct patient care?

  10. Hypnosis-Induced Mental Training Programmes as a Strategy to Improve the Self-Concept of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, H. M.; Louw, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    The creation and implementation of strategies that could improve student development is receiving new research interest. The main objective of the research was to establish whether hypnosis-induced mental training programmes as a strategy could alter the self-concept of students which in turn could improve their overall academic functioning. Two…

  11. Strategies to Improve Management of Shoulder Dystocia Under the AHRQ Safety Program for Perinatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Jill; Sorensen, Asta; Fowler, Christina I; Sommerness, Samantha; Burson, Katrina; Kahwati, Leila

    2018-03-01

    To assess implementation of safety strategies to improve management of births complicated by shoulder dystocia in labor and delivery units. Mixed-methods implementation evaluation. Labor and delivery units (N = 18) in 10 states participating in the Safety Program for Perinatal Care (SPPC). Shoulder dystocia is unpredictable, requiring rapid and coordinated action. Key informants were labor and delivery unit staff who implemented SPPC safety strategies. The SPPC was implemented by using the TeamSTEPPS teamwork and communication framework and tools, applying safety science principles (standardization, independent checks, and learn from defects) to shoulder dystocia management, and establishing an in situ simulation program focused on shoulder dystocia to practice teamwork and communication skills. Unit staff received training, a toolkit, technical assistance, and unit-specific feedback reports. Quantitative data on unit-reported process improvement measures and qualitative data from staff interviews were used to understand changes in use of safety principles, teamwork/communication, and in situ simulation. Use of shoulder dystocia safety strategies improved on the units. Differences between baseline and follow-up (10 months) were as follows: in situ simulation (50% vs. 89%), teamwork and communication (67% vs. 94%), standardization (67% to 94%), learning from defects (67% vs. 89%), and independent checks (56% vs. 78%). Interview data showed reasons to address management of shoulder dystocia, various approaches to implement safety practices, and facilitators and barriers to implementation. Successful management of shoulder dystocia requires a rapid, standardized, and coordinated response. The SPPC strategies to increase safety of shoulder dystocia management are scalable, replicable, and adaptable to unit needs and circumstances. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. [Single event multilevel surgery to improve gait in diplegic cerebral palsy - a prospective controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, E B; Saraph, V; Strobl, W; Steinwender, G

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate prospectively the outcome of gait-improvement surgery in children with spastic diplegia. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed in twenty children with spastic diplegia. Ten children underwent single event multilevel surgery for gait improvement. Indications for individual procedures followed a fixed set of selection criteria. The other ten children continued with their physiotherapy programme and served as a control group. A second gait analysis was performed in all children after 1.5 years. Time-distance parameters and kinematics of the pelvis, hip, knee and ankle joints in the sagittal plane served as main outcome measures The patients walked faster with an increased stride length after surgery in comparison to the conservatively treated controls. The average pelvic tilt increased slightly and the range of motion of the knee joint increased considerably after multilevel surgery. The motion at the ankle remained unchanged over the study period in both the groups. An improved knee extension during the stance phase of gait served to improve stance limb stability and facilitated an unhindered swing phase of the opposite limb. This prospective trial showed favourable changes in gait function after multilevel surgery in spastic diplegic children.

  13. Improvement on image quality of single photon ECT with converging collimator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hideo; Nohara, Norimasa; Tanaka, Eiichi

    1986-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with converging collimator system was proposed to improve quality of reconstructed images. The collimator system was designed to enhance sensitivity at the center region of field-of-view, where the probability photons escape the attenuating medium is smaller than at the off-center region. In order to evaluate efficiency of the improvement on image quality, the weighting function of projection, which is defined as relative sensitivity to the average on the lateral sampling of projection, was adopted to the image reconstruction algorithm of Radial Post Correction method. Statistical mean square noise in a reconstructed image was formulated in this method. Simulation studies using typical weighting function showed that center-enhanced weighting function brings effective improvement on image quality, especially, at the center region of cold area surrounded by annularly distributed activity. A new SPECT system was proposed as one example of the converging collimator systems. The system is composed of four gamma cameras with four fan-beam collimators, which have different focal distances one another. Simple simulation studies showed that the proposed system has reasonable center-enhanced weighting function, and the image quality based on the proposed system was fairly improved as compared with one based on uniform weighting function at the center region of the field-of-view. (author)

  14. The earth-coupled heat pump: Utilizing innovative technology in single family rehabilitation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    The study examines the feasibility of incorporating the use of earth-coupled heat pump technology in single-family housing rehabilitation projects, based on energy conservation attributes and financial considerations. Following evaluation of a theoretical model which indicated that installations of the heat pumps were feasible, the heat pumps were tested under actual conditions in five single family housing units which were part of the Urban Homesteading Program, and were matched with comparable units which did not receive special treatment. Energy consumption information was collected for all units for twelve months. Variables were identified, and the data was analyzed for individual housing units and compared with the results predicted by the theoretical model to determine the practicality of incorporating such technology in large scale rehabilitation projects. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. A comprehensive strategy for the analysis of acoustic compressibility and optical deformability on single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tie; Bragheri, Francesca; Nava, Giovanni; Chiodi, Ilaria; Mondello, Chiara; Osellame, Roberto; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Cristiani, Ilaria; Minzioni, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    We realized an integrated microfluidic chip that allows measuring both optical deformability and acoustic compressibility on single cells, by optical stretching and acoustophoresis experiments respectively. Additionally, we propose a measurement protocol that allows evaluating the experimental apparatus parameters before performing the cell-characterization experiments, including a non-destructive method to characterize the optical force distribution inside the microchannel. The chip was used to study important cell-mechanics parameters in two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 and MDA-MB231. Results indicate that MDA-MB231 has both higher acoustic compressibility and higher optical deformability than MCF7, but statistical analysis shows that optical deformability and acoustic compressibility are not correlated parameters. This result suggests the possibility to use them to analyze the response of different cellular structures. We also demonstrate that it is possible to perform both measurements on a single cell, and that the order of the two experiments does not affect the retrieved values.

  16. Improving energy efficiency: Strategies for supporting sustained market evolution in developing and transitioning countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents a framework for considering market-oriented strategies for improving energy efficiency that recognize the conditions of developing and transitioning countries, and the need to strengthen the effectiveness of market forces in delivering greater energy efficiency. It discusses policies that build markets in general, such as economic and energy pricing reforms that encourage competition and increase incentives for market actors to improve the efficiency of their energy use, and measures that reduce the barriers to energy efficiency in specific markets such that improvement evolves in a dynamic, lasting manner. The report emphasizes how different policies and measures support one another and can create a synergy in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. In addressing this topic, it draws on the experience with market transformation energy efficiency programs in the US and other industrialized countries.

  17. Process-tolerant manufacturing: An optimization strategy for improving manufacturing yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Readey, M.J.; Lovejoy, C.D. II (Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Low manufacturing yields result in high product costs, long lead times, and considerable nonrecyclable material waste. Improving these yields requires minimizing the variability introduced during processing. Processing conditions that lead to process tolerant behavior, where process variability has little effect on the final product of interest, are identified. Dramatic improvements in manufacturing yield are required if ceramics are to be cost competitive with other engineering materials. One effective approach to improving yields is to identify the processing conditions that lead to process-tolerant manufacturing. This approach derives from basic concepts of optimization theory, and is facilitated by the use of a simple graphical technique. The strategy is widely applicable to the ceramics industry, and could quickly result in lower production costs and shorter deliver times.

  18. Strategies for establishing a comprehensive quality and performance improvement program in a radiology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruskal, Jonathan B; Anderson, Stephan; Yam, Chun S; Sosna, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    To improve the safety and quality of the care that radiologists provide, and to allow radiologists and radiology personnel to remain competitive in an increasingly complex environment, it is essential that all imaging departments establish and maintain managed, comprehensive, and effective performance improvement programs. Although the structure and focus of these programs can vary, a number of common components exist, many of which are now widely mandated by organizations that regulate the field of radiology. Basic components include patient safety, process improvement, customer service, professional staff assessment, and education, each of which requires strategies for implementing continuous programs to monitor performance, analyzing and depicting data, implementing change, and meeting regulatory requirements. All of these components are part of a comprehensive quality management system in a large academic radiology department. For smaller departments or practices, the gradual introduction of one or more of these components is useful in ensuring the safety and quality of their services. (c) RSNA, 2009.

  19. Communication Strategies to Counter Stigma and Improve Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorder Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma; Pescosolido, Bernice; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Barry, Colleen L

    2018-02-01

    Despite the high burden and poor rates of treatment associated with mental illness and substance use disorders, public support for allocating resources to improving treatment for these disorders is low. A growing body of research suggests that effective policy communication strategies can increase public support for policies benefiting people with these conditions. In October 2015, the Center for Mental Health and Addiction Policy Research at Johns Hopkins University convened an expert forum to identify what is currently known about the effectiveness of such policy communication strategies and produce recommendations for future research. One of the key conclusions of the forum was that communication strategies using personal narratives to engage audiences have the potential to increase public support for policies benefiting persons with mental illness or substance use disorders. Specifically, narratives combining personal stories with depictions of structural barriers to mental illness and substance use disorder treatment can increase the public's willingness to invest in the treatment system. Depictions of mental illness and violence significantly increase public stigma toward people with mental illness and are no more effective in increasing willingness to invest in mental health services than nonstigmatizing messages about structural barriers to treatment. Future research should prioritize development and evaluation of communication strategies to increase public support for evidence-based substance use disorder policies, including harm reduction policies-such as needle exchange programs-and policies expanding treatment.

  20. Improvement in primary school adherence to the NSW Healthy School Canteen Strategy in 2007 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Anne; Nathan, Nicole; Robinson, Keira; Fox, Danushka; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-08-01

    Since 2005, a government-endorsed strategy guiding food sold in New South Wales school canteens has been in place. This study describes the changes in school canteen food between 2007 and 2010 and characterises schools most likely to adhere to strategy guidelines. Menus obtained from a cohort of primary and central schools in the Hunter New England region of New South Wales were audited using a traffic light system of classification. Energy dense, nutrient-poor or 'red' items are restricted; 'amber' are to be selected carefully and healthier 'green' items are encouraged. In 2007, 7% of schools had no red items on their menu. In 2010, this improved to 22% (P schools (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.25-3.05, P = 0.003); lower socioeconomic schools (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.02-1.78, P = 0.03); non-government (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.22-2.23, P = 0.001) and rural schools (OR = 1.7, 95% Cl = 1.30-2.25, P schools adhering to strategy guidelines had increased slightly, however, most continue to list red items for regular sale. SO WHAT? For health policies to improve public health they need implementation. Findings suggest more work is required, particularly in small schools, rural schools and non-government schools.

  1. Multi-reception strategy with improved SNR for multichannel MR imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wu

    Full Text Available A multi-reception strategy with extended GRAPPA is proposed in this work to improve MR imaging performance at ultra-high field MR systems with limited receiver channels. In this method, coil elements are separated to two or more groups under appropriate grouping criteria. Those groups are enabled in sequence for imaging first, and then parallel acquisition is performed to compensate for the redundant scan time caused by the multiple receptions. To efficiently reconstruct the data acquired from elements of each group, a specific extended GRAPPA was developed. This approach was evaluated by using a 16-element head array on a 7 Tesla whole-body MRI scanner with 8 receive channels. The in-vivo experiments demonstrate that with the same scan time, the 16-element array with twice receptions and acceleration rate of 2 can achieve significant SNR gain in the periphery area of the brain and keep nearly the same SNR in the center area over an eight-element array, which indicates the proposed multi-reception strategy and extended GRAPPA are feasible to improve image quality for MRI systems with limited receive channels. This study also suggests that it is advantageous for a MR system with N receiver channels to utilize a coil array with more than N elements if an appropriate acquisition strategy is applied.

  2. Evaluation of Strategies to Improve the Thermal Performance of Steel Frames in Curtain Wall Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Oh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, metal curtain wall systems have been widely used in high-rise buildings due to many advantages, including being lightweight, rapid construction, and aesthetic features. Since the metal frame may lead to lower energy performance, thermal discomfort, and condensation risk due to the high thermal conductivity, its thermal performance can be important for the improvement of the overall thermal performance of the curtain wall system, as well as the energy efficiency of the building envelope. This study aims to evaluate variety of design strategies to improve the thermal performance of steel curtain wall frames. Five base cases and three further steps were selected for two different head profile shapes based on a state-of-the art technology review, and their thermal transmittances were calculated through simulations according to the ISO 12631 standard which is an international standard for calculating thermal transmittance of curtain wall system. Measured results that were obtained from hot-box tests were compared with the calculated results to validate the simulation method of this study. The shape of the head profile did not strongly influence the overall thermal transmittance, and the choice of strategies for the rabbet space was more important. More effective strategies could be decided according to the steps for variation development. This result can serve as a guideline for the design of high-performance curtain wall frames.

  3. MPPT Control Strategy of PV Based on Improved Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm under Complex Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a maximum power point tracking (MPPT based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (PSFLA. The swarm intelligence algorithm (SIA has vast computing ability. The MPPT control strategies of PV array based on SIA are attracting considerable interests. Firstly, the PSFLA was proposed by adding the inertia weight factor w of PSO in standard SFLA to overcome the defect of falling into the partial optimal solutions and slow convergence speed. The proposed PSFLA algorithm increased calculation speed and excellent global search capability of MPPT. Then, the PSFLA was applied to MPPT to solve the multiple extreme point problems of nonlinear optimization. Secondly, for the problems of MPPT under complex environments, a new MPPT strategy of the PSFLA combined with recursive least square filtering was proposed to overcome the measurement noise effects on MPPT accuracy. Finally, the simulation comparisons between PSFLA and SFLA algorithm were developed. The experiment and comparison between PSLFA and PSO algorithm under complex environment were executed. The simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed MPPT control strategy based on PSFLA can suppress the measurement noise effects effectively and improve the PV array efficiency.

  4. Optimal strategy for a single-qubit gate and the trade-off between opposite types of decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicki, Robert; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Horodecki, Ryszard; Jacak, Lucjan; Machnikowski, Paweł

    2004-07-01

    We study reliable quantum-information processing (QIP) under two different types of environment. The first type is Markovian exponential decay, and the appropriate elementary strategy of protection of qubit is to apply fast gates. The second one is strongly non-Markovian and occurs solely during operations on the qubit. The best strategy is then to work with slow gates. If the two types are both present, one has to optimize the speed of gate. We show that such a trade-off is present for a single-qubit operation in a semiconductor quantum dot implementation of QIP, where recombination of exciton (qubit) is Markovian, while phonon dressing gives rise to the non-Markovian contribution.

  5. Optimal strategy for a single-qubit gate and the trade-off between opposite types of decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study reliable quantum-information processing (QIP) under two different types of environment. The first type is Markovian exponential decay, and the appropriate elementary strategy of protection of qubit is to apply fast gates. The second one is strongly non-Markovian and occurs solely during operations on the qubit. The best strategy is then to work with slow gates. If the two types are both present, one has to optimize the speed of gate. We show that such a trade-off is present for a single-qubit operation in a semiconductor quantum dot implementation of QIP, where recombination of exciton (qubit) is Markovian, while phonon dressing gives rise to the non-Markovian contribution

  6. A single dose of oxytocin nasal spray improves higher-order social cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastella, Adam J; Ward, Philip B; Hickie, Ian B; Shahrestani, Sara; Hodge, Marie Antoinette Redoblado; Scott, Elizabeth M; Langdon, Robyn

    2015-11-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in both higher and lower order social cognitive performance and these impairments contribute to poor social functioning. People with schizophrenia report poor social functioning to be one of their greatest unmet treatment needs. Recent studies have suggested the potential of oxytocin as such a treatment, but mixed results render it uncertain what aspects of social cognition are improved by oxytocin and, subsequently, how oxytocin might best be applied as a therapeutic. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of oxytocin improved higher-order and lower-order social cognition performance for patients with schizophrenia across a well-established battery of social cognition tests. Twenty-one male patients received both a single dose of oxytocin nasal spray (24IU) and a placebo, two weeks apart in a randomized within-subjects placebo controlled design. Following each administration, participants completed the social cognition tasks, as well as a test of general neurocognition. Results revealed that oxytocin particularly enhanced performance on higher order social cognition tasks, with no effects on general neurocognition. Results for individual tasks showed most improvement on tests measuring appreciation of indirect hints and recognition of social faux pas. These results suggest that oxytocin, if combined to enhance social cognition learning, may be beneficial when targeted at higher order social cognition domains. This study also suggests that these higher order tasks, which assess social cognitive processing in a social communication context, may provide useful markers of response to oxytocin in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization strategies for improving irrigation water management of lower jhelum canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.U.

    2015-01-01

    The paper includes computing crop water requirement, identification of problems and optimization strategies for improved irrigation water management of a canal command. Lower Jhelum Canal (LJC) System was selected as a case study. Possible strategies for optimization are enhancing irrigation water productivity by high value and high yield crops, adoption of resource conservation interventions (RCIs) at the farm level, improving irrigation system efficiency and its management. Estimation of daily reference evapotranspiration of LJC command was carried out by Penman Montieth -2000 method and metrological data of Sargodha for the period 1999 to 2010 was used. Crop water requirements were computed from reference evapotranspiration, crop coefficients and periods of crops for existing cropping pattern. The comparison of the crop water requirements and available water supplies indicated shortage of more than 51% in Kharif and 54% in Rabi seasons. The gap between requirements and supplies is fulfilled by groundwater in the command. The structural measures identified in the present study for improving canal management include rationalization of canal capacities in keeping with the current water requirements and availability, rehabilitation and remodeling of canal network and lining of distributaries and minors in saline groundwater areas. An array of measures and practices identified for improved water management at the farm level include: improvement and lining of watercourses, proper farm design and layout, adoption of resource conservation technologies involving laser land leveling, zero tillage, and bed-furrow irrigation method. Adopting proper cropping systems considering land suitability and capacity building of farming community in improved soil, crop and water management technologies would enhance the water productivity in an effective and sustainable manner. (author)

  8. Randomized dynamical decoupling strategies and improved one-way key rates for quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The present thesis deals with various methods of quantum error correction. It is divided into two parts. In the first part, dynamical decoupling methods are considered which have the task of suppressing the influence of residual imperfections in a quantum memory. Such imperfections might be given by couplings between the finite dimensional quantum systems (qudits) constituting the quantum memory, for instance. The suppression is achieved by altering the dynamics of an imperfect quantum memory with the help of a sequence of local unitary operations applied to the qudits. Whereas up to now the operations of such decoupling sequences have been constructed in a deterministic fashion, strategies are developed in this thesis which construct the operations by random selection from a suitable set. Formulas are derived which estimate the average performance of such strategies. As it turns out, randomized decoupling strategies offer advantages and disadvantages over deterministic ones. It is possible to benefit from the advantages of both kind of strategies by designing combined strategies. Furthermore, it is investigated if and how the discussed decoupling strategies can be employed to protect a quantum computation running on the quantum memory. It is shown that a purely randomized decoupling strategy may be used by applying the decoupling operations and adjusted gates of the quantum algorithm in an alternating fashion. Again this method can be enhanced by the means of deterministic methods in order to obtain a combined decoupling method for quantum computations analogously to the combining strategies for quantum memories. The second part of the thesis deals with quantum error-correcting codes and protocols for quantum key distribution. The focus is on the BB84 and the 6-state protocol making use of only one-way communication during the error correction and privacy amplification steps. It is shown that by adding additional errors to the preliminary key (a process called

  9. Randomized dynamical decoupling strategies and improved one-way key rates for quantum cryptography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, Oliver

    2009-05-25

    The present thesis deals with various methods of quantum error correction. It is divided into two parts. In the first part, dynamical decoupling methods are considered which have the task of suppressing the influence of residual imperfections in a quantum memory. Such imperfections might be given by couplings between the finite dimensional quantum systems (qudits) constituting the quantum memory, for instance. The suppression is achieved by altering the dynamics of an imperfect quantum memory with the help of a sequence of local unitary operations applied to the qudits. Whereas up to now the operations of such decoupling sequences have been constructed in a deterministic fashion, strategies are developed in this thesis which construct the operations by random selection from a suitable set. Formulas are derived which estimate the average performance of such strategies. As it turns out, randomized decoupling strategies offer advantages and disadvantages over deterministic ones. It is possible to benefit from the advantages of both kind of strategies by designing combined strategies. Furthermore, it is investigated if and how the discussed decoupling strategies can be employed to protect a quantum computation running on the quantum memory. It is shown that a purely randomized decoupling strategy may be used by applying the decoupling operations and adjusted gates of the quantum algorithm in an alternating fashion. Again this method can be enhanced by the means of deterministic methods in order to obtain a combined decoupling method for quantum computations analogously to the combining strategies for quantum memories. The second part of the thesis deals with quantum error-correcting codes and protocols for quantum key distribution. The focus is on the BB84 and the 6-state protocol making use of only one-way communication during the error correction and privacy amplification steps. It is shown that by adding additional errors to the preliminary key (a process called

  10. A single epidermal stem cell strategy for safe ex vivo gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droz-Georget Lathion, Stéphanie; Rochat, Ariane; Knott, Graham; Recchia, Alessandra; Martinet, Danielle; Benmohammed, Sara; Grasset, Nicolas; Zaffalon, Andrea; Besuchet Schmutz, Nathalie; Savioz-Dayer, Emmanuelle; Beckmann, Jacques Samuel; Rougemont, Jacques; Mavilio, Fulvio; Barrandon, Yann

    2015-04-01

    There is a widespread agreement from patient and professional organisations alike that the safety of stem cell therapeutics is of paramount importance, particularly for ex vivo autologous gene therapy. Yet current technology makes it difficult to thoroughly evaluate the behaviour of genetically corrected stem cells before they are transplanted. To address this, we have developed a strategy that permits transplantation of a clonal population of genetically corrected autologous stem cells that meet stringent selection criteria and the principle of precaution. As a proof of concept, we have stably transduced epidermal stem cells (holoclones) obtained from a patient suffering from recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. Holoclones were infected with self-inactivating retroviruses bearing a COL7A1 cDNA and cloned before the progeny of individual stem cells were characterised using a number of criteria. Clonal analysis revealed a great deal of heterogeneity among transduced stem cells in their capacity to produce functional type VII collagen (COLVII). Selected transduced stem cells transplanted onto immunodeficient mice regenerated a non-blistering epidermis for months and produced a functional COLVII. Safety was assessed by determining the sites of proviral integration, rearrangements and hit genes and by whole-genome sequencing. The progeny of the selected stem cells also had a diploid karyotype, was not tumorigenic and did not disseminate after long-term transplantation onto immunodeficient mice. In conclusion, a clonal strategy is a powerful and efficient means of by-passing the heterogeneity of a transduced stem cell population. It guarantees a safe and homogenous medicinal product, fulfilling the principle of precaution and the requirements of regulatory affairs. Furthermore, a clonal strategy makes it possible to envision exciting gene-editing technologies like zinc finger nucleases, TALENs and homologous recombination for next-generation gene therapy. © 2015

  11. Strategy for improving instrumentation and control in operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad Bassols, L.; Nino Perote, R.

    1996-01-01

    There are three basic reasons why nuclear power plants need to systematically upgrade their instrumentation and control equipment: Obsolete instrumentation and lack spares Little capacity of flexibility for extension Possibility of attaining better systems integration and improving systems-operations interface This article shows how to approach these issues using the following strategies: Use of distributed control systems and PLCs for control, signalling, command, communications, etc, in both nuclear and conventional applications Upgrading of process instrumentation equipment, sensors, transmitters, etc Upgrading of alarm-signalling systems In each group of equipment items consideration should be given to: Aspects regarding manufacturers-suppliers Effects on design, adaptation and documentation of operating plants Effects on the training and handling skills of operation and maintenance staff Strategy for incorporating the new system into the Plant with minimum impact on operation (Author)

  12. An improved power control strategy for hybrid AC-DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baharizadeh, Mehdi; Karshenas, Hamid Reza; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a new droop-based control strategy for hybrid microgrids (HMG) with improved power sharing. When ac microgrids (AC-MG) and dc microgrids (DC-MG) are present in a distribution grid, there is an opportunity to interconnect them via an interlinking converter (IC) and form a HMG......, the possibility of participation of IC in AC-MG reactive power adds some complexity to a HMG control system. In this paper, a new decentralized control strategy is presented for a HMG which relies on regulating the voltage magnitude of a common bus in each microgrid. In this regard, new droop characteristics...... for sources across both microgrids as well as IC are proposed. The proposed droop characteristics result in better active/reactive power sharing across both microgrids and at the same time results in better voltage regulation. The derivation of new droop characteristics is thoroughly discussed in this paper...

  13. Body weight regulation and obesity: dietary strategies to improve the metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, M J M; Saris, W H M

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses dietary strategies that may improve the metabolic profile and body weight regulation in obesity. Recent evidence demonstrated that long-term health effects seem to be more beneficial for low-glycemic index (GI) diets compared to high-protein diets. Still, these results need to be confirmed by other prospective cohort studies and long-term clinical trials, and the discrepancy between these study designs needs to be explored in more detail. Furthermore, the current literature is mixed with regard to the efficacy of increased meal frequency (or snacking) regimens in causing metabolic alterations, particularly in relation to body weight control. In conclusion, a growing body of evidence suggests that dietary strategies with the aim to reduce postprandial insulin response and increase fat oxidation, and that tend to restore metabolic flexibility, have a place in the prevention and treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

  14. Colocation as a hybrid ICT sourcing strategy to improve operational agility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Roman; Pahlke, Immanuel; Vykoukal, Jens

    2016-01-01

    and responding to market- and technology-based challenges. Accordingly, a responsive and high-performance ICT infrastructure remains a top priority for firms. Thus, new ICT sourcing strategies may lead to significant competitive advantages, especially in dynamic business environments. This article analyzes......Fast access to communication networks and the availability of high-performance information and com-munication technology (ICT) infrastructures is indis-pensable for accelerating business transactions. Yet with increased environmental volatility, companies need to become more agile in identifying...... a hybrid ICT sourcing strategy called colocation that allows firms to operate their own ICT resources in facilities of special-ized data center providers. Grounded in the theory of dynamic capabilities, we theorize and empirically ex-amine how colocation and top management support enable firms to improve...

  15. Control and decision strategies in wastewater treatment plants for operation improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Santín, Ignacio; Vilanova, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    This book examines the operation of biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), with a focus on maintaining effluent water quality while keeping operational costs within constrained limits. It includes control operation and decision schemes and is based on the use of benchmarking scenarios that yield easily reproducible results that readers can implement for their own solutions. The final criterion is the effect of the applied control strategy on plant performance – specifically, improving effluent quality, reducing costs and avoiding violations of established effluent limits. The evaluation of the different control strategies is achieved with the help of two Benchmark Simulation Models (BSM1, BSM2). Given the complexity of the biological and biochemical processes involved and the major fluctuations in the influent flow rate, controlling WWTPs poses a serious challenge. Further, the importance of control goal formulation and control structure design in relation to WWTP process control is widely recogniz...

  16. Methodological proposal for the definition of improvement strategies in logistics of SME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeimy Liseth Becerra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A methodological proposal for defining strategies of improvement in logistics of SMEs is presented as a means to fulfill a specific objective of the project Methodological design on storage logistics, acquisition, ownership of information systems and communication for Colombian SMEs, baker subsector, which currently runs the research group SEPRO, of Universidad Nacional of Colombia and supported by Colciencias. The project corresponds to the completion of the last stage of the base project, and aims to implement the corresponding target, raised in the research project that has been developing the research group SEPRO. To do this, it was made a review of the methodology used during the execution of the basic project, as well as the state of the art of techniques used in similar research for the evaluation and definition of breeding strategies in SMEs logistics. Revised techniques were compared and a proposed methodology was configured, which consists of the techniques that represented the greatest advantages for the research development.

  17. Memory support strategies and bundles: A pathway to improving cognitive therapy for depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lu; Lee, Jason Y; Harvey, Allison G

    2017-03-01

    Therapist use of memory support (MS) alongside treatment-as-usual, with the goal of enhancing patient recall of treatment contents, has been of recent interest as a novel pathway to improve treatment outcome. The memory support intervention (MSI) involves treatment providers' using 8 specific MS strategies to promote patient memory for treatment. The present study examines to what extent therapist use of MS strategies and bundles improves patient recall of treatment contents and treatment outcome. The data were drawn from a pilot RCT reported elsewhere. Participants were 48 adults (mean age = 44.27 years, 29 females) with major depressive disorder (MDD), randomized to receive 14 sessions of either CT + Memory Support (n = 25) or CT-as-usual (n = 23). Therapist use of MS was coded using the Memory Support Rating Scale. Patient memory and treatment outcomes were assessed at baseline, midtreatment (patient recall only), posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Participants in CT + Memory Support received significantly higher amount of MS relative to CT-as-usual. Although not reaching statistical significance, small-to-medium effects were observed between MS strategies and patient recall in the expected direction. Although MS variables were not significantly associated with changes in continuous depressive symptoms, MS was associated with better global functioning. MS also exhibited small to medium effects on treatment response and recurrence in the expected direction but not on remission, though these effects did not reach statistical significance. These results provide initial empirical evidence supporting an active method for therapists to implement MS strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Improving the Representation of Snow Crystal Properties with a Single-Moment Mircophysics Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Petersen, Walter A.; Case, Jonathan L.; Demek, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Single-moment microphysics schemes are utilized in an increasing number of applications and are widely available within numerical modeling packages, often executed in near real-time to aid in the issuance of weather forecasts and advisories. In order to simulate cloud microphysical and precipitation processes, a number of assumptions are made within these schemes. Snow crystals are often assumed to be spherical and of uniform density, and their size distribution intercept may be fixed to simplify calculation of the remaining parameters. Recently, the Canadian CloudSat/CALIPSO Validation Project (C3VP) provided aircraft observations of snow crystal size distributions and environmental state variables, sampling widespread snowfall associated with a passing extratropical cyclone on 22 January 2007. Aircraft instrumentation was supplemented by comparable surface estimations and sampling by two radars: the C-band, dual-polarimetric radar in King City, Ontario and the NASA CloudSat 94 GHz Cloud Profiling Radar. As radar systems respond to both hydrometeor mass and size distribution, they provide value when assessing the accuracy of cloud characteristics as simulated by a forecast model. However, simulation of the 94 GHz radar signal requires special attention, as radar backscatter is sensitive to the assumed crystal shape. Observations obtained during the 22 January 2007 event are used to validate assumptions of density and size distribution within the NASA Goddard six-class single-moment microphysics scheme. Two high resolution forecasts are performed on a 9-3-1 km grid, with C3VP-based alternative parameterizations incorporated and examined for improvement. In order to apply the CloudSat 94 GHz radar to model validation, the single scattering characteristics of various crystal types are used and demonstrate that the assumption of Mie spheres is insufficient for representing CloudSat reflectivity derived from winter precipitation. Furthermore, snow density and size

  19. A Proportional Resonant Control Strategy for Efficiency Improvement in Extended Range Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The key to control the range extender generation system is to improve the efficiency and reduce the emissions of the electric vehicle (EV. In this paper, based on the purpose of efficiency optimization, both engine and generator are matched to get a public high efficiency region, and a partial power following control strategy was presented. The engine speed is constant in the defined power range, so the output power regulation of the range extender is only realized by the adjustment of the torque of the generator. Engine speed and generator torque were decoupled. An improved proportional resonant (PR controller is adopted to achieve fast output power regulation. In order to ensure the response characteristics of the control system and to improve the robustness, the impacts on system’s characteristics and stability caused by PR controller and parameters in the inner-current loop were analyzed via frequency response characteristics. A pre-Tustin with deviation compensation is proposed for PR controller’s discretization. A stable and robust power following control method is obtained for the range extender control system. Finally, simulation and experiment of the proposed control strategy illustrated its feasibility and correctness.

  20. Road accident rates: strategies and programmes for improving road traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, K; Goniewicz, M; Pawłowski, W; Fiedor, P

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the problem of road accident rates is one of the most important health and social policy issues concerning the countries in all continents. Each year, nearly 1.3 million people worldwide lose their life on roads, and 20-50 million sustain severe injuries, the majority of which require long-term treatment. The objective of the study was to identify the most frequent, constantly occurring causes of road accidents, as well as outline actions constituting a basis for the strategies and programmes aiming at improving traffic safety on local and global levels. Comparative analysis of literature concerning road safety was performed, confirming that although road accidents had a varied and frequently complex background, their causes have changed only to a small degree over the years. The causes include: lack of control and enforcement concerning implementation of traffic regulation (primarily driving at excessive speed, driving under the influence of alcohol, and not respecting the rights of other road users (mainly pedestrians and cyclists), lack of appropriate infrastructure and unroadworthy vehicles. The number of fatal accidents and severe injuries, resulting from road accidents, may be reduced through applying an integrated approach to safety on roads. The strategies and programmes for improving road traffic should include the following measures: reducing the risk of exposure to an accident, prevention of accidents, reduction in bodily injuries sustained in accidents, and reduction of the effects of injuries by improvement of post-accident medical care.

  1. Enhanced change detection performance reveals improved strategy use in avid action video game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kait; Fleck, Mathias S; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that avid action video game players (VGPs) outperform non-video game players (NVGPs) on a variety of attentional and perceptual tasks. However, it remains unknown exactly why and how such differences arise; while some prior research has demonstrated that VGPs' improvements stem from enhanced basic perceptual processes, other work indicates that they can stem from enhanced attentional control. The current experiment used a change-detection task to explore whether top-down strategies can contribute to VGPs' improved abilities. Participants viewed alternating presentations of an image and a modified version of the image and were tasked with detecting and localizing the changed element. Consistent with prior claims of enhanced perceptual abilities, VGPs were able to detect the changes while requiring less exposure to the change than NVGPs. Further analyses revealed this improved change detection performance may result from altered strategy use; VGPs employed broader search patterns when scanning scenes for potential changes. These results complement prior demonstrations of VGPs' enhanced bottom-up perceptual benefits by providing new evidence of VGPs' potentially enhanced top-down strategic benefits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Strategies for Improving the Performance of Sensors Based on Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohan; Mao, Shun; Chen, Junhong; Huang, Jia

    2018-01-29

    Organic semiconductors (OSCs) have been extensively studied as sensing channel materials in field-effect transistors due to their unique charge transport properties. Stimulation caused by its environmental conditions can readily change the charge-carrier density and mobility of OSCs. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) can act as both signal transducers and signal amplifiers, which greatly simplifies the device structure. Over the past decades, various sensors based on OFETs have been developed, including physical sensors, chemical sensors, biosensors, and integrated sensor arrays with advanced functionalities. However, the performance of OFET-based sensors still needs to be improved to meet the requirements from various practical applications, such as high sensitivity, high selectivity, and rapid response speed. Tailoring molecular structures and micro/nanofilm structures of OSCs is a vital strategy for achieving better sensing performance. Modification of the dielectric layer and the semiconductor/dielectric interface is another approach for improving the sensor performance. Moreover, advanced sensory functionalities have been achieved by developing integrated device arrays. Here, a brief review of strategies used for improving the performance of OFET sensors is presented, which is expected to inspire and provide guidance for the design of future OFET sensors for various specific and practical applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A control strategy for induction motors fed from single phase supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Lars Møller

    1993-01-01

    It is often required that a three-phased asynchronous motor can run at variable speed, which makes it necessary to use a three-phase inverter driven from a DC-source. Today, most inverters are driven from the network using a simple diode bridge and an electrolytic capacitor. The problem...... with the simple diode bridge and the electrolytic capacitor is that current is only drawn for short periods, which gives rise to harmonic currents in the network. For small drive systems (motor+inverter), i.e. less than 1.5 kW, a single phase network outlet is often used. The author describes a method whereby...

  4. Elective single-embryo transfer: persuasive communication strategies can affect choice in a young British population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, O B A; Purewal, S

    2011-12-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of the framing effect and fear appeals to inform young people about the risks of multiple births and the option of selecting elective single-embryo transfer (eSET). A non-patient student sample (age (mean±SD) 23±5.5 years; n=321) were randomly allocated to one of seven groups: (1) framing effect: (1a) gain and (1b) loss frame; (2) fear appeal: (2a) high, (2b) medium and (2c) low fear; or (3) a control group: (3a) education and (3b) non-education. The primary outcome measure was the Attitudes towards Single Embryo Transfer questionnaire, before exposure to the messages (time 1) and immediately afterwards (time 2). Results revealed participants in the high fear, medium fear and gain condition demonstrated the most positive and significant differences (Ppersuasive communication techniques on a student population to promote immediate and hypothetical eSET preferences is more successful at promoting eSET than merely reporting educational content. Future research should investigate its application in a clinical population. A multiple pregnancy is a health risk to both infant and mother following IVF treatment. The aims of this study were to test the effectiveness of two persuasive communication techniques (the framing effect and fear appeals) to inform young people about the risks of multiple births and the hypothetical option of selecting elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) (i.e., only one embryo is transferred to the uterus using IVF treatment). A total of 321 non-patient student sample (mean age 23) were randomly allocated to read a message from one of seven groups: (1) framing effect: (1a) gain and (1b) loss frame; (2) fear appeal: (2a) high, (2b) medium and (2c) low fear; or (3) a control group: education (3a) and (3b) non-education. Participants completed the Attitudes towards Single Embryo Transfer questionnaire, before exposure to the messages (time 1) and immediately afterwards (time 2). Results revealed that participants

  5. Can an individualized and comprehensive care strategy improve urinary incontinence (UI) among nursing home residents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yukiko; Nagata, Kumiko; Tanaka, Tomoe; Kuwano, Koichi; Endo, Hidetoshi; Otani, Tetsuya; Nakazawa, Minato; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is one of the most common and distressing conditions among nursing home residents. Although scheduled care is usually provided for them, incontinence care should be individualized regarding going to the toilet, changing diapers, and taking food and water. We have developed an individualized and comprehensive care strategy to address the problem. We conducted an intervention study that involved training chiefs of staffs, who in turn trained other staffs, and encouraging residents. A total of 153 elderly subjects selected from 1290 residents in 17 nursing homes were eligible to receive our individualized and comprehensive care. The goals of the care strategy were (i) to complete meal intake; (ii) to take fluids up to 1500 ml/day; (iii) to urinate in a toilet; (iv) to spend over 6h out of bed; and (v) to reduce time spent in wet diapers. We explained the aims of our strategy to the chiefs of staff of each nursing home and instructed them to encourage residents to take an active part in our individualized and comprehensive care strategy for 12 weeks. For 3 days before and after that period, we assessed the changes in fluid volume intake, time spent in wet diapers, size of diaper pads, and urination habits. The result was that fluid volume intake significantly increased (pwet diapers decreased (p<0.001). The number of residents wearing diapers decreased as did the size of pads during the day (p=0.0017). The proportion of residents using diapers at night was reduced and those using toilets at night increased (p=0.007). This study suggests that such an individualized and comprehensive care strategy can offer a measurable improvement in UI care.

  6. Improving the Robustness of Electromyogram-Pattern Recognition for Prosthetic Control by a Postprocessing Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electromyogram (EMG contains rich information for motion decoding. As one of its major applications, EMG-pattern recognition (PR-based control of prostheses has been proposed and investigated in the field of rehabilitation robotics for decades. These prostheses can offer a higher level of dexterity compared to the commercially available ones. However, limited progress has been made toward clinical application of EMG-PR-based prostheses, due to their unsatisfactory robustness against various interferences during daily use. These interferences may lead to misclassifications of motion intentions, which damage the control performance of EMG-PR-based prostheses. A number of studies have applied methods that undergo a postprocessing stage to determine the current motion outputs, based on previous outputs or other information, which have proved effective in reducing erroneous outputs. In this study, we proposed a postprocessing strategy that locks the outputs during the constant contraction to block out occasional misclassifications, upon detecting the motion onset using a threshold. The strategy was investigated using three different motion onset detectors, namely mean absolute value, Teager–Kaiser energy operator, or mechanomyogram (MMG. Our results indicate that the proposed strategy could suppress erroneous outputs, during rest and constant contractions in particular. In addition, with MMG as the motion onset detector, the strategy was found to produce the most significant improvement in the performance, reducing the total errors up to around 50% (from 22.9 to 11.5% in comparison to the original classification output in the online test, and it is the most robust against threshold value changes. We speculate that motion onset detectors that are both smooth and responsive would further enhance the efficacy of the proposed postprocessing strategy, which would facilitate the clinical application of EMG-PR-based prosthetic control.

  7. Can Preoperative Intramuscular Single-Dose Dexamethasone Improve Patient-Centered Outcomes Following Third Molar Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dajani, Mahmoud

    2017-08-01

    Because of increased attention focused on administering dexamethasone to treat third molar surgical complications, this study investigated the efficacy of single-dose dexamethasone in managing postoperative complications after impacted third molar surgery. Pain intensity and analgesic intake, patients' discomfort, limitation of oral function, and limitation of daily activities were assessed. This triple-blinded split-mouth randomized controlled clinical trial included patients 18 to 30 years old who underwent randomized bilateral extractions of impacted mandibular third molars during 2 consecutive sessions. Each patient was given a single-dose intramuscular injection of dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) preoperatively in 1 session and a placebo in the other session. Data were collected daily for 7 postoperative days, and 14 patient-centered outcomes were interpreted. A 2-tailed P value less than .05 was considered significant. All 32 patients (100%) enrolled completed the study. When administered dexamethasone, patients reported less pain (P ≤ .007), took fewer analgesics (P ≤ .002), reported less swelling (P ≤ .007), had less difficulty in eating (P ≤ .024), had less difficulty in enjoying food (P ≤ .005), had less difficulty in speech (P = .043), had less trismus (P = .005), were absent less from school or work (P ≤ .016), and had less disruption of daily activity (P ≤ .042). The differences between the 2 conditions in bleeding, malaise, and sleep disturbance were not significant (P > .05). Prophylactic dexamethasone administered intramuscularly before third molar surgery should be recommended as a safe and effective strategy for decreasing pain and discomfort and enhancing oral functions and daily activities, unless contraindicated. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effectiveness of strategies to change organisational culture to improve healthcare performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmelli, Elena; Flodgren, Gerd; Beyer, Fiona; Baillie, Nick; Schaafsma, Mary Ellen; Eccles, Martin P

    2011-04-03

    Organisational culture is an anthropological metaphor used to inform research and consultancy and to explain organisational environments. In recent years, increasing emphasis has been placed on the need to change organisational culture in order to improve healthcare performance. However, the precise function of organisational culture in healthcare policy often remains underspecified and the desirability and feasibility of strategies to be adopted have been called into question. The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of strategies to change organisational culture in order to improve healthcare performance. We searched the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, Business and Management, EThOS, Index to Theses, Intute, HMIC, SIGLE, and Scopus until October 2009. The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) was searched for related reviews. We also searched the reference lists of all papers and relevant reviews identified, and we contacted experts in the field for advice on further potential studies. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or well designed quasi-experimental studies (controlled clinical trials (CCTs), controlled before and after studies (CBAs), and interrupted time series (ITS) analyses). Studies could be set in any type of healthcare organisation in which strategies to change organisational culture in order to improve healthcare performance were applied. Our main outcomes were objective measures of professional performance and patient outcome. The search strategy yielded 4,239 records. After the full text assessment, two CBA studies were included in the review. They both assessed the impact of interventions aimed at changing organisational culture, but one evaluated the impact on work-related and personal outcomes while the other measured clinical outcomes. Both were at high risk of

  9. The effectiveness of strategies to change organisational culture to improve healthcare performance: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baillie Nick

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organisational culture is an anthropological metaphor used to inform research and consultancy and to explain organisational environments. In recent years, increasing emphasis has been placed on the need to change organisational culture in order to improve healthcare performance. However, the precise function of organisational culture in healthcare policy often remains underspecified and the desirability and feasibility of strategies to be adopted have been called into question. The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of strategies to change organisational culture in order to improve healthcare performance. Methods We searched the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, Business and Management, EThOS, Index to Theses, Intute, HMIC, SIGLE, and Scopus until October 2009. The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE was searched for related reviews. We also searched the reference lists of all papers and relevant reviews identified, and we contacted experts in the field for advice on further potential studies. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs or well designed quasi-experimental studies (controlled clinical trials (CCTs, controlled before and after studies (CBAs, and interrupted time series (ITS analyses. Studies could be set in any type of healthcare organisation in which strategies to change organisational culture in order to improve healthcare performance were applied. Our main outcomes were objective measures of professional performance and patient outcome. Results The search strategy yielded 4,239 records. After the full text assessment, two CBA studies were included in the review. They both assessed the impact of interventions aimed at changing organisational culture, but one evaluated the impact on work-related and personal outcomes while the other

  10. Current strategies for improving access and adherence to antiretroviral therapies in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scanlon ML

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael L Scanlon,1,2 Rachel C Vreeman1,21Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2USAID, Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH Partnership, Eldoret, KenyaAbstract: The rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART significantly reduced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-related morbidity and mortality, but good clinical outcomes depend on access and adherence to treatment. In resource-limited settings, where over 90% of the world’s HIV-infected population resides, data on barriers to treatment are emerging that contribute to low rates of uptake in HIV testing, linkage to and retention in HIV care systems, and suboptimal adherence rates to therapy. A review of the literature reveals limited evidence to inform strategies to improve access and adherence with the majority of studies from sub-Saharan Africa. Data from observational studies and randomized controlled trials support home-based, mobile and antenatal care HIV testing, task-shifting from doctor-based to nurse-based and lower level provider care, and adherence support through education, counseling and mobile phone messaging services. Strategies with more limited evidence include targeted HIV testing for couples and family members of ART patients, decentralization of HIV care, including through home- and community-based ART programs, and adherence promotion through peer health workers, treatment supporters, and directly observed therapy. There is little evidence for improving access and adherence among vulnerable groups such as women, children and adolescents, and other high-risk populations and for addressing major barriers. Overall, studies are few in number and suffer from methodological issues. Recommendations for further research include health information technology, social-level factors like HIV stigma, and new research directions in cost-effectiveness, operations, and implementation. Findings from this review make a

  11. MASLAHAH AND STRATEGY TO ESTABLISH A SINGLE STATE-OWNED ISLAMIC BANK IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Nugroho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective - The market share of Islamic banking in Indonesia has continually decreased from 4.89% in 2013 to 4.85% in 2014 and 4.83% in 2015. As a result, the idea to establish a single state owned Islamic Bank occurs.  This conceptual paper aims to contribute the maslahah framework regarding the future of Islamic banks in Indonesia.Methods - The methodology that used in this paper is a qualitative method which supported by quantitative data that align with the theory of the benefit of the Ummah (maslahah and the community theory.Results - The breakthrough to increase the market share and deliver Indonesia becoming an Islamic financial hub is the option to convert the BRI as the biggest retail bank to a full fledge Islamic bank, and the next action is to acquire the Islamic banks which are subsidiary of conventional state-owned banks (Bank Syariah Mandiri-BSM, Bank Nasional Indonesia Syariah-BNIS, Bank Rakyat Indonesia Syariah-BRIS, and Bank Tabungan Negara Syariah-BTNS.  Conclusions - Establishing a single state-owned Islamic bank is beneficial for the future of Islamic banks in Indonesia

  12. Single-cell genomics reveal metabolic strategies for microbial growth and survival in an oligotrophic aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Kennedy, David W.; Castelle, Cindy; Field, Erin; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan

    2014-02-09

    Bacteria from the genus Pedobacter are a major component of microbial assemblages at Hanford Site and have been shown to significantly change in abundance in response to the subsurface intrusion of Columbia River water. Here we employed single cell genomics techniques to shed light on the physiological niche of these microorganisms. Analysis of four Pedobacter single amplified genomes (SAGs) from Hanford Site sediments revealed a chemoheterotrophic lifestyle, with the potential to exist under both aerobic and microaerophilic conditions via expression of both aa3­-type and cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidases. These SAGs encoded a wide-range of both intra-and extra­-cellular carbohydrate-active enzymes, potentially enabling the degradation of recalcitrant substrates such as xylan and chitin, and the utilization of more labile sugars such as mannose and fucose. Coupled to these enzymes, a diversity of transporters and sugar-binding molecules were involved in the uptake of carbon from the extracellular local environment. The SAGs were enriched in TonB-dependent receptors (TBDRs), which play a key role in uptake of substrates resulting from degradation of recalcitrant carbon. CRISPR-Cas mechanisms for resisting viral infections were identified in all SAGs. These data demonstrate the potential mechanisms utilized for persistence by heterotrophic microorganisms in a carbon-limited aquifer, and hint at potential linkages between observed Pedobacter abundance shifts within the 300 Area subsurface and biogeochemical shifts associated with Columbia River water intrusion.

  13. Single-layer centrifugation through colloid selects improved quality of epididymal cat sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatdarong, K; Thuwanut, P; Morrell, J M

    2010-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the: 1) extent of epithelial and red blood cell contamination in epididymal cat sperm samples recovered by the cutting method; 2) efficacy of simple washing, single-layer centrifugation (SLC), and swim-up for selecting epididymal cat sperm; and 3) effects of freezing and thawing on cat sperm selected by various techniques. Ten unit samples were studied; each contained sperm from the cauda epididymides of four cats (total, approximately 200 x 10(6) sperm) and was equally allocated into four treatments: 1) simple washing, 2) single-layer centrifugation through colloid prior to cryopreservation (SLC-PC), 3) single-layer centrifugation through colloid after cryopreservation (SLC-AC), and 4) swim-up. Centrifugation (300 x g for 20 min) was done for all methods. The SLC-PC had a better recovery rate than the SLC-AC and swim-up methods (mean+/-SD of 16.4+/-8.7, 10.7+/-8.9, and 2.3+/-1.7%, respectively; Pblood cell contamination than simple washed samples (0.02+/-0.01, 0.02+/-0.04, 0.03+/-0.04, and 0.44+/-0.22 x 10(6) cells/mL, respectively; P0.05), SLC-PC yielded the highest percentage of sperm with normal midpieces and tails (P0.05). In conclusion, both SLC-PC and swim-up improved the quality of epididymal cat sperm, including better morphology, membrane and DNA integrity, and removal of cellular contamination. However, SLC had a better sperm recovery rate than swim-up. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved Outcomes Following a Single Session Web-Based Intervention for Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, S N; Lubman, D I; Jackson, A C; Dowling, N A

    2017-03-01

    Research suggests online interventions can have instant impact, however this is yet to be tested with help-seeking adults and in particular those with problem gambling. This study seeks to determine the immediate impact of a single session web-based intervention for problem gambling, and to examine whether sessions evaluated positively by clients are associated with greater improvement. The current study involved 229 participants classified as problem gamblers who agreed to participate after accessing Gambling Help Online between November 2010 and February 2012. Almost half were aged under 35 years of age (45 %), male (57 %) as well as first time treatment seekers (62 %). Participants completed measures of readiness to change and distress both prior to and post-counselling. Following the provision of a single-session of counselling, participants completed ratings of the character of the session (i.e., degree of depth and smoothness) post-counselling. A significant increase in confidence to resist and urge to gamble and a significant decrease in distress (moderate effect size; d = .56 and .63 respectively) was observed after receiving online counselling. A hierarchical regression indicated the character of the session was a significant predictor of change in confidence, however only the sub-scale smoothness was a significant predictor of change in distress. This was the case even after controlling for pre-session distress, session word count and client characteristics (gender, age, preferred gambling activity, preferred mode of gambling, gambling severity, and preferred mode of help-seeking). These findings suggest that single session web-based counselling for problem gambling can have immediate benefits, although further research is required to examine the impact on longer-term outcomes.

  15. Improving Student Learning Outcomes Marketing Strategy Lesson By Applying SFAE Learning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winda Nur Rohmawati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research objectives for improving student learning outcomes on the subjects of marketing strategy through the implementation of model learning SFAE. This type of research this is a class action research using a qualitative approach which consists of two cycles with the subject Marketing X grade SMK YPI Darussalam 2 Cerme Gresik Regency. This research consists of four stages: (1 the Planning Act, (2 the implementation of the action, (3 observations (observation, and (4 Reflection. The result of the research shows that cognitive and affective learning outcomes of students have increased significantly.

  16. Methods and Strategies to Impute Missing Genotypes for Improving Genomic Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Peipei

    Genomic prediction has been widely used in dairy cattle breeding. Genotype imputation is a key procedure to efficently utilize marker data from different chips and obtain high density marker data with minimizing cost. This thesis investigated methods and strategies to genotype imputation...... for improving genomic prediction. The results indicate the IMPUTE2 and Beagle are accurate imputation methods, while Fimpute is a good alternative for routine imputation with large data set. Genotypes of non-genotyped animals can be accurately imputed if they have genotyped porgenies. A combined reference...

  17. Factors Affecting Listening Comprehension and Strategies for Improvement: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naci Yildiz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Listening comprehension is the ability to receive the messages sent by speakers. Yet it is not always easy to decipher these messages and construct meaning. There are factors that should be taken into account in listening comprehension. These factors enable listening materials become comprehensible for the learners. This study has tried to explore the factors which affect listening comprehension of learners. This study has mainly focused on factors which affect listening comprehension of Iraqi foreign language learners at Ishik University. The study has listed ten factors in terms of their significance and provided some useful strategies to improve listening comprehension.

  18. Modelling and Simulation of Single-Phase Series Active Compensator for Power Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun Kumar; Mathuria, Kirti; Singh, Bhim; Bhuvaneshwari, G.

    2017-10-01

    A single-phase active series compensator is proposed in this work to reduce harmonic currents at the ac mains and to regulate the dc link voltage of a diode bridge rectifier (DBR) that acts as the front end converter for a voltage source inverter feeding an ac motor. This ac motor drive is used in any of the domestic, commercial or industrial appliances. Under fluctuating ac mains voltages, the dc link voltage of the DBR depicts wide variations and hence the ac motor is used at reduced rating as compared to its name-plate rating. The active series compensator proposed here provides dual functions of improving the power quality at the ac mains and regulating the dc link voltage thus averting the need for derating of the ac motor.

  19. Performance improvement for GPS single frequency kinematic relative positioning under poor satellite visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wantong

    2016-01-01

    Reliable ambiguity resolution in difficult environments such as during setting/rising events of satellites or during limited satellite visibility is a significant challenge for GPS single frequency kinematic relative positioning. Here, a recursive estimation method combining both code and carrier phase measurements was developed that can tolerate recurrent satellite setting/rising and accelerate initialization in motion. We propose an ambiguity dimension expansion method by utilizing the partial ambiguity relevance of previous and current observations. In essence, this method attempts to integrate all useful information into the recursive estimation equation and performs a better least squares adjustment. Using this method, the success rate of the extended ambiguity estimation is independent of the satellite setting and shows robust performance despite poor satellite visibility. Our model allows integration of other useful information into the recursive process. Actual experiments in urban environments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can improve the reliability and availability of relative positioning.

  20. Fulfilling the law of a single independent variable and improving the result of mathematical educational research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardimin, H.; Arcana, N.

    2018-01-01

    Many types of research in the field of mathematics education apply the Quasi-Experimental method and statistical analysis use t-test. Quasi-experiment has a weakness that is difficult to fulfil “the law of a single independent variable”. T-test also has a weakness that is a generalization of the conclusions obtained is less powerful. This research aimed to find ways to reduce the weaknesses of the Quasi-experimental method and improved the generalization of the research results. The method applied in the research was a non-interactive qualitative method, and the type was concept analysis. Concepts analysed are the concept of statistics, research methods of education, and research reports. The result represented a way to overcome the weaknesses of quasi-Experiments and T-test. In addition, the way was to apply a combination of Factorial Design and Balanced Design, which the authors refer to as Factorial-Balanced Design. The advantages of this design are: (1) almost fulfilling “the low of single independent variable” so no need to test the similarity of the academic ability, (2) the sample size of the experimental group and the control group became larger and equal; so it becomes robust to deal with violations of the assumptions of the ANOVA test.

  1. Barriers and strategies for improving communication between inpatient and outpatient mental health clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Susan E; Sherin, Jonathan E; Chan, Jeffrey A; Hermann, Richard C

    2011-11-01

    To explore hospital leaders' perceptions of organisational factors as barriers and/or facilitators in improving inpatient-outpatient (IP-OP) communication. Semistructured in-person interviews. Constant comparative method of qualitative data. Inpatient psychiatry units in 33 general medical/surgical and specialty psychiatric hospitals in California and Massachusetts (USA). Psychiatry chair/chief, service director or medical director. Importance to leadership, resources, organisational structure and culture. A majority of hospital leaders rated the IP-OP communication objective as highly or moderately important. Hospitals with good IP-OP communication had structures in place to support communication or had changed/implemented new procedures to enhance communication, and anticipated clinicians would 'buy in' to the goal of improved communication. Hospitals reporting no improvement efforts were less likely to have structures supporting IP-OP communication, anticipated resistance among clinicians and reported a need for technological resources such as electronic health records, integrated IT and secure online communication. Most leaders reported a need for additional staff time and information, knowledge or data. For many hospitals, successfully improving communication will require overcoming organisational barriers such as cultures not conducive to change and lack of resources and infrastructure. Creating a culture that values communication at discharge may help improve outcomes following hospitalisation, but changes in healthcare delivery in the past few decades may necessitate new strategies or changes at the systems level to address barriers to effective communication.

  2. Comparison of a math fact rehearsal and a mnemonic strategy approach for improving math fact fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M; Burns, Matthew K; Kanive, Rebecca; Ysseldyke, James E

    2013-12-01

    The current study used a randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of a practice-based intervention and a mnemonic strategy intervention on the retention and application of single-digit multiplication facts with 90 third- and fourth-grade students with math difficulties. Changes in retention and application were assessed separately using one-way ANCOVAs in which students' pretest scores were included as the covariate. Students in the practice-based intervention group had higher retention scores (expressed as the total number of digits correct per minute) relative to the control group. No statistically significant between-group differences were observed for application scores. Practical and theoretical implications for interventions targeting basic multiplication facts are discussed. © 2013.

  3. Elective single-embryo transfer improves cumulative pregnancy outcome in young patients but not in women of advanced reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Akihisa; Morishima, Kaoru; Harada, Miyuki; Hirata, Tetsuya; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to assess the significance of elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) in older women. The outcomes of assisted reproductive technology between 2001 and 2013 at single institution were retrospectively evaluated. Cumulative live birth rates (CLBRs) in one oocyte retrieval cycle were compared between those who underwent eSET and multiple embryo transfer (MET) in fresh cycles. The outcomes of 429 eSET cycles and 965 MET cycles were compared. CLBRs in eSET were higher than those of MET in women under 37 and were comparable in women aged 37 and over. The analysis of the outcomes separately in three age subgroups showed a significantly higher CLBR in young eSET (aged under 37) than that in young MET and similar CLBR between older (aged 37-40 and over 40) eSET and MET. Multiple birth rates were lower in eSET in all age groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that, in women aged under 37, number of frozen embryos, presence of good-quality embryos, and eSET were significantly related to cumulative live birth. In women aged between 37 and 40, age and number of frozen embryos were significantly related, while eSET was not. eSET in women under 37 resulted in increased CLBR compared with MET. In women aged between 37 and 40, CLBR in eSET group was similar with that in MET group. In both age groups, eSET reduced multiple birth rates. The significance of eSET in older women is limited presently, and further research on the strategy to improve cumulative outcomes is necessary.

  4. Improving preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Fragile X syndrome: two new powerful single-round multiplex indirect and direct tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Emmanuelle; Nicod, Jean-Christophe; Gardes, Nathalie; Kastner, Claire; Becker, Nicolas; Celebi, Catherine; Pirrello, Olivier; Rongières, Catherine; Koscinski, Isabelle; Gosset, Philippe; Moutou, Céline

    2016-02-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of an unstable CGG repeat located in the Fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) gene. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) can be proposed to couples at risk of transmitting the disease, that is, when the female carries a premutation or a full mutation. We describe two new single-cell, single-round multiplex PCR for indirect and direct diagnosis of FraX on biopsied embryos. These tests include five unpublished, highly heterozygous simple sequence repeats, and the co-amplification of non-expanded CGG repeats for the direct test. Heterozygosity of the new markers ranged from 69 to 81%. The mean rate of non-informative marker included in the tests was low (26% and 23% for the new indirect and direct tests, respectively). This strategy allows offering a PGD for FraX to 96% of couples requesting it in our centre. A conclusive genotype was obtained in all cells with a rate of cells presenting an allele dropout ranging from 17% for the indirect test to 26% for the direct test. The new indirect test was applied for eight PGD cycles: 32 embryos were analysed, 9 were transferred and 3 healthy babies were born. By multiplexing these highly informative markers, robustness of the diagnosis is improved and the loss of potentially healthy embryos (because they are non-diagnosed or misdiagnosed) is limited. This may increase the chances of success of couples requesting a PGD for FraX, in particular, when premature ovarian insufficiency in premutated women leads to a reduced number of embryos available for analysis.

  5. Improving appropriate use of echocardiography and single-photon emission computed tomographic myocardial perfusion imaging: a continuous quality improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas V; Rose, Geoffrey A; Fenner, Deborah J; Rozario, Nigel L

    2014-07-01

    Appropriate use criteria for cardiovascular imaging have been published, but compliance in practice has been incomplete, with persistent high rates of inappropriate use. The aim of this study was to show the efficacy of a continuous quality improvement (CQI) initiative to favorably influence the appropriate use of outpatient transthoracic echocardiography and single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in a large cardiovascular practice. In this prospective study, a multiphase CQI initiative was implemented, and its impact on ordering patterns for outpatient transthoracic echocardiography and SPECT MPI was assessed. Between November and December 2010, a baseline analysis of the application of appropriate use criteria to indications for outpatient transthoracic echocardiographic studies (n = 203) and SPECT MPI studies (n = 205) was performed, with studies categorized as "appropriate," "inappropriate," "uncertain," or "unclassified." The CQI initiative was then begun, with (1) clinician education, including didactic lectures and case-based presentations with audience participation; (2) system changes in ordering processes, with redesigned image ordering forms; and (3) peer review and feedback. A follow-up analysis was then performed between June and August 2012, with categorization of indications for transthoracic echocardiographic studies (n = 206) and SPECT MPI studies (n = 206). At baseline, 73.9% of echocardiographic studies were categorized as appropriate, 16.7% as inappropriate, 5.9% as uncertain, and 3.4% as unclassified. Similarly, for SPECT MPI studies 71.7% were categorized as appropriate, 18.5% as inappropriate, 7.8% as uncertain, and 1.9% as unclassified. Separate analysis of the two most important categories, appropriate and inappropriate, demonstrated a significant improvement after the CQI initiative, with a 63% reduction in inappropriate echocardiographic studies (18.5% vs 6.9%, P = .0010) and a 46% reduction

  6. Travel demand management : a toolbox of strategies to reduce single\\0x2010occupant vehicle trips and increase alternate mode usage in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The report provides a suite of recommended strategies to reduce single-occupant vehicle traffic in the urban : areas of Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona, which are presented as a travel demand management toolbox. The : toolbox includes supporting research...

  7. A Behavior-Based Strategy for Single and Multi-Robot Autonomous Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Jesus S.; Chaimowicz, Luiz; Soto, Rogelio; Gordillo, José L.; Alanís-Reyes, Edén A.; Carrillo-Arce, Luis C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of autonomous exploration of unknown environments with single and multiple robots. This is a challenging task, with several potential applications. We propose a simple yet effective approach that combines a behavior-based navigation with an efficient data structure to store previously visited regions. This allows robots to safely navigate, disperse and efficiently explore the environment. A series of experiments performed using a realistic robotic simulator and a real testbed scenario demonstrate that our technique effectively distributes the robots over the environment and allows them to quickly accomplish their mission in large open spaces, narrow cluttered environments, dead-end corridors, as well as rooms with minimum exits.

  8. A Behavior-Based Strategy for Single and Multi-Robot Autonomous Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Gordillo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the problem of autonomous exploration of unknown environments with single and multiple robots. This is a challenging task, with several potential applications. We propose a simple yet effective approach that combines a behavior-based navigation with an efficient data structure to store previously visited regions. This allows robots to safely navigate, disperse and efficiently explore the environment. A series of experiments performed using a realistic robotic simulator and a real testbed scenario demonstrate that our technique effectively distributes the robots over the environment and allows them to quickly accomplish their mission in large open spaces, narrow cluttered environments, dead-end corridors, as well as rooms with minimum exits.

  9. Engineering evaluation of intrusion prevention strategies for single-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, previously implemented actions to prevent liquid intrusion into out-of-service single-shell tanks (SSTs), i.e., interim isolation or partial interim isolation, are investigated and expanded to identify additional cost-effective intrusion prevention techniques that could be reasonably taken until SSTs are ready for waste retrieval. Possible precipitation, groundwater, and condensation pathways and internal tank connections that could provide possible pathways for liquids are examined. Techniques to block identified potential pathways are developed and costed to determine the potential benefit to costed trade-offs for implementing the techniques. (Note: Surveillance data show increased waste surface levels for several SSTs that indicate possible liquid intrusion despite interim isolation activities.)

  10. Strategies for Probing Nanometer-Scale Electrocatalysts: From Single Particles to Catalyst-Membrane Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeniewski, Carol [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry

    2014-01-20

    The project primary objectives are to prepare and elucidate the promoting properties of materials that possess high activity for the conversion of hydrogen and related small molecules (water, oxygen, carbon monoxide and methanol) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. One area of research has focused on the study of catalyst materials. Protocols were developed for probing the structure and benchmarking the activity of Pt and Pt bimetallic nanometer-scale catalyst against Pt single crystal electrode standards. A second area has targeted fuel cell membrane and the advancement of simple methods mainly based on vibrational spectroscopy that can be applied broadly in the study of membrane structure and transport properties. Infrared and Raman methods combined with least-squares data modeling were applied to investigate and assist the design of robust, proton conductive membranes, which resist reactant crossover.

  11. Single-species versus dual-species probiotic supplementation as an emerging therapeutic strategy for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, G; Jamaluddin, R; Mohtarrudin, N; Ahmad, Z; Khazaai, H; Parvaneh, M

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have reported beneficial effects of specific probiotics on obesity. However, the difference in the anti-obesity effects of probiotics as single species and dual species is still uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to compare the efficacy of single and dual species of bacteria on markers of obesity in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups of varying diets as follows: standard diet, high fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, HFD supplemented with Bifidobacterium longum and HFD supplemented with a mixture of these two bacterial species. After 15 weeks of supplementation, the animals were examined for changes in body weight, body fat, total count of bacteria in fecal, blood serum lipid profile, leptin, adiponectin and inflammatory biomarkers. Histological analysis of the liver and adipose tissue was performed and the hepatic mRNA expression levels of genes related to lipid metabolism were measured. It was found that probiotic supplementation of either B. longum or a mixture of B. longum and LcS bacteria significantly reduced weight and triglycerides in the HFD groups. Supplementation of B. longum bacteria showed better results in terms of modulating leptin level, fat mass, adipocyte size and lipoprotein lipase expression, as well as increasing adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-γ expression compared to dual species of bacteria. No significant differences were observed in the total count of fecal bacteria, glucose and inflammatory biomarker levels between supplemented groups. B. longum supplementation in obesity was more beneficial in metabolic profile changes than the mixture species. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B

  12. Anthropometry-corrected exposure modeling as a method to improve trunk posture assessment with a single inclinometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Driel, Robin; Trask, Catherine; Johnson, Peter W; Callaghan, Jack P; Koehoorn, Mieke; Teschke, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Measuring trunk posture in the workplace commonly involves subjective observation or self-report methods or the use of costly and time-consuming motion analysis systems (current gold standard). This work compared trunk inclination measurements using a simple data-logging inclinometer with trunk flexion measurements using a motion analysis system, and evaluated adding measures of subject anthropometry to exposure prediction models to improve the agreement between the two methods. Simulated lifting tasks (n=36) were performed by eight participants, and trunk postures were simultaneously measured with each method. There were significant differences between the two methods, with the inclinometer initially explaining 47% of the variance in the motion analysis measurements. However, adding one key anthropometric parameter (lower arm length) to the inclinometer-based trunk flexion prediction model reduced the differences between the two systems and accounted for 79% of the motion analysis method's variance. Although caution must be applied when generalizing lower-arm length as a correction factor, the overall strategy of anthropometric modeling is a novel contribution. In this lifting-based study, by accounting for subject anthropometry, a single, simple data-logging inclinometer shows promise for trunk posture measurement and may have utility in larger-scale field studies where similar types of tasks are performed.

  13. A 10-bit 120-MS/s pipelined ADC with improved switch and layout scaling strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jia; Xu Lili; Li Fule; Wang Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    A 10 bit, 120 MS/s two-channel pipelined analog-to digital converter (ADC) is presented. The ADC is featured with improved switch by using the body effect to improve its conduction performance. A scaling down strategy is proposed to get more efficiency in the OTAs layout design. Implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology, the ADC's prototype occupied an area of 2.05 × 1.83 mm 2 . With a sampling rate of 120-MS/s and an input of 4.9 MHz, the ADC achieves a spurious-free-dynamic range of 74.32 dB and signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio of 55.34 dB, while consuming 220-mW/channel at 3-V supply. (paper)

  14. A review of behavioral tailoring strategies for improving medication adherence in serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Record, Elizabeth J; Palmer-Bacon, Jessica

    2016-06-01

    Nonadherence to psychopharmacological treatments poses a significant challenge to treatment success in individuals with serious mental illness, with upwards of 60% of people not taking their psychiatric medications as prescribed. Nonadherence is associated with adverse outcomes, including exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms, impaired functioning, increased hospitalizations and emergency room use, and increased health care costs. Whereas interventions using psychoeducation or cognitive approaches, such as motivational interviewing, have largely proven ineffective in improving adherence, approaches employing behavioral tailoring that incorporate medication taking into the daily routine and/or use environmental supports have shown promise. Recently, adherence-enhancing behavioral tailoring interventions that utilize novel technologies, such as electronic monitors and mobile phones, have been developed. Although interventions utilizing these platforms have the potential for widespread dissemination to a broad range of individuals, most require further empirical testing. This paper reviews selected behavioral tailoring strategies that aim to improve medication adherence and other functional outcomes among individuals with serious mental illness.

  15. Software Process Improvement: Supporting the Linking of the Software and the Business Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Adriano Bessa; Rocha, Ana Regina; Lima, Andreia Cavalcanti

    The market is becoming more and more competitive, a lot of products and services depend of the software product and the software is one of the most important assets, which influence the organizations’ businesses. Considering this context, we can observe that the companies must to deal with the software, developing or acquiring, carefully. One of the perspectives that can help to take advantage of the software, supporting effectively the business, is to invest on the organization’s software processes. This paper presents an approach to evaluate and improve the processes assets of the software organizations, based on internationally well-known standards and process models. This approach is supported by automated tools from the TABA Workstation and is part of a wider improvement strategy constituted of three layers (organizational layer, process execution layer and external entity layer). Moreover, this paper presents the experience of use and their results.

  16. Power partial-discard strategy to obtain improved performance for simulated moving bed chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ji-Woo; Kim, Kyung-Min; Yoon, Tae-Ung; Kim, Seung-Ik; Jung, Tae-Sung; Han, Sang-Sup; Bae, Youn-Sang

    2017-12-22

    A novel power partial-discard (PPD) strategy was developed as a variant of the partial-discard (PD) operation to further improve the separation performance of the simulated moving bed (SMB) process. The PPD operation varied the flow rates of discard streams by introducing a new variable, the discard amount (DA) as well as varying the reported variable, discard length (DL), while the conventional PD used fixed discard flow rates. The PPD operations showed significantly improved purities in spite of losses in recoveries. Remarkably, the PPD operation could provide more enhanced purity for a given recovery or more enhanced recovery for a given purity than the PD operation. The two variables, DA and DL, in the PPD operation played a key role in achieving the desired purity and recovery. The PPD operations will be useful for attaining high-purity products with reasonable recoveries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Strategies for improving disability awareness and social inclusion of children and young people with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, S; McPherson, A C

    2012-11-01

    Children and youth with disabilities are at a higher risk of being socially excluded or bullied while at school compared with their typically developing peers. This study explored disabled children's suggestions for improving social inclusion. Fifteen children with cerebral palsy were interviewed or took part in a group discussion about social inclusion and bullying. All interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The children and youth described several strategies to help improve social inclusion at school including: (1) disclosure of condition and creating awareness of disability; (2) awareness of bullying; (3) developing a peer support network and building self-confidence; and (4) suggestions on what teachers can do. It is recommended that children's suggestions be considered within the classroom context to enhance the social inclusion and participation of children with disabilities. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Improving Cerebral Blood Flow after Arterial Recanalization: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amki, Mohamad; Wegener, Susanne

    2017-12-09

    Ischemic stroke is caused by a disruption in blood supply to a region of the brain. It induces dysfunction of brain cells and networks, resulting in sudden neurological deficits. The cause of stroke is vascular, but the consequences are neurological. Decades of research have focused on finding new strategies to reduce the neural damage after cerebral ischemia. However, despite the incredibly huge investment, all strategies targeting neuroprotection have failed to demonstrate clinical efficacy. Today, treatment for stroke consists of dealing with the cause, attempting to remove the occluding blood clot and recanalize the vessel. However, clinical evidence suggests that the beneficial effect of post-stroke recanalization may be hampered by the occurrence of microvascular reperfusion failure. In short: recanalization is not synonymous with reperfusion. Today, clinicians are confronted with several challenges in acute stroke therapy, even after successful recanalization: (1) induce reperfusion, (2) avoid hemorrhagic transformation (HT), and (3) avoid early or late vascular reocclusion. All these parameters impact the restoration of cerebral blood flow after stroke. Recent advances in understanding the molecular consequences of recanalization and reperfusion may lead to innovative therapeutic strategies for improving reperfusion after stroke. In this review, we will highlight the importance of restoring normal cerebral blood flow after stroke and outline molecular mechanisms involved in blood flow regulation.

  19. Strategies for Lipid Production Improvement in Microalgae as a Biodiesel Feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L D; Li, Z H; Hiltunen, E

    2016-01-01

    In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae. Until now, many original studies regarding the approaches for enhanced microalgal lipid production have been reported in an effort to push forward the production of microalgal biodiesel. However, the current literature demonstrates fragmented information available regarding the strategies for lipid production improvement. From the systematic point of view, the review highlights the main approaches for microalgal lipid accumulation induction to expedite the application of microalgal biodiesel as an alternative to fossil diesel for sustainable environment. Of the several strategies discussed, the one that is most commonly applied is the design of nutrient (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur) starvation or limitation. Other viable approaches such as light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, salinity stress, and metal influence can also achieve enhanced microalgal lipid production.

  20. Improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization with local search strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maolong Xi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization, which was motivated by analysis of particle swarm optimization and quantum system, has shown compared performance in finding the optimal solutions for many optimization problems to other evolutionary algorithms. To address the problem of premature, a local search strategy is proposed to improve the performance of quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. In proposed local search strategy, a super particle is presented which is a collection body of randomly selected particles’ dimension information in the swarm. The selected probability of particles in swarm is different and determined by their fitness values. To minimization problems, the fitness value of one particle is smaller; the selected probability is more and will contribute more information in constructing the super particle. In addition, in order to investigate the influence on algorithm performance with different local search space, four methods of computing the local search radius are applied in local search strategy and propose four variants of local search quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. Empirical studies on a suite of well-known benchmark functions are undertaken in order to make an overall performance comparison among the proposed methods and other quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. The simulation results show that the proposed quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization variants have better advantages over the original quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization.

  1. Assessment and monitoring of patients receiving chemotherapy for multiple myeloma: strategies to improve outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiman B

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Beth Faiman, Jason Valent Department of Hematologic Oncology and Blood Disorders, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: Improved understanding as to the biology of multiple myeloma (MM and the bone marrow microenvironment has led to the development of new drugs to treat MM. This explosion of new and highly effective drugs has led to dramatic advances in the management of MM and underscores the need for supportive care. Impressive and deep response rates to chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, and small molecule drugs provide hope of a cure or prolonged remission for the majority of individuals. For most patients, long-term, continuous therapy is often required to suppress the malignant plasma cell clone, thus requiring clinicians to become more astute in assessment, monitoring, and intervention of side effects as well as monitoring response to therapy. Appropriate diagnosis and monitoring strategies are essential to ensure that patients receive the appropriate chemotherapy and supportive therapy at relapse, and that side effects are appropriately managed to allow for continued therapy and adherence to the regimen. Multiple drugs with complex regimens are currently available with varying side effect profiles. Knowledge of the drugs used to treat MM and the common adverse events will allow for preventative strategies to mitigate adverse events and prompt intervention. The purpose of this paper is to review updates in the diagnosis and management of MM, and to provide strategies for assessment and monitoring of patients receiving chemotherapy for MM. Keywords: multiple myeloma, treatment, symptoms, assessment, monitoring, symptom management, targeted therapies

  2. Strategies for Lipid Production Improvement in Microalgae as a Biodiesel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae. Until now, many original studies regarding the approaches for enhanced microalgal lipid production have been reported in an effort to push forward the production of microalgal biodiesel. However, the current literature demonstrates fragmented information available regarding the strategies for lipid production improvement. From the systematic point of view, the review highlights the main approaches for microalgal lipid accumulation induction to expedite the application of microalgal biodiesel as an alternative to fossil diesel for sustainable environment. Of the several strategies discussed, the one that is most commonly applied is the design of nutrient (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur starvation or limitation. Other viable approaches such as light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, salinity stress, and metal influence can also achieve enhanced microalgal lipid production.

  3. An Improved Harmony Search Based on Teaching-Learning Strategy for Unconstrained Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouheng Tuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Harmony search (HS algorithm is an emerging population-based metaheuristic algorithm, which is inspired by the music improvisation process. The HS method has been developed rapidly and applied widely during the past decade. In this paper, an improved global harmony search algorithm, named harmony search based on teaching-learning (HSTL, is presented for high dimension complex optimization problems. In HSTL algorithm, four strategies (harmony memory consideration, teaching-learning strategy, local pitch adjusting, and random mutation are employed to maintain the proper balance between convergence and population diversity, and dynamic strategy is adopted to change the parameters. The proposed HSTL algorithm is investigated and compared with three other state-of-the-art HS optimization algorithms. Furthermore, to demonstrate the robustness and convergence, the success rate and convergence analysis is also studied. The experimental results of 31 complex benchmark functions demonstrate that the HSTL method has strong convergence and robustness and has better balance capacity of space exploration and local exploitation on high dimension complex optimization problems.

  4. Strategies for Lipid Production Improvement in Microalgae as a Biodiesel Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. H.; Hiltunen, E.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae. Until now, many original studies regarding the approaches for enhanced microalgal lipid production have been reported in an effort to push forward the production of microalgal biodiesel. However, the current literature demonstrates fragmented information available regarding the strategies for lipid production improvement. From the systematic point of view, the review highlights the main approaches for microalgal lipid accumulation induction to expedite the application of microalgal biodiesel as an alternative to fossil diesel for sustainable environment. Of the several strategies discussed, the one that is most commonly applied is the design of nutrient (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur) starvation or limitation. Other viable approaches such as light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, salinity stress, and metal influence can also achieve enhanced microalgal lipid production. PMID:27725942

  5. Improving Cerebral Blood Flow after Arterial Recanalization: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy in Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad El Amki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is caused by a disruption in blood supply to a region of the brain. It induces dysfunction of brain cells and networks, resulting in sudden neurological deficits. The cause of stroke is vascular, but the consequences are neurological. Decades of research have focused on finding new strategies to reduce the neural damage after cerebral ischemia. However, despite the incredibly huge investment, all strategies targeting neuroprotection have failed to demonstrate clinical efficacy. Today, treatment for stroke consists of dealing with the cause, attempting to remove the occluding blood clot and recanalize the vessel. However, clinical evidence suggests that the beneficial effect of post-stroke recanalization may be hampered by the occurrence of microvascular reperfusion failure. In short: recanalization is not synonymous with reperfusion. Today, clinicians are confronted with several challenges in acute stroke therapy, even after successful recanalization: (1 induce reperfusion, (2 avoid hemorrhagic transformation (HT, and (3 avoid early or late vascular reocclusion. All these parameters impact the restoration of cerebral blood flow after stroke. Recent advances in understanding the molecular consequences of recanalization and reperfusion may lead to innovative therapeutic strategies for improving reperfusion after stroke. In this review, we will highlight the importance of restoring normal cerebral blood flow after stroke and outline molecular mechanisms involved in blood flow regulation.

  6. Improving oversight of the graduate medical education enterprise: one institution's strategies and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrin, Lawrence B; Arana, George W; Medio, Franklin J; Ybarra, Angela F N; Clarke, Harry S

    2006-05-01

    Accreditation organizations, financial stakeholders, legal systems, and regulatory agencies have increased the need for accountability in educational processes and curricular outcomes of graduate medical education. This demand for greater programmatic monitoring has placed pressure on institutions with graduate medical education (GME) programs to develop greater oversight of these programs. Meeting these challenges requires development of new GME management strategies and tools for institutional GME administrators to scrutinize programs, while still allowing these programs the autonomy to develop and implement educational methods to meet their unique training needs. At the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), senior administrators in the college of medicine felt electronic information management was a critical strategy for success and thus proceeded to carefully select an electronic residency management system (ERMS) to provide functionality for both individual programs and the GME enterprise as a whole. Initial plans in 2002 for a phased deployment had to be changed to a much more rapid deployment due to regulatory issues. Extensive communication and cooperation among MUSC's GME leaders resulted in a successful deployment in 2003. Evaluation completion rates have substantially improved, duty hours are carefully monitored, patient safety has improved through more careful oversight of residents' procedural privileges, regulators have been pleased, and central GME administrative visibility of program performance has dramatically improved. The system is now being expanded to MUSC's medical school and other health professions colleges. The authors discuss lessons learned and opportunities and challenges ahead, which include improving tracking of development of procedural competency, establishing and monitoring program performance standards, and integrating the ERMS with GME reimbursement systems.

  7. Cells Respond to Distinct Nanoparticle Properties with Multiple Strategies As Revealed by Single-Cell RNA-Seq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Hugh D.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Chrisler, William B.; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Hu, Dehong; Szymanski, Craig J.; Xie, Yumei; Melby, Eric S.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Taylor, Ronald C.; Grate, Eva K.; Cooley, Scott K.; McDermott, Jason E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Orr, Galya

    2016-11-22

    The impact of distinct nanoparticle (NP) properties on cellular response and ultimately human health is unclear. This gap is partially due to experimental difficulties in achieving uniform NP loads in the studied cells, creating heterogeneous populations with some cells “overloaded” while other cells are loaded with few or no NPs. Yet gene expression studies have been conducted in the population as a whole, identifying generic responses, while missing unique responses due to signal averaging across many cells, each carrying different loads. Here we applied single-cell RNA-Seq to alveolar epithelial cells carrying defined loads of aminated or carboxylated quantum dots (QDs), showing higher or lower toxicity, respectively. Interestingly, cells carrying lower loads responded with multiple strategies, mostly with upregulated processes, which were nonetheless coherent and unique to each QD type. In contrast, cells carrying higher loads responded more uniformly, with mostly downregulated processes that were shared across QD types. Strategies unique to aminated QDs showed strong upregulation of stress responses, coupled in some cases with regulation of cell cycle, protein synthesis and organelle activities. In contrast, strategies unique to carboxylated QDs showed upregulation of DNA repair and RNA activities, and decreased regulation of cell division, coupled in some cases with upregulation of stress responses and ATP related functions. Together, our studies suggest scenarios where higher NP loads lock cells into uniform responses, mostly shutdown of cellular processes, whereas lower loads allow for unique responses to each NP type that are more diversified, proactive defenses or repairs of the NP insults.

  8. An optimal two-bout strategy with phase change material cooling vests to improve comfort in hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Mariam; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Ouahrani, Djamel; Ghali, Kamel; Khater, Beatrice

    2018-02-01

    Cooling vests incorporating phase change material (PCM) packets are used to improve comfort of workers in hot environments. This work aims to investigate by modeling and experimentation the effect of dividing the working duration into two bouts, where different PCM melting temperatures are used in each bout. An integrated bio-heat and fabric-PCM model predictions of physiological and subjective votes are validated via active human subject testing at hot conditions. A parametric study is performed to select, at two conditions (40°C and 45°C), the optimal PCM melting temperatures of the two bouts that would result with similar thermal comfort and sensation to the optimal single-bout case. The optimal case achieves most reductions in energy use for PCM regeneration, PCM carried weight and material cost. The results of the parametric study showed that heat storage is reduced in the second bout due to wearing the second vest with lower PCM melting temperature, thus thermal comfort and sensation are significantly improved. The optimal case at the 40°C environment uses a vest with 21°C PCMs in the first bout and a vest with 21°C PCMs in the second bout (V21→V21). At 45°C, the optimal case is V18→V10 with significant PCM weight reductions from the reference single bout case by a minimum of 47%. Thus, the issue of extra carried weight that affect metabolism and ease of movement when applying continuous cooling during work have been mitigated by using the two-bout strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Single image super-resolution based on compressive sensing and improved TV minimization sparse recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnukumar, S.; Wilscy, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a single image Super-Resolution (SR) method based on Compressive Sensing (CS) and Improved Total Variation (TV) Minimization Sparse Recovery. In the CS framework, low-resolution (LR) image is treated as the compressed version of high-resolution (HR) image. Dictionary Training and Sparse Recovery are the two phases of the method. K-Singular Value Decomposition (K-SVD) method is used for dictionary training and the dictionary represents HR image patches in a sparse manner. Here, only the interpolated version of the LR image is used for training purpose and thereby the structural self similarity inherent in the LR image is exploited. In the sparse recovery phase the sparse representation coefficients with respect to the trained dictionary for LR image patches are derived using Improved TV Minimization method. HR image can be reconstructed by the linear combination of the dictionary and the sparse coefficients. The experimental results show that the proposed method gives better results quantitatively as well as qualitatively on both natural and remote sensing images. The reconstructed images have better visual quality since edges and other sharp details are preserved.

  10. Single crystalline essentially cubic hafnium, zirconium pyrophosphate luminescent material having improved brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenot, C.F.; Mathrs, J.E.; Shaffer, F.N.

    1980-01-01

    It has been discovered that when (Hf,Zr) P 2 O 5 is prepared by reacting a mixutre of MO 2 , A 2 O and P 2 O 5 . (where M is zirconium, and A is an alkali metal, lithium, sodium or potassium), large single-crystalline cubic particles result, which when separated from an aqueous-soluble alkali metal-containing second phase exhibit improved intensity of ultraviolet emissions upon x-ray excitation. When used in x-ray intensifying screens with conventional silver halide emulsion x-ray film, such improved lumiescent material The invention includes material of the composition (Hfsub(1-x)Zrsub(x)) P 2 O 7 , where range from 0 to 1, having strong emission peaking at about 340 nm with controlled persistence, and also includes a method for producing such luminescent materials, and x-ray intensifying screens incorporating such materials having values of x within the range of about 0.005 to 0.5. (LL)

  11. [A project to improve the validity rate for nursing staff operating single door autoclave sterilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Hung; Li, Cheng-Chang; Chou, Chuan-Yu; Chen, Shu-Hwa

    2009-08-01

    This project was designed to improve the low validity rate for nurses responsible to operate single door autoclave sterilizers in the operating room. By investigating the current status, we found that the nursing staff validity rate of cognition on the autoclave sterilizer was 85%, and the practice operating check validity rate was only 80%. Such was due to a lack of in-service education. Problems with operation included: 1. Unsafe behaviors - not following standard procedure, lacking relevant operating knowledge and absence of a check form; 2. Unsafe environment - the conveying steam piping was typically not covered and lacked operation marks. Recommended improvement measures included: 1. holding in-service education; 2. generating an operation procedure flow chart; 3. implementing obstacle eliminating procedures; 4. covering piping to prevent fire and burns; 5. performing regular checks to ensure all procedures are followed. Following intervention, nursing staff cognition rose from 85% to 100%, while the operation validity rate rose from 80% to 100%. These changes ensure a safer operating room environment, and helps facilities move toward a zero accident rate in the healthcare environment.

  12. Improving the biophysical properties of anti-ricin single-domain antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendrick B. Turner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs derived from heavy-chain only antibodies produced in camelids are attractive immunoreagents due to their small size, high affinity, and ability to refold and retain binding activity after denaturation. It has been observed that some sdAbs, however, exhibit undesirable properties including reduced solubility when subjected to heating or upon long-term storage at production-relevant concentrations, which can limit their usefulness. Using a multi-step, rational design approach that included consensus-sequence driven sequence repairs, the alteration of net protein charge, and the introduction of non-native disulfide bonds, augmented solubility and increased melting temperatures were achieved. The improved sdAbs tolerated storage in solution at high concentration (10 mg/mL and were able to withstand multiple cycles of heating to high temperature (70 °C. This work demonstrates a pathway for improving the biophysical characteristics of sdAbs which is essential for expanding their utility for both diagnostic as well as therapeutic applications.

  13. Parameter Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Based Direct-Current Vector Control Strategy for Solar PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAMMALVAR, P.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper projects Parameter Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PIPSO based direct current vector control technology for the integration of photovoltaic array in an AC micro-grid to enhance the system performance and stability. A photovoltaic system incorporated with AC micro-grid is taken as the pursuit of research study. The test system features two power converters namely, PV side converter which consists of DC-DC boost converter with Perturbation and Observe (P&O MPPT control to reap most extreme power from the PV array, and grid side converter which consists of Grid Side-Voltage Source Converter (GS-VSC with proposed direct current vector control strategy. The gain of the proposed controller is chosen from a set of three values obtained using apriori test and tuned through the PIPSO algorithm so that the Integral of Time multiplied Absolute Error (ITAE between the actual and the desired DC link capacitor voltage reaches a minimum and allows the system to extract maximum power from PV system, whereas the existing d-q control strategy is found to perform slowly to control the DC link voltage under varying solar insolation and load fluctuations. From simulation results, it is evident that the proposed optimal control technique provides robust control and improved efficiency.

  14. An integrative review: instructional strategies to improve nurses' retention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    Recognizing and responding to a cardiac arrest in the hospital setting is a high stress, high anxiety event for all healthcare providers. It requires the performance of several basic, but extremely important cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills and response priorities. If not executed correctly and in a timely manner, a bad outcome may result. Poor retention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills and priorities is well documented in the literature. An integrative review of the evidence was conducted to answer the question, "Is there a more effective training method to improve nurses' retention of CPR priorities during an in hospital cardiac arrest as compared to traditional American Heart Association training? "This review evaluated high fidelity and low fidelity simulation training, online or computer-based training and video instruction as potential teaching strategies focusing on CPR priorities. The role of deliberate practice is discussed. The strongest evidence suggests that a teaching plan employing brief, frequent, repetitive or deliberate practice used in collaboration with low fidelity or high fidelity simulation may be a potential strategy to improve nurses' retention of CPR priorities over time.

  15. Strengthening strategies to improve adolescent reproductive health through materials development. Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This article concerns a 3-year materials development project that was implemented by the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association and the Bureau of Non-Physical Family Resilience. The project was developed in response to the need for improving adolescent reproductive health in Jakarta, Yogyakarta and West Java, where adolescent problems have been increasing during the last decade. The project's long-term goal is centered on raising the commitment of families to instill in their children a better understanding of adolescent reproductive health concepts and desirable family values. For its short-term objectives, the project seeks to develop a basic information, education and communication (IEC)/counseling strategy and policy in support of a family-centered approach to adolescent reproductive health; promote better understanding of reproductive health needs of adolescents among the policy-makers; and improving the IEC/counseling skills of personnel at the community level. The project used five strategies to achieve its goals; namely, 1) preparation of a media development and production plan; 2) conducting a needs assessment; 3) production of three types of materials; 4) implementation of three key activities; and 5) periodic monitoring of activities.

  16. Improving washing strategies of human mesenchymal stem cells using negative mode expanded bed chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Bárbara; Silva, Ricardo J S; Aguiar, Tiago; Serra, Margarida; Daicic, John; Maloisel, Jean-Luc; Clachan, John; Åkerblom, Anna; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Peixoto, Cristina; Alves, Paula M

    2016-01-15

    The use of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in clinical applications has been increasing over the last decade. However, to be applied in a clinical setting hMSC need to comply with specific requirements in terms of identity, potency and purity. This study reports the improvement of established tangential flow filtration (TFF)-based washing strategies, further increasing hMSC purity, using negative mode expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography with a new multimodal prototype matrix based on core-shell bead technology. The matrix was characterized and a stable, expanded bed could be obtained using standard equipment adapted from what is used for conventional packed bed chromatography processes. The effect of different expansion rates on cell recovery yield and protein removal capacity was assessed. The best trade-off between cell recovery (89%) and protein clearance (67%) was achieved using an intermediate expansion bed rate (1.4). Furthermore, we also showed that EBA chromatography can be efficiently integrated on the already established process for the downstream processing (DSP) of hMSC, where it improved the washing efficiency more than 10-fold, recovering approximately 70% of cells after global processing. This strategy showed not to impact cell viability (>95%), neither hMSC's characteristics in terms of morphology, immunophenotype, proliferation, adhesion capacity and multipotent differentiation potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An Improved Bank-to-Turn Command Allocation Strategy for TH-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J.; Zhang, S.; Yang, H.; Jiang, Z.; Hu, F.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, an improved bank-to-turn (BTT) command allocation strategy is investigated for TH-III (a small solid rocket) to track the standard trajectory. In a BTT system, the angle of attack and roll angle are principally used to guide the rocket, which are usually calculated through a polar converting logic (PCL) from the acceleration commands generated by traditional skid-to-turn (STT) guidance command in the prevalent guidance law. Whereas, the used arctangent operation in PCL would result in a mathematical singularity problem when the vertical acceleration command approaches zero. To circumvent this problem, an improved shortest path adjustment method in roll channel is proposed to calculate the roll angle command in the body coordinate frame. And when the vertical acceleration command approaches zero, an auxiliary STT maneuver is introduced to ensure providing adequate maneuver ability for vehicles in any directions. In order to decrease the magnitude of abrupt change of roll angle, two reasonable precondition is proposed for the maneuver form switch. Finally, the robustness and validity of the proposed allocation strategy are demonstrated through the Monte-Carlo numerical simulations under parameters uncertainties.

  18. THE USE OF FACEBOOK GROUP DISCUSSION TO IMPROVE READING STRATEGIES, AN ACTION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Yuliani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of technology influence people‘s life in many aspects including the process of teaching and learning in university, school etc. Some social medias are popular in society, one of them is Facebook. This social networking can be used for any purposes Such as interacting, marketing, publishing, learning etc. The study aims to prove whether Facebook‘s group discussion can be effectively used to improve reading strategies which are normally developed through classroom interaction. It is an action research design involving one group consisting of 37 students randomly sampled out from a population of 198 students. A plan-act-observe-reflect design of the study will be carried out in two cycles. Each cycle involves pretest, treatment and post test. Cycle 1 is undertaken to see if there is a significant difference between the pretest and post test upon treatment. The indicator of success of the treatment is that the post test outscores the pretest. If it does, then Cycle 2 will be conducted to convince the results. If the two cycles show an increase in the mean scores, it can be claimed that the method is effective. In other words, Facebook‘s group discussion can be effectively used to improve reading strategies.

  19. Linguistic Strategies for Improving Informed Consent in Clinical Trials Among Low Health Literacy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Janice L; Neil, Jordan M; Strekalova, Yulia A; Sarge, Melanie A

    2017-03-01

    Improving informed consent to participate in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) is a key challenge in cancer communication. The current study examines strategies for enhancing randomization comprehension among patients with diverse levels of health literacy and identifies cognitive and affective predictors of intentions to participate in cancer RCTs. Using a post-test-only experimental design, cancer patients (n = 500) were randomly assigned to receive one of three message conditions for explaining randomization (ie, plain language condition, gambling metaphor, benign metaphor) or a control message. All statistical tests were two-sided. Health literacy was a statistically significant moderator of randomization comprehension (P = .03). Among participants with the lowest levels of health literacy, the benign metaphor resulted in greater comprehension of randomization as compared with plain language (P = .04) and control (P = .004) messages. Among participants with the highest levels of health literacy, the gambling metaphor resulted in greater randomization comprehension as compared with the benign metaphor (P = .04). A serial mediation model showed a statistically significant negative indirect effect of comprehension on behavioral intention through personal relevance of RCTs and anxiety associated with participation in RCTs (P literacy, with a benign metaphor being particularly effective for patients at the lower end of the health literacy spectrum. The theoretical model demonstrates the cognitive and affective predictors of behavioral intention to participate in cancer RCTs and offers guidance on how future research should employ communication strategies to improve the informed consent processes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Improvements in kinematics, muscle activity and pain during functional tasks in females with patellofemoral pain following a single patterned electrical stimulation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaviano, Neal R; Huntsman, Stephanie; Dembeck, Ashley; Hart, Joseph M; Saliba, Susan

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with patellofemoral pain present with altered hip muscle activation, faulty movement patterns, and pain during functional tasks. Examining new treatment options to address these impairments may better treat those with patellofemoral pain. The purpose of this study was to determine if patterned electrical stimulation to the lower extremity affects muscle activity, movement patterns, and pain following a single treatment. Fifteen females with patellofemoral pain were randomized to receive a single 15-minute treatment of either a patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation or a sham. Peak kinematics of the knee, hip, and trunk, electromyography and pain were examined pre and post-intervention during a single leg squat and lateral step-down task. Group means and pre/post reduced kinematic values were also plotted during the entire task with 90% confidence intervals to identify differences in movement strategies. No baseline differences were found in peak kinematics between groups. No pre to post-intervention differences in peak knee, hip and trunk kinematics were found, however differences were seen when the quality of movement across the entire tasks was assessed. The electrical stimulation group had improved knee flexion and hip abduction during the lateral step-down. A significant improvement in gluteus medius activation following patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation occurred during the step-down (P=0.039). Significant pain improvements were also seen in both the single leg squat (P=0.025) and lateral step-down (P=0.006). A single treatment of patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation improved muscle activation, lower extremity kinematics during functional tasks, and pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.