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Sample records for single stool specimen

  1. Role of microscopic examination of stool specimens in the diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stain of the stool in diagnosis of campylobacter infection, using culture as the gold standard. A total of 226 stool specimens were obtained from children with acute diarrhoea, attending Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Stool smears were ...

  2. Investigation of Entamoeba histolytica in stool specimens by ELISA during a year

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    Mehmet Sinan Dal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate Entamoebahistolytica in the stool samples that have beensent to microbiology laboratory by ELISA method.Materials and methods: This study was performed on800 stool specimens belonging to different age groupsand different patients sent to Microbiology Laboratory ofa State Hospital between January 2009 and December2009.Results: In this study Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cystsand/or trophozoites were observed in 31 (3.9% out of atotal of 800 stool specimens which were examined bynative-lugol. Entamoeba histolytica specific antigen wasinvestigated by ELISA in all stool specimens. Entamoebahistolytica specific antigen was detected in 12 (1.5% ofthese stool specimens. The diagnosis of amoebiasis forthe patients whose ELISA tests were “positive” and appropriatetherapy was begun.Conclusion: Entamoeba histolytica in the stool samplesshould be investigated and unnecessary treatmentsshould not given to patients. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2(1:50-54

  3. Consistency of direct microscopic examination and ELISA in detection of Giardia in stool specimen among children

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    Zohreh Torabi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the consistency of direct microscopic examination and ELISA for determination of Giadia in stool specimen. Method: Study population consisted of children with any clinical symptoms of Giardia infestation since last two weeks. Fresh stool specimen was collected from each child. The stools specimens were assessed by two methods of direct microscopic examination and ELISA.The degree of agreement between direct stool exam and ELISA was calculated by Cohen's kappa coefficient. Results: In this study, 124 children with age range 2-12 years were investigated. A total of 64 (61.7% and 79 (65.7% of children had Giardia by direct stool exam and ELISA test respectively. There was association between frequency of constipation and Giardia infection (P=0.036. The Cohen's kappa coefficient calculated for degree of agreement between direct stool exam and ELISA showed κ=0.756 (P<0.001. Conclusions: The frequency of Giardia infection in symptomatic children was high and there was high agreement rate between ELISA and direct stool smear.

  4. Evaluation of a PCR/DNA Probe Colorimetric Membrane Assay for Identification of Campylobacter spp. in Human Stool Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Evelyn; Glennon, Maura; Hanley, Shirley; Murray, Anne-Marie; Cormican, Martin; Smith, Terry; Maher, Majella

    2001-01-01

    DNA was extracted from 50 human stool specimens using the QIAamp DNA stool minikit. PCR amplification was followed by post-PCR hybridization to DNA probes specific for the Campylobacter genus, Campylobacter jejuni, and Campylobacter coli in a colorimetric membrane assay. Thirty-two of 38 culture-positive specimens were PCR/DNA probe positive for C. jejuni. The assay is rapid and simple and can be applied to stool specimens for the detection of Campylobacter.

  5. Use of string test and stool specimens to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis.

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    DiNardo, Andrew R; Hahn, Andrew; Leyden, Jacinta; Stager, Charles; Jo Baron, Ellen; Graviss, Edward A; Mandalakas, Anna M; Guy, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The Xpert MTB/RIF (MTB/RIF) test has advanced the field of tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics; however, depending on age and HIV status, 10-85% of individuals with presumed pulmonary TB (PTB) are unable to produce sputum. The feasibility of using MTB/RIF and culture on stool and string test specimens from 13 adult patients with presumed PTB was studied. The string test was well tolerated with a median Wong Baker Faces score of 2. The string test had 100% sensitivity and specificity by MTB/RIF and 87.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity by culture. In stool, Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA was detected in all cases of culture-confirmed PTB. The string test and stool provide diagnostic specimens that warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum by direct immunofluorescence assay in stool specimen.

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    Rahman, M M; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Ahmed, S; Islam, A; Ehsan, M A; Alam, M M; Kabir, M R; Sarkar, S R

    2014-07-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are the pathogens which transmitted through contaminated soil and contaminated water are significant causes of diarrhea and nutritional disorders in institutional and community peoples. Children and immune compromise persons are more vulnerable for these infections. Both Giardiasis and Cryptosporidiosis were included in 2004 as WHO Neglected Disease. So this is a major public health problem in developing countries. The present study was carried out to detect the Giardia and Cryptosporidium from diarrheic or patient having loose stool by Direct Immunofluorescence assay. The study was conducted during July 20012 to February 2013 and the work was done in Mymensingh Medical College in the department of Microbiology and in Bangladesh Agricultural University in the department of Veterinary Medicine. A total of 100 loose stools were collected from school children of different area and hospital under sadar upazilla, Mymensingh. The detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum showed the individual prevalence 8% and 4% respectively. The highest cyst/oocyst count was 85,000 and 1,000/gm of stool and the lowest being 100 and 50/gm of stool for Giardiasis and Cryptosporidiosis respectively. The detection rate of Giardia and Cryptosporidium by Immunofluorescence assay was relatively higher than the previous study done in Bangladesh and this was the first report from Bangladesh over human stool specimen using Immunofluorescence assay. So, Immunofluorescence assay could be adapted for rapid and accurate detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium.

  7. Techniques for the recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts from stool specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, L S; Bruckner, D A; Brewer, T C; Shimizu, R Y

    1983-01-01

    Due to increasing numbers of patients with documented infections with Cryptosporidium and other coccidia, it is important for the physician and clinical laboratory to be aware of the appropriate diagnostic techniques necessary for organism recovery and identification. Although Cryptosporidium is found in the gastrointestinal tract, tissue biopsies may be insufficient for organism recovery; the examination of stool specimens is a noninvasive procedure and will provide better overall opportunit...

  8. Techniques for the recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts from stool specimens.

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    Garcia, L S; Bruckner, D A; Brewer, T C; Shimizu, R Y

    1983-07-01

    Due to increasing numbers of patients with documented infections with Cryptosporidium and other coccidia, it is important for the physician and clinical laboratory to be aware of the appropriate diagnostic techniques necessary for organism recovery and identification. Although Cryptosporidium is found in the gastrointestinal tract, tissue biopsies may be insufficient for organism recovery; the examination of stool specimens is a noninvasive procedure and will provide better overall opportunities for organism recovery. Human clinical specimens were examined from 45 patients with confirmed cryptosporidiosis or suspected of having the infection. Tissue biopsy sections, fecal wet preparations, and permanent stained smears were examined. Stool specimens were submitted in 10% Formalin, 2.5% potassium dichromate, and polyvinyl alcohol and were examined for oocysts by using 15 different methods: phase-contrast and light microscopy; Sheather's sugar flotation; Formalin concentration techniques; 10% potassium hydroxide; Giemsa; trichrome; periodic acid-Schiff; modified periodic acid-Schiff; silver methenamine; acridine orange; auramine-rhodamine; Kinyoun acid-fast; Ziehl-Neelsen carbolfuchsin; and a modified acid-fast procedure. Each technique or combination of techniques was assessed by organism quantitation, organism morphology, and ease of visual recognition. Based on these comparative studies, the modified Ziehl-Neelsen carbolfuchsin stain on 10% Formalin-preserved stool is recommended for the recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium.

  9. Direct amplification and species determination of microsporidian DNA from stool specimens.

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    Katzwinkel-Wladarsch, S; Lieb, M; Helse, W; Löscher, T; Rinder, H

    1996-06-01

    Microsporidia are recognized as a major aetiological agent in chronic diarrhoea of immunocompromised patients. Their detection by light microscopy is hampered by the small size of the spores. A simple and rapid DNA extraction method has been developed for the detection of microsporidian DNA by PCR directly from stool specimens. It can be performed at room temperature in a 1.5-ml microcentrifuge tube format in less than 1 hour. The subsequent nested polymerase chain reaction permits the detection of 3-100 spores in a 0.1-g stool sample. The amplification products can be verified and the species Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Encephalitozoon (Septata) intestinalis distinguished by a simple restriction endonuclease digest.

  10. Detection of non-jejuni and -coli Campylobacter species from stool specimens with an immunochromatographic antigen detection assay.

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    Couturier, Brianne A; Couturier, Marc Roger; Kalp, Kim J; Fisher, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    The STAT! Campy immunochromatographic assay for Campylobacter antigen was compared to culture for 500 clinical stool specimens. Antigen was detected in six culture-negative, PCR-positive specimens. C. upsaliensis, a pathogenic species that is traditionally difficult to recover in routine stool cultures, was detected in two of these culture-negative specimens. This study provides evidence that antigen testing may cross-react with at least one additional non-jejuni and -coli Campylobacter species that may be missed by routine culture for campylobacteriosis.

  11. Poliovirus vaccine strains detected in stool specimens of immunodeficient children in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Dobromir N; Van Zyl, Walda B; Kruger, Mariane; Blignaut, Liezl; Grabow, Willie O K; Ehlers, Marthie M

    2006-01-01

    After exposure to the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), immunocompetent persons excrete poliovirus (PV) vaccine strains for a limited period. In contrast, immunodeficient individuals remain sometimes chronically infected, and in some cases, PV excretion times as long as 10 years have been reported. During prolonged replication in the human intestine, the PV vaccine strain almost invariably reverts its attenuated character and acquires neurovirulent properties (vaccine-derived PVs, or VDPVs), which resemble wild-type PV strains. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of OPV strains in stools of immunodeficient children from a selected area in South Africa, as a first step toward future research on the prevalence and potential health impact of VDPVs. In a period of 1 year, a total of 164 stool samples of HIV-positive children aged 4 months to 8 years were studied for the excretion of OPV strains. In addition, 23 stool samples from healthy immunocompetent children were analyzed after receiving their OPV immunization. By applying a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in combination with a nested PCR, a total of 54 enteroviruses (EVs) were detected in the stool specimens of the immunodeficient children. Using restriction enzyme analysis, 13 PVs were distinguished from 41 nonpolio EVs (NPEVs). A Sabin-specific RT-triplex PCR confirmed the presence of 7 Sabin PV type 1, 4 Sabin PV type 3, and 2 Sabin PV type 2 isolates. The majority of the NPEV group was made up of 7 coxsackievirus B3 (CBV3), 6 echovirus 11 (ECV11), 5 ECV9, and 3 coxsackievirus A6 (CAV6) isolates. According to the results, two of the immunodeficient patients (P023 and P140) who had received their last OPV immunization more than 15 months before (vaccinated at 14 weeks of age) tested positive for Sabin PVs types 3 and 1, respectively. A 5-year-old immunodeficient patient (P052) who had received her last OPV immunization more than 42 months before (vaccinated at 18 months of age

  12. Stool-specimen testing practices adopted by clinical microbiology laboratories in the Veneto Region, Italy

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    Paolo Spolaore

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to correctly analyze data of laboratory diagnoses of infectious gastroenteritis for epidemiological purposes, a survey on analytical methods applied by hospital-based clinical microbiology laboratories has been conducted in the Veneto Region (Italy. The survey has been carried out in 2005 through a questionnaire collecting data on laboratory protocols and materials used for faecal specimens analysis. Laboratories from all the Local Health Units and University Hospitals of the Region returned the questionnaire. Almost all the laboratories routinely tested for the main foodborne pathogens: 23/23 for Salmonella, 22/23 for Shigella and 19/23 for Campylobacter jejuni. A great variety of analytical methods was applied for pathogen isolation; among these is worth of notice the inappropriate use of selenite broth for Shigella enrichment.Among noncultural methods, immunoassays were largely adopted. The survey allowed to appraise stool-specimen testing practices among laboratories of the Veneto Region; overall the compliance with guidelines proposed by the main national and international scientific societies resulted rather good.

  13. High Prevalence of Campylobacter ureolyticus in Stool Specimens of Children with Diarrhea in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Noritoshi; Shimizu, Akinori; Somroop, Srinuan; Li, Yiming; Asakura, Masahiro; Nagita, Akira; Prasad Awasthi, Sharda; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2017-07-24

    Campylobacter ureolyticus has been considered as a potentially pathogenic bacterium. In this study, a total of 586 stool samples were collected from 0-12-year-old children with diarrhea between November 2013 and April 2015 and examined with microbiological tests in the hospital for the diagnosis of common enteric pathogens including C. jejuni and C. coli. Then in our laboratory, these samples were analyzed by 16S rRNA sequence-based Campylobacter genus-specific PCR (C16S PCR); 283 (48.3%) samples showed positive results with this PCR assay. Furthermore, C. ureolyticus was screened in these 283 samples by PCR assay, which can detect this species specifically. Surprisingly, C. ureolyticus was detected in 147 of the 283 C16S PCR-positive diarrheal stool samples (51.9%), which is much higher than the prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli (15.5%), and 96 samples out of 147 were negative for any of the other enteric pathogens tested in the hospital; namely, C. ureolyticus was detected as a single pathogen in 96 samples. This finding suggests that C. ureolyticus may be a pathogen associated with diarrhea in children in Japan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which C. ureolyticus was detected among Japanese children with diarrhea.

  14. Identification of Shigella species in stool specimens by DNA amplification of different loci of the Shigella virulence plasmid.

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    Yavzori, M; Cohen, D; Wasserlauf, R; Ambar, R; Rechavi, G; Ashkenazi, S

    1994-03-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of DNA sequences specific to Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) in stools was evaluated. Stool specimens were obtained from patients with acute gastroenteritis before and after antibiotic treatment. Fecal material was pre-incubated in phosphate-buffered saline, gram-negative broth or brain heart infusion (BHI) broth, and DNA was extracted and amplified. Primers complementary to the ial or the virF loci of the 140 MDa plasmid of Shigella were evaluated. The highest sensitivity for detection of Shigella DNA in stools (higher than that of culture) was reached by pre-incubation of the fecal material in BHI broth and use of virF primers for amplification. The specificity of this PCR protocol was documented by the negative results obtained with non-Shigella enteric organisms. These findings point out the important diagnostic and epidemiologic potential of the virF-specific PCR protocol in the investigation of Shigella infections.

  15. Comparison of microscopy, ELISA, and real-time PCR for detection of Giardia intestinalis in human stool specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhan, Yunus Emre; Taş Cengiz, Zeynep

    2017-08-23

    Background/aim: This study included patients who had digestive system complaints between August 2015 and October 2015. The research was designed to compare conventional microscopy with an antigen detection ELISA kit and the TaqMan-based real-time PCR (RT-PCR) technique for detection of Giardia intestinalis in human stool specimens. Materials and methods: Samples were concentrated by formalin-ether sedimentation technique and microscopic examinations were carried out on wet mount slides. A commercially available ELISA kit (Giardia CELISA, Cellabs, Brookvale, Australia) was used for immunoassay. DNA was extracted from fecal samples of about 200 mg using the QIAamp Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany) and the LightCycler Nano system (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) was used for the TaqMan-based RT-PCR assay. Results: A total of 94 stool samples, 38 of them diagnosed positive (40.4%) and 56 of them diagnosed negative by microscopy, were selected for evaluation by antigen detection and molecular assays. The prevalence of G. intestinalis infection was found as 46.8% (n: 44) and 79.8% (n: 75) by ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. RT-PCR revealed by far the highest positivity rate compared to the other two methods. The difference between these methods was found to be statistically significant (P PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of microscopy and ELISA were 50.7% and 100% and 53.3% and 79%, respectively. Conclusion: RT-PCR seems to be much more sensitive and beneficial for rapid and accurate diagnosis of G. intestinalis in human stools.

  16. Chromatography paper strip sampling of enteric adenoviruses type 40 and 41 positive stool specimens

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    Rahman Mustafizur

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enteric subgroup F adenoviruses type 40 (Ad40 and 41 (Ad41 are the second most important cause of acute infantile gastroenteritis after rotaviruses. Repeated community outbreaks have been associated with antigenic changes among the Ad40 and Ad41 strains due to host immune pressure. Therefore large field epidemiological surveys and studies on the genetic variations in different isolates of Ad40 and Ad41 are important for disease control programs, the design of efficient diagnostic kits and vaccines against subgroup F adenoviruses. A novel method using sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS/EDTA-pretreated chromatography paper strips was evaluated for the collection, storage and shipping of Ad40/41 contaminated stool samples. Results This study shows that adenoviral DNA can be successfully detected in the filter strips by PCR after four months storage at -20°C, 4°C, room temperature (20–25°C and 37°C. Furthermore no adenoviral infectivity was observed upon contact with the SDS/EDTA-pretreated strips. Conclusions Collecting, storing and transporting adenovirus type 40 and 41 positive stool samples on SDS/EDTA-pretreated chromatography filter strips is a convenient, biosafe and cost effective method for studying new genome variants and monitoring spread of enteric adenovirus strains during outbreaks.

  17. [Microsporidian spores in the stool specimens of toddlers, with or without diarrhea, from Tucumán, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valperga, S M; de Jogna Prat, S A; de Valperga, G J; Lazarte, S G; de Trejo, A V; Díaz, N; Hüttman, H M

    1999-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out from September 1995 to December 1997 to search for microsporidian spores in the stool specimens of 344 toddlers aged 1 to 24 months, hospitalized at a pediatric institution in Tucumán. They were classified in two groups: I, made up of 222 children suffering from severe diarrheas, and II by 122 affected by different pathologies, except gastroenteritis. The detection of microsporidia was done by light microscopy in smears of stained stool specimens by using the Weber modified Kokoskin method. Copro-parasitological and coprobacteriological studies were also carried out and the nutritional status of each child was determined. In group I, microsporidia were found in 12/122 cases (7.2%), 4/68 belong to eutrophic children (5.9%), and 12/137 to undernourished children (8.8%); 8/16 positives were found to be related with other enteropatogenics. In group II, microsporidia were detected in 10/122 (8.2%), 4/47 in eutrophic children (8.5%), 4/54 in undernourished children (7.4%) and without data in two cases. They were related with other enteropatogenics in 5/10 positives. Tucumán can be estimated as an area with a low rate of HIV infection in toddlers, then it can be estimated that the studied sample was essentially HIV negative. The occurrence of microsporidia was important and did not show significant differences between toddlers with or without diarrhea, eutrophic or undernourished children.

  18. Fluorescence techniques for diagnosing intestinal microsporidiosis in stool, enteric fluid, and biopsy specimens from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with chronic diarrhea.

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    Conteas, C N; Sowerby, T; Berlin, G W; Dahlan, F; Nguyen, A; Porschen, R; Donovan, J; LaRiviere, M; Orenstein, J M

    1996-09-01

    To evaluate three fluorescent chitin stains for detecting microsporidia spores in specimens from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with chronic diarrhea. We compared the Fungifluor, Calcofluor White, and Fungiqual A fluorochrome stains for identifying Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Septata intestinalis spores in stool, intestinal fluid, biopsy imprints, and paraffin biopsy sections. The modified chromotrope trichrome stain was used as the standard light microscopic technique for stool and fluid specimens. Stained and unstained paraffin sections and fluid preparations were also evaluated. Multiple specimens from 50 consecutive symptomatic AIDS patients and archival material from known microsporidia-positive AIDS patients were analyzed. Spores of E bieneusi and S intestinalis fluoresce brightly with all three fluorochrome stains in all of the types of diagnostic specimens. Fluorescing debris and the much larger fungal forms were readily distinguished. Spores were equally well detected in unfixed and formalin-fixed stool specimens, but were not as well detected after sodium acetate-acetic acid, polyvinyl acetate, and ethanol fixation. Bouin's tissue fixative gave a higher background staining than formalin. Spores were readily detected in archival paraffin sections and stool preparations, even when the specimens had been stained previously. Repeat fluorochrome staining was possible. The methods also could detect extraintestinal parasites in paraffin sections. The three fluorescent chitin stains are sensitive and rapid methods for detecting microsporidia spores in stool, intestinal fluid, biopsy imprint, and tissue specimens, even from archived material.

  19. Value of Tropheryma whipplei quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of Whipple disease: usefulness of saliva and stool specimens for first-line screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenollar, Florence; Laouira, Sonia; Lepidi, Hubert; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2008-09-01

    Whipple disease (WD) is a chronic infectious disease caused by Tropheryma whipplei. WD DNA has been found in stool and saliva specimens from patients and asymptomatic carriers. A total of 4418 samples that were sent to our center for determination of WD were tested by a T. whipplei-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on repetitive sequences. Definite WD was diagnosed in 71 patients, including 55 patients with classic WD (defined by positive results of periodic acid-Schiff staining and/or specific immunohistochemistry of small-bowel biopsy specimens) and 16 patients with localized WD (including patients with endocarditis, neurologic infection, and uveitis). Of the persons without WD, 2.3% had stool specimens positive for T. whipplei by PCR and 0.2% had saliva specimens positive for T. whipplei by PCR. Diagnosis of WD was likely in patients with positive results of both PCR of saliva specimens and PCR of stool specimens (positive predictive value, 95.2%). When the bacterial load was >10(4) colony-forming units per g of stool, the positive predictive value was 100%. A negative result of PCR of a saliva or stool specimen had a negative predictive value of 99.2% for classic WD. For localized WD, positive results of both PCR of saliva specimens and PCR of stool specimens had a sensitivity of 58% (compared with 94% for classic WD). The positive predictive value of testing of blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine specimens was 100% for each, and the positive predictive value for testing of duodenal biopsy specimens was 97.5%. T. whipplei-specific quantitative PCR of saliva and stool specimens should be performed as first-line noninvasive screening for WD. When the results for both types of specimens are positive, diagnosis of classic WD should be highly suspected, especially if a high bacterial load is detected. Because PCR of saliva and stool specimens lacks sensitivity for determination of localized WD, invasive samples should be tested on the

  20. Moellerella wisconsensis, a new genus and species of Enterobacteriaceae found in human stool specimens.

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    Hickman-Brenner, F W; Huntley-Carter, G P; Saitoh, Y; Steigerwalt, A G; Farmer, J J; Brenner, D J

    1984-04-01

    The name Moellerella wisconsensis is proposed for a group of the family Enterobacteriaceae previously called enteric group 46. The species name, wisconsensis, was coined because six of the nine strains were isolated in Wisconsin. M. wisconsensis strains were negative for indole production, Voges-Proskauer, H2S production, urea, phenylalanine deaminase, lysine and ornithine decarboxylases, arginine dihydrolase, gas production from D-glucose, acid production from trehalose, and motility; the strains were positive for methyl red, citrate (Simmons), and acid production from lactose and raffinose and resistant to colistin. DNAs from five strains of M. wisconsensis were highly related (80 to 93% in reactions assayed on hydroxyapatite at 60 degrees C and 78 to 97% at 75 degrees C) to 32P-labeled DNA of the proposed type strain (CDC 2896-78, ATCC 35017). Labeled DNA from this type strain was only 2 to 32% related (at 60 degrees C) to DNA from 49 strains of named and unnamed species of Enterobacteriaceae. Eight of nine M. wisconsensis strains were isolated from human stool samples. Clinical information on one strain was available, and it was found to be associated with a case of diarrhea. On MacConkey agar, colonies of M. wisconsensis were bright red with precipitated bile around them and thus were indistinguishable from Escherichia coli colonies. Future studies should focus on the isolation of this new organism and its relationship to human disease.

  1. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection of Campylobacter from stool specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S R; Ray, N C; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Sarkar, S; Kobayashi, N

    2014-07-01

    This was a study to prospectively evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify Campylobacter. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on cadF, hipO & asp gene for Campylobacter genus, C. jejuni & C. coli were tested for detection of Campylobacter jejuni & C. coli in naturally infected faecal samples of human. All the samples were subjected to the cultural isolation of organism and biochemical characterization. The samples resulted in the amplification of a DNA fragment of size 400 bp, 500 bp &735 bp in PCR assay. Two hundred faecal samples comprising diarrheal stools, 23(11.5%) could be detected by isolation whereas 24(12.0%) were found positive by PCR. All culture positive cases were positive by PCR and among 01 culture negative case, were positive by PCR. PCR was found to be more sensitive for Campylobacter detection in faecal samples 12.0% as relative to culture isolation which could detect the organism in 11.5% samples. Sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 100% and 99.4% respectively taking Culture as gold standard. The results depicted the superior efficacy of PCR for rapid screening of samples owing to its high sensitivity, specificity and automation potential.

  2. Comparison of microscopy, real-time PCR and a rapid immunoassay for the detection of Giardia lamblia in human stool specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, T.; Lankamp, P.; van Belkum, A.; Kooistra-Smid, M.; van Zwet, A.

    2007-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is one of the most common intestinal parasites worldwide, with microscopy being the diagnostic reference standard for use with human stools. However, microscopy is time-consuming, labour-intensive and lacks sensitivity when single stools are examined. In the present study,

  3. Characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates recovered from blood and stool specimens in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Hyytia-Trees, Eija; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat

    2012-01-01

    The increased percentage of bloodstream infections as described in the 2009 observational study could not be attributed to a single clone. Future efforts should focus on assessing the immune status of bacteriaemic patients and identifying prevention and control measures, including attribution stu...

  4. Clinical Evaluation and Cost Analysis of Great Basin Shiga Toxin Direct Molecular Assay for Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Diarrheal Stool Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faron, Matthew L; Ledeboer, Nathan A; Connolly, Jessica; Granato, Paul A; Alkins, Brenda R; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Daly, Judy A; Young, Stephen; Buchan, Blake W

    2017-02-01

    The Shiga Toxin Direct molecular assay (ST Direct) relies on nucleic acid amplification and solid array-based amplicon detection to identify Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in preserved stool specimens. Genes encoding Shiga toxin (stx 1 and stx 2 ), as well as the E. coli serotype O:157-specific marker rfbE, are simultaneously detected within 2 h. ST Direct was evaluated using 1,084 prospectively collected preserved stool specimens across five clinical centers. An additional 55 retrospectively collected, frozen specimens were included to increase the number of positive specimens evaluated. Results were compared to results from routine culture and an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) specific for the recovery and identification of STEC. ST Direct was found to be 93.2% sensitive and 99.3% specific for detection of stx 1 and stx 2 and 95.7% sensitive and 99.3% specific for detection of E. coli serotype O:157. All specimens with false-positive results were found to contain stx 1 or stx 2 or were found to be positive for serotype O:157 when analyzed using alternative molecular methods. All 4 false-negative stx 1 or stx 2 results were reported for frozen, retrospectively tested specimens. In all cases, the specimens tested positive for stx by an alternative FDA-cleared nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) but were negative for stx 1 and stx 2 following nucleic acid sequence analysis. Based on these data, culture and EIA-based methods for detection of STEC are only 33% sensitive compared to molecular tests. A retrospective cost analysis demonstrated 59% of the cost of routine stool culture to be attributable to the identification of STEC. Taken together, these data suggest that ST Direct may provide a cost-effective, rapid molecular alternative to routine culture for the identification of STEC in preserved stool specimens. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. A cytolethal distending toxin gene-based multiplex PCR assay for detection of Campylobacter spp. in stool specimens and comparison with culture method.

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    Shiramaru, Sachi; Asakura, Masahiro; Inoue, Haruna; Nagita, Akira; Matsuhisa, Akio; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the applicability of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based species-specific multiplex PCR for the direct detection and identification of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli and C. fetus from stool specimens of patients with gastroenteritis in comparison to culture methods. A total of 711 stool specimens were examined for the isolation or detection of campylobacters by using Skirrow's selective agar culture plates, a filtration method and the multiplex PCR assay. Forty-one and 36 C. jejuni strains were isolated by culture and filtration methods, respectively. In addition, 2 and 3 C. coli strains were isolated by Skirrow and the filtration methods, respectively. However, when the multiplex PCR was employed, the cdtB genes of C. jejuni and C. coli were detected in 45 and 4 stool samples, respectively, and 9 C. jejuni PCR-positive samples by multiplex PCR were negative by culture method. Sequence analysis of the PCR products obtained from 8 stool specimens from which campylobacters were not isolated by culture method but the sequences exactly matched with that of the cdtB gene of C. jejuni strain 81-176. None of the remaining stool samples which were culture negative for campylobacters produced any amplicon. Stool samples were defined as Campylobacter-positive if detected by any method. The sensitivity of the multiplex PCR was 83%, which was higher than Skirrow (74%) and filtration method (66%). These data indicate that cdtB gene-based multiplex PCR is a rapid and more sensitive method to identify the most important species of Campylobacter for human diseases. (248).

  6. Comparison of blood agar, ampicillin blood agar, MacConkey-ampicillin-Tween agar, and modified cefsulodin-Irgasan-novobiocin agar for isolation of Aeromonas spp. from stool specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M T; Stroh, E M; Jessop, J

    1988-09-01

    The performance of four media for the isolation of Aeromonas strains from stool specimens, the importance of ampicillin-susceptible Aeromonas strains in the selection of culture media, and the usefulness of beta-hemolysis in screening blood-containing media for Aeromonas strains were evaluated in two phases. In the first phase, 36 of 1,672 stool specimens yielded Aeromonas isolates. Ninety-seven percent of the isolates were detected on blood agar containing 20 micrograms of ampicillin per ml (ABA), and 47% were detected on MacConkey agar containing 100 micrograms of ampicillin per ml and 1% Tween 80. In the second phase of the study, 43 of 1,924 stool specimens yielded Aeromonas isolates. Fifty-one percent of the isolates were detected on blood agar and on modified cefsulodin-Irgasan-novobiocin agar, and 84% were detected on ABA. The combination of ABA and modified cefsulodin-Irgasan-novobiocin agar provided 100% recovery of the Aeromonas isolates encountered. All of the Aeromonas isolates detected on blood agar were also detected on ABA, and 89% of the Aeromonas isolates detected on these media were beta-hemolytic. These results suggest that ABA is superior to the other media evaluated for the isolation of Aeromonas strains from stool specimens, but optimal recovery of the organism may require the use of more than one medium. The results also suggest that the occurrence of ampicillin-susceptible strains is not a limitation on the use of ABA, but at least 10% of Aeromonas isolates will be missed if beta-hemolysis is used to screen ABA plates for these organisms.

  7. Effective testing for pulmonary tuberculosis using Xpert MTB/RIF assay for stool specimens in immunocompetent Pakistani children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Use of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for stool-based diagnosis of pulmonary TB in immunocompetent children is useful in a resource poor setting. This is a valuable and noninvasive diagnostic alternative for the diagnosis of childhood TB and can be adapted by pediatric arms of national TB programs.

  8. Incidence of Giardia lamblia Subspecies by PCR-RFLP in Stool Specimens of Hospitalized Children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Hazrati Tappeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is one of the most prevalent intestinal flagellate protozoa that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts causing severe intestinal disorder in children.This study was performed to determine subspecies of G.lamblia by the PCR-RFLP method, targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase(gdhlocus, in hospitalized children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province,Iran and determining the infection transformational storages in this area.Overall, 720 stool specimens were collected from the hospitalized children, 34 samples were positive and Giardia cysts were detected under the microscope. Cysts were partially purified by the sucrose density gradient method and then washed with sterile distilled water to remove effectively the PCR inhibitors. Genomic DNA of G. lamblia isolates was extracted by freeze-thaw cycles followed by phenol/ chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method. The single step PCR-RFLP assay was used to differentiate the assemblages between A and B, which were found in humans. In this method, 432 bp expected size was amplified, and then for detection of subspecies, specific restriction RsaI and BspLI enzymes were used.Totally 34 samples were positive in terms of Giardia cyst out of 720 examined samples microscopically, so the parasite spread rate is reported 4.72%. Analysis PCR-RFLP on these samples revealed that 28 samples (93.3% have the genotype BIII and 2 samples (6.7% belong to the subgroup BIV.PCR-RFLP is a proper analytical method for determining the genotype among parasite types, using the glutamate dehydrogenizes zone's genes. Based on the results, an animal origin of infection cycle is suggested.

  9. Gene Xpert for Direct Detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Stool Specimens from Children with Presumptive Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Husseiny Sh; Bayoumi, Faten Sayed; Mohamed, Ahmed Mohamed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Gene Xpert(GX) is a novel real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay which was endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and susceptibility to refampicin(RIF). To evaluate GX for direct diagnosis of TB in stool samples from children with suspected pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB). Children older than one year and younger than 16 years with presumptive PTB were enrolled and classified to five clinical categories based on clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings: confirmed TB, probable TB, possible TB, Unlikely TB, and not TB. Two stool samples were collected from each child and tested for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) by GX and the obtained results were compared to Lowenstien-Jensen (LJ) culture as a gold standard. In total, 115 children were enrolled. 36 had been confirmed with TB, 61 probably TB, 10 possible TB, 5 unlikely TB, and 3 not TB. GX had a sensitivity of 83.33 and 80.56 % and specificity of 98.73 and 99.36 % by patients and samples respectively. GX was positive in 83.3% of confirmed TB as well as 1.6 and 0.8% of probable TB cases by patients and samples respectively. GX provided timely results with quit acceptable sensitivity and good specificity compared to LJ culture. In this study, sensitivity calculations take into account only children with confirmed TB. GX could not detect TB in children with probable TB, so it should not be used alone for TB diagnosis. Further studies for GX stool protocol optimization and assessment is required. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  10. Multicenter clinical evaluation of the portrait toxigenic C. difficile assay for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains in clinical stool specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Blake W; Mackey, Tami-Lea A; Daly, Judy A; Alger, Garrison; Denys, Gerald A; Peterson, Lance R; Kehl, Sue C; Ledeboer, Nathan A

    2012-12-01

    We compared the Portrait Toxigenic C. difficile Assay, a new semiautomated sample-to-result molecular test, to a toxigenic bacterial culture/cell cytotoxin neutralization assay (TBC/CCNA) for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in 549 stool specimens. Stool specimens were also tested by one of three alternative FDA-cleared molecular tests for toxigenic C. difficile (Xpert C. difficile, Illumigene C. difficile, or GeneOhm Cdiff). The sensitivities and specificities of the molecular tests compared to TBC/CCNA were as follows: 98.2% and 92.8% for the Portrait assay, 100% and 91.7% for the Xpert assay, 93.3% and 95.1% for the Illumigene assay, and 97.4% and 98.5% for the GeneOhm assay, respectively. The majority of Portrait false-positive results (20/31; 64.5%) were also positive for C. difficile by an alternative molecular test, suggesting an increased sensitivity compared to the culture-based "gold standard" method. The Portrait test detected an assay input of 30 CFU in 100% of spiked samples and detected an input of 10 CFU in 96.7% of samples tested.

  11. Quantitative Detection of Shiga Toxins Directly from Stool Specimens of Patients Associated with an Outbreak of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Japan--Quantitative Shiga toxin detection from stool during EHEC outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Eiki; Watahiki, Masanori; Isobe, Junko; Sata, Tetsutaro; Nair, G Balakrish; Kurazono, Hisao

    2015-10-27

    Detection of Shiga toxins (Stx) is important for accurate diagnosis of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed Stx protein in nine patients' stool during an outbreak that occurred in Japan. Highly sensitive immunoassay (bead enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bead-ELISA)) revealed that the concentrations of toxins in stool of patients ranged from 0.71 to 10.44 ng/mL for Stx1 and 2.75 to 51.61 ng/mL for Stx2. To our knowledge, this is the first report that reveals the range of Stx protein concentrations in human stools.

  12. Single specimen fracture toughness determination procedure using instrumented impact test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1993-04-01

    In the study a new single specimen test method and testing facility for evaluating dynamic fracture toughness has been developed. The method is based on the application of a new pendulum type instrumented impact tester equipped with and optical crack mouth opening displacement (COD) extensometer. The fracture toughness measurement technique uses the Double Displacement Ratio (DDR) method, which is based on the assumption that the specimen is deformed as two rigid arms that rotate around an apparent centre of rotation. This apparent moves as the crack grows, and the ratio of COD versus specimen displacement changes. As a consequence the onset ductile crack initiation can be detected on the load-displacement curve. Thus, an energy-based fracture toughness can be calculated. In addition the testing apparatus can use specimens with the Double ligament size as compared with the standard Charpy specimen which makes the impact testing more appropriate from the fracture mechanics point of view. The novel features of the testing facility and the feasibility of the new DDR method has been verified by performing an extensive experimental and analytical study. (99 refs., 91 figs., 27 tabs.)

  13. Study of Biological Pigments by Single Specimen Derivative Spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jack M.

    1970-01-01

    The single specimen derivative (SSD) method provides an absolute absorption spectrum of a substance in the absence of a suitable reference. Both a reference and a measuring monochromatic beam pass through a single sample, and the specimen itself acts as its own reference. The two monochromatic beams maintain a fixed wavelength difference upon scanning, and the difference in absorbance of the two beams is determined. Thus, the resulting spectrum represents the first derivative of the conventional type absorption spectrum. Tissues and cell fractions have been examined at room and liquid N2 temperature and chromophoric molecules such as the mitochondrial cytochromes and blood pigments have been detectable in low concentrations. In the case of isolated cellular components, the observed effects of substrates and inhibitors confirm similar studies by conventional spectrophotometry. The extension of the SSD concept to the microscopic level has permitted the study of the tissue compartmentalization and function of cytochromes and other pigments within layered tissue. PMID:4392452

  14. Evaluation of a Single Procedure Allowing the Isolation of Enteropathogenic Yersinia along with Other Bacterial Enteropathogens from Human Stools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Cyril; Leclercq, Alexandre; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia are among the most frequent agents of human diarrhea in temperate and cold countries. However, the incidence of yersiniosis is largely underestimated because of the peculiar growth characteristics of pathogenic Yersinia, which make their isolation from poly-contaminated samples difficult. The use of specific procedures for Yersinia isolation is required, but is expensive and time consuming, and therefore is not systematically performed in clinical pathology laboratories. A means to circumvent this problem would be to use a single procedure for the isolation of all bacterial enteropathogens. Since the Statens Serum Institut enteric medium (SSI) has been reported to allow the growth at 37°C of most Gram-negative bacteria, including Yersinia, our study aimed at evaluating its performances for Yersinia isolation, as compared to the commonly used Yersinia-specific semi-selective Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin medium (CIN) incubated at 28°C. Our results show that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis growth was strongly inhibited on SSI at 37°C, and therefore that this medium is not suitable for the isolation of this species. All Yersinia enterocolitica strains tested grew on SSI, while some non-pathogenic Yersinia species were inhibited. The morphology of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI allowed their differentiation from various other Gram-negative bacteria commonly isolated from stool samples. However, in artificially contaminated human stools, the recovery of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI at 37°C was difficult and was 3 logs less sensitive than on CIN at 28°C. Therefore, despite its limitations, the use of a specific procedure (CIN incubated at 28°C) is still required for an efficient isolation of enteropathogenic Yersinia from stools. PMID:22911756

  15. ‘Prevotella ihumii’ sp. nov. and ‘Varibaculum timonense’ sp. nov., two new bacterial species isolated from a fresh human stool specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guilhot

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the main characteristics of ‘Prevotella ihumii’ sp. nov., CSUR-P3385T and ‘Varibaculum timonense’ sp. nov., CSUR-P3369T isolated in September 2016 from a fresh stool sample of healthy French volunteer woman.

  16. Stool Softeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any part you do not understand. Take stool softeners exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.Take capsules and tablets with a full glass of water. The liquid comes with a specially marked dropper ...

  17. Folic acid absorption determined by a single stool sample test--a double-isotope technique. The folic acid absorption capacity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelt, K

    1989-10-01

    The fractional folic acid absorption (FAFol) was determined in 66 patients with various gastrointestinal diseases by a double-isotope technique, employing a single stool sample test (SSST) as well as a complete stool collection. The age of the patients ranged from 2.5 months to 16.8 years (mean 6.3 years). The test dose was administered orally and consisted of 50 micrograms of [3H]folic acid (monoglutamate) (approximately 20 muCi), carmine powder, and 2 mg 51CrCl3 (approximately 1.25 muCi) as the unabsorbable tracer. The whole-body radiation given to a 1-year-old child averaged 4.8 mrad only. The stool and napkin contents were collected and homogenized by the addition of 300 ml chromium sulfuric acid. A 300-ml sample of the homogenized stool and napkin contents, as well as 300 ml chromium sulfuric acid (75% vol/vol) containing the standards, were counted for the content of 51Cr in a broad-based well counter. The quantity of [3H]folic acid was determined by liquid scintillation, after duplicate distillation. Estimated by SSST, the FAFol, which employs the stool with the highest content of 51Cr corresponding to the most carmine-colored stool, correlated closely with the FAFol based on complete stool collection (r = 0.96, n = 39, p less than 0.0001). The reproducibility of FAFol determined by SSST was assessed from repeated tests in 18 patients. For a mean of 81%, the SD was 4.6%, which corresponded to a coefficient of variation of 5.7%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. 10 CFR 26.165 - Testing split specimens and retesting single specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (c), as applicable. If the specimen in Bottle A is free of any evidence of drugs or drug metabolites... suitable inquiry conducted under the provisions of § 26.63 or to any other inquiry or investigation... records must be provided to personnel conducting reviews, inquiries into allegations, or audits under the...

  19. Stool DNA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The stool DNA test is a noninvasive laboratory test that identifies DNA changes in the cells of a stool sample. ... the presence of cancer. If a stool DNA test detects abnormal DNA, additional testing may be used to investigate the ...

  20. Experimental Behavior of Fatigued Single Stiffener PRSEUS Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    2009-01-01

    NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory and The Boeing Company have worked to develop new low-cost, light-weight composite structures for aircraft. A Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept has been developed which offers advantages over traditional metallic structure. In this concept a stitched carbon-epoxy material system has been developed with the potential for reducing the weight and cost of transport aircraft structure by eliminating fasteners, thereby reducing part count and labor. By adding unidirectional carbon rods to the top of stiffeners, the panel becomes more structurally efficient. This combination produces a more damage tolerant design. This document describes the results of experimentation on PRSEUS specimens loaded in unidirectional compression in fatigue and to failure.

  1. Residual Stress State in Single-Edge Notched Tension Specimen Caused by the Local Compression Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yifan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D finite element analyses (FEA are performed to simulate the local compression (LC technique on the clamped single-edge notched tension (SE(T specimens. The analysis includes three types of indenters, which are single pair of cylinder indenters (SPCI, double pairs of cylinder indenters (DPCI and single pair of ring indenters (SPRI. The distribution of the residual stress in the crack opening direction in the uncracked ligament of the specimen is evaluated. The outcome of this study can facilitate the use of LC technique on SE(T specimens.

  2. Pre-bisection of a single skin biopsy does not produce technically inadequate specimens for direct immunofluorescence: a review of 3450 specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Ern; Armstrong, April W; Fung, Maxwell A

    2014-11-01

    Evaluation of a potential immunobullous disorder typically requires two pieces of tissue obtained by skin biopsy: one placed in formalin for conventional microscopy and a second placed in a different transport medium suitable for direct immunofluorescence (DIF) testing. Clinical practice in this area is not standardized, with dermatologists either obtaining two biopsies or dividing (pre-bisecting) a single biopsy. Some DIF specimens are technically inadequate for interpretation of subepidermal imunobullous disorders because the basement membrane zone is not intact, but it is unknown whether pre-bisecting the tissue increases the risk of compromising the specimen. To investigate whether technically inadequate DIF specimens are associated with pre-bisection. DIF specimens were consecutively sampled from a single referral center and identified as whole (non-bisected) biopsy specimens or pre-bisected biopsy specimens. The proportion of inadequate specimens was calculated for both groups. A total of 3450 specimens were included. The percentage of inadequate specimens was 5.072% (153/3016) for whole (non-bisected) specimens and 5.299% for pre-bisected specimens. This difference was not significant (chi square, p = 0.84). The study was sufficiently powered to detect a relative risk of 1.685. Pre-bisection of a single skin biopsy does not significantly increase the risk of a technically inadequate specimen for direct immunofluorescence testing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Sizing Single Cantilever Beam Specimens for Characterizing Facesheet/Core Peel Debonding in Sandwich Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, James G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper details part of an effort focused on the development of a standardized facesheet/core peel debonding test procedure. The purpose of the test is to characterize facesheet/core peel in sandwich structure, accomplished through the measurement of the critical strain energy release rate associated with the debonding process. The specific test method selected for the standardized test procedure utilizes a single cantilever beam (SCB) specimen configuration. The objective of the current work is to develop a method for establishing SCB specimen dimensions. This is achieved by imposing specific limitations on specimen dimensions, with the objectives of promoting a linear elastic specimen response, and simplifying the data reduction method required for computing the critical strain energy release rate associated with debonding. The sizing method is also designed to be suitable for incorporation into a standardized test protocol. Preliminary application of the resulting sizing method yields practical specimen dimensions.

  4. Stool C difficile toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toxin; Colitis - toxin; Pseudomembranous - toxin; Necrotizing colitis - toxin; C difficile - toxin ... be analyzed. There are several ways to detect C difficile toxin in the stool sample. Enzyme immunoassay ( ...

  5. Estimation of Single-Crystal Elastic Constants from Ultrasonic Measurements on Polycrystalline Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldipur, P.; Margetan, F.J.; Thompson, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    In past work we reported on measurements of ultrasonic velocity, attenuation and backscattering in nickel-alloy materials used in the fabrication of rotating jet-engine components. Attenuation and backscattering were shown to be correlated to the average grain diameter, which varied with position in the billet specimens studied. The ultrasonic measurements and associated metallographic studies found the local microstructures to be approximately equiaxed and free of texture in these cubic-phase metals. In this paper we explore a method for deducing the single-crystal elastic constants of a metal using the combined ultrasonic and metallographic data for a polycrystalline specimen. We specifically consider the case seen in the jet-engine alloys: polycrystalline cubic microstructures having equiaxed, randomly oriented grains. We demonstrate how the three independent elastic constants {C11, C12, C44} can be deduced from the density, the mean grain diameter, the ultrasonic attenuation at one or more frequencies, and the longitudinal and shear wave speeds. The method makes use of the attenuation theory of Stanke and Kino, and the Hill averaging procedure for estimating the sonic velocity through a polycrystalline material. Elastic constant inputs to the velocity and attenuation models are adjusted to optimize the agreement with experiment. The method is demonstrated using several specimens of Inconel 718 and Waspaloy, and further tested using four specimens of pure Nickel

  6. Stool Color: When to Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool color: When to worry Yesterday, my stool color was bright green. Should I be concerned? Answers from Michael ... M.D. Stool comes in a range of colors. All shades of brown and even green are ...

  7. Stool Gram stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of stool; Feces Gram stain References Allos BM. Campylobacter infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman- ... Bacterial Infections Read more Foodborne Illness Read more Gastroenteritis Read more A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  8. First-Glance Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis Autoinfection by Stool Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Sing, Andreas; Leitritz, Lorenz; Bogner, Johannes R.; Heesemann, Jürgen

    1999-01-01

    We report a case of autoinfection due to Strongyloides stercoralis in a 27-year-old Ethiopian AIDS patient living in Germany for nearly 3 years. This case was diagnosed on the basis of a single-view field in microscopy of a freshly obtained formalin-fixed stool specimen showing both rhabditiform and filariform larvae. The diagnosis of autoinfection by microscopy is discussed in detail.

  9. First detection and genotyping of Giardia intestinalis in stool samples collected from children in Ghazni Province, eastern Afghanistan and evaluation of the PCR assay in formalin-fixed specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Anna; Karanis, Panagiotis; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    It is estimated that faecal-orally transmitted diseases are common in Afghanistan, as a consequence of poor hygienic standards of life and widespread contamination of water and food with both human and animal faeces. However, there is little information in the literature concerning infections caused by intestinal parasites in the Afghan population. In this study, we report the occurrence of Giardia intestinalis assemblages (A and B) in formalin-fixed stool samples collected from 245 Afghan schoolchildren living in Ghazni Province in eastern Afghanistan. Detection of the parasite's DNA and genotyping was performed using real-time PCR, specific to the β-giardin gene of G. intestinalis. Positive results were recorded in 52 (21.2%) samples. Genotyping was successful in 39 faecal samples and showed the predominance of assemblage B of G. intestinalis in this population (15 assemblage A and 24 assemblage B). Co-infection with both genotypes A and B was detected in four samples. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of 10% buffered formalin fixative on the detection of G. intestinalis DNA using real-time PCR and nested PCR characterised by different lengths of PCR products (74 and 479 bp, respectively). The human faeces containing the Giardia cysts were tested for 16 weeks. Amplification of G. intestinalis DNA with real-time PCR was possible up to 6 weeks of preservation of stool sample in formalin, compared to only 2 weeks with nested PCR. This suggests that real-time PCR is a more suitable tool in cases where stool samples have to be kept in formalin for longer periods of time.

  10. Reconstruction of the PETM onset from single specimen analyses of foraminiferal stable isotopes at Medford, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, M.; Miller, K. G.; Wright, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene transition ( 56 Ma) is marked by a global temperature increase of 4-8°C and the carbon isotope excursion (CIE) found ubiquitously in marine and terrestrial realms. However, the mechanisms of warming and overall changes in the ocean-atmosphere system during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) are uncertain. The timing of the PETM onset has been debated suggested by various studies between years to thousands of years and therefore is of particular interest to ascertain the trigger mechanism. One way to resolve this is to study thick cores on the continental margins that have higher sedimentation rates and thus resolution. Stratigraphically more complete in regard to the CIE onset marine PETM sections are found along the U.S. mid-Atlantic margin, New Jersey coastal plain (35-40°N paleolatitude). We present new carbon and oxygen isotopic data of planktonic and benthic foraminifera from the Medford 3A core, drilled on the New Jersey coastal plain in Summer 2016. Medford is the most proximal among the New Jersey coastal plain sites. The Medford 3A core has recovered 4 ft (1.2 m) of the Marlboro Formation, unit that contains the CIE "core" with low stable δ13C values and CIE recovery in other New Jersey cores. The top of the Marlboro Formation is truncated at Medford 3A, but the base is conformable with the underlaying Vincentown Formation. The sharp δ13C decrease appears within the Vincentown/Marlboro transitional lithological interval 1.5 ft (0.5 m) thick allowing a detailed study of the PETM onset. The Medford 3A core recovered sufficient well-preserved foraminifera to establish isotopic changes across the PETM onset. We measure δ13C and δ18O in single specimens of surface dwellers (Morozovella, Acarinina), thermocline dwellers (Subbotina), and benthic foraminifera (Anomalinoides, Cibicidoides) at high resolution to understand the nature of the PETM onset. We compliment previously published single specimen isotopic records from the

  11. Opisthorchis viverrini: Detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in human stool samples

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Umesha, K.R.; SanathKumar; Parvathi, A.; Duenngai, K.; Sithithaworn, P.; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was evaluated for detection of Opisthorchis viverrini eggs in the stool specimens of light and heavily infected individuals in Khon Kaen province of Thailand. A total of 75 fecal specimens were analyzed by PCR...

  12. [Procedure and indications of stool examination in parasitology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Sonia; Aouinet, Amira; Khaled, Samira

    2012-06-01

    Intestinal parasites are a public health problem in the world especially in tropical and subtropical countries. Despite the improvement in living standards and healthy conditions, these parasitoses remain relatively frequent in Tunisia. Stool specimen examination keeps the fundamental test for screening and diagnosis. It is to directly search the parasite. Respect for the right procedure of collection of stool is an essential step for the reliability and proper interpretation of results of this examination.

  13. Three-Dimensional, Inelastic Response of Single-Edge Notch Bend Specimens Subjected to Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    fracture by a swinging pendulum . The loading duration of the Charpy test is on the order of 200.u-seconds [78,9]. The difference between the energy...levels of the pendulum before and after impact with the specimen provides the total energy absorbed by the specimen. By using a pre-cracked Charpy specimen...faster loading rates adopted by Nakamura approximate loading durations observed in Charpy V-Notch (CVN) test speci- mens [78,9]. 4.4 Transition Times

  14. J-integral analysis of heterogeneous mismatched girth welds in clamped single-edge notched tension specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertelé, Stijn; De Waele, Wim; Verstraete, Matthias; Denys, Rudi; O'Dowd, Noel

    2014-01-01

    Flaw assessment procedures require a quantification of crack driving force, and such procedures are generally based on the assumption of weld homogeneity. However, welds generally have a heterogeneous microstructure, which will influence the crack driving force. This paper describes a stress-based methodology to assess complex heterogeneous welds using a J-based approach. Clamped single-edge notched tension specimens, representative of girth weld flaws, are analyzed and the influence of weld heterogeneity on crack driving force has been determined. The use of a modified limit load for heterogeneous welds is proposed, suitable for implementation in a ‘homogenized’ J-integral estimation scheme. It follows from an explicit modification of an existing solution for centre cracked tension specimens. The proposed solution provides a good estimate of crack driving force and any errors in the approximation may be accounted for by means of a small safety factor on load bearing capacity. - Highlights: • We present a crack driving force estimation procedure for heterogeneous welds. • The procedure is based on a ‘homogenized’ version of the EPRI equation. • Complex welds are translated into equivalent idealized mismatched welds. • The procedure is validated for clamped SE(T) specimens. • A mismatch limit load for clamped SE(T) specimens is developed

  15. Examination of Fingernail Contents and Stool for Ova, Cyst and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parasites identified were Ascaris lumbericoides, Taenia species, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. Of the 101 of the stool specimens examined 59(58.4%) were positive for any one parasite and multiple infections were identified in 17.8% of the positive cases. A. lumbricoides 24(23.8%) was found to be the ...

  16. Three-dimensional elastic-plastic analysis of shallow cracks in single-edge-crack-tension specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, Kunigal N.; Newman, James C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Three dimensional, elastic-plastic, finite element results are presented for single-edge crack-tension specimens with several shallow crack-length-to-width ratios (0.05 less than or equal to a/W less than or equal to 0.5). Results showed the need to model the initial yield plateau in the stress-strain behavior to accurately model deformation of the A36 steel specimens. The crack-tip-opening-displacement was found to be linearly proportional to the crack-mouth-opening displacement. A new deformation dependent plastic-eta factor equation is presented for calculating the J-integral from test load-displacement records. This equation was shown to be accurate for all crack lengths considered.

  17. Flushable reagent stool blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool occult blood test - flushable home test; Fecal occult blood test - flushable home test ... gastrointestinal tract, include: Coughing up and then swallowing blood Nose bleed Abnormal test results require follow-up with your doctor.

  18. Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... it eradicated the infection. Preparation Unlike most other lab tests, a stool sample is often collected by ...

  19. Using the in situ lift-out technique to prepare TEM specimens on a single-beam FIB instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lekstrom, M; McLachlan, M A; Husain, S; McComb, D W; Shollock, B A

    2008-01-01

    Transmission electron microscope (TEM) specimens are today routinely prepared using focussed ion beam (FIB) instruments. Specifically, the lift-out method has become an increasingly popular technique and involves removing thin cross-sections from site-specific locations and transferring them to a TEM grid. This lift-out process can either be performed ex situ or in situ. The latter is mainly carried out on combined dual-beam FIB and scanning electron microscope (SEM) systems whereas conventional single-beam instruments often are limited to the traditional ex situ method. It is nevertheless desirable to enhance the capabilities of existing single-beam instruments to allow for in situ lift-out preparation to be performed since this technique offers a number of advantages over the older ex situ method. A single-beam FIB instrument was therefore modified to incorporate an in situ micromanipulator fitted with a tungsten needle, which can be attached to a cut-out FIB section using ion beam induced platinum deposition. This article addresses the issues of using an ion beam to monitor the in situ manipulation process as well as approaches that can be used to create stronger platinum welds between two objects, and finally, views on how to limit the extent of ion beam damage to the specimen surface.

  20. Multicenter Evaluation of Clinical Diagnostic Methods for Detection and Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Collette; Patrick, Mary; Gonzalez, Anthony; Akin, Joshua; Polage, Christopher R; Wymore, Kate; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Xavier, Karen; Sadlowski, Jennifer; Monahan, Jan; Hurd, Sharon; Dahlberg, Suzanne; Jerris, Robert; Watson, Renee; Santovenia, Monica; Mitchell, David; Harrison, Cassandra; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; DeMartino, Mary; Pentella, Michael; Razeq, Jafar; Leonard, Celere; Jung, Carrianne; Achong-Bowe, Ria; Evans, Yaaqobah; Jain, Damini; Juni, Billie; Leano, Fe; Robinson, Trisha; Smith, Kirk; Gittelman, Rachel M; Garrigan, Charles; Nachamkin, Irving

    2016-05-01

    The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs), such as stool antigen tests, as standalone tests for the detection of Campylobacter in stool is increasing. We conducted a prospective, multicenter study to evaluate the performance of stool antigen CIDTs compared to culture and PCR for Campylobacter detection. Between July and October 2010, we tested 2,767 stool specimens from patients with gastrointestinal illness with the following methods: four types of Campylobacter selective media, four commercial stool antigen assays, and a commercial PCR assay. Illnesses from which specimens were positive by one or more culture media or at least one CIDT and PCR were designated "cases." A total of 95 specimens (3.4%) met the case definition. The stool antigen CIDTs ranged from 79.6% to 87.6% in sensitivity, 95.9 to 99.5% in specificity, and 41.3 to 84.3% in positive predictive value. Culture alone detected 80/89 (89.9% sensitivity) Campylobacter jejuni/Campylobacter coli-positive cases. Of the 209 noncases that were positive by at least one CIDT, only one (0.48%) was positive by all four stool antigen tests, and 73% were positive by just one stool antigen test. The questionable relevance of unconfirmed positive stool antigen CIDT results was supported by the finding that noncases were less likely than cases to have gastrointestinal symptoms. Thus, while the tests were convenient to use, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of Campylobacter stool antigen tests were highly variable. Given the relatively low incidence of Campylobacter disease and the generally poor diagnostic test characteristics, this study calls into question the use of commercially available stool antigen CIDTs as standalone tests for direct detection of Campylobacter in stool. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica in stool specimens at Muhondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite causing amebiasis. ... The infection occurs by ingestion of mature cyst in fecally contaminated food, water or hands. ... hand before eating and after using latrines) ; (ii) avoiding fecal contamination of food, water, and utensils ; and (iii) boiling drinking water before consumption.

  2. Rapid diagnosis of diarrhea caused by Shigella sonnei using dipsticks; comparison of rectal swabs, direct stool and stool culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Duran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated a dipstick test for rapid detection of Shigella sonnei on bacterial colonies, directly on stools and from rectal swabs because in actual field situations, most pathologic specimens for diagnosis correspond to stool samples or rectal swabs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The test is based on the detection of S. sonnei lipopolysaccharide (LPS O-side chains using phase I-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles, and displayed on a one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 5 ng/ml of LPS was detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in 6 minutes. This is the optimal time for lecture to avoid errors of interpretation. In distilled water and in reconstituted stools, an unequivocal positive reaction was obtained with 4 x 10(6 CFU/ml of S. sonnei. The specificity was 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and different unrelated strains. When tested on 342 rectal swabs in Chile, specificity (281/295 was 95.3% (95% CI: 92.9% - 97.7% and sensitivity (47/47 was 100%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 95.5 % of cases (328/342 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 77% (95% CI: 65% - 86.5% and 100% respectively. When tested on 219 stools in Chile, Vietnam, India and France, specificity (190/198 was 96% (95% CI 92%-98% and sensitivity (21/21 was 100%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 96.3 % of cases (211/219 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 72.4% (95% CI 56.1%-88.6% and 100 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: This one-step dipstick test performed well for diagnosis of S. sonnei both on stools and on rectal swabs. These data confirm a preliminary study done in Chile.

  3. 21 CFR 868.6700 - Anesthesia stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia stool. 868.6700 Section 868.6700 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6700 Anesthesia stool. (a) Identification. An anesthesia stool is a device intended for use as a stool for the anesthesiologist in the operating room. (b...

  4. Aeromonas Isolates from Human Diarrheic Stool and Groundwater Compared by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Borchardt, Mark A.; Stemper, Mary E.; Standridge, Jon H.

    2003-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections of Aeromonas species are generally considered waterborne; for this reason, Aeromonas hydrophila has been placed on the United States Environmental Protection Agency Contaminant Candidate List of emerging pathogens in drinking water. In this study, we compared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of Aeromonas isolates from stool specimens of patients with diarrhea with Aeromonas isolates from patients? drinking water. Among 2,565 diarrheic stool specimens submi...

  5. specimens of patients with bloody diarrhoea in Mwanza, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Butimba Health Centre. Bacteriological cultures were done at the National Institute for Medical Research laboratory. Atotal of 489 patients (median age= 20 years) participated in the study and were able to provide stool specimens. Shigella species were isolated from 14% (69/489) of the stool specimens collected.

  6. Comparison of Escherichia coli O157:H7 antigen detection in stool and broth cultures to that in sorbitol-MacConkey agar stool cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, J R; Jelacic, S; Yea, Y L; Klein, E J; Fischer, M; Clausen, C R; Qin, X; Swerdlow, D L; Tarr, P I

    2000-09-01

    We evaluated the Meridian IC-STAT direct fecal and broth culture antigen detection methods with samples from children infected with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and correlated the antigen detection results with the culture results. Stools of 16 children who had recently had stool cultures positive for this pathogen (population A) and 102 children with diarrhea of unknown cause (population B) were tested with the IC-STAT device (direct testing). Fecal broth cultures were also tested with this device (broth testing). The results were correlated to a standard of the combined yield from direct culture of stools on sorbitol-MacConkey (SMAC) agar and culture of broth on SMAC agar. Eleven (69%) of the population A stool specimens yielded E. coli O157:H7 when plated directly on SMAC agar. Two more specimens yielded this pathogen when the broth culture was similarly plated. Of these 13 stool specimens, 8 and 13 were positive by direct and broth testing (respective sensitivities, 62 and 100%). Compared to the sensitivity of a simultaneously performed SMAC agar culture, the sensitivity of direct testing was 73%. Three (3%) of the population B stool specimens contained E. coli O157:H7 on SMAC agar culture; one and three of these stool specimens were positive by direct and broth testing, respectively. The direct and broth IC-STAT tests were 100% specific with samples from children from population B. Direct IC-STAT testing of stools is rapid, easily performed, and specific but is insufficiently sensitive to exclude the possibility of infection with E. coli O157:H7. Performing the IC-STAT test with a broth culture increases its sensitivity. However, attempts to recover E. coli O157:H7 by culture should not be abandoned but, rather, should be increased when the IC-STAT test result is positive.

  7. Reverse-Transcriptase PCR Detection of Leptospira: Absence of Agreement with Single-Specimen Microscopic Agglutination Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J; Balassiano, Ilana; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Vital-Brazil, Juliana Magalhães; Sahoo, Malaya K; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2015-01-01

    Reference diagnostic tests for leptospirosis include nucleic acid amplification tests, bacterial culture, and microscopic agglutination testing (MAT) of acute and convalescent serum. However, clinical laboratories often do not receive paired specimens. In the current study, we tested serum samples using a highly sensitive real-time nucleic acid amplification test for Leptospira and compared results to MAT performed on the same specimens. 478 serum samples from suspected leptospirosis cases in Rio de Janeiro were tested using a real-time RT-PCR for the diagnosis of leptospirosis, malaria and dengue (the Lepto-MD assay). The Lepto-MD assay detects all species of Leptospira (saprophytic, intermediate, and pathogenic), and in the current study, we demonstrate that this assay amplifies both Leptospira RNA and DNA. Dengue virus RNA was identified in 10 patients, and no cases of malaria were detected. A total of 65 samples (13.6%) were positive for Leptospira: 35 samples (7.3%) in the Lepto-MD assay, 33 samples (6.9%) by MAT, and 3 samples tested positive by both (kappa statistic 0.02). Poor agreement between methods was consistent regardless of the titer used to define positive MAT results or the day of disease at sample collection. Leptospira nucleic acids were detected in the Lepto-MD assay as late as day 22, and cycle threshold values did not differ based on the day of disease. When Lepto-MD assay results were added to the MAT results for all patients in 2008 (n=818), the number of detected leptospirosis cases increased by 30.4%, from 102 (12.5%) to 133 (16.3%). This study demonstrates a lack of agreement between nucleic acid detection of Leptospira and single-specimen MAT, which may result from the clearance of bacteremia coinciding with the appearance of agglutinating antibodies. A combined testing strategy for acute leptospirosis, including molecular and serologic testing, appears necessary to maximize case detection.

  8. Shear and foundation effects on crack root rotation and mode-mixity in moment- and force-loaded single cantilever beam sandwich specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saseendran, Vishnu; Carlsson, Leif A.; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Foundation effects play a crucial role in sandwich fracture specimens with a soft core. Accurate estimation of deformationcharacteristics at the crack front is vital in understanding compliance, energy release rate and mode-mixity infracture test specimens. Beam on elastic foundation analysis...... beam specimen (in contrast to themoment-loaded case), it was found that the crack length normalized energy release rate and the mode-mixity phaseangle increase strongly as the crack length decreases, a result of increased dominance of shear loading....... of moment- and force-loaded single cantilever beam sandwichfracture specimens is presented here. In addition, finite element analysis of the single cantilever beam specimen isconducted to determine displacements, rotations, energy release rate and mode-mixity. Based on finite element analysis,a foundation...

  9. Stools - pale or clay-colored

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003129.htm Stools - pale or clay-colored To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stools that are pale, clay, or putty-colored may be due to problems ...

  10. Detection of radiation-induced changes in electrochemical properties of austenitic stainless steels using miniaturized specimens and the single-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inazumi, T.; Bell, G.E.C.; Kenik, E.A.; Kiuchi, K.

    1993-01-01

    Single-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation testing of miniaturized (TEM) specimens can provide reliable data comparable to data obtained with larger specimens. Significant changes in electrochemical properties (increased reactivation current and Flade potential) were detected for PCA and type 316 stainless steels irradiated at 200--420 degrees C up to 7--9 dpa. Irradiations in the FFTF Materials Open Test Assembly and in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor are reported on. 45 figs., 5 tabs., 52 refs

  11. Creation and initial evaluation of a Stool Form Scale for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Lane, Mariella M; Czyzewski, Danita I; Weidler, Erica M; Swank, Paul R; Shulman, Robert J

    2010-10-01

    To develop a pediatric stool form rating scale and determine its interrater reliability, intrarater reliability, and agreement among pediatric gastroenterologists. An ordinal stool scale with 5 categorical stool form types was created on the basis of the Bristol Stool Form Scale, and 32 color 2-dimensional stool photographs were shown to 14 pediatric gastroenterologists. Each gastroenterologist rated the stool form depicted in each photograph with the modified stool scale. Ten gastroenterologists agreed to rerate the stool form depicted in each photograph a minimum of 6 months after the first rating. A total of 448 ratings were completed; 430 (94%) of all ratings were within at least 1 category type of the most common (modal) rating for each photograph. Eight (25%) stool photographs had complete agreement among all raters. Interrater and intrarater reliability was high with a single measure intraclass correlation of 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.78-0.91; PBristol Stool Form Scale provided a high degree of interrater reliability, intrarater reliability, and agreement among pediatric gastroenterologists. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of specimen size and yttria concentration on mechanical properties of single crystalline yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia nanopillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Asle Zaeem, Mohsen

    2017-07-01

    The nanoscale plastic deformation of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (YSTZ) is highly dependent on the crystallographic orientations, i.e., dislocation is induced when the loading direction is 45° tilted to {111} and {101} slip planes, while tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation dominates the plastic deformation when loading direction is perpendicular to the slip planes. This study investigates the effects of specimen size and yttria concentration on the mechanical response of single crystalline YSTZ nanopillars. Through uniaxial compression test, the smaller-is-stronger phenomenon is revealed in nanopillars deformed through a dislocation motion mechanism. Serrated stacking faults are observed in the smallest nanopillar, while neat primary slip plane forms in the largest nanopillar. In contrast, the larger-is-stronger relation is observed in nanopillars in which deformation is mediated by tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation. It is noted that the ratio of transformed monoclinic phase to the remaining tetragonal phase is the highest in the smallest nanopillar. The strength of nanopillars is identified to decrease by increasing the amount of yttria due to the creation of more oxygen vacancies that act as weak points to facilitate dislocation motion and accelerate phase transformation.

  13. C.O.D. toughness testing of medium strength steel as a preliminary development for single specimen J integral toughness tests of SA533-B steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, P.; Tait, R.B.; Garrett, G.G.

    1981-10-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to set up a test facility and to develop the necessary expertise to enable reliable elasto-plastic fracture toughness tests to be performed. Initially, tests are to be conducted on material similar to that used in the Koeberg pressure vessel walls, with the ultimate goal of performing single specimen J integral tests on the pressure vessel steel itself to determine through-thickness toughness variations. The project will comprise a number of stages, each one necessary for the development of the techniques used in J integral testing. These include: (i) development of an appropriate specimen design, of suitable size and shape that is applicable to both crack opening displacement (C.O.D.) and J integral tests; (ii) development, testing and calibration of the necessary associated mechanical and electrical equipment (e.g. clip gauge, amplifiers, interface unit, etc.), with (iii) an estimation of the probable errors and noise levels with a view to their elimantion, leading to (iv) perfection of the sensitivity and reproducibility of, firstly, the multiple specimen C.O.D. technique and, secondly, the multiple specimen J integral techniques. (v) Based on the above techniques, development of the single specimen J integral test method incorporating development of a computerised testing procedure. All the above procedure is to be conducted on similar, but non-Koeberg pressure vessel material ('ROQ Tough'). (vi) Finally, development and testing of both multiple specimen and single specimen J integral tests on actual SA533B material and an investigation of the through thickness toughness and fatigue crack propagation behaviour

  14. PECULIAR FEATURES OF MACHINING MARKS FORMATION ON SURFACE ОF TITANIUM SPECIMEN WITH SINGLE ELECTRO CONTACT ACTION OF WIRE ELECTRODE-TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Kiselev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an investigation of shape and geometry parameters of machining marks obtained on the surface of titanium specimen with a single electro contact action of a wire electrode-tool. A description of the developed unit and methodology for execution of experimental investigations has been given in the paper. The paper provides and analyzes experimentally obtained data showing the effect of conditions and modes of single electro contact action of wire tool-electrode on the shape and geometrical parameters of machining marks obtained on the surface of titanium specimen. It is shown that the formation of these traces occurs in the context of joint action of both the electrical erosion and mechanical action of the working part of the wire electrode-tool on the surface of the titanium specimen that expands technological capabilities of electro contact treatment while  solving problems associated with targeted modification of the original work-piece surfaces.

  15. Imaging skeletal anatomy of injured cervical spine specimens: comparison of single-slice vs multi-slice helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obenauer, S.; Alamo, L.; Herold, T.; Funke, M.; Kopka, L.; Grabbe, E. [Department of Radiology, Georg August-University Goettingen, Robert-Koch-Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Our objective was to compare a single-slice CT (SS-CT) scanner with a multi-slice CT (MS-CT) scanner in the depiction of osseous anatomic structures and fractures of the upper cervical spine. Two cervical spine specimens with artificial trauma were scanned with a SS-CT scanner (HighSpeed, CT/i, GE, Milwaukee, Wis.) by using various collimations (1, 3, 5 mm) and pitch factors (1, 1.5, 2, 3) and a four-slice helical CT scanner (LightSpeed, QX/i, GE, Milwaukee, Wis.) by using various table speeds ranging from 3.75 to 15 mm/rotation for a pitch of 0.75 and from 7.5 to 30 mm/rotation for a pitch of 1.5. Images were reconstructed with an interval of 1 mm. Sagittal and coronal multiplanar reconstructions of the primary and reconstructed data set were performed. For MS-CT a tube current resulting in equivalent image noise as with SS-CT was used. All images were judged by two observers using a 4-point scale. The best image quality for SS-CT was achieved with the smallest slice thickness (1 mm) and a pitch smaller than 2 resulting in a table speed of up to 2 mm per gantry rotation (4 points). A reduction of the slice thickness rather than of the table speed proved to be beneficial at MS-CT. Therefore, the optimal scan protocol in MS-CT included a slice thickness of 1.25 mm with a table speed of 7.5 mm/360 using a pitch of 1.5 (4 points), resulting in a faster scan time than when a pitch of 0.75 (4 points) was used. This study indicates that MS-CT could provide equivalent image quality at approximately four times the volume coverage speed of SS-CT. (orig.)

  16. A microfluidic-enabled mechanical microcompressor for the immobilization of live single- and multi-cellular specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yingjun; Jiang, Liwei; Aufderheide, Karl J; Wright, Gus A; Terekhov, Alexander; Costa, Lino; Qin, Kevin; McCleery, W Tyler; Fellenstein, John J; Ustione, Alessandro; Robertson, J Brian; Johnson, Carl Hirschie; Piston, David W; Hutson, M Shane; Wikswo, John P; Hofmeister, William; Janetopoulos, Chris

    2014-02-01

    A microcompressor is a precision mechanical device that flattens and immobilizes living cells and small organisms for optical microscopy, allowing enhanced visualization of sub-cellular structures and organelles. We have developed an easily fabricated device, which can be equipped with microfluidics, permitting the addition of media or chemicals during observation. This device can be used on both upright and inverted microscopes. The apparatus permits micrometer precision flattening for nondestructive immobilization of specimens as small as a bacterium, while also accommodating larger specimens, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, for long-term observations. The compressor mount is removable and allows easy specimen addition and recovery for later observation. Several customized specimen beds can be incorporated into the base. To demonstrate the capabilities of the device, we have imaged numerous cellular events in several protozoan species, in yeast cells, and in Drosophila melanogaster embryos. We have been able to document previously unreported events, and also perform photobleaching experiments, in conjugating Tetrahymena thermophila.

  17. A casting and imaging technique for determining void geometry and relative permeability behavior of a single fracture specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B.L.; Pruess, K.; Persoff, P.

    1990-01-01

    A casting technique has been developed for making translucent replicas of the void space of natural rock fractures. Attenuation of light shined through the cast combined with digital image analysis provides a pointwise definition of fracture apertures. The technique has been applied to a fracture specimen from Dixie Valley, Nevada, and the measured void space geometry has been used to develop theoretical predictions of two-phase relative permeability. A strong anisotropy in relative permeabilities has been found, which is caused by highly anisotropic spatial correlations among fracture apertures. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  18. The isolation of Moellerella wisconsensis from stool samples in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A R; Al-Jumaili, I J; Bint, A J

    1986-01-01

    Three strains of Moellerella wisconsensis were isolated from a total of 400 stool specimens screened for this organism by means of a new selective medium developed in this laboratory. This is the first report of the isolation of this organism in the U.K. The exact role of M. wisconsensis in causing diarrhoea remains to be elucidated.

  19. Human stool contains a previously unrecognized diversity of novel astroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guoyan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human astroviruses are a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease. Since their discovery in 1975, 8 closely related serotypes have been described in humans, and more recently, two new astrovirus species, astrovirus MLB1 and astrovirus VA1, were identified in diarrhea patients. In this study, we used consensus astrovirus primers targeting the RNA polymerase to define the diversity of astroviruses present in pediatric patients with diarrhea on two continents. From 416 stool specimens comprising two different cohorts from Vellore, India, 35 samples were positive. These positive samples were analyzed further by either sequencing of the ~400 bp amplicon generated by the consensus PCR or by performing additional RT-PCR specific for individual astroviruses. 19 samples contained the classic human astrovirus serotypes 1-8 while 7 samples were positive for the recently described astrovirus MLB1. Strikingly, from samples that were positive in the consensus PCR screen but negative in the specific PCR assays, five samples contained sequences that were highly divergent from all previously described astroviruses. Sequence analysis suggested that three novel astroviruses, tentatively named astroviruses VA2, MLB2 and VA3, were present in these five patient specimens (AstV-VA2 in 2 patients, AstV-MLB2 in 2 patients and AstV-VA3 in one patient. Using the same RT-PCR screening strategy, 13 samples out of 466 tested stool specimens collected in St. Louis, USA were positive. Nine samples were positive for the classic human astroviruses. One sample was positive for AstV-VA2, and 3 samples were positive for AstV-MLB2 demonstrating that these two viruses are globally widespread. Collectively, these findings underscore the tremendous diversity of astroviruses present in fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Given that a significant fraction of diarrhea etiologies is currently unknown, it is plausible that these or other yet unrecognized astroviruses may be

  20. Determining fracture-mechanics characteristics of reactor pressure vessel steels applying the single-specimen compliance method and correlations to notch impact energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, U.; Boehmert, J.; Viehrig, H.W.

    1995-03-01

    Fracture-mechanics crack resistance parameters based on the J integral are useful to describe the failure behaviour of high-toughness reactor pressure vessel steels. This paper presents methodical results concerning the estimation of crack growth resistance curves of precracked and sidegrooved Charpy sized 3-PB specimens by using the single specimen compliance method. Crack initiation toughness values are estimated on the basis of the measured stretch zone with and as a technical equivalent values from the crack resistant curves described by a polynom. The wide range of toughness or strength of the investigated steels allows to investigate relationships known from the literature between the upper shelf Charpy-V notch energy and the crack growth resistance behaviour. The relationships provide acceptable technical approaches, but they can only insufficiently describe the physical meaning. (orig.) [de

  1. Evaluation of J and CTOD (Crack Tip Opening Displacement) fracture parameters for pipeline steels using Single Edge Notch Tension SE(T) specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes Tobar, Lenin Marcelo; Ruggieri, Claudio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Oceanica

    2009-12-19

    This work presents an evaluation procedure to determine the elastic-plastic J-integral and CTOD for pin-loaded and clamped single edge notch tension (SE(T)) specimens based upon the eta-method. The primary objective is to derive estimation equations applicable to determine J and CTOD fracture parameters for a wide range of a/W-ratios and material flow properties. Very detailed non-linear finite element analyses for plane-strain and full-thickness, 3-D models provide the evolution of load with increased crack mouth opening displacement which is required for the estimation procedure. The present analyses, when taken together with previous studies provide a fairly extensive body of results which serve to determine parameters J and CTOD for different materials using tension specimens with varying geometries. (author)

  2. Two different preparation techniques for trace element determination of single Daphnia specimen using total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woelfl, S.; Mages, M.

    2000-01-01

    Bio accumulation gives first information about the bio-availability of elements in waters and becomes more and more important for the characterization of the water quality. The use of common analytical techniques like ICP-MS and AAS requires large quantities of biologic sample material. Single preparation for example of Daphnia, a common species for bio-test experiments, are hardly possible with these procedures. Therefore alternatively quantitative TXRF element determination of individually prepared Daphnia was developed. Two preparation techniques for single freshwater crustacean specimen from a eutrophic branch of the river Elbe in the 'Rothehorn Park', Magdeburg (Daphnia: dry weight: 10 - 50 μg individuum -1 ) had been tested: (1) Wet preparation: the single Daphnia specimen had been washed with 0.45 μm filtered lake water and put onto quartz sample carriers. After air drying, the body length were determined in order to calculate the dry weight according to previously established body lengths-dry weight relationships. (2) Dry preparation: after collection specimen were washed with 0.45 μm filtered lake water and frozen in liquid nitrogen. The individual lyophilisated dried Daphnia were weighted using an ultrafine micro-balance and put onto quartz sample carriers. After preparation, addition of some μl Gallium standard solution and air drying the individual Daphnia were digested at the quartz sample carriers with 10 μl HNO 3 on a hot plate and dried once more. Finally the element concentrations were determined using a EXTRA IIA total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. As a result of these investigations we can conclude that both, the 'dry' and 'wet' preparation method can be used for the element determination in small single crustaceans using TXRF spectrometry. It seems that the 'dry' method yields more precise results, but the wet method is easier to handle in field when samples cannot be fixed with liquid nitrogen. (author)

  3. Bristol Stool Form Scale reliability and agreement decreases when determining Rome III stool form designations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, B P; Self, M M; Czyzewski, D I; Cejka, S; Swank, P R; Shulman, R J

    2016-03-01

    Rater reproducibility of the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS), which categorizes stools into one of seven types, is unknown. We sought to determine reliability and agreement by individual stool type and when responses are categorized by Rome III clinical designation as normal or abnormal (constipation or diarrhea). Thirty-four gastroenterology providers from three institutions rated 35 stool photographs using the BSFS. Twenty rerated the photographs. 1190 individual stool type ratings were completed. Though only four photographs had absolute agreement (all Type 1 or Type 7), general agreement was high with 1132 (95.1%) of ratings being within one category type of the modal rating. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the BSFS by individual stool type was excellent with intraclass correlations of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.86-0.90, p Bristol Stool Form Scale has excellent reliability and agreement when used to rate individual stool type by raters. However, BSFS reliability and agreement decreases when determining Rome III stool form categories. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Molecular Screening and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Typing of Molluscum Contagiosum Virus (MCV) from Genital Specimens, between 2012 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghinezhad-S, Sedigheh; Mohseni, Amir Hossein; Keyvani, Hossein; Ghobadi, Narges

    2018-03-01

    The present study is the first comprehensive report of the Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) in Iran based on the molecular technique for differentiation and typing of the MCV1 and MCV2. Patients were diagnosed as having tumor-like genital warts less than 5 mm in diameter, and HIV seronegative samples were chosen for this cross-sectional study. TaqMan real-time PCR was used to identify MCV following clinical examination. Typing of the MCV-positive specimens was performed in the SNP A27451G region of MC021L gene. Of 1470 samples, 114 (7.75%) samples were positive for the MCV. From MCV-positive samples, 71.05% sequences were found to be related to the MCV1 and 28.95% to the MCV2. This assay constitutes a reliable method for identification and typing of the MCV genomic variants that could be valuable for reviewing the pathogenesis, molecular epidemiology, and the natural history of MCV-related situations.

  5. Detection of Pathogenic Protozoa in the Diagnostic Laboratory: Result Reproducibility, Specimen Pooling, and Competency Assessment▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, M. D.; Gyorkos, T. W.; Kokoskin, E.; MacLean, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Stool microscopy as performed in clinical parasitology laboratories is a complex procedure with subjective interpretation. Quality assurance (QA) programs often emphasize proficiency testing as an assessment tool. We describe a result reproducibility assessment tool, which can form part of a broader QA program, and which is based on the blinded resubmission of selected clinical samples, using concordance between the reports of the initial and resubmitted specimen as an indicator. Specimens preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin can be stored for several months for use in such a program. The presence of multiple protozoa in one specimen does not affect concordance. Some dilution of specimens occurs in this process, and this may explain poor concordance when specimens with low protozoal concentrations are resubmitted. Evaluation of this tool in a large parasitology laboratory revealed concordance rates for pathogenic protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Dientamoeba fragilis) of about 80%, which may be considered for use as a benchmark value. We also used this tool to demonstrate that when pairs of specimens from one patient are pooled to create a single specimen, concordance between the results of the individual and pooled specimens is high. PMID:18448690

  6. Amsterdam infant stool scale is more useful for assessing children who have not been toilet trained than Bristol stool scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghanma, A.; Puttemans, K.; Deneyer, M.; Benninga, M. A.; Vandenplas, Y.

    2014-01-01

    A validated stool scale would help both parents and clinicians to describe and differentiate between physiological and pathologic stool appearance. The Bristol Stool Scale (BSS), which was developed at the University of Bristol, is a medical aid that classifies human stools into seven categories

  7. SNaPAfu: a novel single nucleotide polymorphism multiplex assay for aspergillus fumigatus direct detection, identification and genotyping in clinical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Caramalho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is essential for positive patient outcome. Likewise genotyping of fungal isolates is desirable for outbreak control in clinical setting. We designed a molecular assay that combines detection, identification, and genotyping of Aspergillus fumigatus in a single reaction. METHODS: To this aim we combined 20 markers in a multiplex reaction and the results were seen following mini-sequencing readings. Pure culture extracts were firstly tested. Thereafter, Aspergillus-DNA samples obtained from clinical specimens of patients with possible, probable, or proven aspergillosis according to European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG criteria. RESULTS: A new set of designed primers allowed multilocus sequence typing (MLST gene amplification in a single multiplex reaction. The newly proposed SNaPAfu assay had a specificity of 100%, a sensitivity of 89% and detection limit of 1 ITS copy/mL (∼0.5 fg genomic Aspergillus-DNA/mL. The marker A49_F was detected in 89% of clinical samples. The SNaPAfu assay was accurately performed on clinical specimens using only 1% of DNA extract (total volume 50 µL from 1 mL of used bronchoalveolar lavage. CONCLUSIONS: The first highly sensitive and specific, time- and cost-economic multiplex assay was implemented that allows detection, identification, and genotyping of A. fumigatus strains in a single amplification followed by mini-sequencing reaction. The new test is suitable to clinical routine and will improve patient management.

  8. Novel real-time PCr for detection of Schistosoma japonicum in stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lier, T; Simonsen, G S; Haaheim, H; Hjelmevoll, S O; Vennervald, B J; Johansen, M V

    2006-03-01

    Chemotherapy has been used on a large scale in countries where the blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum is endemic. This has led to a lower intensity of infections and consequently lower diagnostic values of commonly used diagnostic tests like serology and Kato-Katz stool smear. We designed a novel real-time PCR method for detection of S. japonicum in stool samples. Further, we evaluated different versions of an inexpensive, non-commercial extraction method, ROSE, as well as the commercial QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit. PCR primer sequences were designed targeting the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase I gene. Bovine serum albumin was added to the DNA extracts and SYBR Green was used for detection. The PCR method was evaluated with non-infected stool samples spiked with S. japonicum eggs. It demonstrated high sensitivity, even in samples containing a single egg. The two extraction methods were equally effective. The PCR was specific for S. japonicum when tested against other Schistosoma species, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm and Taenia sp. We conclude that this novel real-time PCR, in combination with either ROSE or QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit extraction, is a sensitive and specific tool for diagnosing S. japonicum in human stool samples.

  9. An improved stool concentration procedure for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in Orang Asli stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Fatmah Md; Moktar, Norhayati; Yasin, Azlin Mohd; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Anuar, Tengku Shahrul

    2014-11-01

    To improve the stool concentration procedure, we modified different steps of the standard formalin-ether concentration technique and evaluated these modifications by examining stool samples collected in the field. Seven samples were found positive by the modified formalin-ether concentration technique (M-FECT). Therefore, the M-FECT procedure provides enhanced detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrasensitive Detection of Shigella Species in Blood and Stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jieling; Wang, Jiapeng; Mathew, Anup S; Yau, Siu-Tung

    2016-02-16

    A modified immunosensing system with voltage-controlled signal amplification was used to detect Shigella in stool and blood matrixes at the single-digit CFU level. Inactivated Shigella was spiked in these matrixes and detected directly. The detection was completed in 78 min. Detection limits of 21 CFU/mL and 18 CFU/mL were achieved in stool and blood, respectively, corresponding to 2-7 CFUs immobilized on the detecting electrode. The outcome of the detection of extremely low bacterium concentration, i.e., below 100 CFU/mL, blood samples show a random nature. An analysis of the detection probabilities indicates the correlation between the sample volume and the success of detection and suggests that sample volume is critical for ultrasensitive detection of bacteria. The calculated detection limit is qualitatively in agreement with the empirically determined detection limit. The demonstrated ultrasensitive detection of Shigella on the single-digit CFU level suggests the feasibility of the direct detection of the bacterium in the samples without performing a culture.

  11. Yield of Stool Culture with Isolate Toxin Testing versus a Two-Step Algorithm Including Stool Toxin Testing for Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reller, Megan E.; Lema, Clara A.; Perl, Trish M.; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L.; Speck, Kathleen A.; Carroll, Karen C.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) CCNA and conventional PCR if the direct CCNA was negative. The “gold standard” for toxigenic C. difficile was detection of C. difficile by the GDH screen or by culture and toxin production by direct or indirect CCNA. We tested 439 specimens from 439 patients. GDH screening detected all culture-positive specimens. The sensitivity of the two-step algorithm was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 84%), and that of culture was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 92%). PCR results correlated completely with those of CCNA testing on isolates (29/29 positive and 32/32 negative, respectively). We conclude that GDH is an excellent screening test and that culture with isolate CCNA testing detects an additional 23% of toxigenic C. difficile missed by direct CCNA. Since culture is tedious and also detects nontoxigenic C. difficile, we conclude that culture is most useful (i) when the direct CCNA is negative but a high clinical suspicion of toxigenic C. difficile remains, (ii) in the evaluation of new diagnostic tests for toxigenic C. difficile (where the best reference standard is essential), and (iii) in epidemiologic studies (where the availability of an isolate allows for strain typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing). PMID:17804652

  12. Yield of stool culture with isolate toxin testing versus a two-step algorithm including stool toxin testing for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reller, Megan E; Lema, Clara A; Perl, Trish M; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L; Speck, Kathleen A; Carroll, Karen C

    2007-11-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) CCNA and conventional PCR if the direct CCNA was negative. The "gold standard" for toxigenic C. difficile was detection of C. difficile by the GDH screen or by culture and toxin production by direct or indirect CCNA. We tested 439 specimens from 439 patients. GDH screening detected all culture-positive specimens. The sensitivity of the two-step algorithm was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 84%), and that of culture was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 92%). PCR results correlated completely with those of CCNA testing on isolates (29/29 positive and 32/32 negative, respectively). We conclude that GDH is an excellent screening test and that culture with isolate CCNA testing detects an additional 23% of toxigenic C. difficile missed by direct CCNA. Since culture is tedious and also detects nontoxigenic C. difficile, we conclude that culture is most useful (i) when the direct CCNA is negative but a high clinical suspicion of toxigenic C. difficile remains, (ii) in the evaluation of new diagnostic tests for toxigenic C. difficile (where the best reference standard is essential), and (iii) in epidemiologic studies (where the availability of an isolate allows for strain typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing).

  13. Noninvasive detection through REMS-PCR technique of K-ras mutations in stool DNA of patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixich, Francisc; Ioana, Mihai; Voinea, Florea; Săftoiu, Adrian; Ciurea, Tudorel

    2007-03-01

    Tumor exfoliated cells that shed into stool are attractive targets for molecular screening and early detection of colon malignancies. Many studies have suggested that the detection of activated ras may have diagnostic or prognostic importance. The aim of this study was to establish the suitability for use in diagnostic laboratories of the noninvasive screening test of K-ras mutation determination in the stool and its routine prognostic value in colorectal cancer. Paired stool and tissue specimens obtained after polypectomy and colorectal biopsy from 28 patients diagnosed solely by histopathological findings with primary colorectal carcinoma, were prospectively studied for K-ras codon 12 mutations by restriction endonuclease-mediated selective (REMS)-PCR. DNA was obtained in 28 of tissue samples (100%) and 26 of stool samples (92.8%). K-ras codon 12 mutation was seen in 14 (50.0%) paired stool and tissue samples. Mutation detection was possible in 1000-fold excess of wild-type sequence. These results may be important in the design of genetic screening programs, determination of prognosis, early detection and treatment for patients with colon malignancy. The sensitivity and specificity of K-ras determination on stool-derived DNA in patients with colorectal carcinoma, support the opportunity of a large-scale trial to validate its use as a screening test. REMS- PCR is not labor intensive, but a sensitive, rapid, and robust assay for the detection of point mutations, and was introduced by us in a routine diagnostic laboratory.

  14. Prevalence of Salmonella Excretion in Stool: A Community Survey in 2 Sites, Guinea-Bissau and Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Justin; Nichols, Chelsea; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Sow, Amy Gassama; Løfberg, Sandra; Tall, Adama; Pak, Gi Deok; Aaby, Peter; Baker, Stephen; Clemens, John D; Espinoza, Ligia Maria Cruz; Konings, Frank; May, Jürgen; Monteiro, Mario; Niang, Aissatou; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Se Eun; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Wierzba, Thomas F; Marks, Florian; von Kalckreuth, Vera

    2016-03-15

    Chronic and convalescent carriers play an important role in the transmission and endemicity of many communicable diseases. A high incidence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection has been reported in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, yet the prevalence of Salmonella excretion in the general population is unknown. Stool specimens were collected from a random sample of households in 2 populations in West Africa: Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, and Dakar, Senegal. Stool was cultured to detect presence of Salmonella, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on the isolated organisms. Stool was cultured from 1077 and 1359 individuals from Guinea-Bissau and Senegal, respectively. Salmonella Typhi was not isolated from stool samples at either site. Prevalence of NTS in stool samples was 24.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.5-35.1; n = 26/1077) per 1000 population in Guinea-Bissau and 10.3 (95% CI, 6.1-17.2; n = 14/1359) per 1000 population in Senegal. Evidence of NTS excretion in stool in both study populations indicates a possible NTS transmission route in these settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A one-step immune-chromatographic Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test for children was quick, consistent, reliable and specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalach, Nicolas; Gosset, Pierre; Dehecq, Eric; Decoster, Anne; Georgel, Anne-France; Spyckerelle, Claire; Papadopoulos, Stephanos; Dupont, Christophe; Raymond, Josette

    2017-12-01

    This French study assessed a quick, noninvasive, immuno-chromatographic, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) stool antigen test for detecting infections in children. We enrolled 158 children, with a median age of 8.5 years (range eight months to 17 years), with digestive symptoms suggesting upper gastrointestinal tract disease. Upper digestive endoscopy was performed with gastric biopsy specimens for histology, a rapid urease test, culture test and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The H. pylori stool antigen test was performed twice for each child and the results were compared to the reference method. The reference methods showed that 23 (14.6%) of the 158 children tested were H. pylori positive. The H. pylori stool antigen test showed 91.3% sensitivity, with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 86.9-95.6 and 97% specificity (95% CI 94.3-99.6), 30.84 positive likelihood ratio and 0.09 negative likelihood ratio. The test accuracy was 96.2% (95% CI 93.2-99.1). The two blinded independent observers produced identical H. pylori stool antigen test results and the Kappa coefficient for the H. pylori stool antigen test was one. The H. pylori stool antigen test was found to be a consistent, reliable, quick and specific test for detecting the H. pylori infection in children. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Moellerella wisconsensis, a new genus and species of Enterobacteriaceae found in human stool specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Hickman-Brenner, F W; Huntley-Carter, G P; Saitoh, Y; Steigerwalt, A G; Farmer, J J; Brenner, D J

    1984-01-01

    The name Moellerella wisconsensis is proposed for a group of the family Enterobacteriaceae previously called enteric group 46. The species name, wisconsensis, was coined because six of the nine strains were isolated in Wisconsin. M. wisconsensis strains were negative for indole production, Voges-Proskauer, H2S production, urea, phenylalanine deaminase, lysine and ornithine decarboxylases, arginine dihydrolase, gas production from D-glucose, acid production from trehalose, and motility; the st...

  17. USE OF MODIFIED CAMP TEST FOR PRELIMINARY NONSEROLOGIC IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO CHOLERAE IN STOOL SPECIMENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Lesmana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Suatu modifikasi uji CAMP digunakan bersama dengan reaksi biokimiawi untuk identifikasi Vibrio cholerae pada sampel klinis. Dari 579 usap dubur penderita diare, 92 (16% memberikan hasil isolasi V. cholerae 01 biotipe El Tor dan 34 (6% V. cholerae non-01. Semua isolat V. cholerae 01 El Tor menunjukkan reaksi CAMP positif kuat dengan gambaran hemolisis sinergistik lengkap berbentuk sosis; sedangkan V. cholerae non-01 memberikan reaksi CAMP yang sempit dengan pola hemolisis menyerupai bulan sabit. Hasil uji CAMP yang dilakukan bersama dengan reaksi biokimiawi sesuai dengan metode biakan konvensional yang menyertakan tes aglutinasi dengan antiserum V. cholerae 01 untuk mengidentifikasi V. cholerae.

  18. Direct Detection of Shigella in Stool Specimens by Use of a Metagenomic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jie; Almeida, Mathieu; Kabir, Furqan; Shakoor, Sadia; Qureshi, Shahida; Zaidi, Anita; Li, Shan; Tamboura, Boubou; Sow, Samba O.; Mandomando, Inacio; Alonso, Pedro L.; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Sur, Dipika; Kotloff, Karen; Nataro, James

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The underestimation of Shigella species as a cause of childhood diarrhea disease has become increasingly apparent with quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based diagnostic methods versus culture. We sought to confirm qPCR-based detection of Shigella via a metagenomics approach. Three groups of samples were selected from diarrheal cases from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study: nine Shigella culture-positive and qPCR-positive (culture+ qPCR+) samples, nine culture-negative but qPCR-positive (cul...

  19. Stool Xpert MTB/RIF and urine lipoarabinomannan for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in hospitalized HIV-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCourse, Sylvia M; Pavlinac, Patricia B; Cranmer, Lisa M; Njuguna, Irene N; Mugo, Cyrus; Gatimu, John; Stern, Joshua; Walson, Judd L; Maleche-Obimbo, Elizabeth; Oyugi, Julius; Wamalwa, Dalton; John-Stewart, Grace

    2018-01-02

    Tuberculosis (TB) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. Sample collection and the paucibacillary nature of TB in children makes diagnosis challenging. Rapid diagnostic tools using easily obtained specimens are urgently needed. Hospitalized, HIV-infected children aged 12 years or less enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (NCT02063880) comparing urgent to post-stabilization antiretroviral therapy initiation in Kenya underwent TB evaluation. At enrollment, sputum or gastric aspirates were collected for TB culture and Xpert, stool for Xpert, and urine for lipoarabinomannan (LAM). When possible, a second sputum/gastric aspirate for culture was obtained. Stool Xpert and urine LAM performance were compared to reference sputum/gastric aspirate culture. Among 165 HIV-infected children, median age was 24 months [interquartile range (IQR) 13-58], median CD4% was 14.3 (IQR 8.9-22.0%), and 114 (69.5%) had severe immunosuppression. Thirteen (7.9%) children had confirmed TB (positive culture and/or Xpert). Sputum/gastric aspirate Xpert, stool Xpert, and urine LAM sensitivities were 60% [95% confidence interval (CI) 26-88%], 63% (95% CI 25-92%), and 43% (95% CI 10-82%), respectively. Specificity was 98% (95% CI 94-100%) for sputum/gastric aspirate Xpert, 99% (95% CI 95-100%) for stool Xpert, and 91% (95% CI 84-95%) for urine LAM. Stool Xpert and urine LAM sensitivity increased among children with severe immunosuppression [80% (95% CI 28-100) and 60% (95% Cl 15-95%)]. Stool Xpert had similar performance compared with sputum/gastric aspirate Xpert to detect TB. Urine LAM had lower sensitivity and specificity, but increased among children with severe immunosuppression. Stool Xpert and urine LAM can aid rapid detection of TB in HIV-infected children using easily accessible samples.

  20. Symptomatic Diverticulosis Is Characterized By Loose Stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järbrink-Sehgal, M Ellionore; Andreasson, Anna; Talley, Nicholas J; Agréus, Lars; Song, Jeong-Yeop; Schmidt, Peter T

    2016-12-01

    Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease is considered to be a discreet clinical entity distinct from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but population-based data are unavailable. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and location of diverticulosis in the general population, and its association with colonic symptoms and mental health. We propose that individuals with diverticulosis would report more constipation and IBS. We performed a population-based study of randomly selected adults born in Sweden (age, 18-70 y; 57.2% women); 745 received a gastroenterology consultation, completed validated abdominal symptom and mental health questionnaires, and were examined by colonoscopy. Logistic regression was used to calculate the associations between diverticulosis and age, sex, gastrointestinal symptoms, anxiety, depression, and self-rated health. Among the 742 participants (54.6% women), 130 (17.5%) had diverticulosis. Age was the strongest predictor of diverticulosis (P diverticulosis was rare in participants younger than 40 years (0.7%). All participants with diverticulosis had sigmoid involvement. Participants with diverticulosis were more likely to report loose stools (odds ratio [OR], 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-2.96), urgency (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.02-2.63), passing mucus (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.08-4.72), and a high stool frequency (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.11-3.65). Diverticulosis was associated with abdominal pain (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.01-4.36; P = .047) and diarrhea-predominant IBS (OR, 9.55; 95% CI, 1.08-84.08; P = .04) in participants older than 60 years. The presence of anxiety and depression and self-rated health were similar in participants with and without diverticulosis. The prevalence of diverticulosis is age-dependent. Diverticulosis is associated with diarrhea in subjects across all age ranges. In subjects older than age 60, diverticulosis is associated with abdominal pain and diarrhea-predominant IBS. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute

  1. Assessing Children's Report of Stool Consistency: Agreement Between the Pediatric Rome III Questionnaire and the Bristol Stool Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriesman, Mana H.; Velasco-Benitez, Carlos A.; Ramirez, Carmen R.; Benninga, Marc A.; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Saps, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the agreement between the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III (QPGS-RIII) and the Bristol Stool Scale (BSS) in evaluating stool consistency and the diagnosis of functional constipation in children. Study design Children aged 8-18 years were asked to

  2. Development of the Brussels Infant and Toddler Stool Scale ('BITSS'): protocol of the study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Szajewska, Hania; Benninga, Marc; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Dupont, Christophe; Faure, Christophe; Miqdadi, Mohamed; Osatakul, Seksit; Ribes-Konickx, Carmen; Saps, Miguel; Shamir, Raanan; Staiano, Annamaria; Franckx, Johan; Green, Robin; Hegar, Badriul; Lemmens, Roel; Salvatore, Silvia; Vieira, Mario; Verghote, Marc; Xinias, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    The Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSS) which consists of 7 photographs of different stool forms allows assessment of stool consistency (scale 1 for hard lumps to scale 7 for watery stools), in an objective manner in adults. The BSS is also sometimes used to characterise the stools of infants and young

  3. Assessing Children's Report of Stool Consistency: Agreement Between the Pediatric Rome III Questionnaire and the Bristol Stool Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriesman, Mana H; Velasco-Benitez, Carlos A; Ramirez, Carmen R; Benninga, Marc A; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Saps, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    To assess the agreement between the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III (QPGS-RIII) and the Bristol Stool Scale (BSS) in evaluating stool consistency and the diagnosis of functional constipation in children. Children aged 8-18 years were asked to describe their stool consistency in the previous month according to the QPGS-RIII and the BSS. Stool consistency according to both instruments was categorized into 3 categories: "hard," "normal," and "liquid." The children's reported stool consistency using the QPGS-RIII and the BSS were compared, and the intrarater agreement between the 2 instruments was measured using the Cohen kappa coefficient (κ). The diagnosis of functional constipation was based on the Rome III criteria, incorporating the assessment of stool consistency according to the QPGS-RIII and the BSS. A total of 1835 children were included. Only slight agreement existed between the QPGS-RIII and the BSS for assessing stool consistency (κ = .046; P = .022). Significantly more children reported hard stools on the BSS compared to the QPGS-RIII (18.0% vs 7.1%; P = .000). The prevalence of functional constipation was 8.6% using the QPGS-RIII and 9.3% using the BSS (P = .134). Only slight agreement exists between the QPGS-RIII and the BSS in the evaluation of stool consistency in children. Better instruments are needed to assess the consistency of stools with a high degree of reliability, both in research and in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intestinal cytomegalovirus disease in immunocompromised patients may be ruled out by search for cytomegalovirus DNA in stool samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, D; Marre, E; Hampl, W; Roczkos, J; Müller, S; Hertenstein, B; Kern, P; Heymer, B; Salzberger, B; Arasteh, K

    1995-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) PCR from stool specimens was adopted as a diagnostic tool for patients with suspected CMV colitis. After being established, the method was evaluated in 17 AIDS patients and 19 other immunocompromised patients by comparison of PCR results with clinical, histological, and microbiological or virological data. CMV PCR was positive in 4 symptomatic patients with proven CMV colitis and negative in 15 of 16 patients without characteristic histopathology. Neither CMV immunoglobu...

  5. Multiplex PCR detection of Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica directly from dried stool samples from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mero, Sointu; Kirveskari, Juha; Antikainen, Jenni

    2017-01-01

    Background: In developing countries, diarrhoea is the most common cause of death for children under five years of age, with Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba histolytica as the most frequent pathogenic parasites. Traditional microscopy for stool parasites has poor sensitivity...... was developed for detecting Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium hominis/parvum and Entamoeba histolytica directly from stool specimens. Applicability to dried samples was checked by comparing with fresh ones in a small test material. Finally, the assay was applied to dried specimens collected from Guinea......-Bissauan children with diarrhoea. Results: The PCR’s analytical sensitivity limit was 0.1 ng/ml for G. lamblia DNA, 0.01 ng/ml for E. histolytica DNA and 0.1 ng/ml for Cryptosporidium sp. In the test material, the assay performed similarly with fresh and dried stools. Of the 52 Guinea-Bissauan samples, local...

  6. Two-step stool aerobic training for smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Manuel; Saavedra, Pedro; Martin, Nieves; Lantarón, Ev M; Polu, Elisabeth; Bach, John Robert

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze subjective, physical, and physiologic responses to a standardized incremental 30-min two-step stool test to create an individualized 45-min maximally intensive two-step stool endurance exercise regimen for home training. This is a longitudinal study on 26 consecutively referred male smokers aged 39-66 yrs. Each performed the two-step stool test on two 15-cm steps at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 climbs per minute. Exertional dyspnea, oxygen consumption per unit time, ventilation, respiratory rate, tidal volume, heart rate, capillary oxyhemoglobin saturation, physiologic cost index, and oxygen pulse were recorded and compared with those observed during incremental cycle exercise (30 W per 3 mins). Multivariate analysis for each parameter was undertaken as a mixed model. All subjects attained 60 climbs per minute on the two-step stool test and performed 38-42 mins of two-step stool endurance. All parameters reached 80%-96% of cycle maximum oxygen consumption. The subjects found the two-step stool endurance simple and practical to perform at home. There were no complications. The incremental two-step stool test is a simple, cost-effective way to establish a 45-min maximally intensive endurance exercise training program practical for use in the home.

  7. Evaluation of Streck tissue fixative, a nonformalin fixative for preservation of stool samples and subsequent parasitologic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, E K; Steurer, F J; Eberhard, M L

    1999-12-01

    We undertook a study to evaluate Streck tissue fixative (STF) as a substitute for formalin and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in fecal preservation. A comparison of formalin, PVA, (mercuric chloride based), and STF was done by aliquoting fecal samples into each fixative. Stool specimens were collected in Haiti, and parasites included Cyclospora cayetanensis, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Endolimax nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Necator americanus. Preserved stools were examined at various predetermined times (1 week, 1 month, and 3 months) to establish the quality of the initial preservation as well as the suitability of the fixative for long-term storage. At each time point, stool samples in fixatives were examined microscopically as follows: (i) in wet mounts (with bright-field and epifluorescence microscopy), (ii) in modified acid-fast-, trichrome-, and safranin-stained smears, and (iii) with two commercial test kits. At the time points examined, morphologic features remained comparable for samples fixed with 10% formalin and STF. For comparisons of STF- and 10% formalin-fixed samples, specific findings showed that Cyclospora oocysts retained full fluorescence, modified acid-fast- and safranin-stained smears of Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora oocysts were equal in staining quality, and results were comparable in the immunofluorescence assay and enzyme immunoassay commercial kits. Stool fixed in STF and stained with trichrome showed less-than-acceptable staining quality compared with stool fixed in PVA. STF provides an excellent substitute for formalin as a fixative in routine examination of stool samples for parasites. However, modifications to the trichrome staining procedures will be necessary to improve the staining quality for protozoal cysts fixed in STF to a level comparable to that with PVA.

  8. Prevalence of amoebiasis in a model research community and its confirmation using stool antigen elisa for Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Tasleem; Khan, Aamir Ghafoor; Ahmed, Israr; Nazli, Rubina; Haider, Jamila

    2016-09-01

    Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) produces an invasive disease called amoebiasis, which commonly produces diarrhea with or without blood in both children and adults, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Entamoeba dispar (E. Dispar) is a non invasive, non pathogenic organism. Both Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba Dispar look alike on microscopy and therefore cannot be differentiated unless checked on ELISA, PCR or other specific method. To calculate the actual prevalence of pathogenic amoebiasis in children by comparing the stool microscopy with ELISA stool antigen i.e. gold standard. Across sectional, comparative study. Children under five years in a community village Budhni, District Peshawar. A sample of 288 children aged Entamoeba histolytica. The specificity and sensitivity of microscopic method was calculated against ELISA. Data was analyzed using statistical computer software package SPSS version 10.0. A total of 288 stool specimens were collected and examined for Entamoeba histolytica. Out of these 36(12.5%) stools were positive for E. histolyticaon microscopy while 14(4.9%) were positive on ELISA. Out of 14 ELISA positive samples, 10 samples were also positive on microscopy while 4 were ELISA positive but microscopy negative. About 22 samples, which were positive on microscopy were negative on ELISA indicating that these samples might have been of E. Dispar which is non pathogenic protozoa. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopic method was 71.4% and 90.5% respectively, as against stool antigen test. Actual prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica is low in the area. Stool ELISA was able to differentiate between pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica and the non-pathogenic Entamoeba dispar and thus can minimize unnecessary antiamoebic treatment in these children.

  9. Carbapenem disks on MacConkey agar in screening methods for detection of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative rods in stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Julie; Tsimiklis, Catherine; Lavergne, Valéry; Pilotte, Josée; Grenier, Sophie; Gilbert, Andrée; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Domingo, Marc-Christian; Tremblay, Cécile; Bourgault, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Direct plating of simulated stool specimens on MacConkey agar (MCA) with 10-μg ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem disks allowed the establishment of optimal zone diameters for the screening of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative rods (CRGNR) of ≤ 24 mm (ertapenem), ≤ 34 mm (meropenem), and ≤ 32 mm (imipenem).

  10. Carbapenem Disks on MacConkey Agar in Screening Methods for Detection of Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Rods in Stools

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Julie; Tsimiklis, Catherine; Lavergne, Valéry; Pilotte, Josée; Grenier, Sophie; Gilbert, Andrée; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Domingo, Marc-Christian; Tremblay, Cécile; Bourgault, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Direct plating of simulated stool specimens on MacConkey agar (MCA) with 10-μg ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem disks allowed the establishment of optimal zone diameters for the screening of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative rods (CRGNR) of ≤24 mm (ertapenem), ≤34 mm (meropenem), and ≤32 mm (imipenem).

  11. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in children by noninvasive stool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in children by noninvasive stool Antigen Enzyme Immunoassay. Augustine O. Ebonyi, Emeka Ejeliogu, Stanley T. Odigbo, Martha Omoo Ochoga, Stephen Oguche, Anejo-Okopi A. Joseph ...

  12. Stool consistency is significantly associated with pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Shiro

    Full Text Available Commensal as well as pathogenic bacteria can influence a variety of gut functions, thereby leading to constipation and diarrhea in severe cases. In fact, several researchers have reported evidence supporting the association between stool consistency or constipation and the Gut microbiome (GM composition and dysbiosis. GM influences the human health and disease via the gut-brain axis. We thus hypothesized that the pathogenic bacteria increases pain perception to some extent, which means that there could be an association between stool consistency or constipation and pain perception of healthy subjects.Observational study.The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between stool consistency or constipation and pain perception of healthy subjects.Thirty-eight healthy subjects participated in this study. The participants were assessed on their usual stool form (the Bristol Stool Form Scale: BSFS, constipation (the Cleveland Clinic Constipation score: CCS, degree of obesity, pain perception by mechanical stimulus, cold pain threshold, and a questionnaire on psychological state.The BSFS was significantly and positively associated with pain perception, and showed a significant association with anxiety states. Furthermore, pain perception was significantly associated with anxiety states. However, there were no significant associations between the CCS and any independent variables. In addition, we found that a significant predictor to the pain perception was BSFS. Moreover, there were significant relationships among the psychological states, BSFS and obesity.These results suggest that the stool form is associated with pain perception and anxiety status.

  13. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... Normal values depend on the test being performed. Normal results are reported as "no growth" and are a sign ...

  14. Pattern of shedding of small, round-structured virus particles in stools of patients of outbreaks of food-poisoning from raw oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruki, K; Seto, Y; Murakami, T; Kimura, T

    1991-01-01

    The pattern of shedding of the small, round-structured virus (SRSV) particles in the stools of patients who suffered from food-poisoning due to raw oysters was investigated. The duration and concentration of fecal shedding of the SRSV particles were studied by electron microscopic examinations of stool specimens obtained during the course of illness to see a relation of viral shedding to day of illness. It was found that the fecal shedding of the SRSV particles occurred within five days of illness; thereafter, the concentration of the SRSV particles in feces rapidly decreased within a few days during the course of illness.

  15. [First isolate of Encephalitozoon intestinalis from stools of a Colombian patient with AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Katherine; Montoya, Martha Nelly; Botero, Jorge; Galván, Ana Luz

    2008-09-01

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that are recognized as important opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised and transplanted patients. Enterocytozoon bieneusi and, less frequently, Encephalitozoon intestinalis are the most prevalent species in humans; both of them are associated with enteric infections. Cell cultures have been useful in the study of microsporidia biology. In Colombia, however, no isolates of microsporidia from patients with AIDS have been obtained. A cell culture of intestinal microsporidia was established from stools of positive patients in order to isolate a native strain. Stool from a single AIDS patient was concentrated with the water-ether technique, and the sediment was treated with a mixture of antibiotics and antifungal agents for 18 hours at 37 degrees C. Vero cells were cultivated in 24-well plates with Gibco RPMI medium supplemented with 10% bovine fetal serum and antibiotics. The culture was subsequently inoculated with previously concentrated spores. The medium was changed every second day and the presence of spores was evaluated with the Quick Hot Gram chromotrope stain. Two weeks post-infection, microsporidial spores were identified with characteristic morphology and staining properties. PCR results showed that Encephalitozoon intestinalis was the isolated species. A cell culture of microsporidia was established from a stool sample. This protocol is important to isolate and maintain additional native Colombian strains and it will contribute to biochemical, immunological and epidemiological studies of the currently established strain.

  16. Yield of Stool Culture with Isolate Toxin Testing versus a Two-Step Algorithm Including Stool Toxin Testing for Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile▿

    OpenAIRE

    Reller, Megan E.; Lema, Clara A.; Perl, Trish M.; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L.; Speck, Kathleen A.; Carroll, Karen C.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) C...

  17. Lack of Correlation between Bristol Stool Scale and Quantitative Bacterial Load in Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Abrar K. Thabit; David P. Nicolau

    2015-01-01

    Decision to test for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is usually made when patients have loose stools with Bristol stool score of ≤5. We aimed to assess the relationship between bacterial load of C. difficile and Bristol stool scale, as well as stool frequency in stool samples collected from patients infected with the organism. Samples were collected at baseline, during therapy, and at the end of therapy. Spearman correlation test was used to evaluate these relationships. No correlation ...

  18. TEM Specimen Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: House Ear Institute ### Preparative Techniques for the TEM For routine transmission electron microscopy (TEM), it is generally accepted that specimens should be thin, dry and contain molecules which diffract electrons. Biological specimens, which are large and consist of large amounts of water, also do not defract electrons and are therefore difficult to see in the TEM. Preparing biological specimens for the TEM, whilst retaining the structural morphology of the material, is a...

  19. Laparoscopic specimen retrieval bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorgick, Noam

    2014-10-01

    Specimen retrieval bags have long been used in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery for contained removal of adnexal cysts and masses. More recently, the concerns regarding spread of malignant cells during mechanical morcellation of myoma have led to an additional use of specimen retrieval bags for contained "in-bag" morcellation. This review will discuss the indications for use retrieval bags in gynecologic endoscopy, and describe the different specimen bags available to date.

  20. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of 2 immunochromatographic tests detecting campylobacter in stools and their role in campylobacter infection diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessède, Emilie; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Valdenaire, Guillaume; Richer, Olivier; Lehours, Philippe; Mégraud, Francis

    2018-02-07

    The detection of campylobacters in stools is performed essentially by culture, but this technique has a low sensitivity. New detection methods are now available. Among them, immunochromatography tests (ICTs) are very attractive in that they offer a result within 15 minutes. However, previous studies suggest that these tests have a relatively low specificity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of these tests.During the study period, all patients who consulted the emergency units and had a stool culture were included. Their stool samples were tested with 2 ICTs, RIDA®QUICK Campylobacter and ImmunoCardSTAT!Campy. Stools were also tested by a home-made PCR and 2 commercially available ELISAs when one of the ICTs was positive. The composite reference standard (CRS) was defined as positive if the culture was positive or, in case of a negative culture, if the PCR and one of the ELISAs were positive simultaneously.Three hundred and five patients were included. Among the 50 positive specimens with RIDA®QUICK Campylobacter, 47 were considered as true positives by the CRS, corresponding to a positive predictive value (PPV) of 94.0%. Among the 52 positive specimens with ImmunoCardSTAT!Campy, 44 were considered as true positives by the CRS, corresponding to a PPV of 84.6%. The negative predictive values (NPV) were estimated at 94.9% and 92.4% for RIDA®QUICK and ImmunoCardSTAT!Campy, respectively.ICTs appear to be very efficient and allow a very rapid detection of campylobacters which is important to treat early campylobacter infection with an adapted antibiotherapy. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. A Novel Stool PCR Test for Helicobacter pylori May Predict Clarithromycin Resistance and Eradication of Infection at a High Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Erin; Saracino, Ilaria; Fiorini, Giulia; Clark, Courtney; Slepnev, Vladimir; Patel, Denise; Gomez, Clarissa; Ponaka, Reddy; Elagin, Vecheslav; Vaira, Dino

    2017-08-01

    Clarithromycin-based regimens are commonly used as a first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori -positive patients; however, resistance to clarithromycin has led to treatment failures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using stool samples to detect the presence of H. pylori DNA while concurrently detecting mutations associated with resistance to clarithromycin. For this purpose, total DNA was extracted from 294 raw stool specimens from H. pylori -positive and -negative patients. TaqMan real-time PCR amplification was used to detect the presence of H. pylori as well as to predict the phenotype of the organism and the related outcome for patients treated with clarithromycin. Clarithromycin resistance was determined upon analysis of the PCR result. Patients were also tested by a urea breath test and were subjected to esophagogastroduodenoscopy, followed by histology, culture, and a rapid urease test, in order to obtain a consensus patient infection status. Of 294 total stool samples, 227 were deemed true positive. The sensitivity of H. pylori detection by PCR was 93.8%. Of 213 true-positive samples that were sequenced, 36.2% showed point mutations associated with clarithromycin resistance (A2142C, A2142G, A2143G). The final correlation of the mutant genotypes as determined by sequencing with the eradication of infection was 86%. We found that Helicobacter pylori DNA can be detected in human stool specimens with high sensitivity and can therefore be used to determine the presence of the bacterium without obtaining a biopsy sample. Moreover, genotypic resistance to clarithromycin can be predicted without obtaining a biopsy sample, facilitating the choice of the right therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Detection and differentiation of Cryptosporidium by real-time polymerase chain reaction in stool samples from patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Flávia Ribeiro Rolando

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the first genetic characterisation of Cryptosporidium isolates in Brazil using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A total of 1,197 faecal specimens from children and 10 specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients were collected between 1999-2010 and screened using microscopy. Forty-eight Cryptosporidium oocyst-positive isolates were identified and analysed using a generic TaqMan assay targeting the 18S rRNA to detect Cryptosporidium species and two other TaqMan assays to identify Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. The 18S rRNA assay detected Cryptosporidium species in all 48 of the stool specimens. The C. parvum TaqMan assay correctly identified five/48 stool samples, while 37/48 stool specimens were correctly amplified in the C. hominis TaqMan assay. The results obtained in this study support previous findings showing that C. hominis infections are more prevalent than C. parvum infections in Brazil and they demonstrate that the TaqMan RT-PCR procedure is a simple, fast and valuable tool for the detection and differentiation of Cryptosporidium species.

  3. Isolation and Identification of Adenovirus Recovered from the Stool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to establish the role of adenovirus in gastroenteritis in Nigerian children, stool samples were collected from 138 young children with gastroenteritis and 29 other age-matched controls. The samples were inoculated into 6 different tissue culture cell lines and isolates with characteristic CPE were subjected to CFT ...

  4. Plesiomonas shigelloides in stool samples of patients in the Venda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... This study determined the haemolytic, haemagglutinating and antibiotic susceptibility activities of. Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from stool samples of patients attending different health centers in the Venda region of South Africa. P.shigelloides was isolated and identified using the API 20E, API.

  5. Gatrointestinal parasites associated with the stools of bottle-fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gatrointestinal parasites associated with the stools of bottle-fed babies in Benin city, Nigeria. MO Okungbowa, FI Okungbowa. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol. 13 (3) 2007: pp.415-419. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  6. Identification and antibiotic sensitivity test of bacteria from stools of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty stool samples from 65 female and 85 male patients with acute diarrhoea from the Central Hospital, Agbor (Nigeria) were examined to ascertain the likelihood of cholera outbreak in Agbor. The samples were preserved in Carey-Blair semi-solid medium, inoculated directly on blood agar, McConkey agar ...

  7. Comparative evaluation of direct stool smear and Formol-ether ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptosporidium is a common cause of diarrhoea in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Unfortunately this pathogen is not often checked for in Microbiology laboratories because the formol-ether stool concentration method for identification of Cryptosporidium is ...

  8. Evaluation of the TRCRtest NV-W for norovirus detection in stools by the Transcription-Reverse Transcription Concerted method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Maria Cristina; Tummolo, Fabio; Albonetti, Valeria; Pinardi, Federica; Ferraglia, Francesca; Chezzi, Carlo; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; De Conto, Flora; Calderaro, Adriana

    2013-11-01

    A novel molecular assay, TRCRtest NV-W, based on a transcription-reverse transcription concerted reaction (TRC) for isothermal amplification and real-time detection of norovirus in stools was assessed and compared with an RT-nPCR. Archived stools positive for either different types or variants of norovirus genogroups I and II or other enteric viruses were used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the novel assay. The TRC assay was 100% specific since it detected all the noroviruses tested and it did not display cross reactivity with other enteric viruses. When screening a collection of 387 stools with the TRC and RT-nPCR assays, the TRC displayed concordance, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 96.6%, 81%, 99.7%, 98.1%, and 96.3%, respectively, after retesting the negative specimens. Additional PCRs and/or sequencing, used to understand inconsistent results between TRC and RT-nPCR, confirmed all positive results and did not reveal nucleotide variations in the TRC probe and primers binding sites. The TRC assay may be a rapid and ease of use tool for the detection of noroviruses in clinical virology laboratories even in the face of rapidly evolving noroviruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A SYBR®Green-based real-time PCR method for improved detection of mcr-1-mediated colistin resistance in human stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Valentina; Bernasconi, Odette J; Kasraian, Sara; Tinguely, Regula; Endimiani, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to design a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR (rt-PCR) method for colistin resistance mcr-1 gene detection in human faecal samples. Stools (n=88) from 36 volunteers were analysed. To isolate mcr-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae, samples were enriched overnight in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth containing 2mg/L colistin and were then plated on selective agar plates with 4mg/L colistin. A SYBR ® Green-based rt-PCR targeting mcr-1 was then designed. For method validation and to establish the limit of detection (LOD), total DNA was extracted from mcr-1-negative and mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli. rt-PCR was also performed with DNA extracted from 88 native stools and after enriching them in LB broth containing colistin. Based on the culture approach, three unique volunteers resulted colonised with mcr-1-harboring E. coli strains. For culture isolates, rt-PCR exhibited a LOD of 10 genomic copies/reaction, with both sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Nevertheless, when testing native stools, only two of the three mcr-1-positive specimens were detected. However, after enrichment in LB broth containing colistin, the rt-PCR was strongly positive for all culture-positive samples. The average cycle threshold was 22, granting rapid and confident detection of positive specimens within 30 cycles. No false positives were observed for the remaining 85 culture-negative specimens. A rapid rt-PCR for detection of mcr-1 from stool specimens was developed. The detection rate was increased by testing selective broth enrichments. This approach also has the advantage of concomitant isolation of mcr-1-harboring strains for further antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic testing. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Real-time PCR using SYBR Green for the detection of Shigella spp. in food and stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, W; Nsaibia, S; Gharbi, A; Aouni, M

    2013-02-01

    Shigella spp are exquisitely fastidious Gram negative organisms that frequently get missed in the detection by traditional culture methods. For this reason, this work has adapted a classical PCR for detection of Shigella in food and stool specimens to real-time PCR using the SYBR Green format. This method follows a melting curve analysis to be more rapid and provide both qualitative and quantitative data about the targeted pathogen. A total of 117 stool samples with diarrhea and 102 food samples were analyzed in Public Health Regional Laboratory of Nabeul by traditional culture methods and real-time PCR. To validate the real-time PCR assay, an experiment was conducted with both spiked and naturally contaminated stool samples. All Shigella strains tested were ipaH positive and all non-Shigella strains yielded no amplification products. The melting temperature (T(m) = 81.5 ± 0.5 °C) was consistently specific for the amplicon. Correlation coefficients of standard curves constructed using the quantification cycle (C(q)) versus copy numbers of Shigella showed good linearity (R² = 0.995; slope = 2.952) and the minimum level of detection was 1.5 × 10³ CFU/g feces. All food samples analyzed were negative for Shigella by standard culture methods, whereas ipaH was detected in 8.8% culture negative food products. Moreover, the ipaH specific PCR system increased the detection rate over that by culture alone from 1.7% to 11.1% among patients with diarrhea. The data presented here shows that the SYBR Green I was suitable for use in the real-time PCR assay, which provided a specific, sensitive and efficient method for the detection and quantification of Shigella spp in food and stool samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of Individual and Pooled Stool Samples for the Assessment of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection Intensity and Drug Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Zeleke; Meka, Selima; Ayana, Mio; Bogers, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Levecke, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Background In veterinary parasitology samples are often pooled for a rapid assessment of infection intensity and drug efficacy. Currently, studies evaluating this strategy in large-scale drug administration programs to control human soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm), are absent. Therefore, we developed and evaluated a pooling strategy to assess intensity of STH infections and drug efficacy. Methods/Principal Findings Stool samples from 840 children attending 14 primary schools in Jimma, Ethiopia were pooled (pool sizes of 10, 20, and 60) to evaluate the infection intensity of STHs. In addition, the efficacy of a single dose of mebendazole (500 mg) in terms of fecal egg count reduction (FECR; synonym of egg reduction rate) was evaluated in 600 children from two of these schools. Individual and pooled samples were examined with the McMaster egg counting method. For each of the three STHs, we found a significant positive correlation between mean fecal egg counts (FECs) of individual stool samples and FEC of pooled stool samples, ranging from 0.62 to 0.98. Only for A. lumbricoides was any significant difference in mean FEC of the individual and pooled samples found. For this STH species, pools of 60 samples resulted in significantly higher FECs. FECR for the different number of samples pooled was comparable in all pool sizes, except for hookworm. For this parasite, pools of 10 and 60 samples provided significantly higher FECR results. Conclusion/Significance This study highlights that pooling stool samples holds promise as a strategy for rapidly assessing infection intensity and efficacy of administered drugs in programs to control human STHs. However, further research is required to determine when and how pooling of stool samples can be cost-effectively applied along a control program, and to verify whether this approach is also applicable to other NTDs. PMID:23696905

  12. A novel multitarget stool DNA test for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Imperiale TF, Ransohoff DF, Itzkowitz SH, Levin TR, Lavin P, Lidgard GP, Ahlquist DA, Berger BM. Multitarget stool DNA testing for colorectal-cancer screening. N Engl J Med 2014;370(14):1287-97. This Practice Pearl reviews the results of a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional clinical study that evaluated the performance of a new multitarget stool DNA (or mt-sDNA) screening test for colorectal cancer (CRC) and compared it with a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in individuals at average risk for CRC. The potential impact of this test on the future of CRC screening is also discussed in a brief commentary. mt-sDNA testing is a noninvasive screening test designed to detect DNA biomarkers associated with colorectal neoplasia and occult hemoglobin in the stool. The sensitivity of mt-sDNA testing for detection of CRC was 92.3%, compared with 73.8% for FIT (p = 0.002). Sensitivity for detecting advanced precancerous lesions was 42.4% for mt-sDNA testing and 23.8% for FIT (p testing and FIT were 86.6% and 94.9%, respectively (p testing thus may be a first-line screening option for asymptomatic individuals at average risk for CRC who do not want to have a colonoscopy.

  13. Management of stool land revenue in Ghana: A study of the Nkawie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of stool land revenue in Ghana: A study of the Nkawie and toase stools of the Atwima Nwabiagya District of the Ashanti Region. ... lands, however, has for long time been beset with many problems including indeterminate boundaries of stool lands, poor record keeping which often results in multiple sales and ...

  14. The Bristol Stool Scale and Its Relationship to Clostridium difficile Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Caroff, Daniel A.; Edelstein, Paul H.; Hamilton, Keith; Pegues, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The Bristol stool form scale classifies the relative density of stool samples. In a prospective cohort study, we investigated the associations between stool density, C. difficile assay positivity, hospital-onset C. difficile infection, complications, and severity of C. difficile. We describe associations between the Bristol score, assay positivity, and clinical C. difficile infection.

  15. The Bristol stool scale and its relationship to Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroff, Daniel A; Edelstein, Paul H; Hamilton, Keith; Pegues, David A

    2014-09-01

    The Bristol stool form scale classifies the relative density of stool samples. In a prospective cohort study, we investigated the associations between stool density, C. difficile assay positivity, hospital-onset C. difficile infection, complications, and severity of C. difficile. We describe associations between the Bristol score, assay positivity, and clinical C. difficile infection. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Time of Passage of First Stool in Newborns in a Tertiary Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diapers. For babies who had not passed stool at discharge, the mobile phone number of the parents was used to contact the parents 6 h until they reported passage of first stool. All babies. Time of Passage of First Stool in Newborns in a. Tertiary Health Facility in Southern Nigeria. Philemon E Okoro, Cosmos E Enyindah1.

  17. Preserve specimens for reproducibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krell, F.-T.; Klimeš, Petr; Rocha, L. A.; Fikáček, M.; Miller, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 539, č. 7628 (2016), s. 168 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : reproducibility * specimen * biodiversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v539/n7628/full/539168b.html

  18. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-02-09

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.

  19. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments

  20. Using the Bristol Stool Scale and Parental Report of Stool Consistency as Part of the Rome III Criteria for Functional Constipation in Infants and Toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, Ilan J. N.; Velasco-Benitez, Carlos A.; Benninga, Marc A.; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Saps, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate among parents of infants and toddlers the agreement between parental report and the Bristol Stool Scale (BSS) in assessing stool consistency and the effect of both methods on determining the prevalence of functional constipation (FC) according to the Rome III criteria. Parents of

  1. Performance evaluation of direct saline stool microscopy, Formol ether concentration and Kato Katz diagnostic methods for intestinal parasitosis in the absence of gold standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Tadesse; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-07-01

    The parasite load within the sample and the amount of sample taken during examination greatly compromise the sensitivity of direct saline stool microscopy. A cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2011 in Bahir Dar city among 778 fresh single stool samples to evaluate the performance of direct saline (DS), Kato Katz (KK) and Formol ether concentration (FEC) methods against the 'Gold' standard. Among 778 stool samples from school age children, the highest prevalence of intestinal parasites was recorded by FEC (55.1%). The sensitivity of DS, FEC and KK were 61.1%, 92.3% and 58.7%, respectively. FEC is more sensitive than DS and KK. Hence, use of the latter is preferred. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Lack of Correlation between Bristol Stool Scale and Quantitative Bacterial Load in Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar K. Thabit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision to test for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is usually made when patients have loose stools with Bristol stool score of ≤5. We aimed to assess the relationship between bacterial load of C. difficile and Bristol stool scale, as well as stool frequency in stool samples collected from patients infected with the organism. Samples were collected at baseline, during therapy, and at the end of therapy. Spearman correlation test was used to evaluate these relationships. No correlation between Bristol stool scale and fecal load of C. difficile was found for both spores and vegetative cells at all time points as counts were persistently high ( P = non-significant. Weak positive correlations were found between stool frequency and fecal load of C. difficile spores and vegetative cells ( r s = 0.22 and 0.24, P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively. These findings indicate that quantitative colony counts were sufficiently high to detect C. difficile , irrespective of stool consistency, and suggest that semiformed stool should be sought for the pathogen in symptomatic patients with frequent stools.

  3. Lack of Correlation between Bristol Stool Scale and Quantitative Bacterial Load in Clostridium difficile Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabit, Abrar K; Nicolau, David P

    2015-01-01

    Decision to test for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is usually made when patients have loose stools with Bristol stool score of ≥5. We aimed to assess the relationship between bacterial load of C. difficile and Bristol stool scale, as well as stool frequency in stool samples collected from patients infected with the organism. Samples were collected at baseline, during therapy, and at the end of therapy. Spearman correlation test was used to evaluate these relationships. No correlation between Bristol stool scale and fecal load of C. difficile was found for both spores and vegetative cells at all time points as counts were persistently high (P = non-significant). Weak positive correlations were found between stool frequency and fecal load of C. difficile spores and vegetative cells (r s = 0.22 and 0.24, P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). These findings indicate that quantitative colony counts were sufficiently high to detect C. difficile, irrespective of stool consistency, and suggest that semiformed stool should be sought for the pathogen in symptomatic patients with frequent stools.

  4. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  5. Rotating specimen rack repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.E.; Rogers, P.J.; Nabor, W.G.; Bair, H.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, an operator at the UCI TRIGA Reactor noticed difficulties with the rotation of the specimen rack. Investigations showed that the drive bearing in the rack had failed and allowed the bearings to enter the rack. After some time of operation in static mode it was decided that installation of a bearing substitute - a graphite sleeve - would be undertaken. Procedures were written and approved for removal of the rack, fabrication and installation of the sleeve, and re-installation of the rack. This paper describes these procedures in some detail. Detailed drawings of the necessary parts may be obtained from the authors

  6. Simple diagnostic approach to childhood fecal retention using the Leech score and Bristol stool form scale in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hong; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Myung Joon; Shin, Jae Il; Chung, Ki Sup

    2010-02-01

    To assess fecal retention, plain abdominal radiography is frequently used to complement the clinical history and physical examination, and three scoring systems have been proposed by Barr, Blethyn, and Leech on a single abdominal radiography. The aim of the present study was to find simple and useful diagnostic tools for an approach to fecal retention by correlation of the three scoring systems with the clinical characteristics. This study included 76 children (5.6-15.4 years, male : female = 33:43) who presented with various gastrointestinal complaints and 20 healthy children from the years 2004-2008. Defecation characteristics, abdominal pain, anorexia and nausea, the Bristol stool form scale, and colonic transit time were studied. Plain abdominal radiographs were independently scored with the three scoring systems by a pediatrician and a radiologist. The k-value of the Leech score (0.912) between two of the observers was higher than the others (Barr 0.870 and Blethyn 0.670), and the correlation coefficients of the Leech scoring system by a pediatrician in relation to the colonic transit time (r = 0.861, P Bristol stool form scale (r = -0.818, P Bristol stool form scale may be simple and useful diagnostic tools for pediatricians to access childhood fecal loading in outpatient clinics along with a thorough clinical history.

  7. Diagnostic efficacy of monoclonal antibody based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of Fasciola gigantica excretory/secretory antigens in both serum and stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoheiry Mona K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was carried out to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (MoAb-based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the diagnosis of active Fasciola gigantica infection in both serum and stool for comparative purposes. Methods From a panel of MoAbs raised against F. gigantica excretory/secretory antigens (ES Ags, a pair (12B/11D/3F and 10A/9D/10G was chosen due to its high reactivity and strict specificity to F. gigantica antigen by indirect ELISA. Results The two MoAbs were of the IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses, respectively. Using SDS-PAGE and EITB, the selected MoAbs recognized 83, 64, 45 and 26 kDa bands of ES Ags. The lower detection limit of ELISA assay was 3 ng/ml. In stool, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of ELISA was 96%, 98.2 and 97.1%; while in serum they were 94%, 94.6% and 94.3%, respectively. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between ova count in stool of F. gigantica infected patients and the OD readings of ELISA in both stool and serum samples (r = 0.730, p Conclusions These data showed that the use of MoAb-based sandwich ELISA for the detection of F. gigantica coproantigens in stool specimens was superior to serum samples; it provides a highly efficient, non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of active F. gigantica infection.

  8. Can they or can they not? Nurses' ability to quantify stool in superabsorbent diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Laura

    2006-08-01

    Estimates of stool output in diapers is not an appropriate guideline to use in determining fluid loss through stool. This study was conducted to determine the accuracy of the ability of the nurses (RNs) and patient care technicians (PCTs) to quantify stool volume in diapers. Size 3 diapers, baby food (green peas), and water were used to simulate combinations of stool and urine and differing degrees of water loss in stool. The results indicated that RNs' and PCTs' assessments of stool volume became less accurate as water loss increased. There were no differences in estimation accuracy between RN and PCTs, and years of experience for RNs or PCTs did not influence accuracy of estimation. It is important to use a holistic approach for determining hydration status in patients, particularly knowledge of signs and symptoms of dehydration.

  9. Prediction of Delayed Colonic Transit Using Bristol Stool Form and Stool Frequency in Eastern Constipated Patients: A Difference From the West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruvongvanich, Veeravich; Patcharatrakul, Tanisa; Gonlachanvit, Sutep

    2017-10-30

    The correlation between the Bristol stool form scale (BSFS) and colonic transit time (CTT) has been reported in Western populations. Our study aims to study the relationship between BSFS, stool frequency, and CTT in Eastern patients with chronic constipation. A total of 144 chronic functional constipation patients underwent colonic transit study by using radio-opaque markers, anorectal manometry, and balloon expulsion test. Stool diary including stool forms and frequency was recorded. Delayed CTT was defined as the retention of more than 20.0% of radio-opaque markers in the colon on day 5. Twenty-five patients (17.4%) had delayed colonic transit. Mean 5-day BSFS (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.34-0.79; P = 0.021) and stool frequency (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.44-0.83; P = 0.002) were independently associated with delayed CTT by logistic regression analysis. Mean 5-day BSFS (area under the curve [AUC], 0.73; 95% CI, 0.62-0.84; P < 0.001) and stool frequency (AUC, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63-0.87; P < 0.001) fairly predicted delayed CTT. The optimal mean 5-day BSFS of ≤ 3 provided 68.0% sensitivity, 69.7% specificity, and 69.4% accuracy, and the optimal stool frequency ≤ 2 bowel movements in 5 days provided 64.0% sensitivity, 83.1% specificity, and 84.0% accuracy for predicting delayed CTT. Both stool form and frequency were significantly associated with delayed CTT. Stool frequency ≤ 2 and BSFS 1-3 rather than BSFS 1-2 that was used in the Westerners could be used as surrogate for delayed CTT in Eastern patients with constipation.

  10. Helicobacter Pylori Stool Antigen Assay in Hyperemesis Gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, S; Khanam, R A; Basher, M S; Azam, M S; Hossain, M A; Mirza, T T; Banu, K A; Karmoker, R K

    2017-04-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is the most severe form of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy that seriously affects the pregnancy outcome. It is a disease with unknown etiology and varieties of contributing factors like hormonal changes, psychological and immunological factors. A significantly high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among pregnant women with Hyperemesis gravidarum has been revealed recently. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out at antenatal ward, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh for a period of twenty-one months among purposively selected thirty-six patients with Hyperemesis gravidarum with a view to assess the involvement of H. pylori in Hyperemesis gravidarum. Data were collected through interview, physical examinations and laboratory investigations by using case record form. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.0 for Windows. Highest number 16(44.44%) of respondents were in age group 20 to 24 years with a mean of 23.81 years and a standard deviation (SD) of 4.55 years. Majority 29(80.56%) of the women had education less than 12 years, as many as 28(77.78%) women were housewives, and at least 14(38.89%) women had unplanned pregnancies. An overwhelming majority 29(80.56%) of women had their pregnancy duration between 8 to 12 weeks with a mean duration of 10.64 weeks and a standard deviation of 2.35 weeks. Majority 20(55.56%) of women were pregnant for first time, as many as 19(52.78%) women had duration of illness for 5 to 9 weeks. Of 16 multi-gravid women, 7(43.75%) had history of similar condition in their previous pregnancies. As many as 9 (25.00%) women had family history of similar condition in their mothers and sisters. First trimester was time of manifestation of the condition.At least 11 (30.56%) stool samples were positive for H. pylori stool antigen. Family history of Hyperemesis gravidarum and presence of H. pylori stool antigen are statistically

  11. Clinical illnesses associated with isolation of dysgonic fermenter 3 from stool samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, R N; Berry, C D; Phillips, M G; Hamilos, D L; Koneman, E W

    1992-01-01

    The clinical significance of the fastidious organism DF-3 isolated from stool cultures is unclear. We sought to improve our understanding of this organism and to further define its association with human disease. Stool cultures for DF-3 were obtained from three sources: an ongoing study of enteric pathogens in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, a screening procedure in which all stool samples submitted for Clostridium difficile toxin assay were cultured for DF-3, and sto...

  12. Comparison of methods for detection of Blastocystis infection in routinely submitted stool samples, and also in IBS/IBD Patients in Ankara, Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Dogruman-Al

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study compared diagnostic methods for identifying Blastocystis in stool samples, and evaluated the frequency of detection of Blastocystis in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: From a set of 105 stool specimens submitted for routine parasitological analysis, 30 were identified as positive for Blastocystis by the culture method. From that group of 30 positives, Lugol's stain, trichrome staining, and an immunofluorescence assay identified 11, 15, and 26 samples as positive respectively. Using culture as a standard, the sensitivity of Lugol's stain was 36.7%, trichrome staining was 50%, and the IFA stain was 86.7%. The specificity of Lugol's stain was 91%, trichrome staining was 100%, and the IFA stain was 97.3%. In the group of 27 IBS and IBD patients, using all methods combined, we detected Blastocystis in 67% (18/27 of the patients. Blastocystis was detected in 33% (2/6 of IBD patients and 76% (16/21 of IBS patients. For comparison, trichrome staining alone, the method most frequently used in many countries, would have only identified Blastocystis infection in 29% (6/21 of the IBS patients. No parasitic co-infections were identified in the IBS/IBD patients. Most Blastocystis-positive IBS/IBD patients were over 36 with an average length of illness of 4.9 years. CONCLUSIONS: Most IBS patients in this study were infected with Blastocystis. IFA staining may be a useful alternative to stool culture, especially if stool specimens have been chemically preserved.

  13. Stool cultures for Shigella spp: improved specificity by using MacConkey agar with xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwegg, M; Buser, J; von Graevenitz, A

    1996-03-01

    A total of 678 stool specimens were cultured on four different agars: on xylose-lysine-desoxycholate agar (XLD), MacConkey agar (Mac), MacConkey agar supplemented with xylose (Mac-X), and Hektoen enteric agar (HE). Isolation rates for shigellae were 77% on HE, 86% on Mac and Mac-X, and 91% on XLD. The specificities of the media were 61% for Mac, 75% for HE, and 78% for XLD and Mac-X. After overnight incubation, Mac-X is much easier to read than XLD, which requires incubation for at least 22 hours. Based on these results and also on the practical aspect that incubation for 22-21 hours does not fit well in our schedule, we now use Mac-X whenever shigellae need to be looked for (i.e. mainly patients with recent travel to tropical countries). As compared to our previous procedure the workload in the laboratory could be reduced by about 20%.

  14. Detection of the microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon bieneusi in specimens from patients with AIDS by PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Velásquez, J N; Carnevale, S; Guarnera, E A; Labbé, J H; Chertcoff, A; Cabrera, M G; Rodríguez, M I

    1996-01-01

    Microsporidia are protozoa parasites responsible for significant gastrointestinal disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. We evaluated a PCR assay of stool samples, duodenal aspirates, and biopsy specimens from patients with Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection. A 210-bp DNA fragment of the unique rRNA intergenic spacer could be amplified from all samples infected with E. bieneusi, but no amplification was seen by using DNA purified from samples with Septata intestinalis ...

  15. Quality control of parasitology stool examination in Tabriz clinical laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahram Khademvatan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of quality control program was to make doctors and laboratory personnel trust in laboratory results and consequently increasing confidence in laboratory achievements. The quality assurance means raising the level of quality in all tests that lead to raising the level of work efficiency and laboratories including minimum expense for society and minimum time for lab personnel. This study aimed to assess and determine the accuracy and precision of results in Tabriz medical diagnostic laboratories. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 790 stool samples were selected randomly and tested by standard methods.Student t- test, SPSS software and sensitivity and accuracy formulas were used for data analysis. Results: The sensitivity was 62%, 22% and 8% with 95% confidence intervals for worm's eggs, protozoan cysts and trophozoite detection respectively. Conclusion: To elevate quality assurance in clinical diagnostic laboratory, monitoring and check of the laboratories by standard methods continually should be done.

  16. Use of a monoclonal antibody in an enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica in fecal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, B L; Yolken, R H; Quinn, T C

    1985-05-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica in human feces, using both a monoclonal antibody and rabbit antisera. It detected from less than 1 to 57 trophozoites of 6 E. histolytica strains. Stool specimens were positive by ELISA in 18 of 22 (82%) patients with E. histolytica and in 3 of 186 (2%) of patients without demonstrable E. histolytica in their stools. The latter included one from a child living near an asymptomatic cyst carrier and another from a traveler with giardiasis who had recently taken antibiotics. One hundred eight of 183 microscopy-and ELISA-negative specimens contained other parasites including Giardia (49 specimens), Endolimax nana (24), Entamoeba coli (21), Iodamoeba butschlii (2), and Entamoeba hartmanni (1). This ELISA for E. histolytica is a simple, sensitive and specific diagnostic tool.

  17. An iPhone application using a novel stool color detection algorithm for biliary atresia screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Eri; Hayashi, Kuniyoshi; Suzuki, Mitsuyoshi; Obatake, Masayuki; Urayama, Kevin Y; Nakano, Satoshi; Taura, Yasuyuki; Nio, Masaki; Takahashi, Osamu

    2017-10-01

    The stool color card has been the primary tool for identifying acholic stools in infants with biliary atresia (BA), in several countries. However, BA stools are not always acholic, as obliteration of the bile duct occurs gradually. This study aims to introduce Baby Poop (Baby unchi in Japanese), a free iPhone application, employing a detection algorithm to capture subtle differences in colors, even with non-acholic BA stools. The application is designed for use by caregivers of infants aged approximately 2 weeks-1 month. Baseline analysis to determine optimal color parameters predicting BA stools was performed using logistic regression (n = 50). Pattern recognition and machine learning processes were performed using 30 BA and 34 non-BA images. Additional 5 BA and 35 non-BA pictures were used to test accuracy. Hue, saturation, and value (HSV) were the preferred parameter for BA stool identification. A sensitivity and specificity were 100% (95% confidence interval 0.48-1.00 and 0.90-1.00, respectively) even among a collection of visually non-acholic, i.e., pigmented BA stools and relatively pale-colored non-BA stools. Results suggest that an iPhone mobile application integrated with a detection algorithm is an effective and convenient modality for early detection of BA, and potentially for other related diseases.

  18. Stool sample storage conditions for the preservation of Giardia intestinalis DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Kuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stool is chemically complex and the extraction of DNA from stool samples is extremely difficult. Haemoglobin breakdown products, such as bilirubin, bile acids and mineral ions, that are present in the stool samples, can inhibit DNA amplification and cause molecular assays to produce false-negative results. Therefore, stool storage conditions are highly important for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites and other microorganisms through molecular approaches. In the current study, stool samples that were positive for Giardia intestinalis were collected from five different patients. Each sample was stored using one out of six different storage conditions [room temperature (RT, +4ºC, -20ºC, 70% alcohol, 10% formaldehyde or 2.5% potassium dichromate] for DNA extraction procedures at one, two, three and four weeks. A modified QIAamp Stool Mini Kit procedure was used to isolate the DNA from stored samples. After DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification was performed using primers that target the β-giardin gene. A G. intestinalis-specific 384 bp band was obtained from all of the cyst-containing stool samples that were stored at RT, +4ºC and -20ºC and in 70% alcohol and 2.5% potassium dichromate; however, this band was not produced by samples that had been stored in 10% formaldehyde. Moreover, for the stool samples containing trophozoites, the same G. intestinalis-specific band was only obtained from the samples that were stored in 2.5% potassium dichromate for up to one month. As a result, it appears evident that the most suitable storage condition for stool samples to permit the isolation of G. intestinalis DNA is in 2.5% potassium dichromate; under these conditions, stool samples may be stored for one month.

  19. Fracture toughness of thin specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Kenji; Kikuchi, Masanori; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    Three-dimensional elastic-plastic analyses were carried out on 1 and 2 mm-thick CCT specimens with or without side grooves. The valid effective thickness, 0.85 √(B o xB n ), was obtained from the 3-D analyses. The stretched-zone method is better than the R-curve method to determine the J in value of the thin specimen. However, a great many data should be gathered near the J in value. The J in value obtained using side-grooved specimens is always lower than that of non-side-grooved specimens. Considering the difficulty of machining the side groove, the side groove is not appropriate for the thin specimen. As the thickness decreases, the J in value decreases. However, it is possible to estimate the J ic value from the J in value obtained using thin CCT specimens. (author)

  20. Janka hardness using nonstandard specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Marshall Begel; William Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Janka hardness determined on 1.5- by 3.5-in. specimens (2×4s) was found to be equivalent to that determined using the 2- by 2-in. specimen specified in ASTM D 143. Data are presented on the relationship between Janka hardness and the strength of clear wood. Analysis of historical data determined using standard specimens indicated no difference between side hardness...

  1. Novel artificial stool material for external quality assurance (EQA) on a fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin (FIT): The confirmed utility of stable hemoglobin and an internal standard material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Ryota; Yamada, Miyu; Takehara, Shizuka; Sakurabayashi, Ikunosuke; Watanabe, Katsunori

    2018-04-16

    The fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin (FIT), which detects lower gastrointestinal bleeding, is widely accepted for population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs. However, the FIT screening process has not been standardized yet, and standardizing the pre-analytical phase and establishing an external quality assurance (EQA) program compliant with ISO requirements is urgently needed. Although there have been various attempts to establish EQA materials suitable for FIT, no materials have yet been reported to have sufficient uniformity and acceptable immunochemical stability of hemoglobin (Hb). The Health Care Technology Foundation (HECTEF; Tokyo Japan) is now developing a ready-to-use artificial stool containing Hb and an internal standard, glycerol. Accordingly, we verified the adaptability and efficacy of this material for the evaluation of the specimen collection phase of FIT. This material uniformly contained both Hb and glycerol. The glycerol allowed us to estimate the weight of the collected artificial stool and to correct the Hb concentration with the estimated weight. Furthermore, the stability of both Hb and glycerol were confirmed to be sufficient for an EQA material under appropriate storage, in-use, repeated freeze-thaw, and heated conditions. These in-house performance characteristics suggest that HECTEF artificial stool is acceptable as an EQA material for FIT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Within-Stool and Within-Day Sample Variability of Fecal Calprotectin in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lillian; Foshaug, Rae; Huang, Vivian W; Kroeker, Karen I; Dieleman, Levinus A; Halloran, Brendan P; Wong, Karen; Fedorak, Richard N

    2018-03-01

    The use of fecal calprotectin (FC) as a stool biomarker for differentiating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from IBS has been well validated, and there is a strong correlation between FC and the presence of endoscopic inflammatory lesions. However, recent studies have demonstrated intraindividual sample variability in patients with IBD, possibly limiting the reliability of using a single sample for monitoring disease activity. Our aim was to assess the within-stool and within-day sample variability of FC concentrations in patients with IBD. We examined a cross-sectional cohort of 50 adult IBD patients. Eligible patients were instructed to collect 3 samples from different parts of the stool from their first bowel movement of the day and 3 samples from each of up to 2 additional bowel movements within 24 hours. FC concentrations were measured by a rapid, quantitative point-of-care test using lateral flow technology (Quantum Blue). Descriptive statistics were used to assess FC variability within a single bowel movement and between different movements at different FC positivity cutoffs. Within a single bowel movement, there was clinically significant sample variability ranging from 8% to 23% depending on the time of the day or on the FC positivity cutoff value. Between bowel movements, there was clinically significant sample variability ranging from 13% to 26% depending on the FC positivity cutoff. Considering a single FC sample, the first sample of the day with an FC positivity cutoff of 250 μg/g provided the most reliable indication of disease activity.

  3. Using the Bristol Stool Scale and Parental Report of Stool Consistency as Part of the Rome III Criteria for Functional Constipation in Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppen, Ilan J N; Velasco-Benitez, Carlos A; Benninga, Marc A; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Saps, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate among parents of infants and toddlers the agreement between parental report and the Bristol Stool Scale (BSS) in assessing stool consistency and the effect of both methods on determining the prevalence of functional constipation (FC) according to the Rome III criteria. Parents of children ≤48 months of age who were seen for a well-child visit completed a questionnaire about their child's bowel habits during the previous month. Cohen kappa coefficient (κ) was used to measure intrarater agreement between parental report of stool consistency ("hard," "normal," "soft/mucous/liquid") and the BSS (types 1-2, hard; types 3-5, normal; types 6-7, loose/liquid). The prevalence of FC was assessed based on the questionnaire according to the Rome III criteria, comparing both methods of stool consistency assessment. Parents of 1095 children (median age, 15 months; range, 1-48) were included. Only fair agreement existed between the 2 methods of stool consistency assessment (κ = 0.335; P < .001). According to the Rome III criteria, using parental report the prevalence of FC was 20.5% and using the BSS the prevalence was 20.9% (P = .87). The agreement between these 2 methods for assessing the prevalence of FC was excellent (κ = 0.95; P < .001). Only fair agreement exists between the BSS and parental report of stool consistency among parents of infants and toddlers. Different methods of stool consistency assessment did not result in a difference in the prevalence of FC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. How to: Establish and run a stool bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terveer, E M; van Beurden, Y H; Goorhuis, A; Seegers, J F M L; Bauer, M P; van Nood, E; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Mulder, C J J; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E; Verspaget, H W; Keller, J J; Kuijper, E J

    2017-12-01

    Since 2013, several stool banks have been developed following publications reporting on clinical success of 'faecal microbiota transplantation' (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). However, protocols for donor screening, faecal suspension preparation, and transfer of the faecal suspension differ between countries and institutions. Moreover, no European consensus exists regarding the legislative aspects of the faecal suspension product. Internationally standardized recommendations about the above mentioned aspects have not yet been established. In 2015, the Netherlands Donor Feces Bank (NDFB) was founded with the primary aim of providing a standardized product for the treatment of patients with recurrent CDI in the Netherlands. Standard operation procedures for donor recruitment, donor selection, donor screening, and production, storage, and distribution of frozen faecal suspensions for FMT were formulated. Our experience summarized in this review addresses current donor recruitment and screening, preparation of the faecal suspension, transfer of the faecal microbiota suspension, and the experiences and follow-up of the patients treated with donor faeces from the NDFB. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stool frequency recording in severe acute malnutrition ('StoolSAM'); an agreement study comparing maternal recall versus direct observation using diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskuijl, Wieger; Potani, Isabel; Bandsma, Robert; Baan, Anne; White, Sarah; Bourdon, Celine; Kerac, Marko

    2017-06-07

    Approximately 50% of the deaths of children under the age of 5 can be attributed to undernutrition, which also encompasses severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Diarrhoea is strongly associated with these deaths and is commonly diagnosed solely based on stool frequency and consistency obtained through maternal recall. This trial aims to determine whether this approach is equivalent to a 'directly observed method' in which a health care worker directly observed stool frequency using diapers in hospitalised children with complicated SAM. This study was conducted at 'Moyo' Nutritional Rehabilitation Unit, Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Malawi. Participants were children aged 5-59 months admitted with SAM. We compared 2 days of stool frequency data obtained with next-day maternal-recall versus a 'gold standard' in which a health care worker observed stool frequency every 2 h using diapers. After study completion, guardians were asked their preferred method and their level of education. We found poor agreement between maternal recall and the 'gold standard' of directly observed diapers. The sensitivity to detect diarrhoea based on maternal recall was poor, with only 75 and 56% of diarrhoea cases identified on days 1 and 2, respectively. However, the specificity was higher with more than 80% of children correctly classified as not having diarrhoea. On day 1, the mean stool frequency difference between the two methods was -0.17 (SD; 1.68) with limits of agreement (of stool frequency) of -3.55 and 3.20 and, similarly on day 2, the mean difference was -0.2 (SD; 1.59) with limits of agreement of -3.38 and 2.98. These limits extend beyond the pre-specified 'acceptable' limits of agreement (±1.5 stool per day) and indicate that the 2 methods are non-equivalent. The higher the stool frequency, the more discrepant the two methods were. Most primary care givers strongly preferred using diapers. This study shows lack of agreement between the assessment of stool frequency in SAM

  6. Rapid microsphere assay for identification of cryptosporidium hominis and cryptosporidium parvum in stool and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Kakali; Kellar, Kathryn L; Moura, Iaci; Casaqui Carollo, Maria Cristina; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Slemenda, Susan; Johnston, Stephanie P; da Silva, Alexandre J

    2007-09-01

    Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are associated with massive disease outbreaks worldwide. Because these two species have different transmission cycles, identification of these parasites to the species level in clinical samples may provide laboratory data of crucial importance in epidemiologic investigations. To date, the most reliable way to differentiate C. hominis and C. parvum is based on DNA sequencing analysis of PCR amplicons. Although this approach is very effective for differentiation of Cryptosporidium species, it is labor-intensive and time-consuming compared with methods that do not require DNA sequencing analysis as an additional step and that have been successfully used for specific identification of a number of pathogens. In this study, we describe a novel Luminex-based assay that can differentiate C. hominis from C. parvum in a rapid and cost-effective manner. The assay was validated by testing a total of 143 DNA samples extracted from clinical specimens, environmental samples, or samples artificially spiked with Cryptosporidium oocysts. As few as 10 oocysts per 300 microl of stools could be detected with this assay. The assay format includes species-specific probes linked to carboxylated Luminex microspheres that hybridize to a Cryptosporidium microsatellite-2 region (ML-2) where C. hominis and C. parvum differ by one nucleotide substitution. The assay proved to be 100% specific when samples that had been characterized by direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA) and DNA sequencing analysis were tested. In addition, the assay was more sensitive than DFA and provided species identification, which is an advantage for epidemiologic studies.

  7. Longitudinal studies of neutralizing antibody responses to rotavirus in stools and sera of children following severe rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, B S

    1998-11-01

    Rotavirus-neutralizing antibody responses in sera and stools of children hospitalized with rotavirus gastroenteritis and then monitored longitudinally were optimally detected by using local rotavirus strains. Stool responses were highest on days 5 to 8 after the onset of diarrhea. Longitudinal monitoring suggested that serum neutralizing antibody responses were a more useful measure of severely symptomatic rotavirus infection than stool responses but that stool antibody responses may be a useful measure of rotavirus immunity.

  8. Longitudinal Studies of Neutralizing Antibody Responses to Rotavirus in Stools and Sera of Children following Severe Rotavirus Gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Coulson, Barbara S.

    1998-01-01

    Rotavirus-neutralizing antibody responses in sera and stools of children hospitalized with rotavirus gastroenteritis and then monitored longitudinally were optimally detected by using local rotavirus strains. Stool responses were highest on days 5 to 8 after the onset of diarrhea. Longitudinal monitoring suggested that serum neutralizing antibody responses were a more useful measure of severely symptomatic rotavirus infection than stool responses but that stool antibody responses may be a use...

  9. Simple fecal flotation is a superior alternative to guadruple Kato Katz smear examination for the detection of hookworm eggs in human stool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawin Inpankaew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microscopy-based identification of eggs in stool offers simple, reliable and economical options for assessing the prevalence and intensity of hookworm infections, and for monitoring the success of helminth control programs. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the diagnostic parameters of the Kato-Katz (KK and simple sodium nitrate flotation technique (SNF in terms of detection and quantification of hookworm eggs, with PCR as an additional reference test in stool, collected as part of a baseline cross-sectional study in Cambodia.Fecal samples collected from 205 people in Dong village, Rovieng district, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia were subjected to KK, SNF and PCR for the detection (and in case of microscopy-based methods, quantification of hookworm eggs in stool. The prevalence of hookworm detected using a combination of three techniques (gold standard was 61.0%. PCR displayed a highest sensitivity for hookworm detection (92.0% followed by SNF (44.0% and quadruple KK smears (36.0% compared to the gold standard. The overall eggs per gram feces from SNF tended to be higher than for quadruple KK and the SNF proved superior for detecting low egg burdens.As a reference, PCR demonstrated the higher sensitivity compared to SNF and the quadruple KK method for detection of hookworm in human stool. For microscopic-based quantification, a single SNF proved superior to the quadruple KK for the detection of hookworm eggs in stool, in particular for low egg burdens. In addition, the SNF is cost-effective and easily accessible in resource poor countries.

  10. Simple fecal flotation is a superior alternative to guadruple Kato Katz smear examination for the detection of hookworm eggs in human stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Dalsgaard, Anders; Marti, Hanspeter; Traub, Rebecca J; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Microscopy-based identification of eggs in stool offers simple, reliable and economical options for assessing the prevalence and intensity of hookworm infections, and for monitoring the success of helminth control programs. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the diagnostic parameters of the Kato-Katz (KK) and simple sodium nitrate flotation technique (SNF) in terms of detection and quantification of hookworm eggs, with PCR as an additional reference test in stool, collected as part of a baseline cross-sectional study in Cambodia. Fecal samples collected from 205 people in Dong village, Rovieng district, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia were subjected to KK, SNF and PCR for the detection (and in case of microscopy-based methods, quantification) of hookworm eggs in stool. The prevalence of hookworm detected using a combination of three techniques (gold standard) was 61.0%. PCR displayed a highest sensitivity for hookworm detection (92.0%) followed by SNF (44.0%) and quadruple KK smears (36.0%) compared to the gold standard. The overall eggs per gram feces from SNF tended to be higher than for quadruple KK and the SNF proved superior for detecting low egg burdens. As a reference, PCR demonstrated the higher sensitivity compared to SNF and the quadruple KK method for detection of hookworm in human stool. For microscopic-based quantification, a single SNF proved superior to the quadruple KK for the detection of hookworm eggs in stool, in particular for low egg burdens. In addition, the SNF is cost-effective and easily accessible in resource poor countries.

  11. Development of the Brussels Infant and Toddler Stool Scale ('BITSS'): protocol of the study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Szajewska, Hania; Benninga, Marc; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Dupont, Christophe; Faure, Christophe; Miqdadi, Mohamed; Osatakul, Seksit; Ribes-Konickx, Carmen; Saps, Miguel; Shamir, Raanan; Staiano, Annamaria

    2017-03-29

    The Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSS) which consists of 7 photographs of different stool forms allows assessment of stool consistency (scale 1 for hard lumps to scale 7 for watery stools), in an objective manner in adults. The BSS is also sometimes used to characterise the stools of infants and young children. Despite its use, there is general agreement among paediatric gastroenterologists that the BSS is not adequate to be used in infants and young children who wear diapers; thus, a new scale specifically designed for this population is needed. Our aim is to develop a paediatric stool scale, the Brussels Infant and Toddler Stool Scale ('BITSS'), and to evaluate the interobserver agreement of stool assessment with the BITSS between the patient's parent and healthcare providers (physicians and nurses). This study has two phases. In the first phase, 11 key-opinion leaders in the field of paediatric gastroenterology representing different areas of the world selected seven coloured photographs of infants and/or young children wearing diapers to match the original descriptors of the BSS. The selected photographs were used to create a new scale in which the drawings of stools of the BSS were replaced by infant/toddlers stool photographs. In phase II, we aim at demonstrating that parents, nurses and primary healthcare physicians interpret the stool-pictures of the BITSS with a high degree of consensus and that the agreement is independent of whether it is a parent or a healthcare provider. Interobserver variability of stool assessment with the BITSS between the patient's parent and healthcare providers will be assessed. The study will be approved by the Ethics Committee of the participating centres. The findings of this study will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. Abstracts will be submitted to national and international conferences. NCT02913950. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  12. Evaluation of Patients with an Apparent False Positive Stool DNA Test: The Role of Repeat Stool DNA Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gregory S; Markowitz, Sanford D; Chen, Zhengyi; Tuck, Missy; Willis, Joseph E; Berger, Barry M; Brenner, Dean E; Li, Li

    2018-03-07

    There is uncertainty as to the appropriate follow-up of patients who test positive on multimarker stool DNA (sDNA) testing and have a colonoscopy without neoplasia. To determine the prevalence of missed colonic or occult upper gastrointestinal neoplasia in patients with an apparent false positive sDNA. We prospectively identified 30 patients who tested positive with a commercially available sDNA followed by colonoscopy without neoplastic lesions. Patients were invited to undergo repeat sDNA at 11-29 months after the initial test followed by repeat colonoscopy and upper endoscopy. We determined the presence of neoplastic lesions on repeat evaluation stratified by results of repeat sDNA. Twelve patients were restudied. Seven patients had a negative second sDNA test and a normal second colonoscopy and upper endoscopy. In contrast, 5 of 12 subjects had a persistently positive second sDNA test, and 3 had positive findings, including a 3-cm sessile transverse colon adenoma with high-grade dysplasia, a 2-cm right colon sessile serrated adenoma with dysplasia, and a nonadvanced colon adenoma (p = 0.045). These corresponded to a positive predictive value of 0.60 (95% CI 0.17-1.00) and a negative predictive value of 1.00 (95% CI 1.00-1.00) for the second sDNA test. In addition, the medical records of all 30 subjects with apparent false positive testing were reviewed and no documented cases of malignant tumors were recorded. Repeat positive sDNA testing may identify a subset of patients with missed or occult colorectal neoplasia after negative colonoscopy for an initially positive sDNA. High-quality colonoscopy with careful attention to the right colon in patients with positive sDNA is critically important and may avoid false negative colonoscopy.

  13. DNA extraction in Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia spp. eggs in dogs stool samples applying thermal shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Alejandro; Melo, Angélica; Romero, Fernando; Hidalgo, Víctor; Villanueva, José; Fonseca-Salamanca, Flery

    2018-03-01

    The extraction of DNA in taeniid eggs shows complications attached to the composition of stool samples and the high resistance of eggs to degradation. The objective of this study was to test a method of DNA extraction in taeniid eggs by applying a thermal shock to facilitate the chemical-enzymatic degradation of these elements. A group of six tubes containing 1 ml of dog stool sample was spiked with eggs of Echinococcus granulosus and another group of six with Taenia pisiformis. Samples were floated with supersaturated sugar solution and centrifuged. The upper portion of each tube (500 μl) was aspirated and deposited in 1.5 ml tubes. Three tubes from each group were incubated at -20 °C and then at 90 °C, the remaining three from each group, incubated at room temperature. Proteinase K and lysis buffer were added to each tube and incubated for 12 h at 58 °C. The lysis effect was evaluated by microscopy at 3, 6 and 12 h and integrity by electrophoresis in 1% agarose gels. With the same experimental scheme, the thermal shock effect was evaluated in extractions of 1, 2, 3 and 4 eggs of each species and the DNA was quantified. Additionally, the protocol was applied in samples of 4 dogs diagnosed with natural infection by Taeniidae worms. Finally, all the extractions were tested by PCR amplification. Both E. granulosus and T. pisiformis eggs showed a similar response in the tests. In samples without treatment, the lysis effect was poor and showed no differences over time, but in those subjected to thermal shock, eggs degradation increased with time. In both treatments, there was no DNA loss integrity. The protocol applied to limited amounts of eggs yielded PCR products in 100% of the samples exposed to thermal shock, allowing PCR amplifications up to 1 egg. In non-exposed samples, the results were not replicable. However, DNA quantification showed low values in both treatments. In turn, DNA extractions with thermal shock in infected dog samples

  14. LUMINEX®: a new technology for the simultaneous identification of five Entamoeba spp. commonly found in human stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Helena Lúcia Carneiro; Bandyopadhyay, Kakali; Bandea, Rebecca; Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago; Peralta, José Mauro; Da Silva, Alexandre Januário

    2013-03-15

    Six species of the genus Entamoeba, i.e., E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. polecki, E. coli, and E. hartmanii can be found in human stools. Among these, only E. histolytica is considered to be pathogenic, causing intestinal and extra-intestinal disease, but it is morphologically identical to E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. In general, E. polecki, E. coli, and E. hartmanii can be differentiated morphologically from E. histolytica, but some of their diagnostic morphologic features may overlap creating issues for the differential diagnosis. Moreover, the previous inability to differentiate among Entamoeba species has limited epidemiologic information on E histolytica. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, high-throughput screening method using Luminex technique for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Entamoeba species. PCR amplification was performed with biotinylated Entamoeba sp 18S rRNA gene primers, designed to amplify a fragment ranging from 382 to 429 bp of the Entamoeba spp studied. Regions of this fragment that could differentiate among E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii, E. dispar, E. hartmanii and E. coli were selected to design hybridization probes to link to Luminex beads. The assay was standardized with cloned DNA samples of each species and evaluated with 24 DNA extracts from samples obtained from individuals diagnosed with these amebas in their stools. Using this approach we were able to correctly identify E. histoltyica, E. dispar, E hartmanni, E. coli and E. moshkovskii in all specimens studied. From twenty four samples tested by microscopy, PCR/DNA Sequencing and real-time PCR, 100% agreed with PCR-Luminex assay for identification of E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. histolytica, and E. coli. These results show that this method could be used in the diagnostic detection of Entamoeba spp in fecal samples. This diagnostic test was useful to clearly distinguish E histolytica from other species and also to

  15. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial enteropathogens isolated from stools in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianirina, Frederique; Ratsima, Elisoa Hariniana; Ramparany, Lova; Randremanana, Rindra; Rakotonirina, Hanitra Clara; Andriamanantena, Tahiry; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Rajatonirina, Soatiana; Richard, Vincent; Talarmin, Antoine

    2014-02-25

    Diarrheal diseases are a major public health problem in developing countries, and are one of the main causes of hospital admissions in Madagascar. The Pasteur Institute of Madagascar undertook a study to determine the prevalence and the pathogenicity of bacterial, viral and protozoal enteropathogens in diarrheal and non-diarrheal stools of children aged less than 5 years in Madagascar. We present here the results of the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacteria isolated during this study. The study was conducted in the community setting in 14 districts of Madagascar from October 2008 to May 2009. Conventional methods and PCR were used to identify the bacteria; antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using an agar diffusion method for enterobacteriaceae and MICs were measured by an agar dilution method for Campylobacter sp. In addition to the strains isolated during this study, Salmonella sp and Shigella sp isolated at the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar from 2005 to 2009 were included in the analysis to increase the power of the study. Twenty-nine strains of Salmonella sp, 35 strains of Shigella sp, 195 strains of diarrheagenic E. coli, 203 strains of C. jejuni and 71 strains of C. coli isolated in the community setting were tested for antibiotic resistance. Fifty-five strains of Salmonella sp and 129 strains of Shigella sp isolated from patients referred to the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar were also included in the study. Many E. coli and Shigella isolates (around 80%) but fewer Salmonella isolates were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. A small proportion of strains of each species were resistant to ciprofloxacin and only 3% of E. coli strains presented a resistance to third generation cephalosporins due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. The resistance of Campylobacter sp to ampicillin was the most prevalent, whereas less than 5% of isolates were resistant to each of the other antibiotics. The

  16. Screen-film specimen radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, S.J.; Hogan, J.; Schreck, B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the reproducibility and quality of biopsy specimen radiographs, a unique phototimed cabinet x-ray system is being developed. The system utilizes specially modified Kodal Min-R cassettes and will be compatible with current mammographic films. Tube voltages are in the 14-20-kVp range with 0.1-1.0-second exposure times. A top-hat type compression device is used (1) to compress the specimen to uniform thickness, (2) to measure the specimen thickness and determine optimum kVp, and (3) to superimpose a grid over the specimen for identification of objects of radiographic interest. The phototiming circuit developed specifically for this purpose will be described along with the modified Min-R cassette. Characteristics of the generator and cabinet will also be described. Tests will be performed on phantoms to evaluate the system limitations

  17. Feeding, stooling and sleeping patterns in infants with colic - a randomized controlled trial of minimal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallström Inger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to describe the feeding- and stooling patterns of infants with colic and evaluate the influence of minimal acupuncture. Methods A prospective, randomized, controlled, blind clinical study was conducted at a private acupuncture clinic in Sweden. 90 otherwise healthy 2-8 weeks old infants, born after gestational week 36, fulfilling the criteria for infantile colic and not medicated with dicyclomine, were included. 81 infants went through a structured program consisting of six visits to the clinic, twice weekly. Infants randomized to receive acupuncture were given minimal, standardized acupuncture for two seconds in LI4. Frequency and size of stooling, as well as duration of, and intervals between, feeding sessions were reported by parents in a diary. Parental assessment of sleep and comments on stooling and side effects were collected in a questionnaire. Results At baseline when the mean age was five weeks, infants in both groups were fed a median of eight times/day, 148 min/day, with considerable variations. No differences were found between groups in the frequency and duration of feeding during the intervention weeks. Furthermore there were no significant differences between the groups regarding the frequency of stooling, neither at baseline, at which point the infants of both groups had bowel movements 4.2 times/day, nor during the intervention weeks. There was an expected decrease in frequency of stooling in both groups, reaching 2.1 (p = 0,001 in the acupuncture group and 3.1 (p Conclusions Infants with colic in the present study had a higher frequency of stooling than reported internationally in healthy infants. Minimal acupuncture had no major effect on feeding, stooling and sleep, although a minor effect of minimal acupuncture on stooling and sleep cannot be ruled out. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.govID NCT00860301

  18. Stool consistency is strongly associated with gut microbiota richness and composition, enterotypes and bacterial growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, Doris; Falony, Gwen; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Tito, Raul Y; Joossens, Marie; Raes, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of potentially confounding factors affecting colon microbiota composition is essential to the identification of robust microbiome based disease markers. Here, we investigate the link between gut microbiota variation and stool consistency using Bristol Stool Scale classification, which reflects faecal water content and activity, and is considered a proxy for intestinal colon transit time. Through 16S rDNA Illumina profiling of faecal samples of 53 healthy women, we evaluated associations between microbiome richness, Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio, enterotypes, and genus abundance with self-reported, Bristol Stool Scale-based stool consistency. Each sample's microbiota growth potential was calculated to test whether transit time acts as a selective force on gut bacterial growth rates. Stool consistency strongly correlates with all known major microbiome markers. It is negatively correlated with species richness, positively associated to the Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio, and linked to Akkermansia and Methanobrevibacter abundance. Enterotypes are distinctly distributed over the BSS-scores. Based on the correlations between microbiota growth potential and stool consistency scores within both enterotypes, we hypothesise that accelerated transit contributes to colon ecosystem differentiation. While shorter transit times can be linked to increased abundance of fast growing species in Ruminococcaceae-Bacteroides samples, hinting to a washout avoidance strategy of faster replication, this trend is absent in Prevotella-enterotyped individuals. Within this enterotype adherence to host tissue therefore appears to be a more likely bacterial strategy to cope with washout. The strength of the associations between stool consistency and species richness, enterotypes and community composition emphasises the crucial importance of stool consistency assessment in gut metagenome-wide association studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  19. Digital quantification of gene methylation in stool DNA by emulsion-PCR coupled with hydrogel immobilized bead-array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunlong; Wu, Haiping; Zhou, Qiang; Song, Qinxin; Rui, Jianzhong; Zou, Bingjie; Zhou, Guohua

    2017-06-15

    Aberrations of gene methylation in stool DNA (sDNA) is an effective biomarker for non-invasive colorectal cancer diagnosis. However, it is challenging to accurately quantitate the gene methylation levels in sDNA due to the low abundance and degradation of sDNA. In this study, a digital quantification strategy was proposed by combining emulsion PCR (emPCR) with hydrogel immobilized bead-array. The assay includes following steps: bisulfite conversion of sDNA, pre-amplification by PCR with specific primers containing 5' universal sequences, emPCR of pre-amplicons with beaded primers to achieve single-molecular amplification and identification of hydrogel embedding beads coated with amplicons. The sensitivity and the specificity of the method are high enough to pick up 0.05% methylated targets from unmethylated DNA background. The successful detection of hypermethylated vimentin gene in clinical stool samples suggests that the proposed method should be a potential tool for non-invasive colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Cameron M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-01

    Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

  1. DNA extraction from herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drábková, Lenka Záveská

    2014-01-01

    With the expansion of molecular techniques, the historical collections have become widely used. Studying plant DNA using modern molecular techniques such as DNA sequencing plays an important role in understanding evolutionary relationships, identification through DNA barcoding, conservation status, and many other aspects of plant biology. Enormous herbarium collections are an important source of material especially for specimens from areas difficult to access or from taxa that are now extinct. The ability to utilize these specimens greatly enhances the research. However, the process of extracting DNA from herbarium specimens is often fraught with difficulty related to such variables as plant chemistry, drying method of the specimen, and chemical treatment of the specimen. Although many methods have been developed for extraction of DNA from herbarium specimens, the most frequently used are modified CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit protocols. Nine selected protocols in this chapter have been successfully used for high-quality DNA extraction from different kinds of plant herbarium tissues. These methods differ primarily with respect to their requirements for input material (from algae to vascular plants), type of the plant tissue (leaves with incrustations, sclerenchyma strands, mucilaginous tissues, needles, seeds), and further possible applications (PCR-based methods or microsatellites, AFLP).

  2. Reliability and validity of a modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Mariella M; Czyzewski, Danita I; Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Shulman, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    This study sought to: evaluate the ability of children to reliably use a modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for Children (mBSFS-C), evaluate criterion-related validity of the mBSFS-C, and identify the lower age limit for mBSFS-C use. The mBSFS-C comprises 5 stool form types described and depicted in drawings. Children 3 to 18 years old rated stool form for 10 stool photographs. Because of low reliability when stool form descriptors were not read aloud (n = 119), a subsequent sample of children (n = 191) rated photographs with descriptors read. Intraclass correlation coefficients for descriptor-unread versus -read samples were 0.62 and 0.79, respectively. Children were increasingly reliable with age. Percentage of correct ratings varied with stool form type, but generally increased with age. With descriptors unread, children 8 years and older demonstrated acceptable interobserver reliability, with >78% of ratings correct. With descriptors read, children 6 years and older demonstrated acceptable reliability, with >80% of ratings correct. The mBSFS-C is reliable and valid for use by children, with age 6 years being the lower limit for scale use with descriptors read and age 8 years being the lower limit without descriptors read. We anticipate that the mBSFS-C can be effectively used in pediatric clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stool frequency recording in severe acute malnutrition ('StoolSAM'); an agreement study comparing maternal recall versus direct observation using diapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuijl, Wieger; Potani, Isabel; Bandsma, Robert; Baan, Anne; White, Sarah; Bourdon, Celine; Kerac, Marko

    2017-01-01

    Background: Approximately 50% of the deaths of children under the age of 5 can be attributed to undernutrition, which also encompasses severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Diarrhoea is strongly associated with these deaths and is commonly diagnosed solely based on stool frequency and consistency

  4. Stool Investigations for Colorectal Cancer Screening: From Occult Blood Test to DNA Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannone, Andrea; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Pricci, Maria; Girardi, Bruna; Massaro, Antonio; Principi, Mariabeatrice; Barone, Michele; Ierardi, Enzo; Di Leo, Alfredo

    2016-06-01

    We report an update of current methods for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening based on fecal sample analysis. A systematic review of the literature was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Direct electronic databases. Blood in the stools is the first and most used strategy. Fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and fecal immunochemical test (FIT) are the main methods. Both are economic, easy to perform with high specificity, and low sensitivity. Based on CRC multi-step process with genetic and epigenetic alterations in large bowel cell DNA, single mutations or panels of alterations have been detected. These tests have the advantage of a marked improvement of the sensitivity when compared to fecal blood. However, high costs, poor availability, and correct choice of marker panel represent the major limits. A specific sDNA panel including aberrantly methylated BMP3 and NDRG4 promoter regions, mutant k-ras and β-actin (a reference gene for human DNA quantity), and an immunochemical assay for human hemoglobin has been recently approved by Food and Drug Administration. Novel promising biomarkers for CRC screening are represented by microRNAs (miRNAs), a group of 18-25 nucleotide non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. Reports on these fecal biomarkers are case-control studies, and each of them evaluates single miRNAs or multi-target panels. On the other hand, some fecal proteins have been studied as possible CRC screening markers, even though they demonstrated poor results. Finally, alterations of estrogen receptor-beta (i.e., dramatic reduction in the early stage of CRC) have been demonstrated in tissue samples. Specific investigations are warranted in order to add further noninvasive markers to the panel of CRC screening tools.

  5. A Review of Sleeve Gastrectomy Specimen Histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsinger, Luke A; Garber, James C; Whipple, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing popularity of sleeve gastrectomy, many stomach specimens are being evaluated. Understanding the significance and treatment for unexpected pathology is important. This study examines the incidence of relevant histopathology of sleeve gastrectomy specimens. It evaluates previous data for each histopathology and provides recommendations for treatment. In this study, a retrospective review was performed for 241 patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy from 2009 to 2014 at a single institution. Of the specimens, 122 had no significant histopathology, 91 had gastritis, 13 had lymphoid aggregates, 5 had hyperplasia, 3 had intestinal metaplasia, 3 had gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), and 3 had gastric polyps. Of the GISTs all had a low mitotic rate and the size of the tumor ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 cm. The findings of metaplasia may be a marker for increased risk of malignancy and may require additional surveillance. The findings of GIST may warrant interval imaging to survey for recurrence, though the likelihood of recurrence for the tumors in this study is less than 2 per cent based on previous studies.

  6. Helicobacter pylori from Peptic Ulcer Patients in Uganda Is Highly Resistant to Clarithromycin and Fluoroquinolones: Results of the GenoType HelicoDR Test Directly Applied on Stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denish Calmax Angol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Around 70–90% of peptic ulcer disease (PUD is due to Helicobacter pylori and requires treatment with antimicrobials to which these bacteria are susceptible. Common H. pylori diagnostic tests do not provide drug susceptibility data. Using the GenoType HelicoDR PCR test designed for gastric biopsies for simultaneous detection of H. pylori and its resistance to clarithromycin (CLA/fluoroquinolones (FLQ, we present evidence for stool as an optional test specimen and also provide data on prevalence of H. pylori resistance to CLA and FLQ in Uganda. Methods. Stool from 142 symptomatic PUD patients at three hospitals in Kampala was screened for H. pylori using a rapid antigen test. The GenoType HelicoDR test was run on all H. pylori antigen positives to determine PCR positivity and resistance to CLA/FLQ. Results. Thirty-one samples (22% were H. pylori antigen positive, and 21 (68% of these were H. pylori PCR positive. Six of the 21 (29% were resistant to CLA and eight to FLQ (42%, while two gave invalid FLQ resistance results. Conclusion. Stool is a possible specimen for the GenoType HelicoDR test for rapid detection of H. pylori and drug resistance. In Uganda, Helicobacter pylori is highly resistant to CLA and FLQ.

  7. Modification of stool's water content in constipated infants: management with an adapted infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Marina M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constipation is a common occurrence in formula-fed infants. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the impact of a formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium, in compliance with the official regulations, on stool water content, as well as a parental assessment of constipation. Materials and methods Thirty healthy term-born, formula-fed infants, aged 4-10 weeks, with functional constipation were included. All infants were full-term and fed standard formula. Exclusion criteria were preterm and/or low birth weight, organic constipation, being breast fed or fed a formula specially designed to treat constipation. Stool composition was measured by near-infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA and parents answered questions about crying associated with defecation and stool consistency at baseline and after two weeks of the adapted formula. Results After 2 weeks of the adapted formula, stool water content increased from 71 +/- 8.1% to 84 +/- 5.9%, (p Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that an adapted formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium increases stool water content and improves symptoms of constipation in term-born, formula-fed infants. A larger randomized placebo-controlled trial is indicated.

  8. Detection of Gastrointestinal Pathogens from Stool Samples on Hemoccult Cards by Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Alberer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Up to 30% of international travelers are affected by travelers’ diarrhea (TD. Reliable data on the etiology of TD is lacking. Sufficient laboratory capacity at travel destinations is often unavailable and transporting conventional stool samples to the home country is inconvenient. We evaluated the use of Hemoccult cards for stool sampling combined with a multiplex PCR for the detection of model viral, bacterial, and protozoal TD pathogens. Methods. Following the creation of serial dilutions for each model pathogen, last positive dilution steps (LPDs and thereof calculated last positive sample concentrations (LPCs were compared between conventional stool samples and card samples. Furthermore, card samples were tested after a prolonged time interval simulating storage during a travel duration of up to 6 weeks. Results. The LPDs/LPCs were comparable to testing of conventional stool samples. After storage on Hemoccult cards, the recovery rate was 97.6% for C. jejuni, 100% for E. histolytica, 97.6% for norovirus GI, and 100% for GII. Detection of expected pathogens was possible at weekly intervals up to 42 days. Conclusion. Stool samples on Hemoccult cards stored at room temperature can be used in combination with a multiplex PCR as a reliable tool for testing of TD pathogens.

  9. Picky eating in preschool children: Associations with dietary fibre intakes and stool hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline M.; Northstone, Kate; Wernimont, Susan M.; Emmett, Pauline M.

    2018-01-01

    It has been suggested that constipation may be associated with picky eating. Constipation is a common condition in childhood and a low intake of dietary fibre may be a risk factor. Differences in fibre intake between picky and non-picky children and its relation to stool consistency is currently not well-understood. Children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children identified as picky eaters (PE) were compared with non-picky eaters (NPE): (1) to determine dietary fibre intake at 38 months; (2) to investigate whether any difference in dietary fibre intake was predictive of usual stool hardness at 42 months. PE was identified from questionnaires at 24 and 38 months. Usual stool hardness was identified from a questionnaire at 42 months. Dietary intake was assessed at 38 months with a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fibre intake was lower in PE than NPE (mean difference −1.4 (95% CI −1.6, −1.2) g/day, p children was associated with an increased prevalence of usually having hard stools. This association was mediated by low dietary fibre intake, particularly from vegetables, in PE. For children with PE, dietary advice aimed at increasing fibre intake may help avoid hard stools. PMID:26879221

  10. Specimen Collection and Submission Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    local, approved medical treatment facility collection procedures. Superficial wounds and abscesses Sterile swab Follow local, approved medical...Tests May Include: West Nile virus (WNV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus... Wound Botulism Acceptable Specimens Required Volume/Comments Toxin Assay (T) or Culture (C) Performed Serum (priority sample type) 5 ml (less

  11. Comparison of the compositions of the stool microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula, cow milk-based formula, or breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Gerald W; Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Gowri Pathmanathan, Siva; Zhou, Shao J; Makrides, Maria; Gibson, Robert A; Sullivan, Thomas; Prosser, Colin G; Lowry, Dianne; Hodgkinson, Alison J

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the compositions of the fecal microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula to those of infants fed cow milk formula or breast milk as the gold standard. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used in the analysis of the microbiotas in stool samples collected from 90 Australian babies (30 in each group) at 2 months of age. Beta-diversity analysis of total microbiota sequences and Lachnospiraceae sequences revealed that they were more similar in breast milk/goat milk comparisons than in breast milk/cow milk comparisons. The Lachnospiraceae were mostly restricted to a single species (Ruminococcus gnavus) in breast milk-fed and goat milk-fed babies compared to a more diverse collection in cow milk-fed babies. Bifidobacteriaceae were abundant in the microbiotas of infants in all three groups. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most commonly detected bifidobacterial species. A semiquantitative PCR method was devised to differentiate between B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis and was used to test stool samples. B. longum subsp. infantis was seldom present in stools, even of breast milk-fed babies. The presence of B. bifidum in the stools of breast milk-fed infants at abundances greater than 10% of the total microbiota was associated with the highest total abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae. When Bifidobacteriaceae abundance was low, Lachnospiraceae abundances were greater. New information about the composition of the fecal microbiota when goat milk formula is used in infant nutrition was thus obtained.

  12. Effect of specimen size on the fracture toughness of V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, R.J.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Li, Huaxin

    1996-04-01

    J-R curves were generated using the single specimen unload-compliance technique on four specimens of V-4Cr-4Ti to determine the effect of specimen dimensions on the fracture behavior. Ductile crack initiation and growth was observed in the 6.35 mm thick specimens but not in the 12.70 mm thick specimens. The J-R curves determined from these tests were not valid per ASTM validity criteria so quantitative measures of the resistance to ductile crack initiation and growth were not obtained. These data suggests that standard fracture toughness tests were performed with small-scale DCT specimens may also not be valid.

  13. Characterization of bacteria in biopsies of colon and stools by high throughput sequencing of the V2 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momozawa, Yukihide; Deffontaine, Valérie; Louis, Edouard; Medrano, Juan F

    2011-02-10

    The characterization of the human intestinal microflora and their interactions with the host have been identified as key components in the study of intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases. High-throughput sequencing has enabled culture-independent studies to deeply analyze bacteria in the gut. It is possible with this technology to systematically analyze links between microbes and the genetic constitution of the host, such as DNA polymorphisms and methylation, and gene expression. In this study the V2 region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene using 454 pyrosequencing from seven anatomic regions of human colon and two types of stool specimens were analyzed. The study examined the number of reads needed to ascertain differences between samples, the effect of DNA extraction procedures and PCR reproducibility, and differences between biopsies and stools in order to design a large scale systematic analysis of gut microbes. It was shown (1) that sequence coverage lower than 1,000 reads influenced quantitative and qualitative differences between samples measured by UniFrac distances. Distances between samples became stable after 1,000 reads. (2) Difference of extracted bacteria was observed between the two DNA extraction methods. In particular, Firmicutes Bacilli were not extracted well by one method. (3) Quantitative and qualitative difference in bacteria from ileum to rectum colon were not observed, but there was a significant positive trend between distances within colon and quantitative differences. Between sample type, biopsies or stools, quantitative and qualitative differences were observed. Results of human colonic bacteria analyzed using high-throughput sequencing were highly dependent on the experimental design, especially the number of sequence reads, DNA extraction method, and sample type.

  14. Characterization of bacteria in biopsies of colon and stools by high throughput sequencing of the V2 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene in human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihide Momozawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The characterization of the human intestinal microflora and their interactions with the host have been identified as key components in the study of intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases. High-throughput sequencing has enabled culture-independent studies to deeply analyze bacteria in the gut. It is possible with this technology to systematically analyze links between microbes and the genetic constitution of the host, such as DNA polymorphisms and methylation, and gene expression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study the V2 region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene using 454 pyrosequencing from seven anatomic regions of human colon and two types of stool specimens were analyzed. The study examined the number of reads needed to ascertain differences between samples, the effect of DNA extraction procedures and PCR reproducibility, and differences between biopsies and stools in order to design a large scale systematic analysis of gut microbes. It was shown (1 that sequence coverage lower than 1,000 reads influenced quantitative and qualitative differences between samples measured by UniFrac distances. Distances between samples became stable after 1,000 reads. (2 Difference of extracted bacteria was observed between the two DNA extraction methods. In particular, Firmicutes Bacilli were not extracted well by one method. (3 Quantitative and qualitative difference in bacteria from ileum to rectum colon were not observed, but there was a significant positive trend between distances within colon and quantitative differences. Between sample type, biopsies or stools, quantitative and qualitative differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Results of human colonic bacteria analyzed using high-throughput sequencing were highly dependent on the experimental design, especially the number of sequence reads, DNA extraction method, and sample type.

  15. Influence of selected stool concentration techniques on the effectiveness of PCR examination in Giardia intestinalis diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojecki, K; Sroka, J; Karamon, J; Kusyk, P; Cencek, T

    2014-01-01

    Giardia intestinalis is a widespread parasitic protozoa which has great significance as a public health threat. Molecular diagnostics of stool sample can be unreliable because of the presence of inhibitors of enzymatic reactions. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of selected pre-treatment methods of fecal samples for further PCR-based diagnostics of G. intestinalis, and the effect of each component of pre-treatment solutions on PCR reactions. Seven stool concentration techniques were compared. The results showed that the most efficient concentration method for stool sample preparation for detection of G. intestinalis by PCR is centrifugal flotation with Percoll (with saturated NaNO3 as the flotation solution). This method is relatively inexpensive, less labor-intensive, and suitable for epidemiological monitoring and clinical investigations.

  16. PoopMD, a Mobile Health Application, Accurately Identifies Infant Acholic Stools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Franciscovich

    Full Text Available Biliary atresia (BA is the leading cause of pediatric end-stage liver disease in the United States. Education of parents in the perinatal period with stool cards depicting acholic and normal stools has been associated with improved time-to-diagnosis and survival in BA. PoopMD is a mobile application that utilizes a smartphone's camera and color recognition software to analyze an infant's stool and determine if additional follow-up is indicated. PoopMD was developed using custom HTML5/CSS3 and wrapped to work on iOS and Android platforms. In order to define the gold standard regarding stool color, seven pediatricians were asked to review 45 photographs of infant stool and rate them as acholic, normal, or indeterminate. Samples for which 6+ pediatricians demonstrated agreement defined the gold standard, and only these samples were included in the analysis. Accuracy of PoopMD was assessed using an iPhone 5s with incandescent lighting. Variability in analysis of stool photographs as acholic versus normal with intermediate rating weighted as 50% agreement (kappa was compared between three laypeople and one expert user. Variability in output was also assessed between an iPhone 5s and a Samsung Galaxy S4, as well as between incandescent lighting and compact fluorescent lighting. Six-plus pediatricians agreed on 27 normal and 7 acholic photographs; no photographs were defined as indeterminate. The sensitivity was 7/7 (100%. The specificity was 24/27 (89% with 3/27 labeled as indeterminate; no photos of normal stool were labeled as acholic. The Laplace-smoothed positive likelihood ratio was 6.44 (95% CI 2.52 to 16.48 and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.13 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.83. kappauser was 0.68, kappaphone was 0.88, and kappalight was 0.81. Therefore, in this pilot study, PoopMD accurately differentiates acholic from normal color with substantial agreement across users, and almost perfect agreement across two popular smartphones and ambient light

  17. Effects of olestra and sorbitol consumption on objective measures of diarrhea: impact of stool viscosity on common gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRorie, J; Zorich, N; Riccardi, K; Bishop, L; Filloon, T; Wason, S; Giannella, R

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of olestra and sorbitol consumption on three accepted objective measures of diarrhea (stool output >250 g/day, liquid/watery stools, bowel movement frequency >3/day), and how stool composition influences reports of common gastrointestinal symptoms. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the effects of sorbitol (40 g/day in candy), a poorly absorbed sugar-alcohol with known osmotic effects, with those of olestra (20 or 40 g/day in potato chips), a nonabsorbed fat, on objective measures of stool composition and GI symptoms. Sixty-six subjects resided on a metabolic ward for 12 days: 2 days lead-in, 4 days baseline, 6 days treatment. Sorbitol 40 g/day resulted in loose/liquid stools within 1-3 h of consumption. In contrast, olestra resulted in a dose-responsive stool softening effect after 2-4 days of consumption. Subjects reported "diarrhea" when mean stool apparent viscosity (peak force (PF), g) decreased from a perceived "normal" (mean +/- SE, 1355 +/- 224 g PF; firm stool) to loose (260 +/- 68 g PF) stool. Mean apparent viscosity of stool during treatment: placebo, 1363 +/- 280 g (firm); olestra 20 g/day 743 +/- 65 g (soft); olestra 40 g/day, 563 +/- 105 g (soft); and sorbitol 40 g/day, 249 +/- 53 g (loose). Of the 1098 stool samples collected, 38% (419/1098) were rated by subjects as "diarrhea," yet only 2% of treatment days (all in the sorbitol treatment group) met commonly accepted criteria for a clinical diarrhea. Sorbitol, but not olestra, increased the severity of abdominal cramping, urgency and nausea compared to placebo. Olestra consumption, at levels far in excess of normal snacking conditions, resulted in a gradual stool softening effect after several days of consumption, did not meet any of the three objective measures of diarrhea, and did not increase GI symptoms. Sorbitol consumption, at only 80% of the dose requiring a "laxative effect" information label, resulted in rapid onset loose

  18. Review of forensically important entomological specimens collected from human cadavers in Malaysia (2005-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2013-07-01

    Forensic entomological specimens collected from human decedents during crime scene investigations in Malaysia in the past 6 years (2005-2010) are reviewed. A total of 80 cases were recorded and 93 specimens were collected. From these specimens, 10 species of cyclorrphagic flies were identified, consisting of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) -38 specimens (40.86%), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) -36 specimens (38.70%), Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hemipyrellia liguriens (Wiedemann) -5 specimens (5.37%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) -1 specimen (1.08%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew)-1 specimen (1.08%) and Sarcophaga ruficornis (Fabricius) -4 specimens (4.30%). In two specimens (2.15%), the maggots were not identifiable. Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in human decedents from three different ecological habitats. S. nudiseta is an uncommon species found only on human cadavers from indoors. A total of 75 cases (93.75%) had a single fly infestation and 5 cases (6.25%) had double fly infestation. In conclusion, although large numbers of fly species were found on human decedents, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance evaluation of point-of-care test for detection of Cryptosporidium stool antigen in children and HIV infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimelis, Techalew; Tadesse, Endale

    2014-05-16

    Gastro-enteritis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV/AIDS and children, and Cryptosporidium is the most important parasite implicated. To date, several commercial companies have developed simple and rapid point-of-care tests for the detection of Cryptosporidium infection; however, information is scarce regarding their diagnostic significance in Ethiopia. This study aimed at evaluating the performance of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for the detection of Cryptosporidium stool antigen. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Hawassa University Hospital, southern Ethiopia from May to November 2013. Faecal samples were collected from a total of 100 children and 250 HIV infected individuals with diarrhea or CD4 T-cell count lower than 200 cells/μl. Specimens were processed using direct, formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques for diagnosis of Cryptosporidium and other parasites. One hundred faecal samples (50 positives for Cryptosporidium, 35 positives for other parasites and 15 negatives for any intestinal parasites) were tested using the CoproStrip™Cryptosporidium kit (Savyon Diagnostics Ltd, Israel). Test parameters were calculated using microscopy of the modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained stool smear as reference method. The performance of the RDT was first compared to routine microscopic analysis (examination ≤10 min). The CoproStrip™Cryptosporidium RDT correctly detected 31 of 42 positive samples and 49 of 50 negative samples (i.e., 11 false negatives and 1 false positive). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were calculated to be 74, 98, 97, 84 and 88%, respectively. Upon thorough microscopic analysis (examination >10 min), 8 more samples with very low oocyst density were found. However, these were missed by the kit and lower the sensitivity and NPV to 62 and 72%, respectively. No cross-reactivity was observed with any of the helminthic or other protozoan parasites

  20. Use of stool culture as a non invasive method for the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori has been associated with chronic diarrhoea, iron deficiency anaemia, growth retardation, gastric malignancies, peptic ulcer disease, and gastritis among children. Diagnosis of this infection has been invasive using biopsies while stool culture is not common or routinely practiced. This study ...

  1. Not Your Run-of-the-Mill Art-Room Stools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, Rose-Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    An art room should be a garden of visual stimulation, born of creativity, inquiry, critical thinking and intellectual conversation--and a little collaboration is not a bad thing either! When the author unpacked the new stools for her art room at the high school, she envisioned something more beautiful than the brown masonite circles that…

  2. Stool-based biomarkers of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braundmeier-Fleming, A.; Russell, Nathan T.; Yang, Wenbin; Nas, Megan Y.; Yaggie, Ryan E.; Berry, Matthew; Bachrach, Laurie; Flury, Sarah C.; Marko, Darlene S.; Bushell, Colleen B.; Welge, Michael E.; White, Bryan A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Klumpp, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC) is associated with significant morbidity, yet underlying mechanisms and diagnostic biomarkers remain unknown. Pelvic organs exhibit neural crosstalk by convergence of visceral sensory pathways, and rodent studies demonstrate distinct bacterial pain phenotypes, suggesting that the microbiome modulates pelvic pain in IC. Stool samples were obtained from female IC patients and healthy controls, and symptom severity was determined by questionnaire. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified by16S rDNA sequence analysis. Machine learning by Extended Random Forest (ERF) identified OTUs associated with symptom scores. Quantitative PCR of stool DNA with species-specific primer pairs demonstrated significantly reduced levels of E. sinensis, C. aerofaciens, F. prausnitzii, O. splanchnicus, and L. longoviformis in microbiota of IC patients. These species, deficient in IC pelvic pain (DIPP), were further evaluated by Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analyses, and DIPP species emerged as potential IC biomarkers. Stool metabolomic studies identified glyceraldehyde as significantly elevated in IC. Metabolomic pathway analysis identified lipid pathways, consistent with predicted metagenome functionality. Together, these findings suggest that DIPP species and metabolites may serve as candidates for novel IC biomarkers in stool. Functional changes in the IC microbiome may also serve as therapeutic targets for treating chronic pelvic pain. PMID:27188581

  3. Bristol scale stool form. A still valid help in medical practice and clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegler, G; Esposito, I

    2001-12-01

    The collection of clinical data concerning bowel habit is always empirical. A more extended use of visual descriptive stool form scales could contribute to a clearer and more standardized reporting of data about bowel function. This could be helpful for both clinical practice and research purposes.

  4. Differential clinical features and stool findings in shigellosis and amoebic dysentery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, P.; McGlaughlin, R.; Kabir, I.; Butler, T.

    1987-01-01

    To obtain information that could assist the clinician to differentiate between shigellosis and amoebic dysentery, we compared clinical features and stool findings in 58 adult male patients in Bangladesh. Mean values indicated that patients with invasive amoebiasis were older and had a longer

  5. An uncommon case of late-onset congenital diaphragmatic hernia with bloody stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Jimbo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Late-onset congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH is an uncommon subset of CDH and distinct from neonatal CDH with respect to presenting symptoms, diagnosis, management, and prognosis. In particular, CDH diagnosed after 30 days of age (late-onset CDH is uncommon and has an atypical presentation and a more favorable prognosis. In the present report, an infantile late-onset CDH case that presented with bloody stool and had a severe clinical course is described. In previous reports, no late-onset CDH case developed bloody stool. After diagnosis with image inspections, emergency surgery was performed. At operation, via the hernia orifice, the jejunum was seen to have prolapsed into the thoracic cavity with focally significant intestinal and mesenteric congestion, but no intestinal necrosis. In general, other disorders such as intussusception may be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen with bloody stool in patients of this age. However, in such late-onset CDH cases, immediate differentiation from other causes of acute abdomen that present with bloody stool is life-saving.

  6. Detection of Salmonella typhi by nested polymerase chain reaction in blood, urine, and stool samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatta, Mochammad; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was used for the detection of the pathogen in blood, urine, and stool samples from 131 patients with clinical suspicion of typhoid fever. The sensitivity of blood culture, the PCRs with blood, urine, and feces,

  7. A Novel Astrovirus-Like RNA Virus Detected in Human Stool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Munnink, Bas B.; Cotten, Matthew; Canuti, Marta; Deijs, Martin; Jebbink, Maarten F.; van Hemert, Formijn J.; Phan, My V. T.; Bakker, Margreet; Jazaeri Farsani, Seyed Mohammad; Kellam, Paul; van der Hoek, Lia

    2016-01-01

    Several novel clades of astroviruses have recently been identified in human faecal samples. Here, we describe a novel astrovirus-like RNA virus detected in human stools, which we have tentatively named bastrovirus. The genome of this novel virus consists of 6,300 nucleotides organized in three open

  8. Septata intestinalis frequently isolated from stool of AIDS patients with a new cultivation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gool, T.; Canning, E. U.; Gilis, H.; van den Bergh Weerman, M. A.; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, J. K.; Dankert, J.

    1994-01-01

    Two species of microsporidia, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Septata intestinalis have been reported as intestinal parasites of AIDS patients. In attempts to establish E. bieneusi in vitro, spores were concentrated from stool samples from 4 AIDS patients with biopsy-proven E. bieneusi infections. After

  9. Laboratory diagnosis of botulism complicated by pyridostigmine treatment of the patient. A method for selectively removing interfering substances from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, M A; Hatheway, C L; Dowell, V R

    1976-10-01

    In August 1974, a case of botulism occurred; home-canned potatoes and peas containing Clostridium botulinum, type A, were strongly incriminated as the vehicle of transmission. C. botulinum, type A, was isolated from a stool specimen of the patient, but the mouse neutralization test for botulinal toxin could not be completed because the stool extract contained a highly toxic, heat-stable substance that rapidly killed mice. Historical and laboratory evidence indicated that the substance was pyridostigmine bromide, a low-molecular-weight drug with which the patient had been treated after her disease was misdiagnosed as myasthenia gravis. A generally applicable method employing dialysis by which toxic SUBSTANCED of low molecular weigth could be selectively removed from specimens without diminishing the potency of botulinal toxin contained in them was developed. Dialysis rendered a pyridostigmine solution, a stool extract from the patient with botulism, and a stool extract from a person taking pyridostigmine virtually nontoxic to mice. Dialysis did not significantly alter the toxicity to mice of crude botulinal toxin; it selectively eliminated all or almost all pyridostigmine toxicity from a pyridostigmine-botulinal toxin mixture without altering the toxicity of the botulinal toxin.

  10. Clinical illnesses associated with isolation of dysgonic fermenter 3 from stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, R N; Berry, C D; Phillips, M G; Hamilos, D L; Koneman, E W

    1992-02-01

    The clinical significance of the fastidious organism DF-3 isolated from stool cultures is unclear. We sought to improve our understanding of this organism and to further define its association with human disease. Stool cultures for DF-3 were obtained from three sources: an ongoing study of enteric pathogens in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, a screening procedure in which all stool samples submitted for Clostridium difficile toxin assay were cultured for DF-3, and stool samples submitted specifically for DF-3 culture. Retrospective clinical data were obtained from chart reviews of patients with positive cultures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and cell wall fatty acid analysis were performed for each DF-3 isolated. Eight isolates of DF-3 were obtained over a period of 8 months. All patients either had severe underlying disease or were immunocompromised, including three patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and two patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The spectrum of clinical disease ranged from chronic diarrhea with a well-defined response to therapy for DF-3 to an asymptomatic carrier state. Cell wall fatty acid analysis of these isolates demonstrated a consistent pattern with a large peak of 12-methyltetradecanoate. DF-3, a fastidious gram-negative coccobacillus, can be recovered from stool cultures of immunocompromised patients by using selective media. The presence of 12-methyltetradecanoate in cell wall fatty acid analysis assists in identification. The increased use of a selective medium-(cefoperazone-vancomycin-amphotericin B) in the evaluation of diarrhea in immunocompromised hosts, including persons with inflammatory bowel disease, may better define the association of DF-3 with human gastrointestinal disease.

  11. New ultrasonographic evaluation of stool and/or gas distribution for treatment of chronic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Noriaki; Kamada, Tomoari; Hata, Jiro; Haruma, Ken

    2018-03-01

    The first aim of this study was to develop a new ultrasonographic method (US) to evaluate stool and/or gas distribution. The second aim was to apply this method to compare stool and/or gas distribution between healthy subjects and patients with chronic constipation and evaluate whether US parameters could be an alternative to the colonic transit time (CTT). We enrolled seven healthy volunteers (four men, three women; mean age 29.3 ± 5.2 years) who underwent US and computed tomography (CT) on the same day to evaluate the reproducibility of US results. We then enrolled 268 patients with chronic constipation (94 men, 174 women; mean age 63.3 ± 4.2 years) and 66 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (controls). The transverse diameters of four segments of the colon [ascending (AC), transverse (TC), descending (DC), and sigmoid (SC)] and the rectum (R) were measured, and their stool and/or gas distribution was evaluated using the constipation index (CI) [AC + TC + DC + SC + R/5] and left/right (L/R) distribution [(DC + SC)/(AC + TC)]. The CTT was assessed using radiopaque markers. All healthy subjects underwent US and CT successfully, with a sufficiently high reproducibility coefficient for this method and significant correlation between the US and CT parameters. The stool and/or gas distribution evaluated by US showed a significant difference in one of the US parameters between healthy subjects and patients, and the CI was an indirect indicator for the CTT. These findings may assist physicians evaluate stool and/or gas distribution of patients with chronic constipation, which is an indirect indicator for CTT.

  12. Isolation and characterization of Yersinia-specific bacteriophages from pig stools in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, M; Virtanen, S; Korkeala, H; Skurnik, M

    2015-03-01

    Bacteriophages infect bacteria, and they are present everywhere in the world including the intestinal tracts of animals. Yersiniosis is a common foodborne infection caused by Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. As these bacteria are frequently isolated from pigs, we wanted to know whether Yersinia-specific bacteriophages are also present in the pig stools and, if so, whether there is a positive or negative association between the prevalence of the Yersinia phages and the pathogenic Yersinia in the stool samples. Altogether 793 pig stool samples collected between November 2010 and March 2012 from 14 Finnish pig farms were screened for the presence of bacteriophages able to infect Y. enterocolitica serotype O:3, O:5,27 or O:9 strains, or Y. pseudotuberculosis serotype O:1a, O:1b or O:3 strains. Yersinia phages were isolated from 90 samples from eight farms. Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 was infected by 59 phages, 28 phages infected serotypes O:3 and O:5,27, and eight phages infected serotypes O:3, O:5,27 and O:9, and Y. pseudotuberculosis O:1a by eight phages. Many phages originating from pigs in the same farm were identical based on their restriction enzyme digestion patterns; 20 clearly different phages were selected for further characterization. Host ranges of these phages were tested with 94 Yersinia strains. Six of the phages infected eight strains, 13 phages infected three strains, and one phage infected only one strain, indicating that the phages had a relatively narrow host range. There was a clear association between the presence of the host bacteria and specific phages in the stools. The isolated bacteriophages may have potential as biocontrol agents for yersiniosis in both humans and pigs in future, and as alternatives or in addition to antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is the first reported isolation of Yersinia-specific phages from pig stool samples. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Review: Diagnostic accuracy of PCR-based detection tests for Helicobacter Pylori in stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadangi, Fatemeh; Yassi, Maryam; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2017-12-01

    Although different methods have been established to detect Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, identifying infected patients is an ongoing challenge. The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide pooled diagnostic accuracy measures for stool PCR test in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. In this study, a systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out on various sources, including MEDLINE, Web of Sciences, and the Cochrane Library from April 1, 1999, to May 1, 2016. This meta-analysis adheres to the guidelines provided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses report (PRISMA Statement). The clinical value of DNA stool PCR test was based on the pooled false positive, false negative, true positive, and true negative of different genes. Twenty-six of 328 studies identified met the eligibility criteria. Stool PCR test had a performance of 71% (95% CI: 68-73) sensitivity, 96% (95% CI: 94-97) specificity, and 65.6 (95% CI: 30.2-142.5) diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) in diagnosis of H. pylori. The DOR of genes which showed the highest performance of stool PCR tests was as follows: 23S rRNA 152.5 (95% CI: 55.5-418.9), 16S rRNA 67.9 (95%CI: 6.4-714.3), and glmM 68.1 (95%CI: 20.1-231.7). The sensitivity and specificity of stool PCR test are relatively in the same spectrum of other diagnostic methods for the detection of H. pylori infection. In descending order of significance, the most diagnostic candidate genes using PCR detection were 23S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and glmM. PCR for 23S rRNA gene which has the highest performance could be applicable to detect H. pylori infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Candida dubliniensis in clinical specimens and possibilities for identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahelová, M; Růžička, F

    2014-06-01

    The species Candida dubliniensis shares a wide range of phenotypic characteristics with Candida albicans, the most common yeast species isolated from clinical specimens. This is a considerable complication for the detection and identification of Candida dubliniensis from clinical specimens. The lack of data on the incidence of C. dubliniensis in the Czech Republic was the motivation behind the efforts to detect this pathogen in specimens analyzed at the Institute for Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine Masaryk University and St. Anne's Faculty Hospital in Brno. Another aim was to test the reliability of the culture methods used. Altogether 2260 yeast isolates initially identified as C. albicans were analysed. To differentiate C. dubliniensis from C. albicans, four phenotypic methods were used: colour-based differentiation on CHROMagar Candida medium, culture on medium with 6.5% of NaCl, growth at 42 °C, and colony characteristics on Staib agar. To verify the results, the Bichro-Dubli Fumouze latex agglutination test and species-specific polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were used. Using phenotypic methods, latex agglutination, and PCR, 50 (2.2%) strains from the study set were assigned to C. dubliniensis. Most (31) C. dubliniensis isolates were recovered from the respiratory tract and the remaining others were three urine isolates, four stool isolates, one central venous catheter isolate, and one blood isolate. With the exception of colour-based differentiation on CHROMagar Candida medium showing a specificity of 85.5%, all the culture methods used have a high sensitivity and a high specificity. Identification of C. dubliniensis as C. albicans was confirmed in various clinical specimens, most often from the upper respiratory tract. The colour-based differentiation of C. dubliniensis from C. albicans on chromogenic CHROMagar Candida medium can only be recommended as a screening test for the differentiation of C. dubliniensis from other species of the genus Candida

  15. Comparison of the Triage Micro Parasite Panel and Microscopy for the Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Stool Samples Collected in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Swierczewski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are three of the most important parasitic causes of acute diarrhea worldwide. Laboratory diagnosis of these parasites is usually done by ova and parasite examination (O&P examination via microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of O&P examination varies among laboratories and can be labor intensive and time consuming. The Triage Micro Parasite Panel (BioSite, San Diego, California is an enzyme immunoassay kit that can detect E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum simultaneously using fresh or frozen stool. The present study evaluated the Triage Micro Parasite Panel in detecting E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum compared to O&P examination in 266 stool samples collected at medical facilities in Kenya. The sensitivity and specificity results for the Triage Micro Parasite Panel were: for E. histolytica/E. dispar: 100%, 100%, G. lamblia: 100%, 100% and C. parvum: 73%, 100%. There was no evidence of cross reactivity using the kit with other parasites identified in the stool specimens. These results indicate that the Triage Micro Parasite Panel is a highly sensitive kit that can be used for screening purposes in large scale studies or outbreak investigations or as a possible alternative to O&P examination.

  16. Measurements and Counts for Notacanthidae Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic data were collected for specimens of deep-sea spiny eels (Notacanthidae) from the Hawaiian Ridge by Bruce C. Mundy. Specimens were collected off the north...

  17. Complexity of rice-water stool from patients with Vibrio cholerae plays a role in the transmission of infectious diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eric J; Chowdhury, Ashrafuzzaman; Harris, Jason B; Begum, Yasmin A; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I; Larocque, Regina C; Bishop, Anne L; Ryan, Edward T; Camilli, Andrew; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B

    2007-11-27

    At the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, one-half of the rice-water stool samples that were culture-positive for Vibrio cholerae did not contain motile V. cholerae by standard darkfield microscopy and were defined as darkfield-negative (DF(-)). We evaluated the host and microbial factors associated with DF status, as well as the impact of DF status on transmission. Viable counts of V. cholerae in DF(-) stools were three logs lower than in DF(+) stools, although DF(-) and DF(+) stools had similar direct counts of V. cholerae by microscopy. In DF(-) samples, non-V. cholerae bacteria outnumbered V. cholerae 10:1. Lytic V. cholerae bacteriophage were present in 90% of DF(-) samples compared with 35% of DF(+) samples, suggesting that bacteriophage may limit culture-positive patients from producing DF(+) stools. V. cholerae in DF(-) and DF(+) samples were found both planktonically and in distinct nonplanktonic populations; the distribution of organisms between these compartments did not differ appreciably between DF(-) and DF(+) stools. This biology may impact transmission because epidemiological data suggested that household contacts of a DF(+) index case were at greater risk of infection with V. cholerae. We propose a model in which V. cholerae multiply in the small intestine to produce a fluid niche that is dominated by V. cholerae. If lytic phage are present, viable counts of V. cholerae drop, stools become DF(-), other microorganisms bloom, and cholera transmission is reduced.

  18. Adaptation and validation of the Bristol scale stool form translated into the Spanish language among health professionals and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parés, D; Comas, M; Dorcaratto, D; Araujo, M I; Vial, M; Bohle, B; Pera, M; Grande, L

    2009-05-01

    stool type represents an important semiologic part of medical interviews. The Bristol Scale Stool Form is a clinical tool to evaluate stool consistency and form. The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the Bristol Scale Stool Form into Spanish. Differences in validation results between health professionals and patients surveyed were also evaluated. the study population included 79 physicians, 79 nurses, and 78 patients. Subjects were invited to match a randomly selected text defining one of the seven stool types in the scale with one of seven drawings described originally. A random selection of samples was offered for re-test reliability. the overall Kappa index was 0.708. Thirty-two subjects repeated the test for a test-retest assessment in a mean interval of 7.76 days, and the percentage concordance between definition and image was 84.4% with a Kappa index of 0.816. There were no differences in the validation study between physicians, nurses, and patients. this study has shown that the Spanish version of the Bristol Scale Stool Form is reliable for use as a tool to evaluate stool consistency and form.

  19. Brazilian Portuguese translation, cross-cultural adaptation and reproducibility assessment of the modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Debora Rodrigues; Oliveira, Isabelle Stefan de Faria; Ortolan, Erika Veruska Paiva; Oliveira Junior, Wilson Elias de; Comes, Giovana Tuccille; Cassettari, Vanessa Mello Granado; Self, Mariella Marie; Lourenção, Pedro Luiz Toledo de Arruda

    2018-03-15

    To translate and culturally adapt the modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children into Brazilian Portuguese, and to evaluate the reproducibility of the translated version. The stage of translation and cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to an internationally accepted methodology, including the translation, back-translation, and pretest application of the translated version to a sample of 74 children to evaluate the degree of understanding. The reproducibility of the translated scale was assessed by applying the final version of Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children to a sample of 64 children and 25 healthcare professionals, who were asked to correlate a randomly selected description from the translated scale with the corresponding representative illustration of the stool type. The final version of Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children were evidently reproducible, since almost complete agreement (k>0,8) was obtained among the translated descriptions and illustrations of the stool types, both among the children and the group of specialists. The Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children was shown to be reliable in providing very similar results for the same respondents at different times and for different examiners. The Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children is reproducible; it can be applied in clinical practice and in scientific research in Brazil. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Randomized controlled trial: Standard versus supplemental bowel preparation in patients with Bristol stool form 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueyue; Jia, Xinyong; Liu, Baozhen; Qi, Yanmei; Zhang, Xiubin; Ji, Rui; Yu, Yanbo; Zuo, Xiuli; Li, Yanqing

    2017-01-01

    Bristol stool form 1 and 2 is an important predictor of inadequate bowel preparation. To evaluate the efficacy of supplemental preparation in bowel cleansing quality among patients with Bristol stool form 1 and 2, as well as the feasibility of tailored bowel preparation guided by Bristol stool form scale. Patients with Bristol stool form 1 and 2 from 3 Chinese tertiary hospitals randomly received either 2 L PEG-ELP (group A) or 10 mg bisacodyl plus 2 L PEG-ELP (group B); patients with Bristol stool form 3 to 7 received 2 L PEG-ELP (group C) for bowel preparation. The primary endpoint is the rate of adequate bowel reparation for the whole colon. The adequate bowel preparation rate for separate colon segments, the polyp detection rate (PDR), tolerability, acceptability, sleeping quality and compliance were evaluated as secondary endpoints. 700 patients were randomized. In per-protocol analysis, patients in group B attained significantly higher successful preparation rate than group A (88.7% vs. 61.2%, pBristol stool form 1 and 2. Bristol stool form scale may be an easy and efficient guide for tailored bowel preparation before colonoscopy.

  1. Detection of antibiotic resistant E. coli and Enterococcus spp. in stool of healthy growing children in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Angela; Guimarães, Bruno; Radhouani, Hajer; Araújo, Carlos; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Gaspar, Eurico; Rodrigues, Jorge; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2009-12-01

    From stool specimens of 118 healthy children's (1-14 years) in Portugal 92 E. coli and 101 Enterococcu s spp. strains have been isolated. Almost half (40.2%) of the E. coli isolates were resistant to ampicillin, 25.0% were resistant to tetracycline and 26.1% were resistant to streptomycin. Resistance genes detected by specific PCR included bla(TEM) and/or bla(SHV) and/or bla(CTX-M) (33 of 37 ampicillin and/or cefotaxime resistant isolates), tet (A) and/or tet (B) (16 of 23 tetracycline-resistant isolates), aad A (19 of 24 streptomycin-resistant isolates), cml A (in the two chloramphenicol-resistant isolates), aac (3)-II with/without aac (3)-IV (in the four gentamicin-resistant isolates), sul 1 and/or sul 2 and/or sul 3 (in all trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistant isolates). The majority of the resistant E. coli isolates (69.1%) belonged to phylogenetic group B2. Of the enterococci isolates E. faecium (n = 53), E. faecalis (n = 41), E. hirae (n = 4) and E. durans (n = 3) more than one-fourth (28.7%) of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline; 21.8% were resistant to erythromycin and 8.9% were resistant to kanamycin. Resistance genes detected by PCR in enterococci included aph (3)'-IIIa (in all kanamycin-resistant isolates), aac (6') (in all gentamicin-resistant isolates), tet (M) and/or tet (L) (26 of 29 tetracycline-resistant isolates), erm (B) (17 of 22 erythromycin-resistant isolates). This survey showed that faecal bacteria such as E. coli and enterococci of healthy growing children's could be a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes.

  2. Three-step stool examination for cryptosporidiosis in 10 homosexual men with protracted watery diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, P; Soave, R

    1983-05-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, a zoonosis caused by Cryptosporidium species, is a newly recognized coccidial protozoan infection causing severe protracted watery diarrhea in humans. In August 1981, the first case of cryptosporidiosis in a homosexual man with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was reported; diagnosis was determined by intestinal biopsy. It is necessary to adopt a simple laboratory diagnostic procedure to screen large numbers of suspected cases. A three-step stool examination was developed to demonstrate Cryptosporidium oocysts and the diagnostic and infective stages of the infection in 10 homosexual men with AIDS. This is a less invasive, less costly, and more sensitive test than intestinal biopsy and has been designed to prevent confusion caused by yeast cells that are frequently present in stool, leading to a false diagnosis. The examination consists of preliminary differential determination by iodine wet mount, definitive identification by modified Kinyoun acid-fast staining, and a more effective method of concentrating oocysts, by Sheather's sugar cover-slip flotation method.

  3. The effect of inclined step stool on the quality of chest compression during in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seong-Woo; Lee, Byung Kook; Jeung, Kyung Woon; Park, Sang Wook; Choi, Sung Soo; Lee, Chang-Hee; Ryu, So-Yeon

    2014-08-01

    A step stool is an ordinary device to improve the quality of chest compression (CC) during in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We investigated the effect of an inclined step stool on the quality of CC during CPR on a hospital bed. We conducted a randomized crossover study of simulation using a manikin. Two different methods of CC were performed and compared: CC using a flat stool and CC using an inclined (20°) stool. Each session of CC was performed for 2 minutes using a metronome at a rate of 110 beats per minute. The primary outcome was the depth of CC. The adequate CC rate, duty cycle, rate of incomplete recoil, and the angle between the arm of the participants and the bed were also measured. The median value of the mean depth of CC was 50.5 mm (45.0-57.0 mm) in the flat stool group and 54.5 mm (47.0-58.3 mm) in the inclined stool group (P = .014). The adequate CC rate was significantly higher in the inclined stool group (84.2% [37.6%-99.1%] vs 57.0% [15.2%-95.0%]; P = .016). The duty cycle and the rate of incomplete recoil were comparable between the 2 groups. The angles between the arm of the participants and the bed were more vertical in the inclined stool group (84.0° ± 5.2° vs 81.0° ± 4.8°; P = .014). Using an inclined stool resulted in an improvement in the depth of CC and the adequate CC rate without increasing the rate of incomplete chest recoil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Real time PCR to detect the environmental faecal contamination by Echinococcus multilocularis from red fox stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Millon, Laurence; Mouzon, Lorane; Umhang, Gérald; Raoul, Francis; Ali, Zeinaba Said; Combes, Benoît; Comte, Sébastien; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2014-03-17

    The oncosphere stage of Echinococcus multilocularis in red fox stools can lead, after ingestion, to the development of alveolar echinococcosis in the intermediate hosts, commonly small mammals and occasionally humans. Monitoring animal infection and environmental contamination is a key issue in public health surveillance. We developed a quantitative real-time PCR technique (qPCR) to detect and quantify E. multilocularis DNA released in fox faeces. A qPCR technique using a hydrolysis probe targeting part of the mitochondrial gene rrnL was assessed on (i) a reference collection of stools from 57 necropsied foxes simultaneously investigated using the segmental sedimentation and counting technique (SSCT) (29 positive for E. multilocularis worms and 28 negative animals for the parasite); (ii) a collection of 114 fox stools sampled in the field: two sets of 50 samples from contrasted endemic regions in France and 14 from an E. multilocularis-free area (Greenland). Of the negative SSCT controls, 26/28 were qPCR-negative and two were weakly positive. Of the positive SSCT foxes, 25/29 samples were found to be positive by qPCR. Of the field samples, qPCR was positive in 21/50 (42%) and 5/48 (10.4%) stools (2 samples inhibited), originating respectively from high and low endemic areas. In faeces, averages of 0.1 pg/μl of DNA in the Jura area and 0.7 pg/μl in the Saône-et-Loire area were detected. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by sequencing. The qPCR technique developed here allowed us to quantify environmental E. multilocularis contamination by fox faeces by studying the infectious agent directly. No previous study had performed this test in a one-step reaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dipstick for rapid diagnosis of Shigella flexneri 2a in stool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faridabano Nato

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, an acute bloody diarrhoea, is a major public health burden in developing countries. In the absence of prompt and appropriate treatment, the infection is often fatal, particularly in young malnourished children. Here, we describe a new diagnostic test for rapid detection, in stool, at the bedside of patients, of Shigella flexneri 2a, the most predominant agent of the endemic form of the disease.The test is based on the detection of S.flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide (LPS using serotype 2a-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles and displayed on one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 20 ng/ml of LPS is detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in under 15 minutes. The threshold of detection corresponds to a concentration of 5x10(7 CFU/ml of S. flexneri 2a, which provides an unequivocal positive reaction in three minutes in distilled water and reconstituted stools. The specificity is 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and unrelated strains, in culture. When tested in Vietnam, on clinical samples, the specificity and sensitivity were 99.2 and 91.5%, respectively. A decrease of the sensitivity during the evaluation on stool samples was observed after five weeks at room temperature and was due to moistening of the dipsticks caused by the humidity of the air during the fifth week of the evaluation. This drawback is now overcome by improving the packaging and providing dipsticks individually wrapped in waterproof bags.This simple dipstick-bases test represents a powerful tool for case management and epidemiological surveys.

  6. Acid fast cysts in diarrheal stool samples of HIV positive patients

    OpenAIRE

    Anuradha Mokkapati

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gastrointestinal infections are very common in patients with HIV infection or AIDS, and diarrhea is a common clinical presentation of these infections. Acid fast protozoans are very commonly responsible for diarrhea in HIV positive patients leading to death in many cases. Methods: The study group included 50 HIV seropositive patients suffering from diarrhea and the control group included 50 HIV seronegative patients suffering from diarrhea. The stool samples collected were con...

  7. Stool Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be messy, so be sure to wear latex gloves and wash your hands and your child's hands ... sometimes give clues about certain illnesses, especially in newborns or very ill children. Viral cultures can take ...

  8. Stool Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... illness by producing toxins . These bacteria may be cultured , but many of the tests used to detect ... been contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, such as undercooked meat or raw eggs, or the same food that ...

  9. Stool microbiota composition is associated with the prospective risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yooseph, Shibu; Kirkness, Ewen F; Tran, Tuan M; Harkins, Derek M; Jones, Marcus B; Torralba, Manolito G; O'Connell, Elise; Nutman, Thomas B; Doumbo, Safiatou; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Traore, Boubacar; Crompton, Peter D; Nelson, Karen E

    2015-08-22

    In humans it is unknown if the composition of the gut microbiota alters the risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection or the risk of developing febrile malaria once P. falciparum infection is established. Here we collected stool samples from a cohort composed of 195 Malian children and adults just prior to an intense P. falciparum transmission season. We assayed these samples using massively parallel sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene to identify the composition of the gut bacterial communities in these individuals. During the ensuing 6-month P. falciparum transmission season we examined the relationship between the stool microbiota composition of individuals in this cohort and their prospective risk of both P. falciparum infection and febrile malaria. Consistent with prior studies, stool microbial diversity in the present cohort increased with age, although the overall microbiota profile was distinct from cohorts in other regions of Africa, Asia and North America. Age-adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed a significant association between microbiota composition and the prospective risk of P. falciparum infection; however, no relationship was observed between microbiota composition and the risk of developing febrile malaria once P. falciparum infection was established. These findings underscore the diversity of gut microbiota across geographic regions, and suggest that strategic modulation of gut microbiota composition could decrease the risk of P. falciparum infection in malaria-endemic areas, potentially as an adjunct to partially effective malaria vaccines.

  10. Detection of Colorectal Cancer by a Quantitative Fluorescence Determination of DNA Amplification in Stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Calistri

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA amplification of exfoliated cells in stool repre sents an inexpensive and rapid test, but has only 50% to 60% sensitivity. A new quantitative method, calle( fluorescence long DNA, was developed and validate( in our laboratory on stool obtained from 86 patient., with primary colorectal cancer and from 62 health individuals. It consists of the amplification of stoo DNA with fluorescence primers and the quantification of the amplification using a standard curve. Results are arbitrarily expressed in nanograms. The potential of thi new method compared to the conventional approact was analyzed in a subgroup of 94 individuals (51 patients and 38 healthy volunteers. In the presen series, DNA amplification analysis showed a specific ity of 97% and a sensitivity of only 50%. Conversely fluorescence DNA evaluation, using the best cutoff o 25 ng, showed a sensitivity of about 76% and a spec ificity of 93%. Similar sensitivity was observed regard less of Dukes stage, tumor location, and size, thu., also permitting the detection of early-stage tumors The present study seems to indicate that quantitative fluorescence DNA determination in stool successfully identifies colorectal cancer patients with a sensitivity comparable, if not superior, to that of multiple gene analysis but at a lower cost and in a shorter time.

  11. Development of Reconstitution Technology for Surveillance Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasushi Atago; Shunichi Hatano; Eiichiro Otsuka

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) has been carrying out the project titled 'Nuclear Power Plant Integrated Management Technology (PLIM)' consigned by Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) since 1996FY as a 10-years project. As one of the project themes, development of reconstitution technology for reactor pressure vessel (RPV/RV) surveillance specimens, which are installed in RPVs to monitor the neutron irradiation embrittlement on RPV/RV materials, is now on being carried out to deal with the long-term operation of nuclear power plants. The target of this theme is to establish the technical standard for applicability of reconstituted surveillance specimens including the reconstitution of the Charpy specimens and Compact Tension (CT) specimens. With the Charpy specimen reconstitution, application of 10 mm length inserts is used, which enables the conversion of tests from the LT-direction to the TL-direction. This paper presents the basic data from Charpy and CT specimens of RPV materials using the surveillance specimens obtained for un-irradiated materials including the following. 1) Reconstitution Technology of Charpy Specimens. a) The interaction between plastic zone and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). b) The effects of the possible deviations from the standard specimens for the reconstituted specimens. 2) Reconstitution Technology of CT specimens. a) The correlation between fracture toughness and plastic zone width. Because the project is now in progress, this paper describes the outline of the results obtained as of the end of 2000 FY. (authors)

  12. Extraction of ultrashort DNA molecules from herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutaker, Rafal M; Reiter, Ella; Furtwängler, Anja; Schuenemann, Verena J; Burbano, Hernán A

    2017-02-01

    DNA extracted from herbarium specimens is highly fragmented; therefore, it is crucial to use extraction protocols that retrieve short DNA molecules. Improvements in extraction and DNA library preparation protocols for animal remains have allowed efficient retrieval of molecules shorter than 50 bp. Here, we applied these improvements to DNA extraction protocols for herbarium specimens and evaluated extraction performance by shotgun sequencing, which allows an accurate estimation of the distribution of DNA fragment lengths. Extraction with N-phenacylthiazolium bromide (PTB) buffer decreased median fragment length by 35% when compared with cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB); modifying the binding conditions of DNA to silica allowed for an additional decrease of 10%. We did not observe a further decrease in length for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) versus double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) library preparation methods. Our protocol enables the retrieval of ultrashort molecules from herbarium specimens, which will help to unlock the genetic information stored in herbaria.

  13. Microscopic diagnosis of sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed stool samples for helminths and intestinal protozoa: a comparison among European reference laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, J; Botero-Kleiven, S; Castelli, F; Chiodini, P L; Edwards, H; Köhler, N; Gulletta, M; Lebbad, M; Manser, M; Matthys, B; N'Goran, E K; Tannich, E; Vounatsou, P; Marti, H

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of different European reference laboratories in diagnosing helminths and intestinal protozoa, using an ether-concentration method applied to sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF)-preserved faecal samples. In total, 102 stool specimens were analysed during a cross-sectional parasitological survey in urban farming communities in Côte d'Ivoire. Five SAF-preserved faecal samples were prepared from each specimen and forwarded to the participating reference laboratories, processed and examined under a microscope adhering to a standard operating procedure (SOP). Schistosoma mansoni (cumulative prevalence: 51.0%) and hookworm (cumulative prevalence: 39.2%) were the predominant helminths. There was excellent agreement (kappa > 0.8; p protozoa were Entamoeba coli (median prevalence: 67.6%), Blastocystis hominis (median prevalence: 55.9%) and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (median prevalence: 47.1%). Substantial agreement among reference laboratories was found for E. coli (kappa = 0.69), but only fair or moderate agreement was found for other Entamoeba species, Giardia intestinalis and Chilomastix mesnili. There was only poor agreement for B. hominis, Isospora belli and Trichomonas intestinalis. In conclusion, although common helminths were reliably diagnosed by European reference laboratories, there was only moderate agreement between centres for pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Continued external quality assessment and the establishment of a formal network of reference laboratories is necessary to further enhance both accuracy and uniformity in parasite diagnosis.

  14. Stool management systems for preventing environmental spread of Clostridium difficile: a comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Mikel; Omar, Amin; Buziak, Brenton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare contamination of the immediate environment with Clostridium difficile spores and vegetative cells from 2 stool management systems over a period of 30 days in a controlled laboratory setting. In vitro, comparison trial. Two stool management systems were compared over a 30-day period in a controlled laboratory setting. Sixteen systems were filled with sterile loose canine stool inoculated with 10 colony-forming units (CFUs) per milliliter of C difficile; specially prepared culture media were used to detect C difficile contamination on various surfaces of the device and in the immediate environment. Containment bags were changed daily and devices were refilled with inoculated stool to more closely imitate use in the clinical setting. A dichotomous outcome variable (growth vs no growth) was used to analyze contamination on a daily basis via the generalized estimating equation; devices were also compared on days 3, 10, 20, and 30 by measuring CFUs per device surface. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze growth over time. When observations showed no growth, the Cochran-Mantel Haenszel test was used to compare study devices. Analysis revealed that 20.8% of anterior surfaces of the collection bags for device 1 were contaminated versus 83.9% of collection bags for device 2 (P < .001). Comparison of the tubing/hub interface resulted in similar findings; 20.8% of device 1 group were contaminated versus 86.3% of device 2 group (P < .001). Analysis of an absorbent pad placed under the device during daily changes found that 0.5% of device 1 were contaminated versus 38.1% of pads placed under device 2 (P < .001). Findings from this in vitro study show that stool management systems can limit or prevent environmental contamination of C difficile. Results also reveal significant differences in the 2 systems tested; we hypothesize that these differences are attributable to the interface between the tubing and collection bag, the

  15. Histopathologic analysis of appendectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shrestha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute appendicitis is one of the common conditions requiring emergency surgery. A retrospective study was performed to determine various histopathological diagnoses, their demographics and the rates of perforated appendicitis, negative appendectomy and incidental appendectomy. Materials and Methods: Histopathological records of resected appendices submitted to histopathology department Chitwan medical college teaching hospital over the period of 2 yrs from May, 2009 to April 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Out of 930 specimens of appendix, appendicitis accounted for 88.8% with peak age incidence in the age group of 11 to 30 yrs in both sexes. Histopathologic diagnoses included acute appendicitis (45.6%, acute suppurative (20.8%, gangrenous (16.3%, perforated (1.7%, resolving /recurrent/non specific chronic appendicitis (2.5%, acute eosinophilic appendicitis (1.2%, periappendicitis (0.2%, and carcinoid tumour (0.1%. Other important coexisting pathologies were parasitic infestation (0.2% and Meckel’s diverticulum (0.2%. Negative appendectomy rate was 10.8% and three times more common in females with peak occurrence in the age group of 21-30 yrs. There were 10 cases of acute appendicitis in incidental appendectomies (2.5%, 24 cases with 7 times more common in females of age group of 31- 60 yrs. Conclusion: There is a high incidence of appendicitis in adolescents and young adults in central south region of Nepal. Negative appendectomy is also very common in females. Incidental appendectomy in elderly females may have preventive value. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i3.6025 JPN 2012; 2(3: 215-219

  16. Ruthenium(II) piano stool coordination compounds with aminomethylphosphanes: Synthesis, characterisation and preliminary biological study in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płotek, Michał; Starosta, Radosław; Komarnicka, Urszula K; Skórska-Stania, Agnieszka; Kołoczek, Przemysław; Kyzioł, Agnieszka

    2017-05-01

    Reaction of {[Ru(η 6 -p-cymene)Cl] 2 (μ-Cl) 2 } (1) with aminomethylphosphane derived from morpholine (P{CH 2 N(CH 2 CH 2 ) 2 O} 3 (A), PPh 2 {CH 2 N(CH 2 CH 2 ) 2 O} (B)) or piperazine (P{CH 2 N(CH 2 CH 2 ) 2 NCH 2 CH 3 } 3 (C), PPh 2 {CH 2 N(CH 2 CH 2 ) 2 NCH 2 CH 3 } (D)) results in four new piano stool ruthenium(II) coordination compounds: [Ru(η 6 -p-cymene)Cl 2 (A)] (2A), [Ru(η 6 -p-cymene)Cl 2 (B)] (2B), [Ru(η 6 -p-cymene)Cl 2 (C)] (2C) and [Ru(η 6 -p-cymene)Cl 2 (D)] (2D). Every complex was fully characterized using spectroscopic methods ( 1 H, 13 C{ 1 H}, 31 P{ 1 H} NMR and ESI-MS), elemental analysis, X-ray single crystal diffraction and DFT calculations. Preliminary studies of in vitro cytotoxicity on the A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma) and MCF7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) cell lines revealed 2A-2D activity in the same order of magnitude as in the case of cisplatin. Additionally, the study confirmed the ability of 2A-2D to interact with DNA helix and transferrin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of a stool antigen test to evaluate the burden of Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspepsia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumpa Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (HP is causally associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma. Determination of the prevalence of HP infection in dyspepsia patients′ in particular geographical area is imperative for the appropriate management of dyspepsia. HP antigen detection in stool is a noninvasive diagnostic test of HP infection. This prospective study was conducted to find out the prevalence of HP infection based on stool antigen testing in dyspeptic patients who had also undergone upper gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy. This study highlights the high prevalence of HP infection in dyspeptic Indian patients, particularly males, and emphasizes the growing importance of the bacterium causing infection among children. We also found HP stool antigen testing to be superior to upper GI endoscopy for detecting HP infection. Hence, we recommend initial testing for HP stool antigen in dyspeptic patients before initiating treatment and before carrying out any invasive procedure such as endoscopy.

  18. Specimen Provenance Testing Identifies Contamination That Affects Molecular Prognostic Assay Results in Prostate Cancer Biopsy Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojno, Lathem; Minutella, Caitlyn; Moylan, Donald; Bush, Arla; Wojno, Kirk

    2018-02-21

    To determine if tissue contamination in histologic specimens can significantly affect the results of prognostic molecular markers that are routinely used as confirmatory tests to safely assign appropriate candidates to prostate cancer active surveillance protocols. This study evaluates 2,134 cases from a single, large urology practice that were successfully tested for DNA specimen provenance verification using short tandem repeat analysis for the presence of a significant level of contaminating DNA. After removal of the contamination, five of the samples were retested, and the results of the molecular diagnostic test were compared. 49 of the 2,134 cases (2.3%) sent for DNA provenance analysis were found to possess significant levels of contamination. Of these 49 cases, seven of them were resent for a repeat molecular diagnostic test after being decontaminated. Five of these prostate cancer specimens had sufficient tissue and RNA to give a more accurate cell cycle progression (CCP) score. The average absolute change in these patient's CCP scores was 0.48, with a low of a 0.1-unit and a high of a 1.0-unit difference. These changes in CCP scores are significant enough to cause meaningful alterations in a patient's calculated 10-year mortality rate, as defined by their combined risk score (CRS). DNA contamination in unstained tissue sections sent for prognostic prostate cancer molecular diagnostic testing occurs on 2.3% of cases, and can be of a magnitude that affects the results and subsequent clinical decision of appropriateness for active surveillance. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Development of miniature bending fatigue specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.R.; Chin, B.A.; Rowcliffe, A.

    1991-01-01

    Two new miniaturized bending fatigue specimens have been designed and developed to aid in the scoping of materials for fusion first-wall and blanket structural applications. One of these is rectangular in shape with a gauge section 6.35 mm in length, while the other is cut from a 3 mm transmission electron microscopy (TEM) disk and has a gauge length of 1.5 mm. Test rules for unirradiated annealed type 316 stainless steel tested at room temperature, 550deg C and 650deg C are presented. A good correlation between miniature and standard subsize fatigue specimen results was obtained. The miniature specimen results show the same dependence of strain range on cycles to failure as the standard subsize specimens with the miniature-disk specimen results falling below all the other results. The results indicate that these specimens provide reliable data that can be used to scope fatigue properties for fusion applications. (orig.)

  20. Polycarbonate and co-continuous polycarbonate/ABS blends: influence of specimen thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inberg, J.P.F.; Gaymans, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of specimen thickness on the fracture behaviour of polycarbonate (PC) and co-continuous PC/ABS (50/50) blends was studied in single edge notch tensile tests at 1 m/s and different temperatures (−80 to 130 °C). Specimen thickness ranged from 0.1 to 8 mm. In the co-continuous PC/ABS

  1. Acquisition and preparation of specimens of rock for large-scale testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The techniques used for acquisition and preparation of large specimens of rock for laboratory testing depend upon the location of the specimen, the type of rock and the equipment available at the sampling site. Examples are presented to illustrate sampling and preparation techniques used for two large cylindrical samples of granitic material, one pervasively fractured and one containing a single fracture

  2. Magnetic resonance colonography without bowel cleansing using oral and rectal stool softeners (fecal cracking) - a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaj, Waleed; Lauenstein, Thomas C.; Kuehle, Christiane; Herborn, Christoph U.; Goehde, Susanne C.; Schneemann, Hubert; Ruehm, Stefan G.; Goyen, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the effect of oral and rectal stool softeners on dark-lumen magnetic resonance (MR) colonography without bowel cleansing. Ten volunteers underwent MR colonography without colonic cleansing. A baseline examination was performed without oral or rectal administration of stool softeners. In a second set, volunteers ingested 60 ml of lactulose 24 h prior to MR examination. In a third examination, water as a rectal enema was replaced by a solution of 0.5%-docusate sodium (DS). A fourth MR examination was performed, in conjunction with both oral administration of lactulose and rectal application of DS. A T1-weighted data set was acquired at scanning times of 0, 5 and 10 min after colonic filling. A fourth data set was acquired 75 s after i.v. injection of contrast agent. Signal intensity of stool was calculated for all colonic segments. Without oral ingestion of lactulose or rectal enema with DS stool signal intensity was high and did not decrease over time. However, lactulose and DS caused a decrease in stool signal intensity. Both substances together led to a decreasing signal intensity of feces. Combination of lactulose and DS provided the lowest signal intensity of stool. Thus, feces could hardly be distinguished from dark rectal enema allowing for the assessment of the colonic wall. (orig.)

  3. A Cross-Sectional Study on the Perceptions and Practices of Teenagers With Inflammatory Bowel Disease About Repeated Stool Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heida, Anke; Dijkstra, Alie; Dantuma, Sietske K; van Rheenen, Patrick F

    2016-10-01

    Repeated stool sampling to monitor disease activity is increasingly used in teenagers with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Knowledge about their perceptions and practices regarding collection of feces will increase the success rate of this monitoring strategy. We sent a survey to teenagers with IBD treated in an academic center. Seventy-two of 122 invited teenagers completed the survey (response rate 59%; median age 15 years (interquartile range, 13-17). Eighty-five percent reported that stool sampling is normally initiated with help of their parents or caretakers. Seventy-eight percent of respondents say that their parents assist with the placement of stool in the container. Teenagers do not feel embarrassed by the idea of stool sampling, but an active role of the parents or caretakers is an important prerequisite for maintaining a stool-based disease monitoring system. Autonomy in stool sampling is an essential skill required for a successful transition to adult-centered IBD care. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. STEM tomography for thick biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Kazuhiro [FEI Company Japan Ltd., Application Laboratory, NSS-II Building, 2-13-34 Kohnan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0075 (Japan)], E-mail: kazuhiro.aoyama@fei.com; Takagi, Tomoko [FEI Company Japan Ltd., Application Laboratory, NSS-II Building, 2-13-34 Kohnan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0075 (Japan); Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Japan Women' s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8681 (Japan); Hirase, Ai; Miyazawa, Atsuo [Bio-multisome Research Team, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); CREST, JST (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography was applied to biological specimens such as yeast cells, HEK293 cells and primary culture neurons. These cells, which were embedded in a resin, were cut into 1-{mu}m-thick sections. STEM tomography offers several important advantages including: (1) it is effective even for thick specimens, (2) 'dynamic focusing', (3) ease of using an annular dark field (ADF) mode and (4) linear contrasts. It has become evident that STEM tomography offers significant advantages for the observation of thick specimens. By employing STEM tomography, even a 1-{mu}m-thick specimen (which is difficult to observe by conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) was successfully analyzed in three dimensions. The specimen was tilted up to 73 deg. during data acquisition. At a large tilt angle, the specimen thicknesses increase dramatically. In order to observe such thick specimens, we introduced a special small condenser aperture that reduces the collection angle of the STEM probe. The specimen damage caused by the convergent electron beam was expected to be the most serious problem; however, the damage in STEM was actually smaller than that in TEM. In this study, the irradiation damage caused by TEM- and STEM-tomography in biological specimens was quantitatively compared.

  5. Multi-Specimen Variable-G Facility for Life and Microgravity Sciences Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi-specimen Variable-G Facility (MVF) is a single locker sized centrifuge facility for life and microgravity sciences research on the International Space...

  6. Isolation of Escherichia coli Bacteriophages from the Stool of Pediatric Diarrhea Patients in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Chibani-Chennoufi, Sandra; Sidoti, Josette; Bruttin, Anne; Dillmann, Marie-Lise; Kutter, Elizabeth; Qadri, Firdausi; Sarker, Shafiqul Alam; Brüssow, Harald

    2004-01-01

    A 3-week coliphage survey was conducted in stool samples from 140 Bangladeshi children hospitalized with severe diarrhea. On the Escherichia coli indicator strain K803, all but one phage isolate had 170-kb genomes and the morphology of T4 phage. In spot tests, the individual T4-like phages infected up to 27 out of 40 diarrhea-associated E. coli, representing 22 O serotypes and various virulence factors; only five of them were not infected by any of these new phages. A combination of diagnosti...

  7. Parasitological stool sample exam by spontaneous sedimentation method using conical tubes: effectiveness, practice, and biosafety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steveen Rios Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous sedimentation is an important procedure for stool examination. A modification of this technique using conical tubes was performed and evaluated. METHODS: Fifty fecal samples were processed in sedimentation glass and in polypropylene conical tubes. Another 50 samples were used for quantitative evaluation of protozoan cysts. RESULTS: Although no significant differences occurred in the frequency of protozoa and helminths detected, significant differences in protozoan cyst counts did occur. CONCLUSIONS: The use of tube predicts a shorter path in the sedimentation of the sample, increases concentration of parasites for microscopy analysis, minimizes the risks of contamination, reduces the odor, and optimizes the workspace.

  8. 7 CFR 97.8 - Specimen requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen requirements. 97.8 Section 97.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... required by the examiner to furnish representative specimens of the variety, or its flower, fruit, or seeds...

  9. Machining technique prevents undercutting in tensile specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscater, R. E.; Royster, D. M.

    1968-01-01

    Machining technique prevents undercutting at the test section in tensile specimens when machining the four corners of the reduced section. Made with a gradual taper in the test section, the width of the center of the tensile specimen is less than the width at the four corners of the reduced section.

  10. Fatigue Specimens for Sheet and Plate Material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijve, J.

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of simple sheet and plate specimens is discussed for various experimental research purposes. Specimens should be representative as much as possible for the conditions of fatigue problems in practice, which is more difficult to achieve for the fatigue crack initiation phase than for

  11. Recent advances on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Lobo, Raquel M.; Miranda, Carlos Alexandre J., E-mail: aandrade@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Charpy specimen reconstitution is widely used around the world as a tool to enhance or supplement surveillance programs of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The reconstitution technique consists in the incorporation of a small piece from a previously tested specimen into a compound specimen, allowing to increase the number of tests. This is especially important if the available materials is restricted and fracture mechanics parameter have to be determined. The reconstitution technique must fulfill some demands, among them tests results like the original standard specimens and the loaded material of the insert must not be influenced by the welding and machining procedure. It is known that reconstitution of Charpy specimens may affect the impact energy in a consequence of the constraint of plastic deformation by the hardened weldment and HAZ. This paper reviews some recent advances of the reconstitution technique and its applications. (author)

  12. Examination of Surgical Specimens of the Esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Pablo A; Berho, Mariana

    2015-11-01

    Esophageal cancer continues to be one of the most lethal of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Its prognostic parameters are based on the gross and histopathologic examination of resected specimens by pathologists. To describe the implications of appropriate handling and examination of endomucosal resection and esophagectomy specimens from patients with esophageal carcinoma while considering the implications of the surgical techniques used to obtain such specimens. Parameters include histopathologic findings necessary for accurate staging, differences in the assessment of margins, residual malignancy, and criteria to evaluate for tumor regression after chemoradiation therapy as well as the role of immunohistochemistry and the judicious use of frozen sections. Sources were a review of the literature and the authors' experience handling these types of specimens. Examining surgical specimens of the esophagus is critical in the management of patients with esophageal carcinoma, and it requires careful consideration of the diagnostic pitfalls, staging-related parameters, and results of molecular tests.

  13. Recent advances on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Lobo, Raquel M.; Miranda, Carlos Alexandre J.

    2017-01-01

    Charpy specimen reconstitution is widely used around the world as a tool to enhance or supplement surveillance programs of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The reconstitution technique consists in the incorporation of a small piece from a previously tested specimen into a compound specimen, allowing to increase the number of tests. This is especially important if the available materials is restricted and fracture mechanics parameter have to be determined. The reconstitution technique must fulfill some demands, among them tests results like the original standard specimens and the loaded material of the insert must not be influenced by the welding and machining procedure. It is known that reconstitution of Charpy specimens may affect the impact energy in a consequence of the constraint of plastic deformation by the hardened weldment and HAZ. This paper reviews some recent advances of the reconstitution technique and its applications. (author)

  14. Study of the Prevalence of Causative Bacterial&Protozoal Agents of in Stool Samples of 470 Gastroenteritis Patients Referring to the Nikoopour Clinic in Yazd,Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Sharifi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Interoduction: Gasteroenteritis is one of the problems worth consideration all over the world. It is one of the important causes of mortality, especially in children < 5 years of age, in developing countries including Iran. The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the demographic conditions influencing the presence of causative bacteria and protozoa, followed by antibiograms of isolated bacteria from stool samples of patients with gasteroenteritis referring to Nikoopour Clinic in the city of Yazd, Iran from 1998 – 2001. Materials and method: A total of 470 samples were microbiologically examined by direct method, culture and then antibiogramed. In order to isolate the possible bacteria, differential and selected media were used. Also, wet – mount technique was applied for detection of protozoa. Results: Results revealed that 272 samples (57.9% were infected by pathogenic bacteria or protozoa. 138 (50.8% pathogenic specimens were from male patients and the remaining 134(49.3% were from female patients. Isolated species were: Enteropathogenic E.coli 117(43%, Shigella 51(18.8%, Salmonella.interetidis 25(9.2%, C.jejuni 16(5.9%, Giardia lambdia 51(18.8% and Amoebae spp 12(4.4%. The most commonly detected shigella species was dysenteriae, (74.5% while boydii with 2% was the least common type observed in the specimens. Except shigella, all the other bacteria were more common in males than female, but insignificant statistically. In order to determine the sensitivity and/or resistance of pathogenic bacteria, antibiogram test was performed using selected antibiotic disks such as Ampicillin, Nalidixic Acid, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamycin and Sulfamethaxazole. Conclusion: Results revealed that some patients were probably infected by pathogenic factors other than bacteria or protozoa. Since all viruses and parasites are almost resistant to antibiotics and on the other hand, administration of antibiotics may lead to resistance of bacterial agents

  15. Randomized controlled trial: Standard versus supplemental bowel preparation in patients with Bristol stool form 1 and 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueyue Li

    Full Text Available Bristol stool form 1 and 2 is an important predictor of inadequate bowel preparation.To evaluate the efficacy of supplemental preparation in bowel cleansing quality among patients with Bristol stool form 1 and 2, as well as the feasibility of tailored bowel preparation guided by Bristol stool form scale.Patients with Bristol stool form 1 and 2 from 3 Chinese tertiary hospitals randomly received either 2 L PEG-ELP (group A or 10 mg bisacodyl plus 2 L PEG-ELP (group B; patients with Bristol stool form 3 to 7 received 2 L PEG-ELP (group C for bowel preparation. The primary endpoint is the rate of adequate bowel reparation for the whole colon. The adequate bowel preparation rate for separate colon segments, the polyp detection rate (PDR, tolerability, acceptability, sleeping quality and compliance were evaluated as secondary endpoints.700 patients were randomized. In per-protocol analysis, patients in group B attained significantly higher successful preparation rate than group A (88.7% vs. 61.2%, p<0.001 and similar with group C (88.7% vs. 85.0%, p = 0.316. The PDR in group B was significantly higher than group A (43.2% vs. 25.7%, p<0.001. Acceptability was much higher in group B and C.10 mg bisacodyl plus 2 L PEG-ELP can significantly improve both bowel preparation quality and PDR in patients with Bristol stool form 1 and 2. Bristol stool form scale may be an easy and efficient guide for tailored bowel preparation before colonoscopy.

  16. Validity and reliability of the Bristol Stool Form Scale in healthy adults and patients with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, M R; Raker, J M; Whelan, K

    2016-10-01

    The Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) is a 7-point scale used extensively in clinical practice and research for stool form measurement, which has undergone limited validity and reliability testing. To determine the validity and reliability of the BSFS in measuring stool form in healthy adults and patients with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). One hundred and sixty-nine healthy volunteers provided a stool sample and used the BSFS to classify stool form, which was compared with measured stool water content and with values from 19 patients with IBS-D. Eighty-six volunteers used the BSFS to classify 26 stool models to determine accuracy and reliability. Volunteers' classifications of stool type correlated with stool water (Spearman's rho = 0.491, P < 0.001), which increased in hard (Types 1-2), normal (Types 3-5) and loose stools (Types 6-7) (P < 0.001). The BSFS detected differences in stool form between healthy volunteers (mean 3.7, s.d. 1.5) and IBS-D patients (mean 5.0, s.d. 1.2) (P < 0.001). Overall, 977/1204 (81%) stool models were correctly classified (substantial accuracy, κ = 0.78), although <80% of Types 2, 3, 5 and 6 were classified correctly. On 852/1118 (76%) occasions, volunteers classified covert duplicate models to the same stool type (substantial reliability, κ = 0.72), but with only moderate reliability for Types 2 (63%, κ = 0.57) and 3 (62%, κ = 0.55). The BSFS demonstrated substantial validity and reliability, although difficulties arose around clinical decision points (Types 2, 3, 5, 6) that warrant investigation in larger clinical populations. Potential for improving validity and reliability through modifications to the BSFS or training in its use should be explored. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Ultrasonic Evaluation of Two Dissimilar Metal Weld Overlay Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-06-30

    Two dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe-to-nozzle specimens were implanted with thermal fatigue cracks in the 13% to 90% through-wall depth range. The specimens were ultrasonically evaluated with phased-array probes having center frequencies of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 megahertz (MHz). An Alloy 82/182 weld overlay (WOL) was applied and the specimens were ultrasonically re-evaluated for flaw detection and characterization. The Post-WOL flaw depths were approximately 10% to 56% through-wall. This study has shown the effectiveness of ultrasonic examinations of Alloy 82/182 overlaid DMW specimens. Phased-array probes with center frequency in the 0.8- to 1.0-MHz range provide a strong coherent signal but the greater ultrasonic wavelength and larger beam spot size prevent the reliable detection of small flaws. These small flaws had nominal through-wall depths of less than 15% and length in the 50-60 mm (2-2.4 in.) range. Flaws in the 19% and greater through-wall depth range were readily detected with all four probes. At the higher frequencies, the reflected signals are less coherent but still provide adequate signal for flaw detection and characterization. A single inspection at 2.0 MHz could provide adequate detection and sizing information but a supplemental inspection at 1.0 or 1.5 MHz is recommended.

  18. [Determination of bile acids in stools of patients with colonic neoplasms and adenomatous polyps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua Estévez, M; Roque Lozano, J; Cerdán Cordoví, A; Rodríguez Miranda, A

    1994-01-01

    Since several years ago, the biliar acids have been incriminated in the etiopathogeny of colon cancer and adenomatous polyps, above all the secondary ones, involved by its aggressive action over the colonic epithelium in these mechanisms. The dietetical habits of developed countries have the high responsibility for this situation, their food pattern being a high animal fat diet, high in refined carbohydrates, animal proteins and low in dietetic fiber (diet type "occidental") unlike to developing countries that have a high natural fiber diet, having a much lower incidence in colon cancer and adenomatous polyps. Dietetic fiber has been studied considering it with a protector effect over the aggressive action of biliar acids on the colon mucous. We have studied 60 patients, 20 of them with colon cancer, 20 with adenomatous and 20 case controls without colonic pathology. All of them had total high biliar acids in stools, a dietetical screening was carried out to determine the intake of animal fat and dietetic fibre during a week. There was a significant correlation in cases of cancer, polyps and biliar acids high in stools. There was also a significant correlation between the undue dietetic habits in colon cancer patients and high bilar acids. In those cases of adenomatous polyps, there was not a significant relation to dietetic habits.

  19. Oral Supplementation with Bovine Colostrum Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Stool Concentrations of Zonulin in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Hałasa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased intestinal permeability has been implicated in various pathologies, has various causes, and can develop during vigorous athletic training. Colostrum bovinum is a natural supplement with a wide range of supposed positive health effects, including reduction of intestine permeability. We assessed influence of colostrum supplementation on intestinal permeability related parameters in a group of 16 athletes during peak training for competition. This double-blind placebo-controlled study compared supplementation for 20 days with 500 mg of colostrum bovinum or placebo (whey. Gut permeability status was assayed by differential absorption of lactulose and mannitol (L/M test and stool zonulin concentration. Baseline L/M tests found that six of the participants (75% in the colostrum group had increased intestinal permeability. After supplementation, the test values were within the normal range and were significantly lower than at baseline. The colostrum group Δ values produced by comparing the post-intervention and baseline results were also significantly lower than the placebo group Δ values. The differences in stool zonulin concentration were smaller than those in the L/M test, but were significant when the Δ values due to intervention were compared between the colostrum group and the placebo group. Colostrum bovinum supplementation was safe and effective in decreasing of intestinal permeability in this series of athletes at increased risk of its elevation.

  20. Oral Supplementation with Bovine Colostrum Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Stool Concentrations of Zonulin in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hałasa, Maciej; Maciejewska, Dominika; Baśkiewicz-Hałasa, Magdalena; Machaliński, Bogusław; Safranow, Krzysztof; Stachowska, Ewa

    2017-04-08

    Increased intestinal permeability has been implicated in various pathologies, has various causes, and can develop during vigorous athletic training. Colostrum bovinum is a natural supplement with a wide range of supposed positive health effects, including reduction of intestine permeability. We assessed influence of colostrum supplementation on intestinal permeability related parameters in a group of 16 athletes during peak training for competition. This double-blind placebo-controlled study compared supplementation for 20 days with 500 mg of colostrum bovinum or placebo (whey). Gut permeability status was assayed by differential absorption of lactulose and mannitol (L/M test) and stool zonulin concentration. Baseline L/M tests found that six of the participants (75%) in the colostrum group had increased intestinal permeability. After supplementation, the test values were within the normal range and were significantly lower than at baseline. The colostrum group Δ values produced by comparing the post-intervention and baseline results were also significantly lower than the placebo group Δ values. The differences in stool zonulin concentration were smaller than those in the L/M test, but were significant when the Δ values due to intervention were compared between the colostrum group and the placebo group. Colostrum bovinum supplementation was safe and effective in decreasing of intestinal permeability in this series of athletes at increased risk of its elevation.

  1. Dietary Shifts May Trigger Dysbiosis and Mucous Stools in Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Candace L; Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A; Vandewege, Michael W; Sparks, Darrell L; Willard, Scott T; Kouba, Andrew J; Suen, Garret; Brown, Ashli E

    2016-01-01

    Dietary shifts can result in changes to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota, leading to negative outcomes for the host, including inflammation. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are physiologically classified as carnivores; however, they consume an herbivorous diet with dramatic seasonal dietary shifts and episodes of chronic GIT distress with symptoms including abdominal pain, loss of appetite and the excretion of mucous stools (mucoids). These episodes adversely affect the overall nutritional and health status of giant pandas. Here, we examined the fecal microbiota of two giant pandas' non-mucoid and mucoid stools and compared these to samples from a previous winter season that had historically few mucoid episodes. To identify the microbiota present, we isolated and sequenced the 16S rRNA using next-generation sequencing. Mucoids occurred following a seasonal feeding switch from predominately bamboo culm (stalk) to leaves. All fecal samples displayed low diversity and were dominated by bacteria in the phyla Firmicutes and to a lesser extent, Proteobacteria. Fecal samples immediately prior to mucoid episodes had lower microbial diversity as compared to mucoids. Mucoids were mostly comprised of common mucosal-associated taxa including Streptococcus and Leuconostoc species, and exhibited increased abundance for bacteria in the family Pasteurellaceae. Taken together, these findings indicate that mucoids may represent an expulsion of the mucosal lining that is driven by changes in diet. We suggest that these occurrences serve to reset their GIT microbiota following changes in bamboo part preference, as giant pandas have retained a carnivorous GIT anatomy while shifting to an herbivorous diet.

  2. The use of inulin-type fructans improves stool consistency in constipated children. A randomised clinical trial: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Ferré, Natalia; Castillejo-DeVillasante, Gemma; Luque, Veronica; Gispert-Llaurado, Mariona; Zaragoza-Jordana, Marta; Theis, Stephan; Escribano, Joaquin

    2017-08-01

    Constipation is a common disorder in children. The objective of this study is to assess the beneficial effects of a daily supplementation with Orafti ® inulin-type fructans in 2-5 year old constipated children. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled parallel group trial where constipated children received two doses of 2 g Orafti ® inulin-type fructans (OF:IN) or placebo (maltodextrin) for 6 weeks. Primary outcome was stool consistency. Secondary outcomes were stool frequency and gastrointestinal symptoms. Twenty-two children were included, 17 completed the study protocol (nine and eight for the control and the OF:IN group, respectively). Results showed that Orafti ® inulin-type fructans supplemented children had softer stools (p = .003). The longitudinal analysis showed no significant changes in controls, whereas supplemented children increased their stool consistency from 2.2 to 2.6 on the modified Bristol scale for children (five items instead of seven) (p = .040). Prebiotic inulin-type fructans supplementation improves stool consistency in constipated 2-5-year old children. Clinicaltrials.gov, with number NCT02863848.

  3. Macroscopic techniques for ophthalmic tumor specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    This article explores the range of tumor specimens that may be submitted to ophthalmic pathology. The handling of complex enucleation and exenteration is described along with smaller eyelid, conjunctival and corneal specimens. The importance of a good understanding of the unique anatomy of the ocular region and detailed clinical information is emphasized as this results in the taking of appropriate blocks for histology and consequently clinically helpful reports. Recommendations for handling specimens where further tissue is required for molecular studies is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of irradiated coating material specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Jin; Nam, Seok Woo; Cho, Lee Moon [RCS Korea Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    Evaluation result of irradiated coating material specimens - Coating material specimens radiated Gamma Energy(Co 60) in air condition. - Evaluation conditions was above 1 X 10{sup 4} Gy/hr, and radiated TID 2.0 X 10{sup 6} Gy. - The radiated coating material specimens, No Checking, Cracking, Flaking, Delamination, Peeling and Blistering. - Coating system at the Kori no. 1 and APR 1400 Nuclear power plant, evaluation of irradiated coating materials is in accordance with owner's requirement(2.0 X 10{sup 6} Gy)

  5. Molecular typing and virulence analysis of serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from liver abscess patients and stool samples from noninfectious subjects in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, L Kristopher; Fung, Chang-Phone; Chang, Feng-Yee; Lee, Nelson; Yeh, Kuo-Ming; Koh, Tse Hsien; Ip, Margaret

    2011-11-01

    Serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae with multilocus sequence type 23 (ST23) has been strongly associated with liver abscess in Taiwan. Few data regarding the strain types and virulence of this serotype from other Asian countries are available. Serotype K1 K. pneumoniae strains isolated from liver abscess and stool samples from subjects hospitalized in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan hospitals were examined. Forty-seven serotype K1 isolates were identified: 26 from liver abscess samples and 21 from stool samples. MLST revealed 7 sequence types: 85.1% (40 of 47 isolates) belonged to ST23, 1 isolate belonged to ST163 (a single-locus variant of ST23), and 2 isolates were ST249 (a 3-locus variant of ST23). New STs, namely, ST367, ST425, and ST426, were allocated to 3 of 4 isolates from stool samples. The virulence of these strains was determined by neutrophil phagocytosis and mouse infection models. Except for two ST23 isolates, all Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were resistant to phagocytosis. Resistance to serum killing varied in isolates of ST23, while all non-ST23 strains were susceptible to serum killing except one with ST249 from a liver abscess. All hypervirulent isolates with a 50% lethal dose of serum killing, and also carried both virulence-associated genes, rmpA and aerobactin. Multilocus sequence typing genotype 23 was the most prevalent sequence type among serotype K1 K. pneumoniae isolates from both liver abscess and stool samples in the Asia Pacific region. Serotype K1 K. pneumoniae isolates with capsule expression leading to phagocytic resistance and with the aerobactin gene were associated with hypervirulence.

  6. Detection of Helicobacter pylori by Real-Time PCR for 16s rRNA in Stools of NonInfected Healthy Children, Using ELISA Antigen Stool Test as the Gold Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sergio; Mamani, Nora; Lucero, Yalda; Torres, Juan Pablo; Farfán, Mauricio; Lagomarcino, Anne J; Orellana, Andrea; O'Ryan, Miguel

    2016-12-01

    We previously detected Helicobacter pylori infection by stool antigen ELISA assay in 33-41% of asymptomatic Chilean children between 2-3 years of age, of which 11-20% had a transient infection and 21-22% a persistent infection. A total of 88% of ELISA-positive samples were also rtPCR positive, while 37/133 (33%) of ELISA-negative stool samples were rtPCR positive. The significance of a ELISA-negative/rtPCR-positive sample requires clarification. We aimed to determine whether rtPCR is able to detect persistent infections not detected by ELISA. We selected 36 children with an ELISA-negative/rtPCR-positive stool sample, of which 25 were never H. pylori infected according to ELISA, and 11 had a transient infection with an ELISA-positive sample before or after the discordant sample. At least two additional consecutive ELISA-negative samples per child were tested in duplicate by rtPCR for the 16s rRNA gene. A total of 14 of 78 (17.9%) rtPCR reactions were positive, but only 4/78 (5.1%) were positive in both duplicates, representing a total of 3/36 (8.3%) children with an additional rtPCR-positive sample, only one of whom was persistently negative by ELISA. One child with a transient infection had two positive rtPCR reactions despite negative ELISA samples. In H. pylori noninfected or transiently infected children, as determined by stool ELISA, additional ELISA-negative/rtPCR-positive stool samples were found in 8.3% of children, but a possible persistent infection was only identified in 2.7% of children. Thus, the characterization of infection dynamics in children is not being misrepresented by application of stool ELISA. Furthermore, rtPCR does not significantly improve dynamic characterization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure and cytotoxic activity of ruthenium(II) piano-stool complex with N,N-chelating ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogala, Patrycja; Jabłońska-Wawrzycka, Agnieszka; Kazimierczuk, Katarzyna; Borek, Agnieszka; Błażejczyk, Agnieszka; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Barszcz, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    A mononuclear compound of the general formula [(η6-p-cymene)RuIICl(2,2‧-PyBIm)]PF6 has been synthesized from a bidentate N,N-donor ligand, viz. 2,-(2‧-pyridyl)benzimidazole (2,2‧-PyBIm) and the corresponding chloro-complex [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(μ-Cl)Cl]2 (precursor). The isolated coordination compound was characterized by IR, UV-vis and 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopies. The single crystal X-ray analysis of the complex reveals that the asymmetric part of the unit cell consists of two symmetrically independent, [(η6-p-cymene)RuCl(2,2‧-PyBIm)]+ cationic complexes. Each cation exhibits a pseudo-octahedral three-legged piano-stool geometry, in which three "legs" are occupied by one chloride ion and two nitrogen donor atoms of the chelating ligand 2,2‧-PyBIm. The Hirshfeld surface analysis of obtained complex was determined, too. The ionic nature of the compound is identified by a strong band at around 830 cm-1 due to the νP-F stretching mode of the PF6- counter ion. The electronic spectrum of this monomeric complex displays high intensity bands in the ultraviolet region assignable to π→π*/n→π* transitions, as well as a band attributable to the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) dπ(Ru)→π*(L) transition. Additionally, the complex has been screened for its cytotoxicity against three human cancer lines: non-small cell lung carcinoma (A549), colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) as well as normal mice fibroblast cells (BALB/3T3). The complex demonstrated a moderate antiproliferative activity against the cell lines tested.

  8. Structure of Wet Specimens in Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    Discussed are past work and recent advances in the use of electron microscopes for viewing structures immersed in gas and liquid. Improved environmental chambers make it possible to examine wet specimens easily. (Author/RH)

  9. CPS Trawl Life History Specimen Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Individual specimens measured (weight in grams and length in mm) and sexed from mainly targeted species caught during SWFSC-FRD fishery independent trawl surveys of...

  10. Specimen environments in thermal neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebula, D.J.

    1980-11-01

    This report is an attempt to collect into one place outline information concerning the techniques used and basic design of sample environment apparatus employed in neutron scattering experiments. Preliminary recommendations for the specimen environment programme of the SNS are presented. The general conclusion reached is that effort should be devoted towards improving reliability and efficiency of operation of specimen environment apparatus and developing systems which are robust and easy to use, rather than achieving performance at the limits of technology. (author)

  11. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children and Adult by Serological Test and Stool Antigen Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Azizi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic gastritis that is related to duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and possibly gastric adenocarcinoma. Noninvasive diagnostic tests consist of the urea breath test, serology, and stool antigen testing. Serodiagnosis of H.pylori infection is inaccurate for children. In order to investigate the immune response to H.pylori in children and adult, we compared anti-H pylori IgG and IgA antibodies with H. pylori antigen (HpSA in the stool. Methods: Serum and stool samples were obtained from 218 children and adult patients with clinical symptom in the range of 4 to 77 years old. Paired results of H. pylori serology (IgG and IgA and HpSA were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay methods. Results: There were 218 paired serology and HpSA results for 39 children (≤17 years and 179 adult (≥18 years. The positivity rate of HpSA (45.8% was significantly lower (P<0.001 than those for H. pylori IgG (54.6% and IgA (28.9%. Moreover in child patients specificity for serological test IgG and IgA were higher than adult. Conclusion: In this study, HpSA was sensitive and specific as a clinical and epidemiological tool to evaluate H. pylori infection. IgG correlated better with HpSA than IgA, and also IgG was much more specific in children than adults confirm the fact that adults are more possible to have been exposed to H. pylori in the past. Using HpSA as the gold standard, we found that the performances of IgG and IgA serology tests differ significantly by age because immature immune response or tolerance to H. pylori is present in childhood and serodiagnosis of H. pylori infection is less useful. Hence, we recommend that laboratories reevaluate reference serologic titers based on age and further clinical correlation is needed to establish the optimal ranges.

  12. Parasites in stool samples in the environment of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an approach in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Coronato

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe the frequency of parasites in stool samples in the environment of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. One hundred and five stool samples were collected and processed by the coproparasitological techniques ethyl acetate sedimentation and centrifuge-flotation using saturated sugar solution. Parasites were detected in 81.9% of the samples, hookworm being the most prevalent, followed by Trichuris vulpis. Ascaris sp. eggs were also found. A high level of evolutive forms of parasites with public health risk was found in stool samples of the environment studied. We propose that health education programs, allied to an improvement of human and animal health care, must be employed to reduce the environmental contamination.

  13. Thermal property testing technique on micro specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Tetsuya; Kishimoto, Isao; Taketoshi, Naoyuki

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at establishment of further development on some testing techniques on the nuclear advanced basic research accumulated by the National Research Laboratory of Metrology for ten years. For this purpose, a technology to test heat diffusion ratio and specific heat capacity of less than 3 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness of micro specimen and technology to test heat diffusion ratio at micro area of less than 1 mm in area along cross section of less than 10 mm in diameter of column specimen were developed to contribute to common basic technology supporting the nuclear power field. As a result, as an element technology to test heat diffusion ratio and specific heat capacity of the micro specimen, a specimen holding technique stably to hold a micro specimen with 3 mm in diameter could be developed. And, for testing the specific heat capacity by using the laser flush differential calorimetry, a technique to hold two specimen of 5 mm in diameter at their proximities was also developed. In addition, by promoting development of thermal property data base capable of storing thermal property data obtained in this study and with excellent workability in this 1998 fiscal year a data in/out-put program with graphical user interface could be prepared. (G.K.)

  14. Comparative study on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdiliau, B.; Decroix, G.-M.; Averty, X.; Wident, P.; Bienvenu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Welding processes are used to reconstitute previously tested Charpy specimens. → Stud welding is preferred for a quick installation, almost immediately operational. → Friction welding produces better quality welds, but requires a development effort. - Abstract: Reconstitution techniques are often used to allow material from previously fractured Charpy-V specimens to be reused for additional experiments. This paper presents a comparative experimental study of various reconstitution techniques and evaluates the feasibility of these methods for future use in shielded cells. The following techniques were investigated: arc stud welding, 6.0 kW CO 2 continuous wave laser welding, 4.5 kW YAG continuous wave laser welding and friction welding. Subsize Charpy specimens were reconstituted using a 400 W YAG pulsed wave laser. The best result was obtained with arc stud welding; the resilience of the reconstituted specimens and the load-displacement curves agreed well with the reference specimens, and the temperature elevation caused by the welding process was limited to the vicinity of the weld. Good results were also obtained with friction welding; this process led to the best quality welds. Laser welding seems to have affected the central part of the specimens, thus leading to different resilience values and load-displacement curves.

  15. Cases of cryptosporidiosis co-infections in AIDS patients: a correlation between clinical presentation and GP60 subgenotype lineages from aged formalin-fixed stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Chierico, F; Onori, M; Di Bella, S; Bordi, E; Petrosillo, N; Menichella, D; Cacciò, S M; Callea, F; Putignani, L

    2011-07-01

    Nine cases of cryptosporidiosis co-infections in AIDS patients were clinically categorised into severe (patients 1, 3, 8 and 9), moderate (patients 4 and 5) and mild (patients 2, 6 and 7). Formalin-fixed faecal specimens from these patients were treated to obtain high quality DNA competent for amplification and sequencing of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene. Sequence analysis revealed that one patient was infected with Cryptosporidium hominis whereas the remaining eight patients were infected with C. parvum. Interestingly, the patients showing severe cryptosporidiosis harboured two subtypes within the C. parvum allelic family IIc (IIcA5G3 and IIcA5G3R2), whereas patients with moderate or mild infections showed various subtypes of the C. parvum allelic family IIa (IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G2R1, IIaA17G3R1 and IIaA18G3R1). DNA extraction and genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. is a challenging task on formalin-fixed stool samples, whose diagnostic outcome is age-dependent. The method herein reported represents a step forward routine diagnosis and improves epidemiology of HIV-related clinical cases. Due to the need to elucidate genetic richness of Cryptosporidium human isolates, this approach represents a useful tool to correlate individual differences in symptoms to subgenotyping lineages.

  16. Correlation of Clinical Outcomes With Multiplex Molecular Testing of Stool From Children Admitted to Hospital With Gastroenteritis in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernica, Jeffrey M; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Welch, Henry; Mokomane, Margaret; Quaye, Isaac; Arscott-Mills, Tonya; Mazhani, Loeto; Lechiile, Kwana; Mahony, James; Smieja, Marek; Goldfarb, David M

    2016-09-01

    Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of death for young children. Most pediatric gastroenteritis is caused by viral pathogens; consequently, current recommendations advocate against routine antibacterial therapy if children present without bloody stools. In this prospective cohort study, we enrolled children with severe acute gastroenteritis admitted to hospital in Botswana. Details of presenting history, physical examination, and course in the hospital were recorded. Stool samples were characterized using a 15 pathogen polymerase chain reaction assay. There were 671 participants with a median age of 8.3 months; 77 (11%) had severe acute malnutrition. Only 74 children had bloody stools, of whom 48 (65%) had a detectable bacterial pathogen, compared to 195 of 592 (33%) of those without. There were 26 deaths (3.9%). Covariates associated with death in multivariable logistic regression were the detection of any of Campylobacter/Shigella/enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (odds ratio [OR] 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-6.17), severe acute malnutrition (OR 4.34, 95% CI 1.79-10.5), and antibiotic therapy (OR 8.82, 95% CI 2.03-38.2). There was no significant association between bloody stools and death, and the effect of Campylobacter/Shigella/enterotoxigenic E. coli infection on death was not modified by the presence of bloody stools. Detection of bacterial enteropathogens is associated with increased mortality in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Unfortunately, most children with these infections do not have bloody stools, and bloody dysentery was not found to be associated with worse outcomes. Clinical trials evaluating outcomes associated with more aggressive diagnostic strategies in children presenting with severe acute gastroenteritis in sub-Saharan Africa should be undertaken. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Método rápido para la observación de Cryptosporidium en heces Rapid method for detection of cryptosporidium in stools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Barona

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre agosto de 1990 y diciembre de 1991 se examinaron 120 muestras de materia fecal de niños o adultos que consultaron por diarrea, sugestiva de ser causada por Cryptosporidium spp. En todos los casos se realizó la coloración con Lugol-Nigroslna, que proponemos, y se hizo la confirmación con la de Ziehl Neelsen modificada, pese a su limitación de teñir con el mismo patrón de coloración el Cryptosporldium y estructuras diferentes a él. En 20 (16.6% muestras (12 de niños y 8 de adultos se identificaron ooquistes de Cryptosporldlum spp y todas se confirmaron como positivas por la coloración de Ziehl Neelsen modificada. Dado que no siempre es fácil la observación de parásitos de poca prevalencia sugerimos esta coloración como ensayo de rutina porque ayuda a distinguir los ooquistes de Cryptosporidium y mejora la observación de todos los protozoarios.

    We examined 120 stool specimens from patients with diarrheal disease, suspected of being infected with Cryptosporidium. Preliminary observation was made with a Lugol-Nigrosine stain and confirmation with modified Ziehl-Neelsen. Twenty specimens (12 from children and 8 from adults (16.6% were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts andevery one of them was confirmed with ZN stain. Since It may be difficult to detect low-prevalence parasites we suggest routine use of Lugol-Nigrosine which is useful for the detection of Cryptosporidium as well as of other protozoa.

  18. The Bristol Stool Form Scale: its translation to Portuguese, cultural adaptation and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Anna Paula; de Azevedo, Gisele Regina

    2012-01-01

    The Bristol Stool Form Scale is used for describing feces. The objective of this research was its translation, cultural adaptation and validation for Brazil. The methodology was translation, back-translation and discussion. Validation involved 85 nurses, 80 doctors, and 80 patients, who correlated images of seven types of feces with the descriptions. there was a difference in sex distribution, with males predominating among the doctors and females among nurses and patients. In relation to concordance between definitions and pictures, the highest percentage was in type 5 in all three groups and the lowest was in types 6 and 7 for the doctors, in type 3 for the nurses, and type 6 for the patients. The general Kappa index was 0.826. the scale demonstrated high reliability for all the groups studied.

  19. Genotype identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi isolates from stool samples of HIV-infected Tunisian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabchoub N.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The microsporidian species Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a major cause of chronic diarrhea and malabsorption in patients with AIDS. Genotyping was performed on seven E. bieneusi strains for the first time in Tunisia. All the strains were isolated from stool samples of humans with immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Analysis of the ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS allowed the identification of three distinct genotypes previously described in other studies. Genotypes D and B were characterized in four and two respectively. The Peruvian genotype (Peru 8 was detected in the last isolate. These results indicate a genetic diversity in E. bieneusi strains from HIV Tunisian patients and suggest the coexistence of both zoonotic and anthroponotic route of transmission.

  20. Morphologic changes of the anal sphincter musculature during and after temporary stool deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, M; Fein, M; Fuchs, K H; Bussen, D; Grun, C; Thiede, A

    2001-04-01

    Temporary stool deviation, using a stoma, is a well-known surgical principle to protect low colorectal or coloanal anastomoses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate any morphologic changes with regard to the anal sphincter muscles during and after temporary ileostomy. Forty-four patients with rectal carcinomas were studied prospectively. All patients underwent low anterior resection. Reconstruction was performed using either a coloanal pouch or a straight end-to-end anastomosis. A protective stoma was fashioned in all 44 patients (ileostomy n=41; colostomy n=3). Stoma closure was carried out after a median of 85 days (41-330 days). Using a standard protocol, anal-sphincter thickness [m. puborectalis, external anal sphincter (EAS) and internal anal (IAS) sphincter] was assessed by means of endoanal ultrasonography preoperatively, at the time of stoma closure, and every 3 months thereafter for 1 year. The diameter of the puborectal muscle decreased from a median preoperative value of 6.3 mm to 5.7 mm at the time of stoma closure (P=0.03). After 3 months, 6.2 mm was measured. This value remained stable for the complete follow-up period. Similar results were recorded for the EAS. The IAS thickness remained stable throughout the study period, measuring between 2.1 mm and 2.4 mm. Temporary stool deviation does lead to morphologic changes of the anal sphincter. While the smooth muscle remains unchanged, the striated counterpart undergoes atrophic transformation. However, after passage reconstruction, i.e., stoma closure, a rapid regeneration of the voluntary muscles is observed.

  1. A Field-Expedient Method for Direct Detection of Enterotoxigenic E Coli and Shigella from Stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silapong, Sasikorn; Neesanant, Pimmnapar; Sethabutr, Orntipa; Lertsethtakarn, Paphavee; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; McAvin, James C; Mason, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    We describe a field-expedient analytic system that fills a unique and critical public health role and potentially provides a valuable aid in diagnostics. Dual-fluorigenic, hydrolysis probe (TaqMan), PCR assays for detection of causative agents of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) disease and shigellosis/bacillary dysentery were prepared in a thermal-stable, hydrolytic enzyme resistant format. The assays were packaged as a kit for use with a portable, ruggedized, qRT-PCR thermocycler. The analytical limit of detection of each q ETEC-STIa, ETEC-STIb, and ETEC-LT assay was 30 colony forming units (CFU) and Shigella/enteroinvasive E coli assay was 3 CFU. During field evaluation, testing was conducted using a blind-panel of 138 stored stool samples previously obtained from enterotoxigenic E coli disease (n=91) and shigellosis (n=47) patients. Sample processing and analyses were completed in 3 days. Test results of the qRT-PCR assays showed promise as aid in pathogen identification when compared to culture, digoxigenin-labeled probe (ETEC), and serotyping (Shigella) the qRT-PCR. The sensitivity of each of the 4 qRT-PCR assays was 100% and specificity was ETEC-STIa (92.4%), ETEC-STIb (92.6%), ETEC-LT (79.6%), and Shigella/enteroinvasive E coli (81.6%). Sequencing of qRT-PCR amplicon indicated that the sensitivity and specificity of each qRT-PCR assay exceeded the comparator methods. The system shows promise as a rapid method for direct detection of ETEC and Shigella from stool and is applicable for use in clinical diagnostics and biosurveillance as an extension of temporary field laboratories or as a part of fixed reference laboratory facilities.

  2. Repeat Rifaximin for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: No Clinically Significant Changes in Stool Microbial Antibiotic Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, M; Cash, B D; Lembo, A; Wolf, R A; Israel, R J; Schoenfeld, P

    2017-09-01

    Rifaximin has demonstrated efficacy and safety for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). To determine the rifaximin repeat treatment effect on fecal bacterial antibiotic susceptibility. Patients with IBS in Trial 3 (TARGET 3) study who responded to open-label rifaximin 550 mg three times daily for 2 weeks, with symptom recurrence within 18 weeks, were randomized to double-blind treatment: two 2-week repeat courses of rifaximin or placebo, separated by 10 weeks. Prospective stool sample collection occurred before and after open-label rifaximin, before and after the first repeat course, and at the end of the study. Susceptibility testing was performed with 11 antibiotics, including rifaximin and rifampin, using broth microdilution or agar dilution methods. Of 103 patients receiving open-label rifaximin, 73 received double-blind rifaximin (n = 37) or placebo (n = 36). A total of 1429 bacterial and yeast isolates were identified, of which Bacteroidaceae (36.7%) and Enterobacteriaceae (33.9%) were the most common. In the double-blind phase, Clostridium difficile was highly susceptible to rifaximin [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range 0.008-1 µg/mL] and rifampin (MIC range 0.004-0.25 µg/mL). Following double-blind rifaximin treatment, Staphylococcus isolates remained susceptible to rifaximin at all visits (MIC 50 range ≤0.06-32 µg/mL). Rifaximin exposure was not associated with long-term cross-resistance of Bacteroidaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Enterococcaceae to rifampin or nonrifamycin antibiotics tested. In this study, short-term repeat treatment with rifaximin has no apparent long-term effect on stool microbial susceptibility to rifaximin, rifampin, and nonrifamycin antibiotics. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01543178.

  3. Dietary shift and dysbiosis may trigger mucous stools in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace L Williams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary shifts can result in dysbiosis between the host and its gastrointestinal tract (GIT microbiota, leading to negative outcomes including inflammation. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca are physiologically classified as carnivores; however, they consume a herbivorous diet with dramatic seasonal feeding shifts and episodes of chronic GIT distress with symptoms including abdominal pain, loss of appetite and the excretion of mucous stools (mucoids. These episodes adversely affect the overall nutritional and health status of giant pandas. Here, we examined the fecal microbiota of two giant pandas’ normal and mucoid stools and compared these microbiota to baseline samples from a season with historically few episodes. To identify the microbiota present, we isolated and sequenced 16S rRNA using next-generation sequencing. Mucoids occurred following a seasonal feeding switch from predominately bamboo culm (stalk to leaves. All fecal samples displayed low diversity and were dominated by bacterial in the phyla Firmicutes and to a lesser extent, the Proteobacteria. Fecal samples immediately prior to mucoid episodes had lower microbial diversity compared to baseline samples, followed by increased diversity in mucoids. Mucoids were mostly comprised of common mucosal-associated taxa including Streptococcus and Leuconostoc species, and exhibited increased abundance for bacteria in the family Pasteurellaceae. Taken together, these findings indicate that diet-induced intestinal dysbiosis in giant pandas likely results in an expulsion of the mucosal lining in the form of mucoids. We suggest that these occurrences serve to reset their GIT microbiota, as giant pandas have retained a carnivorous GIT anatomy while shifting to an herbivorous diet.

  4. Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ME Petrichek; JL Bump; RF Luther

    2005-01-01

    Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2

  5. The origin of endodontic Enterococcus faecalis explored by comparison of virulence factor patterns and antibiotic resistance to that of isolates from stool samples, blood cultures and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidana, R; Rashid, M U; Özenci, V; Weintraub, A; Lund, B

    2016-04-01

    To elucidate the origin of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from secondary root canal infections and the possibility for a foodborne transmission by comparing them to strains recovered from food, blood and stool regarding putative virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility profiles, where strains from common origin were hypothesized to harbour similar characteristics. A total of 108 E. faecalis strains recovered in the county of Stockholm, Sweden, were screened using PCR for putative virulence factors esp, cylA, gelE/gelatinase-negative phenotype (ef1841/fsrC), efaA, ace and asa1. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ampicillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, gentamicin, vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and linezolid was determined using the agar dilution method. Next to strains from blood, the food isolates presented the highest average number of virulence determinants and were frequently enriched with asa1 coding for aggregation substance. None of the endodontic strains carried cylA, and the gelatinase-negative phenotype caused by a deletion dominated the group. Altogether, the most prevalent genes were gelE, efaA and ace, and a combination of them was equally present in approximately 80% of the strains from food, stool and root canals in comparison with 43.3% of the blood isolates. High-level resistance to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was observed in 30% of the blood isolates, whereas the isolates from other origins, with single exceptions, were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. Evidence for a foodborne transmission, explaining the high reported prevalence of E. faecalis in root filled teeth, could not be determined based on the similarities in virulence factor patterns and antibiotic susceptibility. The only linkage between isolates from food and root canals consisted of a shared common combination of the genes gelE, efaA and ace. The high occurrence of putative virulence traits in food isolates questions the safety of E. faecalis in food

  6. Sequencing historical specimens: successful preparation of small specimens with low amounts of degraded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproul, John S; Maddison, David R

    2017-11-01

    Despite advances that allow DNA sequencing of old museum specimens, sequencing small-bodied, historical specimens can be challenging and unreliable as many contain only small amounts of fragmented DNA. Dependable methods to sequence such specimens are especially critical if the specimens are unique. We attempt to sequence small-bodied (3-6 mm) historical specimens (including nomenclatural types) of beetles that have been housed, dried, in museums for 58-159 years, and for which few or no suitable replacement specimens exist. To better understand ideal approaches of sample preparation and produce preparation guidelines, we compared different library preparation protocols using low amounts of input DNA (1-10 ng). We also explored low-cost optimizations designed to improve library preparation efficiency and sequencing success of historical specimens with minimal DNA, such as enzymatic repair of DNA. We report successful sample preparation and sequencing for all historical specimens despite our low-input DNA approach. We provide a list of guidelines related to DNA repair, bead handling, reducing adapter dimers and library amplification. We present these guidelines to facilitate more economical use of valuable DNA and enable more consistent results in projects that aim to sequence challenging, irreplaceable historical specimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Occurrence of virulent and antibiotic-resistant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in some food products and human stool in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Osman Mohamed; Sabry, Maha Ahmed; Hassanain, Nawal A; Hamza, Eman; Hegazi, Ahmed G; Salman, Marwa Badawy

    2017-10-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) represent a severe public health issue worldwide, causing life-threatening diseases in the human gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of virulent and antibiotic-resistant STEC in retail meat and milk products and human stool samples and to characterize the genes encoding for virulence and antibiotic resistance among the identified STEC isolates. A total of 260 food samples were randomly collected from retail markets in different localities of El Giza Governorate, Egypt. 50 stool specimens were obtained from children that had diarrhea at Embaba Fever Hospital. All collected samples were initially subjected to bacteriological examination and serotyping, and then subsequently, the isolates were exposed to polymerase chain reaction application and sequencing for the identification of the virulence-related genes. Finally, the virulent STEC isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Serotyping of the 76 biochemically identified isolates showed that 18 were STEC with a predominance of non-O157 (16) while 2 O157:K-serotype was detected only in one food and one human isolate. Molecular identification of the virulence genes illustrated that the minced meat showed the highest prevalence of STEC (8%) as compared to the other food products. In the humans, the O157 was the only serotype that expresses the Shiga toxin-associated gene ( eaeA ). Antibiotic susceptibility test displayed that 13 of the 17 food and human isolates (76.47%) were resistant to cephalothin (KF30). 9 of the 13 cephalothin-resistant isolates harbor the β lactamase ( bla TEM )-resistant gene. All isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and gentamicin. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the stx2- positive minced meat isolate revealed a high genetic relatedness with beef minced meat from the USA and Australia. This study showed the predominance of non-O157 among the identified isolates

  8. Test of superplastically formed corrugated aluminum compression specimens with beaded webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Randall C.; Royster, Dick M.; Bales, Thomas T.; James, William F.; Shinn, Joseph M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Corrugated wall sections provide a highly efficient structure for carrying compressive loads in aircraft and spacecraft fuselages. The superplastic forming (SPF) process offers a means to produce complex shells and panels with corrugated wall shapes. A study was made to investigate the feasibility of superplastically forming 7475-T6 aluminum sheet into a corrugated wall configuration and to demonstrate the structural integrity of the construction by testing. The corrugated configuration selected has beaded web segments separating curved-cap segments. Eight test specimens were fabricated. Two specimens were simply a single sheet of aluminum superplastically formed to a beaded-web, curved-cap corrugation configuration. Six specimens were single-sheet corrugations modified by adhesive bonding additional sheet material to selectively reinforce the curved-cap portion of the corrugation. The specimens were tested to failure by crippling in end compression at room temperature.

  9. The accuracy of the Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test in diagnosing H-pylori in treated and untreated patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arents, NL; van Zwet, AA; Thijs, JC; de Jong, A; Pool, MO; Kleibeuker, JH

    Objective and design To evaluate the performance of the Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA test) in detecting H. pylori infection and monitoring the effect of treatment. This was done in two separate studies using either a biopsy or the C-13-urea breath test based 'gold standard' (in

  10. Evaluation of stool microbiota signatures in two cohorts of Asian (Singapore and Indonesia newborns at risk of atopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Kaw Yan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have suggested that demographic and lifestyle factors could shape the composition of fecal microbiota in early life. This study evaluated infant stool microbiota signatures in two Asian populations, Singapore (n = 42 and Indonesia (n = 32 with contrasting socioeconomic development, and examined the putative influences of demographic factors on these human fecal associated bacterial signatures. Results Longitudinal analysis showed associations of geographical origin with Clostridium leptum, Atopobium and Bifidobacterium groups. Mode of delivery had the largest effect on stool microbiota signatures influencing the abundance of four bacterial groups. Significantly higher abundance of bacterial members belonging to the Bacteroides-Prevotella, Bifidobacterium and Atopobium groups, but lower abundance of Lactobacilli-Enterococci group members, were observed in vaginal delivered compared to caesarean delivered infants. Demographic factors influencing the structure of infants stool microbiota during the first year of life included breastfeeding, age of weaning, sibship size and exposure to antibiotics. Conclusions Differences in stool microbiota signatures were observed in relation to various demographic factors. These features may confound studies relating to the association of the structure of fecal microbiota and the predisposition to human modern disease.

  11. Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen test: a reliable non-invasive test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, O. J.; Bosman, D. K.; van't Hoff, B. W.; Taminiau, J. A.; ten Kate, F. J.; van der Ende, A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen (HpSA) test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study in an academic medical centre. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 106 consecutive children who underwent gastroscopy were

  12. Highly sensitive stool DNA testing of Fusobacterium nucleatum as a marker for detection of colorectal tumours in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Yutaka; Sakai, Kouhei; Nishioka, Mitsuaki; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Takami, Taro; Higaki, Shingo; Shindo, Yoshitaro; Hazama, Shoichi; Oka, Masaaki; Nagano, Hiroaki; Sakaida, Isao; Yamasaki, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence shows an over-abundance of Fusobacterium nucleatum in colorectal tumour tissues. Although stool DNA testing of Fusobacterium nucleatum might be a potential marker for the detection of colorectal tumours, the difficulty in detecting Fusobacterium nucleatum in stool by conventional methods prevented further explorations. Therefore, we developed a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detecting Fusobacterium nucleatum in stool and investigated its clinical utility in the management of colorectal tumours in a Japanese population. Methods Feces were collected from 60 healthy subjects (control group) and from 11 patients with colorectal non-advanced adenomas (non-advanced adenoma group), 19 patients with colorectal advanced adenoma/carcinoma in situ (advanced adenoma/carcinoma in situ (CIS) group) and 158 patients with colorectal cancer of stages I to IV (colorectal cancer group). Absolute copy numbers of Fusobacterium nucleatum were measured by droplet digital PCR. Results The median copy number of Fusobacterium nucleatum was 17.5 in the control group, 311 in the non-advanced adenoma group, 122 in the advanced adenoma/CIS group, and 317 in the colorectal cancer group. In comparison with that in the control group, the Fusobacterium nucleatum level was significantly higher in the non-advanced adenoma group, the advanced adenoma/CIS group and the colorectal cancer group. Conclusions This study illustrates the potential of stool DNA testing of Fusobacterium nucleatum by droplet digital PCR to detect individuals with colorectal tumours in a Japanese population.

  13. Detection of Campylobacter species and Arcobacter butzleri in stool samples by use of real-time multiplex PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. de Boer (Richard); A. Ott (Alewijn); P. Güren (Pinar); E. van Zanten; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); A.M.D. Kooistra-Smid

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe presence of Campylobacter (or Campylobacter-like) species in stools from patients suspected of infectious gastroenteritis (n = 493) was investigated using real-time PCR for detection of Arcobacter butzleri (hsp60 gene), Campylobacter coli (ceuE gene), Campylobacter jejuni (mapA),

  14. Development of a real-time PCR assay and comparison to CHROMagarTM STEC to screen for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in stool, Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Kalule

    2017-12-01

    Objectives: This project aimed to validate and test an in-house-developed duplex real-time PCR and use it as a reference standard to determine the performance of CHROMagarTMSTEC on African isolates from diarrhoeic stool samples. Methods: This study evaluated STEC diagnostic technology on African isolates. An in-house-developed duplex real-time PCR assay for detection of stx1 and stx2 was validated and tested on diarrhoeic stool samples and then used as a reference standard to assess the performance of CHROMagarTMSTEC. Real-time PCR was used to screen for stx in tryptic soy broth and the suspected STEC isolates, while conventional PCR was used to detect the other virulence genes possessed by the isolates. Results: The real-time PCR limit of detection was 5.3 target copies/μL of broth. The mean melting temperature on melt-curve analysis for detection of stx1 was 58.2 °C and for stx2 was 65.3 °C. Of 226 specimens screened, real-time PCR detected stx in 14 specimens (6.2%, 95% confidence interval = 3.43% – 10.18%. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of the CHROMagarTMSTEC were 33.3%, 77.4%, 95.3% and 11.3%. Conclusions: The in-house developed real-time PCR assay is a sensitive and specific option for laboratory detection of STEC as compared to CHROMagarTMSTEC in this setting.

  15. HRR Field in an Aluminum SEN Specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    edge notched, 2024-T3, 2024-0, and 5052 -H32 aluminum alloy specimens subjected to uniaxial and biaxial loadings [4,5,6]. One of the objectives of this...Contract N00014-89-J-1276 Technical Report No. UWA/DME/TR-89/63 00 HRR FIELD IN AN ALUMINUM SEN SPECIMENrkft Ln1 0 by M.S. Dadkhah and A.S. Kobayashi...Washington ~ dY~LI3OI k t*a U1PA09Q111 89 02Ieja II A I 6 I HRR FIELD IN AN ALUMINUM SEN SPECIMEN Mahyar Dadkhah ° and Albert S. Kobayashi** ABSTRACT Moire

  16. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid detection of 9 pathogens directly from stools of travelers with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antikainen, Jenni; Kantele, Anu; Pakkanen, Sari H; Lääveri, Tinja; Riutta, Jukka; Vaara, Martti; Kirveskari, Juha

    2013-10-01

    Every year, 80 million tourists traveling to tropical and subtropical areas contract traveler's diarrhea (TD). Forty percent to 80% of cases are caused by bacteria, yet clinical diagnostic tests are available to identify only a few of the strains that cause TD. We aimed to develop a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to identify all major pathogens in stool samples. We developed a low-cost, high-throughput, multiplex qPCR assay for simultaneous detection of 9 bacterial pathogens in stool samples: Salmonella, Yersinia, Campylobacter, and Vibrio cholerae, as well as Shigella or enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, enterohemorrhagic E coli, enterotoxigenic E coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E coli (EAEC), and enteropathogenic E coli (EPEC). The assay was validated using positive (n = 245) and negative (n = 243) control strains, as well as preselected positive and negative stool samples. In addition, stool samples were collected from 96 returning travelers with TD. The findings were compared with those from routine diagnostic tests. The assay detected the bacterial strains with 100% sensitivity and specificity, compared with results from the reference tests. Of all stool samples collected from travelers with TD, EPEC was found in 47%, EAEC in 46%, ETEC in 22%, enterohemorrhagic E coli in 7%, Campylobacter in 6%, Shigella or enteroinvasive E coli in 2%, and Salmonella in 2%. Multiple pathogens were found in 37% of all samples. We developed a low-cost, high-throughput qPCR assay for use in routine diagnostic analysis and research. It detects the pathogenic bacteria most commonly associated with TD in stool samples with 100% sensitivity and specificity, compared with reference methods. The assay requires 4 hours, whereas current detection methods require 1 to 7 days. At least 1 TD pathogen was identified in stool samples from 76% of returning travelers, whereas conventional methods found a pathogen in only 17%. The most commonly detected bacteria were EPEC

  17. NEW TRIASSIC ASTEROIDEA (ECHINODERMATA SPECIMENS AND THEIR EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE

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    DANIEL B. BLAKE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition saw the disappearance of asteroid stem groups and the ascent of the crown group, but late Paleozoic and Triassic asteroids are rare and transition events are poorly documented. Three new Middle and Late Triassic specimens augment existing data; included are a specimen of Trichasteropsis weissmanni from Germany, a specimen of Trichasteropsis? sp. indet. from Italy, and a possible member of the extant Poraniidae from Slovenia. Presence of a small ossicle at the interbrachial midline and adjacent to the marginal series of the new T. weissmanni specimen is consistent with similar expressions not only of other trichasteropsids but also occurrence of two interbrachial ossicles in Paleozoic, stem-group asterozoans; presence is in turn consistent with a hypothesis of derivation of the axillary/odontophore coupling from two ossicles rather than direct derivation of the crown-group odontophore from a single stem-group axillary. Morphology of Trichasteropsis? sp. indet., including, for example, the evenly-tapering arms are reminiscent of those of diverse crown-group asteroids whereas the enlarged distal arms of T. weissmanni are unique, the morphology of T? sp. indet. thereby potentially indicative of a plesiomorphic, stemward positioning within the Trichasteropsiidae. The range of the Poraniidae is tentatively extended to the Carnian. Similarities shared by the Poraniidae and the Trichasteropsiidae suggest stemward positioning within crown-group diversification; however, known Triassic fossils do not appear closely related to extant taxa identified in recent molecular studies as basal within the crown-group. A temperate climate is suggested as preferred by the Triassic asteroids rather than a tropical, warmer one.

  18. Detection of Cryptosporidium sp infection by PCR and modified acid fast staining from potassium dichromate preserved stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Kurniawan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim To identify the frequency of Cryptosporidium infection in children below 3 years old by examining concentrated long term preserved stool using PCR detection of 18S rRNA gene and compared with modified acid fast staining technique.Methods Hundred eighty eight stools from children ≤ 3 years old were stored for 13 months in 2.5% K2Cr2O7 solution at 40C. Cryptosporidium oocysts were isolated by water-ether concentration technique. The concentrates were smeared onto object glass and stained with modified acid fast staining, and the rest of the concentrates were DNA extracted by freezing and thawing cycles and proteinase K digestion, then direct PCR was done to detect 18S rRNA gene.Result The proportion of positive stools for Cryptosporidium sp by acid fast staining from concentrated stools and 18S rRNA PCR were 4.8% and 34.6% respectively, which showed statistically significant difference.Conclusion The frequency of Cryptosporidium infection among children ≤ 3 years old was very high and stool storage in K2Cr2O7 for 13 months did not affect the PCR result. High prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection indicated high transmission in that area and the potential to be transmitted to other individuals such as the immunocompromised. (Med J Indones 2009;18:147-52Key words: 18S rRNA, cryptosporidiosis

  19. Evaluation of Rapid stool antigen test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Khatun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Several diagnostic assays are used for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in suspected peptic ulcer cases. H. pylori stool antigen test is a non-invasive method for the detection of active infection. The present study has evaluated the efficacy of rapid stool antigen test to diagnose H. pylori infection in patients with dyspepsia. Materials and methods: Adult patients with complains of dyspepsia attending the Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases (GHPD of BIRDEM hospital for endoscopy were included. Gastric biopsy, blood and stool samples were obtained from each participant after informed written consent. Rapid urease test (RUT, serum H. pylori immunoglobulin A (IgA and IgG and rapid H. pylori stool antigen (HpSAg tests were performed. Only stool samples were obtained from 31 neonates aged 1 to 30 days as negative control for HpSAg test. Results: A total of 91 adult patients with complain of dyspepsia were included in the study. Out of 91 cases, 17 (18.7% and 74 (81.3% had peptic ulcer and erosion respectively. HpSAg was positive in 63.7% cases compared to 42.9% and 62.6% respectively by RUT and IgA. The rate of HpSAg positivity was significantly higher (p<0.05 in ulcer compared to erosion cases. HpSAg test was positive in all (100% RUT positive cases. Combination of HpSAg test and IgA yielded highest positive result in both ulcer (82.4% and erosion (84% cases. H. pylori IgG was positive in all cases. Conclusion: The study has demonstrated that HpSAg test is an effective and non-invasive diagnostic tool to detect active H. pylori infection in suspected dyspeptic patients. IMC J Med Sci 2016; 10(2: 39-44

  20. Development and initial evaluation of a lateral flow dipstick test for antigen detection of Entamoeba histolytica in stool sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidin, Syazwan; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Othman, Nurulhasanah; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Zakaria, Nik Zairi; Noordin, Rahmah

    2017-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica infection remains a public health concern in developing countries. Early diagnosis of amoebiasis can avoid disease complications, thus this study was aimed at developing a test that can rapidly detect the parasite antigens in stool samples. Rabbits were individually immunized with recombinant pyruvate phosphate dikinase (rPPDK) and E. histolytica excretory-secretory antigens to produce polyclonal antibodies. A rapid dipstick test was produced using anti-rPPDK PAb lined on the dipstick as capture reagent and anti-EhESA PAb conjugated to colloidal gold as the detector reagent. Using E. histolytica-spiked in stool sample of a healthy individual, the detection limit of the dipstick test was found to be 1000 cells ml -1 . Meanwhile when rPPDK was spiked in the stool sample, the minimum concentration detected by the dipstick test was 0.1 μg ml -1 . The performances of the dipstick, commercial Techlab E. histolytica II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and real-time PCR were compared using 70 stool samples from patients infected with Entamoeba species (n = 45) and other intestinal pathogens (n = 25). When compared to real-time PCR, the diagnostic sensitivity of the dipstick for detection of E. histolytica was 65.4% (n = 17/26); while the diagnostic specificity when tested with stool samples containing other intestinal pathogens was 92% (23/25). In contrast, Techlab E. histolytica II ELISA detected 19.2% (5/26) of the E. histolytica-positive samples as compared to real-time PCR. The lateral flow dipstick test produced in this study enabled rapid detection of E. histolytica, thus it showed good potential to be further developed into a diagnostic tool for intestinal amoebiasis.

  1. Comparison of culture, single and multiplex real-time PCR for detection of Sabin poliovirus shedding in recently vaccinated Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Sidhartha; Rajan, Anand K; Kumar, Nirmal; Dhanapal, Pavithra; Venkatesan, Jayalakshmi; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Taniuchi, Mami; John, Jacob; Abraham, Asha Mary; Kang, Gagandeep

    2017-08-01

    Although, culture is considered the gold standard for poliovirus detection from stool samples, real-time PCR has emerged as a faster and more sensitive alternative. Detection of poliovirus from the stool of recently vaccinated children by culture, single and multiplex real-time PCR was compared. Of the 80 samples tested, 55 (68.75%) were positive by culture compared to 61 (76.25%) and 60 (75%) samples by the single and one step multiplex real-time PCR assays respectively. Real-time PCR (singleplex and multiplex) is more sensitive than culture for poliovirus detection in stool, although the difference was not statistically significant. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The production of calibration specimens for impact testing of subsize Charpy specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D. J.; Corwin, W. R.; Owings, T. D.

    Calibration specimens have been manufactured for checking the performance of a pendulum impact testing machine that has been configured for testing subsize specimens, both half-size (5.0 x 5.0 x 25.4 mm) and third-size (3.33 x 3.33 x 25.4 mm). Specimens were fabricated from quenched-and-tempered 4340 steel heat treated to produce different microstructures that would result in either high or low absorbed energy levels on testing. A large group of both half- and third-size specimens were tested at -40 C. The results of the tests were analyzed for average value and standard deviation, and these values were used to establish calibration limits for the Charpy impact machine when testing subsize specimens. These average values plus or minus two standard deviations were set as the acceptable limits for the average of five tests for calibration of the impact testing machine.

  3. Virus isolation: Specimen type and probable transmission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Virus isolation: Specimen type and probable transmission. Over 500 CHIK virus isolations were made. 4 from male Ae. Aegypti (?TOT). 6 from CSF (neurological involvement). 1 from a 4-day old child (transplacental transmission.

  4. Some recent innovations in small specimen testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odette, G.R.; He, M.; Gragg, D.; Klingensmith, D.; Lucas, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    New innovative small specimen test techniques are described. Finite element simulations show that combinations of cone indentation pile-up geometry and load-penetration depth relations can be used to determine both the yield stress and strain-hardening behavior of a material. Techniques for pre-cracking and testing sub-miniaturized fracture toughness bend bars, with dimensions of 1.65x1.65x9 mm 3 , or less, are described. The corresponding toughness-temperature curves have a very steep transition slope, primarily due to rapid loss of constraint, which has advantages in some experiments to characterize the effects of specified irradiation variables. As one example of using composite specimens, an approach to evaluating helium effects is proposed, involving diffusion bonding small wires of a 54 Fe-based ferritic-martensitic alloy to a surrounding fracture specimen composed of an elemental Fe-based alloy. Finally, we briefly outline some potential approaches to multipurpose specimens and test automation

  5. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  6. Cryptosporidium infection in Bedouin infants assessed by prospective evaluation of anticryptosporidial antibodies and stool examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, G; Fraser, D; Orr, N; Sela, T; Slepon, R; Ambar, R; Dagan, R; Le Blancq, S; Deckelbaum, R J; Cohen, D

    2001-01-15

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system using oocyst lysate as antigen was used to detect serum- specific antibody responses to Cryptosporidium parvum between 1989 and 1994 in consecutive sera obtained at birth, and at the age of 6, 12, and 23 months, from 52 infants living in a Bedouin town located in the south of Israel. The serologic tests revealed high levels of immunoglobulin G anti-Cryptosporidium at birth that dropped significantly by the age of 6 months and then rose continuously to a geometric mean titer of 481 at age 23 months. The serum immunoglobulin M Cryptosporidium antibodies rose continuously from nearly undetectable levels at birth to a geometric mean titer of 471 (157-fold increase) at age 23 months. All the subjects already showed at 6 months a significant rise in immunoglobulin M. A significant rise in immunoglobulin A titers was detected in 48% and 91% of subjects at 6 and 23 months, respectively. By monthly surveillance, microscopy using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen method and confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay detected Cryptosporidium antigens in only 11% at age 6 months and 48% at age 23 months. The extent of exposure to Cryptosporidium immediately after birth as detected by serology is much higher than that predicted by frequent prospective assessment of stool samples.

  7. Could stool collection devices help increase uptake in bowel cancer screening programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morling, J R; Barke, A N; Chapman, C J; Logan, R F

    2018-01-01

    Objective To understand the usage and acceptability of a faecal collection device amongst participants in the National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Programme, with the aim of influencing future uptake. Setting Participants completing faecal occult blood test retests as part of the routine Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in Eastern England. Methods A faecal collection device and questionnaire were sent to all potential retest participants during a one-month period to collect information on prior stool collection methods and ease of use and usefulness of the enclosed faecal collection device. Results Out of 1087 participants invited, 679 (62.5%) returned their questionnaire. Of these, 429 (63.2%) trialled the faecal collection device at least once, 163 (38.4%) found the device made collecting their sample easier than previously, 189 (44.6%) found it made collection more difficult and 72 (17.0%) said it made no difference. Similar numbers reported finding that the faecal collection device made collecting the sample more pleasant (130, 31.5%), less pleasant (103, 25.0%) and no different (179, 43.4%) compared with previous collection without a faecal collection device. Conclusion Although a small proportion of participants found the faecal collection device helpful, a considerable majority did not or did not use it at all. Offering faecal collection devices is unlikely to produce a substantial increase in bowel cancer screening uptake.

  8. Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity and Stool Antigen in Patients With Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinan Karadeniz, R.; Ozdegirmenci, Ozlem; Metin Altay, M.; Solaroglu, Ayse; Dilbaz, Serdar; Hızel, Nedret; Haberal, Ali

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate whether Helicobacter pylori is an etiologic factor in hyperemesis gravidarum. Thirty one patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and twenty nine pregnant controls without hyperemesis gravidarum were included in this prospective study. All pregnant women were examined both for Helicobacter pylori serum immunoglobulin G antibodies (HpIgG Ab), showing chronic infection, and Helicobacter pylori stool antigens (HpSA), showing active gastrointestinal colonization. Chi-square and Student t tests were used accordingly for statistical analysis. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity was 67.7% in the patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and 79.3% in the control group (χ2 = 1.02, P = .31). HpSA was detected in 22.6% of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum, whereas 6.9% of patients in the control group. The difference was not statistically significant (χ2 = 2.89, P = .08). In this study, no relation was found between Helicobacter pylori and hyperemesis gravidarum. The low social status of women in both groups could be one of the reasons for the high prevalence of Hp infection. PMID:17093356

  9. Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity and Stool Antigen in Patients With Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate whether Helicobacter pylori is an etiologic factor in hyperemesis gravidarum. Thirty one patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and twenty nine pregnant controls without hyperemesis gravidarum were included in this prospective study. All pregnant women were examined both for Helicobacter pylori serum immunoglobulin G antibodies (HpIgG Ab, showing chronic infection, and Helicobacter pylori stool antigens (HpSA, showing active gastrointestinal colonization. Chi-square and Student t tests were used accordingly for statistical analysis. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity was 67.7% in the patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and 79.3% in the control group ( χ 2 =1.02,P=.31 . HpSA was detected in 22.6% of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum, whereas 6.9% of patients in the control group. The difference was not statistically significant ( χ 2 =2.89,P=.08 . In this study, no relation was found between Helicobacter pylori and hyperemesis gravidarum. The low social status of women in both groups could be one of the reasons for the high prevalence of Hp infection.

  10. Systematic detection and association of Entamoeba species in stool samples from selected sites in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, J; Banyal, N; Gautam, D S; Ghosh, S K; Singha, B; Paul, J

    2015-01-01

    This study developed a fast and high throughput dot-blot technique to evaluate the presence of Entamoeba in stool samples (n = 643) followed by a PCR-based method to validate and differentiate the two species E. histolytica and E. dispar. The prevalence rate of the parasite has been detected in a cross-sectional study carried out in the population of the Eastern and Northern parts of India. Of the various demographic features, prevalence was highest in the monsoon season (P = 0·017), in the <15 years age group (P = 0·015). In HIV-positive individuals, the prevalence rate was significantly high (P = 0·008) in patients with a CD4 cell count <200 as well as in patients without antiretroviral therapy (ART) (P = 0·011). Our analysis further confirmed that risk factors such as toilet facilities, living conditions, hygienic practices, drinking water source, occupation and level of education are important predictors as they were found to contribute significantly in the prevalence of the parasite.

  11. Endoscopy in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with diarrhea and negative stool studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, S C; Hung, C C; Chen, M Y; Wang, C Y; Chuang, C Y; Wong, J M

    2000-04-01

    Diarrhea is a frequent gastrointestinal symptom in patients with acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and is a major source of morbidity and mortality. A stepwise diagnostic approach is often recommended to search for treatable causes. However, whether the stepwise diagnostic approach is adequate for planning treatment and whether specific treatment for infectious etiologies will affect the survival of patients with AIDS remain unknown. From March 1996 to September 1997, endoscopy was performed in AIDS patients with diarrhea, the etiology of which was not identified by noninvasive methods. Specific treatment was given according to the identified etiologies and symptomatic treatment was given for those without definite diagnosis. The clinical symptoms, signs, and duration of follow-up were recorded and survival patterns were analyzed. Etiologic diagnoses were made in 26 of 40 patients (65%) who underwent endoscopic studies. Amebic colitis and cytomegalovirus colitis were the 2 leading causes of prolonged diarrhea in patients with AIDS. Thirty-five patients (87.5%) recovered after treatment. The difference in survival time after diarrhea between patients whose symptoms resolved after treatment and those who continued to have diarrhea was statistically significant (p AIDS patients who had negative stool studies and did not respond to 2 weeks of empiric treatment. Specific treatment according to the results of endoscopy may improve survival in these patients.

  12. Natural History Specimen Digitization: Challenges and Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vollmar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey on the challenges and concerns invovled with digitizing natural history specimens was circulated to curators, collections managers, and administrators in the natural history community in the Spring of 2009, with over 200 responses received. The overwhelming barrier to digitizing collections was a lack of funding, based on a limited number of sources, leaving institutions mostly responsible for providing the necessary support. The uneven digitization landscape leads to a patchy accumulation of records at varying qualities, and based on different priorities, ulitimately influencing the data's fitness for use. The survey also found that although the kind of specimens found in collections and their storage can be quite varible, there are many similar challenges when digitizing including imaging, automated text scanning and parsing, geo-referencing, etc. Thus, better communication between domains could foster knowledge on digitization leading to efficiencies that could be disseminated through documentation of best practices and training.

  13. Standard guide for preparation of metallographic specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 The primary objective of metallographic examinations is to reveal the constituents and structure of metals and their alloys by means of a light optical or scanning electron microscope. In special cases, the objective of the examination may require the development of less detail than in other cases but, under nearly all conditions, the proper selection and preparation of the specimen is of major importance. Because of the diversity in available equipment and the wide variety of problems encountered, the following text presents for the guidance of the metallographer only those practices which experience has shown are generally satisfactory; it cannot and does not describe the variations in technique required to solve individual specimen preparation problems. Note 1—For a more extensive description of various metallographic techniques, refer to Samuels, L. E., Metallographic Polishing by Mechanical Methods, American Society for Metals (ASM) Metals Park, OH, 3rd Ed., 1982; Petzow, G., Metallographic Etchin...

  14. Damage modeling in Small Punch Test specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Cuesta, I.I.; Peñuelas, I.

    2016-01-01

    Ductile damage modeling within the Small Punch Test (SPT) is extensively investigated. The capabilities ofthe SPT to reliably estimate fracture and damage properties are thoroughly discussed and emphasis isplaced on the use of notched specimens. First, different notch profiles are analyzed....... Furthermore,Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model predictions from a top-down approach are employed to gain insightinto the mechanisms governing crack initiation and subsequent propagation in small punch experiments.An accurate assessment of micromechanical toughness parameters from the SPT...

  15. Thermal endurance tests on silicone rubber specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, C.

    1977-07-01

    Thermal endurance tests have been performed on a range of silicone rubber specimens at temperature above 300 0 C. It is suggested that the rubber mix A2426, the compound from which Wylfa sealing rings are manufactured, will fail at temperatures above 300 0 C within weeks. Hardness measurements show that this particular rubber performs in a similar manner to Walker's S.I.L./60. (author)

  16. The working procedure of human autopsy specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rusong; Liu Guodong

    2000-01-01

    In order to perform the Coordinated Research Program for the Reference Asian Man (phase 2): Ingestion and body content of trace elements of importance in Radiation Protection, study on elemental content in organs of normal Chinese has been worked by China Institute for Radiation Protection and Institute of Radiation Medicine - CAMS in recent two years. Sampling and sample collection of human tissues and the procedures of sample preparation of human autopsy specimens are enlisted

  17. Motorized manipulator for positioning a TEM specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas Karl; Andresen, Nord

    2010-12-14

    The invention relates to a motorized manipulator for positioning a TEM specimen holder with sub-micron resolution parallel to a y-z plane and rotating the specimen holder in the y-z plane, the manipulator comprising a base (2), and attachment means (30) for attaching the specimen holder to the manipulator, characterized in that the manipulator further comprises at least three nano-actuators (3.sup.a, 3.sup.b, 3.sup.c) mounted on the base, each nano-actuator showing a tip (4.sup.a, 4.sup.b, 4.sup.c), the at least three tips defining the y-z plane, each tip capable of moving with respect to the base in the y-z plane; a platform (5) in contact with the tips of the nano-actuators; and clamping means (6) for pressing the platform against the tips of the nano-actuators; as a result of which the nano-actuators can rotate the platform with respect to the base in the y-z plane and translate the platform parallel to the y-z plane.

  18. Spalling Experiments on Large Hard Rock Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Lars; Appelquist, Karin; Lindkvist, Jan Erik

    2015-07-01

    Specimens of coarse-grained Äspö diorite were axially compressed to observe stress-induced spalling. The specimens had a novel design characterized by two manufactured large radius notches on opposite sides. The tangential stress occurring in the notches aimed to represent the tangential loading around a circular opening. Fracture stages were monitored by acoustic emission measurements. Rock chips were formed similar to those found in situ, which indicates a similar fracture process. Slabs were cut out from the specimens and impregnated using a fluorescent material to visualize the cracks. The cracks were subsequently examined by the naked eye and by means of microscopy images, from which fracture paths could be identified and related to different minerals and their crystallographic orientations. The microscopy analyses showed how the stress field and the microstructure interact. Parallel cracks were formed 2-4 mm below the surface, sub-parallel to the direction of the maximum principal stress. The crack initiation, the roles of minerals such as feldspar, biotite and quartz and their grain boundaries and crystallographic directions are thoroughly studied and discussed in this paper. Scale effects, which relate to the stress gradient and microstructure, are discussed.

  19. Axial-Gap Induction Motor For Levitated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Govind; Rhim, Won-Kyu; Barber, Dan; Chung, Sang

    1992-01-01

    Motor does not obscure view of specimen. Axial-gap induction motor applies torque to rotate electrostatically or electromagnetically levitated specimen of metal. Possible applications include turning specimens for uniform heating under focused laser beams and obtaining indirect measurements of resistivities or of surface tensions in molten specimens.

  20. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report

  1. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Specimen Data (includes physical specimens, collection information, status, storage locations, and laboratory results associated with individual specimens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes physical specimens, paper logs and Freezerworks database of all logged information on specimens collected from Hawaiian monk seals since 1975....

  2. [On the use of FTA technology for collection, archieving, and molecular analysis of microsporidia dna from clinical stool samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, O I; Dem'ianov, A V; Bovers, L S; Did'e, E S; Sokolova, Iu Ia

    2011-01-01

    The FTA technology was applied for sampling, archiving, and molecular analysis of the DNA isolated from stool samples to diagnose and identify microsporidia, the intracellular opportunistic parasites which induce malabsortion syndrome in immunosuppressed humans, particularly in patients with AIDS. Microsporidia DNA was successfully amplified in 6 of 50 stool samples of HIV-positive patients of the S. P. Botkin Memorial Infectious Disease Hospital (St. Petersburg) applied to FTA cards (FTA-Cars, Whatman Inc. Florham Park, NJ, USA). Amplicons (the fragments of rDNA) were directly sequenced, and microsporidia species--Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. cuniculi, E. hellem, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi--were identified in Genbank by NCBI BLAST program. The FTA method of DNA immobilization is especially promising for epidemiological and field population studies which involve genotyping of microsporidia species and isolates.

  3. Basic laboratory procedures in clinical bacteriology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vandepitte, J

    2003-01-01

    ... of laboratory resources Collection and transport of stool specimens Visual examination of stool specimens Enrichment and inoculation of stool specimens Media for enteric pathogens Primary isolation Prelimin...

  4. Design of four-point SENB specimens with stable crack growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeppe Bjørn; Kildegaard, Casper; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2018-01-01

    A four-point single-edge-notch-beam (SENB) test specimen loaded in displacement control (fixed grip) is proposed for studying crack deflection at bi-material interfaces. In order to ensure stable crack growth, a novel analytical model of the four-point SENB specimen in fixed grip is derived...... and compared with numerical models. Model results show that the specimen should be short and thick, and the start-crack length should be deep for the crack to propagate stable towards the bi-material interface. Observations from experimental tests of four-point SENB specimens with different start-crack lengths......, confirmed that the crack grows stable if the start-crack length is deep and unstable if not....

  5. HAADF-STEM atom counting in atom probe tomography specimens: Towards quantitative correlative microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, W; Hernandez-Maldonado, D; Moyon, F; Cuvilly, F; Vaudolon, C; Shinde, D; Vurpillot, F

    2015-12-01

    The geometry of atom probe tomography tips strongly differs from standard scanning transmission electron microscopy foils. Whereas the later are rather flat and thin (atom probe tomography specimens. Based on simulations (electron probe propagation and image simulations), the possibility to apply quantitative high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy to of atom probe tomography specimens has been tested. The influence of electron probe convergence and the benefice of deconvolution of electron probe point spread function electron have been established. Atom counting in atom probe tomography specimens is for the first time reported in this present work. It is demonstrated that, based on single projections of high angle annular dark field imaging, significant quantitative information can be used as additional input for refining the data obtained by correlative analysis of the specimen in APT, therefore opening new perspectives in the field of atomic scale tomography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Design optimizations of IFMIF High Flux Test Module towards uniform specimen temperature distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Arbeiter, F.; Heinzel, V.; Ihli, Th.; Moeslang, A.; Slobodchuk, V.; Stratmanns, E.

    2010-01-01

    The test specimen temperature control, together with optimized irradiation and reliability, is the central task of the HFTM design. The temperatures of the specimens should be kept at prescribed levels with acceptable temperature spreads. This paper concerns the design optimizations on HFTM through thermo-hydraulic simulations. Single-parametric studies were carried out for the effects of spacers, cooling channel/insulation gap deformation, multi-channels, insulation gap size, channel-rib contact resistance, etc. It is found that the temperature of the specimens and walls is generally sensitive to the above-mentioned parameters. These parameters therefore need to be considered during the optimization design, accounting also for the manufacture and operation tolerances. Simulation results on latest updated HFTM design are also presented. The results show that the current HFTM design could meet thermal management requirements in general. Further optimizations should be made individually for different target specimen temperatures.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility and β-lactamase production in Bacillus cereus isolates from stool of patients, food and environment samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Dejana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bacillus cereus (B. cereus usually ingested by food can cause two types of diseases: vomiting due to the presence of emetic toxin and diarrheal syndrome, due to the presence of diarrheal toxins. Systemic manifestations can also occur. The severe forms of disease demand antibiotic treatmant. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in antibiotic susceptibility and β-lactamase activity of B. cereus isolates from stools of humans, food and environment. Methods. Identification of B. cereus was performed with selective medium, classical biochemical test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR with primers specific for bal gene. Thirty isolates from each group were analysed for antibiotic susceptibility using the disk-diffusion assay. Production of β-lactamase was determined by cefinase test, and double-disc method. Results. All strains identified as B. cereus using classical biochemical test, yielded 533 bp fragment with PCR. Isolates from all the three groups were susceptible to imipenem, vancomycin, and erythromycin. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin but one from the environment. A statistically significant difference between the groups was confirmed to tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole sensitivity. A total of 28/30 (93.33% samples from the foods and 25/30 (83.33% samples from environment were approved sensitive to tetracycline, while 10/30 (33.33% isolates from stools were sensitive. Opposite to this result, high susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was shown in samples from stools (100%, while isolates from foods (63.33% and from environment (70% had low susceptibility. All samples produced β-lactamases. Conclusion. The strains of B. cereus from all the three groups showed high rate of sensitivity to most tested antibiotics, except to tetracycline in samples from human stool and to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole in samples from food and environment. The production of

  8. Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori antigen positivity in stool samples of patients with dyspeptic complaints in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Burak Selek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Helicobacter pylori is a microorganism associatedwith gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastriccancer. We aimed to figure out the positivity rate in stoolsamples of outpatients with dyspeptic complaints visitinggastroenterology department and to evaluate its relationwith age, gender and seasonal changes.Methods: Between January 01, 2012 and December 31,2012, stool samples of 330 adult outpatients admitted togastroenterology department are investigated with an immunochromatographictest kit using monoclonal antibodiesfor detection of H. pylori antigen.Results: Among 330 patients’ stool samples tested, 67(20.3% were positive. 18.6% of men and 22.2% of womenwere detected as positive. According to age groups,17.1% patients were positive for 15-35 age groups,27.1% patients were positive for 36-55 age groups and18.2% patients were positive for above 56. Seasonal differenceof H. pylori antigen positivity in stool samples wasstatistically significant (p=0.001. Highest positivity rate29.7% was detected for winter months (December-January-February. According to logistic regression analysis,winter is found as a risk factor with statistically significant2.295 times greater risk [p=0001, Exp (B = 2.925, 95.0%C.I. for EXP (B = 1.668-5.129].Conclusion: H. pylori antigen positivity rate of our study islower than other previously conducted studies in Turkey.But, positivity rates are higher among women comparedto men, concordant with other studies. Even more, detectionof high positivity rates in winter shows primary infectionand/or relapse can be affected by seasonal changes.Key words: Helicobacter pylori, gastroenterology, stool antigen test

  9. Electron microscopy identification of microsporidia (enterocytozoon bieneusi and cyclospora cayetanensis from stool samples of HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satheeshkumar S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsporidia (Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Cyclospora cayetanensis have been reported worldwide causing diarrhoea in AIDS patients. Stool samples from HIV infected patients were subjected to routine examination for parasites, followed by special staining techniques to detect microsporidia and Cyclospora cayetanensis. Confirmed positive cases of these parasites were further processed for electron microscopy identity of the parasites and characteristic details. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed better morphological and structural details of the parasites.

  10. Microbiome analysis of stool samples from African Americans with colon polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brim, Hassan; Yooseph, Shibu; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Lee, Edward; Torralbo, Manolito; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Shokrani, Babak; Nelson, Karen; Ashktorab, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Colonic polyps are common tumors occurring in ~50% of Western populations with ~10% risk of malignant progression. Dietary agents have been considered the primary environmental exposure to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) development. However, the colonic mucosa is permanently in contact with the microbiota and its metabolic products including toxins that also have the potential to trigger oncogenic transformation. To analyze fecal DNA for microbiota composition and functional potential in African Americans with pre-neoplastic lesions. We analyzed the bacterial composition of stool samples from 6 healthy individuals and 6 patients with colon polyps using 16S ribosomal RNA-based phylogenetic microarray; the Human intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip) and 16S rRNA gene barcoded 454 pyrosequencing. The functional potential was determined by sequence-based metagenomics using 454 pyrosequencing. Fecal microbiota profiling of samples from the healthy and polyp patients using both a phylogenetic microarraying (HITChip) and barcoded 454 pyrosequencing generated similar results. A distinction between both sets of samples was only obtained when the analysis was performed at the sub-genus level. Most of the species leading to the dissociation were from the Bacteroides group. The metagenomic analysis did not reveal major differences in bacterial gene prevalence/abundances between the two groups even when the analysis and comparisons were restricted to available Bacteroides genomes. This study reveals that at the pre-neoplastic stages, there is a trend showing microbiota changes between healthy and colon polyp patients at the sub-genus level. These differences were not reflected at the genome/functions levels. Bacteria and associated functions within the Bacteroides group need to be further analyzed and dissected to pinpoint potential actors in the early colon oncogenic transformation in a large sample size.

  11. Microbiome analysis of stool samples from African Americans with colon polyps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Brim

    Full Text Available Colonic polyps are common tumors occurring in ~50% of Western populations with ~10% risk of malignant progression. Dietary agents have been considered the primary environmental exposure to promote colorectal cancer (CRC development. However, the colonic mucosa is permanently in contact with the microbiota and its metabolic products including toxins that also have the potential to trigger oncogenic transformation.To analyze fecal DNA for microbiota composition and functional potential in African Americans with pre-neoplastic lesions.We analyzed the bacterial composition of stool samples from 6 healthy individuals and 6 patients with colon polyps using 16S ribosomal RNA-based phylogenetic microarray; the Human intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip and 16S rRNA gene barcoded 454 pyrosequencing. The functional potential was determined by sequence-based metagenomics using 454 pyrosequencing.Fecal microbiota profiling of samples from the healthy and polyp patients using both a phylogenetic microarraying (HITChip and barcoded 454 pyrosequencing generated similar results. A distinction between both sets of samples was only obtained when the analysis was performed at the sub-genus level. Most of the species leading to the dissociation were from the Bacteroides group. The metagenomic analysis did not reveal major differences in bacterial gene prevalence/abundances between the two groups even when the analysis and comparisons were restricted to available Bacteroides genomes.This study reveals that at the pre-neoplastic stages, there is a trend showing microbiota changes between healthy and colon polyp patients at the sub-genus level. These differences were not reflected at the genome/functions levels. Bacteria and associated functions within the Bacteroides group need to be further analyzed and dissected to pinpoint potential actors in the early colon oncogenic transformation in a large sample size.

  12. Use of Bristol Stool Form Scale to predict the adequacy of bowel preparation - a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, A; Shah, N; Depasquale, J; Baddoura, W; Spira, R; Rector, T

    2016-02-01

    Inadequate bowel preparation continues to be a substantial problem for colonoscopy. The seven-point Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) has been associated with delayed colonic transit in adults. We evaluated the utility of the BSFS to identify patients more likely to present with an inadequate preparation. Two large community-based academic medical centres in New Jersey, USA, studied a prospective cohort of 411 consecutive patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy who were prescribed similar bowel preparations. The BSFS and several other study variables were collected by gastroenterology fellows during an outpatient visit prior to scheduling colonoscopy. All colonoscopy examinations were performed in the morning by a gastroenterologist who graded the adequacy of bowel preparation. Inadequate preparation was defined as one resulting in a repeat colonoscopy at a shorter time interval than would generally be recommended based solely on risk factors or pathological findings. The ability of study variables to discriminate those who did or did not have an adequate preparation was summarized by the c-statistic. The relationship between variables that provided some discrimination and the probability of an adequate preparation was modelled using logistic regression. The mean age of the study sample was 56 ± 8 (SD) years and 63% were women. Bowel preparation was adequate in 337 (82%) of the patients. The BSFS ratings ranged from 1 to 7. The score was <3 in 144 (35%) indicating lower gastrointestinal motility. There was a statistically significant association between the score and the probability of an adequate bowel preparation (odds ratio 1.4; 95% confidence interval 1.2-1.7; P < 0.001) and the c-statistic was 0.64 (0.58-0.70). Use of the BSFS may help identify patients for whom standard bowel preparation most probably will not be adequate. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. Early Adoption of a Multitarget Stool DNA Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney Rutten, Lila J; Jacobson, Robert M; Wilson, Patrick M; Jacobson, Debra J; Fan, Chun; Kisiel, John B; Sweetser, Seth; Tulledge-Scheitel, Sidna M; St Sauver, Jennifer L

    2017-05-01

    To characterize early adoption of a novel multitarget stool DNA (MT-sDNA) screening test for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and to test the hypothesis that adoption differs by demographic characteristics and prior CRC screening behavior and proceeds predictably over time. We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project research infrastructure to assess the use of the MT-sDNA screening test in adults aged 50 to 75 years living in Olmsted County, Minnesota, in 2014 and identified 27,147 individuals eligible or due for screening colonoscopy from November 1, 2014, through November 30, 2015. We used electronic Current Procedure Terminology and Health Care Common Procedure codes to evaluate early adoption of the MT-sDNA screening test in this population and to test whether early adoption varies by age, sex, race, and prior CRC screening behavior. Overall, 2193 (8.1%) and 974 (3.6%) individuals were screened by colonoscopy and MT-sDNA, respectively. Age, sex, race, and prior CRC screening behavior were significantly and independently associated with MT-sDNA screening use compared with colonoscopy use after adjustment for all other variables (Padoption of MT-sDNA screening increased over time and were highest in those aged 50 to 54 years, women, whites, and those who had a history of screening. The use of the MT-sDNA screening test varied predictably by insurance coverage. The rates of colonoscopy decreased over time, whereas overall CRC screening rates remained steady. The results of the present study are generally consistent with predictions derived from prior research and the diffusion of innovation framework, pointing to increasing use of the new screening test over time and early adoption by younger patients, women, whites, and those with prior CRC screening. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The positivity of Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen in patients with Hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezircioğlu, Incim; Elveren, Hatice Barın; Baloğlu, Ali; Biçer, Merve

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the possible association between Helicobacter pylori infection and Hyperemesis gravidarum. Thirty-six pregnant women with Hyperemesis gravidarum with severe vomiting (more than 4 times a day), weight loss (≥3 kg), ketonuria and 36 pregnant women gestational age-matched, without nausea and vomiting attending our outpatient clinic for antenatal care were enrolled the study. Demographic data of the patients were registered. Blood samples for hemogram, serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatine, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T3-T4, total T3-T4, and urine samples for ketonuria, stool samples for HpSA were studied. The data of both groups were compared. Eight Hyperemesis gravidarum patients (22.2%) and 1 control patient (2.8%) were established HpSA positive and it was statistically significant (p:0.037). There was no significant difference between Hyperemesis gravidarum and control subjects in terms of age, gestational week, parity, educational level, socioeconomic status and smoking. There was anemia in 5 Hyperemesis gravidarum patients, 4 of them were HpSA positive. HpSA positivity was more prevalent in Hyperemesis gravidarum patients with anemia (p=0.003). Severe vomiting (more than 4 times a day), heartburn, epigastric pain, duration of hospitalization (more than 4 days) and weight loss (≥5 kg) were not correlated to HpSA positivity. The pregnant women with Hyperemesis gravidarum have a significantly higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori compared with control subjects.

  15. Cryptosporidiosis Outbreak Associated With a Single Hotel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, Mary-Margaret A; Lloyd, Jennifer; Chakraverty, Tamal; Sweat, David; Manners, Judy; Garman, Katie; Hlavsa, Michele C; Roellig, Dawn M; Dunn, John R; Schaffner, William; Jones, Timothy F

    2017-05-01

    We investigated a gastrointestinal illness cluster among persons who attended a baseball tournament (>200 teams) during July 2015. We interviewed representatives of 19 teams; illness was reported among only the 9 (47%) teams that stayed at Hotel A (p Hotel A was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio: 7.3; 95% confidence interval: 3.6, 15.2). Eight out of nine (89%) stool specimens tested were positive for Cryptosporidium, with C. hominis IfA12G1 subtype identified in two specimens. The environmental health assessment detected a low free available chlorine level, and pool water tested positive for E. coli and total coliforms. A possible diarrheal contamination event, substantial hotel pool use, and use of cyanuric acid might have contributed to this outbreak and magnitude. Aquatic facilities practicing proper operation and maintenance (e.g., following the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Model Aquatic Health Code) can protect the public’s health.

  16. Treatment of severe cholera: a review of strategies to reduce stool output and volumes of rehydration fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Severe cholera is a life-threatening illness of hypovolemic shock and metabolic acidosis due to rapid and profuse diarrheal fluid loss. Emergency life-saving therapy is i.v. saline, optionally supplemented with potassium and alkali to correct the fluid deficit, potassium losses and acidosis. After this initial rehydration, for the next 2 days ongoing stool losses are replaced with oral rehydration solution (ORS), which contains sodium chloride, potassium and alkali together with glucose or rice powder as a source of glucose to serve as a carrier for sodium. In actual field trials, antibiotics are given to reduce fluid requirements, but large volumes averaging about 7 liters of i.v. fluid followed by about 14 liters of ORS have been given to adult patients. Disturbing trends during therapy have included overhydration, hyponatremia and polyuria. It is suggested that stool output and fluid requirements could be reduced, if borne out in future research, by avoiding overhydration by restricting ORS intake to match stool output and promoting intestinal reabsorption of luminal fluid by early introduction of glucose without salts into the intestine, more gradual correction of dehydration, giving mineralocorticoid and vasopressin, and infusing glucose or short-chain fatty acids into the proximal colon. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Impact of changing from staining to culture techniques on detection rates of Campylobacter spp. in routine stool samples in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Lorena; Varela, Carmen; Haecker, Thomas; Morales, Sara; Weitzel, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, but sensitive diagnostic methods such as culture are expensive and often not available in resource limited settings. Therefore, direct staining techniques have been developed as a practical and economical alternative. We analyzed the impact of replacing Campylobacter staining with culture for routine stool examinations in a private hospital in Chile. From January to April 2014, a total of 750 consecutive stool samples were examined in parallel by Hucker stain and Campylobacter culture. Isolation rates of Campylobacter were determined and the performance of staining was evaluated against culture as the gold standard. Besides, isolation rates of Campylobacter and other enteric pathogens were compared to those of past years. Campylobacter was isolated by culture in 46 of 750 (6.1 %) stool samples. Direct staining only identified three samples as Campylobacter positive and reached sensitivity and specificity values of 6.5 and 100 %, respectively. In comparison to staining-based detection rates of previous years, we observed a significant increase of Campylobacter cases in our patients. Direct staining technique for Campylobacter had a very low sensitivity compared to culture. Staining methods might lead to a high rate of false negative results and an underestimation of the importance of campylobacteriosis. With the inclusion of Campylobacter culture, this pathogen became a leading cause of intestinal infection in our patient population.

  18. Prevalence and molecular characterization of human rhinovirus in stool samples of individuals with and without acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoonta, Prapaporn; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Posuwan, Nawarat; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Payungporn, Sunchai; Poovorawan, Yong

    2017-05-01

    Human rhinovirus (RV) most often causes mild upper respiratory tract infection. Although RV is routinely isolated from the respiratory tract, few studies have examined RV in other types of clinical samples. The prevalence of RV was examined in 1,294 stool samples collected mostly from children with acute gastroenteritis residing in Bangkok and Khon Kaen province of Thailand between January 2010 and October 2014. In addition, 591 samples from hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) or herpangina patients who do not have gastroenteritis served as a comparison group. Samples were initially screened by semi-nested PCR for the RV 5'UTR through the VP2 capsid region. RV genotyping and phylogenetic analysis were performed on the VP4/VP2 regions. Among children with acute gastroenteritis, RV was found in 2.3% (30/1,294) of stool samples, which comprised 47% (14/30) RV-A, 17% (5/30) RV-B, and 37% (11/30) RV-C. In the comparison group, 0.8% (5/591) was RV-positive and RV-C (3/5) was the major species found. Interestingly, RV was recovered more often from children with acute gastroenteritis than from those with HFMD or herpangina. As many as 31 RV types were present in the gastroenteritis stools, which were different than the types found in those with HFMD or herpangina. J. Med. Virol. 89:801-808, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Pre-operative stool analysis for intestinal parasites and fecal occult blood in patients with acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Sinan; Lök, Uğur; Gülaçtı, Umut; Çelik, Tuncay

    2016-09-01

    Etiology of acute appendicitis (AA) rarely involves parasitic infections of gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Preoperative diagnosis of parasitic infections in appendix remains difficult, although parasites can sometimes be observed inside the lumen during histopathological examination. The aim of the present study was to prospectively screen prevalence and species of intestinal parasites and adherence of fecal occult blood (FOB) in patients admitted to emergency department (ED) with clinical symptoms of AA who underwent appendectomy. Demographic and stool analysis data of a total of 136 patients (≥13 years old) who underwent appendectomy between July 2009 and December 2014 were prospectively assessed, and histopathological data of all patients were retrospectively assessed. In histopathological examination after appendectomy, of 136 patients, 75.5% (n=103) had AA, 11.1% (n=15) had perforated appendicitis (PA), and 13.2% (n=18) had a negative appendicitis (normal appendix, NA). Pre-operative stool analysis revealed that 25% (n=34) had intestinal parasites and 14.7% (n=20) of patients had positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT). Those with positive FOBT represented 9.7% (n=10) of 103 AA patients, 53.3% (n=8) of 15 PA patients, and 11.1% (n=2) of 18 NA patients; this was statistically more significant for PA than other groups (pparasites in stool might not be associated with appendicitis, but it can occasionally lead to pathological findings of appendicitis. A positive FOBT may be a predictor for PA.

  20. Histological evaluation of 400 cholecystectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A majority of gallbladder specimens show changes associated with chronic cholecystitis; however few harbour a highly lethal carcinoma. This study was conducted to review the significant histopathological findings encountered in gallbladder specimens received in our laboratory.Materials and Methods: Four hundred cholecystectomy specimens were studied over a period of five years (May, 2002 to April, 2007 received at department of pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India. Results: Gallstones and associated diseases were more common in women in the 4th to 5th decade as compared to men with M: F ratio of 1:1.33. Maximum number of patients (28.25% being 41 to 50 years old. Histopathologically, the most common diagnosis was chronic cholecystitis (66.75%, followed by chronic active cholecystitis (20.25%, acute cholecystitis (6%, gangrenous cholecystitis (2.25%,xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (0.50%, empyema (1%, mucocele (0.25%, choledochal cyst (0.25%, adenocarcinoma gallbladder (1.25% and  normal  gallbladders (1%.Conclusion: All lesions were found more frequently in women except chronic active cholecystitis. Gallstones were present in (80.25% cases, and significantly associated with various lesions (P value 0.009. Pigment stones were most common, followed by cholesterol stones and mixed stones. Adequate  sectioning  is  mandatory  in  all  cases  to  assess  epithelial changes arising from cholelithiasis and chronic cholecystitis as it has been known to progress to malignancy in some cases.

  1. Wildlife specimen collection, preservation, and shipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. LeAnn; Dusek, Robert J.; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Specimens are used to provide supporting information leading to the determination of the cause of disease or death in wildlife and for disease monitoring or surveillance. Commonly used specimens for wildlife disease investigations include intact carcasses, tissues from carcasses, euthanized or moribund animals, parasites, ingested food, feces, or environmental samples. Samples from live animals or the environment (e.g., contaminated feed) in the same vicinity as a mortality event also may be helpful. The type of specimen collected is determined by availability of samples and biological objectives. Multiple fresh, intact carcasses from affected species are the most useful in establishing a cause for a mortality event. Submission of entire carcasses allows observation of gross lesions and abnormalities, as well as disease testing of multiple tissues. Samples from live animals may be more appropriate when sick animals cannot be euthanized (e.g., threatened or endangered species) or for research and monitoring projects examining disease or agents circulating in apparently healthy animals or those not exhibiting clinical signs. Samples from live animals may include collections of blood, hair, feathers, feces, or ectoparasites, or samples obtained by swabbing lesions or orifices. Photographs and videos are useful additions for recording field and clinical signs and conveying conditions at the site. Collection of environmental samples (e.g., feces, water, feed, or soil) may be appropriate when animals cannot be captured for sampling or the disease agent may persist in the environment. If lethal collection is considered necessary, biologists should refer to the policies, procedures, and permit requirements of their institution/facility and the agency responsible for species management (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or State natural resource agency) prior to use in the field. If threatened or endangered species are found dead, or there is evidence of illegal take, field

  2. Generation of whole genome sequences of new Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum isolates directly from stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Stephen J; Pachebat, Justin A; Swain, Martin T; Robinson, Guy; Cameron, Simon Js; Alexander, Jenna; Hegarty, Matthew J; Elwin, Kristin; Chalmers, Rachel M

    2015-08-29

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of Cryptosporidium spp. has previously relied on propagation of the parasite in animals to generate enough oocysts from which to extract DNA of sufficient quantity and purity for analysis. We have developed and validated a method for preparation of genomic Cryptosporidium DNA suitable for WGS directly from human stool samples and used it to generate 10 high-quality whole Cryptosporidium genome assemblies. Our method uses a combination of salt flotation, immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and surface sterilisation of oocysts prior to DNA extraction, with subsequent use of the transposome-based Nextera XT kit to generate libraries for sequencing on Illumina platforms. IMS was found to be superior to caesium chloride density centrifugation for purification of oocysts from small volume stool samples and for reducing levels of contaminant DNA. The IMS-based method was used initially to sequence whole genomes of Cryptosporidium hominis gp60 subtype IbA10G2 and Cryptosporidium parvum gp60 subtype IIaA19G1R2 from small amounts of stool left over from diagnostic testing of clinical cases of cryptosporidiosis. The C. parvum isolate was sequenced to a mean depth of 51.8X with reads covering 100 % of the bases of the C. parvum Iowa II reference genome (Bioproject PRJNA 15586), while the C. hominis isolate was sequenced to a mean depth of 34.7X with reads covering 98 % of the bases of the C. hominis TU502 v1 reference genome (Bioproject PRJNA 15585). The method was then applied to a further 17 stools, successfully generating another eight new whole genome sequences, of which two were C. hominis (gp60 subtypes IbA10G2 and IaA14R3) and six C. parvum (gp60 subtypes IIaA15G2R1 from three samples, and one each of IIaA17G1R1, IIaA18G2R1, and IIdA22G1), demonstrating the utility of this method to sequence Cryptosporidium genomes directly from clinical samples. This development is especially important as it reduces the requirement to propagate

  3. The Dugdale model for the compact specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Plastic zone size and crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) equations were developed. Boundary collocation analyses were used to analyze the compact specimen subjected to various loading conditions (pin loads, concentrated forces, and uniform pressure acting on the crack surface). Stress intensity factor and crack surface displacement equations for some of these loadings were developed and used to obtain the Dugdale model. The results from the equations for plastic zone size and CTOD agreed well with numerical values calculated by Terada for crack length to width ratios greater than 0.4.

  4. The Dugdale model for compact specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Plastic zone size and crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) equations were developed. Boundary collocation analyses were used to analyze the compact specimen subjected to various loading conditions (pin loads, concentrated forces, and uniform pressure acting on the crack surface). Stress intensity factor and crack surface displacement equations for some of these loadings were developed and used to obtain the Dugdale model. The results from the equations for plastic zone size and CTOD agreed well with numerical values calculated by Terada for crack length to width ratios greater than 0.4.

  5. Behaviour of Corroded Single Stud Shear Connectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Xue

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of corrosion on the static behavior of stud shear connectors was investigated. An innovative test setup for single stud shear connectors was designed and established. Two series of specimens having different stud diameters were fabricated and tested. The test specimens were firstly corroded to different corrosion rates by the electronic accelerating method. Static loading tests were then performed to obtain the load-slip curves and ultimate strengths of the corroded test specimens. The actual corrosion rates were measured from the studs obtained from the tested specimens. The test results were compared with the push out test specimens having similar corrosion rates. It is shown that the test results obtained from the single stud shear connectors are conservative compared with the corroded push test specimens, which prove the validation of the single stud shear connector test method. The effect of corrosion on the behavior of stud shear connectors was also presented.

  6. and improvement of bowel function by increasing stool frequency pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    to a combination of Bifidobacterium longum LA 101, Lactobacillus helveticus LA 102, Lactococcus lactis LA 103 and Streptococcus thermophilus LA 104 and improvement of bowel function by increasing stool frequency. The food that is the subject of the health claim is a combination of four bacterial strains—B. longum...... proposed by the applicant is "improves stool frequency". The Panel considers that improvement of bowel function by increasing stool frequency, provided that it does not result in diarrhoea, is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel considers that the human study provided for the substantiation...... of the claim did not find an increase in stool frequency following consumption of a combination of the bacterial strains which is the subject of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of a combination of B. longum LA 101, L...

  7. Flexor tendon specimens in organ cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, F; Eiken, O; Bergenholtz, A; Lundborg, G; Erkel, L J

    1980-01-01

    The healing process of sectioned and subsequently sutured rabbit tendon segments was studied over a period of 3 weeks, using an organ culture technique. In one series, the tendon specimens were exposed to a chemically defined culture medium for nutrition. In two control series, the specimens were kept in the synovial cavity of the knee joint for varying periods of time, before being transferred to the culture medium. The tendons remained viable in the medium. The superficial tendon cells demonstrated the morphological characteristics of fibroblasts, but cellular fibroplasia could not be detected. The two control series subjected to synovia prior to transfer into the culture medium showed superficial repair similar to the findings in previous studies on healing capacity of tendon nourished by synovia. The investigation supports the hypothesis that superficial tendon cells are fibroblasts with a potential for repair and that synovia is an efficient nutrient medium. Thus, the beneficial effects on repair exercised by the tendon sheath function should be utilized in flexor tendon surgery.

  8. Creep test with use of miniaturized specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvostová, E.; Džugan, J.

    2017-02-01

    Application of the mini samples methods is very common especially for residual service life assessment of the components operating in the energy sector. Residual lifetime of operating device can be evaluated using standard tests, but these usually cannot be performed due to limited material amount that can be extracted from the components. It is possible to use in these cases a semi destructive sampling of materials and testing methods employing miniature specimens. This article deals with comparison of the creep results obtained with the use of on standard test bars and sub sized samples such as Small Punch Test and newly proposed miniature samples that are axially loaded. The experiment was performed on steam line steel CSN 15 128 after operation. Emphasis was put to practical use of the test results and therefore residual life was assessed with the use of standard and new mini specimens. The results obtained for standard and mini samples exhibit very good agreement without necessity of any correlation as in the case of SPT and thus much more straight forward approach can be applied even for “unknown materials”.

  9. Power morcellation in a specimen bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholkeri-Singh, Aarathi; Miller, Charles E

    2015-02-01

    To show a technique of power morcellation within a rip-stop nylon specimen bag. Step-by-step explanation of the technique. The Food and Drug Administration recently warned against the use of electromechanical power morcellation for hysterectomy and myomectomy because of potential tissue dissemination within the abdomen and pelvis. If the tumor is malignant, this technique increases the staging of the patient and may further warrant re-operation and chemotherapy. If the tumor is benign, the patient is at risk for parasitic myomas that may lead to, but are not limited to, pain and/or bowel obstruction. To reduce the preceding risks, we reviewed the techniques of power morcellation within a specimen bag used by other surgeons across the United States. This technique was modified to incorporate a more durable bag made out of rip-stop nylon. Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy during power morcellation was performed, along with an introduction to incorporating power morcellation of multiple myomas during a laparoscopic myomectomy. This technique of power morcellation within a rip-stop nylon bag minimizes the risk of inadvertent tissue spread. This allows the patient an opportunity to undergo minimally invasive surgery for hysterectomy and myomectomy. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Simple Fecal Flotation Is a Superior Alternative to Guadruple Kato Katz Smear Examination for the Detection of Hookworm Eggs in Human Stool

    OpenAIRE

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Dalsgaard, Anders; Marti, Hanspeter; Traub, Rebecca J.; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microscopy-based identification of eggs in stool offers simple, reliable and economical options for assessing the prevalence and intensity of hookworm infections, and for monitoring the success of helminth control programs. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the diagnostic parameters of the Kato-Katz (KK) and simple sodium nitrate flotation technique (SNF) in terms of detection and quantification of hookworm eggs, with PCR as an additional reference test in stool, co...

  11. Effects of a probiotic fermented milk beverage containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on defecation frequency, intestinal microbiota, and the intestinal environment of healthy individuals with soft stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Takada, Toshihiko; Shimizu, Kensuke; Moriyama, Kaoru; Kawakami, Koji; Hirano, Koichi; Kajimoto, Osami; Nomoto, Koji

    2010-11-01

    The effects of drinking a fermented milk beverage that contains Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) at 40 billion bacterial cells/bottle for 4 weeks (probiotics, 1 bottle/day) on defecation frequency, intestinal microbiota and the intestinal environment of healthy individuals with soft stools were evaluated. Thirty-four healthy adults who had soft stools were randomised into 2 groups, and the effects of a regular 4-week intake of probiotics were evaluated by a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group comparative design. Defecation frequency significantly decreased after the 4-week intake period compared with before the probiotic treatment. The stool quality significantly improved (hardened) compared to the placebo. Also, the water content of the stools was lower in the probiotic group than in the placebo group. Live LcS was recovered at 6.9 ± 1.3 and 7.2 ± 0.8 log(10) CFU per 1g of stool after 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, of probiotic treatment. The number of bifidobacteria in the stools also increased significantly compared with the level before starting the probiotics. The organic acid levels (total, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid) significantly increased compared with the level before intake in both the probiotic and placebo groups, but they returned to the original levels after the end of the intake period. These results suggest that probiotic fermented milk beverage has an intestine-conditioning effect by improving the frequency of defecation and stool quality and increasing the intrinsic bifidobacteria in healthy individuals with soft stool. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. HAADF–STEM atom counting in atom probe tomography specimens: Towards quantitative correlative microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, W., E-mail: williams.lefebvre@univ-rouen.fr; Hernandez-Maldonado, D.; Moyon, F.; Cuvilly, F.; Vaudolon, C.; Shinde, D.; Vurpillot, F.

    2015-12-15

    The geometry of atom probe tomography tips strongly differs from standard scanning transmission electron microscopy foils. Whereas the later are rather flat and thin (<20 nm), tips display a curved surface and a significantly larger thickness. As far as a correlative approach aims at analysing the same specimen by both techniques, it is mandatory to explore the limits and advantages imposed by the particular geometry of atom probe tomography specimens. Based on simulations (electron probe propagation and image simulations), the possibility to apply quantitative high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy to of atom probe tomography specimens has been tested. The influence of electron probe convergence and the benefice of deconvolution of electron probe point spread function electron have been established. Atom counting in atom probe tomography specimens is for the first time reported in this present work. It is demonstrated that, based on single projections of high angle annular dark field imaging, significant quantitative information can be used as additional input for refining the data obtained by correlative analysis of the specimen in APT, therefore opening new perspectives in the field of atomic scale tomography. - Highlights: • Quantitative correlative microscopy by APT and STEM is considered. • The particular geometry of atom probe tomography (APT) specimens is considered. • HAADF–STEM image simulations were applied. • The possibility of atom counting is demonstrated for protuberant particles.

  13. Crashworthiness Analysis and Evaluation of Fuselage Section with Sub-floor Composite Sinusoidal Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Mou

    Full Text Available Abstract Crashworthiness is one of the main concerns in civil aviation safety particularly with regard to the increasing ratio of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP in aircraft primary structures. In order to generate dates for model validations, the mechanical properties of T700/3234 were obtained by material performance tests, and energy-absorbing results were gained by quasi-static crushing tests of composite sinusoidal specimens. The correctness of composite material model and single-layer finite element model of composite sinusoidal specimens were verified based on the simulation results and test results that were in good agreement. A typical civil aircraft fuselage section with composite sinusoidal specimens under cargo floor was suggested. The crashworthiness of finite element model of fuselage section was assessed by simulating the vertical drop test subjected to 7 m/s impact velocity, and the influences of different thickness of sub-floor composite sinusoidal specimens on crashworthiness of fuselage section were also analyzed. The simulation results show that the established finite element model can accurately simulate the crushing process of composite sinusoidal specimens; the failure process of fuselage section is more stable, and the safety of occupants can be effectively improved because of the smaller peak accelerations that was limited to human tolerance, a critical thickness of sub-floor composite sinusoidal specimens can restrict the magnitude of acceleration peaks, which has certain reference values for enhancing crashworthiness capabilities of fuselage section and improving the survivability of passengers.

  14. Reheating of zinc-titanate sintered specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labus N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this work was observing dimensional and heat transfer changes in ZnTiO3 samples during heating in nitrogen and air atmosphere. Interactions of bulk specimens with gaseous surrounding induce microstructure changes during heating. Sintered ZnTiO3 nanopowder samples were submitted to subsequent heating. Dilatation curves and thermogravimetric with simultaneous differential thermal analysis TGA/DTA curves were recorded. Reheating was performed in air and nitrogen atmospheres. Reheated samples obtained at different characteristic temperatures in air were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. Microstructures obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM of reheated sintered samples are presented and compared. Reheating in a different atmosphere induced different microstructures. The goal was indicating possible causes leading to the microstructure changes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI172057 i br. III45014

  15. A system for mapping radioactive specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britten, R.J.; Davidson, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    A system for mapping radioactive specimens comprises an avalanche counter, an encoder, pre-amplifier circuits, sample and hold circuits and a programmed computer. The parallel plate counter utilizes avalanche event counting over a large area with the ability to locate radioactive sources in two dimensions. When a beta ray, for example, enters a chamber, an ionization event occurs and the avalanche effect multiplies the event and results in charge collection on the anode surface for a limited period of time before the charge leaks away. The encoder comprises a symmetrical array of planar conductive surfaces separated from the anode by a dielectric material. The encoder couples charge currents, the amlitudes of which define the relative position of the ionization event. The amplitude of coupled current, delivered to pre-amplifiers, defines the location of the event. (author) 12 figs

  16. 46 CFR 4.06-40 - Specimen handling and shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... qualified to conduct tests on such specimens. A proper chain of custody must be maintained for each specimen... collection procedures of § 16.113 of this chapter and the chain of custody requirements of 49 CFR part 40...

  17. Current status of small specimen technology in Charpy impact testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurishita, H.; Kayano, H.; Narui, M.; Yamazaki, M.

    1994-01-01

    The current status of small-scale specimen technology in Charpy impact testing for ferritic steels is presented, with emphasis on the effect of the notch dimensions (notch depth, notch root radius and notch angle) on the upper shelf energy (USE) and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). The USE for miniaturized specimens, normalized by Bb 2 or (Bb) 3/2 (B is the specimen thickness, b the ligament size), is essentially independent of notch geometry and has a linear relationship with the USE of full size specimens, regardless of irradiation and alloy conditions. The DBTT of miniaturized specimens depends strongly on the notch dimensions; this dependence of the DBTT decreases as the DBTT of full size specimens increase due to neutron irradiation or thermal aging. These results may be useful in determining the USE and DBTT for full size specimens from those for miniaturized specimens. ((orig.))

  18. A new specimen management system using RFID technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hun; Uh, Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Yoon, Young Ro

    2011-12-01

    The specimen management system with barcode needs to be improved in order to solve inherent problems in work performance. This study describes the application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) which is the solution for the problems associated with specimen labeling and management. A new specimen management system and architecture with RFID technology for clinical laboratory was designed. The suggested system was tested in various conditions such as durability to temperature and aspect of effective utilization of new work flow under a virtual hospital clinical laboratory environment. This system demonstrates its potential application in clinical laboratories for improving work flow and specimen management. The suggested specimen management system with RFID technology has advantages in comparison to the traditional specimen management system with barcode in the aspect of mass specimen processing, robust durability of temperature, humidity changes, and effective specimen tracking.

  19. A non-destructive DNA sampling technique for herbarium specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, Lara D.

    2017-01-01

    Herbarium specimens are an important source of DNA for plant research but current sampling methods require the removal of material for DNA extraction. This is undesirable for irreplaceable specimens such as rare species or type material. Here I present the first non-destructive sampling method for extracting DNA from herbarium specimens. DNA was successfully retrieved from robust leaves and/or stems of herbarium specimens up to 73 years old.

  20. The type specimen of Anoura geoffroyi lasiopyga (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquin; Gardner, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    In 1868, Wilhelm Peters described Glossonycteris lasiopyga, based on a specimen provided by Henri de Saussure and collected in Mexico. The type specimen was presumed to be among those housed in the collections of the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt Universitat in Berlin, Germany. Our study of one of Saussure?s specimens from Mexico, discovered in the collections of the Museum d?Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland, demonstrates that it and not one of the Berlin specimens is the holotype.

  1. A non-destructive DNA sampling technique for herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Lara D

    2017-01-01

    Herbarium specimens are an important source of DNA for plant research but current sampling methods require the removal of material for DNA extraction. This is undesirable for irreplaceable specimens such as rare species or type material. Here I present the first non-destructive sampling method for extracting DNA from herbarium specimens. DNA was successfully retrieved from robust leaves and/or stems of herbarium specimens up to 73 years old.

  2. Helminth prevalence among adults in rural Kenya: a stool survey for soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomiasis in Nyanza province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andereck, Jonathan W; Kipp, Aaron M; Ondiek, Michael; Vermund, Sten H

    2014-12-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) prevalence in children is high in rural southwestern Kenya, but adult prevalence data are scarce. A 2010 study of a village in Nyanza province found a pediatric STH prevalence of 44% using a direct stool-smear method. Adult STH prevalence and associated predictors was measured in the same village. Adults (≥18 years) presenting at the out-patient department of the small hospital or community outreach events completed a short questionnaire and provided stool samples. Light microscopy for ova and larvae was conducted using a stool concentration technique to improve sensitivity. Multivariable regression models were used to identify predictors of STH prevalence. Among 344 adults, STH prevalence was 15.7% (54/344). Hookworm was most common (13.1%; 45/344), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (6.1%; 21/344) and Trichuris trichiura (0.6%; 2/344). Twelve participants (3.5%; 12/344) had multiple STHs and three (0.9%; 3/344) had Schistosoma mansoni. Female sex, older age and lower education level were significant STH predictors. Adult STH prevalence was lower than previous studies of children from the same village. Adults with the identified risk factors had a prevalence of ≥20%, which may warrant periodic, targeted deworming of adults with these risk factors given the low cost and low toxicity of anthelmintic drugs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Detection of Campylobacter in Stool and Determination of Significance by Culture, Enzyme Immunoassay, and PCR in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts-Mills, James A.; Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Esto; Amour, Caroline; Swai, Ndealilia; Taniuchi, Mami; Begum, Sharmin; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Tilley, Drake H.; Lee, Gwenyth; Shen, Zeli; Whary, Mark T.; Fox, James G.; McGrath, Monica; Kosek, Margaret; Haque, Rashidul

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter is a common bacterial enteropathogen that can be detected in stool by culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), or PCR. We compared culture for C. jejuni/C. coli, EIA (ProSpecT), and duplex PCR to distinguish Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli and non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter on 432 diarrheal and matched control stool samples from infants in a multisite longitudinal study of enteric infections in Tanzania, Bangladesh, and Peru. The sensitivity and specificity of culture were 8.5% and 97.6%, respectively, compared with the results of EIA and 8.7% and 98.0%, respectively, compared with the results of PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli. Most (71.6%) EIA-positive samples were positive by PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli, but 27.6% were positive for non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter species. Sequencing of 16S rRNA from 53 of these non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter samples showed that it most closely matched the 16S rRNA of C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii (56%), C. troglodytis (33%), C. upsaliensis (7.7%), and C. jejuni/C. coli (2.6%). Campylobacter-negative stool spiked with each of the above-mentioned Campylobacter species revealed reactivity with EIA. PCR detection of Campylobacter species was strongly associated with diarrhea in Peru (odds ratio [OR] = 3.66, P < 0.001) but not in Tanzania (OR = 1.56, P = 0.24) or Bangladesh (OR = 1.13, P = 0.75). According to PCR, Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli infections represented less than half of all infections with Campylobacter species. In sum, in infants in developing country settings, the ProSpecT EIA and PCR for Campylobacter reveal extremely high rates of positivity. We propose the use of PCR because it retains high sensitivity, can ascertain burden, and can distinguish between Campylobacter infections at the species level. PMID:24452175

  4. Constipation, hard stools, fecal urgency, and incomplete evacuation, but not diarrhea is associated with diabetes and its related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihana-Sugiyama, Noriko; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Yamamoto-Honda, Ritsuko; Izawa, Eiko; Kajio, Hiroshi; Shimbo, Takuro; Kakei, Masafumi; Uemura, Naomi; Akiyama, Junichi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2016-03-21

    To determine the bowel symptoms associated with diabetes and diabetes-related factors after excluding gastrointestinal (GI) organic diseases. Participants were 4738 (603 diabetic and 4135 non-diabetic) patients who underwent colonoscopy and completed a questionnaire. On the day of pre-colonoscopy, 9 symptoms (borborygmus, abdominal distension, increased flatus, constipation, diarrhea, loose stools, hard stools, fecal urgency, and incomplete evacuation) were prospectively evaluated on a 7-point Likert scale. The test-retest reliability of the bowel symptom scores from the baseline and second questionnaires was analyzed using kappa statistics. Associations between bowel symptom scores and diabetes or diabetes-related factors were analyzed by a rank-ordered logistic model adjusted for related confounders, and odds ratios (ORs) were estimated. In multivariate analysis, constipation [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.57, CI: 1.33-1.85, P associated with diabetes, and fecal urgency (AOR = 1.16, CI: 0.99-1.37, P = 0.07) and incomplete evacuation (AOR = 1.16, CI: 1.00-1.36, P = 0.06) were marginally associated with diabetes. These symptoms remained associated even after excluding organic GI diseases on colonoscopy. Test-retest reliability of symptom score with a mean duration of 3.2 mo was good (mean kappa, 0.69). Associations of symptoms with diabetes-related factors were found; constipation with HbA1c ≥ 8.0% (AOR = 2.11, CI: 1.19-3.73), body mass index (BMI) associated with constipation, hard stools, fecal urgency, and incomplete evacuation, and poor glycemic control, duration, leanness, and nephropathy affect the risk of these symptoms.

  5. Detection of Campylobacter in stool and determination of significance by culture, enzyme immunoassay, and PCR in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts-Mills, James A; Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Esto; Amour, Caroline; Swai, Ndealilia; Taniuchi, Mami; Begum, Sharmin; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Tilley, Drake H; Lee, Gwenyth; Shen, Zeli; Whary, Mark T; Fox, James G; McGrath, Monica; Kosek, Margaret; Haque, Rashidul; Houpt, Eric R

    2014-04-01

    Campylobacter is a common bacterial enteropathogen that can be detected in stool by culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), or PCR. We compared culture for C. jejuni/C. coli, EIA (ProSpecT), and duplex PCR to distinguish Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli and non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter on 432 diarrheal and matched control stool samples from infants in a multisite longitudinal study of enteric infections in Tanzania, Bangladesh, and Peru. The sensitivity and specificity of culture were 8.5% and 97.6%, respectively, compared with the results of EIA and 8.7% and 98.0%, respectively, compared with the results of PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli. Most (71.6%) EIA-positive samples were positive by PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli, but 27.6% were positive for non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter species. Sequencing of 16S rRNA from 53 of these non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter samples showed that it most closely matched the 16S rRNA of C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii (56%), C. troglodytis (33%), C. upsaliensis (7.7%), and C. jejuni/C. coli (2.6%). Campylobacter-negative stool spiked with each of the above-mentioned Campylobacter species revealed reactivity with EIA. PCR detection of Campylobacter species was strongly associated with diarrhea in Peru (odds ratio [OR] = 3.66, P PCR, Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli infections represented less than half of all infections with Campylobacter species. In sum, in infants in developing country settings, the ProSpecT EIA and PCR for Campylobacter reveal extremely high rates of positivity. We propose the use of PCR because it retains high sensitivity, can ascertain burden, and can distinguish between Campylobacter infections at the species level.

  6. Adaptation of Museum Specimens for Use in Anatomical Teaching Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Color transparencies are prepared of a re-colored anatomical specimen after placing labels temporarily in position to indicate specific structures. The specimen is also radiographed to show skeletal and soft tissue structures. Cross-reference among the specimen, photographs, and radiographs is supplemented by examination and self-assessment…

  7. 21 CFR 864.3250 - Specimen transport and storage container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specimen transport and storage container. 864.3250 Section 864.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....3250 Specimen transport and storage container. (a) Identification. A specimen transport and storage...

  8. Performance of Xpert MTB/RIF and Alternative Specimen Collection Methods for the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcy, Olivier; Ung, Vibol; Goyet, Sophie; Borand, Laurence; Msellati, Philippe; Tejiokem, Mathurin; Nguyen Thi, Ngoc Lan; Nacro, Boubacar; Cheng, Sokleaph; Eyangoh, Sara; Pham, Thu Hang; Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Tarantola, Arnaud; Godreuil, Sylvain; Blanche, Stéphane; Delacourt, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    The diagnosis of tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children is challenging. We assessed the performance of alternative specimen collection methods for tuberculosis diagnosis in HIV-infected children using Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert). HIV-infected children aged ≤13 years with suspected intrathoracic tuberculosis were enrolled in 8 hospitals in Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, and Vietnam. Gastric aspirates were taken for children aged children aged ≥10 years (standard samples); nasopharyngeal aspirate and stool were taken for all children, and a string test was performed if the child was aged ≥4 years (alternative samples). All samples were tested with Xpert. The diagnostic accuracy of Xpert for culture-confirmed tuberculosis was analyzed in intention-to-diagnose and per-protocol approaches. Of 281 children enrolled, 272 (96.8%) had ≥1 specimen tested with Xpert (intention-to-diagnose population), and 179 (63.5%) had all samples tested with Xpert (per-protocol population). Tuberculosis was culture-confirmed in 29/272 (10.7%) children. Intention-to-diagnose sensitivities of Xpert performed on all, standard, and alternative samples were 79.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 60.3-92.0), 72.4% (95% CI, 52.8-87.3), and 75.9% (95% CI, 56.5-89.7), respectively. Specificities were ≥97.5%. Xpert combined on nasopharyngeal aspirate and stool had intention-to-diagnose and per-protocol sensitivities of 75.9% (95% CI, 56.5-89.7) and 75.0% (95% CI, 47.6-92.7), respectively. The combination of nasopharyngeal aspirate and stool sample is a promising alternative to methods usually recommended by national programs. Xpert performed on respiratory and stools samples enables rapid confirmation of tuberculosis diagnosis in HIV-infected children. The ANRS (Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida) 12229 PAANTHER (Pediatric Asian African Network for Tuberculosis and HIV Research) 01 study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01331811). © The Author 2016

  9. Stool screening of Syrian refugees and asylum seekers in Germany, 2013/2014: Identification of Sabin like polioviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Sindy; Neubauer, Katrin; Baillot, Armin; Rieder, Gabriele; Adam, Maja; Diedrich, Sabine

    2015-10-01

    Germany is a partner of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Assurance of polio free status is based on enterovirus surveillance, which focuses on patients with signs of acute flaccid paralysis or aseptic meningitis/encephalitis, representing the key symptoms of poliovirus infection. In response to the wild poliovirus outbreak in Syria 2013 and high number of refugees coming from Syria to Germany, stool samples from 629 Syrian refugees/asylum seekers aged Syrian refugees and asylum seekers at that time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of serotypes and virulence markers of Escherichia coli isolated from human stool and urine samples in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Osman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic-uremic syndrome are associated with Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC. There are others DEC (Diarrhoeagenic E. coli pathotypes responsible for outbreaks and others toxins associated to these. Most clinical signs of disease arise as a consequence of the production of Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1, Stx2 or combinations of these toxins. Other major virulence factors include E. coli haemolysin (hlyA, and intimin, the product of the eaeA gene that is involved in the attaching and effacing adherence phenotype. Materials and Methods: In this study, the PCR assay was used to detect 12 E. coli genes associated with virulence (stx1, stx2, hylA, Flic h7 , stb, F41, K99, sta, F17, LT-I, LT-II and eaeA. Results: A total of 108 E. coli strains were serotyped into 64 typable strains. The investigated strains from the stool, 8/80 (10% strains were O 164:K, while the 56/110 strains isolated from the urine were O126:K71 (44/110, 40% and O 86:K 61 (12/110, 11%. The distribution pattern of the detected virulence genes was observed to be in the following order: F17 (10% from the stool and 44% from the urine, Sta (10% from the stool, hylA (10% from the stool and 44% from the urine, Stb (44% from the urine and stx1 (27% from the urine. The 8 faecal strains encoded a combination of the F17, Sta and hylA genes, while the 56 urine strains encoded a combination of the F17 0+ Stb + hylA (44/110, 40% and Stx1 only (12/60, 20%. Conclusion: This is the first report on the molecular characterization of E. coli diarrhoeagenic strains in Egypt and the first report on the potential role of E. coli in diarrhoea and urinary tract infections in a localized geographic area where the people engage in various occupational activities.

  11. Isolation of pathogenic Escherichia coli from stool samples of diarrhoeal patients with history of raw milk consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Brahmbhatt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To detect the occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli from stool samples of diarrhoeal patients with history of raw milk consumption and to determine the public health significance of isolates, especially their role in causing human diseases.Materials and Methods: Atotal of 100 stool samples from diarrhoeal patients, with history of raw milk consumption were collected from primary health centres in and around Anand city, under aseptic conditions and a total of 50 raw milk samples were collected from milk vendors, retail shops located in Anand city in sterilized sample bottles. MacConkey broth was used for the enrichment of all the samples and inoculation was done on MacConkey agar and EMB agar was used as the selective media. This was followed by the confirmation of isolates using biochemical tests. For the serotyping,E. coli isolates were sent to the National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute (CRI, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh.Detection of virulence genes was performed using PCR technique.Results: During the present investigation, 26 (52% E. coli isolates from 50 milk samples and 59 (59% E. coli isolates from 100 stool samples were recovered. Out of 85 E. coli isolates sent for serotyping, 74 isolates could be typed which were further distributed into 13 different serogroups O2, O4, O8, O17, O22, O25, O29, O36, O45, O60, O90, O116 and O172, whereas 8 isolates were found untypable and 3 isolates were reported rough isolates. Of the 59 E. coli isolates from stool samples of diarrhoeal patients tested, 15 isolates (25.42% were reported to be positive for stx genes, among that 6 (10.16% were positive for stx1 gene, 9 (15.25% isolates were positive for stx2 gene, while 3 isolates (5.08% were positive for eaeA gene. In this study, 21 E. coliisolates were found to be Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC while none of the isolates were positive for the serotype O157. Conclusions: Our present findings indicate that raw

  12. Anterolateral Ligament of the Knee Shows Variable Anatomy in Pediatric Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Kevin G; Milewski, Matthew D; Cannamela, Peter C; Ganley, Theodore J; Fabricant, Peter D; Terhune, Elizabeth B; Styhl, Alexandra C; Anderson, Allen F; Polousky, John D

    2017-06-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction failure rates are highest in youth athletes. The role of the anterolateral ligament in rotational knee stability is of increasing interest, and several centers are exploring combined ACL and anterolateral ligament reconstruction for these young patients. Literature on the anterolateral ligament of the knee is sparse in regard to the pediatric population. A single study on specimens younger than age 5 years demonstrated the presence of the anterolateral ligament in only one of eight specimens; therefore, much about the prevalence and anatomy of the anterolateral ligament in pediatric specimens remains unknown. We sought to (1) investigate the presence or absence of the anterolateral ligament in prepubescent anatomic specimens; (2) describe the anatomic relationship of the anterolateral ligament to the lateral collateral ligament; and (3) describe the anatomic relationship between the anterolateral ligament and the physis. Fourteen skeletally immature knee specimens (median age, 8 years; range, 7-11 years) were dissected (12 male, two female specimens). The posterolateral structures were identified in all specimens, including the lateral collateral ligament and popliteus tendon. The presence or absence of the anterolateral ligament was documented in each specimen, along with origin, insertion, and dimensions, when applicable. The relationship of the anterolateral ligament origin to the lateral collateral ligament origin was recorded. The anterolateral ligament was identified in nine of 14 specimens. The tibial attachment point was consistently located in the same region on the proximal tibia, between the fibular head and Gerdy's tubercle; however, the femoral origin of the anterolateral ligament showed considerable variation with respect to the lateral collateral ligament origin. The median femoral origin of the anterolateral ligament was 10 mm (first interquartile 6 mm, third interquartile 13) distal to the distal

  13. Influence of precracked specimen configuration and starting stress intensity on the stress corrosion cracking of 4340 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisagor, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental results are presented from a study of the effects of precracked specimen configuration and initial starting stress intensity on crack growth rate and threshold stress intensity, for both onset of cracking and crack arrest. Attention is given to AISI 4340 steel in a 3.5-percent NaCl solution, for configurations of a single edge-cracked specimen tested in cantilever bending under constant load, and a modified compact specimen bolt loaded to a constant deflection. The threshold stress intensity value determined was independent of specimen configuration, if the stress intensity value associated with the compact specimen is taken where the discontinuous break occurs in the velocity-stress intensity curve.

  14. Fracture mechanics parameters estimation of CCT specimens made of X 5 CrNi 18 10 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kozak

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates fracture behaviour of specimens made of high ductile stainless steel. Investigated material was X 5 CrNi 18 10 steel and the specimens used in this investigation were prepared as centre crack tension (CCT specimens. Pre-cracking of specimens was done by controlled cycling loading. For determination of J-integral, as one of important fracture mechanics parameters, a single specimen method with loading-unloading procedure was used. The same experiment was numerically modelled by using commercial software for finite element analysis – ANSYS. The standard node releasing technique was implemented in finite element method simulation to simulate crack propagation. Numerically obtained results were compared to the results obtained by experiment.

  15. New suoid specimens from Gebel Zelten, Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickford, M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A restricted collection of suoids from Gebel Zelten was made in the 1990’s by the Spanish-Libyan Palaeontology Expedition. Dr Dolores Soria filmed the specimens with a video camera and took measurements of the teeth with vernier calipers. This paper uses the images from the video, which, even though somewhat limited in terms of picture quality, are of interest because they represent the first known snout of the gigantic suid Megalochoerus khinzikebirus. The images reveal that it is basically an enlarged version of Libycochoerus massai, but with relatively small premolars. The sanithere specimens from the site were photographed with an Olympus 1.4 megapixel digital camera, and the image quality is better than from the video camera. These specimens throw light on the degree of sexual dimorphism exhibited by sanitheres, a feature that was previously inferred from isolated teeth, but which can now be confirmed on the basis of the two mandible fragments from Gebel Zelten. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr Soria. This paper takes into account a few undescribed suid post-cranial bones from Gebel Zelten housed in the Natural History Museum, London, collected during the 1960’s by R. Savage.Una limitada colección de suoideos procedentes de Gebel Zelten fue hecha a finales de los años 1990 por una expedición paleontológica internacional, con participación española y libia. La Dra. Dolores Soria filmó los ejemplares con una cámara de vídeo y tomó las medidas de los dientes con calibre. En este trabajo se utilizan las imágenes filmadas, que, aunque algo limitadas en términos de calidad fotográfica, son interesantes porque representan las primeras conocidas del rostro del suido gigante Megalochoerus khinzikebirus. Las imágenes revelan que básicamente es una versión agrandada de Libycochoerus massai, pero con premolares relativamente más pequeños. Los ejemplares de saniterios fueron fotografiados con una cámara digital Olympus

  16. Evaluation of a new automated homogeneous PCR assay, GenomEra C. difficile, for rapid detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile in fecal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Jari J; Mentula, Silja; Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku

    2013-09-01

    We evaluated a new automated homogeneous PCR assay to detect toxigenic Clostridium difficile, the GenomEra C. difficile assay (Abacus Diagnostica, Finland), with 310 diarrheal stool specimens and with a collection of 33 known clostridial and nonclostridial isolates. Results were compared with toxigenic culture results, with discrepancies being resolved by the GeneXpert C. difficile PCR assay (Cepheid). Among the 80 toxigenic culture-positive or GeneXpert C. difficile assay-positive fecal specimens, 79 were also positive with the GenomEra C. difficile assay. Additionally, one specimen was positive with the GenomEra assay but negative with the confirmatory methods. Thus, the sensitivity and specificity were 98.8% and 99.6%, respectively. With the culture collection, no false-positive or -negative results were observed. The analytical sensitivity of the GenomEra C. difficile assay was approximately 5 CFU per PCR test. The short hands-on (<5 min for 1 to 4 samples) and total turnaround (<1 h) times, together with the high positive and negative predictive values (98.8% and 99.6%, respectively), make the GenomEra C. difficile assay an excellent option for toxigenic C. difficile detection in fecal specimens.

  17. Fixture For Compression-After-Impact Tests Of Thin Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Hodge, Andrew J.; Lance, David G.

    1994-01-01

    Special fixture holds specimen of laminated composite material in 20-klb (89-kN) or larger load frame for compression-after-impact test. In preparation for test, specimen damaged by dropping weight on it at known kinetic energy. During test, specimen loaded in compression, and load measured, until specimen fails. Measurement data used to characterize compressive strength of specimen after impact important indicator of ability of structural components made of composite material to tolerate damage. Tests give more-realistic measures of tolerance to damage.

  18. In pile creep measuring rigs for metallic specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, M.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of creep rigs are described using stainless steel or zircaloy specimens. First, a tensile creep rig allowing continuous length measurement of tubular or solid specimens. The measurement of the specimen length is compared with that of a reference specimen, situated as close as possible to the tensile one. The second rig is used for continuous measurement of the radial strain of pressurised tubes. The measurement is made by a cone and ball system, transforming diameter changes into axial displacements. These rigs are made in two parts: a capsule with NaK, including: specimens, loading bellows microwave measuring system, and a standard 'CHOUCA' furnace with electrical heating [fr

  19. Instrumented impact testing machine with reduced specimen oscillation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintamaa, R.; Ranka, K.; Wallin, K.; Ikonen, K.; Talja, H.; Kotilainen, H.; Sirkkola, E.

    1984-07-01

    A pendulum-type instrumented Charpy test apparatus based on inverted test geometry was developed. Geometry inversion reduces inertia load and specimen oscillation effects. Initial impact energy is double that of standard (300 J) impact testers, allowing the use of larger (10 x 20 x 110 mm) bend specimens than normal Charpy specimens. The rotation axis in the three point bending is nearly stationary, making COD-measurements possible. Inertia effects and specimen oscillations are compared with the conventional tester, and using an analytical finite element model for Charpy V-notch specimens. Better performance for the inverted geometry is reported.

  20. Specimen holder for an electron microscope and device and method for mounting a specimen in an electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, H.W.; Latenstein van Voorst, A.; Westra, C.; Hoveling, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    A specimen holder for an electron microscope, comprising a bar-shaped body provided adjacent one end with means for receiving a specimen, with means being present for screening the specimen from the environment at least temporarily in airtight and moisture-proof manner in a first position, which

  1. Heat-stabilised rice bran consumption by colorectal cancer survivors modulates stool metabolite profiles and metabolic networks: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dustin G; Borresen, Erica C; Brown, Regina J; Ryan, Elizabeth P

    2017-05-01

    Rice bran (RB) consumption has been shown to reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) growth in mice and modify the human stool microbiome. Changes in host and microbial metabolism induced by RB consumption was hypothesised to modulate the stool metabolite profile in favour of promoting gut health and inhibiting CRC growth. The objective was to integrate gut microbial metabolite profiles and identify metabolic pathway networks for CRC chemoprevention using non-targeted metabolomics. In all, nineteen CRC survivors participated in a parallel randomised controlled dietary intervention trial that included daily consumption of study-provided foods with heat-stabilised RB (30 g/d) or no additional ingredient (control). Stool samples were collected at baseline and 4 weeks and analysed using GC-MS and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-MS. Stool metabolomics revealed 93 significantly different metabolites in individuals consuming RB. A 264-fold increase in β-hydroxyisovaleroylcarnitine and 18-fold increase in β-hydroxyisovalerate exemplified changes in leucine, isoleucine and valine metabolism in the RB group. A total of thirty-nine stool metabolites were significantly different between RB and control groups, including increased hesperidin (28-fold) and narirutin (14-fold). Metabolic pathways impacted in the RB group over time included advanced glycation end products, steroids and bile acids. Fatty acid, leucine/valine and vitamin B6 metabolic pathways were increased in RB compared with control. There were 453 metabolites identified in the RB food metabolome, thirty-nine of which were identified in stool from RB consumers. RB consumption favourably modulated the stool metabolome of CRC survivors and these findings suggest the need for continued dietary CRC chemoprevention efforts.

  2. Nerve degeneration in inguinal hernia specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, G; Ober, E; Romano, G; Salamone, G; Agrusa, A; Gulotta, G; Bussani, R

    2011-02-01

    The histological study of the herniated inguinal area is rare in the literature. This report is focused on the detection of structural changes of the nerves within tissues bordering the inguinal hernia of cadavers. Their physiopathological consequences are hypothesized. Primary inguinal hernia was diagnosed in 30 fresh cadavers. Tissue specimens from the inguinal region close to and around the hernia opening were excised for histological examination. A control of the data was achieved through tissue samples excised from equivalent sites of the inguinal region in 15 cadavers without hernia. The detected nerves in the inguinal area demonstrated pathological changes such as fibrotic degeneration, atrophy, and fatty dystrophy of the axons. The thickening of the perineural sheath was constantly seen. These findings were consistently present, independent of the hernia type. The detected nerve alterations lead us to imagine a worsening, or even the cessation, of the nervous impulse to the muscles, leading to atrophy and weakening of the abdominal wall. This could represent one of the multifactorial causes of hernia genesis.

  3. Gradient field microscopy of unstained specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewoo; Sridharan, Shamira; Popescu, Gabriel

    2012-03-12

    We present a phase derivative microscopy technique referred to as gradient field microscopy (GFM), which provides the first-order derivatives of the phase associated with an optical field passing through a transparent specimen. GFM utilizes spatial light modulation at the Fourier plane of a bright field microscope to optically obtain the derivatives of the phase and increase the contrast of the final image. The controllable spatial modulation pattern allows us to obtain both one component of the field gradient (derivative along one direction) and the gradient intensity, which offers some advantages over the regular differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. Most importantly, unlike DIC, GFM does not use polarizing optics and, thus, it is applicable to birefringent samples. We demonstrate these features of GFM with studies of static and dynamic biological cells (HeLa cells and red blood cells). We show that GFM is capable of qualitatively providing information about cell membrane fluctuations. Specifically, we captured the disappearance of the bending mode of fluctuations in osmotically swollen red blood cells.

  4. From an Easily Accessible Pentacarbonylcobalt(I) Salt to Piano-Stool Cations [(arene)Co(CO)2 ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Stefan C; Holz, Albina; Schmidt, Alexei; Kratzert, Daniel; Himmel, Daniel; Krossing, Ingo

    2017-10-17

    The facile synthesis of a pentacarbonyl cobalt(I) salt without the need for a superacid as solvent is presented. This salt, [Co(CO) 5 ] + [Al(OR F ) 4 ] - {R F =C(CF 3 ) 3 }, readily accessible on a multigram scale, undergoes substitution reactions with arenes yielding the hitherto unknown class of two-legged cobalt piano-stool complexes [(arene)Co(CO) 2 ] + with four different arene ligands. Such a substitution chemistry would have been impossible in superacid solution, as the arenes used would have been oxidized and/or protonated. Thus, the general approach described herein may have a wide synthetic use. Additionally, the thermochemistry of the piano-stool complexes is shown to be not easy to describe computationally and most of the established DFT methods overestimate the reaction energies. Only CCSD(T) calculations close to the basis set limit gave energies fully agreeing with the experiment. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. [Detection of stool antigens of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs belonging to slaughterhouse workers and offal merchants in Metropolitan Lima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Veronika; Falcón, Néstor; Morel, Noelia; González, Gualberto

    2017-04-20

    To demonstrate the presence of Echinoccocus granulosus in the definitive host in the city of Lima, Perú, by detecting parasite antigens in the stool of dogs belonging to offal handlers and merchants in authorized slaughterhouses in Metropolitan Lima. Stool samples were collected from 58 dogs and examined using the coproELISA technique for the detection of secretory/excretory antigens of E. granulosus. A survey was conducted to obtain information on pet feeding and handling practices. Positivity to E. granulosus was detected in 13.8% (8/58) of the dogs. In 27.8% (5/18) of the homes, at least one animal showed positivity, and in families that had more than four dogs the chances of finding positivity in at least one dog were higher (P dog tested positive the pets were fed on offal. Of study participants, 94.4% (17) knew nothing about the routes of transmission of hydatid disease. Results show the presence of definitive hosts in the urban area of Lima and underscore the need to more widely disseminate practices for the prevention of parasite transmission.

  6. Limitations in the use of 14C-glycocholate breath and stool bile acid determinations in patients with chronic diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.; Walker, K.; Thomson, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of a modified 14 C-glycocholate breath test on 165 consecutive in-patients being investigated for chronic diarrhea showed that the measurement of 14 CO 2 between 3 and 6 h after oral dosing of 5 microCi of 14 C-glycocholic acid was of only limited use to distinguish between patients with Crohn's disease (CD), idiopathic bile salt wastage (IBW), or ileal resection (IR) from those with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Continuing 14 CO 2 collections for up to 24 h was of little more help in establishing the presence of bacterial overgrowth syndrome (BOS) and in distinguishing between BOS and CD. Stool bile acid measurements were of use in differentiating between IBW and IBS, but did not distinguish between CD and BOS or between CD and IR. Since the range of normal values was defined by measurements in the IBS group, a positive test was specific for an organic cause of chronic diarrhea. Even so, the sensitivity of the test was relatively low: CD, 53%; IR, 23%; IBW, 14 %; and BOS, 10%. We believe that the 24-h 14 C-glycocholic breath test combined with the measurement of stool bile acids represents a screening test of only limited use for the identification of organic causes of chronic diarrhea

  7. High frequency of multiple HPV types in cervical specimens from Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlhede, Nina; Bonde, Jesper; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus infection (HPV) is common and usually harmless. However, chronic cervical infection with high-risk HPV types can cause cell changes that may eventually lead to cancer. To determine the frequency of individual HPV types among mixed infections, we examined the type...... distribution among cervical specimens from more than 1000 Danish women. We also examined the HPV type distribution and the frequency of single and multiple HPV types for specimens from 113 women who underwent conization and were diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II or worse (CIN2+). Using...... microarray technology, we found that 49% of the HPV-positive patients were infected with multiple HPV types. Among the CIN2+ diagnosed women, this frequency was 41%. The most frequently found high-risk HPV type was HPV-16, which was found in 25% of the HPV-positive cervical specimens. Among the HPV positive...

  8. Methodology exploration of specimen preparation for atom probe tomography from nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jiangtao [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Wong, Derek [Australian Centre for Microscopy & Microanalysis. The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Du, Sichao [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Yang, Limei [Australian Centre for Microscopy & Microanalysis. The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Ringer, Simon [Australian Centre for Microscopy & Microanalysis. The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering. The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Zheng, Rongkun, E-mail: rongkun.zheng@sydney.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Semiconductor nanowires have been intensively explored for applications in electronics, photonics, energy conversion and storage. A fundamental and quantitative understanding of growth–structure–property relationships is central to applications where nanowires exhibit clear advantages. Atom Probe Tomography (APT) is able to provide 3 dimensional quantitative elemental distributions at atomic-resolution and is therefore unique in understanding the growth–structure–property relationships. However, the specimen preparation with nanowires is extremely challenging. In this paper, two ion beam free specimen preparation methods for APT are presented which are efficient for various nanowires. - Highlights: • Previous APT specimen Prep methods from nanowires (NWs) were summarized. • Low-density NWs growing on substrates for in-situ APT experiments were presented. • Another unique single NW lift-out method for APT was also proposed.

  9. The Great Lakes Fisheries Specimen Bank: a Canadian perspective in environmental specimen banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriluk, R M; Whittle, D M; Keir, M J; Carswell, A A; Huestis, S Y

    1997-05-01

    Since 1977 the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) has maintained a specimen bank for retrospective chemical analyses. The Great Lakes Fisheries Specimen Bank (GLFSB) is a complementary activity to the department's ongoing Great Lakes Contaminants Surveillance Program that has annually, since 1977, monitored levels of metals and organochlorines in aquatic biota throughout the Canadian Great Lakes. Past activities have focused on defining the effects of long-term frozen storage on the integrity of organochlorine residues in archived biological tissues. Archived samples have been reanalyzed for total PCBs, PCB congeners including co-planar PCBs, dioxin and furan isomers, and 22 toxaphene congeners. More recently, archived samples of predatory fish have been analyzed for stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta 15N) and carbon (delta 13C), as indicators of historical changes in food web dynamics. A catalogue or user-guide has recently been completed describing all information associated with samples stored in the GLFSB.

  10. Failure mechanism of resistance-spot-welded specimens impacted on base material by bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The tests of bullet impact on the base material (BM of a simple specimen with a single resistance-spot-welded (RSW nugget of TRIP800 steel are performed to investigate the response of the RSW specimen to the ballistic debris impact on the RSW specimen. A one-stage gas gun is used to fire the bullets while a laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR is used to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the RSW specimen. The recovered RSW specimens are examined with the three-dimensional super depth digital microscope (SDDM and the scanning electro microscope (SEM. For the tests of small multiple-bullet impact, it is revealed that the wave train of the VISAR measured results and the detachment of the base material interfaces in the recovered RSW specimens are directly related to the reflection and refraction of the curved stress waves incoming to the interfaces and the free surfaces in the RSW specimens. The detachment of BM interfaces can lead to the impact failure of the RSW joints for the larger multiple-bullet impact at higher velocity, the mechanism of which is different from the case for normal incidence (spalling. For the tests of single large bullet impact, it is brought to light experimentally that the plastic strain concentration at the “notch tip” spurs either the crack near the RSW joint or the split of the nugget. The numerical simulation shows up the process of splitting the nugget: a crack initiates at the “notch tip”, propagates across the nugget interface and splits the nugget into two parts. It is indicated that the interaction between the stress waves and many interfaces/free surfaces in the RSW specimen under ballistic impact causes variable local stress triaxialities and stress Lode angles, which affects the deformation and fracture mechanism of the RSW specimen including stretching and shearing failure. It is shown that the impact failure of the RSW joints is a mixture of brittle

  11. Failure mechanism of resistance-spot-welded specimens impacted on base material by bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunlei; Ma, Bohan; Chen, Danian; Wang, Huanran; Ma, Dongfang

    2018-01-01

    The tests of bullet impact on the base material (BM) of a simple specimen with a single resistance-spot-welded (RSW) nugget of TRIP800 steel are performed to investigate the response of the RSW specimen to the ballistic debris impact on the RSW specimen. A one-stage gas gun is used to fire the bullets while a laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) is used to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the RSW specimen. The recovered RSW specimens are examined with the three-dimensional super depth digital microscope (SDDM) and the scanning electro microscope (SEM). For the tests of small multiple-bullet impact, it is revealed that the wave train of the VISAR measured results and the detachment of the base material interfaces in the recovered RSW specimens are directly related to the reflection and refraction of the curved stress waves incoming to the interfaces and the free surfaces in the RSW specimens. The detachment of BM interfaces can lead to the impact failure of the RSW joints for the larger multiple-bullet impact at higher velocity, the mechanism of which is different from the case for normal incidence (spalling). For the tests of single large bullet impact, it is brought to light experimentally that the plastic strain concentration at the "notch tip" spurs either the crack near the RSW joint or the split of the nugget. The numerical simulation shows up the process of splitting the nugget: a crack initiates at the "notch tip", propagates across the nugget interface and splits the nugget into two parts. It is indicated that the interaction between the stress waves and many interfaces/free surfaces in the RSW specimen under ballistic impact causes variable local stress triaxialities and stress Lode angles, which affects the deformation and fracture mechanism of the RSW specimen including stretching and shearing failure. It is shown that the impact failure of the RSW joints is a mixture of brittle fracture and ductile

  12. Screening the natural habitat: New peptaibiotics from specimens and pure cultures of the fungicolous fungus Hypocrea pulvinata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roehrich, C. R.; Iversen, Anita; Degenkolb, T.

    2012-01-01

    In order to further investigate the significance of antibiotics for the producing organism(s) in the natural habitat, we screened specimens of the fungicolous fungus Hypocrea pulvinata growing on its natural hosts Piptoporus betulinus and Fomitopsis pinicola1. Using a peptaibiomics approach2, we...... detected 17-, 18-, 19- (major sequences), and 20-residue peptide sequences in the five specimens analyzed by (U)HPLC/HR-ESI-QqTOF-MS. Structures of peptaibiotics found were independently confirmed by analyzing the peptaibiome of pure agar cultures obtained by single-ascospore isolation from the specimens1...... the parasitic life style of a fungicolous fungus....

  13. Effects of probiotic-containing products on stool frequency and intestinal transit in constipated adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry E; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Ibarra, Alvin

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are commonly recommended for the alleviation of constipation symptoms. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of probiotic-containing products on stool frequency and intestinal transit time (ITT) in constipated adults and to determine the factors that influence the efficacy of these products. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials that measured weekly stool frequency or ITT in constipated adults receiving probiotic-containing supplements. A random effects meta-analysis was performed; stool frequency was summarized by the mean difference statistic and ITT was summarized by the standardized mean difference (SMD) statistic. Meta-regression and diagnostic model performance testing were used to identify publication bias and sources of heterogeneity. A total of 21 studies (23 comparisons) comprising 2656 subjects were included. All studies utilized probiotics containing Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium species. Probiotic-containing products resulted in a mean increase in weekly stool frequency of 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53-1.14, PProbiotic-containing products were also efficacious in reducing ITT (SMD=0.65, 95%CI 0.33-0.97, Pprobiotic species, the number of probiotic strains and the daily probiotic dosage had no influence on the outcomes. Supplementation with products containing Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium species increases stool frequency and reduces ITT in constipated adults. However, since significant heterogeneity in outcomes was detected among the studies analyzed, the results should be interpreted with caution.

  14. Improved amplification efficiency on stool samples by addition of spermidine and its use for non-invasive detection of colorectal cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Roperch, Jean-Pierre

    2015-05-29

    Background Using quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QM-MSP) is a promising method for colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis from stool samples. Difficulty in eliminating PCR inhibitors of this body fluid has been extensively reported. Here, spermidine is presented as PCR facilitator for the detection of stool DNA methylation biomarkers using QM-MSP. We examined its effectiveness with NPY, PENK and WIF1, three biomarkers which we have previously shown to be of relevance to CRC. Results We determined an optimal window for the amplification of the albumin (Alb) gene (100 ng of bisulfite-treated stool DNA added of 1 mM spermidine) at which we report that spermidine acts as a PCR facilitator (AE = 1680%) for SG RT-PCR. We show that the amplification of methylated PENK, NPY and WIF1 is considerably facilitated by QM-MSP as measured by an increase of CMI (Cumulative Methylation Index, i.e. the sum of the three methylation values) by a factor of 1.5 to 23 fold in individual samples, and of 10 fold in a pool of five samples. Conclusions We contend that spermidine greatly reduces the problems of PCR inhibition in stool samples. This observed feature, after validation on a larger sampling, could be used in the development of stool-based CRC diagnosis tests.

  15. Evaluation of ColorPAC Giardia/Cryptosporidium Rapid Assay and ProSpecT Giardia/Cryptosporidium Microplate Assay for Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Fecal Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Katanik, M. T.; Schneider, S. K.; Rosenblatt, J. E.; Hall, G. S.; Procop, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in clinical stool specimens using the ColorPAC and ProSpecT enzyme immunoassays revealed 98.7% agreement for Giardia detection and 98.1% agreement for Cryptosporidium detection. Sensitivities were uniformly 100%. The specificities of the ColorPAC immunoassay for Giardia and Cryptosporidium detection were 100 and 99.5%, respectively, and those for the ProSpecT assay were 98.4 and 98.6%, respectively. The false-positive reactions with the ProSpecT assay ...

  16. Frequency of residual melanoma in wide local excision (WLE) specimens after complete excisional biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshinsky, Vladimir; Lin, Matthew J; Serpell, Jonathan; Leung, Michael; Wolfe, Rory; McLean, Catriona; Kelly, John W

    2016-01-01

    We sought to better understand the role of wide local excision (WLE) in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma by analyzing residual or locally metastatic disease in WLE specimens of melanomas initially diagnosed with a complete excisional biopsy. This was a retrospective review of 807 consecutive WLEs of melanomas diagnosed after complete excisional biopsy. All specimens were reviewed by a single dermatopathologist. Risk of residual or locally metastatic disease was analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. In the 807 WLE specimens, further melanoma was found in 34 cases (4.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9-5.8). Residual primary melanoma was found in 33 of these. On univariate analysis, features associated with residual or locally metastatic disease were histologic subtype (odds ratio 3.0; 95% CI 1.3-7.1, P = .01) and tumor location (odds ratio 7.3; 95% CI 2.0-26.6, P melanoma remaining in WLE specimens (odds ratio 2.7; 95% CI 1.0-7.3, P = .04). Residual melanoma in WLE specimens after histologically assessed complete excisional biopsy is not uncommon. Patients with lentigo maligna subtype melanomas are most at risk. Our findings indicate that the procedure of WLE is most important therapeutically for its role in controlling the primary tumor, rather than in preventing local metastatic recurrence. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Improvement of rotary specimen rack design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batch, J.M.; Gietzen, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A redesign and verification test program has been completed on a new Rotary Specimen Rack ('Lazy Susan') design for the TRIGA Mark III. The purpose of the redesign was to solve a rotation problem which occurred at power levels of about 1 MW and above. The previous redesign effort on the Mark II-type lazy susan was made in 1967 when the bearing was changed to use stellite balls, spring-type separators and stainless-steel bearing races. An extensive test program at that time showed that the design gave excellent service under all anticipated operating conditions. Fifteen of these units have been installed in the past ten years and have been essentially trouble-free. Although the bearing design for the Mark III was very similar, the component layout was such that irradiation-induced heating with associated thermal expansion resulted in decreased bearing clearance and an increase in the required driving torque. The solution involved redesign and re-arrangement of the rack drive mechanism. A series of stringent operational proof tests were made under high temperature and temperature differential conditions which proved successful operation of the new design. The severe conditions under which these tests were performed uncovered further difficulties with the bearing and led to a re-evaluation of the bearing design. A new design was developed in which the spring separators were replaced by similar sized, cylindrical graphite spacers. The entire series of operational and life tests were repeated and the performance was outstanding. Acceptable wear characteristics of the spacers were verified and the bearing was noticeably smoother and quieter than with previous designs. A Mark III lazy susan of this new design was installed in a TRIGA about one year ago and operated at power levels up to 2 MW with excellent performance. The Mark II design has now been changed to incorporate the new drive and bearing design proven for the Mark III. (author)

  18. Technique of manufacturing specimen of irradiated fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Duck Seok; Seo, Hang Seok; Min, Duck Kee; Koo, Dae Seo; Lee, Eun Pyo; Yang, Song Yeol

    1999-04-01

    Technique of manufacturing specimen of irradiated fuel rods to perform efficient PIE is developed by analyzing the relation between requiring time of manufacturing specimen and manufacturing method in irradiated fuel rods. It takes within an hour to grind 1 mm of specimen thickness under 150 rpm in speed of grinding, 600 g gravity in force using no.120, no.240, no.320 of grinding paper. In case of no.400 of grinding paper, it takes more an hour to grind the same thickness as above. It takes up to a quarter to grind 80-130 μm in specimen thickness using no.400 of grinding paper. When grinding time goes beyond 15 minutes, the grinding thickness of specimen does not exist. The polishing of specimen with 150 Rpms in speed of grinding machine, 600 g gravity in force, 10 minutes in polishing time using diamond paste 15 μm on polishing cloths amounts to 50 μm in specimen thickness. In case of diamond paste 9 μm on polishing cloth, the polishing of specimen amounts to 20 μm. The polishing thickness of specimen with 15 minutes in polishing time using 6 μm, 3 μm, 1 μm, 1/4 μm does not exist. Technique of manufacturing specimen of irradiated fuel rods will have application to the destructive examination of PIE. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  19. The thickness effects of the side-grooved CCT specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Kenji; Kikuchi, Masanori; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    J IC tests were carried out on SUS 316 steel by means of the JSME R-curve method as well as the JSME stretched-zone width (SZW) method. The effects of side-grooves on the J in value at the onset of stable crack growth were investigated using CCT specimens of two thicknesses (B = 1 mm and 2 mm). The ratio of the net thickness to the gross thickness was maintained at 0.5. The J in values of the side-grooved CCT specimens of both thicknesses were considerably smaller than those of the 1 TCT specimen. The J in value of the side-grooved specimen of 2 mm thickness was smaller than that of the standard CCT specimen. Further, as the thickness of the specimen became thinner, the J in value decreased. In the case of 1 mm-thick CCT specimens with or without a side-groove, the contraction percentage of thickness was very large so that it was not appropriate to use these specimens for the fracture toughness test. In the case of the thin or side-grooved CCT specimens, the J-value, which is evaluated from the load versus displacement curve using Rice's formula, cannot estimate the J-integral at the central part of the specimen. Therefore, a J-integral estimation method would have to be established using 3-D elastic-plastic analysis. (author)

  20. Providing Quantitative Information and a Nudge to Undergo Stool Testing in a Colorectal Cancer Screening Decision Aid: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Peter H; Perkins, Susan M; Schmidt, Karen K; Muriello, Paul F; Althouse, Sandra; Rawl, Susan M

    2017-08-01

    Guidelines recommend that patient decision aids should provide quantitative information about probabilities of potential outcomes, but the impact of this information is unknown. Behavioral economics suggests that patients confused by quantitative information could benefit from a "nudge" towards one option. We conducted a pilot randomized trial to estimate the effect sizes of presenting quantitative information and a nudge. Primary care patients (n = 213) eligible for colorectal cancer screening viewed basic screening information and were randomized to view (a) quantitative information (quantitative module), (b) a nudge towards stool testing with the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) (nudge module), (c) neither a nor b, or (d) both a and b. Outcome measures were perceived colorectal cancer risk, screening intent, preferred test, and decision conflict, measured before and after viewing the decision aid, and screening behavior at 6 months. Patients viewing the quantitative module were more likely to be screened than those who did not ( P = 0.012). Patients viewing the nudge module had a greater increase in perceived colorectal cancer risk than those who did not ( P = 0.041). Those viewing the quantitative module had a smaller increase in perceived risk than those who did not ( P = 0.046), and the effect was moderated by numeracy. Among patients with high numeracy who did not view the nudge module, those who viewed the quantitative module had a greater increase in intent to undergo FIT ( P = 0.028) than did those who did not. The limitations of this study were the limited sample size and single healthcare system. Adding quantitative information to a decision aid increased uptake of colorectal cancer screening, while adding a nudge to undergo FIT did not increase uptake. Further research on quantitative information in decision aids is warranted.

  1. Using gross energy improves metabolizable energy predictive equations for pet foods whereas undigested protein and fiber content predict stool quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Because animal studies are labor intensive, predictive equations are used extensively for calculating metabolizable energy (ME concentrations of dog and cat pet foods. The objective of this retrospective review of digestibility studies, which were conducted over a 7-year period and based upon Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO feeding protocols, was to compare the accuracy and precision of equations developed from these animal feeding studies to commonly used predictive equations. Feeding studies in dogs and cats (331 and 227 studies, respectively showed that equations using modified Atwater factors accurately predict ME concentrations in dog and cat pet foods (r²= 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. The National Research Council (NRC equations also accurately predicted ME concentrations in pet foods (r² = 0.97 for dog and cat foods. For dogs, these equations resulted in an average estimate of ME within 0.16% and 2.24% of the actual ME measured (equations using modified Atwater factors and NRC equations, respectively; for cats these equations resulted in an average estimate of ME within 1.57% and 1.80% of the actual ME measured. However, better predictions of dietary ME in dog and cat pet foods were achieved using equations based on analysis of gross energy (GE and new factors for moisture, protein, fat and fiber. When this was done there was less than 0.01% difference between the measured ME and the average predicted ME (r² = 0.99 and 1.00 in dogs and cats, respectively whereas the absolute value of the difference between measured and predicted was reduced by approximately 50% in dogs and 60% in cats. Stool quality, which was measured by stool score, was influenced positively when dietary protein digestibility was high and fiber digestibility was low. In conclusion, using GE improves predictive equations for ME content of dog and cat pet foods. Nondigestible protein and fiber content of diets predicts stool quality.

  2. Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Medium-size specimens (adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking...... along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres...

  3. Friction Compensation in the Upsetting of Cylindrical Test Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Martins, P. A. F.; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript presents a combined numerical andexperimental methodology for determining the stress-straincurve of metallic materials from the measurements of forceand displacement obtained in the axial compression of cylindrical test specimens with friction between the specimens and the platens...... model or combined friction models are utilized .Experimental results obtained from cylindrical and Rastegaev test specimens with different lubricants combined with the experimental determination of friction by means of ring compression tests allows compensating the effect of friction...

  4. Evaluation of four different systems for extraction of RNA from stool suspensions using MS-2 coliphage as an exogenous control for RT-PCR inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester M Shulman

    Full Text Available Knowing when, and to what extent co-extracted inhibitors interfere with molecular RNA diagnostic assays is of utmost importance. The QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit (A; MagNA Pure LC2.0 Automatic extractor (B; KingFisher (C; and NucliSENS EasyMag (D RNA extraction systems were evaluated for extraction efficiency and co-purification of inhibitors from stool suspensions. Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR of MS-2 coliphage spiked into each system's lysis buffer served as an external control for both. Cycle thresholds (Cts of the MS2 were determined for RNA extracted from stool suspensions containing unknown (n = 93 or varying amounts of inhibitors (n = 92. Stool suspensions from the latter group were also used to determine whether MS-2 and enterovirus rRT-PCR inhibitions were correlated. Specifically 23 RNA extracts from stool suspensions were spiked with enterovirus RNA after extraction and 13 of these stool suspension were spiked with intact enterovirus before extraction. MS2 rRT-PCR inhibition varied for RNAs extracted by the different systems. Inhibition was noted in 12 (13.0%, 26 (28.3%, 7 (7.6%, and 7 (7.6% of the first 93 RNA extracts, and 58 (63.0%, 55 (59.8%, 37 (40.2% and 30 (32.6% of the second 92 extracts for A, B, C, and D, respectively. Furthermore, enterovirus rRT-PCR inhibition correlated with MS2 rRT-PCR inhibition for added enterovirus RNA or virus particles. In conclusion, rRT-PCR for MS-2 RNA is a good predictor of inhibition of enterovirus RNA extracted from stool suspensions. EasyMag performed the best, however all four extraction methods were suitable provided that external controls identified problematic samples.

  5. DETECTION OF HELICOBACTER ANTIGEN IN STOOL SAMPLES AND ITS RELATION TO H. PYLORI POSITIVE CHOLECYSTITIS IN EGYPTIAN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC CALCULAR CHOLECYSTITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ehsan H; Gerges, Shawkat S; Ahmed, Rehab; Mostafa, Zeinab M; Al-Hamid, Hager Abd; Abd El-Galil, Heba; Thabet, Suzan

    2015-12-01

    Evidences supporting the association between H. pylori infection and chronic cholecystitis could be found by using direct culture or staining of H. pylori in gallbladder tissues as well as indirect techniques. Stool antigen test has been widely used due to its noninvasive nature. Various stool antigen tests were developed to detect H. pylori using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) based on monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies This study evaluated the frequency of H. pylori antigen in stool samples of patients with chronic calcular cholecystitis as regard gall bladder histopathological changes. Fifty patients were included presented with symptomatic qholecystolithiasis recruited from the outpatient clinic of National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute during 2014-2015. Full history and clinical examination and abdominal ultrasonography were performed. Stool samples were collected, prepared and examined for detection of H. pylori antigen. Cholecystectomy was done for all patients; 45 patients (90%) by laparoscopic Cholecystectomy and 5 patients (10%) by open surgery and removed gallbladders were submitted to pathology department for detection of H. pylori in tissue under microscope using Giemsa stain. The results showed that (82%) were females with mean age (42.6 +/- 1 years). The mean BMI was (29 + 7.2) H. pylori-specific antigen in stool samples was detected in 40% of patients and 38% were detected in patients; tissue, with significant correlation between H. pylori-specific antigen in stool and in tissue. Histopathological pictures infection in tissue were 68.4% mucosal erosions, 63.2% mucosal atrophy, 57.9% mucosal hyperplasia, 26.3% metaplasia, 42.1% musculosa hypertrophy, 26.3% fibrosis, but lymphoid aggregates were in 42.1% of cases.

  6. Highly sensitive, non-invasive detection of colorectal cancer mutations using single molecule, third generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Russo

    2015-12-01

    We present the first study that applies the high read accuracy and depth of single molecule, real time, circular consensus sequencing (SMRT-CCS to the detection of mutations in stool DNA in order to provide a non-invasive, sensitive and accurate test for CRC. In stool DNA isolated from patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, we are able to detect mutations at frequencies below 0.5% with no false positives. This approach establishes a foundation for a non-invasive, highly sensitive assay to screen the population for CRC and the early stage adenomas that lead to CRC.

  7. Drone Transport of Microbes in Blood and Sputum Laboratory Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Street, Jeff; Carroll, Karen; Miller, Heather; Zhang, Sean X

    2016-10-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) could potentially be used to transport microbiological specimens. To examine the impact of UAVs on microbiological specimens, blood and sputum culture specimens were seeded with usual pathogens and flown in a UAV for 30 ± 2 min. Times to recovery, colony counts, morphologies, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identifications of the flown and stationary specimens were similar for all microbes studied. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Uniaxial compression tests on diesel contaminated frozen silty soil specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenaf, D.; Stampli, N.; Bathurst, R.; Chapuis, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Results of a uniaxial, unconfined compression test on artificial diesel-contaminated and uncontaminated frozen silty soils are discussed. The testing program involved 59 specimens. The results show that for the same fluid content, diesel contamination reduced the strength of the frozen specimens by increasing the unfrozen water content. For example, in specimens containing 50 per cent diesel oil of the fluid content by weight the maximum strength was reduced by 95 per cent compared to the strength of an uncontaminated specimen. Diesel contamination was also shown to contribute to the slippage between soil particles by acting as a lubricant, thus accelerating the loss of compressive strength.13 refs., 18 figs

  9. Location specific in situ TEM straining specimens made using FIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.; Papin, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    A method has been devised and demonstrated for producing in situ straining specimens for the transmission electron microscope (TEM) from specific locations in a sample using a dual-beam focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. The specimen is removed from a polished surface in the FIB using normal methods and then attached to a pre-fabricated substrate in the form of a modified TEM tensile specimen. In this manner, specific features of the microstructure of a polished optical mount can be selected for in situ tensile straining. With the use of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), this technique could be extended to select specific orientations of the specimen as well

  10. Analysis of the stress state in an Iosipescu sheartest specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrath, D. E.; Adams, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    The state of stress in an Iosipescu shear test specimen is analyzed, utilizing a finite element computer program. The influence of test fixture configuration on this stress state is included. Variations of the standard specimen configuration, including notch depth, notch angle, and notch root radius are modeled. The purpose is to establish guidelines for a specimen geometry which will accommodate highly orthotropic materials while minimizing stress distribution nonuniformities. Materials ranging from isotropic to highly orthotropic are considered. An optimum specimen configuration is suggested, along with changes in the test fixture.

  11. Grain size evaluation of metallic specimens using laser-ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chung Soo; Park, Hyung Kook; Jeon, Hyung Ha; Kim, Dal Woo; Oh, Ki Jang; Hong, Soon Taek

    2002-01-01

    The laser-ultrasonics inspection techniques for the measurement of grain size have been developed in this study. The ultrasonics are generated by pulsed Nd:YAG laser and the pulse energy is 300 mJ and wavelength is 1064 nm. Since the frequency bandwidth of laser-ultrasonics generated by pulsed laser is extremely broad, this laser-ultrasonics are suitable for analysis of frequency dependence of ultrasonic attenuation. The attenuation coefficients (α) in thick steel plates are measured by using laser-ultrasonics of 15 MHz and 30 MHz, which is probed by confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer. The results show that the attenuation coefficients are closely related with grain size and high frequency ultrasonics are more effective to measure the fine pain size. According to the experimental results of this study, we can conclude that laser-ultrasonics inspection is effective method for grain size measurement. The confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer has been developed for non-contact measurement of laser-ultrasonics. The transmittance characteristic of interferometer has been studied experimentally with CW single-mode laser system. The results show that the Fabry-Perot interferometer is a very effective tool for the measurement of ultrasonics. Using the developed Fabry-Perot interferometer, we have measured ultrasonic signals of high temperature specimen up to 1200 degrees C.

  12. Evaluation of a new single-tube multiprobe real-time PCR for diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shih-Yu; Hsia, Kan-Tai; Chan, Yun-Hsien; Fan, Chia-Kwung; Jiang, Donald Dah-Shyong; Landt, Olfert; Ji, Dar-Der

    2010-08-01

    A single-tube multiprobe real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar was developed. One primer pair with 2 species-specific probes was designed based on new SSU RNA regions of the ribosomal DNA-containing episome. The sensitivity is 1 parasite per milliliter of feces and thus superior to the conventional nested PCR and comparable to other published real-time PCR protocols. The applicability for clinical diagnosis was validated with 218 stool specimens from patients. A total of 51 E. histolytica and 39 E. dispar positive samples was detected by the multiprobe real-time PCR compared to 39 and 22 by routine nested PCR diagnosis. The detection rate of Entamoeba species for the multiprobe real-time PCR assays was significantly higher than the nested PCR (40.8% vs. 28.0%, P Entamoeba moshkovskii, Giardia lamblia , Cryptosporidium sp., Escherichia coli , or other nonpathogenic enteric parasites. The multiprobe real-time PCR assay is simple and rapid and has high specificity and sensitivity. The assay could streamline the laboratory diagnosis procedure and facilitate epidemiological investigation.

  13. Detection of Cryptosporidium sp infection by PCR and modified acid fast staining from potassium dichromate preserved stool

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Kurniawan; Sri W. Dwintasari; Herbowo A. Soetomenggolo; Septelia I. Wanandi

    2009-01-01

    Aim To identify the frequency of Cryptosporidium infection in children below 3 years old by examining concentrated long term preserved stool using PCR detection of 18S rRNA gene and compared with modified acid fast staining technique.Methods Hundred eighty eight stools from children ≤ 3 years old were stored for 13 months in 2.5% K2Cr2O7 solution at 40C. Cryptosporidium oocysts were isolated by water-ether concentration technique. The concentrates were smeared onto object glass and stained wi...

  14. Validation of a simple stool diary used by caregivers to document diarrhea among young children in a low-income country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenov, Benedikte; Namusoke, Hanifa; Nabukeera-Barungi, Nicolette

    2017-01-01

    ), confirming good sensitivity of the diary. High reliability was obtained after a few days of training. The caregiver intra-correlation coefficients were 0.66 (0.55-0.77) and 0.75 (0.66-0.84) after two and seven days of training, respectively, and subjective staff evaluation of caregiver scores showed that ≤6.......5 points (0.3-0.6), p training......, caregivers with mainly no or limited education could report stool consistency with good reliability. Stool consistency, which correlated strongly with dehydration, may be considered an important marker of diarrhea severity in future research....

  15. Axial oblique projections - volumetric studies into left ventricular cast specimens of man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duebel, H.P.; Tschapek, A.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Molekularbiologie)

    1984-01-01

    Single-plane and biplane cineradiography was applied in various axial oblique projections to 15 cast specimens of the left ventricle. Their volumes were calculated by the area-length method. In these model studies, sufficiently accurate volume calculation proved to be practicable by sitting-up projection (SUP), hepatoclavicular representation (HCP), and long-axis representation with 40 0 angulation in the anterior-posterior plane (SLP 2 C 2 ). The latter representation gave the smallest deviations from true volume. (orig.)

  16. [Polio vaccination and stool screening in German reception centers for asylum seekers, November 2013-January 2014 : What was implemented?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlmann, Nadine; George, Maja; Falkenhorst, Gerhard

    2016-05-01

    Following the polio outbreak in Syria and the rising number of Syrian asylum seekers in Germany in 2013, the Robert Koch Institute recommended - within the context of existing vaccination recommendations for asylum seekers - on 01/11/2013 to prioritize polio vaccination of Syrian asylum seekers and stool screening in a target group of Syrian asylum seekers aged less than three years. The article evaluates the implementation of this recommendation in German asylum seeker reception centres (RC) to gain further knowledge on the vaccination practices in RCs and to identify opportunities for improving future recommendations. The electronic questionnaire was sent by email to all German RCs, asking for general information on the RC, existing vaccination efforts, the main obstacles for implementation of the recommendations, the number of incoming and vaccinated asylum seekers, and asylum seekers screened for poliovirus in the period from 01/11/2013 to 31/01/2014. The RCs rated the feasibility of the recommendation and the provided multilingual information material. All of the 20 identified RCs responded. During the study period, 33.874 asylum seekers arrived in the RCs. Of those with available information about possession of a vaccination record, on average 1.6 % did have one. All RCs offered timely vaccination to Syrian asylum seekers younger than three years. In this target group, eight RC achieved vaccination coverages of ≥ 80 %. Stool screening coverage was ≥ 80 % in five of 19 RCs. Eleven RCs rated the recommendation as very well/well implementable. Staff shortages and language barriers were mentioned as the main implementation obstacles. Similar future recommendations for asylum seekers in RCs should be accompanied by informational material in additional languages. Staff shortages hampering implementation could be overcome through collaborations with non-governmental organizations.

  17. Cholera diagnosis in human stool and detection in water: protocol for a systematic review of available technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Karin; Falconer, Jennifer; O'May, Fiona; Jimenez, Miguel; Matragrano, Joe; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Betty; Ager, Alastair

    2018-02-20

    Cholera is a highly infectious diarrheal disease spread via fecal contamination of water and food sources; it is endemic in parts of Africa and Asia and recent outbreaks have been reported in Haiti, the Zambia and Democratic Republic of the Congo. If left untreated, the disease can be fatal in less than 24 h and result in case fatality ratios of 30-50%. Cholera disproportionately affects those living in areas with poor access to water and sanitation: the long-term public health response is focused on improving water and hygiene facilities and access. Short-term measures for infection prevention and control, and disease characterization and surveillance, are impaired by diagnostic delays: culture methods are slow and rely on the availability of infrastructure and specialist equipment. Rapid diagnostic tests have shown promise under field conditions and further innovations in this area have been proposed. This paper is the protocol for a systematic review focused on identifying current technologies and methods used for cholera diagnosis in stool, and detection in water. We will synthesize and appraise information on product technical specifications, accuracy and design features in order to inform infection prevention and control and innovation development. Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Proquest, IndMed and the WHO and Campbell libraries will be searched. We will include studies reporting on field evaluations, including within-study comparisons against a reference standard, and laboratory evaluations reporting on product validation against field stool or water samples. We will extract data according to protocol and attempt meta-analyses if appropriate given data availability and quality. The systematic review builds on a previous scoping review in this field and expands upon this by synthesising data on both product technical characteristics and design features. The review will be of particular value to stakeholders engaged in diagnostic procurement and manufacturers

  18. Cholera diagnosis in human stool and detection in water: protocol for a systematic review of available technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Diaconu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera is a highly infectious diarrheal disease spread via fecal contamination of water and food sources; it is endemic in parts of Africa and Asia and recent outbreaks have been reported in Haiti, the Zambia and Democratic Republic of the Congo. If left untreated, the disease can be fatal in less than 24 h and result in case fatality ratios of 30–50%. Cholera disproportionately affects those living in areas with poor access to water and sanitation: the long-term public health response is focused on improving water and hygiene facilities and access. Short-term measures for infection prevention and control, and disease characterization and surveillance, are impaired by diagnostic delays: culture methods are slow and rely on the availability of infrastructure and specialist equipment. Rapid diagnostic tests have shown promise under field conditions and further innovations in this area have been proposed. Methods This paper is the protocol for a systematic review focused on identifying current technologies and methods used for cholera diagnosis in stool, and detection in water. We will synthesize and appraise information on product technical specifications, accuracy and design features in order to inform infection prevention and control and innovation development. Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Proquest, IndMed and the WHO and Campbell libraries will be searched. We will include studies reporting on field evaluations, including within-study comparisons against a reference standard, and laboratory evaluations reporting on product validation against field stool or water samples. We will extract data according to protocol and attempt meta-analyses if appropriate given data availability and quality. Discussion The systematic review builds on a previous scoping review in this field and expands upon this by synthesising data on both product technical characteristics and design features. The review will be of particular value to

  19. Geographical Variation in Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Stool, Cow-Dung and Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Sahoo, Soumyakanta; Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Klintz, Senia Rosales; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available on relationships between the biophysical environment and antibiotic resistance. This study was conducted to investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from child stool samples, cow-dung and drinking water from the non-coastal (230 households) and coastal (187 households) regions of Odisha, India. Susceptibility testing of E. coli isolates (n = 696) to the following antibiotics: tetracycline, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefixime, cotrimoxazole, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the disk diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates (n = 83). Resistance to at least one antibiotic was detected in 90% or more of the E. coli isolates. Ciprofloxacin MIC values ranged from 8 to 32 µg/mL. The odds ratio (OR) of resistance in E. coli isolates from children’s stool (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.18–8.01), cow-dung (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.59–8.03, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.00–14.44, P = 0.049) were higher in non-coastal compared to coastal region. Similarly, the co-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.39–4.37, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.36–7.41, P = 0.008) as well as the multi-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.12–4.34, P = 0.022) and drinking water (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.06–7.07, P = 0.036) were also higher in the non-coastal compared to the coastal region. PMID:22690160

  20. Application of subsize specimens in nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Kumar, A.S.; Cannon, N.S.; Hamilton, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is sponsoring a research effort through Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Missouri-Rolla to test a correlation for the upper shelf energy (USE) values obtained from the impact testing of subsize Charpy V-notch specimens to those obtained from the testing of full-size samples. The program involves the impact testing of unirradiated and irradiated full-, half-, and third-size Charpy V-notch specimens. To verify the applicability of the correlation on LWR materials, unirradiated and irradiated full-, half-, and third-size Charpy V-notch specimens of a commercial pressure vessel steel (ASTM A533 Grade B) will be tested. The correlation methodology is based on the partitioning of the USE into crack initiation and crack propagation energies. To accomplish this partition, both precracked and notched-only specimens will be used. Whereas the USE of notched-only specimens is the sum of both crack initiation and crack propagation energies, the USE of precracked specimens reflects only the crack propagation component. The difference in the USE of the two types of specimens represents a measure of the crack initiation energy. Normalizing the values of the crack initiation energy to the fracture volume of the sample produces similar values for the full-, half-, and third-size specimens. In addition, the ratios of the USE and the crack propagation energy are also in agreement for full-, half-, and third-size specimens. These two observations will be used to predict the USE of full-size specimens based on subsize USE data. This paper provides details of the program and presents results obtained from the application of the developed correlation methodology to the impact testing of the unirradiated full-, half-, and third-size A533 Grade B Charpy V-notch specimens

  1. Enzymatic detection of formalin-fixed museum specimens for DNA analysis and enzymatic maceration of formalin-fixed specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Margrethe; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2016-01-01

    Abstract.—A simple enzymatic screening method has been developed to detect whether a tissue sample has been preserved with formalin or with ethanol only because such a method is a useful tool for predicting the quality of genetic test results. The method is based on enzymatic digestion at 55 C...... in museums where DNA analyses of archived specimens are performed. Wasted time and resources can be avoided through the detection of formalin-fixed specimens because these specimens yield low-quality, damaged DNA. In addition to the screening method, it is shown that formalin-preserved specimens can...

  2. Full-range stress intensity factor solutions for clamped SENT specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xian-Kui

    2017-01-01

    Single edge notched tension (SENT) specimen with clamped ends has been receiving increasing attention worldwide as a low-constraint specimen to measure less-conservative fracture toughness of pipeline steels in the oil and gas industry. Several SENT test methods were developed, but the solutions of stress intensity factor K used are different. The existing K solutions are thus reviewed and evaluated in this paper for the clamped SENT specimens, and then a full-range analytical solution of K is developed as a function of full-range crack sizes (a/W) and specimen aspect ratios (H/W). From this result, a simple closed-form solution of K is obtained particularly for H/W = 10, as used by the current SENT toughness test methods. The proposed full-range K solutions are validated using different numerical results and error analyses, and thus can be used generally to meet the needs of different SENT testing for determination of fatigue crack growth rate or fracture toughness in the low-constraint conditions. - Highlights: • The stress intensity factor K solutions were reinvestigated for clamped SENT specimens. • A general, full-range analytical solution of K was obtained for H/W≥3 with accuracy of 0.25%. • The corrected K solution obtained previously for BS 8571 was shown accurate for crack sizes of a/W≤0.925. • The actual valid ranges of three FEA results of K were redefined. • A simple closed-form solution of K was proposed for clamped SENT specimens with H/W = 10.

  3. Routine pathology evaluation of hydrocele and spermatocele specimens is associated with significant costs and no identifiable benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Viral S; Nepple, Kenneth G; Lee, Daniel K

    2014-10-01

    Hydrocelectomy and spermatocelectomy are routine scrotal surgeries. A significant number of the surgical specimens are sent for pathology analysis. However, to our knowledge no study has been done to examine outcomes and necessity, which results in significant potentially unnecessary costs to the patient and the health care system. We evaluated outcomes and surgical pathology analysis of hydroceles and spermatoceles. We performed a retrospective, single institution chart review of all patients who underwent initial surgery for hydrocele or spermatocele between January 2000 and August 2013. We determined the number of cases in which a surgical specimen was sent for pathology examination. The cost for each specimen was estimated at the department of pathology. A total of 264 routine scrotal cases were performed during the 14-year period. Surgical specimens were sent for pathology analysis in 102 hydrocelectomy cases (51%) and in 57 spermatocelectomy cases (90%). No pathology specimen showed any indication of malignancy. The estimated direct total cost of pathology analysis was $49,449 in this cohort. No malignancy was detected in 159 hydrocele and spermatocele specimens during the 14 study years, suggesting that the pathology analysis is of little clinical benefit. Forgoing surgical pathology analysis of these specimens would result in significant cost savings to the patient and the health care system. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. On a specimen of Lumbricus terrestris, L. with bifurcated tail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1886-01-01

    In the last number of the »Annals and Magazine of Nat. History” (Dec. 1885), I find a notice of Prof. Jeffrey Bell about two Lumbrici with bifid hinder ends, one specimen belonging to L. terrestris, the other to L. foetidus; moreover he mentions a specimen, presenting a similar remarquable

  5. A Debonded Sandwich Specimen Under Mixed Mode Bending (MMB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2008-01-01

    for the MMB specimen were derived from a superposition analysis. An experimental verification of the methodology proposed was performed using MMB sandwich specimens with H100 PVC foam core and E-glass/polyester non-crimp quadro-axial [0/45/90/-45]s DBLT-850 faces. Different mixed mode loadings were applied...

  6. Design Analysis of the Mixed Mode Bending Sandwich Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2010-01-01

    . The analysis facilitates selection of the appropriate geometry for the MMB sandwich specimen to promote debond failure. An experimental study is performed using MMB sandwich specimens with a H100 PVC foam core and E-glass–polyester faces. The results reveal that debond propagation is successfully achieved...

  7. Structural analysis of 177-FA redesigned surveillance specimen holder tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, C.W.; Thoren, D.E.; Vames, G.J.; Harris, R.J.

    1976-08-01

    Because of in-service operational problems, the surveillance specimen holder tubes described in B and W topical report BAW-10051 have been redesigned. This report describes the new design and structural analysis for normal operation and upset loading conditions. The results of the analysis demonstrate the adequacy of the new surveillance specimen holder tubes for their design life of 40 years

  8. stomach contents of a specimen of proteles cristatus from angola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    north of Sa da Bandeira, Angola (at about 140. SO' Sjl3° 35' E). The skin and skull were deposited in the Alexander McGregor Memorial Museum. Kimberley, Cape (Collectors No. 276a). The stomach contents of this specimen are detailed in. Table I. The habitat where the specimen was obtained was degraded ...

  9. Feasibility Study of Laser Cutting for Fabrication of Tensile Specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Y. G.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, G. S.; Heo, G. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B.

    2015-01-01

    The specimen fabrication technique was established to machine the specimen from the irradiated materials. The wire cut EDM(electric discharge machine) was modified to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from irradiated components and fuel claddings. The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated components and claddings interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, zirconium oxide is protective against further corrosion as well as beneficial to mechanical strength for the tensile deformation of the cladding. Thus, it is important to fabricate the irradiated specimens without removal of oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated structural components and claddings. In the present study, laser cutting system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the feasibility of the laser cutting system was studied for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser beam machining system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the dimensions were compared for the feasibility of the laser cutting system. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zircaloy-4 fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer

  10. Thermal Cycling of Uranium Dioxide - Tungsten Cermet Fuel Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gripshover, P.J.; Peterson, J.H.

    1969-12-08

    In phase I tungsten clad cermet fuel specimens were thermal cycled, to study the effects of fuel loading, fuel particle size, stablized fuel, duplex coatings, and fabrication techniques on dimensional stability during thermal cycling. In phase II the best combination of the factors studies in phase I were combined in one specimen for evaluation.

  11. Improved PID control for triaxial testing liquefied specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Using a frictionless triaxial apparatus, sand specimens can be tested at relatively high axial strains, even while liquefying. However, liquefying specimens have extremely nonlinear stiffness, thus standard PID control does not perform well. To maintain control over applied loads, the PID...

  12. Analysis of off-axis tension test of wood specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen Y. Liu

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a stress analysis of the off-axis tension test of clear wood specimens based on orthotropic elasticity theory. The effects of Poisson's ratio and shear coupling coefficient on stress distribution are analyzed in detail. The analysis also provides a theoretical foundation for the selection of a 10° grain angle in wood specimens for the...

  13. Dual-Energy CT of Rectal Cancer Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najami, Issam; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Madsen, Gunvor

    2016-01-01

    %; specificity, 88%; and accuracy, 91%), and 4) iodine concentration at 2.58 μg/mL (sensitivity, 86%; specificity, 92%; and accuracy, 89%). LIMITATIONS: The investigation is conducted on isolated surgical specimens from rectal cancer operations. CONCLUSIONS: Dual-energy CT can be performed on rectal specimens...... is represented by a certain effective Z value, which allows for information on its composition. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to standardize a method for dual-energy scanning of rectal specimens to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of benign versus malignant lymph node differentiation. Histopathological evaluation...... of the nodes was our reference. DESIGN: This was a descriptive and prospective study. SETTINGS: Seventeen rectal specimens were examined in 2 series. The first series was conducted with 3 specimens from patients who were not given perioperative contrast; 3 had iodine-based contrast and 3 had gadolinium...

  14. Tensile strength of various nylon PA6 specimen modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Karel; Zahalka, Martin

    2017-05-01

    This article explores the influence of production technique on the strength of nylon parts. Identical specimens were manufactured by various techniques. The material of specimens was nylon PA6. 3D printing and injection molding were used, with various orientations of printed layers, and various orientations of specimens in the working space of the 3D printer. The variants are described in detail. A special mold was used for the injection molding process in order to make specimens with and without a weld line. The effect of this weld line was evaluated. All specimens were tested using the standard tensile test configuration. The strength was compared. It was found that the same plastic material has very different mechanical properties depending on the production process.

  15. Mathematical inference on helminth egg counts in stool and its applications in mass drug administration programmes to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecke, Bruno; Anderson, Roy M; Berkvens, Dirk; Charlier, Johannes; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Speybroeck, Niko; Vercruysse, Jozef; Van Aelst, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we present a hierarchical model based on faecal egg counts (FECs; expressed in eggs per 1g of stool) in which we first describe the variation in FECs between individuals in a particular population, followed by describing the variance due to counting eggs under a microscope separately for each stool sample. From this general framework, we discuss how to calculate a sample size for assessing a population mean FEC and the impact of an intervention, measured as reduction in FECs, for any scenario of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) epidemiology (the intensity and aggregation of FECs within a population) and diagnostic strategy (amount of stool examined (∼sensitivity of the diagnostic technique) and examination of individual/pooled stool samples) and on how to estimate prevalence of STH in the absence of a gold standard. To give these applications the most wide relevance as possible, we illustrate each of them with hypothetical examples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simple fecal flotation is a superior alternative to guadruple Kato Katz smear examination for the detection of hookworm eggs in human stool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak

    2014-01-01

    parameters of the Kato-Katz (KK) and simple sodium nitrate flotation technique (SNF) in terms of detection and quantification of hookworm eggs, with PCR as an additional reference test in stool, collected as part of a baseline cross-sectional study in Cambodia. METHODS/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Fecal samples...

  17. Relating Stool Microbial Metabolite Levels, Inflammatory Markers and Dietary Behaviors to Screening Colonoscopy Findings in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Patient Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Bridges

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the United States, yet it is treatable and preventable. African Americans have higher incidence of CRC than other racial/ethnic groups, however, it is unclear whether this disparity is primarily due to environmental or biological factors. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs are metabolites produced by bacteria in the colon and are known to be inversely related to CRC progression. The aim of this study is to investigate how stool SCFA levels, markers of inflammation in stool and dietary intake relate to colonoscopy findings in a diverse patient population. Stool samples from forty-eight participants were analyzed for SCFA levels and inflammatory markers (lysozyme, secretory IgA, lactoferrin. Additionally, participants completed the National Cancer Institute’s Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ II to report dietary intake over the past year. Subsequently, the majority of participants underwent screening colonoscopy. Our results showed that African Americans had higher total levels of SCFAs in stool than other racial/ethnic groups, significantly lower intake of non-starchy vegetables and similar inflammatory marker expression and colonoscopy outcomes, compared to others. This work is an initial exploration into the biological and clinical factors that may ultimately inform personalized screening approaches and clinical decision-making to improve colorectal cancer disparities for African Americans.

  18. Antibiotic resistance among Escherichia coli isolates from stool samples of children aged 3 to 14 years from Ujjain, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is a major global public health concern, particularly in settings where few treatment options are available. Limited research has been done on antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli of Indian children at community level. Therefore we studied antibiotic resistance patterns in E. coli isolates from stool samples of children aged 3-14 years from Ujjain, Central India, to investigate associations of resistance with demographic variables. Methods Children, 3-14 years of age, were included from 30 randomly selected villages of Palwa demographic surveillance site, Ujjain, India. Parents were interviewed using a questionnaire, and stool samples were collected from participating children. E. coli were isolated from stool samples (n = 529), and susceptibility testing to 18 different antibiotics was done using standard methods. Results The proportions of isolates resistant to various antibiotics were, nalidixic acid, (45%), tetracycline (37%), ampicillin (37%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (29%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (29%). No isolates were resistant to imipenem. Overall, 72% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 33% were multi-drug resistant. High rates of cross-resistance were seen for 15 (83%) of the antibiotics studied. E. coli isolates from children with literate mothers were more resistant to penicillins and fluoroquinolones. ESBL-producers comprised 9% of the isolates. Conclusion Antibiotic resistance and cross-resistance were common in E. coli from stools of children. Resistance rates were associated with maternal literacy. PMID:24124728

  19. Detection of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica in clinical stool samples by using multiplex real-time PCR after automated DNA isolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lint, P; Rossen, J W; Vermeiren, S; Ver Elst, K; Weekx, S; Van Schaeren, J; Jeurissen, A

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of intestinal parasites in stool samples is generally still carried out by microscopy; however, this technique is known to suffer from a low sensitivity and is unable to discriminate between certain protozoa. In order to overcome these limitations, a real-time multiplex PCR was evaluated

  20. Combined stool-based multiplex PCR and microscopy for enhanced pathogen detection in patients with persistent diarrhoea and asymptomatic controls from Côte d'Ivoire.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, S.L.; Chatigre, J.K.; Gohou, J.P.; Coulibaly, J.T.; Leuppi, R.; Polman, K.; Chappuis, F.; Mertens, P.; Herrmann, M.; N'Goran, E.K.; Utzinger, J.; Muller, L.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diarrhoea ranks among the leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Although most acute diarrhoeal episodes are self-limiting, the diagnosis and treatment of persistent diarrhoea (≥2 weeks) are cumbersome and require laboratory identification of the causative pathogen. Stool-based PCR assays

  1. Interactions of the "piano-stool" [ruthenium(II)(éta6-arene)(en)Cl]+ complexes with water and nucleobases; ab initio and DFT study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Futera, Z.; Klenko, J.; Šponer, Judit E.; Šponer, Jiří; Burda, J.V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 12 (2009), s. 1758-1770 ISSN 0192-8651 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400550701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : quantum chemical calculations * piano -stool ruthenium complexes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.769, year: 2009

  2. Comparison of stool immunoassay with standard methods for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with upper-gastrointestinal bleeding of peptic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griñó, Pilar; Pascual, Sonia; Such, José; Casellas, Juan A; Niveiro, María; Andreu, Mariano; Sáez, Jesús; Aparicio, José R; Griñó, Emilio; Compañy, Luis; Laveda, Raquel; Pérez-Mateo, Miguel

    2003-05-01

    To assess the accuracy of the determination of Helicobacter pylori infection by a stool immunoassay in patients with upper-gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) of peptic origin, in comparison with the routine histological study, serology, rapid urease and 13C-breath tests. Sixty-eight patients with endoscopically proven UGB of peptic origin were included. The presence of H. pylori was considered when observed on histology or, if negative, by the positive indications of two of the remaining tests (serology, rapid urease,13C-breath test). The accuracy of stool immunoassay was estimated according to results obtained with other diagnostic methods. Lesions causing gastrointestinal bleeding were 49 duodenal ulcers, 11 gastric ulcers, six pyloric channel ulcers, 13 acute lesions of the gastric mucosa, and 16 erosive duodenitis. H. pylori infection was present in 59 (86.76%) patients. Forty-one patients had received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic methods were 47.5% and 100% for the rapid urease test, 93% and 87.5% for the breath test, 86.4% and 77.7% for serology, 89.4% and 100% for histology, and 96.6% and 33.3% for the stool test. The detection of H. pylori antigen in stools in patients with UGB of peptic origin has a good sensitivity (96.6%) but a low specificity (33.3%) for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection, which probably makes this test an inadequate tool in this setting if utilized alone.

  3. Differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar by the polymerase chain reaction in stool samples of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms in the Sanliurfa Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyrek, Fadile Yıldız; Turgay, Nevin; Unver, Aysegül; Ustün, Sebnem; Akarca, Ulus; Töz, Seray

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to diagnose amebiasis and also identify Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) and Entamoeba dispar (E. dispar) in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms in an endemic region in Turkey. Stool samples obtained from 181 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms from the Harran University Hospital of Sanliurfa were examined for the diagnosis of amebiasis by the three methods which are as follows:- In house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 135 base pair region located on the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene to differentiate E. histolytica from E. dispar; and the commercial kit, RIDASCREEN® stool ELISA, that identifies Entamoeba sensu lato antigen and microscopical examination of Trichrome stained smears of stool samples. Positivity for E. histolytica/E. dispar complex was found to be 79 (43.6%) by microscopy versus 83 (45.9%) by PCR out of 181 stool samples. A total of 45 patients were found to be positive by the antigen detection method. PCR and microscopy were both positive in 59 samples. The number of patients infected with E. dispar (39.8%) was found to be higher than E. histolytica (3.3%) while 5 patients (2.8%) had mixed E. histolytica+E. dispar infections according to PCR results. Routine diagnosis of amebiasis by a combination of microscopy and antigen detection technique should be complemented with a PCR assay as a reference test for sensitive differentiation of both species.

  4. An uncooked vegan diet shifts the profile of human fecal microflora: computerized analysis of direct stool sample gas-liquid chromatography profiles of bacterial cellular fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, R; Ling, W H; Hänninen, O; Eerola, E

    1992-01-01

    The effect of an uncooked extreme vegan diet on fecal microflora was studied by direct stool sample gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) of bacterial cellular fatty acids and by quantitative bacterial culture by using classical microbiological techniques of isolation, identification, and enumeration of different bacterial species. Eighteen volunteers were divided randomly into two groups. The test group received an uncooked vegan diet for 1 month and a conventional diet of mixed Western type for the other month of the study. The control group consumed a conventional diet throughout the study period. Stool samples were collected. Bacterial cellular fatty acids were extracted directly from the stool samples and measured by GLC. Computerized analysis of the resulting fatty acid profiles was performed. Such a profile represents all bacterial cellular fatty acids in a sample and thus reflects its microflora and can be used to detect changes, differences, or similarities of bacterial flora between individual samples or sample groups. GLC profiles changed significantly in the test group after the induction and discontinuation of the vegan diet but not in the control group at any time, whereas quantitative bacterial culture did not detect any significant change in fecal bacteriology in either of the groups. The results suggest that an uncooked extreme vegan diet alters the fecal bacterial flora significantly when it is measured by direct stool sample GLC of bacterial fatty acids. PMID:1482187

  5. X-ray absorption in pillar shaped transmission electron microscopy specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, H., E-mail: hugo.bender@imec.be [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Seidel, F.; Favia, P.; Richard, O. [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vandervorst, W. [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Universal curves for X-ray absorption in pillar shaped TEM specimens are derived. • Absorption effects in pillars are a factor 3 less important than in planar specimens. • Medium absorbed X-rays require constant absorption correction across the pillar. • Major absorption for thin layers occurs in the surrounding materials. • Tabulated mass attenuation coefficients predict the absorption well. - Abstract: The dependence of the X-ray absorption on the position in a pillar shaped transmission electron microscopy specimen is modeled for X-ray analysis with single and multiple detector configurations and for different pillar orientations relative to the detectors. Universal curves, applicable to any pillar diameter, are derived for the relative intensities between weak and medium or strongly absorbed X-ray emission. For the configuration as used in 360° X-ray tomography, the absorption correction for weak and medium absorbed X-rays is shown to be nearly constant along the pillar diameter. Absorption effects in pillars are about a factor 3 less important than in planar specimens with thickness equal to the pillar diameter. A practical approach for the absorption correction in pillar shaped samples is proposed and its limitations discussed. The modeled absorption dependences are verified experimentally for pillars with HfO{sub 2} and SiGe stacks.

  6. Pooled biological specimens for human biomonitoring of environmental chemicals: opportunities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Amy L; Aylward, Lesa L; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Sly, Peter D; Macleod, Matthew; Mueller, Jochen F

    2014-01-01

    Biomonitoring has become the "gold standard" in assessing chemical exposures, and has an important role in risk assessment. The pooling of biological specimens-combining multiple individual specimens into a single sample-can be used in biomonitoring studies to monitor levels of exposure and identify exposure trends or to identify susceptible populations in a cost-effective manner. Pooled samples provide an estimate of central tendency and may also reveal information about variation within the population. The development of a pooling strategy requires careful consideration of the type and number of samples collected, the number of pools required and the number of specimens to combine per pool in order to maximise the type and robustness of the data. Creative pooling strategies can be used to explore exposure-outcome associations, and extrapolation from other larger studies can be useful in identifying elevated exposures in specific individuals. The use of pooled specimens is advantageous as it saves significantly on analytical costs, may reduce the time and resources required for recruitment and, in certain circumstances, allows quantification of samples approaching the limit of detection. In addition, the use of pooled samples can provide population estimates while avoiding ethical difficulties that may be associated with reporting individual results.

  7. Developing integrated workflows for the digitisation of herbarium specimens using a modular and scalable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haston, Elspeth; Cubey, Robert; Pullan, Martin; Atkins, Hannah; Harris, David J

    2012-01-01

    Digitisation programmes in many institutes frequently involve disparate and irregular funding, diverse selection criteria and scope, with different members of staff managing and operating the processes. These factors have influenced the decision at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh to develop an integrated workflow for the digitisation of herbarium specimens which is modular and scalable to enable a single overall workflow to be used for all digitisation projects. This integrated workflow is comprised of three principal elements: a specimen workflow, a data workflow and an image workflow.The specimen workflow is strongly linked to curatorial processes which will impact on the prioritisation, selection and preparation of the specimens. The importance of including a conservation element within the digitisation workflow is highlighted. The data workflow includes the concept of three main categories of collection data: label data, curatorial data and supplementary data. It is shown that each category of data has its own properties which influence the timing of data capture within the workflow. Development of software has been carried out for the rapid capture of curatorial data, and optical character recognition (OCR) software is being used to increase the efficiency of capturing label data and supplementary data. The large number and size of the images has necessitated the inclusion of automated systems within the image workflow.

  8. DNA damage in preserved specimens and tissue samples: a molecular assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantin Elizabeth

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The extraction of genetic information from preserved tissue samples or museum specimens is a fundamental component of many fields of research, including the Barcode of Life initiative, forensic investigations, biological studies using scat sample analysis, and cancer research utilizing formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Efforts to obtain genetic information from these sources are often hampered by an inability to amplify the desired DNA as a consequence of DNA damage. Previous studies have described techniques for improved DNA extraction from such samples or focused on the effect of damaging agents – such as light, oxygen or formaldehyde – on free nucleotides. We present ongoing work to characterize lesions in DNA samples extracted from preserved specimens. The extracted DNA is digested to single nucleosides with a combination of DNase I, Snake Venom Phosphodiesterase, and Antarctic Phosphatase and then analyzed by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. We present data for moth specimens that were preserved dried and pinned with no additional preservative and for frog tissue samples that were preserved in either ethanol, or formaldehyde, or fixed in formaldehyde and then preserved in ethanol. These preservation methods represent the most common methods of preserving animal specimens in museum collections. We observe changes in the nucleoside content of these samples over time, especially a loss of deoxyguanosine. We characterize the fragmentation state of the DNA and aim to identify abundant nucleoside lesions. Finally, simple models are introduced to describe the DNA fragmentation based on nicks and double-strand breaks.

  9. Instrumented impact testing machine with reduced specimen oscillation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.; Rahka, K.; Wallin, K.

    1984-07-01

    Owing to small and inexpensive specimens the Charpy impact test is widely used in quality control and alloy development. Limitations in power reactor survellance capsules it is also widely used for safety analysis purposes. Instrumenting the tup and computerizing data acquisition, makes dynamic fracture mechanics data measurement possible and convenient. However, the dynamic effects (inertia forces, specimen oscillations) in the impact test cause inaccuracies in the recorded load-time diagram and hence diminish the reliability of the calculated dynamic fracture mechanics parameters. To decrease inaccuracies a new pendulum type of instrumented impact test apparatus has been developed and constructed in the Metals Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland. This tester is based on a new principle involving inverted test geometry. The purpose of the geometry inversion is to reduce inertia load and specimen oscillation effects. Further, the new impact tester has some other novel features: e.g. the available initia impact energy is about double compared to the conventional standard (300 J) impact tester allowing the use of larger (10 x 20 x 110 mm) bend specimens than normal Charpy specimens. Also, the rotation asix in the three point bending is nearly stationary making COD-measurements possible. An experimental test series is described in which the inertia effects and specimen oscillations are compared in the conventional and new impact tester utilizing Charpy V-notch specimens. Comparison of the two test geometries is also made with the aid of an analytical model using finite element method (FEM) analysis. (author)

  10. Comparison of three stool antigen assays with the 13C- urea breath test for the primary diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and monitoring treatment outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hooton, Carmel

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The urea breath test (UBT) is the gold-standard non-invasive test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection, however, the lack of availability of the UBT due to the high cost of the test, and in particular the need for expensive analytical instrumentation, limits the usefulness of this method. Stool antigen assays may offer an alternative non-invasive method for the diagnosis of infection. OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of three stool antigen assays (HpSA, IDEIA HpStAR, and ImmunoCard STAT) against the UBT for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for monitoring treatment outcome. METHODS: A total of 102 patients attending two gastroenterology day-case clinics for the investigation of dyspepsia were included. Each patient provided breath and stool samples for analysis. Patients who tested positive for H. pylori by the validated UBT were prescribed triple therapy and invited to return for repeat breath and stool sample analysis 6 weeks post-treatment. RESULTS: Of the 102 patients tested, 48 were diagnosed with H. pylori infection by the UBT. The HpSA assay interpreted 38 of these as positive (79% sensitive). Of the 54 UBT-negative patients the HpSA assay interpreted all 54 as negative (100% specific). The IDEIA HpStAR assay correctly identified 44 patients as positive (92% sensitive) and 50 as negative (92.5% specific). The ImmunoCard STAT assay interpreted 38 patients as positive (79% sensitive) and 52 as negative (96.3% specific). CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the IDEIA HpStAR stool antigen kit is the most accurate assay of the three assays evaluated, and possibly represents a viable alternative to the UBT for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for monitoring treatment outcome.

  11. Post-deformation examination of specimens subjected to SCC testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Busby, Jeremy T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leonard, Keith J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report details the results of post-radiation and post-deformation characterizations performed during FY 2015–FY 2016 on a subset of specimens that had previously been irradiated at high displacement per atom (dpa) damage doses. The specimens, made of commercial austenitic stainless steels and alloys, were subjected to stress-corrosion cracking tests (constant extension rate testing and crack growth testing) at the University of Michigan under conditions typical of nuclear power plants. After testing, the specimens were returned to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for further analysis and evaluation.

  12. Efficiency of Direct Microscopy of Stool Samples Using an Antigen-Specific Adhesin Test for Entamoeba Histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu İrvem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: E. histolytica is among the common causes of acute gastroenteritis. The pathogenic species E. histolytica and the nonpathogenic species E. dispar cannot be morphologically differentiated, although correct identification of these protozoans is important for treatment and public health. In many laboratories, the screening of leukocytes, erythrocytes, amoebic cysts, trophozoites and parasite eggs is performed using Native-Lugol’s iodine for pre-diagnosis. Aims: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of E. histolytica in stool samples collected from 788 patients residing in the Anatolian region of İstanbul who presented with gastrointestinal complaints. We used the information obtained to evaluate the effectiveness of microscopic examinations when used in combination with the E. histolytica adhesin antigen test. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study Methods: Preparations of stool samples stained with Native-Lugol’s iodine were evaluated using the E. histolytica adhesin test and examined using standard light microscopy at ×40 magnification. Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Results: Of 788 samples, 38 (4.8% were positive for E. histolytica adhesin antigens. When evaluated together with the presences of erythrocytes, leukocytes, cysts, and trophozoites, respectively, using logistic regression analysis, leukocyte positivity was significantly higher. The odds ratio of leukocyte positivity increased adhesin test-positivity by 2,530-fold (95% CI=1.01–6.330. Adhesin test-positivity was significant (p=0.047. Conclusion: In line with these findings, the consistency between the presence of cysts and erythrocytes and adhesin test-positivity was found to be highly significant, but that of higher levels of leukocytes was found to be discordant. It was concluded that leukocytes and trophozoites were

  13. Efficiency of Direct Microscopy of Stool Samples Using an Antigen-Specific Adhesin Test for Entamoeba Histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İrvem, Arzu; Özdil, Kamil; Çalışkan, Zuhal; Yücel, Muhterem

    2016-09-01

    E. histolytica is among the common causes of acute gastroenteritis. The pathogenic species E. histolytica and the nonpathogenic species E. dispar cannot be morphologically differentiated, although correct identification of these protozoans is important for treatment and public health. In many laboratories, the screening of leukocytes, erythrocytes, amoebic cysts, trophozoites and parasite eggs is performed using Native-Lugol's iodine for pre-diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of E. histolytica in stool samples collected from 788 patients residing in the Anatolian region of İstanbul who presented with gastrointestinal complaints. We used the information obtained to evaluate the effectiveness of microscopic examinations when used in combination with the E. histolytica adhesin antigen test. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Preparations of stool samples stained with Native-Lugol's iodine were evaluated using the E. histolytica adhesin test and examined using standard light microscopy at ×40 magnification. Pearson's Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Of 788 samples, 38 (4.8%) were positive for E. histolytica adhesin antigens. When evaluated together with the presences of erythrocytes, leukocytes, cysts, and trophozoites, respectively, using logistic regression analysis, leukocyte positivity was significantly higher. The odds ratio of leukocyte positivity increased adhesin test-positivity by 2,530-fold (95% CI=1.01-6.330). Adhesin test-positivity was significant (p=0.047). In line with these findings, the consistency between the presence of cysts and erythrocytes and adhesin test-positivity was found to be highly significant, but that of higher levels of leukocytes was found to be discordant. It was concluded that leukocytes and trophozoites were easily misjudged using direct microscopy. Although microscopic examination of samples

  14. ARCTOS: a relational database relating specimens, specimen-based science, and archival documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Gordon H.; Ramotnik, Cindy A.; McDonald, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    Data are preserved when they are perpetually discoverable, but even in the Information Age, discovery of legacy data appropriate to particular investigations is uncertain. Secure Internet storage is necessary but insufficient. Data can be discovered only when they are adequately described, and visibility increases markedly if the data are related to other data that are receiving usage. Such relationships can be built within (1) the framework of a relational database, or (1) they can be built among separate resources, within the framework of the Internet. Evolving primarily around biological collections, Arctos is a database that does both of these tasks. It includes data structures for a diversity of specimen attributes, essentially all collection-management tasks, plus literature citations, project descriptions, etc. As a centralized collaboration of several university museums, Arctos is an ideal environment for capitalizing on the many relationships that often exist between items in separate collections. Arctos is related to NIH’s DNA-sequence repository (GenBank) with record-to-record reciprocal linkages, and it serves data to several discipline-specific web portals, including the Global Biodiversity Information Network (GBIF). The University of Alaska Museum’s paleontological collection is Arctos’s recent extension beyond the constraints of neontology. With about 1.3 million cataloged items, additional collections are being added each year.

  15. Description of Specimens in the Marine Mammal Osteology Reference Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Marine Mammal Osteology Collection consists of approximately 2500 specimens (skulls...

  16. Elemental microanalysis of botanical specimens using the Melbourne Proton Microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolini, A.P.J.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1978-01-01

    A proton microprobe has been used to obtain the distribution of elements of various botanical specimens. This paper presents preliminary results obtained by the irradiation of certain organs of the wheat plant

  17. Replacement/Refurbishment of JSC/NASA POD Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Willard L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Special NDE certification process requires demonstration of NDE capability by test per NASA-STD-5009. This test is performed with fatigue cracked specimens containing very small cracks. The certification test results are usually based on binomial statistics and must meet a 90/95 Probability of Detection (POD). The assumption is that fatigue cracks are tightly closed, difficult to detect, and inspectors and processes passing such a test are well qualified for inspecting NASA fracture critical hardware. The JSC NDE laboratory has what may be the largest inventory that exists of such fatigue cracked NDE demonstration specimens. These specimens were produced by the hundreds in the late 1980s and early 1990s. None have been produced since that time and the condition and usability of the specimens are questionable.

  18. Tensile and Creep Testing of Sanicro 25 Using Miniature Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymáček, Petr; Jarý, Milan; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Kloc, Luboš

    2018-01-01

    Tensile and creep properties of new austenitic steel Sanicro 25 at room temperature and operating temperature 700 °C were investigated by testing on miniature specimens. The results were correlated with testing on conventional specimens. Very good agreement of results was obtained, namely in yield and ultimate strength, as well as short-term creep properties. Although the creep rupture time was found to be systematically shorter and creep ductility lower in the miniature test, the minimum creep rates were comparable. The analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed similar ductile fracture morphology for both specimen geometries. One exception was found in a small area near the miniature specimen edge that was cut by electro discharge machining, where an influence of the steel fracture behavior at elevated temperature was identified. PMID:29337867

  19. Ultra high vacuum heating and rotating specimen stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, A.W. III

    1995-05-02

    A heating and rotating specimen stage provides for simultaneous specimen heating and rotating. The stage is ideally suited for operation in ultrahigh vacuum (1{times}10{sup {minus}9} torr or less), but is useful at atmosphere and in pressurized systems as well. A specimen is placed on a specimen holder that is attached to a heater that, in turn, is attached to a top housing. The top housing is rotated relative to a bottom housing and electrically connected thereto by electrically conductive brushes. This stage is made of materials that are compatible with UHV, able to withstand high temperatures, possess low outgassing rates, are gall and seize resistant, and are able to carry substantial electrical loading without overheating. 5 figs.

  20. Tensile and Creep Testing of Sanicro 25 Using Miniature Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymáček, Petr; Jarý, Milan; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Kloc, Luboš

    2018-01-16

    Tensile and creep properties of new austenitic steel Sanicro 25 at room temperature and operating temperature 700 °C were investigated by testing on miniature specimens. The results were correlated with testing on conventional specimens. Very good agreement of results was obtained, namely in yield and ultimate strength, as well as short-term creep properties. Although the creep rupture time was found to be systematically shorter and creep ductility lower in the miniature test, the minimum creep rates were comparable. The analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed similar ductile fracture morphology for both specimen geometries. One exception was found in a small area near the miniature specimen edge that was cut by electro discharge machining, where an influence of the steel fracture behavior at elevated temperature was identified.

  1. Tensile and Creep Testing of Sanicro 25 Using Miniature Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dymáček

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tensile and creep properties of new austenitic steel Sanicro 25 at room temperature and operating temperature 700 °C were investigated by testing on miniature specimens. The results were correlated with testing on conventional specimens. Very good agreement of results was obtained, namely in yield and ultimate strength, as well as short-term creep properties. Although the creep rupture time was found to be systematically shorter and creep ductility lower in the miniature test, the minimum creep rates were comparable. The analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed similar ductile fracture morphology for both specimen geometries. One exception was found in a small area near the miniature specimen edge that was cut by electro discharge machining, where an influence of the steel fracture behavior at elevated temperature was identified.

  2. Influence of specimen size on the creep of rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senseny, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    Triaxial compression creep data for Avery Island dome salt are analyzed to determine the influence of specimen size on creep deformation. Laboratory experiments were performed on 50- and 100-mm-diameter specimens in the temperature range from 25 to 200 0 C and the axial stress difference range from 2.5 to 31.0 MPa. The strain-vs-time data from each test are divided into transient and steady-state components. Results of statistical analysis of these data show that transient creep of the small specimens is a stronger function of stress, temperature, and time than is transient creep of the larger specimens. Analysis of the steady-state data show no size effect, however. 14 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  3. Specimen size effects on the tensile strength and fracture toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teran, J.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Hallen, J. M.; Martinez, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, an experimental research was conducted to determine size and orientation effects on tension and toughness properties through CTOD-R curves, using standard and miniature specimens taken from a structural steel plate.Compliance function estimation for the miniature size sample through load-displacement curves was considered. Experimental and statistical results showed that size and orientation affect tensioned toughness properties. The miniature tension test specimens showed strength values slightly greater than the standard ones but with less ductility. Miniature specimen CTOD-R curves showed sensibility to load changes and measurement method of crack aperture and crack length. Inconsistency in fracture toughness for specimen orientation longitudinal circumferential (LC) regarding size effect was also observed. Short orientations showed less strength and toughness than the other directions. (Author) 27 refs

  4. Old Plants, New Tricks: Phenological Research Using Herbarium Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Charles G; Ellwood, Elizabeth R; Primack, Richard B; Davis, Charles C; Pearson, Katelin D; Gallinat, Amanda S; Yost, Jenn M; Nelson, Gil; Mazer, Susan J; Rossington, Natalie L; Sparks, Tim H; Soltis, Pamela S

    2017-07-01

    The timing of phenological events, such as leaf-out and flowering, strongly influence plant success and their study is vital to understanding how plants will respond to climate change. Phenological research, however, is often limited by the temporal, geographic, or phylogenetic scope of available data. Hundreds of millions of plant specimens in herbaria worldwide offer a potential solution to this problem, especially as digitization efforts drastically improve access to collections. Herbarium specimens represent snapshots of phenological events and have been reliably used to characterize phenological responses to climate. We review the current state of herbarium-based phenological research, identify potential biases and limitations in the collection, digitization, and interpretation of specimen data, and discuss future opportunities for phenological investigations using herbarium specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Letter to the editor The number of urine specimens for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adult-with-asymptomatic- bacteriuria. Letter to the editor. The number of urine specimens for bacteriological examination in women. Ertugrul Guclu, Tuba Damar, Oguz Karabay. 1. Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, ...

  6. Amplification of DNA of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri from historic citrus canker herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbin; Brlansky, Ronald H; Hartung, John S

    2006-05-01

    Herbaria are important resources for the study of the origins and dispersal of plant pathogens, particularly bacterial plant pathogens that incite local lesions in which large numbers of pathogen genomes are concentrated. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), the causal agent of citrus bacterial canker disease, is a notable example of such a pathogen. The appearance of novel strains of the pathogen in Florida and elsewhere make it increasingly important to understand the relationships among strains of this pathogen. USDA-ARS at Beltsville, Maryland maintains approximately 700 herbarium specimens with citrus canker disease lesions up to 90 years old, originally collected from all over the world, and so is an important resource for phytogeographic studies of this bacterium. Unfortunately, DNA in herbarium specimens is degraded and may contain high levels of inhibitors of PCR. In this study, we compared a total of 23 DNA isolation techniques in combination with 31 novel primer pairs in order to develop an efficient protocol for the analysis of Xac DNA in herbarium specimens. We identified the most reliable extraction method, identified in terms of successful amplification by our panel of 31 primer pairs. We also identified the most robust primer pairs, identified as successful in the largest number of extracts prepared by different methods. We amplified Xac genomic sequences up to 542 bp long from herbarium samples up to 89 years old. Primers varied in effectiveness, with some primer pairs amplifying Xac DNA from a 1/10,000 dilution of extract from a single lesion from a citrus canker herbarium specimen. Our methodology will be useful to identify pathogens and perform molecular analyses of bacterial and possibly fungal genomes from herbarium specimens.

  7. Method for independent strain and temperature measurement in polymeric tensile test specimen using embedded FBG sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira; McGugan, Malcolm; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    to calculate independently the strain and temperature are presented in the article, together with a measurement resolution study. This multi-parameter measurement method was applied to an epoxy tensile specimen, tested in a unidirectional tensile test machine with a temperature controlled cabinet. A full......A novel method to obtain independent strain and temperature measurements using embedded Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) in polymeric tensile test specimens is presented in this paper. The FBG strain and temperature cross-sensitivity was decoupled using two single mode FBG sensors, which were embedded...... of temperature, from 40 C to -10 C. The consistency of the expected theoretical results with the calibration procedure and the experimental validation shows that this proposed method is applicable to measure accurate strain and temperature in polymers during static or fatigue tensile testing. Two different...

  8. Failed PCR of Ganoderma type specimens affects nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R R M; Lima, N

    2015-06-01

    The nomenclature of Ganoderma used as a Chinese medicine is debated. A group of researchers could not amplify the DNA of type specimens and concluded the DNA was degraded irreparably. New topotypes were used as the type specimens which was premature. The use of internal amplification controls is recommended to determine if other factors were involved as alternative explanations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intraoperative specimen radiography in patients with nonpalpable malignant breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmachtenberg, C.; Engelken, F.; Fischer, T.; Bick, U.; Poellinger, A.; Fallenberg, E.M. [Charite, Berlin (Germany). Radiology

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Specimen mammography of nonpalpable wire-localized breast lesions is the standard in breast-conserving surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of intraoperative 2-view specimen mammography in different cancer types. Materials and Methods: After ethics approval, 3 readers retrospectively evaluated margins on 266 2-view specimen radiographs. They determined the closest margin and the orientation. The results were correlated with the histopathology (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] and contingency coefficient [CC]) and compared (Wilcoxon test). Results: Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was present in 115 (43 %), IDC in 75 (28 %), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) in 57 (22 %) and rare cancers (CA) in 19 specimens (7 %). The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive value (P/NPV) of specimen mammography were 0.50/0.86 and 0.86/0.50 for CA, 0.42/0.68 and 0.48/0.63 for IDC, 0.36/0.81 and 0.69/0.51 for ILC, and 0.22/0.78 and 0.68/0.32 for IDC+DCIS. Readers correctly identified the orientation of the closest margin in at least one view in an average of 149 specimens (56 %). CCs were between 0.680 (IDC) and 0.912 (CA), suggesting a moderate correlation between radiographic and histological orientation. The correlations were worse for the radiographic and histological distances, with ICC ranging from 0.238 (ILC) to 0.475 (CA). The Wilcoxon test revealed overestimation of the radiographic margins compared to the histological ones for DCIS. Conclusion: Our results suggest that specimen radiography has relatively good overall specificity and good PPV, while the sensitivity and NPV are low for DCIS. A negative result on specimen radiography does not rule out histologically involved margins. (orig.)

  10. Improved PID control for triaxial testing liquefied specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Using a frictionless triaxial apparatus, sand specimens can be tested at relatively high axial strains, even while liquefying. However, liquefying specimens have extremely nonlinear stiffness, thus standard PID control does not perform well. To maintain control over applied loads, the PID...... controller was modified to adapt to disturbed soil states. The proposed methods expand the scope of testing towards options which are otherwise inaccessible by triaxial testing....

  11. Influence of thermal conditioning media on Charpy specimen test temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Swain, R.L.; Berggren, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact test is used extensively for determining the toughness of structural materials. Research programs in many technologies concerned with structural integrity perform such testing to obtain Charpy energy vs temperature curves. American Society for Testing and Materials Method E 23 includes rather strict requirements regarding determination and control of specimen test temperature. It specifies minimum soaking times dependent on the use of liquids or gases as the medium for thermally conditioning the specimen. The method also requires that impact of the specimen occur within 5 s removal from the conditioning medium. It does not, however, provide guidance regarding choice of conditioning media. This investigation was primarily conducted to investigate the changes in specimen temperature which occur when water is used for thermal conditioning. A standard CVN impact specimen of low-alloy steel was instrumented with surface-mounted and embedded thermocouples. Dependent on the media used, the specimen was heated or cooled to selected temperatures in the range -100 to 100 degree C using cold nitrogen gas, heated air, acetone and dry ice, methanol and dry ice, heated oil, or heated water. After temperature stabilization, the specimen was removed from the conditioning medium while the temperatures were recorded four times per second from all thermocouples using a data acquisition system and a computer. The results show that evaporative cooling causes significant changes in the specimen temperatures when water is used for conditioning. Conditioning in the other media did not result in such significant changes. The results demonstrate that, even within the guidelines of E 23, significant test temperature changes can occur which may substantially affect the Charpy impact test results if water is used for temperature conditioning. 7 refs., 11 figs

  12. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Notched Specimen Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtrey, Michael David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Richard Neil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Creep behavior of Alloy 617 has been extensively characterized to support the development of a draft Code Case to qualify Alloy 617 in Section III division 5 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This will allow use of Alloy 617 in construction of nuclear reactor components at elevated temperatures and longer periods of time (up to 950°C and 100,000 hours). Prior to actual use, additional concerns not considered in the ASME code need to be addressed. Code Cases are based largely on uniaxial testing of smooth gage specimens. In service conditions, components will generally be under multi axial loading. There is also the concern of the behavior at discontinuities, such as threaded components. To address the concerns of multi axial creep behavior and at geometric discontinuities, notched specimens have been designed to create conditions representative of the states that service components experience. Two general notch geometries have been used for these series of tests: U notch and V notch specimens. The notches produce a tri axial stress state, though not uniform across the specimen. Characterization of the creep behavior of the U notch specimens and the creep rupture behavior of the V notch specimens provides a good approximation of the behavior expected of actual components. Preliminary testing and analysis have been completed and are reported in this document. This includes results from V notch specimens tested at 900°C and 800°C. Failure occurred in the smooth gage section of the specimen rather than at the root of the notch, though some damage was present at the root of the notch, where initial stress was highest. This indicates notch strengthening behavior in this material at these temperatures.

  13. Innovation for reducing blood culture contamination: initial specimen diversion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Richard G; Schmitt, Timothy

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesized that diversion of the first milliliter of venipuncture blood-the initial specimen diversion technique (ISDT)-would eliminate incompletely sterilized fragments of skin from the culture specimen and significantly reduce our blood culture contamination rate (R). We studied our hypothesis prospectively beginning with our control culture (C) definition: one venipuncture with two sequentially obtained specimens, 10 ml each, the first specimen (M1) for aerobic and the second (M2) for anaerobic media. The test ISDT culture (D) was identical, with the exception that each was preceded by diverting a 1-ml sample (DS) from the same venipuncture. During the first of two sequential 9-month periods, we captured D versus C data (n=3,733), where DMXR and CMXR are R for D and C specimens. Our hypothesis predicted DS would divert soiled skin fragments from DM1, and therefore, CM1R would be significantly greater than DM1R. This was confirmed by CM1R (30/1,061 [2.8%]) less DM1R (37/2,672 [1.4%]; P=0.005), which equals 1.4%. For the second 9-month follow-up period, data were compiled for all cultures (n=4,143), where ADMXR is R for all (A) diversion specimens, enabling comparison to test ISDT. Our hypothesis predicted no significant differences for test ISDT versus all ISDT. This was confirmed by DM1R (37/2,672 [1.4%]) versus ADM1R (42/4,143 [1.0%]; P=0.17) and DM2R (21/2,672 [0.80%]) versus ADM2R (39/4,143 [0.94%]; P=0.50). We conclude that our hypothesis is valid: venipuncture needles soil blood culture specimens with unsterilized skin fragments and increase R, and ISDT significantly reduces R from venipuncture-obtained blood culture specimens.

  14. Results of a screening method used in a 12-month stool survey for Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A A; Kaplan, R L; Goodman, L J; Doyle, M; Landau, W; Segreti, J; Mayer, K; Levin, S

    1985-10-01

    Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 has been epidemiologically linked to outbreaks of hemorrhagic colitis associated with fast-food restaurants and nursing homes. Sporadic cases now exceed those associated with outbreaks. The incidence of the organism in patients with common diarrhea syndromes and in asymptomatic persons is unknown. Routine serotyping of E. coli isolates is impractical for most clinical microbiology laboratories. We developed a screening plate by utilizing sorbitol fermentation as a biochemical marker to identify organisms for serotyping. A total of 2,552 stool samples were screened. In 106 (4.1%), sorbitol-negative E. coli were identified. Of these, two were serotype O157:H7, and both produced a Vero cell toxin. One patient had hemorrhagic colitis and the other a mild, febrile, self-limited diarrhea with no other bacterial pathogen identified. This plate provides an easy, effective method of screening for sorbitol-negative E. coli, a process facilitating the selection of organisms for serotyping and one that may help clarify this organism's role in human disease.

  15. Chitinolytic activities of Clostridium sp. JM2 isolated from stool of human administered per orally by chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simůnek, J; Tishchenko, G; Koppová, I

    2008-01-01

    The novel chitinolytic bacterium Clostridium beijerinckii strain JM2 was isolated from the stool of healthy volunteers supplied daily per orally with 3 g of chitosan. The bacterium grown on colloidal chitin produced a complete array of chitinolytic enzymes. Significant activities of endochitinase, exochitinase and chitosanase were excreted into the medium (301, 282 and 268 nkat/microg protein, respectively). The high cellular activity of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAGase) and chitosanase were detected (732.4 and 154 nkat/microg protein, respectively). NAGase activity represented the main activity associated with the cellular fraction. The activities of both enzymes tested increased from 20 to 50 degrees C; the optimum reaction temperature estimated being 50 degrees C. Endochitinase as well as NAGase showed an activity in the pH interval of 4.0-8.0; the optimum pH values were 6.5 and 6.0, respectively. The extracellular endochitinase complex consisted of six isoenzymes with molar mass of 32-76 kDa; in the cellular fraction five bands with molar mass of 45-86 kDa were detected. Exochitinase activity was demonstrated in the form of three bands (with molar mass of 30-57 kDa), NAGase activity displayed one band of 45 kDa.

  16. Probiotic screening and safety evaluation of Lactobacillus strains from plants, artisanal goat cheese, human stools, and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotteland, Martin; Cires, Maria Jose; Carvallo, Claudia; Vega, Natalia; Ramirez, Maria Antonieta; Morales, Pamela; Rivas, Patricia; Astudillo, Fernanda; Navarrete, Paola; Dubos, Céline; Figueroa, Alvaro; Troncoso, Miriam; Ulloa, Carolina; Mizgier, Maria Luisa; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Speisky, Hernan; Brunser, Oscar; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to select autochthonous strains of Lactobacillus from stools of healthy infants and adults, human milk, artisanal goat cheese, and fruits and vegetables according to their probiotic properties and safety. From 421 strains of Lactobacillus isolated, 102 (24.2%) were shown to be tolerant to gastric pH and bile salts; they were used to determine their anti-Helicobacter pylori (agar diffusion assay), antioxidant (oxygen radical absorption capacity), and anti-inflammatory (inhibition of interleukin-8 release by tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated HT-29 cells) activities as well as their ability to adhere to intestinal (Caco-2) and gastric (AGS) epithelial cells. Results obtained were compared with three commercial probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. plantarum 299v, and L. johnsonii NCC533. The five strains most efficient according to these activities were subsequently identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA gene, their susceptibility to antibiotics was determined, and their safety evaluated in mice. One strain of L. plantarum was discarded due to the higher prevalence of liver bacterial translocation observed in the animals fed this strain. In conclusion, four autochthonous strains of L. rhamnosus were finally selected with probiotic properties and safety allowing their eventual use in human studies. These results contribute to increase the diversity of probiotic strains available for the development of nutraceuticals and functional foods.

  17. Pilot Dietary Intervention with Heat-Stabilized Rice Bran Modulates Stool Microbiota and Metabolites in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Sheflin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat-stabilized rice bran (SRB has been shown to regulate blood lipids and glucose, modulate gut mucosal immunity and inhibit colorectal cancer in animal and human studies. However, SRB’s effects on gut microbial composition and metabolism and the resulting implications for health remain largely unknown. A pilot, randomized-controlled trial was developed to investigate the effects of eating 30 g/day SRB on the stool microbiome and metabolome. Seven healthy participants consumed a study meal and snack daily for 28 days. The microbiome and metabolome were characterized using 454 pyrosequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS at baseline, two and four weeks post-intervention. Increases in eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs, including three from Bifidobacterium and Ruminococcus genera, were observed after two and four weeks of SRB consumption (p < 0.01. Branched chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids and eleven other putative microbial metabolites were significantly elevated in the SRB group after four weeks. The largest metabolite change was a rice bran component, indole-2-carboxylic acid, which showed a mean 12% increase with SRB consumption. These data support the feasibility of dietary SRB intervention in adults and support that SRB consumption can affect gut microbial metabolism. These findings warrant future investigations of larger cohorts evaluating SRB’s effects on intestinal health.

  18. Vegetable cell contaminants in urinary bladder diversion cytology specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Garza, Gabriela; Nassar, Diana; Khalbuss, Walid E; Monaco, Sara E; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    We identified unique vegetable cell-like structures in urinary diversion specimens. This study aimed to describe their cytomorphology and prevalence and to investigate the possible origin of these contaminants. A 10-year retrospective review of urinary diversion urine specimens with reported vegetable cell-like structures was performed. Data regarding patient demographics, previous history and specimen cytomorphology were recorded. To determine their prevalence, 100 urinary diversion cases were screened. Stoma materials were evaluated as possible contaminant sources. A total of 11 urine cases from 7 patients (mean age 64 years; male/female ratio 2.5:1; all with ileal conduits) were identified with contaminating vegetable cell-like structures. These thick-walled cells contained dense, smudged cores and pericentral clearing. In 27% of cases, the specimens were less than optimal or unsatisfactory for evaluation due to low cellularity and associated lubricant material. No contaminating vegetable cell-like structures were found in the 100 screened cases. Stoma care products tested did not yield any morphologically similar structures. Vegetable cell-like structures may rarely be identified as a contaminant in urinary diversion specimens, possibly from stoma care material. Associated lubricant may affect specimen adequacy. These vegetable cell-like structures must be distinguished from true pathologic structures such as koilocytes or parasitic ova. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Effects of crack front curvature on J–R curve testing using clamped SE(T) specimens of homogeneous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yifan; Zhou, Wenxing

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) finite element analyses (FEA) of clamped single-edge tension (SE(T)) specimens are performed to investigate the impact of the crack front curvature on the elastic compliance, compliance rotation correction factor and average J-integral evaluated over the crack front. Specimens with six average crack lengths (i.e. a ave /W = 0.2–0.7) and three thickness-to-width ratios (i.e. B/W = 0.5, 1 and 2) are analyzed. The curved crack front is assumed to be bowed symmetrically and characterized by a power-law expression with a wide range of curvatures. Several crack front straightness requirements for SE(B) and C(T) specimens specified in BS7448, ISO and ASTM E1820 standards are reviewed. Based on results of the numerical investigation, new crack front straightness criteria for the SE(T) specimen are proposed in the context of the nine-point measurement by using as a criterion that the errors in the estimated compliance and average J values should be no more than five percent. The proposed criteria depend on both a ave /W and B/W, and are more advantageous than those specified in the BS, ISO and ASTM standards in terms of controlling the differences in J and compliance between the specimens with curved and straight crack fronts. - Highlights: • Investigate the impacts of crack front curvature on the compliance, rotation correction factor and J for SE(T) specimens. • Validate the applicabilities of crack front straightness criteria specified in the seven test standards on SE(T) specimens. • Recommend new crack front straightness criteria for the SE(T) specimen.

  20. Design optimization of cruciform specimens for biaxial fatigue loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Baptista

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to correctly assess the biaxial fatigue material properties one must experimentally test different load conditions and stress levels. With the rise of new in-plane biaxial fatigue testing machines, using smaller and more efficient electrical motors, instead of the conventional hydraulic machines, it is necessary to reduce the specimen size and to ensure that the specimen geometry is appropriated for the load capacity installed. At the present time there are no standard specimen’s geometries and the indications on literature how to design an efficient test specimen are insufficient. The main goal of this paper is to present the methodology on how to obtain an optimal cruciform specimen geometry, with thickness reduction in the gauge area, appropriated for fatigue crack initiation, as a function of the base material sheet thickness used to build the specimen. The geometry is optimized for maximum stress using several parameters, ensuring that in the gauge area the stress is uniform and maximum with two limit phase shift loading conditions. Therefore the fatigue damage will always initiate on the center of the specimen, avoiding failure outside this region. Using the Renard Series of preferred numbers for the base material sheet thickness as a reference, the reaming geometry parameters are optimized using a derivative-free methodology, called direct multi search (DMS method. The final optimal geometry as a function of the base material sheet thickness is proposed, as a guide line for cruciform specimens design, and as a possible contribution for a future standard on in-plane biaxial fatigue tests.

  1. Micro-scale testing of ductile and brittle cantilever beam specimens in situ with a dual beam workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnbrough, J E; Liu, D; Flewitt, P E J

    2013-01-01

    Micro-scale cantilever beam specimens created by focused ion beam milling have been mechanically loaded in situ at room temperature to observe the deformation and fracture of single crystal silicon, nanocrystalline nickel and thermal barrier coatings with a multilayer structure. The micro-scale preparation technique allows cantilever beams to be selected from preferred positions in the samples so that specific mechanical properties can be evaluated. As a consequence these microstructural specific properties can be combined with direct observation of the response of the test specimen throughout the period of the test. The measured mechanical properties and response for the materials given above are discussed and compared with previously published data. (paper)

  2. AGC-2 Specimen Post Irradiation Data Package Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windes, William Enoch [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swank, W. David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rohrbaugh, David T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cottle, David L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report documents results of the post-irradiation examination material property testing of the creep, control, and piggyback specimens from the irradiation creep capsule Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC)-2 are reported. This is the second of a series of six irradiation test trains planned as part of the AGC experiment to fully characterize the neutron irradiation effects and radiation creep behavior of current nuclear graphite grades. The AGC-2 capsule was irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor at a nominal temperature of 600°C and to a peak dose of 5 dpa (displacements per atom). One-half of the creep specimens were subjected to mechanical stresses (an applied stress of either 13.8, 17.2, or 20.7 MPa) to induce irradiation creep. All post-irradiation testing and measurement results are reported with the exception of the irradiation mechanical strength testing, which is the last destructive testing stage of the irradiation testing program. Material property tests were conducted on specimens from 15 nuclear graphite grades using a similar loading configuration as the first AGC capsule (AGC-1) to provide easy comparison between the two capsules. However, AGC-2 contained an increased number of specimens (i.e., 487 total specimens irradiated) and replaced specimens of the minor grade 2020 with the newer grade 2114. The data reported include specimen dimensions for both stressed and unstressed specimens to establish the irradiation creep rates, mass and volume data necessary to derive density, elastic constants (Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson’s ratio) from ultrasonic time-of-flight velocity measurements, Young’s modulus from the fundamental frequency of vibration, electrical resistivity, and thermal diffusivity and thermal expansion data from 100–500°C. No data outliers were determined after all measurements were completed. A brief statistical analysis was performed on the irradiated data and a limited comparison between

  3. A comparative analysis of preservation techniques for the optimal molecular detection of hookworm DNA in a human fecal specimen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Papaiakovou

    2018-01-01

    , preservative cost, shipping requirements, sample infectivity, and labor costs should be considered when deciding upon an appropriate method for the storage of fecal specimens for subsequent PCR analysis. Balancing logistical factors and the need to preserve the target DNA, we believe that under most circumstances 95% ethanol provides the most pragmatic choice for preserving stool samples in the field.

  4. Standard Guide for Reconstitution of Irradiated Charpy-Sized Specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures for the reconstitution of ferritic pressure boundary steels used in nuclear power plant applications, Type A Charpy (Test Methods E 23) specimens and specimens suitable for testing in three point bending in accordance with Test Methods E 1921 or E 1820. Materials from irradiation programs (principally broken specimens) are reconstituted by welding end tabs of similar material onto remachined specimen sections that were unaffected by the initial test. Guidelines are given for the selection of suitable specimen halves and end tab materials, for dimensional control, and for avoidance of overheating the notch area. A comprehensive overview of the reconstitution methodologies can be found in Ref (1). 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard...

  5. Direct Tension Test Using a Plate Specimen in Cohesive Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Shin-Ichi

    Hydraulic fracturing is probably one of the causes of leakage and collapse in a dam body or foundation. Water pressure develops cracks and this is one of the causes for hydraulic fracturing. It is important to evaluate characteristics of tensile strength in the foundation and embankment material of fill-dam to examine development conditions of the cracks. It is possible to evaluate tensile strength of hard rocks and metals by fixing both ends of the specimen with chucks and making it work directly. However, it is not possible to use the same method for soft material like cohesive soil. Hence direct tensile test was performed in this research by the plate type specimen used for the calculation of energy release rate (J integral). Then the stress distribution in the specimen and the energy release rate were calculated by FEM to examine a form of the specimen useful for the direct tensile test of cohesive soil. Consequently it is considered that tensile strength of cohesive soil can be measured by adjusting height of the specimen and length of the initial crack to a suitable value respectively.

  6. Evaluation of specimen preservatives for DNA analyses of bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, M.; Droege, S.; Conrad, T.; Prager, S.; Richards, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale insect collecting efforts that are facilitated by the use of pan traps result in large numbers of specimens being collected. Storage of these specimens can be problematic if space and equipment are limited. In this study, we investigated the effects of various preservatives (alcohol solutions and DMSO) on the amount and quality of DNA extracted from bees (specifically Halictidae, Apidae, and Andrenidae). In addition, we examined the amount and quality of DNA obtained from bee specimens killed and stored at -80 degrees C and from specimens stored for up to 24 years in ethanol. DNA quality was measured in terms of how well it could be PCR-amplified using a set of mitochondrial primers that are commonly used in insect molecular systematics. Overall the best methods of preservation were ultra-cold freezing and dimethyl sulfoxide, but these are both expensive and in the case of ultra-cold freezing, somewhat impractical for field entomologists. Additionally, dimethyl sulfoxide was shown to have adverse effects on morphological characters that are typically used for identification to the level of species. We therefore recommend that the best alternative is 95% ethanol, as it preserves bee specimens well for both morphological and molecular studies.

  7. Small specimen technique for assessing mechanical properties of metallic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Morcelli, Aparecido E., E-mail: rmlobo@ipen.br, E-mail: morcelliae@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most promising techniques of small specimen test, which was originally applied in testing of irradiated materials in nuclear engineering. Then it was introduced to other fields as an almost nondestructive method to measure the local mechanical properties that are difficult to be obtained using conventional mechanical tests. Most studies to date are focused on metallic materials, although SPT applications are recently spreading to other materials. The small punch test (SPT) employs small-sized specimens (for example, samples measuring 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick). The specimen is firmly clamped between two circular dies and is bi-axially strained until failure into a circular hole using a hemispherical punch. The 'load-punch displacement' record can be used to estimate the yield strength, the ultimate tensile strength, the tensile elongation, and the temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Recently, some researchers are working on the use of miniature notched or pre-cracked specimens (denoted as p-SPT) to validate its geometry and dimensions for obtaining the fracture properties of metallic materials. In a first approach, the technique makes it possible to convert primary experimental data into conventional mechanical properties of a massive specimen. In this paper a comprehensive review of the different STP applications is presented with the aim of clarifying its usefulness. (author)

  8. Small specimen technique for assessing mechanical properties of metallic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Morcelli, Aparecido E.

    2017-01-01

    Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most promising techniques of small specimen test, which was originally applied in testing of irradiated materials in nuclear engineering. Then it was introduced to other fields as an almost nondestructive method to measure the local mechanical properties that are difficult to be obtained using conventional mechanical tests. Most studies to date are focused on metallic materials, although SPT applications are recently spreading to other materials. The small punch test (SPT) employs small-sized specimens (for example, samples measuring 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick). The specimen is firmly clamped between two circular dies and is bi-axially strained until failure into a circular hole using a hemispherical punch. The 'load-punch displacement' record can be used to estimate the yield strength, the ultimate tensile strength, the tensile elongation, and the temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Recently, some researchers are working on the use of miniature notched or pre-cracked specimens (denoted as p-SPT) to validate its geometry and dimensions for obtaining the fracture properties of metallic materials. In a first approach, the technique makes it possible to convert primary experimental data into conventional mechanical properties of a massive specimen. In this paper a comprehensive review of the different STP applications is presented with the aim of clarifying its usefulness. (author)

  9. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for early detection of Schistosoma mansoni in stool samples: a diagnostic approach in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernández-Soto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human schistosomiasis, mainly due to Schistosoma mansoni species, is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide. To overcome the drawbacks of classical parasitological and serological methods in detecting S. mansoni infections, especially in acute stage of the disease, development of cost-effective, simple and rapid molecular methods is still needed for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. A promising approach is the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP technology. Compared to PCR-based assays, LAMP has the advantages of reaction simplicity, rapidity, specificity, cost-effectiveness and higher amplification efficiency. Additionally, as results can be inspected by the naked eye, the technique has great potential for use in low-income countries.A sequence corresponding to a mitochondrial S. mansoni minisatellite DNA region was selected as a target for designing a LAMP-based method to detect S. mansoni DNA in stool samples. We used a S. mansoni murine model to obtain well defined stool and sera samples from infected mice with S. mansoni cercariae. Samples were taken weekly from week 0 to 8 post-infection and the Kato-Katz and ELISA techniques were used for monitoring the infection. Primer set designed were tested using a commercial reaction mixture for LAMP assay and an in house mixture to compare results. Specificity of LAMP was tested using 16 DNA samples from different parasites, including several Schistosoma species, and no cross-reactions were found. The detection limit of our LAMP assay (SmMIT-LAMP was 1 fg of S. mansoni DNA. When testing stool samples from infected mice the SmMIT-LAMP detected S. mansoni DNA as soon as 1 week post-infection.We have developed, for the first time, a cost-effective, easy to perform, specific and sensitive LAMP assay for early detection of S. mansoni in stool samples. The method is potentially and readily adaptable for field diagnosis and disease surveillance in schistosomiasis-endemic areas.

  10. Rapid isolation of gluten-digesting bacteria from human stool and saliva by using gliadin-containing plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantopoulos, Christos; Ongchangco, Deryn; Sry, Jeremy; Cesario, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The number of individuals with gluten intolerance has increased dramatically over the last years. To date, the only therapy for gluten intolerance is the complete avoidance of dietary gluten. To sustain a strictly gluten-free diet, however, is very challenging. Therefore, there is need for a non-dietary therapy. Any such treatment must appreciate that the immunogenic part of gluten are gliadin peptides which are poorly degraded by the enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotic therapy and oral enzyme therapy containing gluten-degrading bacteria (GDB) and their gliadin-digesting enzymes are possible new approaches for the treatment of gluten intolerance, however effectively isolating GDB for these treatments is problematic. The goal of this study was to develop an easy technique to isolate GDB rapidly and efficiently with the hope it might lead to newer ways of developing either probiotics or traditional medicines to treat gluten intolerance. Several researchers have already isolated successfully GDB by using gluten minimal or limited agar plates. Although these plates can be used to isolate bacteria which can tolerate gluten, further assays are needed to investigate if the same bacteria can also digest gluten. The agar plates we developed can detect bacteria which cannot only tolerate gluten but are able to digest it as well. Therefore, we were able to combine two steps into one step. Using such technologies, we were able to isolate five GDB from saliva and stool, and identified three bacterial reference strains with gluten-degrading activity. The technique we developed to isolate bacteria with gluten-degrading activity is fast, effective, and easy to use. The GDB isolated by our technology could have potential as part of a probiotic or enzymatic therapy for people with gluten intolerance. PMID:25519429

  11. Reaction mechanism of Ru(II) piano-stool complexes: umbrella sampling QM/MM MD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futera, Zdeněk; Burda, Jaroslav V

    2014-07-15

    Biologically relevant interactions of piano-stool ruthenium(II) complexes with ds-DNA are studied in this article by hybrid quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics (QM/MM) computational technique. The whole reaction mechanism is divided into three phases: (i) hydration of the [Ru(II) (η(6) -benzene)(en)Cl](+) complex, (ii) monoadduct formation between the resulting aqua-Ru(II) complex and N7 position of one of the guanines in the ds-DNA oligomer, and (iii) formation of the intrastrand Ru(II) bridge (cross-link) between two adjacent guanines. Free energy profiles of all the reactions are explored by QM/MM MD umbrella sampling approach where the Ru(II) complex and two guanines represent a quantum core, which is described by density functional theory methods. The combined QM/MM scheme is realized by our own software, which was developed to couple several quantum chemical programs (in this study Gaussian 09) and Amber 11 package. Calculated free energy barriers of the both ruthenium hydration and Ru(II)-N7(G) DNA binding process are in good agreement with experimentally measured rate constants. Then, this method was used to study the possibility of cross-link formation. One feasible pathway leading to Ru(II) guanine-guanine cross-link with synchronous releasing of the benzene ligand is predicted. The cross-linking is an exergonic process with the energy barrier lower than for the monoadduct reaction of Ru(II) complex with ds-DNA. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. As tests evolve and costs of cancer care rise: reappraising stool-based screening for colorectal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, M; Fendrick, A M; Ladabaum, U

    2008-04-01

    Colorectal cancer screening and treatment are rapidly evolving. Aims To reappraise stool-based colorectal cancer screening in light of changing test performance characteristics, lower test cost and increasing colorectal cancer care costs. Using a Markov model, we compared faecal DNA testing every 3 years, annual faecal occult blood testing or immunochemical testing, and colonoscopy every 10 years. In the base case, faecal occult blood testing and faecal immunochemical testing gained life-years/person and cost less than no screening. Faecal DNA testing version 1.1 at $300 (the current PreGen Plus test) gained 5323 life-years/100 000 persons at $16 900/life-year gained and faecal DNA testing version 2 (enhanced test) gained 5795 life-years/100 000 persons at $15 700/life-year gained vs. no screening. In the base case and most sensitivity analyses, faecal occult blood testing and faecal immunochemical testing were preferred to faecal DNA testing. Faecal DNA testing version 2 cost $100 000/life-year gained vs. faecal immunochemical testing when per-cycle adherence with faecal immunochemical testing was 22%. Faecal immunochemical testing with excellent adherence was superior to colonoscopy every 10 years. As novel biological therapies increase colorectal cancer treatment costs, faecal occult blood testing and faecal immunochemical testing could become cost-saving. The cost-effectiveness of faecal DNA testing compared with no screening has improved, but faecal occult blood testing and faecal immunochemical testing are preferred to faecal DNA testing when patient adherence is high. Faecal immunochemical testing may be comparable to colonoscopy every 10 years in persons adhering to yearly testing.

  13. Stool guaiac test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems that cause bleeding in the stomach or intestinal tract, including: Colon cancer or other gastrointestinal (GI) tumors Colon polyps Bleeding veins in the esophagus or stomach ( esophageal ...

  14. Bloody or tarry stools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the intestines Inflammation of the stomach lining ( gastritis ) Trauma or foreign body Widened, overgrown veins (called ... of the intestines, called bowel ischemia Polyps or cancer in the colon or small intestine Diverticulosis (abnormal ...

  15. Teaching retirement financial literacy in an undergraduate gerontology classroom: broadening the concept of the tripod or three-legged stool of retirement income utilizing active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Hallie E; Brown, Pamela Pitman

    2015-01-01

    The three-legged stool concept is widely used in gerontological and geriatric education as an explanation on how one should fiscally approach his or her retirement. Financial managers, planners, retirees, business owners, even the Social Security Administration uses this metaphor of fiscal soundness in retirement planning. Gerontologists are moving away from the "tripod of retirement income" and "three-legged stool" term, as more often market work is needed for financial security. This activity focuses on the tripod or three-legged stool concepts of retirement planning using active learning, allowing the students to work collaboratively in a group, reflect upon the activity, and most importantly have fun. The game also allows for an expansion of the tripod concepts into the four pillars of economic security, broaching the use of personal assets and the possible need for longer employment. Game scenarios also emphasize macro- and microlevel forces, such as race, gender, health status, education, or marital status, which can influence timing of retirement or the level of retirement income available. The authors include instructions on how to set up the learning experience including worksheets, as well as reflection questions posed throughout the process.

  16. A conventional polymerase chain reaction-based method for the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis in stool samples from individuals in a low-endemicity area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teiliane Rodrigues Carneiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based method to detect Schistosoma mansoni DNA in stool samples from individuals living in a low-endemicity area in Brazil. Of the 125 initial stool samples, 80 were ELISA reactive and eggs were identified in 19 of the samples by parasitological examination. For the PCR evaluations, 56 stool samples were selected and divided into five groups. Groups I-IV were scored negative for S. mansoni eggs by parasitological examination. Groups I and II were ELISA reactive, whereas Groups III and IV were ELISA nonreactive. Groups II and III were positive for other intestinal parasites. PCR testing scored eight samples as positive from these four groups. Group V represented the S. mansoni -positive group and it included ELISA-reactive samples that were scored positive for S. mansoni by one or more parasitological examinations (6/19 were positive by Kato-Katz method, 9/17 by saline gradient and 10/13 by Helmintex®. PCR scored 13 of these 19 samples as positive for S. mansoni . We conclude that while none of these methods yielded 100% sensitivity, a combination of techniques should be effective for improving the detection of S. mansoni infection in low-endemicity areas.

  17. Evaluation of sampling and storage procedures on preserving the community structure of stool microbiota: A simple at-home toilet-paper collection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al, Kait F; Bisanz, Jordan E; Gloor, Gregory B; Reid, Gregor; Burton, Jeremy P

    2018-01-01

    The increasing interest on the impact of the gut microbiota on health and disease has resulted in multiple human microbiome-related studies emerging. However, multiple sampling methods are being used, making cross-comparison of results difficult. To avoid additional clinic visits and increase patient recruitment to these studies, there is the potential to utilize at-home stool sampling. The aim of this pilot study was to compare simple self-sampling collection and storage methods. To simulate storage conditions, stool samples from three volunteers were freshly collected, placed on toilet tissue, and stored at four temperatures (-80, 7, 22 and 37°C), either dry or in the presence of a stabilization agent (RNAlater®) for 3 or 7days. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing by Illumina, the effect of storage variations for each sample was compared to a reference community from fresh, unstored counterparts. Fastq files may be accessed in the NCBI Sequence Read Archive: Bioproject ID PRJNA418287. Microbial diversity and composition were not significantly altered by any storage method. Samples were always separable based on participant, regardless of storage method suggesting there was no need for sample preservation by a stabilization agent. In summary, if immediate sample processing is not feasible, short term storage of unpreserved stool samples on toilet paper offers a reliable way to assess the microbiota composition by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Does the amount of tagged stool and fluid significantly affect the radiation exposure in low-dose CT colonography performed with an automatic exposure control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyun Kyong; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Young Hoon; Kim, Kil Joong; Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, Hyunna; Park, Seong Ho; Yanof, Jeffrey H.; Hwang, Seung-sik

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether the amount of tagged stool and fluid significantly affects the radiation exposure in low-dose screening CT colonography performed with an automatic tube-current modulation technique. The study included 311 patients. The tagging agent was barium (n = 271) or iodine (n = 40). Correlation was measured between mean volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ) and the estimated x-ray attenuation of the tagged stool and fluid (ATT). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the effect of ATT on CTDI vol and the effect of ATT on image noise while adjusting for other variables including abdominal circumference. CTDI vol varied from 0.88 to 2.54 mGy. There was no significant correlation between CTDI vol and ATT (p = 0.61). ATT did not significantly affect CTDI vol (p = 0.93), while abdominal circumference was the only factor significantly affecting CTDI vol (p < 0.001). Image noise ranged from 59.5 to 64.1 HU. The p value for the regression model explaining the noise was 0.38. The amount of stool and fluid tagging does not significantly affect radiation exposure. (orig.)

  19. Radiation damage with biological specimens and organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The radiation damage referred to in this chapter is defined as any changes in the physical structure or chemical makeup of the specimen which occur as a result of exposure to the electron beam. Radiation damage occurs in organic materials predominantly as a consequence of inelastic scattering of the incident electrons which frequently results in molecular ionization and radiolysis. Other types of radiation damage which can occur are specimen etching, which occurs as the result of synergistic action of electron irradiation and the presence of certain residual gasses, and specimen heating which occurs only at electron current densities that are large on the scale of ionization damage. The primary events in radiation physics and radiation chemistry and signal-to-noise considerations are also discussed in some detail

  20. An analysis of forensic entomological specimens by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsa, R A; Ahmad, F M S; Marwi, M A; Zuha, R M; Omar, B

    2010-09-01

    This study reviews forensic entomological specimens analysed by the Department of Parasitology & Medical Entomology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for the year 2004. A total of 10 cases (6 males and 4 females) were observed for the entomological specimens. Various types of death scenes were obtained including indoor and outdoor area such as bushes field, rubbish dumping site, and aquatic areas. Identified fly species collected from the death sites were blow flies, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Lucilia cuprina and unknown sarcophagid larvae, with Ch. megacephala being the most common species found in the ecologically varied death scene habitats. The post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation ranged from one to five days, based on the entomological specimens collected.