WorldWideScience

Sample records for single standard operating

  1. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes

  2. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes

  3. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, these standards will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience

  4. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes. Revision 7 was published in January 1993 and became effective in August 1993. Supplement 1 is being issued primarily to implement administrative changes to the requalification examination program resulting from the amendment to 10 CFR 55 that eliminated the requirement for every licensed operator to pass an NRC-conducted requalification examination as a condition for license renewal. The supplement does not substantially alter either the initial or requalification examination processes and will become effective 30 days after its publication is noticed in the Federal Register. The corporate notification letters issued after the effective date will provide facility licensees with at least 90 days notice that the examinations will be administered in accordance with the revised procedures

  5. Standardization of biodosimetry operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dainiak, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Methods and procedures for generating, interpreting and scoring the frequency of dicentric chromosomes vary among cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratories (CBLs). This variation adds to the already considerable lack of precision inherent in the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA). Although variability in sample collection, cell preparation, equipment and dicentric frequency scoring can never be eliminated with certainty, it can be substantially minimized, resulting in reduced scatter and improved precision. Use of standard operating procedures and technician exchange may help to mitigate variation. Although the development and adoption of international standards (ISO 21243 and ISO 19238) has helped to reduce variation in standard operating procedures (SOPs), all CBLs must maintain process improvement, and those with challenges may require additional assistance. Sources of variation that may not be readily apparent in the SOPs for sample collection and processing include variability in ambient laboratory conditions, media, serum lot and quantity and the use of particular combinations of cytokines. Variability in maintenance and calibration of metafer equipment, and in scoring criteria, reader proficiency and personal factors may need to be addressed. The calibration curve itself is a source of variation that requires control, using the same known-dose samples among CBLs, measurement of central tendency, and generation of common curves with periodic reassessment to detect drifts in dicentric yield. Finally, the dose estimate should be based on common scoring criteria, using of the z-statistic. Although theoretically possible, it is practically impossible to propagate uncertainty over the entire calibration curve due to the many factors contributing to variance. Periodic re-evaluation of the curve is needed by comparison with newly published curves (using statistical analysis of differences) and determining their potential causes. (author)

  6. DOE limited standard: Operations assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Purpose of this standard is to provide DOE Field Element assessors with a guide for conducting operations assessments, and provide DOE Field Element managers with the criteria of the EM Operations Assessment Program. Sections 6.1 to 6.21 provide examples of how to assess specific areas; the general techniques of operations assessments (Section 5) may be applied to other areas of health and safety (e.g. fire protection, criticality safety, quality assurance, occupational safety, etc.).

  7. Conduct of operations: establishing operational focus and setting operational standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.; McGuigan, K.

    1998-01-01

    Due to the nature of our business, we have often tended to focus on the technological aspects of the nuclear industry. The focus of this paper is directed towards the importance of addressing the people skills, attitudes, and 'culture' within, and surrounding, our facilities as key areas of improvement. Within Ontario Hydro Nuclear (OLIN) we have developed the terminology 'event free' operation and 'event free' culture. 'Event Free' recognizes errors as a part of human performance. 'Event Free' takes into account human weaknesses, and provides tools (such as standards) to manage, control, and mitigate errors. In essence, 'Event Free' encompasses two concepts: 1. Prevent errors from occurring; 2. If an error is made, catch it before it can affect safe operation of the facility, learn from the error, and ensure that it does not happen again. In addressing these business realities, Ontario Hydro has identified a number of key support mechanisms and corresponding performance standards that are essential for achieving operating excellence and an 'event free' business culture. This paper will discuss two operational aspects of an 'event free' culture, the first being a set of expectations to enhance the culture, and the second an example of cultural change: 1. Operating Standards - establishing clear expectations for human performance in operating staff; 2. Operational Focus - the understanding that, as a nuclear worker, you should consider every task, activity, in fact everything you do in this business, for the potential to affect safe and reliable operation of a nuclear facility. Note that although the term 'Operational' appears in the title, this concept applies to every individual in the nuclear business, from the cleaner, to the Board of Directors, to the external supplier. (author)

  8. Preliminary results of capecitabine metronomic chemotherapy in operable triple-negative breast cancer after standard adjuvant therapy – A single-arm phase II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Shawky

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: One year of capecitabine metronomic therapy preceded by standard adjuvant chemotherapy, is active and well-tolerated in TNBC patients previously treated with standard adjuvant chemotherapy.

  9. Autonomous calibration of single spin qubit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Florian; Unden, Thomas; Zoller, Jonathan; Said, Ressa S.; Calarco, Tommaso; Montangero, Simone; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor

    2017-12-01

    Fully autonomous precise control of qubits is crucial for quantum information processing, quantum communication, and quantum sensing applications. It requires minimal human intervention on the ability to model, to predict, and to anticipate the quantum dynamics, as well as to precisely control and calibrate single qubit operations. Here, we demonstrate single qubit autonomous calibrations via closed-loop optimisations of electron spin quantum operations in diamond. The operations are examined by quantum state and process tomographic measurements at room temperature, and their performances against systematic errors are iteratively rectified by an optimal pulse engineering algorithm. We achieve an autonomous calibrated fidelity up to 1.00 on a time scale of minutes for a spin population inversion and up to 0.98 on a time scale of hours for a single qubit π/2 -rotation within the experimental error of 2%. These results manifest a full potential for versatile quantum technologies.

  10. Projection operator treatment of single particle resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lev, A.; Beres, W.P.

    1976-01-01

    A projection operator method is used to obtain the energy and width of a single particle resonance. The resonance energy is found without scanning. An example of the first g/sub 9/2/ neutron resonance in 40 Ca is given and compared with the traditional phase shift method. The results of both approaches are quite similar. 4 figures

  11. 77 FR 33950 - Prudential Management and Operations Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1236 RIN 2590-AA13 Prudential Management and Operations... establish prudential standards (Standards) relating to the management and operations of the Federal National... establish other appropriate management and operations standards. 12 U.S.C. 4513b(a)(11). \\1\\ The authorizing...

  12. 21 CFR 120.6 - Sanitation standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation standard operating procedures. 120.6... Provisions § 120.6 Sanitation standard operating procedures. (a) Sanitation controls. Each processor shall have and implement a sanitation standard operating procedure (SSOP) that addresses sanitation...

  13. Effective operators in a single-j orbital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbali, E.; Van Isacker, P.; Tellili, B.; Souga, C.

    2018-03-01

    We present an analysis of effective operators in the shell model with up to three-body interactions in the Hamiltonian and two-body terms in electromagnetic transition operators when the nucleons are either neutrons or protons occupying a single-j orbital. We first show that evidence for an effective three-body interaction exists in the N = 50 isotones and in the lead isotopes but that the separate components of such interaction are difficult to obtain empirically. We then determine higher-order terms on more microscopic grounds. The starting point is a realistic two-body interaction in a large shell-model space together with a standard one-body transition operator, which, after restriction to the dominant orbital and with use of stationary perturbation theory, are transformed into effective versions with higher-order terms. An application is presented for the lead isotopes with neutrons in the 1{g}9/2 orbital.

  14. The European Stroke Organisation Guidelines: a standard operating procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaios, George; Bornstein, Natan M; Caso, Valeria; Christensen, Hanne; De Keyser, Jacques; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio; Ferro, Jose M; Ford, Gary A; Grau, Armin; Keller, Emanuella; Leys, Didier; Russell, David; Toni, Danilo; Turc, Guillaume; Van der Worp, Bart; Wahlgren, Nils; Steiner, Thorsten

    2015-10-01

    In 2008, the recently founded European Stroke Organisation published its guidelines for the management of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. This highly cited document was translated in several languages and was updated in 2009. Since then, the European Stroke Organisation has published guidelines for the management of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, for the establishment of stroke units and stroke centers, and recently for the management of intracerebral hemorrhage. In recent years, the methodology for the development of guidelines has evolved significantly. To keep pace with this progress and driven by the strong determination of the European Stroke Organisation to further promote stroke management, education, and research, the European Stroke Organisation decided to delineate a detailed standard operating procedure for its guidelines. There are two important cornerstones in this standard operating procedure: The first is the implementation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology for the development of its Guideline Documents. The second one is the decision of the European Stroke Organisation to move from the classical model of a single Guideline Document about a major topic (e.g. management of ischemic stroke) to focused modules (i.e. subdivisions of a major topic). This will enable the European Stroke Organisation to react faster when new developments in a specific stroke field occur and update its recommendations on the related module rather swiftly; with the previous approach of a single large Guideline Document, its entire revision had to be completed before an updated publication, delaying the production of up-to-date guidelines. After discussion within the European Stroke Organisation Guidelines Committee and significant input from European Stroke Organisation members as well as methodologists and analysts, this document presents the official standard operating procedure for

  15. Oswer integrated health and safety standard operating practices. Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The directive implements the OSWER (Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response) Integrated Health and Safety Standards Operating Practices in conjunction with the OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act) Worker Protection Standards, replacing the OSWER Integrated Health and Safety Policy

  16. 24 CFR 902.43 - Management operations performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management operations performance... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Indicator #3: Management Operations § 902.43 Management operations performance standards. (a) Management operations sub-indicators. The following sub...

  17. Computing tools for implementing standards for single-case designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ting; Peng, Chao-Ying Joanne; Chen, Ming-E

    2015-11-01

    In the single-case design (SCD) literature, five sets of standards have been formulated and distinguished: design standards, assessment standards, analysis standards, reporting standards, and research synthesis standards. This article reviews computing tools that can assist researchers and practitioners in meeting the analysis standards recommended by the What Works Clearinghouse: Procedures and Standards Handbook-the WWC standards. These tools consist of specialized web-based calculators or downloadable software for SCD data, and algorithms or programs written in Excel, SAS procedures, SPSS commands/Macros, or the R programming language. We aligned these tools with the WWC standards and evaluated them for accuracy and treatment of missing data, using two published data sets. All tools were tested to be accurate. When missing data were present, most tools either gave an error message or conducted analysis based on the available data. Only one program used a single imputation method. This article concludes with suggestions for an inclusive computing tool or environment, additional research on the treatment of missing data, and reasonable and flexible interpretations of the WWC standards. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Making operations on standard-library containers strongly exception safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2007-01-01

    An operation on an element container is said to provide a strong guarantee of exception safety if, in case an exception is thrown, the operation leaves the container in the state in which it was before the operation. In this paper, we explore how to adjust operations on C++ standard......-library containers to provide the strong guarantee of exception safety, instead of the default guarantee, without violating the stringent performance requirements specified in the C++ standard. In particular, we show that every strongly exception-safe operation on dynamic arrays and ordered dictionaries is only...

  19. Primary standard of optical power operating at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dönsberg Timo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Predictable Quantum Efficient Detector (PQED is evaluated as a new primary standard of optical power. Design and characterization results are presented for a new compact room temperature PQED that consists of two custom-made induced junction photodiodes mounted in a wedged trap configuration. The detector assembly includes a window aligned in Brewster angle in front of the photodiodes for high transmission of p polarized light. The detector can also be operated without the window, in which case a dry nitrogen flow system is utilized to prevent dust contamination of the photodiodes. Measurements of individual detectors at the wavelength of 488 nm indicate that reflectance and internal quantum efficiency are consistent within 14 ppm and 10 ppm (ppm = part per million, respectively, and agree with the predicted values. The measured photocurrent ratio of the two photodiodes confirms the predicted value for s and p polarized light, and the spatial variation in the photocurrent ratio can be used to estimate the uniformity in the thickness of the silicon dioxide layer on the surface of the photodiodes. In addition, the spatial non-uniformity of the responsivity of the PQED is an order of magnitude lower than that of single photodiodes. Such data provide evidence that the room temperature PQED may replace the cryogenic radiometer as a primary standard of optical power in the visible wavelength range.

  20. What is the scope of the operator's standard of care in wellsite operations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petch, J.

    1999-01-01

    Joint ownership is a standard operating procedure for many oil and gas companies and has led to the development of standardized operating agreements. Under the terms of these agreements, one party assumes responsibility for operating and developing the joint interests for the benefit of all working parties. The standard of care imposed upon an operator towards non-operators regarding jointly owned oil and gas operations, is discussed, with an emphasis on whether such an operator is liable to fellow participants for acts fo gross negligence or wilful misconduct. The starting point in the analysis is the proposition that the standard of care for an operation of joint interests may be specified and agreed to by the joint owners in their contracts governing their relationship. A discussion is included of two different standards of care by the courts, whether Alberta courts are finding the gross negligence or wilful standard applicable, and the need for more fundamental change to the industry standard form agreement before the gross negligence/wilful misconduct standard will be applied by Alberta courts. The examination is conducted for the most part with reference to the standard forms of joint operating proceedures in widespread use, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Landman forms of Operating Procedure

  1. A comparative study of performance measurement standards of railway operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongjirawut Siripong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European standard (EN 13816, is one of the widely accepted standards for measuring the quality of public passenger transport (PPT service. EN 13816 indicates 8 measurement criteria, 29 sub-criteria and 193 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs to be used to measure the performance of railway operators. Nowadays, there are other addition criteria beyond EN13816, developed by various organisations. This research firstly aims to explore the service performance measurement of railway operators used by actual railway operators at international level and in Thailand. After an intensive review of performance measurement standards, 9 standards are compiled and compared in terms of criteria, sub-criteria and KPIs using a cluster analysis methodology. The result found additional performance measurement aspects at 2 sub-criteria and 91 KPIs in addition to EN 13816. This research summarized and compared different performance measurement standards to measure service quality of metro rail line.

  2. Single-incision sling operations for urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Arjun; Cody, June D; Jeffery, Stephen T

    2014-06-01

    new single-incision slings. The definition of a single-incision sling is "a sling that does not involve either a retropubic or transobturator passage of the tape or trocar and involves only a single vaginal incision (i.e. no exit wounds in the groin or lower abdomen)." Three review authors assessed the methodological quality of potentially eligible trials and independently extracted data from the individual trials. We identified 31 trials involving 3290 women. Some methodological flaws were observed in some trials; a summary of these is given in the 'Risk of bias in included studies' section.No studies compared single-incision slings versus no treatment, conservative treatment, colposuspension, laparoscopic procedures or traditional sub-urethral slings. Also no data on the comparison of single-incision slings versus retropubic mid-urethral slings (top-down approach) were available, but the review authors believe this did not affect the overall comparison versus retropubic mid-urethral slings.The types of single-incision slings included in this review were TVT-Secur (Gynecare), MiniArc (American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, MN, USA), Ajust (C.R. Bard, Inc.,Covington, GA, USA), Needleless (Mayumana Healthcare, Lisse, The Netherlands), Ophira (Promedon, Cordoba, Argentina), Tissue Fixation System (TFS PTY Ltd, Sydney, Australia) and CureMesh (D.Med. Co., Inc., Seoul, Korea).Women were more likely to remain incontinent after surgery with single-incision slings than with retropubic slings such as tension-free vaginal tape (TVT(TM)) (121/292, 41% vs 72/281, 26%; risk ratio (RR) 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 4.14). Duration of the operation was slightly shorter for single-incision slings but with higher risk of de novo urgency (RR 2.39, 95% CI 1.25 to 4.56). Four of five studies in the comparison included TVT-Secur as the single-incision sling.Single-incision slings resulted in higher incontinence rates compared with inside-out transobturator slings (30% vs 11

  3. The development of standard operating protocols for paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardwick, J.; Mencik, C.; McLaren, C.; Young, C.; Scadden, S.; Mashford, P.; McHugh, K.; Beckett, M.; Calvert, M.; Marsden, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes how the requirement for operating protocols for standard radiological practice was expanded to provide a comprehensive aide to the operator conducting a medical exposure. The protocols adopted now include justification criteria, patient preparation, radiographic technique, standard exposure charts, diagnostic reference levels and image quality criteria. In total, the protocols have been welcomed as a tool for ensuring that medical exposures are properly optimised. (author)

  4. 18 CFR 292.308 - Standards for operating reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reliability. 292.308 Section 292.308 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Act of 1978 § 292.308 Standards for operating reliability. Any State regulatory authority (with... may establish reasonable standards to ensure system safety and reliability of interconnected...

  5. Job Grading Standard for Machine Tool Operator, WG-3431.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The standard covers nonsupervisory work involved in the set up, adjustment, and operation of conventional machine tools to perform machining operations in the manufacture and repair of castings, forgings, or parts from raw stock made of various metals, metal alloys, and other materials. A general description of the job at both the WG-8 and WG-9…

  6. Canonical forms for single-qutrit Clifford+T operators

    OpenAIRE

    Glaudell, Andrew N.; Ross, Neil J.; Taylor, Jacob M.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce canonical forms for single qutrit Clifford+T circuits and prove that every single-qutrit Clifford+T operator admits a unique such canonical form. We show that our canonical forms are T-optimal in the sense that among all the single-qutrit Clifford+T circuits implementing a given operator our canonical form uses the least number of T gates. Finally, we provide an algorithm which inputs the description of an operator (as a matrix or a circuit) and constructs the canonical form for ...

  7. Non-Power Reactor Operator Licensing Examiner Standards. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The Non-Power Reactor Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, these standards will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience

  8. Non-Power Reactor Operator Licensing Examiner Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Non-Power Reactor Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, this standard will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience

  9. Operator licensing examination standards for power reactors. Interim revision 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    These examination standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the processes associated with initial and requalification examinations. The standards also ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations for all applicants. These standards are for guidance purposes and are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations (i.e., 10 CFR Part 55), and they are subject to revision or other changes in internal operator licensing policy. This interim revision permits facility licensees to prepare their initial operator licensing examinations on a voluntary basis pending an amendment to 10 CFR Part 55 that will require facility participation. The NRC intends to solicit comments on this revision during the rulemaking process and to issue a final Revision 8 in conjunction with the final rule

  10. Standard hydrogen monitoring system - E operation and maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information for the operation and maintenance of the Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System- E (SHMS-E) used in the 200E and 20OW area tank farms on the Hanford Site. This provides information specific to the mechanical operation of the system and is not intended to take the place of a Plant Operating Procedure. However, it does provide more information on the system than a Plant Operating Procedure. The intent here is that the system is started up by a technician or engineer who has completed tank farms training course for SHMS, and then the only actions performed by Operations will be routine log taking. If any problems not addressed by the operating procedure are encountered with the unit, engineering should be contacted

  11. Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System-D operation and maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information for the operation and maintenance of the Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System-D (SHMS-D) used in the 200E and 200W area tank farms on the Hanford Site. This provides information specific to the mechanical operation of the system and is not intended to take the place of a Plant Operating Procedure. However, it does provide more information on the system than a Plant Operating Procedure. The intent here is that the system is started up by a technician or engineer who has completed tank farms training course No. 351405, and then the only actions performed by Operations will be routine log taking. If any problems not addressed by the operating procedure are encountered with the unit, engineering should be contacted

  12. Savannah River Site peer evaluator standards: Operator assessment for restart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Savannah River Site has implemented a Peer Evaluator program for the assessment of certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors and Shift Technical Engineers prior to restart. This program is modeled after the nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Examiner Standard, ES-601, for the requalification of licensed operators in the commercial utility industry. It has been tailored to reflect the unique differences between Savannah River production reactors and commercial power reactors

  13. Savannah River Site peer evaluator standards: Operator assessment for restart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    Savannah River Site has implemented a Peer Evaluator program for the assessment of certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors and Shift Technical Engineers prior to restart. This program is modeled after the nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Examiner Standard, ES-601, for the requalification of licensed operators in the commercial utility industry. It has been tailored to reflect the unique differences between Savannah River production reactors and commercial power reactors.

  14. Savannah River Site peer evaluator standards: Operator assessment for restart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    Savannah River Site has implemented a Peer Evaluator program for the assessment of certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors and Shift Technical Engineers prior to restart. This program is modeled after the nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Examiner Standard, ES-601, for the requalification of licensed operators in the commercial utility industry. It has been tailored to reflect the unique differences between Savannah River production reactors and commercial power reactors.

  15. Standard hydrogen monitoring system-B operation and maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information for the operation and maintenance of the Standards Hydrogen Monitoring System-B (SHMS-B) used in the 200E and 200W area tank farms on the Hanford site. This provides information specific to the mechanical operation of the system and is not intended to take the place of a Plant Operating Procedure. The primary function of the SHMS-B is to monitor specifically for hydrogen in the waste tank vapor space which may also contain unknown quantities of other gaseous constituents

  16. 21 CFR 58.81 - Standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... following: (1) Animal room preparation. (2) Animal care. (3) Receipt, identification, storage, handling... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard operating procedures. 58.81 Section 58.81 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD...

  17. Testing single point incremental forming molds for thermoforming operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Daniel; de Sousa, Ricardo Alves; Torcato, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Low pressure polymer processing processes as thermoforming or rotational molding use much simpler molds then high pressure processes like injection. However, despite the low forces involved with the process, molds manufacturing for this operations is still a very material, energy and time consuming operation. The goal of the research is to develop and validate a method for manufacturing plastically formed sheets metal molds by single point incremental forming (SPIF) operation for thermoforming operation. Stewart platform based SPIF machines allow the forming of thick metal sheets, granting the required structural stiffness for the mold surface, and keeping the short lead time manufacture and low thermal inertia.

  18. US Department of Energy DOE Nevada Operations Office, Nevada Test Site: Underground safety and health standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The Nevada Test Site Underground Safety and Health Standards Working Group was formed at the direction of John D. Stewart, Director, Nevada Test Site Office in April, 1990. The objective of the Working Group was to compile a safety and health standard from the California Tunnel Safety Orders and OSHA for the underground operations at the NTS, (excluding Yucca Mountain). These standards are called the NTS U/G Safety and Health Standards. The Working Group submits these standards as a RECOMMENDATION to the Director, NTSO. Although the Working Group considers these standards to be the most integrated and comprehensive standards that could be developed for NTS Underground Operations, the intent is not to supersede or replace any relevant DOE orders. Rather the intent is to collate the multiple safety and health references contained in DOE Order 5480.4 that have applicability to NTS Underground Operations into a single safety and heath standard to be used in the underground operations at the NTS. Each portion of the standard was included only after careful consideration by the Working Group and is judged to be both effective and appropriate. The specific methods and rationale used by the Working Group are outlined as follows: The letter from DOE/HQ, dated September 28, 1990 cited OSHA and the CTSO as the safety and health codes applicable to underground operations at the NTS. These mandated codes were each originally developed to be comprehensive, i.e., all underground operations of a particular type (e.g., tunnels in the case of the CTSO) were intended to be adequately regulated by the appropriate code. However, this is not true; the Working Group found extensive and confusing overlap in the codes in numerous areas. Other subjects and activities were addressed by the various codes in cursory fashion or not at all.

  19. US Department of Energy DOE Nevada Operations Office, Nevada Test Site: Underground safety and health standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Nevada Test Site Underground Safety and Health Standards Working Group was formed at the direction of John D. Stewart, Director, Nevada Test Site Office in April, 1990. The objective of the Working Group was to compile a safety and health standard from the California Tunnel Safety Orders and OSHA for the underground operations at the NTS, (excluding Yucca Mountain). These standards are called the NTS U/G Safety and Health Standards. The Working Group submits these standards as a RECOMMENDATION to the Director, NTSO. Although the Working Group considers these standards to be the most integrated and comprehensive standards that could be developed for NTS Underground Operations, the intent is not to supersede or replace any relevant DOE orders. Rather the intent is to collate the multiple safety and health references contained in DOE Order 5480.4 that have applicability to NTS Underground Operations into a single safety and heath standard to be used in the underground operations at the NTS. Each portion of the standard was included only after careful consideration by the Working Group and is judged to be both effective and appropriate. The specific methods and rationale used by the Working Group are outlined as follows: The letter from DOE/HQ, dated September 28, 1990 cited OSHA and the CTSO as the safety and health codes applicable to underground operations at the NTS. These mandated codes were each originally developed to be comprehensive, i.e., all underground operations of a particular type (e.g., tunnels in the case of the CTSO) were intended to be adequately regulated by the appropriate code. However, this is not true; the Working Group found extensive and confusing overlap in the codes in numerous areas. Other subjects and activities were addressed by the various codes in cursory fashion or not at all

  20. Operational characteristics of dual gain single cavity Nd: YVO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Operational characteristics of a dual gain single cavity Nd:YVO4 laser have been investigated. With semiconductor diode laser pump power of 2 W, 800 mW output was obtained with a slope efficiency of 49%. Further, by changing the relative orientation of the two crystals the polarization characteristics of the output could be ...

  1. The European Stroke Organisation Guidelines: a standard operating procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntaios, George; Bornstein, Natan M; Caso, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the recently founded European Stroke Organisation published its guidelines for the management of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. This highly cited document was translated in several languages and was updated in 2009. Since then, the European Stroke Organisation has published...... pace with this progress and driven by the strong determination of the European Stroke Organisation to further promote stroke management, education, and research, the European Stroke Organisation decided to delineate a detailed standard operating procedure for its guidelines. There are two important...... cornerstones in this standard operating procedure: The first is the implementation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology for the development of its Guideline Documents. The second one is the decision of the European Stroke Organisation to move from the classical...

  2. Quality assurance: Importance of systems and standard operating procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Kishu Manghani

    2011-01-01

    It is mandatory for sponsors of clinical trials and contract research organizations alike to establish, manage and monitor their quality control and quality assurance systems and their integral standard operating procedures and other quality documents to provide high-quality products and services to fully satisfy customer needs and expectations. Quality control and quality assurance systems together constitute the key quality systems. Quality control and quality assurance are parts of quality...

  3. Nuclear data standards - International Evaluation Co-operation volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.D.; Shibata, K.; Vonach, H.; Hambsch, F.J.; Chen, Z.; Hofmann, H.M.; Oh, S.Y.; Badikov, S.A.; Gai, E.V.; Pronyaev, V.G.; Smith, D.L.; Hale, G.M.; Kawano, T.; Larson, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The working party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with a view to assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The parties to the project are: ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank member countries) and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries is organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report was issued by Subgroup 7, which was in charge of producing new evaluated neutron cross-section standards. When starting the project, there was a general consensus on the need to update these standards, as significant improvements had been made to the experimental database since 1991 when the last evaluation of these standards was performed. The present work was accomplished through efficient collaboration between a task force of the US Cross-section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Subgroup 7 of the Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC) of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee. Work is reported on the results of an international effort to evaluate the neutron cross-section standards. The evaluations include the H(n,n), 6 Li(n,t), 10 B(n,α), 10 B(n,α1γ), 197 Au(n,γ), 235 U(n,f) and 238 U(n,f) standard reactions. Evaluations were also produced for the non-standard 238 U(n,γ) and 239 Pu

  4. Standard operating procedures for serum and plasma collection: early detection research network consensus statement standard operating procedure integration working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Melissa K; Chan, Daniel W; Chia, David; Godwin, Andrew K; Grizzle, William E; Krueger, Karl E; Rom, William; Sanda, Martin; Sorbara, Lynn; Stass, Sanford; Wang, Wendy; Brenner, Dean E

    2009-01-01

    Specimen collection is an integral component of clinical research. Specimens from subjects with various stages of cancers or other conditions, as well as those without disease, are critical tools in the hunt for biomarkers, predictors, or tests that will detect serious diseases earlier or more readily than currently possible. Analytic methodologies evolve quickly. Access to high-quality specimens, collected and handled in standardized ways that minimize potential bias or confounding factors, is key to the "bench to bedside" aim of translational research. It is essential that standard operating procedures, "the how" of creating the repositories, be defined prospectively when designing clinical trials. Small differences in the processing or handling of a specimen can have dramatic effects in analytical reliability and reproducibility, especially when multiplex methods are used. A representative working group, Standard Operating Procedures Internal Working Group (SOPIWG), comprised of members from across Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) was formed to develop standard operating procedures (SOPs) for various types of specimens collected and managed for our biomarker discovery and validation work. This report presents our consensus on SOPs for the collection, processing, handling, and storage of serum and plasma for biomarker discovery and validation.

  5. Single-port retroperitoneal renal biopsy using standard urological instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Guerra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To describe the surgical technique and initial experience with a single-port retroperitoneal renal biopsy (SPRRB. Materials and Methods Between January and April 2013, five children underwent SPRRB in our hospital. A single 1.5 cm incision was performed under the 12th rib at mid-axillary line, and an 11 mm trocar was inserted. A nephroscope was used to identify the kidney and dissect the perirenal fat. After lower pole exposure, a laparoscopic biopsy forceps was introduced through the nephroscope working channel to collect a renal tissue sample. Results SPRRB was successfully performed in five children. The mean operative time was 32 minutes, and mean estimated blood loss was less than 10 mL. The hospital stay of all patients was two days because they were discharged in the second postoperative day, after remaining at strict bed rest for 24 hours after the procedure. The average number of glomeruli present in the specimen was 31. Conclusion SPRRB is a simple, safe and reliable alternative to open and videolaparoscopic approaches to surgical renal biopsy.

  6. Single mode operation of a TEA CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Kazuhiro; Tunawaki, Yoshiaki; Yamanaka, Masanobu.

    1993-01-01

    Single mode operation of a TEA CO 2 laser was performed by using an optical system of Fox-Smith type. Laser beam was taken out from the cavity by using a beam splitter, and was reflected by a mirror back to the cavity. By inserting a Fabry-Perot etalon between the splitter and the mirror, beat of laser pulses can be removed completly. (author)

  7. Operating single quantum emitters with a compact Stirling cryocooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlehahn, A; Krüger, L; Gschrey, M; Schulze, J-H; Rodt, S; Strittmatter, A; Heindel, T; Reitzenstein, S

    2015-01-01

    The development of an easy-to-operate light source emitting single photons has become a major driving force in the emerging field of quantum information technology. Here, we report on the application of a compact and user-friendly Stirling cryocooler in the field of nanophotonics. The Stirling cryocooler is used to operate a single quantum emitter constituted of a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) at a base temperature below 30 K. Proper vibration decoupling of the cryocooler and its surrounding enables free-space micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy to identify and analyze different charge-carrier states within a single quantum dot. As an exemplary application in quantum optics, we perform a Hanbury-Brown and Twiss experiment demonstrating a strong suppression of multi-photon emission events with g((2))(0) Stirling-cooled single quantum emitter under continuous wave excitation. Comparative experiments performed on the same quantum dot in a liquid helium (LHe)-flow cryostat show almost identical values of g((2))(0) for both configurations at a given temperature. The results of this proof of principle experiment demonstrate that low-vibration Stirling cryocoolers that have so far been considered exotic to the field of nanophotonics are an attractive alternative to expensive closed-cycle cryostats or LHe-flow cryostats, which could pave the way for the development of high-quality table-top non-classical light sources.

  8. Integral operators in non-standard function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kokilashvili, Vakhtang; Rafeiro, Humberto; Samko, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This book, the result of the authors’ long and fruitful collaboration, focuses on integral operators in new, non-standard function spaces and presents a systematic study of the boundedness and compactness properties of basic, harmonic analysis integral operators in the following function spaces, among others: variable exponent Lebesgue and amalgam spaces, variable Hölder spaces, variable exponent Campanato, Morrey and Herz spaces, Iwaniec-Sbordone (grand Lebesgue) spaces, grand variable exponent Lebesgue spaces unifying the two spaces mentioned above, grand Morrey spaces, generalized grand Morrey spaces, and weighted analogues of some of them. The results obtained are widely applied to non-linear PDEs, singular integrals and PDO theory. One of the book’s most distinctive features is that the majority of the statements proved here are in the form of criteria. The book is intended for a broad audience, ranging from researchers in the area to experts in applied mathematics and prospective students.

  9. Standard model baryogenesis through four-fermion operators in braneworlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Daniel J.H.; Dent, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    We study a new baryogenesis scenario in a class of braneworld models with low fundamental scale, which typically have difficulty with baryogenesis. The scenario is characterized by its minimal nature: the field content is that of the standard model and all interactions consistent with the gauge symmetry are admitted. Baryon number is violated via a dimension-6 proton decay operator, suppressed today by the mechanism of quark-lepton separation in extra dimensions; we assume that this operator was unsuppressed in the early Universe due to a time-dependent quark-lepton separation. The source of CP violation is the CKM matrix, in combination with the dimension-6 operators. We find that almost independently of cosmology, sufficient baryogenesis is nearly impossible in such a scenario if the fundamental scale is above 100 TeV, as required by an unsuppressed neutron-antineutron oscillation operator. The only exception producing sufficient baryon asymmetry is a scenario involving out-of-equilibrium c quarks interacting with equilibrium b quarks

  10. A Validated Task Analysis of the Single Pilot Operations Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Cynthia A.; Gore, Brian F.

    2015-01-01

    The current day flight deck operational environment consists of a two-person Captain/First Officer crew. A concept of operations (ConOps) to reduce the commercial cockpit to a single pilot from the current two pilot crew is termed Single Pilot Operations (SPO). This concept has been under study by researchers in the Flight Deck Display Research Laboratory (FDDRL) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Ames (Johnson, Comerford, Lachter, Battiste, Feary, and Mogford, 2012) and researchers from Langley Research Centers (Schutte et al., 2007). Transitioning from a two pilot crew to a single pilot crew will undoubtedly require changes in operational procedures, crew coordination, use of automation, and in how the roles and responsibilities of the flight deck and ATC are conceptualized in order to maintain the high levels of safety expected of the US National Airspace System. These modifications will affect the roles and the subsequent tasks that are required of the various operators in the NextGen environment. The current report outlines the process taken to identify and document the tasks required by the crew according to a number of operational scenarios studied by the FDDRL between the years 2012-2014. A baseline task decomposition has been refined to represent the tasks consistent with a new set of entities, tasks, roles, and responsibilities being explored by the FDDRL as the move is made towards SPO. Information from Subject Matter Expert interviews, participation in FDDRL experimental design meetings, and study observation was used to populate and refine task sets that were developed as part of the SPO task analyses. The task analysis is based upon the proposed ConOps for the third FDDRL SPO study. This experiment possessed nine different entities operating in six scenarios using a variety of SPO-related automation and procedural activities required to guide safe and efficient aircraft operations. The task analysis presents the roles and

  11. An Assessment of Reduced Crew and Single Pilot Operations in Commercial Transport Aircraft Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Kennedy, Kellie D.; Stephens, Chad L.; Etherington, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Future reduced crew operations or even single pilot operations for commercial airline and on-demand mobility applications are an active area of research. These changes would reduce the human element and thus, threaten the precept that "a well-trained and well-qualified pilot is the critical center point of aircraft systems safety and an integral safety component of the entire commercial aviation system." NASA recently completed a pilot-in-the-loop high fidelity motion simulation study in partnership with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) attempting to quantify the pilot's contribution to flight safety during normal flight and in response to aircraft system failures. Crew complement was used as the experiment independent variable in a between-subjects design. These data show significant increases in workload for single pilot operations, compared to two-crew, with subjective assessments of safety and performance being significantly degraded as well. Nonetheless, in all cases, the pilots were able to overcome the failure mode effects in all crew configurations. These data reflect current-day flight deck equipage and help identify the technologies that may improve two-crew operations and/or possibly enable future reduced crew and/or single pilot operations.

  12. Standard Operating Procedures for Female Genital Sexual Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl-Meyer, Kerstin S; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Damsted Petersen, Christina

    2012-01-01

    and psychological disorders are highlighted, and different somatic and psychological assessment and treatment modalities are discussed. Methods.  The Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) committee was composed of a chair and five additional experts. No corporate funding or remuneration was received. The authors...... therapeutic interventions. However, this international expert group will recommend guidelines for management of female GSP. Conclusions.  GSP disorders are complex. It is recommended that their evaluation and treatment are performed through comprehensive somato-psychological multidisciplinary approach. Fugl......Introduction.  Female genital sexual pain (GSP) is a common, distressing complaint in women of all ages that is underrecognized and undertreated. Definitions and terminology for female GSP are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that GSP is not per se a sexual dysfunction...

  13. Quality assurance: Importance of systems and standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghani, Kishu

    2011-01-01

    It is mandatory for sponsors of clinical trials and contract research organizations alike to establish, manage and monitor their quality control and quality assurance systems and their integral standard operating procedures and other quality documents to provide high-quality products and services to fully satisfy customer needs and expectations. Quality control and quality assurance systems together constitute the key quality systems. Quality control and quality assurance are parts of quality management. Quality control is focused on fulfilling quality requirements, whereas quality assurance is focused on providing confidence that quality requirements are fulfilled. The quality systems must be commensurate with the Company business objectives and business model. Top management commitment and its active involvement are critical in order to ensure at all times the adequacy, suitability, effectiveness and efficiency of the quality systems. Effective and efficient quality systems can promote timely registration of drugs by eliminating waste and the need for rework with overall financial and social benefits to the Company.

  14. 10-bit rapid single flux quantum digital-to-analog converter for ac voltage standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maezawa, M; Hirayama, F

    2008-01-01

    Digital-to-analog (D/A) converters based on rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) technology are under development for ac voltage standard applications. We present design and test results on a prototype 10-bit version integrated on a single chip. The 10-bit chip includes over 6000 Josephson junctions and consumes a bias current exceeding 1 A. To reduce the effects of the high bias current on circuit operation, a custom design method was employed in part and large circuit blocks were divided into smaller ones. The 10-bit chips were fabricated and tested at low speed. The test results suggested that our design approach could manage large bias currents on the order of 1 A per chip

  15. Tachyarrhythmia following Norwood operation: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gist, Katja M; Schuchardt, Eleanor L; Moroze, Meghan K; Kaufman, Jonathan; Cruz, Eduardo da; Campbell, David N; Mitchell, Max B; Jaggers, James; Collins, Kathryn K; McCanta, Anthony C

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize tachyarrhythmias in children following the Norwood procedure. This is a single-center retrospective study including all children who underwent stage I Norwood procedure (n = 98; January 2003-September 2011). The primary outcome measure is the development of tachyarrhythmia during hospitalization after the Norwood procedure. Secondary aims include quantification of mortality in patients with tachyarrhythmias and evaluation of potential risk factors for the development of tachyarrhythmia. Tachyarrhythmia occurred in 33 (34%) of 98 patients. The median time to onset of tachyarrhythmia was ten days (0-47 days). Tachyarrhythmia conferred no increase in overall mortality (P = .45), including operative mortality (P = .37) or interstage mortality (P = 1.00). There was no significant difference in the incidence of arrhythmia based on demographic, anatomic, or surgical variables, including shunt type (P = .23) except that patients with tachyarrhythmias were slightly larger (median weight 3.2 kg) at the time of stage I than those without tachyarrhythmia (median weight 2.93 kg; P = .02]. The odds of arrhythmia in males were 8.7 times higher than that in females (95% confidence interval 2.9-31.3; P patients after the Norwood operation. Onset of tachyarrhythmia occurred later after the Norwood operation than reported previously, and male gender is a risk factor. Further studies to elucidate the etiology and the timing of tachyarrhythmias after the Norwood procedure are necessary.

  16. [A project to improve the validity rate for nursing staff operating single door autoclave sterilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Hung; Li, Cheng-Chang; Chou, Chuan-Yu; Chen, Shu-Hwa

    2009-08-01

    This project was designed to improve the low validity rate for nurses responsible to operate single door autoclave sterilizers in the operating room. By investigating the current status, we found that the nursing staff validity rate of cognition on the autoclave sterilizer was 85%, and the practice operating check validity rate was only 80%. Such was due to a lack of in-service education. Problems with operation included: 1. Unsafe behaviors - not following standard procedure, lacking relevant operating knowledge and absence of a check form; 2. Unsafe environment - the conveying steam piping was typically not covered and lacked operation marks. Recommended improvement measures included: 1. holding in-service education; 2. generating an operation procedure flow chart; 3. implementing obstacle eliminating procedures; 4. covering piping to prevent fire and burns; 5. performing regular checks to ensure all procedures are followed. Following intervention, nursing staff cognition rose from 85% to 100%, while the operation validity rate rose from 80% to 100%. These changes ensure a safer operating room environment, and helps facilities move toward a zero accident rate in the healthcare environment.

  17. Quantum turnstile operation of single-molecule magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldoveanu, V; Dinu, I V; Tanatar, B; Moca, C P

    2015-01-01

    The time-dependent transport through single-molecule magnets coupled to magnetic or non-magnetic electrodes is studied in the framework of the generalized master equation method. We investigate the transient regime induced by the periodic switching of the source and drain contacts. If the electrodes have opposite magnetizations the quantum turnstile operation allows the stepwise writing of intermediate excited states. In turn, the transient currents provide a way to read these states. Within our approach we take into account both the uniaxial and transverse anisotropy. The latter may induce additional quantum tunneling processes which affect the efficiency of the proposed read-and-write scheme. An equally weighted mixture of molecular spin states can be prepared if one of the electrodes is ferromagnetic. (paper)

  18. Quality assurance: Importance of systems and standard operating procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishu Manghani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is mandatory for sponsors of clinical trials and contract research organizations alike to establish, manage and monitor their quality control and quality assurance systems and their integral standard operating procedures and other quality documents to provide high-quality products and services to fully satisfy customer needs and expectations. Quality control and quality assurance systems together constitute the key quality systems. Quality control and quality assurance are parts of quality management. Quality control is focused on fulfilling quality requirements, whereas quality assurance is focused on providing confidence that quality requirements are fulfilled. The quality systems must be commensurate with the Company business objectives and business model. Top management commitment and its active involvement are critical in order to ensure at all times the adequacy, suitability, effectiveness and efficiency of the quality systems. Effective and efficient quality systems can promote timely registration of drugs by eliminating waste and the need for rework with overall financial and social benefits to the Company.

  19. Environmental Sciences Division Toxicology Laboratory standard operating procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Logsdon, G.M.

    1989-09-01

    This document was developed to provide the personnel working in the Environmental Sciences Division's Toxicology Laboratory with documented methods for conducting toxicity tests. The document consists of two parts. The first part includes the standard operating procedures (SOPs) that are used by the laboratory in conducting toxicity tests. The second part includes reference procedures from the US Environmental Protection Agency document entitled Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms, upon which the Toxicology Laboratory's SOPs are based. Five of the SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia survival and reproduction test. These SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia food (SOP-3), maintaining Ceriodaphnia cultures (SOP-4), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-13), analyzing the test data (SOP-13), and conducting a Ceriodaphnia reference test (SOP-15). Five additional SOPs relate specifically to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larval survival and growth test: methods for preparing fathead minnow larvae food (SOP-5), maintaining fathead minnow cultures (SOP-6), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-9), analyzing the test data (SOP-12), and conducting a fathead minnow reference test (DOP-14). The six remaining SOPs describe methods that are used with either or both tests: preparation of control/dilution water (SOP-1), washing of glassware (SOP-2), collection and handling of samples (SOP-7), preparation of samples (SOP-8), performance of chemical analyses (SOP-11), and data logging and care of technical notebooks (SOP-16).

  20. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  1. 40 CFR 267.1101 - What design and operating standards must my containment building meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dust emissions under § 267.1102(d). (2) The unit is designed and operated in a fashion that assures... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What design and operating standards... FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Containment buildings § 267.1101 What design and operating...

  2. 40 CFR 63.5728 - What standards must I meet for closed molding resin operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... molding resin operations? 63.5728 Section 63.5728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Standards for Closed Molding Resin Operations § 63.5728 What standards must I meet for closed molding resin operations? (a) If a resin application operation meets the definition of closed molding specified in § 63...

  3. Zirconia crowns - the new standard for single-visit dentistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedhahn, Klaus; Fritzsche, Günter; Wiedhahn, Claudine; Schenk, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Zirconia crowns combine the advantages of metal restorations, such as minimally invasive tooth preparation and ease of cementation, with those of full ceramic crowns, such as low thermal conductivity and tooth color. With the introduction of a high-speed sintering procedure, it is possible to produce and cement zirconia crowns and small monolithic bridges in a Cerec Single Visit procedure. This new procedure is compared to established chairside methods.

  4. Case Study of Operational Cost of Tractors in Three Standard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cost of operating tractors in three different farms was investigated. Data were collected for six years on a total of 112 tractors. The data was categorized into different costs constituting cost of operating tractors such as repair and maintenance; fuel and lubricants; operator's wages; interest; insurance, taxes and shelter ...

  5. THE STANDARD SINGLE COST METHOD AND THE EFFICIENCY OF INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES’ MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu C. CONSTANTINESCU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly describes the premises for the application of the standard direct cost calculation method in industry, the standard single cost calculation method, the stages of standard cost calculation per product and the calculation methods of standards per product. It also briefly underlines the possibilities of cost calculation and monitoring of deviation of the costs of raw materials and other materials as compared to the pre-established standard costs.

  6. Single vs. dual color fire detection systems: operational tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, Meir; Danan, Yossef; Sinvani, Moshe

    2017-10-01

    In attempt to supply a reasonable fire plume detection, multinational cooperation with significant capital is invested in the development of two major Infra-Red (IR) based fire detection alternatives, single-color IR (SCIR) and dual-color IR (DCIR). False alarm rate was expected to be high not only as a result of real heat sources but mainly due to the IR natural clutter especially solar reflections clutter. SCIR uses state-of-the-art technology and sophisticated algorithms to filter out threats from clutter. On the other hand, DCIR are aiming at using additional spectral band measurements (acting as a guard), to allow the implementation of a simpler and more robust approach for performing the same task. In this paper we present the basics of SCIR & DCIR architecture and the main differences between them. In addition, we will present the results from a thorough study conducted for the purpose of learning about the added value of the additional data available from the second spectral band. Here we consider the two CO2 bands of 4-5 micron and of 2.5-3 micron band as well as off peak band (guard). The findings of this study refer also to Missile warning systems (MWS) efficacy, in terms of operational value. We also present a new approach for tunable filter to such sensor.

  7. Early experience with single incision laparoscopic surgery: eliminating the scar from abdominal operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sanjeev

    2009-09-01

    Single incision laproscopic surgery (SILS) involves performing abdominal operations with laparoscopic instruments placed through a single, small umbilical incision. The primary goal is to avoid visible scarring. This is the first report of SILS cholecystectomy in children and the first report in the literature of SILS splenectomy. A retrospective chart review was performed in 20 consecutive inpatient SILS procedures (13 males, 7 females; ages 2-17 years) from May to December 2008. Outcome measures included need for conversion, operative time, time to oral analgesia, length of hospitalization, cosmetic outcome, and complications. There were 4 total splenectomies, 3 cholecystectomies, 2 combined splenectomy/cholecystectomies, and 11 appendectomies performed. All procedures were completed successfully without need for conversion to standard laparoscopy or open surgery. Mean operative time was 90 minutes for splenectomy, 68 minutes for cholecystectomy, 165 minutes for combined splenectomy/cholecystectomy, and 33 minutes for appendectomy. Mean hospital stay was 1 day for appendectomy, 1 day for cholecystectomy, and 2.5 days for splenectomy. One splenectomy patient received 1 U packed red blood cell transfusion. All appendectomy patients were converted to oral analgesia within 24 hours and splenectomy patients within 48 hours. All families were very pleased with the cosmetic outcome. Single incision laparoscopic surgery is feasible for a variety of pediatric general surgical conditions, allowing for scarless abdominal operations. This early experience suggests that outcomes are comparable to standard laparoscopic surgery but with improved cosmesis, however, a larger series is necessary to confirm these findings and to determine if there are any benefits in pain or recovery. Surgeons performing SILS should have a firm foundation of advanced minimal access surgical skills and a cautious, gradated approach to attempting the various procedures. Technological refinements will

  8. A single standard for memory: the case for reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Karim; Hardt, Oliver

    2009-03-01

    Consolidated memories can re-enter states of transient instability following reactivation, from which they must again stabilize in order to persist, contradicting the previously dominant view that memory and its associated plasticity mechanisms progressively and irreversibly decline with time. We witness exciting times, as neuroscience begins embracing a position, long-held in cognitive psychology, that recognizes memory as a principally dynamic process. In light of remaining controversy, we here establish that the same operational definitions and types of evidence underpin the deduction of both reconsolidation and consolidation, thus validating the extrapolation that post-retrieval memory plasticity reflects processes akin to those that stabilized the memory following acquisition.

  9. Integrating standard operating procedures with spacecraft automation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft automation has the potential to assist crew members and spacecraft operators in managing spacecraft systems during extended space missions. Automation can...

  10. Psychological and Physical Stress in Surgeons Operating in a Standard or Modern Operating Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, M.; Andersen, L.P.H.; Alamili, M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: There have been no studies examining the effect of optimized ergonomic and technical environment on the psychological and physiological stress of the surgeon. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimized ergonomics and technical aids within a modern operating room (OR) affect...... psychological and physiological stress in experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Methods: This was a prospective case-controlled study including 10 experienced surgeons. Surgery was performed in 2 different ORs: a standard room and a modern room (OR1-suite, Karl Storz). The surgeons filled out questionnaires...... concerning physical and psychological wellbeing before and after surgery and had their heart rate variability registered during surgery. Results: Preoperative to postoperative physical strain and pain measurements revealed a systematical difference with 14 of 15 parameters favoring the modern OR. Two...

  11. Surface soil contamination standards for Rockwell Hanford Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1981-01-01

    The 200 Areas of the Hanford site contain soils contaminated with levels of radioactivity ranging from fallout concentrations to levels requiring radiological controls. Some contamination is more or less uniformly distributed, and some occurs as discrete specks or spots of activity. Because of the acute need for standards, the Rockwell Environmental Protection (EP) Group proceeded to develop standards; these were approved by Rockwell in October 1979. It must be emphasized that these standards are only applicable to the 200 Areas of the Hanford site or other areas under Rockwell's jurisdiction. It is assumed that access to these areas will always be restricted and that land-use restrictions will be maintained. Contamination limits for areas used by the general public would normally be lower than the limits derived in this case. It appears that the Rockwell standards divided by a factor of 5 to 10 may be reasonable contamination guidelines for the general environment

  12. 78 FR 73112 - Monitoring System Conditions-Transmission Operations Reliability Standards; Interconnection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... complement the TOP Standards, have the goal of ensuring that the bulk electric system is planned and operated... pertain to the coordinated efforts to operate the bulk electric system in a reliable manner during real... System Operating Limits (SOLs).\\5\\ The provisions in the proposed TOP Reliability Standards that require...

  13. Standardization of computer systems for logging operative cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, M D; Lowry, L D; Wisnicki, H J

    1988-10-01

    With the advent of extremely rapid, powerful, compact, and inexpensive microcomputers, a revolution in data manipulation is ongoing. We have customized and used for over two years prepackaged software to track residents' operative experiences in the Department of Otolaryngology at Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia. An attempt is presently being made to develop a similar system that might be utilized by all otolaryngology teaching programs and thus enable the collection and review of residents' operative experiences nationally. A basic, relational database system is proposed for entering resident caseload data and generating reports for periodic review.

  14. 40 CFR 63.746 - Standards: Depainting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... formulations and agents or chemical paint softeners. (2) Where non-chemical based equipment is used to comply... system is used, continuously monitor the water flow rate, and read and record the water flow rate once... stringent, shut down the operation immediately and take corrective action. If the water path in the...

  15. Impact of limestone quarrying operations on quality standards of soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mining and mineral processing have the potential to generate income and promote economic development, but effects of operations on the host communities must be ... The soil analysis indicated that the exploitation activities did not impact negatively on the soil, thereby making the soil suitable for agricultural production.

  16. Automation Architecture for Single Operator, Multiple UAV Command and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cummings, M. L; Bruni, S; Mercier, S; Mitchell, P. J

    2007-01-01

    .... The OSD Roadmap clearly delineates the need to investigate the "appropriate conditions and requirements under which a single pilot would be allowed to control multiple airborne UA (unmanned aircraft) simultaneously...

  17. A triangulating operating platform enhances bimanual performance and reduces surgical workload in single-incision laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Erwin; Martinec, Danny V; Cassera, Maria A; Goers, Trudie A; Dunst, Christy M; Swanstrom, Lee L

    2011-03-01

    Single-site laparoscopy (SSL) attempts to further reduce the surgical impact of minimally invasive surgery. However, crossed instruments and the proximity of the endoscope to the operating instruments placed through one single site leads to inevitable instrument or trocar collision. We hypothesized that a novel, single-port, triangulating surgical platform (SPSP) might enhance performance by improving bimanual coordination and decreasing the surgeon's mental workload. Fourteen participants, proficient in basic laparoscopic skills, were tested on their ability to perform a validated intracorporeal suturing task by either an SSL approach with crossed articulated instruments or a novel SPSP, providing true-right and true-left manipulation. Standard laparoscopic (SL) access served as control. Sutures were evaluated using validated scoring methods and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index was used to rate mental workload. All participants proficiently performed intracorporeal knots by SL (mean score 99.0; 95% CI 97.0 to 100.9). Performance decreased significantly (more than 50%, p mental workload when using true-right and true-left manipulation. This study objectively assessed SSL performance and current attempts for instrumentation improvement in single-site access. While SSL significantly impairs basic laparoscopic skills, surgical platforms providing true-left and true-right maneuvering of instruments appear to be more intuitive and address some of the current challenges of SSL that may otherwise limit its widespread acceptance. Copyright © 2011 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirnivas, Senu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bailey, Bruce [AWS Trupower LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Filippelli, Matthew [AWS Trupower LLC, Albany, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  19. A new single-photon avalanche diode in 90nm standard CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karami, M.A.; Gersbach, M.; Charbon, E.

    2010-01-01

    A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) fabricated in a 90nm standard CMOS process is reported. The detector comprises an octagonal multiplication region and a guard ring to prevent premature edge breakdown using exclusively standard layers. The proposed structure is the result of a systematic study

  20. Robust Voice Communication Understanding for Single-Pilot Operations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Motivated by the anticipation of pilot shortage in the future and the quest of cost reduction in airline operations, the single-pilot operation (SPO) concept emerges...

  1. Operational procedure standard for occurrences involving radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekarz, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardopbm@yahoo.com.br [Academia de Bombeiros Militar de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Rezende, Talita C.; Pinheiro, Christiano J.G., E-mail: talitacolombi@yahoo.com, E-mail: christrieste@yahoo.it [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (CCA/UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química

    2017-07-01

    This study has as objective to analyze more deeply the actions of response to emergencies involving radioactive materials, in the intent to establish a pattern to the actions performed by the military fire fighters of the Military Fire Brigade of Minas Gerais. To met these goals, it has been attempted to analyze the procedures utilized and recommended, nowadays, for the military fire fighters of CBMMG, and through directed studies, to suggest new actions possible to be executed in the local of the emergency in a way that will not expose the garrison to doses of ionizing radiation that may prejudice them. It is a study of bibliographic, exploratory, and also descriptive nature, realized through a qualitative approach. The techniques used for the research were the analysis of institutional documents, norms and other literature produced by renamed entities in the radiologic and biosafety areas. It was then concluded that CBMMG, through simple actions of response, can provide higher quality and safety in the operations involving radiologic accidents, standing out that the implemented actions nowadays are very beneath the capacity of the corporation, due to the lack of knowledge of the matter by the fire fighters. It was proposed, then, that new actions be implemented and instituted as operational procedures to be used on those emergencies, with the objective of provide a higher safety and professionalism in the attendance to emergencies involving radioactive materials. (author)

  2. Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System-C operation and maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    The primary function of the SHMS-C is to monitor specifically for hydrogen in the waste tank vapor space which may also contain (but not be limited to) unknown quantities of air, nitrous oxide (N 2 O), ammonia (NH 3 ), water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO) and other gaseous constituents. An electronically controlled grab sampler has replaced the manually operated sample system that was used in the original SHMS enclosure. Samples can now be operator or automatically initiated. Automatic initiation occurs based on the high hydrogen alarm level. Once a sample is obtained it is removed from the sampler and transported to a laboratory for analysis. This system is used to identify other gaseous constituents which are not measured by the hydrogen monitor. The design does not include any remote data acquisition or remote data logging equipment but provides a 4--20 mA dc process signals, and discrete alarm contacts, that can be utilized for remote data logging and alarming when desired. The SHMS-C arrangement consists of design modifications (piping, valves, filters, supports) to the SHMS-B arrangement necessary for the installation of a dual column gas chromatograph and associated sample and calibration gas lines. The gas chromatograph will provide real time, analytical quality, specific hydrogen measurements in low and medium range concentrations. The system is designed to sample process gases that are classified by NEC code as Class 1, Division 1, Group B

  3. Standard formatted data units-control authority operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to illustrate a Control Authority's (CA) possible operation. The document is an interpretation and expansion of the concept found in the CA Procedures Recommendation. The CA is described in terms of the functions it performs for the management and control of data descriptions (metadata). Functions pertaining to the organization of Member Agency Control Authority Offices (MACAOs) (e.g., creating and disbanding) are not discussed. The document also provides an illustrative operational view of a CA through scenarios describing interaction between those roles involved in collecting, controlling, and accessing registered metadata. The roles interacting with the CA are identified by their actions in requesting and responding to requests for metadata, and by the type of information exchanged. The scenarios and examples presented in this document are illustrative only. They represent possible interactions supported by either a manual or automated system. These scenarios identify requirements for an automated system. These requirements are expressed by identifying the information to be exchanged and the services that may be provided by a CA for that exchange.

  4. Operational procedure standard for occurrences involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekarz, Leonardo; Rezende, Talita C.; Pinheiro, Christiano J.G.

    2017-01-01

    This study has as objective to analyze more deeply the actions of response to emergencies involving radioactive materials, in the intent to establish a pattern to the actions performed by the military fire fighters of the Military Fire Brigade of Minas Gerais. To met these goals, it has been attempted to analyze the procedures utilized and recommended, nowadays, for the military fire fighters of CBMMG, and through directed studies, to suggest new actions possible to be executed in the local of the emergency in a way that will not expose the garrison to doses of ionizing radiation that may prejudice them. It is a study of bibliographic, exploratory, and also descriptive nature, realized through a qualitative approach. The techniques used for the research were the analysis of institutional documents, norms and other literature produced by renamed entities in the radiologic and biosafety areas. It was then concluded that CBMMG, through simple actions of response, can provide higher quality and safety in the operations involving radiologic accidents, standing out that the implemented actions nowadays are very beneath the capacity of the corporation, due to the lack of knowledge of the matter by the fire fighters. It was proposed, then, that new actions be implemented and instituted as operational procedures to be used on those emergencies, with the objective of provide a higher safety and professionalism in the attendance to emergencies involving radioactive materials. (author)

  5. 49 CFR 210.29 - Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cars). 210.29 Section 210.29 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... REGULATIONS Inspection and Testing § 210.29 Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars). The operation standards for the noise emission levels of moving locomotives, rail cars, or consists of...

  6. Single Wire Detector Performance Over One Year of Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Hervas Aguilar, David Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract When ionizing radiation passes through gas chambers in single wire detectors gas molecules separate into ions and electrons. By applying a strong localized electric field near the single wire an avalanche of electrons is created and it can be collected. The current produced in the wire is then proportional to the energy of the particle detected. Nevertheless, many factors can contribute to detector aging effects which are visible in a loss of gain caused by deposition of contaminants on the collecting wire. This study consists on novel data analysis techniques used to process large amounts of data produced by two simultaneously running single wire detectors. Aging effects are analyzed while environmental fluctuations are corrected for. A series of scripts carry out data filtering, data matching, corrections, and finally trend plotting by using ROOT’s extensive libraries developed at CERN.

  7. Standard Guide for Radiation Protection Program for Decommissioning Operations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides instruction to the individual charged with the responsibility for developing and implementing the radiation protection program for decommissioning operations. 1.2 This guide provides a basis for the user to develop radiation protection program documentation that will support both the radiological engineering and radiation safety aspects of the decommissioning project. 1.3 This guide presents a description of those elements that should be addressed in a specific radiation protection plan for each decommissioning project. The plan would, in turn, form the basis for development of the implementation procedures that execute the intent of the plan. 1.4 This guide applies to the development of radiation protection programs established to control exposures to radiation and radioactive materials associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The intent of this guide is to supplement existing radiation protection programs as they may pertain to decommissioning workers, members of...

  8. A comparative study of standard versus laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) totally extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Huai-Ching; Lin, Chia-Da; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chueh, Shih-Chieh Jeff; Tsai, Yao-Chou; Yang, Stephen Shei-Dei

    2011-09-01

    Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair has been around since the 1990s. A novel surgical approach known as laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) has been developed to reduce the port-related morbidities and improve the cosmetic outcomes of laparoscopic surgery, including totally extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of the LESS TEP technique for inguinal hernia repair and compare the outcomes with the standard TEP approach. Between January and May 2009, 54 consecutive healthy patients (48 men and 6 women) underwent LESS TEP inguinal hernia repair at our institute. All procedures were performed using our homemade single port for simultaneous passage of the laparoscope and instruments. The perioperative data, including patient age, sex, body mass index (BMI), hernia characteristics, operative time, complications, length of hospital stay, return to normal activity, pain score, and cosmetic result, were prospectively collected. All LESS TEP procedures were completed successfully without conversion to standard laparoscopic or open surgery. A total of 98 LESS TEP hernia repairs were performed in 54 patients and compared with 152 standard TEP operations. The mean operative time was significantly shorter in the standard TEP series (61.8 ± 26.0 vs. 70.9 ± 23.8 min, p = 0.04). Other perioperative parameters, including the length of hospital stay, time until return to full activity, complication rate, pain score, and cosmetic result, were all comparable between the two techniques. Our short-term experience with LESS TEP inguinal hernia repair has shown that in experienced hands, inguinal hernia repair via the LESS TEP technique is as safe as the standard TEP technique. However, based on our evidence, we currently believe that the LESS TEP technique is not an efficacious surgical alternative to the standard TEP technique for inguinal hernias.

  9. Chickadees fail standardized operant tests for octave equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeschele, Marisa; Weisman, Ronald G; Guillette, Lauren M; Hahn, Allison H; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2013-07-01

    Octave equivalence occurs when an observer judges notes separated by a doubling in frequency perceptually similar. The octave appears to form the basis of pitch change in all human cultures and thus may be of biological origin. Previously, we developed a nonverbal operant conditioning test of octave generalization and transfer in humans. The results of this testing showed that humans with and without musical training perceive the octave relationship between pitches. Our goal in the current study was to determine whether black-capped chickadees, a North American songbird, perceive octave equivalence. We chose these chickadees because of their reliance on pitch in assessing conspecific vocalizations, our strong background knowledge on their pitch height perception (log-linear perception of frequency), and the phylogenetic disparity between them and humans. Compared to humans, songbirds are highly skilled at using pitch height perception to classify pitches into ranges, independent of the octave. Our results suggest that chickadees used that skill, rather than octave equivalence, to transfer the note-range discrimination from one octave to the next. In contrast, there is evidence that at least some mammals, including humans, do perceive octave equivalence.

  10. A single-operator learning curve analysis for the endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumoy, Monica; Schneider, Yecheskel; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Shukla, Alpana; Kahaleh, Michel; Aronne, Louis; Sharaiha, Reem Z

    2018-02-01

    Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is a novel, incisionless technique for gastric volume reduction to promote weight loss. Our aim was to describe the learning curve for performing ESG using a prospective case series. Using a prospective case series design, we analyzed the first 128 consecutive patients at a tertiary care academic medical center who underwent ESG performed by a single operator from August 2013 to December 2016. Efficiency (refining performance to decrease procedure time) and mastery (absence of outliers) for performing ESG was evaluated by using a penalized basis-spline regression and cumulative sum analysis. Efficiency for ESG was attained after 38 ESGs, with mastery after 55 procedures. At 12 months, the mean percent total body weight loss was 15.8% (standard deviation, 9.47%). A total of 71.7% of patients achieved successful weight loss. When using multiple linear regression analysis, both number of sutures and baseline weight were significantly associated with procedure time. Other patient characteristics, such as age, sex, and race, did not significantly affect procedure time. In addition, number of sutures, baseline weight, and endoscopist achieving efficiency were not correlated with successful weight loss at 12 months. Mastery of ESG by a single operator is suggested after sufficient endoscopic experience and may help guide widespread clinical adaptability. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of uranium hexafluoride by double standard single-collector gas mass spectrometer method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This is a quantitative test method applicable to determining the mass percent of uranium isotopes in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) samples with 235U concentrations between 0.1 and 5.0 mass %. 1.2 This test method may be applicable for the entire range of 235U concentrations for which adequate standards are available. 1.3 This test method is for analysis by a gas magnetic sector mass spectrometer with a single collector using interpolation to determine the isotopic concentration of an unknown sample between two characterized UF6 standards. 1.4 This test method is to replace the existing test method currently published in Test Methods C761 and is used in the nuclear fuel cycle for UF6 isotopic analyses. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro...

  12. 76 FR 42534 - Mandatory Reliability Standards for Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits; System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Reliability Operating Limits; System Restoration Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... data necessary to analyze and monitor Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits (IROL) within its... Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits, Order No. 748, 134 FERC ] 61,213 (2011). \\2\\ The term ``Wide-Area...

  13. [Brief on the standardization of the practitioner's posture in acupuncture operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonghui

    2015-07-01

    To discuss the standardization of the practitioner's posture in acupuncture operation. Based on the relevant discussion on 'way to holding needle' recorded in Lingshu (Miraculous Pivot) and in association with the clinical acupuncture practice, it was required to standardize the practitioner's posture in acupuncture operation in reference to Lingshu (Miraculous Pivot). The standard standing posture of the practitioner is the precondition of acupuncture operation; the standard holding needle with the puncture hand is the key to the exercise of acupuncture technique and the regular standing orientation is the need of acupuncture operation. The three aspects are complemented each other, which is the coordinative procedure in acupuncture operation and enable the practitioner's high concentration with the body, qi and mind involved.

  14. Development of a Federal standard for a video codec operating at P x 64 KBPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    This document is a final report under the contract entitled Development of Federal Telecommunication Standards relating to Digital Facsimile and Video Teleconferencing and Development of a Federal Standard for a Video Codec operating at P x 64 Kbps. There has been a major effort to develop a standard for a video teleconferencing/video telephone terminal. One major thrust is that the audio visual terminal be compatible with the ISDN. Since the basic building block of the ISDN is the B channel operating at 64 Kbps, the generic term P x 64 Kbps refer to operation of this audio visual terminal at integral values of P up to a maximum of 30.

  15. Single qubit operations using microwave hyperbolic secant pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, H. S.; Long, J. L.; Wu, X.; Bal, M.; Lake, R. E.; Barnes, Edwin; Economou, Sophia E.; Pappas, D. P.

    2017-10-01

    It has been known since the early days of quantum mechanics that hyperbolic secant pulses possess the unique property that they can perform full-cycle Rabi oscillations on two-level quantum systems independently of the pulse detuning. More recently, it was realized that they induce detuning-controlled phases without changing state populations. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the properties of hyperbolic secant pulses on superconducting transmon qubits and contrast them with the more commonly used Gaussian and square waves. We further show that these properties can be exploited to implement phase gates, nominally without exiting the computational subspace. This enables us to demonstrate a microwave-driven Z rotation with a single control parameter, the detuning.

  16. A single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters - not

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokler, B.V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This article is a review of arguments against the use of a single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters. The author feels that the term `standard` entails mandatory compliance. Additionally, the author feels that the variety of DOE HEPA systems requiring in-place testing is such that the guidance for testing must be written in a permissive fashion, allowing options and alternatives. With this in mind, it is not possible to write a single document entailing mandatory compliance for all DOE facilities.

  17. A single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters - not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, B.V.

    1995-01-01

    This article is a review of arguments against the use of a single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters. The author feels that the term 'standard' entails mandatory compliance. Additionally, the author feels that the variety of DOE HEPA systems requiring in-place testing is such that the guidance for testing must be written in a permissive fashion, allowing options and alternatives. With this in mind, it is not possible to write a single document entailing mandatory compliance for all DOE facilities

  18. Renormalization Group Evolution of the Standard Model Dimension Six Operators I: Formalism and lambda Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Elizabeth E; Trott, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We calculate the order \\lambda, \\lambda^2 and \\lambda y^2 terms of the 59 x 59 one-loop anomalous dimension matrix of dimension-six operators, where \\lambda and y are the Standard Model Higgs self-coupling and a generic Yukawa coupling, respectively. The dimension-six operators modify the running of the Standard Model parameters themselves, and we compute the complete one-loop result for this. We discuss how there is mixing between operators for which no direct one-particle-irreducible diagram exists, due to operator replacements by the equations of motion.

  19. Manual for the GAW Precipitation Chemistry Programme: Guidelines, Data Quality Objectives and Standard Operating Procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allan, Mary A

    2004-01-01

    This is a manual for the Global Atmosphere Watch Precipitation Chemistry (GAW-PC) Programme. Where possible, it describes standard operating procedures and otherwise provides guidance on methods and procedures...

  20. EVALUASI SANITATION STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES KERUPUKAMPLANG DI UD SARINA KECAMATAN KALIANGET KABUPATEN SUMENEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ach Triharjono

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Industri pangan untuk menghasilkan produk yang memenuhi standar keamanan pangan. Standar tersebut dapat dipenuhi dengan menerapkan 8 aspek kunci Sanitation Standard Operating Prosedures (SSOP. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh hasil penerapan 8 aspek kunci Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP dan mengevaluasi penerapan Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP Di UD Sarina Kecamatan Kalianget Kabupaten Sumenep. Jenis penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif dengan lokasi penelitian di UD Sarina Kecamatan Kalianget Kabupaten Sumenep. Hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa penerapan 8 aspek kunci Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP di UD Sarina sudah terlaksana tapi terdapat 3 tahapan kunci yang belum terlaksana dengan baik yaitu pencegahan kontaminasi silang, pengawasan kondisi kesehatan personil dan menghilangkan hama dari unit pengolahan. Hal yang perlu ditingkatkan terkait dengan penerapan SSOP di UD Sarina yaitu masih perlu adanya manual prosedur untuk berbagai pelaksanaan sanitasi yang dilakukan oleh UD Sarina ini

  1. Adapting existing training standards for unmanned aircraft: finding ways to train staff for unmanned aircraft operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burger, CR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As unmanned aircraft are introduced into civil airspace, a framework for training and licencing of dispatch and operating staff will be required. This paper assesses existing pilot training unit standards and proposes a framework within which staff...

  2. Development of a standard operating procedure for analysis of ammonia concentrations in coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Research was performed to support the development and recommendation of a standard operating : procedure (SOP) for analyzing the ammonia content in fly ash intended for use in concrete. A review : of existing ash producers found that several differen...

  3. Evaluation of the safety of the operating nuclear power plants built to earlier standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menteseoglu, S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide practical assistance on judging the safety of a nuclear power plant, on the basis of a comparison with current safety standards and operational practices. For nuclear power plants built to earlier standards for which there are questions about the adequacy of the maintenance of the plant design and operational practices, a safety review against current standards and practices can be considered a high priority. The objective of reviewing nuclear power plants built to earlier standards against current standards and practices is to determine whether there are any deviations which would have an impact on plant safety. The safety significance of the issues identified should be judged according to their implications for plant design and operation in terms of basic safety concepts such as defence in depth and safety culture. In addition, this paper provides assistance on the prioritization of corrective measures and their implementation so as to approach an acceptable level of safety

  4. Operating Small Sat Swarms as a Single Entity: Introducing SODA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Tracie; Plice, Laura E.; Dono Perez, Andres; Ho, Michael

    2017-01-01

    NASA's decadal survey determined that simultaneous measurements from a 3D volume of space are advantageous for a variety of studies in space physics and Earth science. Therefore, swarm concepts with multiple spacecraft in close proximity are a growing topic of interest in the small satellite community. Among the capabilities needed for swarm missions is a means to maintain operator-specified geometry, alignment, or separation. Swarm stationkeeping poses a planning challenge due to the limited scalability of ground resources. To address scalable control of orbital dynamics, we introduce SODA - Swarm Orbital Dynamics Advisor - a tool that accepts high-level configuration commands and provides the orbital maneuvers needed to achieve the desired type of swarm relative motion. Rather than conventional path planning, SODA's innovation is the use of artificial potential functions to define boundaries and keepout regions. The software architecture includes high fidelity propagation, accommodates manual or automated inputs, displays motion animations, and returns maneuver commands and analytical results. Currently, two swarm types are enabled: in-train distribution and an ellipsoid volume container. Additional swarm types, simulation applications, and orbital destinations are in planning stages.

  5. Psychological and Physical Stress in Surgeons Operating in a Standard or Modern Operating Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, M.; Andersen, L.P.H.; Alamili, M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: There have been no studies examining the effect of optimized ergonomic and technical environment on the psychological and physiological stress of the surgeon. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimized ergonomics and technical aids within a modern operating room (OR) affect p...

  6. 76 FR 58101 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... similar to the process it uses for the development of Reliability Standards.\\8\\ \\8\\ NERC Reliability... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability Standard September 15, 2011. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  7. Impact of Warana Co-Operative Complex on Standard of Living in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was assumed that nearer the village to the Warana co-operative complex higher is the standard of living. It is found that villages, Bahirewadi, Pargaon, Mohare, Talasande located near the complex, have shown high standard of living whereas the villages like Minche, Dongarwadi, Dewale, Pharnewadi are less developed.

  8. Potential of electric quadrupole transitions in radium isotopes for single-ion optical frequency standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versolato, O. O.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Jungmann, K.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the potential of the electric quadrupole transitions 7s (2)S(1/2)-(6)d (2)D(3/2), 6d (2)D(5/2) in radium isotopes as single-ion optical frequency standards. The frequency shifts of the clock transitions due to external fields and the corresponding uncertainties are calculated. Several

  9. Characterization of Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes in Standard 140-nm SOI CMOS Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.J.; Sun, P.; Charbon, E.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the characterization of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) fabricated in standard 140-nm silicon on insulator (SOI) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. As a methodology for SPAD optimization, a test structure array, called SPAD farm, was realized with several

  10. Randomization and Data-Analysis Items in Quality Standards for Single-Case Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Wendt, Oliver; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Onghena, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Reporting standards and critical appraisal tools serve as beacons for researchers, reviewers, and research consumers. Parallel to existing guidelines for researchers to report and evaluate group-comparison studies, single-case experimental (SCE) researchers are in need of guidelines for reporting and evaluating SCE studies. A systematic search was…

  11. 32 CFR Attachment B to Subpart B... - Standard B-Single Scope Background Investigation (SSBI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard B-Single Scope Background Investigation (SSBI) B Attachment B to Subpart B of Part 147 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ADJUDICATIVE GUIDELINES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION...

  12. Single-port, single-operator-light endoscopic robot-assisted laparoscopic urology: pilot study in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzet, Sebastien; Haber, Georges-Pascal; White, Wesley M; Kamoi, Kazumi; Goel, Raj K; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2010-03-01

    To present our initial operative experience in which single-port-light endoscopic robot-assisted reconstructive and extirpative urological surgery was performed by one surgeon, using a pig model. This pilot study was conducted in male farm pigs to determine the feasibility and safety of single-port, single-surgeon urological surgery. All pigs had a general anaesthetic and were placed in the flank position. A 2-cm umbilical incision was made, through which a single port was placed and pneumoperitoneum obtained. An operative laparoscope was introduced and securely held using a novel low-profile robot under foot and/or voice control. Using articulating instruments, each pig had bilateral reconstructive and extirpative renal surgery. Salient intraoperative and postmortem data were recorded. Results were analysed statistically to determine if outcomes improved with surgeon experience. Five male farm pigs underwent bilateral partial nephrectomy and bilateral pyeloplasty before a completion bilateral radical nephrectomy. There were no intraoperative complications and there was no need for additional ports to be placed. The mean (range) operative duration for partial nephrectomy, pyeloplasty, and nephrectomy were 120 (100-150), 110 (95-130) and 20 (15-30) min, respectively. The mean (range) estimated blood loss for all procedures was 240 (200-280) mL. The preparation time decreased with increasing number of cases (P = 0.002). The combination of a single-port, a robotic endoscope holder and articulated instruments operated by one surgeon is feasible. With a single-port access, the robot allows more room to the surgeon than an assistant.

  13. 76 FR 23470 - Version One Regional Reliability Standard for Transmission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... Power Act, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission approves regional Reliability Standard TOP-007-WECC-1 (System Operating Limits) developed by the Western Electric Coordinating Council (WECC) and... flows on major WECC transfer paths do not exceed system operating limits for more than 30 minutes. The...

  14. 9 CFR 354.210 - Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. 354.210 Section 354.210 Animals and Animal Products... sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. The provisions of §§ 354.210 to 354.247...

  15. An operator basis for the Standard Model with an added scalar singlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gripaios, Ben [Cavendish Laboratory, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Sutherland, Dave [Cavendish Laboratory, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, UCSB Kohn Hall, Santa Barbara CA (United States)

    2016-08-17

    Motivated by the possible di-gamma resonance at 750 GeV, we present a basis of effective operators for the Standard Model plus a scalar singlet at dimensions 5, 6, and 7. We point out that an earlier list at dimensions 5 and 6 contains two redundant operators at dimension 5.

  16. Proposed Standard for a Microclimate Cooling System for Emergency Responder Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    MICROCLIMATE COOLING SYSTEM FOR EMERGENCY RESPONDER OPERATIONS by Brad Laprise February 2012 Final Report August 2007...August 2007 - December 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PROPOSED STANDARD FOR A MICROCLIMATE COOLING SYSTEM FOR EMERGENCY RESPONDER OPERATIONS 5a...of a Microclimate Cooling System (MCS), specifically for the Emergency Responder community. MCS have been shown to significantly improve mission

  17. Renormalization Group Evolution of the Standard Model Dimension Six Operators II: Yukawa Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Elizabeth E; Trott, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the complete order y^2 and y^4 terms of the 59 x 59 one-loop anomalous dimension matrix for the dimension-six operators of the Standard Model effective field theory, where y is a generic Yukawa coupling. These terms, together with the terms of order lambda, lambda^2 and lambda y^2 depending on the Standard Model Higgs self-coupling lambda which were calculated in a previous work, yield the complete one-loop anomalous dimension matrix in the limit of vanishing gauge couplings. The Yukawa contributions result in non-trivial flavor mixing in the various operator sectors of the Standard Model effective theory.

  18. Standard Practice for Exposure of Cover Materials for Solar Collectors to Natural Weathering Under Conditions Simulating Operational Mode

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides a procedure for the exposure of cover materials for flat-plate solar collectors to the natural weather environment at temperatures that are elevated to approximate operating conditions. 1.2 This practice is suitable for exposure of both glass and plastic solar collector cover materials. Provisions are made for exposure of single and double cover assemblies to accommodate the need for exposure of both inner and outer solar collector cover materials. 1.3 This practice does not apply to cover materials for evacuated collectors or photovoltaics. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. Command and Control Software for Single-Operator Multiple UAS Missions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Existing command and control (C2) paradigms for UAS platforms are extremely limited and cumbersome, requiring at least a single operator per UAS, if not more than...

  20. Command and Control Software for Single-Operator Multiple UAS Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Existing command and control (C2) paradigms for UAS platforms are extremely limited and cumbersome, requiring at least a single operator per UAS, if not more than...

  1. Evaluating operational specifications of point-of-care diagnostic tests: a standardized scorecard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Lehe

    Full Text Available The expansion of HIV antiretroviral therapy into decentralized rural settings will increasingly require simple point-of-care (POC diagnostic tests that can be used without laboratory infrastructure and technical skills. New POC test devices are becoming available but decisions around which technologies to deploy may be biased without systematic assessment of their suitability for decentralized healthcare settings. To address this, we developed a standardized, quantitative scorecard tool to objectively evaluate the operational characteristics of POC diagnostic devices. The tool scores devices on a scale of 1-5 across 30 weighted characteristics such as ease of use, quality control, electrical requirements, shelf life, portability, cost and service, and provides a cumulative score that ranks products against a set of ideal POC characteristics. The scorecard was tested on 19 devices for POC CD4 T-lymphocyte cell counting, clinical chemistry or hematology testing. Single and multi-parameter devices were assessed in each of test categories. The scores across all devices ranged from 2.78 to 4.40 out of 5. The tool effectively ranked devices within each category (p0.80; p<0.001. Use of this tool enables the systematic evaluation of diagnostic tests to facilitate product selection and investment in appropriate technology. It is particularly relevant for countries and testing programs considering the adoption of new POC diagnostic tests.

  2. [Development of a software standardizing optical density with operation settings related to several limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Zuo-Heng; Wan, Cheng; Zheng, Yu; Xu, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Luo, Jian-Ping; Wu, Hai-Wei

    2012-12-01

    To develop a software that can be used to standardize optical density to normalize the procedures and results of standardization in order to effectively solve several problems generated during standardization of in-direct ELISA results. The software was designed based on the I-STOD method with operation settings to solve the problems that one might encounter during the standardization. Matlab GUI was used as a tool for the development. The software was tested with the results of the detection of sera of persons from schistosomiasis japonica endemic areas. I-STOD V1.0 (WINDOWS XP/WIN 7, 0.5 GB) was successfully developed to standardize optical density. A serial of serum samples from schistosomiasis japonica endemic areas were used to examine the operational effects of I-STOD V1.0 software. The results indicated that the software successfully overcame several problems including reliability of standard curve, applicable scope of samples and determination of dilution for samples outside the scope, so that I-STOD was performed more conveniently and the results of standardization were more consistent. I-STOD V1.0 is a professional software based on I-STOD. It can be easily operated and can effectively standardize the testing results of in-direct ELISA.

  3. Status of existing federal environmental risk-based standards applicable to Department of Energy operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilyard, G.R.

    1991-09-01

    When conducting its environmental restoration, waste management, and decontamination and decommissioning activities, the US Department of Energy (DOE) must comply with a myriad of regulatory procedures and environmental standards. This paper assesses the status of existing federal risk-based standards that may be applied to chemical and radioactive substances on DOE sites. Gaps and inconsistencies among the existing standards and the technical issues associated with the application of those standards are identified. Finally, the implications of the gaps, inconsistencies, and technical issues on DOE operations are discussed, and approaches to resolving the gaps, inconsistencies, and technical issues are identified. 6 refs

  4. Touch sensitivity with sterile standard surgical gloves and single-use protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiefenthaler, W; Gimpl, S; Wechselberger, G; Benzer, A

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate touch sensitivity and static two-point discrimination of the dominant index and middle finger in 20 anaesthetists wearing no gloves, single-use protective gloves or sterile standard surgical gloves. Semmes-Weinstein filaments were used to measure cutaneous pressure thresholds, and a Two-Point-Discriminator to estimate static two-point discrimination. Wearing gloves significantly reduced touch sensitivity (p gloves. The results of our study suggest that the additional cost of sterile standard surgical gloves can not be justified in terms of touch sensitivity.

  5. 75 FR 17162 - Dipping and Coating Operations (Dip Tanks) Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ...] Dipping and Coating Operations (Dip Tanks) Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's... Standard on Dipping and Coating Operations (Dip Tanks) (29 CFR 1910.126(g)(4)). DATES: Comments must be... of efforts in obtaining information (29 U.S.C. 657). The Standard on Dipping and Coating Operations...

  6. 76 FR 67480 - Standard on Commercial Diving Operations; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ...] Standard on Commercial Diving Operations; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval... Commercial Diving Operations Standard (29 CFR part 1910, subpart T). DATES: Comments must be submitted... existing Standard on Commercial Diving Operations (29 CFR part 1910, Subpart [[Page 67481

  7. Predicting a single HIV drug resistance measure from three international interpretation gold standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashik, Singh; Maurice, Mars

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the possibility of combining the interpretation of three gold standard interpretation algorithms using weighted heuristics in order to produce a single resistance measure. The outputs of HIVdb, Rega, ANRS were combined to obtain a single resistance profile using the equally weighted voting algorithm, accuracy based weighing voting algorithm and the Bayesian based weighted voting algorithm techniques. The Bayesian based voting combination increased the accuracy of the resistance profile prediction compared to phenotype, from 58% to 69%. The equal weighted voting algorithm and the accuracy based algorithm both increased the prediction accuracy to 60%. From the result obtained it is evident that combining the gold standard interpretation algorithms may increase the predictive ability of the individual interpretation algorithms. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Standards for the management of swabs, needles and instruments in the operating theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Astrop

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of swabs, needles and instruments in the operating theatre is a high-risk and problem-prone area for the operating theatre nurse. The purpose of this research is to formulate specific standards on the management of swabs, needles and instruments in the operating theatre to ensure the safety of the patient. An exploratory and descriptive research design was used and executed in 3 hospitals of a private hospital group in Gauteng. A structured two phase process was followed, ie the development phase and the validation phase. This last phase was done by means of deliberate debate. It is recommended that these standards be implemented, tested and validated on a national basis and a monitoring and evaluation system should be developed to ensure nursing compliance with these standards.

  9. Aircrew Compliance with Standard Operating Procedures as a Component of Airline Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    typical operating environment, the crew activity associated with it is thought to be representative of habitual behavior. In contrast, the second...Most of the participants were assigned to a single aircrew domicle. The one captain who came from a different domicile is subjectively ranked between...initiations lies in the sweeping Command and Management Procedures. They affirm that responsibility for all operational activity resides in the

  10. Recent developments in the IAEA safety standards: design and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takehiko

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA has been publishing a wide variety of safety standards for nuclear and radiation related facilities and activities since 1978. In 1996, a more rigorously structured approach for the preparation and review of its safety standards was introduced. Currently, based on the approach, revision of most of the standards is in completion or near completion. The latest versions of the Safety Requirements for ''Design'' and ''Operation'' of nuclear power plants were respectively published in 2000. Currently, along with this revision of the Safety Requirements, many Safety Guides have been revised. In order to clarify the complicated revision procedure, an example of the entire revision process for a Safety Guide is provided. Through actual example of the revision process, enormous amount of work involved in the revision work is clearly indicated. The current status of all of the Safety Standards for Design and that for Operation of nuclear power plants are summarized. Summary of other IAEA safety standards currently revised and available related IAEA publications, together with information on the IAEA Web Site from where these documents can be downloaded, is also provided. The standards are reviewed to determine whether revision (or new issue) is necessary in five years following publication. The IAEA safety standards will continue to be updated through comprehensive and structured approach, collaboration of many experts of the world, and reflecting good practices of the world. The IAEA safety standards will serve to provide high level of safety assurance. (author)

  11. New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 2. Review of industry operating practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, R.J.; Weisenberg, I.J.; Wilson, K.

    1980-09-01

    The applicability is evaluated of several possible versions of a revised New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for industrial boilers to boilers that are operated according to typical industry practices. A survey of operating practices is presented, and it is concluded that an NSPS that includes too high a percent removal requirement for SO/sub 2/ (90%) might be excessively costly and cause operating problems for the industrial operator. More field evaluations of low excess air and low Btu gasification are required to validate these techniques for pollution control under industrial boiler operating conditions. The cost of two small boilers with no SO/sub 2/ controls was less than one large boiler of twice the capacity with SO/sub 2/ controls. The annual cost of operating and maintaining the control system accounted for the difference.

  12. Building a computer-aided design capability using a standard time share operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczanski, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes how an integrated system of engineering computer programs can be built using a standard commercially available operating system. The discussion opens with an outline of the auxiliary functions that an operating system can perform for a team of engineers involved in a large and complex task. An example of a specific integrated system is provided to explain how the standard operating system features can be used to organize the programs into a simple and inexpensive but effective system. Applications to an aircraft structural design study are discussed to illustrate the use of an integrated system as a flexible and efficient engineering tool. The discussion concludes with an engineer's assessment of an operating system's capabilities and desirable improvements.

  13. Methodology of synchronization among strategy and operation. A standards-based modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR EDWIN COLLAZOS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Architecture (EA has gained importance in recent years, mainly for its concept of “alignment” between the strategic and operational levels of organizations. Such alignment occurs when Information Technology (IT is applied correctly and timely, working in synergy and harmony with strategy and the operation to achieve mutually their own goals and satisfy the organizational needs.Both the strategic and operational levels have standards that help model elements necessary to obtain desired results. In this sense, BMM and BPMN were selected because both have the support of OMG and they are fairly well known for modelling the strategic level and operational level, respectively. In addition, i* modeling goal can be used for reducing the gap between these two standards. This proposal may help both the high-level design of the information system and to the appropriate identification of the business processes that will support it.This paper presents a methodology for aligning strategy and the operation based on standards and heuristics. We have made a classification for elements of the models and, for some specific cases, an extension of the heuristics associated between them. This allows us to propose methodology, which uses above-mentioned standards and combines mappings, transformations and actions to be considered in the alignment process.

  14. Energy and economic evaluation of the single-family residential building energy performance standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neal, D.L.; Jones, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    The Energy Production and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1976 mandated the setting of building energy performance standards (BEPS) for all newly constructed buildings. One of the classes of buildings included in EPCA is single-family residences. These standards cover the energy used for space heating, air conditioning, and water heating. This report describes the evaluation of direct energy and economic impacts of three proposed levels of single-family BEPS: lenient, mid, and strict. The lenient level is the least stringent in requiring improvements in eneryperformance of residence while the strict is the most stringent. Each of the levels and the method of developing them are also described. The ORNL residential energy model is used to calculate energy savings and economic impacts of BEPS to the nation. The model is also used to estimate the sensitivity of the results to several exogenous variables: projected fuel prices, baseline energy codes, capital csts, short-run price elasticities, and discount rates. The Net Present Value (NPV) and cumulative energy savings from 1980 to 2020 are the two measures used to compare the standards. Both the lenient and mid level standards provide a positive economic benefit to the country of 1.24 and 2.58 billion dollars, respectively. Even though the strict standard has the largest energy savings, it has a negative economic cost of 1.5 billion dollars to the nation. The cumulative energy savings of the lenient, mid, and strict level standards are 4.2, 10.2, and 20.1 EJ, respectively.

  15. Renormalization Group Equations of d=6 Operators in the Standard Model Effective Field Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The one-loop renormalization group equations for the Standard Model (SM) Effective Field Theory (EFT) including dimension-six operators are calculated. The complete 2499 × 2499 one-loop anomalous dimension matrix of the d=6 Lagrangian is obtained, as well as the contribution of d=6 operators to the running of the parameters of the renormalizable SM Lagrangian. The presence of higher-dimension operators has implications for the flavor problem of the SM. An approximate holomorphy of the one-loop anomalous dimension matrix is found, even though the SM EFT is not a supersymmetric theory.

  16. Perturbative Power Counting, Lowest-Index Operators and Their Renormalization in Standard Model Effective Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi; Ma, Xiao-Dong

    2018-03-01

    We study two aspects of higher dimensional operators in standard model effective field theory. We first introduce a perturbative power counting rule for the entries in the anomalous dimension matrix of operators with equal mass dimension. The power counting is determined by the number of loops and the difference of the indices of the two operators involved, which in turn is defined by assuming that all terms in the standard model Lagrangian have an equal perturbative power. Then we show that the operators with the lowest index are unique at each mass dimension d, i.e., (H † H) d/2 for even d ≥ 4, and (LT∈ H)C(LT∈ H) T (H † H)(d-5)/2 for odd d ≥ 5. Here H, L are the Higgs and lepton doublet, and ∈, C the antisymmetric matrix of rank two and the charge conjugation matrix, respectively. The renormalization group running of these operators can be studied separately from other operators of equal mass dimension at the leading order in power counting. We compute their anomalous dimensions at one loop for general d and find that they are enhanced quadratically in d due to combinatorics. We also make connections with classification of operators in terms of their holomorphic and anti-holomorphic weights. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11025525, 11575089, and by the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)

  17. Standard operating procedures for female orgasmic disorder: consensus of the International Society for Sexual Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Ellen; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Barnes, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    As the field of sexual medicine evolves, it is important to continually improve patient care by developing contemporary "standard operating procedures" (SOPs), reflecting the consensus view of experts in sexual medicine. Few, if any, consensus SOPs have been developed for the diagnosis and treatment

  18. 77 FR 17897 - National Uniform Emission Standards for Storage Vessel and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Emission Standards for Storage Vessel and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks, and Closed Vent Systems and... selected emission points (i.e., closed vent systems, control devices, recovery devices and routing to a fuel gas system or a process; equipment leaks; and storage vessels) as part of the Generic MACT program...

  19. Standard symmetric operators in Pontryagin spaces : a generalized von Neumann formula and minimality of boundary coefficients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azizov, Tomas; Ćurgus, Branko; Dijksma, Aad

    2003-01-01

    Certain meromorphic matrix valued functions on C\\R, the so-called boundary coefficients, are characterized in terms of a standard symmetric operator S in a Pontryagin space with finite (not necessarily equal) defect numbers, a meromorphic mapping into the defect subspaces of S, and a boundary

  20. 40 CFR 60.753 - Operational standards for collection and control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.753 Operational standards for collection and control... that gas is collected from each area, cell, or group of cells in the MSW landfill in which solid waste... monitoring route and the rationale for any site-specific deviations from the 30 meter intervals. Areas with...

  1. Improving the review of standard operating procedures: a novel electronic system for compounding pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brensel, Robert; Brensel, Scott; Ng, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Since the New England Compounding Center disaster in 2012, the importance of following correct procedures during every phase of customized pharmacy has been a focus of governmental interest and action as well as public scrutiny. Many pharmacies rely on the rote review of standard operating procedures to ensure that staff members understand and follow protocols that ensure the safety and potency of all compounds prepared, but that approach to continuing education can be cumbersome and needlessly time-consuming. In addition, documenting and retrieving evidence of employee competence can be difficult. In this article, we describe our use of online technology to improve our methods of educating staff about the full range of standard operating procedures that must be followed in our pharmacy. The system we devised and implemented has proven to be effective, easy to update and maintain, very inexpensive, and user friendly. Its use has reduced the time previously required for a read-over review of standard operating procedures from 30 or 40 minutes to 5 or 10 minutes in weekly staff meetings, and we can now easily document and access proof of employees' comprehension of that content. It is our hope that other small compounding pharmacies will also find this system of online standard operating procedure review helpful.

  2. Mode coupling in hybrid square-rectangular lasers for single mode operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiu-Wen; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: yzhuang@semi.ac.cn; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Weng, Hai-Zhong; Xiao, Zhi-Xiong [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Mode coupling between a square microcavity and a Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is proposed and demonstrated for realizing single mode lasers. The modulations of the mode Q factor as simulation results are observed and single mode operation is obtained with a side mode suppression ratio of 46 dB and a single mode fiber coupling loss of 3.2 dB for an AlGaInAs/InP hybrid laser as a 300-μm-length and 1.5-μm-wide FP cavity connected to a vertex of a 10-μm-side square microcavity. Furthermore, tunable single mode operation is demonstrated with a continuous wavelength tuning range over 10 nm. The simple hybrid structure may shed light on practical applications of whispering-gallery mode microcavities in large-scale photonic integrated circuits and optical communication and interconnection.

  3. Vertically integrated (Ga, In)N nanostructures for future single photon emitters operating in the telecommunication wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winden, A; Mikulics, M; Grützmacher, D; Hardtdegen, H

    2013-01-01

    Important technological steps are discussed and realized for future room-temperature operation of III-nitride single photon emitters. First, the growth technology of positioned single pyramidal InN nanostructures capped by Mg-doped GaN is presented. The optimization of their optical characteristics towards narrowband emission in the telecommunication wavelength range is demonstrated. In addition, a device concept and technology was developed so that the nanostructures became singularly addressable. It was found that the nanopyramids emit in the telecommunication wavelength range if their size is chosen appropriately. A p-GaN contacting layer was successfully produced as a cap to the InN pyramids and the top p-contact was achievable using an intrinsically conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS, allowing a 25% increase in light transmittance compared to standard Ni/Au contact technology. Single nanopyramids were successfully integrated into a high-frequency device layout. These decisive technology steps provide a promising route to electrically driven and room-temperature operating InN based single photon emitters in the telecommunication wavelength range. (paper)

  4. Vertically integrated (Ga, In)N nanostructures for future single photon emitters operating in the telecommunication wavelength range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winden, A; Mikulics, M; Grützmacher, D; Hardtdegen, H

    2013-10-11

    Important technological steps are discussed and realized for future room-temperature operation of III-nitride single photon emitters. First, the growth technology of positioned single pyramidal InN nanostructures capped by Mg-doped GaN is presented. The optimization of their optical characteristics towards narrowband emission in the telecommunication wavelength range is demonstrated. In addition, a device concept and technology was developed so that the nanostructures became singularly addressable. It was found that the nanopyramids emit in the telecommunication wavelength range if their size is chosen appropriately. A p-GaN contacting layer was successfully produced as a cap to the InN pyramids and the top p-contact was achievable using an intrinsically conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS, allowing a 25% increase in light transmittance compared to standard Ni/Au contact technology. Single nanopyramids were successfully integrated into a high-frequency device layout. These decisive technology steps provide a promising route to electrically driven and room-temperature operating InN based single photon emitters in the telecommunication wavelength range.

  5. Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE) 1995, NIR Propellant Analyzer, to MIL-STD-398, Military Standard Shields, Operational for Ammunition Operations, Criteria for Design of and Tests for Acceptance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    ... (SJMAC-DEM) to test the Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE) 1995 NIR Propellant Analyzer, to MIL-STD-398, "Military Standard Shields, Operational for Ammunition Operations, Criteria for Design of and Tests for Acceptance...

  6. Operation analysis of a Chebyshev-Pantograph leg mechanism for a single DOF biped robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Conghui; Ceccarelli, Marco; Takeda, Yukio

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, operation analysis of a Chebyshev-Pantograph leg mechanism is presented for a single degree of freedom (DOF) biped robot. The proposed leg mechanism is composed of a Chebyshev four-bar linkage and a pantograph mechanism. In contrast to general fully actuated anthropomorphic leg mechanisms, the proposed leg mechanism has peculiar features like compactness, low-cost, and easy-operation. Kinematic equations of the proposed leg mechanism are formulated for a computer oriented simulation. Simulation results show the operation performance of the proposed leg mechanism with suitable characteristics. A parametric study has been carried out to evaluate the operation performance as function of design parameters. A prototype of a single DOF biped robot equipped with two proposed leg mechanisms has been built at LARM (Laboratory of Robotics and Mechatronics). Experimental test shows practical feasible walking ability of the prototype, as well as drawbacks are discussed for the mechanical design.

  7. Pairwise Operator Learning for Patch Based Single-image Super-resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Shao, Ling

    2016-12-14

    Motivated by the fact that image patches could be inherently represented by matrices, single-image super-resolution is treated as a problem of learning regression operators in a matrix space in this paper. The regression operators that map low-resolution image patches to high-resolution image patches are generally defined by left and right multiplication operators. The pairwise operators are respectively used to extract the raw and column information of low-resolution image patches for recovering high-resolution estimations. The patch based regression algorithm possesses three favorable properties. Firstly, the proposed super-resolution algorithm is efficient during both training and testing, because image patches are treated as matrices. Secondly, the data storage requirement of the optimal pairwise operator is far less than most popular single-image super-resolution algorithms because only two small sized matrices need to be stored. Lastly, the super-resolution performance is competitive with most popular single-image super-resolution algorithms because both raw and column information of image patches is considered. Experimental results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed patch-based single-image superresolution algorithm.

  8. The development of an ergonomics standard for the design of operator interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirwan, B.; Reed, J.; Litherland, M.

    1990-01-01

    BNFL has realised the need to take a consistent approach to the ergonomic design of operator interfaces. Towards this aim, a design standard document has been produced under the direction of a principal design engineer based on the key ergonomics aspects of plant design. The standard was requested by the designers, and the original standard was produced by ergonomists working on BNFL projects. This standard was then reviewed by a large number of key design and operations personnel, and a series of multidisciplinary meetings produced the final version. The standard contains six sections (ergonomics requirements for the design of Control Rooms, Consoles and Panels Design, Labelling, VDU Systems, Alarm Systems and Colour Coding) containing approximately 180 guidelines in text format or supplemented by diagrams and tables. Each guideline is classified as either mandatory or advisory. A high proportion of effort concentrated on making the document usable by designers. The standard is not intended to be fully comprehensive, since the range of possible variations in the designs of interfaces makes such a task intractable at this stage. However, the document does ensure that account is taken of ergonomics throughout the design phase, and particularly in the early phases whilst design change is still cost-effective, and that designers are aware of the important issues and principles. (author)

  9. Laparoendoscopic Single-site Surgery (LESS) for Prophylactic Salpingo-oophorectomy Improves Cosmetic Satisfaction Compared to Standard Laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miailhe, Gregoire; Dauchy, Sarah; Bentivegna, Enrica; Gouy, Sebastien; Charles, Cecile; Delaloge, Suzette; Morice, Philippe; Uzan, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Less invasive prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (PBSO) may diminish the general consequences of surgery for BRCA mutation carriers. The objective of the present study was to compare the psychological impact and satisfaction following minimal-invasive laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) versus that observed with the standard procedure. This prospective longitudinal study was proposed to all consecutive patients who underwent ambulatory PBSO between January 2012 and January 2014 at our Center. The psychological impact and esthetic satisfaction were prospectively studied. Patients rated their satisfaction using the 4-grade Likert scale. Their emotional state and postoperative pain were explored respectively with validated questionnaires (IES-R, PANAS) and the Verbal Numerical Rating Scale (VNRS). Operative outcomes were also analyzed. Twenty patients underwent LESS PBSO and 10 patients had the standard laparoscopic (SL) PBSO. The mean satisfaction scores were significantly higher in the LESS group one month and six months after surgery. Both groups reported a reduction of intrusive thoughts and negative affects after surgery. Postoperative pain and operative outcomes were similar. A significant improvement of cosmetic satisfaction after LESS compared to SL could help patients accept PBSO. The emotional impact of PBSO is not modified by ambulatory LESS. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS retroperitoneal partial adrenalectomy using a custom-made single-access platform and standard laparoscopic instruments: Technical considerations and surgical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hsun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Our results clearly demonstrate that LESS retroperitoneal partial adrenalectomy can be performed safely and effectively using a custom-made single-access platform and standard laparoscopic instruments.

  11. Linear optical implementation of perfect discrimination between single-bit unitary operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pei; Peng Liang; Wang Zhiwei; Ren Xifeng; Liu Biheng; Huang Yunfeng; Guo Guangcan

    2008-01-01

    Discrimination of unitary operations is a fundamental task of quantum information. Assisted by linear optical elements, we experimentally demonstrate perfect discrimination between single-bit unitary operations using the sequential scheme which is proved by Duan et al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2007 98 100503). We also make a comparison with another perfect discrimination scheme called the parallel scheme. The complexity and resource consumed are analysed

  12. 25 CFR 542.23 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier A gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.23 What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier A gaming operations? (a) Tier A gaming operations must...

  13. 76 FR 9817 - Standard on Commercial Diving Operations; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...] Standard on Commercial Diving Operations; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval... Commercial Diving Operations Standard (29 CFR part 1910, subpart T). DATES: Comments must be submitted... obtaining information (29 U.S.C. 657). Subpart T applies to diving and related support operations conducted...

  14. 40 CFR 63.5743 - What standards must I meet for aluminum recreational boat surface coating operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recreational boat surface coating operations? 63.5743 Section 63.5743 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Standards for Aluminum Recreational Boat Surface Coating Operations § 63.5743 What standards must I meet for aluminum recreational boat surface coating operations? (a) For aluminum wipedown solvent...

  15. Challenges to Grid Synchronization of Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverters in Zero-Voltage Ride-Through Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    With the fast development in Photovoltaic (PV) technology, the relevant grid-connection requirements/standards are continuously being updated, and more challenges have been imposed on both single-phase and three-phase grid-connected PV systems. For instance, PV systems are currently required...... to remain connected under grid voltage sags (even zero voltage condition). In this case, much attention should be paid to the grid synchronization in such a way to properly ride-through grid faults. Thus, in this paper, the most commonly-used and recently-developed Phase Locked Loop (PLL) synchronization...... methods have been evaluated for single-phase grid-connected PV systems in the case of Zero-Voltage Ride-Through (ZVRT) operation. The performances of the prior-art PLL methods in response to zero voltage faults in terms of detection precision and dynamic response are assessed in this paper. Simulation...

  16. Assess of the Status of the Karaj Operating Rooms in Comparison with International Standards in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Naseri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of making money, the operating room (OR is known as the beating heart of any clinical & health center. The effective and regular activity of the operating room guarantees a sustainable income for the hospital. So, in order to provide high quality treatment and care services, and to save the health and safety of OR staff, exploiting standard equipments and spaces as well as employing professional and skilled personnel is necessary. This study was aimed to assess the status of the Karaj operating rooms from physical, safety, sterilization, staffing and equipment aspects in comparison to the International Standards. Methods: This sectional descriptive study was conducted in Alborz University of Medical Sciences in 2011. Samples were 10 operating room wards from 10 surgical hospitals. Data were collected by a 70 items check-list at 5 fields of physical, safety, sterilization, staffing and equipment conditions and then compared to the international standards. The data were recorded in SPSS software and analyzed by statistical methods. Results: The results showed that compared to the international standards, the physical aspect was 60.5%, safety aspect 66%, sterilization aspect 68%, staffing aspect 63%, and equipment aspect was 80% close to the standard criteria. On the whole, in 10 assessed hospitals, equipment aspect with 80% had the best and the physical aspect with 60.5% had the worst conditions respectively. Conclusion: Due to admission in different medical and paramedical programs in Alborz University of Medical Sciences, renovation of the ORs is essential for training skilled students. Considering the results of this study could help the University authorities to improve the current condition.

  17. Operational characteristics of dual gain single cavity Nd:YVO 4 laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Operational characteristics of a dual gain single cavity Nd:YVO4 laser have been investigated. With semiconductor diode laser pump power of 2 W, 800 mW output was obtained with a slope efficiency of 49%. Further, by changing the relative orientation of the two crystals the polarization characteristics of the output could be ...

  18. Standard operating procedure changed pre-hospital critical care anaesthesiologists’ behaviour: a quality control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The ability of standard operating procedures to improve pre-hospital critical care by changing pre-hospital physician behaviour is uncertain. We report data from a prospective quality control study of the effect on pre-hospital critical care anaesthesiologists’ behaviour of implementing a standard operating procedure for pre-hospital controlled ventilation. Materials and methods Anaesthesiologists from eight pre-hospital critical care teams in the Central Denmark Region prospectively registered pre-hospital advanced airway-management data according to the Utstein-style template. We collected pre-intervention data from February 1st 2011 to January 31st 2012, implemented the standard operating procedure on February 1st 2012 and collected post intervention data from February 1st 2012 until October 31st 2012. We included transported patients of all ages in need of controlled ventilation treated with pre-hospital endotracheal intubation or the insertion of a supraglottic airways device. The objective was to evaluate whether the development and implementation of a standard operating procedure for controlled ventilation during transport could change pre-hospital critical care anaesthesiologists’ behaviour and thereby increase the use of automated ventilators in these patients. Results The implementation of a standard operating procedure increased the overall prevalence of automated ventilator use in transported patients in need of controlled ventilation from 0.40 (0.34-0.47) to 0.74 (0.69-0.80) with a prevalence ratio of 1.85 (1.57-2.19) (p = 0.00). The prevalence of automated ventilator use in transported traumatic brain injury patients in need of controlled ventilation increased from 0.44 (0.26-0.62) to 0.85 (0.62-0.97) with a prevalence ratio of 1.94 (1.26-3.0) (p = 0.0039). The prevalence of automated ventilator use in patients transported after return of spontaneous circulation following pre-hospital cardiac arrest increased from 0.39 (0

  19. Standardizing data exchange for clinical research protocols and case report forms: An assessment of the suitability of the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Operational Data Model (ODM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Vojtech; Sastry, Chandan; Breymaier, Matthew; Idriss, Asma; Cimino, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient communication of a clinical study protocol and case report forms during all stages of a human clinical study is important for many stakeholders. An electronic and structured study representation format that can be used throughout the whole study life-span can improve such communication and potentially lower total study costs. The most relevant standard for representing clinical study data, applicable to unregulated as well as regulated studies, is the Operational Data Model (ODM) in development since 1999 by the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC). ODM's initial objective was exchange of case report forms data but it is increasingly utilized in other contexts. An ODM extension called Study Design Model, introduced in 2011, provides additional protocol representation elements. Using a case study approach, we evaluated ODM's ability to capture all necessary protocol elements during a complete clinical study lifecycle in the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health. ODM offers the advantage of a single format for institutions that deal with hundreds or thousands of concurrent clinical studies and maintain a data warehouse for these studies. For each study stage, we present a list of gaps in the ODM standard and identify necessary vendor or institutional extensions that can compensate for such gaps. The current version of ODM (1.3.2) has only partial support for study protocol and study registration data mainly because it is outside the original development goal. ODM provides comprehensive support for representation of case report forms (in both the design stage and with patient level data). Inclusion of requirements of observational, non-regulated or investigator-initiated studies (outside Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation) can further improve future revisions of the standard. PMID:26188274

  20. Standardizing data exchange for clinical research protocols and case report forms: An assessment of the suitability of the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Operational Data Model (ODM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Vojtech; Sastry, Chandan; Breymaier, Matthew; Idriss, Asma; Cimino, James J

    2015-10-01

    Efficient communication of a clinical study protocol and case report forms during all stages of a human clinical study is important for many stakeholders. An electronic and structured study representation format that can be used throughout the whole study life-span can improve such communication and potentially lower total study costs. The most relevant standard for representing clinical study data, applicable to unregulated as well as regulated studies, is the Operational Data Model (ODM) in development since 1999 by the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC). ODM's initial objective was exchange of case report forms data but it is increasingly utilized in other contexts. An ODM extension called Study Design Model, introduced in 2011, provides additional protocol representation elements. Using a case study approach, we evaluated ODM's ability to capture all necessary protocol elements during a complete clinical study lifecycle in the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health. ODM offers the advantage of a single format for institutions that deal with hundreds or thousands of concurrent clinical studies and maintain a data warehouse for these studies. For each study stage, we present a list of gaps in the ODM standard and identify necessary vendor or institutional extensions that can compensate for such gaps. The current version of ODM (1.3.2) has only partial support for study protocol and study registration data mainly because it is outside the original development goal. ODM provides comprehensive support for representation of case report forms (in both the design stage and with patient level data). Inclusion of requirements of observational, non-regulated or investigator-initiated studies (outside Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation) can further improve future revisions of the standard. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Standard protocol for conducting pre-operational environmental surveillance around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, A.G.; Verma, P.C.; Rajan, M.P.

    2009-02-01

    This document presents the standard procedures for evaluation of site specific environmental transfer factors around NPP sites. The scope of this document is to provide standard protocol to be followed for conducting pre-operational environmental surveillance around nuclear facilities. Such surveillances have been proposed to be carried out by university professionals under DAE-BRNS projects. This document contains a common methodology in terms of sampling, processing, measurements and analysis of elemental/radionuclides, while keeping the site specific requirements also in place. (author)

  2. Pre-Study Walkthrough with a Commercial Pilot for a Preliminary Single Pilot Operations Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor-Dreher, Ryan; Roberts, Z.; Ziccardi, J.; Vu, K-P. L.; Strybel, T.; Koteskey, Robert William; Lachter, Joel B.; Vi Dao, Quang; Johnson, Walter W.; Battiste, V.

    2013-01-01

    The number of crew members in commercial flights has decreased to two members, down from the five-member crew required 50 years ago. One question of interest is whether the crew should be reduced to one pilot. In order to determine the critical factors involved in safely transitioning to a single pilot, research must examine whether any performance deficits arise with the loss of a crew member. With a concrete understanding of the cognitive and behavioral role of a co-pilot, aeronautical technologies and procedures can be developed that make up for the removal of the second aircrew member. The current project describes a pre-study walkthrough process that can be used to help in the development of scenarios for testing future concepts and technologies for single pilot operations. Qualitative information regarding the tasks performed by the pilots can be extracted with this technique and adapted for future investigations of single pilot operations.

  3. Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.

    2013-01-01

    This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have precluded widespread implementation and acceptance of the SCED as a viable complementary methodology to the predominant group design. This article includes a description of the research design, measurement, and analysis domains distinctive to the SCED; a discussion of the results within the framework of contemporary standards and guidelines in the field; and a presentation of updated benchmarks for key characteristics (e.g., baseline sampling, method of analysis), and overall, it provides researchers and reviewers with a resource for conducting and evaluating SCED research. The results of the systematic review of 409 studies suggest that recently published SCED research is largely in accordance with contemporary criteria for experimental quality. Analytic method emerged as an area of discord. Comparison of the findings of this review with historical estimates of the use of statistical analysis indicates an upward trend, but visual analysis remains the most common analytic method and also garners the most support amongst those entities providing SCED standards. Although consensus exists along key dimensions of single-case research design and researchers appear to be practicing within these parameters, there remains a need for further evaluation of assessment and sampling techniques and data analytic methods. PMID:22845874

  4. Safety Standard for Oxygen and Oxygen Systems: Guidelines for Oxygen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage, and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's standard for oxygen system design, materials selection, operation, and transportation is presented. Minimum guidelines applicable to NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Installations are contained.

  5. Single mode operation of a tea CO2 laser by a CW CO2 laser radiation injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silakhori, K.; Soltanmoradi, F.; Behjat, A.; Montazerghaem, M.; Sadr, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this research work, single mode operation based on injection of a CW laser beam into TEA CO 2 laser cavity has been demonstrated. The technique has vast applications in research programs for laser spectroscopy and optical pumping. The observed smooth pulse shapes indicated that the system is operating in a single mode of operation, where no additional PZT mounted elements or other cavity stabilizing devices have been used. In addition, it have been observed that the output energy has not been reduced when the laser was operating in a single mode of operation, compared with the case when the laser is operating in the multi-mode regime

  6. A standardized and safe method of sterile field maintenance during intra-operative horizontal plane fluoroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaska Serge C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intra-operative fluoroscopy for orthopaedic procedures frequently involves imaging in the horizontal plane, which requires the lower portion of the C-arm (x-ray tube to be rotated from an unsterile zone (beneath the table into the sterile field. To protect the integrity of the sterile field the C-arm must be draped repeatedly throughout the surgical case. The current, un-standardized, practice employs draping procedures which violate the Association of peri-Operative Registered Nurses (AORN Standards and Recommended Practices, waste time and material, and pose an increased risk for surgical site infection. Presentation of the hypothesis Use of a novel sterile C-arm drape (C-armor that maintains the integrity of the sterile field, will improve operating room efficiency and reduce surgical site infection risk factors. This reduction in risk factors may potentially reduce surgical site infections in orthopaedic surgical cases requiring repeated horizontal x-ray imaging. Testing the Hypothesis Savings in time and material and the reduction in surgical site infection risk factors afforded by using C-armor are intuitive to those skilled in the practice of orthopaedic surgery. Testing for a reduction in the number of microorganisms introduced to the surgical site by improved C-arm draping would be challenging due to the multiple confounding factors during a surgical operation. Determination of an absolute reduction in surgical site infections may be possible, but will require accounting for many confounding variables and a large study sample in order to achieve statistical significance. Implications of the Hypothesis Improved intraoperative workflow, healthcare savings and a reduction in surgical site infection risk factors will be achieved by utilizing a standardized and safe method of sterile field maintenance during intra-operative horizontal plane fluoroscopy.

  7. Bridging IMO e-Navigation Policy and Offshore Oil and Gas Operations through Geospatial Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Modesto Da Rocha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In offshore industry activities, the suitable onboard provision of assets location and geospatial marine information during operations is essential. Currently, most companies use its own data structures, resulting in incompatibility between processes. In order to promote the data exchange, oil and gas industry associations have pursued initiatives to standardize spatial information. In turn, the IMO - International Maritime Organization - started the implementation of e-Navigation policy, which is the standardization of technologies and protocols applied to maritime information and navigation. This paper shows relationship and integration points between maritime activities of oil and gas industry and e-Navigation technologies and processes, highlighting geospatial information. This paper also preludes out an initiative for a suitable product specification for the offshore oil and gas industry, compliant with e-Navigation and IHO S-100 international standards.

  8. Improving International Standards in Surgical and Procedural Training through Comparative Operative Log Growth Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannipa Vathanophas, M.D.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To use these growth charts to critically assess sufficiency of cases and parity of cases between residents, and to compare these growth charts to available international standards for minimum case numbers. Methods: Operative Log Growth Charts were developed for key indicator procedures for graduating otolaryngology residents in 2012-2014 at a large teaching hospital in the capital city of a newly industrialized country. Comparisons were made between years of training and required minimum case numbers published by the ACGME RRC for Otolaryngology. Results: Data was available to create 7 key indicator operative log growth charts to include all available data from 2012-2014 residents. These growth charts were used to assess growth in operative procedures for residents in the program compared to historical norms in the program. Graduating residents surpassed ACGME minimum case numbers in Bronchoscopy only and were below the minimum numbers for the other key indicators tested. Conclusion: There is significant heterogeneity in the standards for otolaryngology training between countries. It is possible to develop program-specific and country-specific operative log growth charts.

  9. Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (T{sub p}:I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks.

  10. Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong

    2014-07-01

    Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (Tp:I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks.

  11. Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong

    2014-01-01

    Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (T p :I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks

  12. A novel locally operated master-slave robot system for single-incision laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horise, Yuki; Matsumoto, Toshinobu; Ikeda, Hiroki; Nakamura, Yuta; Yamasaki, Makoto; Sawada, Genta; Tsukao, Yukiko; Nakahara, Yujiro; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Takiguchi, Shuji; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Miyazaki, Fumio; Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Kawai, Toshikazu; Nishikawa, Atsushi

    2014-12-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) provides more cosmetic benefits than conventional laparoscopic surgery but presents operational difficulties. To overcome this technical problem, we have developed a locally operated master-slave robot system that provides operability and a visual field similar to conventional laparoscopic surgery. A surgeon grasps the master device with the left hand, which is placed above the abdominal wall, and holds a normal instrument with the right hand. A laparoscope, a slave robot, and the right-sided instrument are inserted through one incision. The slave robot is bent in the body cavity and its length, pose, and tip angle are changed by manipulating the master device; thus the surgeon has almost the same operability as with normal laparoscopic surgery. To evaluate our proposed system, we conducted a basic task and an ex vivo experiment. In basic task experiments, the average object-passing task time was 9.50 sec (SILS cross), 22.25 sec (SILS parallel), and 7.23 sec (proposed SILS). The average number of instrument collisions was 3.67 (SILS cross), 14 (SILS parallel), and 0.33 (proposed SILS). In the ex vivo experiment, we confirmed the applicability of our system for single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We demonstrated that our proposed robot system is useful for single-incision laparoscopic surgery.

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Four Anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix with Single Reference Standard by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish a rapid, accurate and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of four major anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR using single reference standard.

  14. Catastrophic optical mirror damage in diode lasers monitored during single-pulse operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zegler, M.; Tomm, J.W.; Reeber, D.

    2009-01-01

    Catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) is analyzed for 808 nm emitting diode lasers in single-pulse operation in order to separate facet degradation from subsequent degradation processes. During each pulse, nearfield and thermal images are monitored. A temporal resolution better than 7 µs...... is achieved. The thermal runaway process is unambiguously related to the occurrence of a “thermal flash.” A one-by-one correlation between nearfield, thermal flash, thermal runaway, and structural damage is observed. The single-pulse excitation technique allows for controlling the propagation...

  15. Performance Evaluation of Low/Zero Voltage Ride-Through Operations for Single-Stage Single-Phase Photovoltaic Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    With the fast development of distributed power generations, stability and security have attracted extensive attention in the recent years. As a representative of clean energies, Photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed extensively worldwide. This drives grid-connected requirements to be cont......With the fast development of distributed power generations, stability and security have attracted extensive attention in the recent years. As a representative of clean energies, Photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed extensively worldwide. This drives grid-connected requirements......-connected single-stage single-phase PV systems in the case of Low/Zero Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT/ZVRT) operation. A comparative analysis of the two LVRT/ZVRT control methods for PV systems is presented. Simulation results are presented, which verifies that the LVRT/ZVRT methods can help the PV systems...... to temporarily ride-through the grid low-/zero-voltage faults. The power phase-angle control method has a better dynamic response....

  16. FCNC Bs and Λb transitions: Standard model versus a single universal extra dimension scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colangelo, P.; De Fazio, F.; Ferrandes, R.; Pham, T. N.

    2008-01-01

    We study the flavor changing neutral current B s →φγ, φνν and Λ b →Λγ, Λνν transitions in the standard model and in a scenario with a single universal extra dimension. In particular, we focus on the present knowledge of the hadronic uncertainties and on possible improvements. We discuss how the measurements of these modes can be used to constrain the new parameter involved in the extra-dimensional scenario, the radius R of the extra dimension, completing the information available from B-factories. The rates of these b→s induced decays are within the reach of new experiments, such as LHCb.

  17. Single-Phase Microgrid with Seamless Transition Capabilities between Modes of Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Alexander; Apap, Maurice; Spiteri-Staines, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Microgrids are an effective way to increase the penetration of DG into the grid. They are capable of operating either in grid-connected or in islanded mode thereby increasing the supply reliability for the end user. This paper focuses on achieving seamless transitions from islanded to grid......-connected and vice versa for a single phase microgrid made up from voltage controlled voltage source inverters (VC-VSIs) and current controlled voltage source inverters (CC-VSIs) working together in both modes of operation. The primary control structures for the VC-VSIs and CC-VSIs is considered together...... with the secondary control loops that are used to synchronize the microgrid as a single unit to the grid. Simulation results are given that show the seamless transitions between the two modes without any disconnection times for the CC-VSIs and VC-VSIs connected to the microgrid....

  18. Evaluation of 600V Superjunction Devices in Single Phase PFC Applications under CCM Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper pr esents a power density/efficiency evaluation in single phase power factor correction (PFC) applications operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The comparison is based on semiconductor dynamic characterization and a mathematical model for prediction of the conducted electroma......This paper pr esents a power density/efficiency evaluation in single phase power factor correction (PFC) applications operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The comparison is based on semiconductor dynamic characterization and a mathematical model for prediction of the conducted...... electromagnetic interference (EMI). The dynamic characterization is based on a low inductive double pulse tester (DPT). The measured switching energy is used in order to evaluate the devices performance in a conventional PFC. This data is used together with the mathematical model for prediction of the conducted...... electromagnetic interference. The method allows comparing different devices and evaluating the performance as a function of the PFC power density and efficiency....

  19. Doppler wind lidar using a MOPA semiconductor laser at stable single-frequency operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    A compact master-oscillator power-amplifier semiconductor laser (MOPA-SL) is a good candidate for a coherent light source (operating at 1550 nm) in a Doppler wind Lidar. The MOPA-SL requires two injection currents: Idfb for the distributed-feedback (DFB) laser section (master oscillator) and Iamp...... for the tapered amplifier section. The specified maximum current values are 0.7 A and 4.0 A for Idfb and Iamp. Although the MOPA-SL has been proven capable of producing single-frequency CW output beam, stable operation at this spectral condition has also been known to highly depend on the drive currents...... to the laser. This was done by observing the spectral characteristic of the laser using an optical spectrum at different drive current combinations. When using the laser for a Doppler wind Lidar application, a combination of (Idfb, Iamp) which is close to the center of an identified stable single...

  20. Single-use surgical clothing system for reduction of airborne bacteria in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammelin, A; Ljungqvist, B; Reinmüller, B

    2013-07-01

    It is desirable to maintain a low bacterial count in the operating room air to prevent surgical site infection. This can be achieved by ventilation or by all staff in the operating room wearing clothes made from low-permeable material (i.e. clean air suits). We investigated whether there was a difference in protective efficacy between a single-use clothing system made of polypropylene and a reusable clothing system made of a mixed material (cotton/polyester) by testing both in a dispersal chamber and during surgical procedures. Counts of colony-forming units (cfu)/m(3) air were significantly lower when using the single-use clothing system in both settings. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Realization of Arbitrary Positive-Operator-Value Measurement of Single Atomic Qubit via Cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han; Wei, Wu; Chun-Wang, Wu; Hong-Yi, Dai; Cheng-Zu, Li

    2008-01-01

    Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement. We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit. By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step. As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given

  2. Realization of arbitrary positive-operator-value measurement of single atomic qubit via cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yang; Wu Wei; Wu Chunwang; Dai Hongyi; Li Chengzu

    2008-01-01

    Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement. We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit. By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step. As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given. (authors)

  3. Realization of Arbitrary Positive-Operator-Value Measurement of Single Atomic Qubit via Cavity QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Wu, Wei; Wu, Chun-Wang; Dai, Hong-Yi; Li, Cheng-Zu

    2008-12-01

    Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement. We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit. By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step. As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given.

  4. Operational Marine Data Acquisition and Delivery Powered by Web and Geospatial Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R.; Buck, J. J. H.

    2015-12-01

    As novel sensor types and new platforms are deployed to monitor the global oceans, the volumes of scientific and environmental data collected in the marine context are rapidly growing. In order to use these data in both the traditional operational modes and in innovative "Big Data" applications the data must be readily understood by software agents. One approach to achieving this is the application of both World Wide Web and Open Geospatial Consortium standards: namely Linked Data1 and Sensor Web Enablement2 (SWE). The British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) is adopting this strategy in a number of European Commission funded projects (NETMAR; SenseOCEAN; Ocean Data Interoperability Platform - ODIP; and AtlantOS) to combine its existing data archiving architecture with SWE components (such as Sensor Observation Services) and a Linked Data interface. These will evolve the data management and data transfer from a process that requires significant manual intervention to an automated operational process enabling the rapid, standards-based, ingestion and delivery of data. This poster will show the current capabilities of BODC and the status of on-going implementation of this strategy. References1. World Wide Web Consortium. (2013). Linked Data. Available:http://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/data. Last accessed 7th April 20152. Open Geospatial Consortium. (2014). Sensor Web Enablement (SWE). Available:http://www.opengeospatial.org/ogc/markets-technologies/swe. Last accessed 8th October 2014

  5. 41 CFR 102-85.175 - Are the standard level services for cleaning, mechanical operation, and maintenance identified in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... services for cleaning, mechanical operation, and maintenance identified in an OA? 102-85.175 Section 102-85... of Service § 102-85.175 Are the standard level services for cleaning, mechanical operation, and maintenance identified in an OA? Unless specified otherwise in the OA, standard level services for cleaning...

  6. Large Mode Area Single Trench Fiber for 2 mu m Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Deepak; Sahu, Jayanta K.

    2016-01-01

    to 25 cm bend radius, respectively, by exploiting high delocalization of the higher order modes. Achievement of a large effective-area can be very useful to address nonlinear effects. Moreover, single trench fiber offers certain advantages such as low-cost fabrication and easy postprocessing (such......Performance of single trench fibers has been investigated using finite-element method at 2 mu m wavelength. Numerical investigations show that an effective single mode operation for large effective area between 3000-4000 mu m(2) and 2000-3000 mu m(2) can be achieved at similar to 40 and similar...... as cleaving and splicing) thanks to the all-solid fiber design....

  7. 32 CFR Attachment C to Subpart B... - Standard C-Single Scope Background Investigation Periodic Reinvestigation (SSBI-PR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard C-Single Scope Background Investigation Periodic Reinvestigation (SSBI-PR) C Attachment C to Subpart B of Part 147 National Defense Department of... Reinvestigation (SSBI-PR) (a) Applicability. Standard C applies to reinvestigation for; (1) Access to TOP SECRET...

  8. Single-port one-stage bilateral thoracoscopic sympathicotomy for severe hyperhidrosis: prospective analysis of a standardized approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary palmar and/or axillary focal hyperhidrosis is a frequent disorder characterized by excessive sweating beyond physiological needs, often leading to a substantial impairment of quality of life. Over the years several minimally invasive surgical treatments have been described, however results vary, and due to a lack of uniform surgical approach, technique and nomenclature are often difficult to compare. In this prospective study we sought to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of our standardized technique of single-port, one-stage bilateral thoracoscopic sympathicotomy. Methods On a prospective basis a hundred consecutive patients with severe or intolerable primary hyperhidrosis underwent one-stage bilateral single-port thoracoscopic sympathicotomy. Primary outcome was measured in pre- vs. post-operative Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale scores. Location and extend of compensatory hyperhidrosis, and satisfaction with the procedure were registered. Results A significant reduction in mean Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale score (3.69 ± 0.47 preoperatively vs. 1.06 ± 0.34 postoperatively) (p 80% reduction in sweat production was achieved. Compensatory hyperhidrosis was seen in 27 patients (27%). It was rated as mild by 21 patients (78%) and as moderate by 6 (22%) of these patients. No severe compensatory hyperhidrosis was reported. Major complications, such as intraoperative bleeding, infections, and Horner’s syndrome were not observed. Conclusions Highly selective sympathicotomy at well-defined levels with a one-stage bilateral single-port transaxillary thoracoscopic approach is a save procedure, with excellent and reproducible immediate results in the treatment of primary palmar and/or axillary hyperhidrosis. PMID:24279511

  9. Specific Features of Reflection of Information Regarding Lease Operations in the National and International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolenko Nataliya V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies the degree of correspondence of the national Provisions (Standard of Business Accounting (PSBA Lease with the international standard and provides recommendations with respect to their closing up. On the results of the study the author provides specific features of international and national standards – the existing IFRS 17 Lease and national PSBA 14 Lease by the following components: definition of lease, its classification and reflection in accounting. Also the text of PSBA 31 Financial Expenditures is supplemented with provisions on capitalisation of financial expenditures prospectively, which would allow avoidance of correction of the balance of the retained income and provision of comparative information for previous periods. The article provides an algorithm of division of lease for accounting purposes on the basis of international standards. Its use would ensure correctness of reflection of lease operations in accounting and would serve as a basis for development of methodical provisions with respect to accounting. By the result of the study the author forms definition of the qualification asset as an asset which requires considerable time for its creation, preparation for target use, sales or acquisition of the ownership right. Capitalisation of such expenditures would allow non-reduction of the accounting income and also would provide a possibility to reflect financial expenditures in accordance with their economic essence.

  10. Assessing operating characteristics of CAD algorithms in the absence of a gold standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Paik, David S.; Yi, Chin A.; Napel, Sandy; Roos, Justus; Rubin, Geoffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examine potential bias when using a reference reader panel as ''gold standard'' for estimating operating characteristics of CAD algorithms for detecting lesions. As an alternative, the authors propose latent class analysis (LCA), which does not require an external gold standard to evaluate diagnostic accuracy. Methods: A binomial model for multiple reader detections using different diagnostic protocols was constructed, assuming conditional independence of readings given true lesion status. Operating characteristics of all protocols were estimated by maximum likelihood LCA. Reader panel and LCA based estimates were compared using data simulated from the binomial model for a range of operating characteristics. LCA was applied to 36 thin section thoracic computed tomography data sets from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): Free search markings of four radiologists were compared to markings from four different CAD assisted radiologists. For real data, bootstrap-based resampling methods, which accommodate dependence in reader detections, are proposed to test of hypotheses of differences between detection protocols. Results: In simulation studies, reader panel based sensitivity estimates had an average relative bias (ARB) of -23% to -27%, significantly higher (p-value <0.0001) than LCA (ARB -2% to -6%). Specificity was well estimated by both reader panel (ARB -0.6% to -0.5%) and LCA (ARB 1.4%-0.5%). Among 1145 lesion candidates LIDC considered, LCA estimated sensitivity of reference readers (55%) was significantly lower (p-value 0.006) than CAD assisted readers' (68%). Average false positives per patient for reference readers (0.95) was not significantly lower (p-value 0.28) than CAD assisted readers' (1.27). Conclusions: Whereas a gold standard based on a consensus of readers may substantially bias sensitivity estimates, LCA may be a significantly more accurate and consistent means for evaluating diagnostic accuracy.

  11. 25 CFR 542.43 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for a Tier C gaming operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.43 What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for a Tier C gaming operation? (a) The surveillance system...

  12. 25 CFR 542.33 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier B gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.33 What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier B gaming operations? (a) The surveillance system shall...

  13. Inter-utility operating data exchange concepts, standards and implementation considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virmani, S.; Leichner, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Operating a modern interconnected electric utility in a secure and reliable manner requires a knowledge of the state of critical elements of the outside or external network. As noted in reference 1: In this paper, the authors focus on considerations in the implementation of communication processors which can be used as front ends to an EMS in order to accomplish data exchange in a multiple EMS vendor, multiple computer environment. Before discussing the implementation aspects, the paper also discusses the basic data exchange concepts in terms of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) seven layer model and the standards that are in existence or are emerging for inter-utility data exchange

  14. Refractory Metal Heat Pipe Life Test - Test Plan and Standard Operating Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. J.; Reid, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    Refractory metal heat pipes developed during this project shall be subjected to various operating conditions to evaluate life-limiting corrosion factors. To accomplish this objective, various parameters shall be investigated, including the effect of temperature and mass fluence on long-term corrosion rate. The test series will begin with a performance test of one module to evaluate its performance and to establish the temperature and power settings for the remaining modules. The performance test will be followed by round-the-clock testing of 16 heat pipes. All heat pipes shall be nondestructively inspected at 6-month intervals. At longer intervals, specific modules will be destructively evaluated. Both the nondestructive and destructive evaluations shall be coordinated with Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the processing, setup, and testing of the heat pipes, standard operating procedures shall be developed. Initial procedures are listed here and, as hardware is developed, will be updated, incorporating findings and lessons learned.

  15. Network operability of ground-based microwave radiometers: Calibration and standardization efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospichal, Bernhard; Löhnert, Ulrich; Küchler, Nils; Czekala, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) are already widely used by national weather services and research institutions all around the world. Most of the instruments operate continuously and are beginning to be implemented into data assimilation for atmospheric models. Especially their potential for continuously observing boundary-layer temperature profiles as well as integrated water vapor and cloud liquid water path makes them valuable for improving short-term weather forecasts. However until now, most MWR have been operated as stand-alone instruments. In order to benefit from a network of these instruments, standardization of calibration, operation and data format is necessary. In the frame of TOPROF (COST Action ES1303) several efforts have been undertaken, such as uncertainty and bias assessment, or calibration intercomparison campaigns. The goal was to establish protocols for providing quality controlled (QC) MWR data and their uncertainties. To this end, standardized calibration procedures for MWR have been developed and recommendations for radiometer users compiled. Based on the results of the TOPROF campaigns, a new, high-accuracy liquid-nitrogen calibration load has been introduced for MWR manufactured by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG). The new load improves the accuracy of the measurements considerably and will lead to even more reliable atmospheric observations. Next to the recommendations for set-up, calibration and operation of ground-based MWR within a future network, we will present homogenized methods to determine the accuracy of a running calibration as well as means for automatic data quality control. This sets the stage for the planned microwave calibration center at JOYCE (Jülich Observatory for Cloud Evolution), which will be shortly introduced.

  16. Renormalization Group Evolution of the Standard Model Dimension Six Operators III: Gauge Coupling Dependence and Phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Manohar, Aneesh V; Trott, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the gauge terms of the one-loop anomalous dimension matrix for the dimension-six operators of the Standard Model effective field theory (SM EFT). Combining these results with our previous results for the $\\lambda$ and Yukawa coupling terms completes the calculation of the one-loop anomalous dimension matrix for the dimension-six operators. There are 1350 $CP$-even and $1149$ $CP$-odd parameters in the dimension-six Lagrangian for 3 generations, and our results give the entire $2499 \\times 2499$ anomalous dimension matrix. We discuss how the renormalization of the dimension-six operators, and the additional renormalization of the dimension $d \\le 4$ terms of the SM Lagrangian due to dimension-six operators, lays the groundwork for future precision studies of the SM EFT aimed at constraining the effects of new physics through precision measurements at the electroweak scale. As some sample applications, we discuss some aspects of the full RGE improved result for essential processes such as $gg \\to h...

  17. Standard Test Method for Isotopic Analysis of Uranium Hexafluoride by Single-Standard Gas Source Multiple Collector Mass Spectrometer Method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method is applicable to the isotopic analysis of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) with 235U concentrations less than or equal to 5 % and 234U, 236U concentrations of 0.0002 to 0.1 %. 1.2 This test method may be applicable to the analysis of the entire range of 235U isotopic compositions providing that adequate Certified Reference Materials (CRMs or traceable standards) are available. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. 49 CFR 571.118 - Standard No. 118; Power-operated window, partition, and roof panel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-operated window, partition, and roof panel systems. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard specifies requirements for power operated window, partition, and roof panel systems to minimize the likelihood of death.... S5. Automatic reversal systems. A power-operated window, partition, or roof panel system that is...

  19. Generalized Single-Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Prioritized Aggregation Operators and Their Applications to Multiple Criteria Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set (SVNHFS is a combination of single-valued neutrosophic set and hesitant fuzzy set, and its aggregation tools play an important role in the multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM process. This paper investigates the MCDM problems in which the criteria under SVNHF environment are in different priority levels. First, the generalized single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy prioritized weighted average operator and generalized single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy prioritized weighted geometric operator are developed based on the prioritized average operator. Second, some desirable properties and special cases of the proposed operators are discussed in detail. Third, an approach combined with the proposed operators and the score function of single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy element is constructed to solve MCDM problems. Finally, an example of investment selection is provided to illustrate the validity and rationality of the proposed method.

  20. Kajian dan Implementasi Real Time Operating System pada Single Board Computer Berbasis Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiedjaja A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Operating System is an important software in computer system. For personal and office use the operating system is sufficient. However, to critical mission applications such as nuclear power plants and braking system on the car (auto braking system which need a high level of reliability, it requires operating system which operates in real time. The study aims to assess the implementation of the Linux-based operating system on a Single Board Computer (SBC ARM-based, namely Pandaboard ES with the Dual-core ARM Cortex-A9, TI OMAP 4460 type. Research was conducted by the method of implementation of the General Purpose OS Ubuntu 12:04 OMAP4-armhf-RTOS and Linux 3.4.0-rt17 + on PandaBoard ES. Then research compared the latency value of each OS on no-load and with full-load condition. The results obtained show the maximum latency value of RTOS on full load condition is at 45 uS, much smaller than the maximum value of GPOS at full-load at 17.712 uS. The lower value of latency demontrates that the RTOS has ability to run the process in a certain period of time much better than the GPOS.

  1. Semiclassical dye-laser equations and the unidirectional single-frequency operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hong; Haken, H.

    1987-11-01

    A semiclassical description for dye lasers is proposed, where the energy-level diagram of the dye molecule is assumed to consist of a continuous bandlike ground state and an excited singlet state. Unidirectional single-frequency (s.f.) operation is discussed. The linear-stability analysis for this operation reveals a very low threshold instability, which may appear generally in practical lasers. The ratio of the instability threshold to the lasing threshold may be of any value greater than 1, depending mainly on the bandwidth and the distribution of the dipole moments on the band, but it is independent of the cavity loss. This instability may account for that observed in recent experiments by Hillman, Krasinki, Boyd, and Stroud [Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1605 (1984)]. A general approach to analyzing the linear stability of the s.f. operation of the Maxwell-Bloch equations is also proposed, which states that only the eigenvalues of a 2×2 matrix are relevant: one concerns the stability of the s.f. operation near the lasing threshold, the other determines the instability threshold of this operation.

  2. Experimental analysis of the effects of the operating variables on the performance of a single PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarelli, M.G.; Torchio, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows and discusses the results obtained after an experimental session devoted to characterization of the behavior of a single proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with variation of the values of six operation variables: cell temperature; anode flow temperature in saturation and dry conditions; cathode flow temperature in saturation and dry conditions; and reactants pressure. The fuel cell employed for the experiments is a single PEMFC with a 25 cm 2 Nafion[reg] 115 membrane. As expected, a higher cell temperature increases the membrane conductivity and the exchange current density with an improvement of the cell behaviour. An increase in the reactant saturation temperature also leads to a better performance, especially in the case of low and medium loads. Conversely, in the case of a low cell temperature, it is better to reduce the water inlet mass flow at high loads to avoid electrode flooding. With an increase of the reactant operating pressure, the maximum of the power curve shifts to higher current densities, and this could be linked to the corresponding shift of the limiting current density. A combined effect of humidification and operating pressure was observed: the increase of operating pressure did not offer a significant improvement when the reactants were dry, while leading to improvements when a partial humidification (only at the anode) was adopted. The best improvements due to a pressure increase were observed when both anode and cathode are humidified. Finally, some tests of other authors at the same operation conditions have been considered, and a comparison has been done

  3. Operating Quantum States in Single Magnetic Molecules: Implementation of Grover's Quantum Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrin, C.; Ferhat, A.; Ballou, R.; Klyatskaya, S.; Ruben, M.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Balestro, F.

    2017-11-01

    Quantum algorithms use the principles of quantum mechanics, such as, for example, quantum superposition, in order to solve particular problems outperforming standard computation. They are developed for cryptography, searching, optimization, simulation, and solving large systems of linear equations. Here, we implement Grover's quantum algorithm, proposed to find an element in an unsorted list, using a single nuclear 3 /2 spin carried by a Tb ion sitting in a single molecular magnet transistor. The coherent manipulation of this multilevel quantum system (qudit) is achieved by means of electric fields only. Grover's search algorithm is implemented by constructing a quantum database via a multilevel Hadamard gate. The Grover sequence then allows us to select each state. The presented method is of universal character and can be implemented in any multilevel quantum system with nonequal spaced energy levels, opening the way to novel quantum search algorithms.

  4. Development of a standard operating procedure for mammography equipment used in calibration of ionized chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Yklys Santos; Potiens, Maria da Penha Albuquerque

    2011-01-01

    Mammography is one widely used technique in the detection of breast cancer. In order to optimize the results achieving better images with lower dose rates, a quality assurance programme must be applied to the equipment. Some control tests use ionization chambers to measure air kerma and other quantities. These tests can only be reliable if the ionization chambers used on them are correctly calibrated. In the present work, it was developed a standard operating procedure (SOP) for quality control tests in a commercial mammography equipment installed in the Calibration Laboratory (LCI) at IPEN - Brazilian Institute for energy and nuclear research). Seven tests were performed in the equipment: Tube voltage and exposition time accuracy and reproducibility, linearity and reproducibility of Air kerma and Half Value Layer (HVL). Then, it was made a measurement of the air kerma in the mammography equipment, using a reference ionization chamber with traceability to a primary laboratory in Germany (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt - PTB), that was later compared with the air kerma measured in an industrial irradiator. This industrial X-ray generator was recently used in the implementation of X-radiation Standards beams, mammography level, following the Standard IEC 61267. The HVL values varied from 0.36 (25kV) to 0.41 mmA1 (35kV), and the measured air kerma rates were between 9.78 and 17.97 mGy/min. (author)

  5. Optimal synthesis and operation of advanced energy supply systems for standard and domotic home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buoro, Dario; Casisi, Melchiorre; Pinamonti, Piero; Reini, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Definition of an optimization model for a home energy supply system. ► Optimization of the energy supply system for standard and domotic home. ► Strong improvement can be achieved adopting the optimal system in standard and domotic home. ► The improvements are consistent if supply side and demand side strategies are applied together. ► Solutions with internal combustion engines are less sensible to market price of electricity and gas. - Abstract: The paper deals with the optimization of an advanced energy supply systems for two dwellings: a standard home and an advanced domotic home, where some demand side energy saving strategies have been implemented. In both cases the optimal synthesis, design and operation of the whole energy supply system have been obtained and a sensitivity analysis has been performed, by introducing different economic constraints. The optimization model is based on a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) and includes different kinds of small-scale cogenerators, geothermal heat pumps, boilers, heat storages, solar thermal and photovoltaic panels. In addition, absorption machines, supplied with cogenerated heat, can be used instead of conventional electrical chiller to face the cooling demand. The aim of the analysis is to address the question if advanced demand strategies and supply strategies have to be regarded as alternatives, or if they have to be simultaneously applied, in order to obtain the maximum energy and economic benefit.

  6. Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) in gynaecology: feasibility and operative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnia-Willison, Fariba; Foroughinia, Leila; Sina, Maryam; McChesney, Phil

    2012-08-01

    Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) represents the latest advancement in minimally invasive surgery, combining the benefits of conventional laparoscopic surgery, such as less pain and faster recovery, with improved cosmesis. Although the successful use of this technique is well reported in general surgery and urology, there is a lack of studies on SILS in gynaecology. To evaluate the feasibility, safety, cosmesis and outcome of SILS in gynaecology. A prospective case series analysis of 105 women scheduled to undergo surgery by SILS from August 2010 to November 2011. Intra-operative data such as operative time, estimated blood loss, complications, additional ports and hospital stay were collected. Post-operative pain and cosmetic outcomes (scar size) were also recorded. Out of 105 women, SILS was performed for 84 (60 excisions of endometriosis, 13 divisions of adhesions, five hysterectomies, two mesh sacrohysteropexies and four ovarian cystectomies). SILS was not undertaken for 21 women because of a number of factors, including the lack of required equipment (eg bariatric scope, SILS port, roticulating instruments and diathermy leads). Four women required insertion of additional ports because of surgical difficulties. One intra-operative (uterine perforation) and seven post-operative complications (six wound infections and one vault haematoma) occurred. Mean operation times were as follows: mesh sacrohysteropexy - 60 min, excision of endometriosis - 55 min, hysterectomy - 150 min, laparoscopic division of adhesions - 62 min and ovarian cystectomy - 40 min. Our experience shows that SILS is a feasible and safe technique for the surgical management of various gynaecological conditions. Satisfaction is high because of improved cosmesis and reduced analgesic requirements post-operatively. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride Focal Plane Array Performance Under Non-Standard Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Bruce, Carl F.; Green, Robert O.; Coles, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights a new technique that allows the Teledyne Scientific & Imaging LLC TCM6604A Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) Focal Plane Array (FPA) to operate at room temperature. The Teledyne MCT FPA has been a standard in Imaging Spectroscopy since its creation in the 1980's. This FPA has been used in applications ranging from space instruments such as CRISM, M3 and ARTEMIS to airborne instruments such as MaRS and the Next Generation AVIRIS Instruments1. Precise focal plane alignment is always a challenge for such instruments. The current FPA alignment process results in multiple cold cycles requiring week-long durations, thereby increasing the risk and cost of a project. These alignment cycles are necessary because optimal alignment is approached incrementally and can only be measured with the FPA and Optics at standard operating conditions, requiring a cold instrument. Instruments using this FPA are normally cooled to temperatures below 150K for the MCT FPA to properly function. When the FPA is run at higher temperatures the dark current increases saturating the output. This paper covers the prospect of warm MCT FPA operation from a theoretical and experimental perspective. We discuss the empirical models and physical laws that govern MCT material properties and predict the optimal settings that will result in the best MCT PA performance at 300K. Theoretical results are then calculated for the proposed settings. We finally present the images and data obtained using the actual system with the warm MCT FPA settings. The paper concludes by emphasizing the strong positive correlation between the measured values and the theoretical results.

  8. Comparison of standard PCR/cloning to single genome sequencing for analysis of HIV-1 populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Michael R; Kearney, Mary; Palmer, Sarah; Shao, Wei; Maldarelli, Frank; Coakley, Eoin P; Chappey, Colombe; Wanke, Christine; Coffin, John M

    2010-09-01

    To compare standard PCR/cloning and single genome sequencing (SGS) in their ability to reflect actual intra-patient polymorphism of HIV-1 populations, a total of 530 HIV-1 pro-pol sequences obtained by both sequencing techniques from a set of 17 ART naïve patient specimens was analyzed. For each specimen, 12 and 15 sequences, on average, were characterized by the two techniques. Using phylogenetic analysis, tests for panmixia and entropy, and Bland-Altman plots, no difference in population structure or genetic diversity was shown in 14 of the 17 subjects. Evidence of sampling bias by the presence of subsets of identical sequences was found by either method. Overall, the study shows that neither method was more biased than the other, and providing that an adequate number of PCR templates is analyzed, and that the bulk sequencing captures the diversity of the viral population, either method is likely to provide a similar measure of population diversity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety management systems and their role in achieving high standards of operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulston, D.J.; Baylis, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Achieving high standards of operational safety requires a robust management framework that is visible to all personnel with responsibility for its implementation. The structure of the management framework must ensure that all processes used to manage safety interlink in a logical and coherent manner, that is, they form a management system that leads to continuous improvement in safety performance. This Paper describes BNFL's safety management system (SMS). The SMS has management processes grouped within 5 main elements: 1. Policy, 2. Organisation, 3. Planning and Implementation, 4. Measuring and Reviewing Performance, 5. Audit. These elements reflect the overall process of setting safety objective (from Policy), measuring success and reviewing the performance. Effective implementation of the SMS requires senior managers to demonstrate leadership through their commitment and accountability. However, the SMS as a whole reflects that every employee at every level within BNFL is responsible for safety of operations under their control. The SMS therefore promotes a proactive safety culture and safe operations. The system is formally documented in the Company's Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Manual. Within in BNFL Group, the Company structures enables the Manual to provide overall SMS guidance and co-ordination to its range of nuclear businesses. Each business develops the SMS to be appropriate at all levels of its organisation, but ensuring that each level is consistent with the higher level. The Paper concludes with a summary of BNFL's safety performance. (author)

  10. DBD plasma source operated in single-filamentary mode for therapeutic use in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekaran, Priyadarshini; Mertmann, Philipp; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter [Institute for Electrical Engineering and Plasma Technology, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Wandke, Dirk [CINOGY GmbH, Max-Naeder-Str. 15, 37114 Duderstadt (Germany); Vioel, Wolfgang, E-mail: rajasekaran@aept.rub.d, E-mail: mertmann@aept.rub.d, E-mail: Nikita.Bibinov@rub.d, E-mail: dirk.wandke@cinogy.co, E-mail: vioel@hawk-hhg.d, E-mail: awakowicz@aept.rub.d [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-11-21

    Our dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma source for bio-medical application comprises a copper electrode covered with ceramic. Objects of high capacitance such as the human body can be used as the opposite electrode. In this study, the DBD source is operated in single-filamentary mode using an aluminium spike as the opposite electrode, to imitate the conditions when the discharge is ignited on a raised point, such as hair, during therapeutic use on the human body. The single-filamentary discharge thus obtained is characterized using optical emission spectroscopy, numerical simulation, voltage-current measurements and microphotography. For characterization of the discharge, averaged plasma parameters such as electron distribution function and electron density are determined. Fluxes of nitric oxide (NO), ozone (O{sub 3}) and photons reaching the treated surface are simulated. The calculated fluxes are finally compared with corresponding fluxes used in different bio-medical applications.

  11. Invariant operator theory for the single-photon energy in time-varying media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong-Ryeol, Choi

    2010-01-01

    After the birth of quantum mechanics, the notion in physics that the frequency of light is the only factor that determines the energy of a single photon has played a fundamental role. However, under the assumption that the theory of Lewis–Riesenfeld invariants is applicable in quantum optics, it is shown in the present work that this widely accepted notion is valid only for light described by a time-independent Hamiltonian, i.e., for light in media satisfying the conditions, ε(i) = ε(0), μ(t) = μ(0), and σ(t) = 0 simultaneously. The use of the Lewis–Riesenfeld invariant operator method in quantum optics leads to a marvelous result: the energy of a single photon propagating through time-varying linear media exhibits nontrivial time dependence without a change of frequency. (general)

  12. Development and operation of a quality assurance system for deviations from standard operating procedures in a clinical cell therapy laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, D; Kadidlo, D; Sumstad, D; McCullough, J

    2003-01-01

    Errors and accidents, or deviations from standard operating procedures, other policy, or regulations must be documented and reviewed, with corrective actions taken to assure quality performance in a cellular therapy laboratory. Though expectations and guidance for deviation management exist, a description of the framework for the development of such a program is lacking in the literature. Here we describe our deviation management program, which uses a Microsoft Access database and Microsoft Excel to analyze deviations and notable events, facilitating quality assurance (QA) functions and ongoing process improvement. Data is stored in a Microsoft Access database with an assignment to one of six deviation type categories. Deviation events are evaluated for potential impact on patient and product, and impact scores for each are determined using a 0- 4 grading scale. An immediate investigation occurs, and corrective actions are taken to prevent future similar events from taking place. Additionally, deviation data is collectively analyzed on a quarterly basis using Microsoft Excel, to identify recurring events or developing trends. Between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 over 2500 products were processed at our laboratory. During this time period, 335 deviations and notable events occurred, affecting 385 products and/or patients. Deviations within the 'technical error' category were most common (37%). Thirteen percent of deviations had a patient and/or a product impact score > or = 2, a score indicating, at a minimum, potentially affected patient outcome or moderate effect upon product quality. Real-time analysis and quarterly review of deviations using our deviation management program allows for identification and correction of deviations. Monitoring of deviation trends allows for process improvement and overall successful functioning of the QA program in the cell therapy laboratory. Our deviation management program could serve as a model for other laboratories in

  13. The Lifetime Estimate for ACSR Single-Stage Splice Connector Operating at Higher Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Graziano, Joe; Chan, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the continuation of Part I effort to develop a protocol of integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of a full tension single-stage splice connector (SSC) assembly during service at high operating temperature.1The Part II efforts are mainly focused on the thermal mechanical testing, thermal-cycling simulation and its impact on the effective lifetime of the SSC system. The investigation indicates that thermal cycling temperature and frequency, conductor cable tension loading, and the compressive residual stress field within a SSC system have significant impact on the SSC integrity and the associated effective lifetime.

  14. Task Allocation for Single Pilot Operations: A Role for the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Walter; Lachter, Joel; Feary, Mike; Comerford, Doreen; Battiste, Vernol; Mogford, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Ames Research Center and NASA Langley Research Center are jointly investigating issues associated with potential configurations for an environment in which a single pilot, or reduced crew, might operate. The research summarized in this document represents several of the efforts being put forth at NASA Ames Research Center. Specifically, researchers at NASA Ames Research Center coordinated and hosted a technical interchange meeting in order to gain insight from members of the aviation community. A description of this meeting and the findings are presented first. Thereafter, plans for ensuing research are presented.

  15. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1xM bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a, uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes

  16. The Integrity of ACSR Full Tension Single-Stage Splice Connector at Higher Operation Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; King Jr, Thomas J [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    Due to increases in power demand and limited investment in new infrastructure, existing overhead power transmission lines often need to operate at temperatures higher than those used for the original design criteria. This has led to the accelerated aging and degradation of splice connectors. It is manifested by the formation of hot-spots that have been revealed by infrared imaging during inspection. The implications of connector aging is two-fold: (1) significant increases in resistivity of the splice connector (i.e., less efficient transmission of electricity) and (2) significant reductions in the connector clamping strength, which could ultimately result in separation of the power transmission line at the joint. Therefore, the splice connector appears to be the weakest link in electric power transmission lines. This report presents a protocol for integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of full tension single-stage splice connector assemblies and the associated effective lifetime at high operating temperature.

  17. Harmonics Suppression for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in Different Operation Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    -connected PV inverters may be severely affected in different operation modes. In this paper, a detailed analysis is conducted to reveal the relationship between the harmonics level with the power factor and the current level in the PV systems. A current control solution which employs an Internal Model...... Principle (IMP) is proposed to suppress the harmonic currents injected into the grid. Experiments are carried out to verify the analysis and the performance of the proposed control method. It is demonstrated that the proposed method presents an effective solution to harmonics suppression for single......-phase grid-connected PV systems in different operation modes. Especially, it can remove higher order harmonics effectively leading to a better power quality compared to the Proportional plus Multi-Resonant Controller, and it has less computational burden....

  18. Standard operating procedures improve acute neurologic care in a sub-Saharan African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiteh, Lamin E S; Helwig, Stefan A; Jagne, Abubacarr; Ragoschke-Schumm, Andreas; Sarr, Catherine; Walter, Silke; Lesmeister, Martin; Manitz, Matthias; Blaß, Sebastian; Weis, Sarah; Schlund, Verena; Bah, Neneh; Kauffmann, Jil; Fousse, Mathias; Kangankan, Sabina; Ramos Cabrera, Asmell; Kronfeld, Kai; Ruckes, Christian; Liu, Yang; Nyan, Ousman; Fassbender, Klaus

    2017-07-11

    Quality of neurologic emergency management in an under-resourced country may be improved by standard operating procedures (SOPs). Neurologic SOPs were implemented in a large urban (Banjul) and a small rural (Brikama) hospital in the Gambia. As quality indicators of neurologic emergency management, performance of key procedures was assessed at baseline and in the first and second implementation years. At Banjul, 100 patients of the first-year intervention group exhibited higher rates of general procedures of emergency management than 105 control patients, such as neurologic examination (99.0% vs 91.4%; p process quality of neurologic emergency management in under-resourced settings. This study provides Class IV evidence that, for patients with suspected neurologic emergencies in sub-Saharan Africa, neurologic SOPs increase the rate of performance of guideline-recommended procedures. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Standardization of the Action Verbs used in Emergency Operating Procedures of NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Tong Il; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Jae Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yeon Seop; Chu, Gang Il [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The action verbs used in Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) for each nuclear power plant are translated respectively from the action verbs used in Emergency Recovery Guidelines (ERG) of the reference plants. The action verbs used in each plant are not largely different with one another. There are, however, some cases that the meanings of the same action verbs used in different plants are not consistent with each other and translations are not exact. In this study, the original English expressions of the action verbs and the translated verbs were compared and their accepted meanings analyzed. And then, standardization for the action verbs which are not exactly translated or which are used with different meanings among the plants was proposed

  20. Standardization of the energy performance of photovoltaic modules in real operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viganó Davide

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a PV module at STC [1] is a useful indicator for comparing the peak performance of different module types, but on its own is not sufficient to accurately predict how much energy a module will deliver in the field when subjected to a wide range of real operating conditions [2]. An Energy Rating approach has to be preferred for that aim. It is currently under development the standard series IEC 61853 on Energy Rating, for which only part 1 [3] has been issued. It describes methods to characterize the module performance as a function of irradiance and temperature. The reproducibility of the power matrix measurements obtained by the three different methods specified in the standard, namely: under natural sunlight using a tracking system; under natural sunlight without tracker; and a large area pulsed solar simulator of Class AAA were evaluated and discussed [4,5]. The work here presented is focused on the second method listed above, which explores the real working conditions for a PV device and therefore it represents the situation where Energy Rating procedures are expected to give the largest deviations from the STC predictions. The system for continuous monitoring of module performances, already implemented at ESTI, has been recently replaced with a new system having a number of improvements described in the following. The two system results have been compared showing a discrete compatibility. The two power matrices are then merged together using a weighted average and compared to those acquired with the other two remaining “ideal” systems. An interesting tendency seems to come up from this comparison, making the power rating under real operating conditions an essential procedure for energy rating purposes.

  1. Challenges of management and therapy in patients with a functionally single ventricle after Fontan operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojnarska, Olga; Ciepłucha, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Forty years ago, Fontan and Baudet performed the first life-saving operation on a patient with a functionally single ventricle. This multi-stage procedure established the connection between systemic venous circulation and pulmonary arteries. As a consequence, the pulmonary circulation is supplied in a passive way, whereas the single ventricle pumps the blood into the systemic circulation only. Over the years, the technique of creating the abovementioned vascular connections has undergone several modifications. Due to the fundamental non-physiological hemodynamic relations between arterial pulmonary and systemic venous pressures, numerous complications can be observed in these patients including: supraventricular arrhythmias, thromboemboli, hepatic dysfunction, protein-losing enteropathy, heart failure, worsening cyanosis, systemic venous collateralization, and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, as well as connective tissue lesions in bronchi. Although based on an ingenious concept, the operation remains of a palliative character. Occasionally, heart transplantation is the ultimate resolution. Pharmacological therapy, and surgical conversion, often appear to be ineffective. However, this procedure has enabled many patients to reach adulthood and enjoy their lives to the full. This fact poses a great challenge for cardiologists wishing to become more knowledgeable and experienced as regards such patients, if we are not to waste such fabulous surgical achievements.

  2. Visual operations management tools applied to the oil pipelines and terminals standardization process: the experience of TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Santiago, Adilson; Ribeiro, Kassandra Senra; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the process by which visual operations management (VOM) tools were implemented, concerning standards and operational procedures in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit. It provides: a brief literature review of visual operations management tools applied to total quality management and the standardization processes; a discussion of the assumptions from the second level of VOM (visual standards) upon which TRANSPETRO's oil pipelines and terminals business processes and operational procedures are based; and a description of the VOM implementation process involving more than 100 employees and one illustrative example of 'Quick Guides' for right-of- way management activities. Finally, it discusses the potential impacts and benefits of using VOM tools in the current practices in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit, reinforcing the importance of such visual guides as vital to implement regional and corporate procedures, focusing on the main operational processes. (author)

  3. Standard guide for mechanical drive systems for remote operation in hot cell facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Intent: 1.1.1 The intent of this standard is to provide general guidelines for the design, selection, quality assurance, installation, operation, and maintenance of mechanical drive systems used in remote hot cell environments. The term mechanical drive systems used herein, encompasses all individual components used for imparting motion to equipment systems, subsystems, assemblies, and other components. It also includes complete positioning systems and individual units that provide motive power and any position indicators necessary to monitor the motion. 1.2 Applicability: 1.2.1 This standard is intended to be applicable to equipment used under one or more of the following conditions: 1.2.1.1 The materials handled or processed constitute a significant radiation hazard to man or to the environment. 1.2.1.2 The equipment will generally be used over a long-term life cycle (for example, in excess of two years), but equipment intended for use over a shorter life cycle is not excluded. 1.2.1.3 The ...

  4. Collection of Pyrethroids in Water and Sediment Matrices: Development and Validation of a Standard Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Orlando, James L.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Loss of pyrethroid insecticides onto surfaces during sample collection can confound the interpretation of analytical and toxicity test results. Sample collection devices, container materials, and water matrix composition have a significant influence on the association of pyrethroids to container walls, which can be as high as 50 percent. Any sample collection method involving transfer through multiple containers or pieces of equipment increases the potential for pyrethroid loss. This loose 'surface-association' with container walls can be reversed through agitation. When sampling water matrices with pumps or autosamplers, no pyrethroids were lost as long as the water was moving continuously through the system. When collecting water matrices in containers, the material with the least amount of pyrethroid sorption is as follows: glass less than (pyrethroids were easier to re-suspend from the glass container walls. Since the amount of surface-association is proportional to the ratio of volume-to-contact-area of the sample, taking larger-volume field samples (greater than 3 liters) reduced pyrethroid losses to less than 10 percent. The amount of surface-association cannot be predicted easily because of the dependence on water matrix composition; samples with higher dissolved organic carbon or suspended-sediment concentrations were observed to have lower percent loss. Sediment samples were not affected by glass-container sorption (the only containers tested). Standardized sample-collection protocols are critical to yield accurate pyrethroid concentrations for assessment of potential effects, and have been summarized in an accompanying standard operating procedure.

  5. Enhanced Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures Have Limited Impact on Listeria monocytogenes Prevalence in Retail Delis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Andrea J; Hammons, Susan R; Roof, Sherry; Simmons, Courtenay; Wu, Tongyu; Cook, Peter W; Katubig, Alex; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Wright, Emily; Warchocki, Steven; Hollingworth, Jill; Thesmar, Hilary S; Ibrahim, Salam A; Wiedmann, Martin; Oliver, Haley F

    2017-10-20

    In a recent longitudinal surveillance study in 30 U.S. retail delicatessens, 9.7% of environmental surfaces were positive for Listeria monocytogenes, and we found substantial evidence of persistence. In this study, we aimed to reduce the prevalence and persistence of L. monocytogenes in the retail deli environment by developing and implementing practical and feasible intervention strategies (i.e., sanitation standard operating procedures; SSOPs). These SSOPs were standardized across the 30 delis enrolled in this study. SSOP implementation was verified by systems inherent to each retailer. Each deli also was equipped with ATP monitoring systems to verify effective sanitation. We evaluated intervention strategy efficacy by testing 28 food and nonfood contact surfaces for L. monocytogenes for 6 months in all 30 retail delis. The efficacy of the intervention on the delis compared with preintervention prevalence level was not statistically significant; we found that L. monocytogenes could persist despite implementation of enhanced SSOPs. Systematic and accurate use of ATP monitoring systems varied widely among delis. The findings indicate that intervention strategies in the form of enhanced daily SSOPs were not sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes from highly prevalent and persistently contaminated delis and that more aggressive strategies (e.g., deep cleaning or capital investment in redesign or equipment) may be necessary to fully mitigate persistent contamination.

  6. Methodological Study to Develop Standard Operational Protocol on Oral Drug Administration for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijarania, Sunil Kumar; Saini, Sushma Kumari; Verma, Sanjay; Kaur, Sukhwinder

    2017-05-01

    To develop standard operational protocol (SOP) on oral drug administration and checklist to assess the implementation of the developed SOP. In this prospective methodological study, SOPs were developed in five phases. In the first phase, the preliminary draft of SOPs and checklists were prepared based on literature review, assessment of current practices and focus group discussion (FGD) with bedside working nurses. In the second phase, content validity was checked with the help of Delphi technique (12 experts). Total four drafts were prepared in stages and necessary modifications were made as per suggestions after each Delphi round. Fourth Delphi round was performed after conducting a pilot study. In the fourth phase, all bedside nurses were trained as per SOPs and asked to practice accordingly and observation of thirty oral drug administrations in children was done to check reliability of checklists for implementation of SOPs. In Phase-V, 7 FGDs were conducted with bedside nurses to assess the effectiveness of SOPs. The Content Validity Index (CVI) of SOP and checklists was 99.77%. Overall standardized Cronbach's alpha was calculated as 0.94. All the nurses felt that the SOP is useful. Valid and feasible SOP for drug administration to children through oral route along with valid and reliable checklist were developed. It is recommended to use this document for drug administration to children.

  7. Standard for baseline water-well testing for coalbed methane/natural gas in coal operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    Interest in developing coalbed methane (CBM) is increasing with the decline of conventional natural gas reserves. In Alberta, where CBM is in the early stages of development, the drilling, production and operational rules for CBM are the same as those that apply to natural gas. The government of Alberta is presently examining the rules and regulations that apply to CBM to determine if they are appropriate for responsible development and balanced with environmental protection. CBM development has the potential to affect water aquifers and water supply. As such, a new standard has been developed by Alberta Environment in collaboration with the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board which requires that companies involved in the development of shallow CBM must offer to test rural Albertan's water wells prior to drilling. The companies will submit baseline groundwater data to both Alberta Environment and the landowner. The broader application of groundwater testing will also support Alberta Environment's objective of mapping all groundwater resources in the province. This new standard will help achieve continued protection of provincial groundwater resources and Albertan's groundwater supplies. It will also facilitate responsible CBM development and the government's Water for Life strategy. This document explained the protocols for testing, sampling and analyzing groundwater. The standard provides scientific information to support achievement of the outcomes as well as a regulatory basis for water well testing and baseline data collection prior to CBM development. If a landowner registers a complaint regarding a perceived change in well water quantity and quality after CBM development, then the developers must retest the water well to address the landowner's concerns. The tests evaluate water well capacity, water quality, routine potability and analysis for water quality parameters, including major ionic constituents, bacteriological analysis and presence or absence of gas

  8. Single-operator EUS-guided cholangiopancreatography for difficult pancreaticobiliary access (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Brian C; Chen, Yang K; Fukami, Norio; Shah, Raj J

    2009-09-01

    When conventional ERCP methods fail because of periampullary or ductal obstruction, EUS-guided cholangiopancreatography (EUS-CP) may aid in pancreaticobiliary access. To report our experience when using single-operator EUS-CP. An academic tertiary-referral center. Consecutive patients undergoing EUS-CP were prospectively identified. These patients had undergone failed attempt(s) at therapeutic ERCP. A data sheet was used to record indications, reasons for failed ERCP, EUS-CP visualization of the duct of interest, transpapillary or transenteric intervention, clinical follow-up, and complications. Technical success was decompression of the duct of interest. Clinical success was resolution of jaundice or a > or = 50% reduction in pain or narcotics, as applicable. Between February 2003 and June 2007, EUS-CP was attempted in 20 patients (11 men, 9 women; mean [SD] age 58 +/- 14.9 years). Indications included jaundice (n = 8), biliary stones (n = 3), chronic pancreatitis (n = 6), acute pancreatitis (n = 2), and papillary stenosis (n = 1). Reasons for failed ERCP included periampullary mass (n = 8), intradiverticular papillae (n = 4), and pancreatic duct (PD) stricture (n = 7) or stone (n = 1). Technical success was achieved in 18 of 20 patients (90%). Biliary decompression was obtained in 11 of 12 patients (92%) (7 transpapillary and 4 transenteric-transcholedochal). Pancreatic decompression was obtained in 7 of 8 patients (88%) (3 transpapillary, 4 transgastric). On follow-up, clinical improvement was noted in 15 of 20 patients (70%). For treatment of pain associated with chronic pancreatitis, pain scores decreased by a mean of 1.75 (P = .18). Complications (in 2 of 20 [10%]) included perforation (n = 1) and respiratory failure (n = 1). A single-center nonrandomized observational study with a small patient population. At our academic referral center, single-operator EUS-CP provided decompression of obstructed ducts and may be performed after a failed attempt at

  9. American National Standards Institute ANSI N 43.1 Radiological Safety in the Design and Operation of Particle Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott Walker, L.; Liu, J.

    2004-01-01

    The ANSI N43 committee established a writing committee to re-write the ANSI N43.1 accelerator safety standard in 1994. James Liu and Scott Walker were appointed as co-chairman. Compared to the old standard, the new standard is aimed to have a broader application, up-to-date requirements, and recommendations for best practices. The new standard uses a hazard based graded approach to address radiation safety programs for accelerators with various energies, beam currents and applications (excluding medical accelerators which are covered by another standard). Thus, the standard fulfills the goal of the committee to prepare a standard with unlimited application to industrial and research accelerators. The standard is largely complete with chapters as follows: 1) Scope. 2) Definitions. 3) Radiation Safety Program (facility safety program, radiation safety planning, organizational considerations, safety assessment, review and performance evaluation). 4) Radiation Safety System (prompt radiation, safety system features, reliability and fail-safety, tamper resistance, quality control, configuration control, adventitious production of radiation, and induced radioactivity). 5) Personnel Access Control System (including graded approach, postings, barriers, beam inhibiting devices and interlocks). 6) Radiation Control System, (passive shielding, and active systems). 7) Accelerator Operation (including readiness reviews, maintenance and testing, bypasses and deviation from procedure, operating practices, emergencies). 8) Operational Health Physics, and 9) Training. The document also has appendices regarding how to determine the Safety and Operations Envelope, Guidance for Computer Based Access Control Systems, and Radiation Measurements at Accelerators. (Author)

  10. 40 CFR 63.9788 - What emission limits, operating limits, and work practice standards must I meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What emission limits, operating limits, and work practice standards must I meet? 63.9788 Section 63.9788 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES ...

  11. 40 CFR 63.7184 - What emission limitations, operating limits, and work practice standards must I meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What emission limitations, operating limits, and work practice standards must I meet? 63.7184 Section 63.7184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES ...

  12. 40 CFR 63.5505 - What emission limits, operating limits, and work practice standards must I meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What emission limits, operating limits, and work practice standards must I meet? 63.5505 Section 63.5505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  13. 40 CFR 63.2346 - What emission limitations, operating limits, and work practice standards must I meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What emission limitations, operating limits, and work practice standards must I meet? 63.2346 Section 63.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  14. 40 CFR 63.7500 - What emission limits, work practice standards, and operating limits must I meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What emission limits, work practice standards, and operating limits must I meet? 63.7500 Section 63.7500 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES ...

  15. Single-photon detector operating under extremely high background photon flux conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Sopko, Bruno; Blazej, Josef

    2009-01-01

    We are reporting our results in research and development in the field of avalanche semiconductor single-photon detectors and their application. Our goal was a development of a solid-state photon-counting detector capable of high-precision photon arrival time tagging in extremely harsh operating conditions. The background photon flux exceeding 10 9 photons per second hitting the detector active area should not avoid the useful signal detection and recognition on the signal level of units of photons per second. This is background photon flux about two orders of magnitude higher than what the conventional solid-state photon counters accept. The detection timing resolution should be better than 100 ps and the delay stability should be on picosecond level. We have developed and tested the active quenched and gated avalanche structure on silicon providing the required features in connection with the K14 detection chips. The detector is capable of gated operation under the conditions of background photon flux of 5x10 9 photons per second. The operational detector tolerates long term exposures to the input photon flux exceeding 10 15 photons (>1 mW) per second without damage.

  16. Design and evaluation of a variable stiffness manual operating platform for laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Li, Xuejie; Wang, Jianchen; Xing, Yuan; Wang, Shuxin; Ren, Xiangyun

    2017-12-01

    Most of the existing robotic platforms for LESS have workspace and load capacity weaknesses, because of the limitation of one single incision. We have developed a LESS manual operating platform of which the stiffness of the insertion tube is controllable. The system included two dexterous tool manipulators, a stereo-vision module and a variable stiffness insertion tube (VSIT), which was designed using phase-change material (mixed indium, gallium and stannum). Experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the VSIT were set up. Peg transfer tasks and trajectory tracking tasks were conducted to assess the initial performance of the overall system. The experimental results for stiffness characteristic suggested that the rigidity of the VSIT with a straight-forward pose was considerably increased by about four times in the rigid mode. Peg transfer tasks and trajectory tracking tasks were performed successfully with an average time of 97 s and 52 s, respectively. The experimental results for stiffness characteristic showed that the manual operating platform had great promise for solving large workspace, high manipulation force and stability problems in LESS. The tool manipulators had the ability to achieve basic operations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App.N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To..., apply to construction permits and operating licenses subject to this appendix N. 2. Applications for...

  18. Selected Lessons Learned through the ISS Design, Development, Assembly, and Operations: Applicability to International Cooperation for Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews selected lessons that were learned during the design, development, assembly and operation of the International Space Station. The critical importance of standards and common interfaces is emphasized to create a common operation environment that can lead to flexibility and adaptability.

  19. Selected Lessons Learned over the ISS Design, Development, Assembly, and Operations: Applicability to International Cooperation for Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the lessons learned in the sphere of international cooperation during the development, assembly and operation of the International Space Station. From the begining all Partners shared a common objective to build, operate and utilize a crewed laboratory in low orbit as an international partnership. The importance of standards is emphasized.

  20. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Multimedia Filtration Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasek, Al, Jr.

    This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary multimedia filtration process of wastewater treatment plants. The major objective of the filtration process is the removal of suspended solids from the reclaimed wastewater. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and…

  1. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Pump Station Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Gordon F.

    This is a guide for standard operating job procedures for the pump station process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up procedures, continuous routine operation procedures, and shut-down procedures. A general description of the equipment used in the process is given. Two…

  2. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Digestion Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the digestion process of wastewater treatment facilities. This process is for reducing the volume of sludge to be treated in subsequent units and to reduce the volatile content of sludge. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-startup, startup, continuous operating, shutdown,…

  3. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Grit Removal Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the grit removal process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. A description of the equipment used in the process is given. Some theoretical material is presented. (BB)

  4. Stable Single-Mode Operation of Distributed Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser by Optimized Reflectivity Facet Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Bo; Zhang, Jin-Chuan; Cheng, Feng-Min; Zhao, Yue; Zhuo, Ning; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Shu-Man; Liu, Feng-Qi; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2018-02-02

    In this work, quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based on strain compensation combined with two-phonon resonance design are presented. Distributed feedback (DFB) laser emitting at ~ 4.76 μm was fabricated through a standard buried first-order grating and buried heterostructure (BH) processing. Stable single-mode emission is achieved under all injection currents and temperature conditions without any mode hop by the optimized antireflection (AR) coating on the front facet. The AR coating consists of a double layer dielectric of Al 2 O 3 and Ge. For a 2-mm laser cavity, the maximum output power of the AR-coated DFB-QCL was more than 170 mW at 20 °C with a high wall-plug efficiency (WPE) of 4.7% in a continuous-wave (CW) mode.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories Facilities Management and Operations Center Design Standards Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Timothy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico (SNL/NM), the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities is guided by industry standards, a graded approach, and the systematic analysis of life cycle benefits received for costs incurred. The design of the physical plant must ensure that the facilities are "fit for use," and provide conditions that effectively, efficiently, and safely support current and future mission needs. In addition, SNL/NM applies sustainable design principles, using an integrated whole-building design approach, from site planning to facility design, construction, and operation to ensure building resource efficiency and the health and productivity of occupants. The safety and health of the workforce and the public, any possible effects on the environment, and compliance with building codes take precedence over project issues, such as performance, cost, and schedule. These design standards generally apply to all disciplines on all SNL/NM projects. Architectural and engineering design must be both functional and cost-effective. Facility design must be tailored to fit its intended function, while emphasizing low-maintenance, energy-efficient, and energy-conscious design. Design facilities that can be maintained easily, with readily accessible equipment areas, low maintenance, and quality systems. To promote an orderly and efficient appearance, architectural features of new facilities must complement and enhance the existing architecture at the site. As an Architectural and Engineering (A/E) professional, you must advise the Project Manager when this approach is prohibitively expensive. You are encouraged to use professional judgment and ingenuity to produce a coordinated interdisciplinary design that is cost-effective, easily contractible or buildable, high-performing, aesthetically pleasing, and compliant with applicable building codes. Close coordination and development of civil, landscape, structural, architectural, fire

  6. Reward-timing-dependent bidirectional modulation of cortical microcircuits during optical single-neuron operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, Riichiro; Ohkubo, Fuki; Masamizu, Yoshito; Ohkura, Masamichi; Nakai, Junichi; Okada, Takashi; Matsuzaki, Masanori

    2014-11-24

    Animals rapidly adapt to environmental change. To reveal how cortical microcircuits are rapidly reorganized when an animal recognizes novel reward contingency, we conduct two-photon calcium imaging of layer 2/3 motor cortex neurons in mice and simultaneously reinforce the activity of a single cortical neuron with water delivery. Here we show that when the target neuron is not relevant to a pre-trained forelimb movement, the mouse increases the target neuron activity and the number of rewards delivered during 15-min operant conditioning without changing forelimb movement behaviour. The reinforcement bidirectionally modulates the activity of subsets of non-target neurons, independent of distance from the target neuron. The bidirectional modulation depends on the relative timing between the reward delivery and the neuronal activity, and is recreated by pairing reward delivery and photoactivation of a subset of neurons. Reward-timing-dependent bidirectional modulation may be one of the fundamental processes in microcircuit reorganization for rapid adaptation.

  7. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Rapid and Efficient Production of Stevia Tissue Culture Seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazlina Noordin; Peng, C.S.; Rusli Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a non-caloric natural sweetener which is 300 times sweeter than cane sugar. Extracts from stevia leaves has vast application in food and beverages based industries, can be added to tea and coffee, cooked or baked goods, processed foods and confectionary goods. Recently, stevia attained awareness owing to its natural, non-caloric sweetness by diet/ health conscious and diabetic persons (Arpita et al., 2011). This natural sweetener has high commercial value in global market, it was estimated that global market value for stevia is be around USD11 billion by year 2015. Although stevia is being largely popularized in Malaysia and other countries but large-scale propagation procedures for the continuous supply of planting materials in commercial plantation has yet to be established, optimized and standardized. Furthermore, propagation through stevia seeds is often very difficult due to self-incompatibility which results in sterile seeds (Sakaguchi et al., 1982). Tissue culture is the only rapid process for the mass propagation of stevia and there have been few reports of in vitro growth of stevia (Miyagaya et al., 1986) and in vitro micropropagation from shoot tip and leaf (Uddin et al., 2006). Hence, study was carried out to establish a suitable protocol for in vitro propagation of S. rebaudiana Bertoni that can be further up-scaled for mass propagation of stevia seedlings. The established Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) will ensure rapid and efficient production of stevia tissue culture seedlings for continuous supply of planting materials for commercial stevia plantations in Malaysia. Preparation of growth medium, multiplication of shoots, rooting of plant lets and hardening of ex-vitro rooted plant lets is discussed in this paper. (author)

  8. Benefits of a Single-Person Spacecraft for Weightless Operations. [(Stop Walking and Start Flying)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand N.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, less than 20 percent of crew time related to extravehicular activity (EVA) is spent on productive external work.1 A single-person spacecraft with 90 percent efficiency provides productive new capabilities for maintaining the International Space Station (ISS), exploring asteroids, and servicing telescopes or satellites. With suits, going outside to inspect, service or repair a spacecraft is time-consuming, requiring pre-breathe time, donning a fitted space suit, and pumping down an airlock. For ISS, this is between 12.5 and 16 hours for each EVA, not including translation and work-site set up. The work is physically demanding requiring a day of rest between EVAs and often results in suit-induced trauma with frequent injury to astronauts fingers2. For maximum mobility, suits use a low pressure, pure oxygen atmosphere. This represents a fire hazard and requires pre-breathing to reduce the risk of decompression sickness (bends). With virtually no gravity, humans exploring asteroids cannot use legs for walking. The Manned Maneuvering Unit offers a propulsive alternative however it is no longer in NASA s flight inventory. FlexCraft is a single person spacecraft operating at the same cabin atmosphere as its host so there is no risk of the bends and no pre-breathing. This allows rapid, any-time access to space for repeated short or long EVAs by different astronauts. Integrated propulsion eliminates hand-over-hand translation or having another crew member operate the robotic arm. The one-size-fits-all FlexCraft interior eliminates the suit part inventory and crew time required to fit all astronauts. With a shirtsleeve cockpit, conventional displays and controls are used and because the work is not strenuous no rest days are required. Furthermore, there is no need for hand tools because manipulators are equipped with force multiplying end-effectors that can deliver the precise torque for the job.

  9. Performance of Single Electrode-Supported Cells Operating in the Electrolysis Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; G. K. Housley; D. G. Milobar

    2009-11-01

    An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of electrode-supported solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from single cells, with an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes (~10 µm thick), nickel-YSZ steam/hydrogen electrodes (~1400 µm thick), and manganite (LSM) air-side electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 – 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented.

  10. Direct Nanoscale Sensing of the Internal Electric Field in Operating Semiconductor Devices Using Single Electron Spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Takayuki; Naruki, Wataru; Tahara, Kosuke; Makino, Toshiharu; Kato, Hiromitsu; Ogura, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Hatano, Mutsuko

    2017-02-28

    The electric field inside semiconductor devices is a key physical parameter that determines the properties of the devices. However, techniques based on scanning probe microscopy are limited to sensing at the surface only. Here, we demonstrate the direct sensing of the internal electric field in diamond power devices using single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. The NV center embedded inside the device acts as a nanoscale electric field sensor. We fabricated vertical diamond p-i-n diodes containing the single NV centers. By performing optically detected magnetic resonance measurements under reverse-biased conditions with an applied voltage of up to 150 V, we found a large splitting in the magnetic resonance frequencies. This indicated that the NV center senses the transverse electric field in the space-charge region formed in the i-layer. The experimentally obtained electric field values are in good agreement with those calculated by a device simulator. Furthermore, we demonstrate the sensing of the electric field in different directions by utilizing NV centers with different N-V axes. This direct and quantitative sensing method using an electron spin in a wide-band-gap material provides a way to monitor the electric field in operating semiconductor devices.

  11. Measurement of reading speed with standardized texts: a comparison of single sentences and paragraphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altpeter, Elke Karin; Marx, Tobias; Nguyen, Nhung Xuan; Naumann, Aline; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    We examined the influence of text length (single sentence versus a paragraph of several sentences) on the repeatability of reading speed measurements in normal-sighted subjects. We compared reading speeds for the German versions of the Radner charts (single sentences of 14 words each) and the International Reading Speed Texts (IReST) charts (paragraphs, on average 132 words) in 30 normal-sighted elderly subjects aged 51-81 years (mean 64.5 years ± 7.2 SD). Three texts each of both lengths were read aloud in random order. The influence of text length (single sentence or paragraph) and text sample (each single text) on reading speed was calculated by a regression model and Bland-Altman analysis. Mean reading speed (words per minute) showed no significant difference for single sentences (170 wpm ± 33 SD) and paragraphs (167 wpm ±31 SD). Differences in reading speeds within one type of reading material were higher between single sentences than between paragraphs. Correlation coefficients between speeds were higher for paragraphs (r = 0.96-0.98) than for single sentences (r = 0.69-0.78). Variations between reading speeds for three texts of each length were markedly lower for paragraphs than for single sentences: (median, interquartile range [IQR]): 6.7, IQR 13.9; 3.0, IQR 8.3; -2.0, IQR 9.7 versus -8.8, IQR 29.6; 15.6, IQR 29.4; 22.7, IQR 19.4, respectively. Since reading speeds assessed with paragraphs show lower variance among texts than those for single sentences, they are better suited for repeated measurements, especially for long-term monitoring of the course of reading performance and for assessing effects of interventions in subjects with reading disorders.

  12. Slide Valves for Single-Screw Expanders Working Under Varied Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper fully describes the working principle of slide valves in single-screw expanders (SSEs. A geometric analysis of suction and volume ratio slide valves is presented to determine the relations between volume ratio, suction closure volume, discharge opening volume and slide valves displacement. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC thermodynamic model with SSE integrated with slide valves is developed to analyze the power output of SSE and the net power output of ORC system and variation law of slide valves displacement. Analysis of a typical ORC system under changing operating conditions shows that the power output of the expander and the net output power of the ORC system with slide valves are much better than those without slide valves. When the condensing temperature is 40 °C and the waste availability is 80 kW, the increase in output power and net output power are approximately 3.4 kW and 5 kW, respectively. The presented geometric analysis of slide valves and the thermodynamic model integrated with slide valves can be used to provide a theoretical and technical basis for designing the slide valves of SSEs and the control strategies of slide valves under varied operating conditions.

  13. High energy, single frequency, tunable laser source operating in burst mode for space based lidar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Alberto; Mondello, Alessia; Sapia, Adalberto; D'Ottavi, Alessandro; Brotini, Mauro; Gironi, Gianna; Suetta, Enrico

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes energetic, spatial, temporal and spectral characterization measurements of the Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) of the Laser Transmitter Assembly (TXA) used in the ALADIN instrument currently under development for the ESA ADM-AEOLUS mission (EADS Astrium as prime contractor for the satellite and the instrument). The EQM is equivalent to the Flight Model, with the exception of some engineering grade components. The Laser Transmitter Assembly, based on a diode pumped tripled Nd:YAG laser, is used to generate laser pulses at a nominal wavelength of 355 nm. This laser is operated in burst mode, with a pulse repetition cycle of 100 Hz during bursts. It is capable to operate in Single Longitudinal Mode and to be tuned over 25 GHz range. An internal "network" of sensors has been implemented inside the laser architecture to allow "in flight" monitoring of transmitter. Energy in excess of 100 mJ, with a spatial beam quality factor (M2) lower than 3, a spectral linewidth less than 50 MHz with a frequency stability better than 4 MHz on short term period have been measured on the EQM. Most of the obtained results are well within the expected values and match the Instrument requirements. They constitute an important achievement, showing the absence of major critical areas in terms of performance and the capability to obtain them in a rugged and compact structure suitable for space applications. The EQM will be submitted in the near future to an Environmental test campaign.

  14. Design, operation, and safety of single-room interventional MRI suites: practical experience from two centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark J; Thornton, John S; Hawkes, David J; Hill, Derek L G; Kitchen, Neil; Mancini, Laura; McEvoy, Andrew W; Razavi, Reza; Wilson, Sally; Yousry, Tarek; Keevil, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    The design and operation of a facility in which a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner is incorporated into a room used for surgical or endovascular cardiac interventions presents several challenges. MR safety must be maintained in the presence of a much wider variety of equipment than is found in a diagnostic unit, and of staff unfamiliar with the MRI environment, without compromising the safety and practicality of the interventional procedure. Both the MR-guided cardiac interventional unit at Kings College London and the intraoperative imaging suite at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery are single-room interventional facilities incorporating 1.5 T cylindrical-bore MRI scanners. The two units employ similar strategies to maintain MR safety, both in original design and day-to-day operational workflows, and between them over a decade of incident-free practice has been accumulated. This article outlines these strategies, highlighting both similarities and differences between the units, as well as some lessons learned and resulting procedural changes made in both units since installation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  16. Standard operating procedures for quality audits of 60Co external beam radiotherapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrinaga Cortina, E.F.; Dominguez Hung, L.; Campa Menendez, R.

    2001-01-01

    The use of radiotherapy implies the necessity of rigorous quality standards in its different components, aimed to provide the best possible treatment and avoid potential patients' risks, that could even cause him death. Projects of technical cooperation developed in Cuba and supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency address the implementation of Programs of Quality Assurance (PGC) in radiotherapy services. The establishment of the National Quality Audit Program (PNAC) is a superior stage. The National Control Center for Medical Devices, as the national regulator entity for the control and supervision of medical devices in the National Health System, is responsible for the making and execution of the PNAC. The audit modality selected was the inspection visit in situ due to its intrinsic advantages, our geographical extension and the number of radiotherapy services. This paper presents the methodology for the execution of the PNAC, in form of a Normalized Procedure of Operation (PNO) that defines the objectives, scope, terms and definitions, responsibilities, composition and selection of the auditor team, security's conditions, materials and equipment, steps of the audit execution, results calculation and interpretation, records, etc. (author)

  17. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  18. Qualitative research within trials: developing a standard operating procedure for a clinical trials unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design. Methods Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP). Results The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component. Conclusions We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials. PMID:23433341

  19. Qualitative research within trials: developing a standard operating procedure for a clinical trials unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Frances; Storey, Mel; Porter, Alison; Snooks, Helen; Jones, Kerina; Peconi, Julie; Sánchez, Antonio; Siebert, Stefan; Thorne, Kym; Clement, Clare; Russell, Ian

    2013-02-21

    Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design. Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP). The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component. We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials.

  20. Standard Specification for Sampling Single-Phase Geothermal Liquid or Steam for Purposes of Chemical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the basic requirements for equipment to be used for the collection of uncontaminated and representative samples from single-phase geothermal liquid or steam. Geopressured liquids are included. See Fig 1.

  1. Deformations and Displacements of the LHC Superconducting Dipoles Induced by Standard and Non-Standard Operational Modes

    CERN Document Server

    La China, M; Gubello, G; Scandale, Walter

    2004-01-01

    A full-scale and fully-instrumented working model of the LHC lattice cell has been tested at CERN between March and December 2002. Aside of the current, pressure and temperature sensors, controlled by an industrial supervision system, a novel device has been set to monitor magnet positions with respect to the surrounding cryostat. The series of operating modes to test cryogenics, current leads and quench recovery electronics offered the chance to investigate potentially harmful deformations of the superconducting structure. In this paper we present a survey of displacements and deformations experienced by the LHC cell magnets during thermal cycles, current ramps and resistive transitions. Although the system complexity prevented from complete modeling, a preliminary phenomena explanation is given.

  2. 40 CFR 60.4206 - How long must I meet the emission standards if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60.4206 Section 60... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4206 How long must I meet the emission standards if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine...

  3. Standard operating procedure for combustion of 14C - samples with OX-500 biological material oxidizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat.

    1995-01-01

    This procedure is for the purpose of safe operation of OX-500 biological material oxidizer. For ease of operation, the operation flow chart (including testing the system and sample combustion) and end of day maintenance flow chart were simplified. The front view, diagrams and switches are duly copied from operating manual. Steps on sample preparation are also included for biotic and a biotic samples. This operating procedure is subjected to future reviews

  4. Can a customized standard for large for gestational age identify women at risk of operative delivery and shoulder dystocia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun-Hwa; Kim, Ji-Young; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2012-04-22

    To determine whether a customized standard for large for gestational age (LGA) identifies undiagnosed women at risk of operative delivery and shoulder dystocia. We previously generated customized standards from our institution. We compared the baseline maternal characteristics and neonatal outcomes between LGA and non-LGA births, which were classified by both population-based and customized standards. The risk of operative delivery (vacuum delivery or emergent cesarean section) and shoulder dystocia was compared by logistic regression analysis in LGA pregnancies that were identified by a population-based birth weight standard and a customized standard after adjusting for maternal age, parity, body mass index, and neonatal gender. Multivariable analysis revealed that the pregnancies identified as LGA by a customized standard were associated with an increased risk of emergent cesarean section [odds ratio (OR), 4.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.00-5.74] and shoulder dystocia (OR, 10.56; 95% CI, 5.52-20.19). However, there was no association between an increased risk of vacuum delivery (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.92-2.30) and pregnancies identified as non-LGA, using both standards. In addition, customized LGA infants were at increased risk of admission to neonatal intensive care unit (OR 1.63; 95% CI, 1.09-2.43). A customized standard of LGA is useful in identifying previously unrecognized women at risk of emergent cesarean section and shoulder dystocia.

  5. Draft forces prediction model for standard single tines by using principles of soil mechanics and soil profile evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Khalid Ahmed Al-Neama

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains a model to predict the draft force acting on varying standard single tines by using principles of soil mechanics and soil profile evaluation. Draft force (Fd measurements were made with four standard single tines comprising Heavy Duty, Double Heart, Double Heart with Wings and Duck Foot. Tine widths were 6.5, 13.5, 45 and 40 cm, respectively. The test was conducted in a soil bin with sandy loam soil. The effects of forward speeds and working depths on draft forces were investigated under controlled lab conditions. Results were evaluated based on a prediction model. A good correlation between measured and predicted Fd values for all tines with an average absolute variation less than 15 % was found.

  6. A standard operating procedure for the surgical implantation of transmitters in juvenile salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, T.L.; Beeman, J.W.; Gee, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Biotelemetry is a useful tool to monitor the movements of animals and is widely applied in fisheries research. Radio or acoustic technology can be used, depending on the study design and the environmental conditions in the study area. A broad definition of telemetry also includes the use of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, either separately or with a radio or acoustic transmitter. To use telemetry, fish must be equipped with a transmitter. Although there are several attachment procedures available, surgical implantation of transmitters in the abdominal cavity is recognized as the best technique for long-term telemetry studies in general (Stasko and Pincock, 1977; Winter, 1996; Jepsen, 2003), and specifically for juvenile salmonids, Oncorhynchus spp. (Adams and others, 1998a, 1998b; Martinelli and others, 1998; Hall and others, 2009). Studies that use telemetry assume that the processes by which the animals are captured, handled, and tagged, as well as the act of carrying the transmitter, will have minimal effect on their behavior and performance. This assumption, commonly stated as a lack of transmitter effects, must be valid if telemetry studies are to describe accurately the movements and behavior of an entire population of interest, rather than the subset of that population that carries transmitters. This document describes a standard operating procedure (SOP) for surgical implantation of radio or acoustic transmitters in juvenile salmonids. The procedures were developed from a broad base of published information, laboratory experiments, and practical experience in tagging thousands of fish for numerous studies of juvenile salmon movements near Columbia River and Snake River hydroelectric dams. Staff from the Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory (CRRL) frequently have used telemetry studies to evaluate new structures or operations at hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin, and these evaluations typically

  7. Single-reviewer electronic phenotyping validation in operational settings: Comparison of strategies and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhareva, Polina; Staes, Catherine; Noonan, Kevin W; Mueller, Heather L; Warner, Phillip; Shields, David E; Weeks, Howard; Kawamoto, Kensaku

    2017-02-01

    Develop evidence-based recommendations for single-reviewer validation of electronic phenotyping results in operational settings. We conducted a randomized controlled study to evaluate whether electronic phenotyping results should be used to support manual chart review during single-reviewer electronic phenotyping validation (N=3104). We evaluated the accuracy, duration and cost of manual chart review with and without the availability of electronic phenotyping results, including relevant patient-specific details. The cost of identification of an erroneous electronic phenotyping result was calculated based on the personnel time required for the initial chart review and subsequent adjudication of discrepancies between manual chart review results and electronic phenotype determinations. Providing electronic phenotyping results (vs not providing those results) was associated with improved overall accuracy of manual chart review (98.90% vs 92.46%, preview duration per test case (62.43 vs 76.78s, preview and electronic phenotyping results was higher when the phenotyping results were provided (Cohen's kappa 0.98 vs 0.88, previewer chart review of electronic phenotyping can be conducted more accurately, quickly, and at lower cost when supported by electronic phenotyping results. However, human reviewers tend to agree with electronic phenotyping results even when those results are wrong. Thus, the value of providing electronic phenotyping results depends on the accuracy of the underlying electronic phenotyping algorithm. We recommend using a mix of phenotyping validation strategies, with the balance of strategies based on the anticipated electronic phenotyping error rate, the tolerance for missed electronic phenotyping errors, as well as the expertise, cost, and availability of personnel involved in chart review and discrepancy adjudication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High power-density single-chamber fuel cells operated on methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zongping; Mederos, Jennifer; Chueh, William C.; Haile, Sossina. M.

    Single-chamber solid oxide fuel cells (SC-SOFCs) incorporating thin-film Sm 0.15Ce 0.85O 1.925 (SDC) as the electrolyte, thick Ni + SDC as the (supporting) anode and SDC + BSCF (Ba 0.5Sr 0.5Co 0.8Fe 0.2O 3- δ) as the cathode were operated in a mixture of methane, oxygen and helium at furnace temperatures of 500-650 °C. Because of the exothermic nature of the oxidation reactions that occur at the anode, the cell temperature was as much as 150 °C greater than the furnace temperature. Overall, the open circuit voltage was only slightly sensitive to temperature and gas composition, varying from ∼0.70 to ∼0.78 V over the range of conditions explored. In contrast, the power density strongly increased with temperature and broadly peaked at a methane to oxygen ratio of ∼1:1. At a furnace temperature of 650 °C (cell temperature ∼790 °C), a peak power density of 760 mW cm -2 was attained using a mixed gas with methane, oxygen and helium flow rates of 87, 80 and 320 mL min -1 [STP], respectively. This level of power output is the highest reported in the literature for single chamber fuel cells and reflects the exceptionally high activity of the BSCF cathode for oxygen electro-reduction and its low activity for methane oxidation.

  9. Digital versus analog complete-arch impressions for single-unit premolar implant crowns: Operating time and patient preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepke, Ulf; Meijer, Henny J A; Kerdijk, Wouter; Cune, Marco S

    2015-09-01

    Digital impression-making techniques are supposedly more patient friendly and less time-consuming than analog techniques, but evidence is lacking to substantiate this assumption. The purpose of this in vivo within-subject comparison study was to examine patient perception and time consumption for 2 complete-arch impression-making methods: a digital and an analog technique. Fifty participants with a single missing premolar were included. Treatment consisted of implant therapy. Three months after implant placement, complete-arch digital (Cerec Omnicam; Sirona) and analog impressions (semi-individual tray, Impregum; 3M ESPE) were made, and the participant's opinion was evaluated with a standard questionnaire addressing several domains (inconvenience, shortness of breath, fear of repeating the impression, and feelings of helplessness during the procedure) with the visual analog scale. All participants were asked which procedure they preferred. Operating time was measured with a stopwatch. The differences between impressions made for maxillary and mandibular implants were also compared. The data were analyzed with paired and independent sample t tests, and effect sizes were calculated. Statistically significant differences were found in favor of the digital procedure regarding all subjective domains (Pdigital procedure to the analog procedure. The mean duration of digital impression making was 6 minutes and 39 seconds (SD=1:51) versus 12 minutes and 13 seconds (SD=1:24) for the analog impression (PDigital impression making for the restoration of a single implant crown takes less time than analog impression making. Furthermore, participants preferred the digital scan and reported less inconvenience, less shortness of breath, less fear of repeating the impression, and fewer feelings of helplessness during the procedure. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. International Harmonisation Of Accounting Standards: The Case For A Mandatory Requirement For The Direct Method Of Reporting Operating Cash Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Yap

    2011-01-01

    Even though standard setters have now embraced cash flow statements there remains ambivalence as to the best format (i.e. direct or indirect method) for disclosing cash flow from operations. In 1987 the FASB asserted that information about the gross amounts of cash receipts and cash payments is more relevant than information about the net amounts of cash receipts and payments. Yet apart from Australia and New Zealand, most standard setting bodies, including the International Accounting Standa...

  11. Is Your Biobank Up to Standards? A Review of the National Canadian Tissue Repository Network Required Operational Practice Standards and the Controlled Documents of a Certified Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Victoria; Castillo-Pelayo, Tania; Babinszky, Sindy; Dee, Simon; Leblanc, Jodi; Matzke, Lise; O'Donoghue, Sheila; Carpenter, Jane; Carter, Candace; Rush, Amanda; Byrne, Jennifer; Barnes, Rebecca; Mes-Messons, Anne-Marie; Watson, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Ongoing quality management is an essential part of biobank operations and the creation of high quality biospecimen resources. Adhering to the standards of a national biobanking network is a way to reduce variability between individual biobank processes, resulting in cross biobank compatibility and more consistent support for health researchers. The Canadian Tissue Repository Network (CTRNet) implemented a set of required operational practices (ROPs) in 2011 and these serve as the standards and basis for the CTRNet biobank certification program. A review of these 13 ROPs covering 314 directives was conducted after 5 years to identify areas for revision and update, leading to changes to 7/314 directives (2.3%). A review of all internal controlled documents (including policies, standard operating procedures and guides, and forms for actions and processes) used by the BC Cancer Agency's Tumor Tissue Repository (BCCA-TTR) to conform to these ROPs was then conducted. Changes were made to 20/106 (19%) of BCCA-TTR documents. We conclude that a substantial fraction of internal controlled documents require updates at regular intervals to accommodate changes in best practices. Reviewing documentation is an essential aspect of keeping up to date with best practices and ensuring the quality of biospecimens and data managed by biobanks.

  12. External and internal standards in the single-isotope derivative (radioenzymatic) measurement of plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.D.; Clutter, W.E.; Cryer, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    In plasma from normal humans (n = 9, 35 samples) and from patients with diabetes mellitus (n = 12, 24 samples) single-isotope derivative (radioenzymatic) plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations calculated from external standard curves constructed in a normal plasma pool were identical to those calculated from internal standards added to an aliquot of each plasma sample. In plasma from patients with end-stage renal failure receiving long-term dialysis (n = 34, 109 samples), competitive catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitory activity resulted in a systematic error when external standards in a normal plasma pool were used, as reported previously; values so calculated averaged 21% (+/- 12%, SD) lower than those calculated from internal standards. However, when external standard curves were constructed in plasma from a given patient with renal failure and used to calculate that patient's values, or in a renal failure plasma pool and used to calculate all renal failure values, norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations were not significantly different from those calculated from internal standards. We conclude: (1) External standard curves constructed in plasma from a given patient with renal failure can be used to measure norepinephrine and epinephrine in plasma from that patient; further, external standards in a renal failure plasma pool can be used for assays in patients with end-stage renal failure receiving long-term dialysis. (2) Major COMT inhibitory activity is not present commonly if samples from patients with renal failure are excluded. Thus, it would appear that external standard curves constructed in normal plasma can be used to measure norepinephrine and epinephrine precisely in samples from persons who do not have renal failure

  13. Still no single gold standard for using cementless femoral stems routinely in total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T. Moskal, MD

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Using evidence-based data should be better guidance in selecting the most reliable implants for THA. Although cementless femoral fixation for THA has evolved to the “new standard,” it has not been proven to be the “gold standard” for all patients.

  14. Coordination Scheme for Restructuring Business Operation of the Single Period Newsvendor Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiuh-Cheng Chyu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a coordination scheme for a single period newsvendor problem when both supplier and retailer of the supply chain agree to change the business operation from a market decision power sharing system (Model 1 to a unique decision maker system (Model 2. The supplier is assumed to be a risk-averse decision maker and he will undertake the product quality risk in both models. Model 1 is game theoretic, where the supplier controls the wholesale price, but the retailer controls the order quantity and market price. The bargaining process ends when the supplier has found a wholesale price that maximizes the value of his sales revenue minus the product quality cost. Model 2 is a centralized system where the supplier possesses all decision powers of the market. In general, Model 2 will generate higher total revenue than Model 1. The aim of this research is to propose a satisfying compromise based on consignment policy to resolve the revenue-sharing conflict in Model 2 due to the additional revenue. An example is provided to illustrate the two models and the proposed coordination scheme, along with managerial insights on the models’ benefits. The impacts of several parameters on the scheme are also presented and discussed.

  15. Single- and multi-wavelength laser operation of a diode-pumped ND:GGG single crystal around 1.33 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Wang, Yi; Cheng, Yongjie; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Moncorgé, Richard

    2015-06-01

    We report on the first continuous-wave laser operation of a diode-pumped Nd:GGG single crystal at several emission wavelengths in the 1.33 μm spectral domain. Multi-wavelength laser operation at 1324, 1331 and 1337 nm with a maximum laser output power of 1.83 W and a laser slope efficiency of 28.9% for an output coupler transmission of 2.2% is obtained in the free-running regime. By inserting and tilting a 0.1-mm BK7 glass etalon to modulate the losses inside the laser cavity, single wavelength lasing at 1324 nm and 1347 nm are also achieved with maximum output powers of about 0.77 W and 0.41 W as well as laser slope efficiencies of 15.2% and 12.6%, respectively. Further increasing the pump power, based on the position of the etalon leading to the single laser wavelength operation at 1347 nm, stable dual-wavelength laser operation is demonstrated at 1337 and 1347 nm with a maximum output power of 0.61 W.

  16. Reaction of single-standard DNA with hydroxyl radical generated by iron(II)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigodich, R.V.; Martin, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the reaction of Fe(II)-EDTA and hydrogen peroxide with the single-stranded nucleic acids d(pT) 70 and a 29-base sequence containing a mixture of bases results in substantial damage which is not directly detected by gel electrophoresis. Cleavage of the DNA sugar backbone is enhanced significantly after the samples are incubated at 90 degree C in the presence of piperidine. The latter reaction is used in traditional Maxam-Gilbert DNA sequencing to detect base damage, and the current results are consistent with reaction of the hydroxyl radical with the bases in single-stranded DNA (although reaction with sugar may also produce adducts that are uncleaved but labile to cleavage by piperidine). We the authors propose that hydroxyl radicals may react preferentially with the nucleic acid bases in ssDNA and that reaction of the sugars in dsDNA is dominant because the bases are sequestered within the double helix. These results have implications both for the study of single-stranded DNA binding protein binding sites and for the interpretation of experiments using the hydroxyl radical to probe DNA structure or to footprint double-stranded DNA binding protein binding sites

  17. Wireless Sensor Network Congestion Control Based on Standard Particle Swarm Optimization and Single Neuron PID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Chen, Xueying; Xia, Riting; Qian, Zhihong

    2018-04-19

    Aiming at the problem of network congestion caused by the large number of data transmissions in wireless routing nodes of wireless sensor network (WSN), this paper puts forward an algorithm based on standard particle swarm⁻neural PID congestion control (PNPID). Firstly, PID control theory was applied to the queue management of wireless sensor nodes. Then, the self-learning and self-organizing ability of neurons was used to achieve online adjustment of weights to adjust the proportion, integral and differential parameters of the PID controller. Finally, the standard particle swarm optimization to neural PID (NPID) algorithm of initial values of proportion, integral and differential parameters and neuron learning rates were used for online optimization. This paper describes experiments and simulations which show that the PNPID algorithm effectively stabilized queue length near the expected value. At the same time, network performance, such as throughput and packet loss rate, was greatly improved, which alleviated network congestion and improved network QoS.

  18. Guideline adherence to chemotherapy administration safety standards: a survey on nurses in a single institute

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kidong; Lee, Hee Sook; Kim, Younha; Kim, Beob-Jong; Kim, Moon-Hong; Choi, Seok-Cheol; Ryu, Sang-Young

    2011-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the guideline adherence of nurses to chemotherapy administration guidelines. We determined the guideline adherence of nurses to the Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards and the relationship between demographic characteristics and guideline adherence. Methods Survey sheets containing two questions on demographic characteristics and 16 questions on the guideline adherence of nurses regarding chemotherapy administration were distributed to all in-patient d...

  19. The Method of Eichhorn with Non-Standard Projections for a Single Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, O.; Corona-Galindo, M.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se desarrollan las expresiones para el metodo de Eichhorn en astrometria para proyecciones diferentes a la estandar. El se usa para obtener las coordenadas esfericas de estrellas en placas astron6micas cuando las variables contienen errores. ABSTRACT. We develop the expressions for the Eichhorn's Method in astrometry for non-standard projections. The method is used to obtain spherical coordinates of stars in astronomical plates, when all the variables have errors. Key words: ASTROMETRY

  20. SURF: Taking Sustainable Remediation from Concept to Standard Operating Procedure (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. M.; Wice, R. B.; Torrens, J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, many sectors of industrialized society have been rethinking behavior and re-engineering practices to reduce consumption of energy and natural resources. During this time, green and sustainable remediation (GSR) has evolved from conceptual discussions to standard operating procedure for many environmental remediation practitioners. Government agencies and private sector entities have incorporated GSR metrics into their performance criteria and contracting documents. One of the early think tanks for the development of GSR was the Sustainable Remediation Forum (SURF). SURF brings together representatives of government, industry, consultancy, and academia to parse the means and ends of incorporating societal and economic considerations into environmental cleanup projects. Faced with decades-old treatment programs with high energy outputs and no endpoints in sight, a small group of individuals published the institutional knowledge gathered in two years of ad hoc meetings into a 2009 White Paper on sustainable remediation drivers, practices, objectives, and case studies. Since then, SURF has expanded on those introductory topics, publishing its Framework for Integrating Sustainability into Remediation Projects, Guidance for Performing Footprint Analyses and Life-Cycle Assessments for the Remediation Industry, a compendium of metrics, and a call to improve the integration of land remediation and reuse. SURF's research and members have also been instrumental in the development of additional guidance through ASTM International and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council. SURF's current efforts focus on water reuse, the international perspective on GSR (continuing the conversations that were the basis of SURF's December 2012 meeting at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC), and ways to capture and evaluate the societal benefits of site remediation. SURF also promotes and supports student chapters at universities across the US

  1. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant... that the applicant wishes to have the application considered under 10 CFR part 52, appendix N, and must...

  2. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

  3. Four (Algorithms) in One (Bag): An Integrative Framework of Knowledge for Teaching the Standard Algorithms of the Basic Arithmetic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Ira; Koichu, Boris; Peled, Irit; Zaslavsky, Orit

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present an integrative framework of knowledge for teaching the standard algorithms of the four basic arithmetic operations. The framework is based on a mathematical analysis of the algorithms, a connectionist perspective on teaching mathematics and an analogy with previous frameworks of knowledge for teaching arithmetic…

  4. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Primary Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles County Community Coll., La Plata, MD.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the primary sedimentation process of wastewater treatment plants. The primary sedimentation process involves removing settleable and suspended solids, in part, from wastewater by gravitational forces, and scum and other floatable solids from wastewater by mechanical means. Step-by-step…

  5. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Screening & Grinding Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  6. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Thickening Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  7. Single mode operation in a pulsed Ti:sapphire laser oscillator with a grazing-incidence four-mirror cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, D K; Binks, D J; Gloster, L A W; King, T A

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate stable single mode operation in a pulsed Ti:sapphire laser oscillator with a novel grazing-incidence four-mirror coupled cavity. This cavity consists of a grating, a gain medium, and four mirrors and, therefore, has a four-arm interferometer configuration. Through the interferometric effect, we could suppress the adjacent modes and obtain stable single mode operation with a bandwidth of < 200 MHz. We also have developed a general analysis of the laser modes and the threshold conditions for configuration and the experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  8. Operational implications of using 2006 World Health Organization growth standards in nutrition programmes: secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Andrew; Kerac, Marko

    2007-04-07

    To assess the implications of adopting the World Health Organization 2006 growth standards in combination with current diagnostic criteria in emergency and non-emergency child feeding programmes. Secondary analysis of data from three standardised nutrition surveys (n=2555) for prevalence of acute malnutrition, using weight for height z score (new WHO 2006 growth standards (WHO standards). Refugee camps in Algeria, Kenya, and Bangladesh. Population Children aged 6-59 months. Important differences exist in the weight for height cut-offs used for defining acute malnutrition obtained from the WHO standards and NCHS reference data. These vary according to a child's height and according to whether z score or percentage of the median cut-offs are used. If applied and used according to current practice in nutrition programmes, the WHO standards will result in a higher measured prevalence of severe acute malnutrition during surveys but, paradoxically, a decrease in the admission of children to emergency feeding programmes and earlier discharge of recovering patients. The expected impact on case fatality rates of applying the new standards in conjunction with current diagnostic criteria is unknown. A full assessment of the appropriate use of the new WHO standards in the diagnosis of acute malnutrition is urgently needed. This should be completed before the standards are adopted by organisations that run nutrition programmes targeting acute malnutrition.

  9. 40 CFR 63.747 - Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transfer of chemical milling maskants to or from containers, tanks, vats, vessels, and piping systems in... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Chemical milling maskant... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  10. The evolution of IRRR nuclear standards from the single failure criterion and their impact on system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    One of the first industry standards developed in the United States to meet regulatory agency criteria for the design and installation of nuclear power plant control and instrumentation systems was prepared by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., abbreviated IEEE. This was IEEE Std. 279, first issued in 1968. It was subsequently revised and reissued as IEEE Std. 279-1971 ''IEEE Standard: Criteria for Protection Systems for Nuclear Power Generating Stations''. Not only has the implementation of this standard had a tremendous impact on nuclear power plant design in the United States, it has been the base document from which subsequent IEEE nuclear standards have been developed. Three major concepts which are addressed by IEEE 279, and which have had a major impact upon control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants are the following : 1) Single failure criterion. 2) Equipment qualification. 3) Channel independence. Each of these concepts has resulted in the development of subsequent IEEE Nuclear Standards. The impact of some of these on control and instrumentation systems are discussed. (author)

  11. 18 CFR 284.12 - Standards for pipeline business operations and communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... business operations and communications. 284.12 Section 284.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... for pipeline business operations and communications. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 16344..._locations.html. (b) Business practices and electronic communication requirements. An interstate pipeline...

  12. 75 FR 71613 - Mandatory Reliability Standards for Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... was designed to provide greater specificity regarding the day-ahead study. NERC explains that the term... imply that the reliability coordinator will not look at its future operations with respect to specific SOLs.\\17\\ NERC states that the reliability coordinator must look at its future operations with respect...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1159 - Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Hydrochloric acid storage vessels. The owner or operator of an affected vessel shall provide and operate... shall be conducted either through enclosed lines or each point where the acid is exposed to the... Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1159...

  14. 75 FR 81157 - Version One Regional Reliability Standard for Transmission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ..., Division of Policy Analysis and Rulemaking, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street, NE... based on previously conducted contingency studies. The ``WECC Philosophy of SOL and IROL Conditions'' states that WECC's operating philosophy is to only operate in conditions that have been studied.\\35\\ In...

  15. Prototyping and performance study of a single crystal diamond detector for operation at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Arvind; Topkar, Anita, E-mail: anita@barc.gov.in; Das, D.

    2017-06-21

    Prototype single crystal diamond detectors with different types of metallization and post metallization treatment were fabricated for the applications requiring fast neutron measurements in the Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) at the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Experiment. The detectors were characterized by leakage current measurements to ascertain that the leakage currents are low and breakdown voltages are higher than the voltage required for full charge collection. The detector response to charged particles was evaluated using a {sup 238+239} Pu dual energy alpha source. The detectors showed an energy resolution of about 2% at 5.5 MeV. In order to study their suitability for the operation at higher temperatures, leakage current variation and alpha response were studied up to 300 °C. At 300 °C, peaks corresponding to 5.156 MeV and 5.499 MeV alphas could be separated and there was no significant degradation of energy resolution. Finally, the detector response to fast neutrons was evaluated using a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator. The observed spectrum showed peaks corresponding to various channels of n-C interactions with a clear isolated peak corresponding to ~8.5 MeV alphas. The detectors also showed high sensitivity of 3.4×10{sup −2} cps/n/(cm{sup 2} s)–4.5×10{sup −2} cps/n/(cm{sup 2} s) and excellent linearity of response in terms of count rate at different neutron flux in the observed range of 3.2×10{sup 5} n/(cm{sup 2} s) to 2.0×10{sup 6} n/(cm{sup 2} s).

  16. Prototyping and performance study of a single crystal diamond detector for operation at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Arvind; Topkar, Anita; Das, D.

    2017-06-01

    Prototype single crystal diamond detectors with different types of metallization and post metallization treatment were fabricated for the applications requiring fast neutron measurements in the Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) at the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Experiment. The detectors were characterized by leakage current measurements to ascertain that the leakage currents are low and breakdown voltages are higher than the voltage required for full charge collection. The detector response to charged particles was evaluated using a 238+239 Pu dual energy alpha source. The detectors showed an energy resolution of about 2% at 5.5 MeV. In order to study their suitability for the operation at higher temperatures, leakage current variation and alpha response were studied up to 300 °C. At 300 °C, peaks corresponding to 5.156 MeV and 5.499 MeV alphas could be separated and there was no significant degradation of energy resolution. Finally, the detector response to fast neutrons was evaluated using a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator. The observed spectrum showed peaks corresponding to various channels of n-C interactions with a clear isolated peak corresponding to 8.5 MeV alphas. The detectors also showed high sensitivity of 3.4×10-2 cps/n/(cm2 s)-4.5×10-2 cps/n/(cm2 s) and excellent linearity of response in terms of count rate at different neutron flux in the observed range of 3.2×105 n/(cm2 s) to 2.0×106 n/(cm2 s).

  17. Outcome of a standardized technique of preputial preservation surgery for phimosis: A single institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalesh Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pathological phimosis or preputial stenosis is a distressing problem in children leading to recurrent balanoposthitis, ballooning of prepuce, and rarely back pressure changes in the urinary tract. Circumcision has been the standard of care for such situations, although recently, various alternatives to circumcision have been reported in the literature. Most of these techniques are often complex and are met with poor acceptance. Moreover, besides personal preferences (in Hindus, advantages of preputial preservation is increasingly being realized recently. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out in which a simple standardized technique of preputioplasty (dorsal slit was used in 40 pediatric preputial stenosis cases. The outcome of this procedure including cosmesis and parental satisfaction was evaluated. Results: The average duration of this procedure was from 10 to 25 min with no intraoperative complications. The cosmetic outcome was good in 62.5%, satisfactory in 30%, and poor in 7.5% of cases. All of the boys had retractable prepuce with no functional problems. There was 100% parental satisfaction. None of the patients required a redo procedure or circumcision. Conclusion: A dorsal slit of adequate length i.e.; 1/3 rd the length from the corona to the tip leads to a satisfactory cosmetic outcome in more than 92% of cases. Preputioplasty is a safe and simple alternative to more radical procedure of circumcision.

  18. A standardized treatment regimen for patients with severe haemophilia A undergoing orthopaedic or trauma surgery: a single centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Christina; Heindl, Bernhard; Spannagl, Michael; Lison, Susanne

    2015-06-01

    Recommendations on the administration of clotting factor concentrates in patients with severe haemophilia undergoing surgery are usually determined by monitoring target clotting factor levels. In this retrospective cohort study, we enrolled patients with severe haemophilia A who underwent major orthopaedic or trauma surgery. We wanted to evaluate the feasibility and the safety of a standardized medical treatment procedure. Further on, we wanted to assess whether our standardized treatment regimen enables surgical procedures in certain situations in which measuring clotting factor VIII (FVIII) activity is not available. We created a standardized medical treatment procedure that included a medical protocol and close cooperation with the Haemophilic Treatment Centre. Thirteen surgical procedures in nine patients were examined. The feasibility and safety of this standardized treatment concept were assessed by identifying perioperative complications and by means of a questionnaire. Depending on the surgery, the amount of FVIII administered within the first 10 days ranged between 653 and 1027 units/kg body weight. No allogeneic blood transfusion was required. The measurement of FVIII activity was performed repeatedly in five patients. In all patients activated partial thromboplastin time monitoring was performed during the hospital stays. The surgeons and patients were satisfied with our treatment concept and adhered to the medical regimen protocol. By means of a detailed, standardized medical protocol and by ensuring close cooperation between the patient, the surgeons and the Haemophilic Treatment Centre, we could show that elective and emergency operations can be safely performed even in situations in which FVIII activity could not be monitored.

  19. Single and double sexual standards in Finland, Estonia, and St. Petersburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Kontula, Osmo

    2003-02-01

    The sexual revolution and fight for gender equality began in the West during the 1960s but did not reach the Soviet Union until the late 1980s. Using survey data from nationally representative samples from Finland in 1971, 1992, and 1999 and from two former Soviet areas, Estonia in 2000 and St. Petersburg in 1996, we investigated the following: (a) differences across decades and countries in acceptance of the sexual double standard (SDS) in attitudes toward marital infidelity and women's initiating sex; and (b) the relationship between the SDS and sexual satisfaction. Results show that Finland in the 1990s was more egalitarian than Finland in 1971, St. Petersburg in 1996, or Estonia in 2000. Egalitarian sexual attitudes were positively related to sexual satisfaction.

  20. An operation protocol for facilitating start-up of single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removing reactors based on process stoichiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutlu, A. Gizem; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    Start-up and operation of single-stage nitritation/anammox reactor employing complete autotrophic nitrogen can be difficult. Keeping the performance criteria and monitoring the microbial community composition may not be easy or fast enough to take action on time. In this study, a control strategy...

  1. Homogeneous and single-side-operational connector mechanism for self-reconfigurable, self-assembly and self-healing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei-Min (Inventor); Kovac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Designs of single-end-operative reconfigurable genderless connectors that include a base, a plurality of movable jaws that are formed on the base and can engage to the jaws of another connector, and an actuator that is mounted on the base and can engage and move the jaws of the reconfigurable connector to connect the reconfigurable connector with another connector.

  2. Ethylene Oxide Commerical Sterilization and Fumigation Operations National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to provide implementation materials to assist in conducting complete and efficient inspections at ethylene oxide commercial sterilization and fumigation operations to determine compliance with the NESHAP

  3. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Standard Criticality Safety Requirements #1-520 g Operations in PF-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Alan Joseph Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-13

    Guidance has been requested from the Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD) regarding processes that involve 520 grams of fissionable material or less. This Level-3 evaluation was conducted and documented in accordance with NCS-AP-004 (Ref. 1), formerly NCS-GUIDE-01. This evaluation is being written as a generic evaluation for all operations that will be able to operate using a 520-gram mass limit. Implementation for specific operations will be performed using a Level 1 CSED, which will confirm and document that this CSED can be used for the specific operation as discussed in NCS-MEMO-17-007 (Ref. 2). This Level 3 CSED updates and supersedes the analysis performed in NCS-TECH-14-014 (Ref. 3).

  4. Evaluation of operative notes concerning laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Are standards being met?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.S.G.L. Wauben; R.H.M. Goossens (Richard); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the most performed minimal invasive surgical procedure and has a relatively high complication rate. As complications are often revealed postoperatively, clear, accurate, and timely written operative notes are important in order to recall

  5. Development of incident data collection standards for Virginia Department of Transportation freeway operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The effective management of incidents is necessary in order to maintain efficient freeway operations. Within the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT), there are a number of units responsible for supporting incident management. These groups co...

  6. Exergy analysis of an experimental single-stage heat transformer operating with single water/lithium bromide and using additives (1-octanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, W.; Martinez, H.; Cerezo, J.; Romero, R.J.; Cardoso, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Second law of Thermodynamics has been used to analyze the performance of an experimental single-stage heat transformer operating with the water/lithium bromide as single working pair and subsequently, using 1-octanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol as additives. Additives have been used in order to increase the heat transfer in the absorber and generator decreasing their irreversibilities. The enthalpy-based coefficients of performance (COP), external coefficients of performance (COP EXT ), exergy-based coefficients of performance (ECOP) and the irreversibilities of the equipment components were calculated for the main operating temperatures of the system. The results showed that for absorber temperatures between 84 o C and 88 o C the highest COP, COP EXT , and ECOP are obtained with the use of the 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (400 parts per million) additive, reaching values up to 0.49, 0.40 and 0.43, respectively. The lowest coefficients of performance and highest irreversibilities were obtained by using the single water/lithium bromide mixture. Analysing the irreversibilities in each one of the main components of the system, it was found that 2-ethyl-1-hexanol decreases considerably the irreversibility in the absorber then increasing the efficiency of this component and hence of the entire equipment. - Highlights: → An exergy analysis has been used to analyze an experimental heat transformer. → The system operated with single water/lithium bromide and then adding two additives. → The additives were 1-octanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. → The 2-ethyl-1-hexanol additive reduced the system irreversibilities. → The highest coefficients of performance were obtained with the 2-ethyl-1-hexanol additive.

  7. Guideline adherence to chemotherapy administration safety standards: a survey on nurses in a single institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kidong; Lee, Hee Sook; Kim, Younha; Kim, Beob-Jong; Kim, Moon-Hong; Choi, Seok-Cheol; Ryu, Sang-Young

    2011-03-31

    Little is known about the guideline adherence of nurses to chemotherapy administration guidelines. We determined the guideline adherence of nurses to the Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards and the relationship between demographic characteristics and guideline adherence. Survey sheets containing two questions on demographic characteristics and 16 questions on the guideline adherence of nurses regarding chemotherapy administration were distributed to all in-patient departments in our hospital in which chemotherapy was performed. All clinical nurses in the department were recommended to respond. Of 202 nurses, 123 responses were collected (61% response rate). The guideline adherence rate was >70% for 15 of 16 questions, but 55% of respondents indicated that there was no competency monitoring for nurses. Nurses with >7 years of clinical nursing experience felt more competent in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) than nurses with guideline adherence rate of nurses with respect to chemotherapy administration was high, with the exception of the absence of a competency monitoring for nurses. A significant number of nurses with <7 years of clinical nursing experience felt incompetent in performing CPR.

  8. Single cycle to failure in bending of three standard and five locking plates and plate constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, C A; Boudrieau, R J; Torrance, B S; Tacvorian, E K; Cabassu, J B; Gaudette, G R; Kowaleski, M P

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical properties of standard and locking plates in bending. We hypothesised that titanium (Ti) constructs would have the greatest deformation and that String of Pearl (SOP) constructs would have the greatest strength and stiffness, and would behave differently compared to plates alone. Dynamic compression plates (DCP), stainless steel (SS) limited contact (LC)-DCP®, Ti LC-DCP, locking compression plates (LCP), 10 mm and 11 mm advanced locking plate system (ALPS 10 / 11), SOP and Fixin plates were evaluated individually and as constructs applied to a validated bone model simulating a bridging osteosynthesis. Bending stiffness and strength were compared using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey, and unpaired t-test (p <0.05). The SOP plates had significantly greater stiffness than all other plates; Ti LC-DCP, ALPS 10 and Fixin plates had significantly lower stiffness than all other plates. The SOP constructs had the highest mean bending stiffness, and strength that was significantly different from only the Ti LC-DCP, ALPS 10 and Fixin constructs. The ALPS 10 constructs had the lowest mean bending stiffness, and strength that was significantly different from only ALPS 11 and SOP constructs. Comparison of bending structural stiffness of plates versus constructs showed a significant difference in all plate pairs except for the DCP and ALPS 10. Due to differing plate construct properties inherent to these diverse implant systems, identical approaches to fracture management and plate application cannot be applied.

  9. Intravenous iron administration for post-operative anaemia management after colorectal cancer surgery in clinical practice: a single-centre, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laso-Morales, María Jesús; Vives, Roser; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; Pallisera-Lloveras, Anna; Pontes, Caridad

    2018-03-05

    Evidence on the role of intravenous iron (IVI) supplementation after colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery is rather scant. This study was aimed at assessing the benefit of postoperative IVI administration after elective CRC surgery at our institution. This was a single-centre, retrospective observational study including all patients who underwent CRC surgery during 2014. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin (Hb) <13 g/dL, regardless of gender. Anaemic patients received 200 mg IVI up to three times a week to cover iron deficiency (IVI group). Those who did not receive IVI were placed on standard care (NIVI group). The primary outcome was the proportion of anaemic patients on post-operative day (POD)1 and POD30. Secondary outcomes included Hb changes from POD1 to POD30, transfusion requirements and complication rates. Of the 159 patients studied, 139 (87%) presented with anaemia: 47 (34%) of these received post-operative IVI and 92 (66%) did not. Patients in the IVI group had lower POD1 Hb levels compared to those in the NIVI group (p=0.001). On POD30, only 103 had their Hb measured (34 IVI, 69 NIVI). Anaemia was more prevalent and more severe among the patients in the IVI group (p=0.027), despite their greater increment in Hb (2.0±1.5 g/dL vs 1.1±1.2 g/dL; p=0.001). Eleven patients needed post-operative transfusions (7 IVI, 4 NIVI; p=0.044). There were no differences in post-operative complication rates between the groups. No IVI-related adverse events were recorded DISCUSSION: Compared with standard care, post-operative IVI administration to anaemic patients improved the recovery of Hb levels at POD30, without increasing post-operative complications.

  10. A standard operating protocol (SOP) and minimum data set (MDS) for nursing and medical handover: considerations for flexible standardization in developing electronic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul; Wong, Ming Chao; Yee, Kwang Chien

    2009-01-01

    As part of Australia's participation in the World Health Organization, the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) is the leading federal government technical agency involved in the area of clinical handover improvement. The ACSQHC has funded a range of handover improvement projects in Australia including one at the Royal Hobart Hospital (RHH), Tasmania. The RHH project aims to investigate the potential for generalizable and transferable clinical handover solutions throughout the medical and nursing disciplines. More specifically, this project produced an over-arching minimum data set (MDS) and over-arching standardized operating protocol (SOP) based on research work on nursing and medical shift-to-shift clinical handover in general medicine, general surgery and emergency medicine. The over-arching MDS consists of five headings: situational awareness, patient identification, history and information, responsibility and tasks and accountability. The over-arching SOP has five phases: preparation; design; implementation; evaluation; and maintenance. This paper provides an overview of the project and the approach taken. It considers the implications of these standardized operating protocols and minimum data sets for developing electronic clinical handover support tools. Significantly, the paper highlights a human-centred design approach that actively involves medical and nursing staff in data collection, analysis, interpretation, and systems design. This approach reveals the dangers of info-centrism when considering electronic tools, as information emerges as the only factor amongst many others that influence the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical handover.

  11. Effectiveness of facilitated introduction of a standard operating procedure into routine processes in the operating theatre: a controlled interrupted time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lauren; New, Steve; Robertson, Eleanor; Collins, Gary; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Catchpole, Ken; Pickering, Sharon P; Hadi, Mohammed; Griffin, Damian; McCulloch, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Standard operating procedures (SOPs) should improve safety in the operating theatre, but controlled studies evaluating the effect of staff-led implementation are needed. In a controlled interrupted time series, we evaluated three team process measures (compliance with WHO surgical safety checklist, non-technical skills and technical performance) and three clinical outcome measures (length of hospital stay, complications and readmissions) before and after a 3-month staff-led development of SOPs. Process measures were evaluated by direct observation, using Oxford Non-Technical Skills II for non-technical skills and the 'glitch count' for technical performance. All staff in two orthopaedic operating theatres were trained in the principles of SOPs and then assisted to develop standardised procedures. Staff in a control operating theatre underwent the same observations but received no training. The change in difference between active and control groups was compared before and after the intervention using repeated measures analysis of variance. We observed 50 operations before and 55 after the intervention and analysed clinical data on 1022 and 861 operations, respectively. The staff chose to structure their efforts around revising the 'whiteboard' which documented and prompted tasks, rather than directly addressing specific task problems. Although staff preferred and sustained the new system, we found no significant differences in process or outcome measures before/after intervention in the active versus the control group. There was a secular trend towards worse outcomes in the postintervention period, seen in both active and control theatres. SOPs when developed and introduced by frontline staff do not necessarily improve operative processes or outcomes. The inherent tension in improvement work between giving staff ownership of improvement and maintaining control of direction needs to be managed, to ensure staff are engaged but invest energy in appropriate change

  12. 78 FR 54655 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health: Draft Standard Operating Procedure for Level 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... challenging for the Center to communicate the change and its basis to all affected parties in a meaningful and... communication on regulatory matters, including establishing a standard practice for communicating to all...

  13. Preliminary Guidelines and Standard Operating Procedure for Drainage and Erosion Control at McMurdo Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    along the impermeable frozen soil layer. Soil freeze–thaw action disrupts soil structures, displaces soils particles, and creates voids both in...appropriate culvert replacement type (e.g., metal or plastic or concrete , etc.) and to try to standardize culverts around the Station. ER D C

  14. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR HANDLING SAMPLE AND DATA CUSTODY (SOP-2.26)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for handling sample custody. A standardized Chain-of-Custody (CoC) Record is used to document the sample/data custody. Each participant is assigned one CoC Record for the samples/data collected at their home and/or day care center.

  15. German boiler and pressure vessel codes and standards: materials, manufacture, testing, equipment, erection and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    The methods by which the safety objectives on the operation of steam boilers and pressure vessels in Germany can be reached are set out in Technical Rules which are compiled and established in technical committees. Typical applications are described in the Technical Rules. A chart shows how the laws, provisions and Technical Rules for the sections 'steam boiler plant' and 'pressure vessels' are interlinked. This chapter concentrates on legal aspects, materials, manufacture, testing, erection and operation of boilers and pressure vessels in Germany. (U.K.)

  16. The light at the end of the tunnel: a single-operator learning curve analysis for per oral endoscopic myotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kumkum Sarkar; Calixte, Rose; Modayil, Rani J; Friedel, David; Brathwaite, Collin E; Stavropoulos, Stavros N

    2015-05-01

    Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) represents a natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery approach to Heller myotomy. Our center was the first to offer POEM outside of Japan, allowing us to accumulate what is likely the highest single-operator POEM volume in the United States. To define the POEM learning curve of a gastroenterologist by using a larger data set and more detailed statistical analysis than used in 2 other reports of POEM performed by surgeons. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary-care academic medical center. We analyzed the first 93 consecutive POEMs on patients with achalasia aged >18 years without contraindications to POEM performed by a single operator from October 2009 to November 2013. (1) Efficiency estimation via cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis, (2) mastery estimation via penalized basis-spline regression and CUSUM analysis, (3) correlation of operator experience with clinical outcomes (Eckardt score improvement, lower esophageal sphincter pressure reduction) and technical errors (accidental mucosotomy rate), and (4) unadjusted and adjusted regression analysis to assess how patient characteristics affected procedure time by using a generalized linear model. Clinical outcomes, procedure time, technical errors. Efficiency was attained after 40 POEMs and mastery after 60 POEMs. When we used the adjusted regression analysis, only case number (operator experience) significantly affected procedure time (P myotomy, or type of knife used (all P > .05). Our analysis may underestimate the number of POEMs required to achieve mastery for operators with limited or no endoscopic submucosal dissection experience. These results offer thresholds for efficiency and mastery of a single gastroenterologist operator that may guide the efforts of novice POEM operators. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing three CPR feedback devices and standard BLS in a single rescuer scenario: a randomised simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapletal, Bernhard; Greif, Robert; Stumpf, Dominik; Nierscher, Franz Josef; Frantal, Sophie; Haugk, Moritz; Ruetzler, Kurt; Schlimp, Christoph; Fischer, Henrik

    2014-04-01

    Efficiently performed basic life support (BLS) after cardiac arrest is proven to be effective. However, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is strenuous and rescuers' performance declines rapidly over time. Audio-visual feedback devices reporting CPR quality may prevent this decline. We aimed to investigate the effect of various CPR feedback devices on CPR quality. In this open, prospective, randomised, controlled trial we compared three CPR feedback devices (PocketCPR, CPRmeter, iPhone app PocketCPR) with standard BLS without feedback in a simulated scenario. 240 trained medical students performed single rescuer BLS on a manikin for 8min. Effective compression (compressions with correct depth, pressure point and sufficient decompression) as well as compression rate, flow time fraction and ventilation parameters were compared between the four groups. Study participants using the PocketCPR performed 17±19% effective compressions compared to 32±28% with CPRmeter, 25±27% with the iPhone app PocketCPR, and 35±30% applying standard BLS (PocketCPR vs. CPRmeter p=0.007, PocketCPR vs. standard BLS p=0.001, others: ns). PocketCPR and CPRmeter prevented a decline in effective compression over time, but overall performance in the PocketCPR group was considerably inferior to standard BLS. Compression depth and rate were within the range recommended in the guidelines in all groups. While we found differences between the investigated CPR feedback devices, overall BLS quality was suboptimal in all groups. Surprisingly, effective compression was not improved by any CPR feedback device compared to standard BLS. All feedback devices caused substantial delay in starting CPR, which may worsen outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. HUBUNGAN ANTARA GAYA KEPEMIMPINAN PATH GOAL SUPERVISOR PABRIK BAJA DENGAN TINGKAT KEPATUHAN SOP (STANDARD OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE) PEKERJA

    OpenAIRE

    Ridho, Wahyu Fahrul

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACTEmployee ignorance on Standard Operational Procedures (SOP) is one of the main causes of workplace accidents. This study was conducted to analyze the correlation between path goal leadership implemented by Gresik steel factory supervisors and employee obedience on company SOP. This study applied quantitative approach and cross-sectional research design. The data were collected through observation and interview on 52 respondents consisting of employees working led by 4 different superv...

  19. 76 FR 16240 - Mandatory Reliability Standards for Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... Council (WECC) also submitted timely comments. American Electric Power Service Corp. (AEP) filed comments... operator to develop action plans for every SOL. 54. Similarly, WECC does not believe that reliability coordinators should be required to have action plans developed and implemented for SOLs apart from IROLs. WECC...

  20. 40 CFR 503.25 - Operational standards-pathogens and vector attraction reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vector attraction reduction. 503.25 Section 503.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 503.25 Operational standards—pathogens and vector attraction reduction. (a) Pathogens—sewage sludge... active sewage sludge unit, unless the vector attraction reduction requirement in § 503.33(b)(11) is met...

  1. 40 CFR 503.15 - Operational standards-pathogens and vector attraction reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vector attraction reduction. 503.15 Section 503.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 503.15 Operational standards—pathogens and vector attraction reduction. (a) Pathogens—sewage sludge... reclamation site. (c) Vector attraction reduction—sewage sludge. (1) One of the vector attraction reduction...

  2. SFO Certification: Recognizing High Standards for Managers of School Business Operations Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statz, Bambi; Weber, Pam

    2010-01-01

    These are challenging times for schools across the United States and Canada, and the ability of those providing the fiscal leadership of these multi-million dollar organizations has never been more critical. There is no better time to identify the specific skills and knowledge needed by those managing the business operations of schools today, and…

  3. Arianespace Launch Service Operator Policy for Space Safety (Regulations and Standards for Safety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdainne, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    Since December 10, 2010, the French Space Act has entered into force. This French Law, referenced as LOS N°2008-518 ("Loi relative aux Opérations Spatiales"), is compliant with international rules. This French Space Act (LOS) is now applicable for any French private company whose business is dealing with rocket launch or in orbit satellites operations. Under CNES leadership, Arianespace contributed to the consolidation of technical regulation applicable to launch service operators.Now for each launch operation, the operator Arianespace has to apply for an authorization to proceed to the French ministry in charge of space activities. In the files issued for this purpose, the operator is able to justify a high level of warranties in the management of risks through robust processes in relation with the qualification maintenance, the configuration management, the treatment of technical facts and relevant conclusions and risks reduction implementation when needed.Thanks to the historic success of Ariane launch systems through its more than 30 years of exploitation experience (54 successes in a row for latest Ariane 5 launches), Arianespace as well as European public and industrial partners developed key experiences and knowledge as well as competences in space security and safety. Soyuz-ST and Vega launch systems are now in operation from Guiana Space Center with identical and proved risks management processes. Already existing processes have been slightly adapted to cope with the new roles and responsibilities of each actor contributing to the launch preparation and additional requirements like potential collision avoidance with inhabited space objects.Up to now, more than 12 Ariane 5 launches and 4 Soyuz-ST launches have been authorized under the French Space Act regulations. Ariane 5 and Soyuz- ST generic demonstration of conformity have been issued, including exhaustive danger and impact studies for each launch system.This article will detail how Arianespace

  4. Operational Temperature Effect on Positioning Accuracy of a Single-Axial Moving Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Ying Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the ambient environmental temperature effect on the positioning accuracy of a periodically-moving carrier. The moving carrier was operated in an environmental chamber in which the operational temperature could be controlled by an air conditioning system. Different operational temperature modes, including a stable environment, a rise in temperature, a decline in temperature, summer daytime hours, and winter nighttime hours in terms of seasonal climate change in Taiwan, were generated within the environmental chamber by an air conditioning system to investigate the operational temperature’s effect on positioning accuracy. From the experimental measurements of a periodically-moving carrier, it is found that the operational temperature conditions can significantly affect the positioning accuracy of the moving carrier, especially in the case of an operational temperature decline. Under stable operational conditions, the positioning accuracy of the moving carrier can be considerably improved. In comparison to the case of an operational temperature decline, the positioning accuracy improvement can reach 29.6%. Moreover, the effect of the temperature distributions within the chamber on the positioning accuracy was further investigated. It was found that, with a parallel flow pattern in the chamber, the positioning accuracy can be further enhanced.

  5. Hardware Implementation and a New Adaptation in the Winding Scheme of Standard Three Phase Induction Machine to Utilize for Multifunctional Operation: A New Multifunctional Induction Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan Sagar Bhaskar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article a new distinct winding scheme is articulated to utilize three phase induction machines for multifunctional operation. Because of their rugged construction and reduced maintenance induction machines are very popular and well-accepted for agricultural as well as industrial purposes. The proposed winding scheme is used in a three phase induction machine to utilize the machine for multifunctional operation. It can be used as a three-phase induction motor, welding transformer and phase converter. The proposed machine design also works as a single phase induction motor at the same time it works as a three-phase to single phase converter. This new design does not need any kind of special arrangement and can be constructed with small modifications to any standard three-phase induction motor. This modified induction machine is thoroughly tested to determine its efficiency and other parameters and also hardware implementation results are provided in the article, which validate the design and construction.

  6. Thermal Optimized Operation of the Single-Phase Full-Bridge PV Inverter under Low Voltage Ride-Through Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    . At the same time, the target of a long service time (25 years or more) imposes new challenges to grid-connected transformer-less PV systems. Achieving more reliable PV inverters is of intense interest in recent research. As one of the most critical stresses that induce failures, the thermal stresses...... on the power devices of a single-phase full-bridge PV inverter are analyzed in different operational modes in this paper. The low voltage grid condition is specially taken into account in this paper. The analysis is demonstrated by a 3 kW single-phase full-bridge grid-connected PV system by simulations...

  7. Toward a single-chip TECless/NUCless InGaAs SWIR camera with 120-dB intrinsic operation dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Y.; Arion, B.; Zhu, Y. M.; Potet, P.; Huet, Odile; Reverchon, Jean Luc; Truffer, Jean Patrick; Robo, Jean Alexandre; Costard, Eric

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes a single-chip InGaAs SWIR camera with more than 120dB instant operational dynamic range with an innovative CMOS ROIC technology, so called MAGIC, invented and patented by New Imaging Technologies. A 320x256- pixel InGaAs 25μm pitch photodiode array, designed and fabricated by III-Vlab/Thales Research & Technology(TRT), has been hybridized on this new generation CMOS ROIC. With NIT's MAGIC technology, the sensor's output follows a precise logarithmic law in function of incoming photon flux and gives instant operational dynamic range (DR) better than 120 dB. The ROIC incorporates the entire video signal processing function including a CCIR TV encoder, so a complete SWIR InGaAs camera with standard video output has been realized on a single 30x30 mm2 PCB board with ¼ W power consumption. Neither TEC nor NUC is needed from room temperature operation. The camera can be switched on and off instantly, ideal for all the portable battery operated SWIR band observation applications. The measured RMS noise and FPN noise on the prototype sensor in dark conditions are 0.4 mV and 0.27 mV respectively. The signal excursion from pixel is about 300mV over the 120 dB dynamic range. The FPN remains almost constant over the whole operation dynamic range. The NEI has been measured to be 3,71E+09 ph/s/cm2 with 92 equivalent noise photons at 25Hz frame rate, better than the same architecture of InGaAs photodiode array hybridized on an Indigo ROIC ISC9809 with a pitch of 30 μm for which a readout noise of 120 electrons is observed.

  8. Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy under local anesthesia - an old operation that stood the test of time. A single-team experience with 2,280 operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argov, Samuel; Levandovsky, Olga; Yarhi, Danielle

    2012-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the morbidity and efficacy of Milligan-Morgan (M&M) hemorrhoidectomy in comparison to novel techniques (e.g., hemorrhoidal artery ligation [HAL], stapler hemorrhoidopexy [PPH]). This is a retrospective review of a single-team experience with 2,280 M&M hemorrhoidectomy patients, with 1-12 years follow-up. All patients were operated upon in jack-knife position, using local anesthesia under light sedation in an ambulatory facility. This method allowed us to operate on 40 pregnant women. All operations were performed using simple, commercially available instruments. We found negligible morbidity, no mortality and a very efficient operation on long-term follow-up. The surgical literature is littered with dreadful complications and even mortality from stapled hemorrhoidopexy (Giordano et al., Dis Colon Rectum 51:1574-1576, 2008; Brown et al., Tech Coloproctol 11:357-358, 2007; Cipriani and Pescatori, Colorectal Dis 4:367-370, 2002; Mongardini et al., G Chir 26:275-277, 2005) and the inefficiency of Doppler HAL (Faucheron and Gangner, Dis Colon Rectum 51:945-949, 2008; Scheyer et al., Am J Surg, 191:89-93, 2006). In days of soaring medical expenditures, nobody will argue about the superiority of M&M hemorrhoidectomy as the cheapest operation available. In all aspects, M&M hemorrhoidectomy under local anesthesia beats its competitors in terms of morbidity, mortality, long-term efficiency and low cost.

  9. Data Mining Methods Applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Comparison to Standard Statistical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzer, Alan J.; Halford, Carl

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, multiple regression techniques were applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance-derived data to develop parsimonious model(s) for fuel consumption on the Boeing 757 airplane. The present study examined several data mining algorithms, including neural networks, on the fuel consumption problem and compared them to the multiple regression results obtained earlier. Using regression methods, parsimonious models were obtained that explained approximately 85% of the variation in fuel flow. In general data mining methods were more effective in predicting fuel consumption. Classification and Regression Tree methods reported correlation coefficients of .91 to .92, and General Linear Models and Multilayer Perceptron neural networks reported correlation coefficients of about .99. These data mining models show great promise for use in further examining large FOQA databases for operational and safety improvements.

  10. Test Standard Revision Update: JESD57, "Procedures for the Measurement of Single-Event Effects in Semiconductor Devices from Heavy-Ion Irradiation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The JEDEC JESD57 test standard, Procedures for the Measurement of Single-Event Effects in Semiconductor Devices from Heavy-Ion Irradiation, is undergoing its first revision since 1996. In this talk, we place this test standard into context with other relevant radiation test standards to show its importance for single-event effect radiation testing for space applications. We show the range of industry, government, and end-user party involvement in the revision. Finally, we highlight some of the key changes being made and discuss the trade-space in which setting standards must be made to be both useful and broadly adopted.

  11. Surfacing safety hazards using standardized operating room briefings and debriefings at a large regional medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandari, Jathin; Schumacher, Kathy; Simon, Michelle; Cameron, Danielle; Goeschel, Christine A; Holzmueller, Christine G; Makary, Martin A; Welsh, Robert J; Berenholtz, Sean M

    2012-04-01

    Briefings and debriefings, previously shown to be a practical and feasible strategy to improve interdisciplinary communication and teamwork in the operating room (OR), was then assessed as a strategy to prospectively surface clinical and operational defects in surgical care--and thereby prevent patient harm. A one-page, double-sided briefing and debriefing tool was used by surgical teams during cases at the William Beaumont Hospital Royal Oak (Royal Oak, Michigan) campus to surface clinical and operational defects during the study period (October 2006-May 2010). Defects were coded into six categories (with each category stratified by briefing or debriefing period) during the first six months, and refinement of coding resulted in expansion to 16 defect categories and no further stratification. A provider survey was used in January 2008 to interview a sample of 40 caregivers regarding the perceived effectiveness of the tool in surfacing defects. The teams identified a total of 6,202 defects--an average of 141 defects per month--during the entire study period. Of 2,760 defects identified during the six-defect coding period, 1,265 (46%) surfaced during briefings, and the remaining 1,495 (54%) during debriefings. Equipment (48%) and communication (31%) issues were most prominent. Of 3,442 defects identified during the 16-defect coding period, the most common were Central Processing Department (CPD) instrumentation (22%) and Communication/Safety (15%). Overall, 70 (87%) of the 80 responses were in agreement that briefings were effective for surfacing defects, as were 59 (76%) of the 78 responses for debriefings. Briefings and debriefings were a practical and effective strategy to surface potential surgical defects in the operating rooms of a large medical center.

  12. Standards for Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) Techniques within Manufacturing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-02

    boundary diagram (for DFMEA), a process flow diagram (for PFMEA), and design and process FMEA worksheets related to the auto industry. Also...and first response technologies including autonomous unmanned ground vehicles; tactical applications operating on Android devices; advanced soldier...sensor technologies; free-form, two-way, speech-to-speech translation devices for tactical use; urban search and rescue robots; and bomb disposal

  13. Evaluation of post operative shoulder tip pain in low pressure versus standard pressure pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, Mir; Mehta, Kuldeep Singh; Banday, Viqar Hussain; Aiman, Aiffa; Masood, Imran; Iqbal, Banyameen

    2012-04-01

    Insufflation of carbon dioxide during laparoscopic cholecystectomy leads to postoperative shoulder tip pain. The origin of shoulder pain is commonly assumed to be due to overstretching of the diaphragmatic muscle fibres owing to a high carbon dioxide pressure. To study the frequency and intensity of post operative shoulder tip pain in laparoscopic cholecystectomy and compare low and standard pressure pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic cholecystectomy with respect to post operative shoulder tip pain. Patients admitted in the department of surgery for elective cholecystectomy were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups (group A and group B). In group A (n = 50), low pressure pneumoperitoneum (8 mm Hg) and in group B (n = 50), standard pressure pneumoperitoneum (14 mm Hg) was generated during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Postoperative shoulder tip pain was assessed at 4, 8 and 24 h after operation by the Visual Analogue Scale of Pain. 14 patients (28%) in group B complained of post operative shoulder tip pain as compared to only 5 patients (10%) in group A. The mean intensity of post operative shoulder tip pain assessed by visual analogue scoring scale at 4, 8 and 24 h was less in group A as compared to group B, although statistical significance was seen only at 4 h. Analgesic requirements and the mean length of post operative stay in the hospital were also less in group A as compared to group B. Low pressure laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LPLC) significantly decreases the frequency and intensity of postoperative shoulder tip pain. LPLC decreases the demand for postoperative analgesics, decreases postoperative hospital stay and hence improves the quality of life in the early stage of postoperative rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Federal environmental standards of potential importance to operations and activities at US Department of Energy sites. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, K.M.; Bilyard, G.R.; Davidson, S.A.; Jonas, R.J.; Joseph, J.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is now engaged in a program of environmental restoration nationwide across its 45 sites. It is also bringing its facilities into compliance with environmental regulations, decontaminating and decommissioning unwanted facilities, and constructing new waste management facilities. One of the most difficult questions that DOE must face in successfully remediating its inactive waste sites, decontaminating and decommissioning its inactive facilities, and operating its waste management facilities is: ``What criteria and standards should be met?`` Acceptable standards or procedures for determining standards will assist DOE in its conduct of ongoing waste management and pending cleanup activities by helping to ensure that those activities are conducted in compliance with applicable laws and regulations and are accepted by the regulatory community and the public. This document reports on the second of three baseline activities that are being conducted as prerequisites to either the development of quantitative standards that could be used by DOE, or consistent procedures for developing such standards. The first and third baseline activities are also briefly discussed in conjunction with the second of the three activities.

  15. Improving situation awareness of a single human operator interacting with multiple unmanned vehicles: first results

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, Thomas; Corjon, Julien; Gautreault, Fabien; Laurent, Mickaël; Causse, Mickael; Dehais, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    In the context of the supervision of one or several unmanned vehicles by a human operator, the design of an adapted user interface is a major challenge. Therefore, in the context of an existing experimental set up composed of a ground station and heterogeneous unmanned ground and air vehicles we aim at redesigning the human-robot interactions to improve the operator's situation awareness. We base our new design on a classical user centered approach.

  16. Numerical Simulation of single-stage axial fan operation under dusty flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkov, L. L.; Pikushchak, E. V.

    2017-11-01

    Assessment of the aerodynamic efficiency of the single-stage axial flow fan under dusty flow conditions based on a numerical simulation using the computational package Ansys-Fluent is proposed. The influence of dust volume fraction on the dependences of the air volume flow rate and the pressure drop on the rotational speed of rotor is demonstrated. Matching functions for formulas describing a pressure drop and volume flow rate in dependence on the rotor speed and dust content are obtained by numerical simulation for the single-stage axial fan. It is shown that the aerodynamic efficiency of the single-stage axial flow fan decreases exponentially with increasing volume content of dust in the air.

  17. The combination of directional outputs and single-mode operation in circular microdisk with broken PT symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinghai; Li, Jiankai; Sun, Wenzhao; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Shuai; Li, Meng; Xiao, Shumin

    2015-09-21

    Monochromaticity and directionality are two key characteristics of lasers. However, the combination of directional emission and single-mode operation is quite challenging, especially for the on-chip devices. Here we propose a microdisk laser with single-mode operation and directional emissions by exploiting the recent developments associated with parity-time (PT) symmetry. This is accomplished by introducing one-dimensional periodic gain and loss into a circular microdisk, which induces a coupling between whispering gallery modes with different radial numbers. The lowest threshold mode is selected at the positions with least initial wavelength difference. And the directional emissions are formed by the introduction of additional grating vectors by the periodic distribution of gain and loss regions. We believe this research will impact the practical applications of on-chip microdisk lasers.

  18. Tunable single-longitudinal-mode operation of an injection-locked TEA CO2 laser. [ozone absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megie, G.; Menzies, R. T.

    1979-01-01

    The tunable single-longitudinal-mode operation of a TEA CO2 laser by an injection technique using a CW waveguide laser as the master oscillator is reported. With the experimental arrangement described, in which the waveguide laser frequency is tuned to correspond to one of the oscillating longitudinal modes of the TEA laser, single-longitudinal-mode operation was achieved with no apparent reduction in the TEA output energy, on various CO2 lines with frequency offsets from the line center as large as 300 MHz. The capability of this technique for high-resolution spectroscopy or atmospheric lidar studies is demonstrated by the recording of the absorption spectrum of a strong ozone line.

  19. The quality of operative note taking: an audit using the Royal College of Surgeons Guidelines as the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayah, A; Agada, F O; Gunasekaran, S; Jassar, P; England, R J A

    2007-04-01

    To assess the quality of operative note keeping and compare the results with the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) of England guidelines 'Good Surgical Practice' as the gold standard. ENT Department at Hull Royal Infirmary, University Hospital. A hundred consecutive operative notes were selected between November 2005 and January 2006. The documentation of the operative notes in each case was compared with the RCS of England guidelines. All surgeons were made aware of the results of the first cycle and the guidelines were made available in all ENT theatres in the form of a printed aide-memoir. A second audit cycle was then carried out prospectively between April and June 2006. The results demonstrated a change in practice in key areas. The 1st cycle results showed the documentation of patient identification (94%), name of surgeon (98%) and clearly written postoperative instructions (94%). However, surgeons performed suboptimally at recording the name of assistant (82%), operative diagnosis (46%), the incision type (87%) and the type of wound closure (83%). After introducing the aide-memoir, the second cycle demonstrated a change in practice with 100% documentation in most of the assessed parameters except that the time of surgery and the type of surgery (emergency or elective) were not adequately recorded. We recommend that all surgical departments should have the RCS guidelines as an aide-memoir in theatres to enhance the quality and standardise operative note recording.

  20. Optical frequency comb generation for DWDM transmission over 25- to 50-km standard single-mode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rahat; Bo, Liu; Yaya, Mao; Ullah, Sibghat; Khan, Muhammad Saad; Tian, Feng; Ali, Amjad; Ahmad, Ibrar; Xiangjun, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) transmission equal to 1.2 Tbps over 25 to 50 km across standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) in the C band is performed based on an optical frequency comb generator. Sixty-one flattened optical frequency tones were realized with 30-GHz frequency spacing, high side-mode suppression ratio over 35 dB, and minimum amplitude difference was realized using amplitude modulator for first time in cascade mode with two Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) where all the modulators were tailored by RF signals. 20×61 Gbps DWDM-based differential quadrature phase shift keying modulated signals were successfully transmitted over SSMF and analyze its transmission capability for range of 25 to 50 km with acceptable power penalties and bit error rates.

  1. Evaluation of Railway Networks with Single Track Operation Using the UIC 406 Capacity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Many capacity analyses using the UIC 406 capacity method for double track lines have been carried out and presented international, but few capacity analyses applying the capacity method to single track lines have been presented. Therefore, the differences between capacity analyses of double track...

  2. The Heteronuclear Single-Quantum Correlation (HSQC) Experiment: Vectors versus Product Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega-Herna´ndez, Karen; Antuch, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A vectorial representation of the full sequence of events occurring during the 2D-NMR heteronuclear single-quantum correlation (HSQC) experiment is presented. The proposed vectorial representation conveys an understanding of the magnetization evolution during the HSQC pulse sequence for those who have little or no quantum mechanical background.…

  3. Analysis of Variable-Speed Operation of Drives with Single-Phase Machines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chomát, Miroslav; Schreier, Luděk; Bendl, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2007), s. 139-147 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/06/0215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : single-phase machines * induction machines * variable-speed drives Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  4. 40 CFR 63.5830 - What are my options for meeting the standards for pultrusion operations subject to the 60 weight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operations subject to the 60 weight percent organic HAP emissions reductions requirement? You must use one or... standards for pultrusion operations subject to the 60 weight percent organic HAP emissions reductions... National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Options...

  5. A 64 single photon avalanche diode array in 0.18 µm CMOS standard technology with versatile quenching circuit for quick prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhring, Wilfried; Le Normand, Jean-Pierre; Zint, Virginie; Dumas, Norbert; Dadouche, Foudil; Malasse, Imane; Scholz, Jeremy

    2012-04-01

    Several works have demonstrated the successfully integration of Single-photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs) operating in Geiger mode in a standard CMOS circuit for the last 10 years. These devices offer an exceptional temporal resolution as well as a very good optical sensitivity. Nevertheless, it is difficult to predict the expected performances of such a device. Indeed, for a similar structure of SPAD, some parameter values can differ by two orders of magnitude from a technology to another. We proposed here a procedure to identify in just one or two runs the optimal structure of SPAD available for a given technology. A circuit with an array of 64 SPAD has been realized in the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS image sensor process. It encompasses an array of 8 different structures of SPAD reproduced in 8 diameters in the range from 5 μm up to 40 μm. According to the SPAD structures, efficient shallow trench insulator and/or P-Well guard ring are used for preventing edge breakdown. Low dark count rate of about 100 Hz are expected thanks to the use of buried n-well layer and a high resistivity substrate. Each photodiode is embedded in a pixel which includes a versatile quenching circuitry and an analog output of its cathode voltage. The quenching system is configurable in four operation modes; the SPAD is disabled, the quenching is completely passive, the reset of the photodiode is active and the quenching is fully active. The architecture of the array makes possible the characterization of every single photodiode individually. The parameters to be measured for a SPAD are the breakdown avalanche voltage, the dark count rate, the dead time, the timing jitter, the photon detection probability and the after-pulsing rate.

  6. Electro-opto-mechanical radio-frequency oscillator driven by guided acoustic waves in standard single-mode fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef London

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An opto-electronic radio-frequency oscillator that is based on forward scattering by the guided acoustic modes of a standard single-mode optical fiber is proposed and demonstrated. An optical pump wave is used to stimulate narrowband, resonant guided acoustic modes, which introduce phase modulation to a co-propagating optical probe wave. The phase modulation is converted to an intensity signal at the output of a Sagnac interferometer loop. The intensity waveform is detected, amplified, and driven back to modulate the optical pump. Oscillations are achieved at a frequency of 319 MHz, which matches the resonance of the acoustic mode that provides the largest phase modulation of the probe wave. Oscillations at the frequencies of competing acoustic modes are suppressed by at least 40 dB. The linewidth of the acoustic resonance is sufficiently narrow to provide oscillations at a single longitudinal mode of the hybrid cavity. Competing longitudinal modes are suppressed by at least 38 dB as well. Unlike other opto-electronic oscillators, no radio-frequency filtering is required within the hybrid cavity. The frequency of oscillations is entirely determined by the fiber opto-mechanics.

  7. An advanced algorithm for construction of Integral Transport Matrix Method operators using accumulation of single cell coupling factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, B. P.; Azmy, Y. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The Integral Transport Matrix Method (ITMM) has been shown to be an effective method for solving the neutron transport equation in large domains on massively parallel architectures. In the limit of very large number of processors, the speed of the algorithm, and its suitability for unstructured meshes, i.e. other than an ordered Cartesian grid, is limited by the construction of four matrix operators required for obtaining the solution in each sub-domain. The existing algorithm used for construction of these matrix operators, termed the differential mesh sweep, is computationally expensive and was developed for a structured grid. This work proposes the use of a new algorithm for construction of these operators based on the construction of a single, fundamental matrix representing the transport of a particle along every possible path throughout the sub-domain mesh. Each of the operators is constructed by multiplying an element of this fundamental matrix by two factors dependent only upon the operator being constructed and on properties of the emitting and incident cells. The ITMM matrix operator construction time for the new algorithm is demonstrated to be shorter than the existing algorithm in all tested cases with both isotropic and anisotropic scattering considered. While also being a more efficient algorithm on a structured Cartesian grid, the new algorithm is promising in its geometric robustness and potential for being applied to an unstructured mesh, with the ultimate goal of application to an unstructured tetrahedral mesh on a massively parallel architecture. (authors)

  8. Solving optimum operation of single pump unit problem with ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y; Liu, C

    2012-01-01

    For pumping stations, the effective scheduling of daily pump operations from solutions to the optimum design operation problem is one of the greatest potential areas for energy cost-savings, there are some difficulties in solving this problem with traditional optimization methods due to the multimodality of the solution region. In this case, an ACO model for optimum operation of pumping unit is proposed and the solution method by ants searching is presented by rationally setting the object function and constrained conditions. A weighted directed graph was constructed and feasible solutions may be found by iteratively searching of artificial ants, and then the optimal solution can be obtained by applying the rule of state transition and the pheromone updating. An example calculation was conducted and the minimum cost was found as 4.9979. The result of ant colony algorithm was compared with the result from dynamic programming or evolutionary solving method in commercial software under the same discrete condition. The result of ACO is better and the computing time is shorter which indicates that ACO algorithm can provide a high application value to the field of optimal operation of pumping stations and related fields.

  9. Safety Standard for Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems: Guidelines for Hydrogen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage and Transportation. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Safety Standard, which establishes a uniform process for hydrogen system design, materials selection, operation, storage, and transportation, is presented. The guidelines include suggestions for safely storing, handling, and using hydrogen in gaseous (GH2), liquid (LH2), or slush (SLH2) form whether used as a propellant or non-propellant. The handbook contains 9 chapters detailing properties and hazards, facility design, design of components, materials compatibility, detection, and transportation. Chapter 10 serves as a reference and the appendices contained therein include: assessment examples; scaling laws, explosions, blast effects, and fragmentation; codes, standards, and NASA directives; and relief devices along with a list of tables and figures, abbreviations, a glossary and an index for ease of use. The intent of the handbook is to provide enough information that it can be used alone, but at the same time, reference data sources that can provide much more detail if required.

  10. Environmental Stress Testing of the Single Sample Cylinder: A Proven Consensus Standard for Internal Gas Analysis (IGA) or Residual Gas Analysis (RGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuessler, Philipp WH

    2010-01-01

    100 ppm range. This second standard has the potential of providing 30 gaseous samples and can be readily shipped to any analytical facility that desires to generate comparison RGA data. A series of comparison residual gas analyses was performed at the Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies facility in the National Nuclear Facility Administration s plant in Kansas City to complete this project. It was shown that improvements in the precision of a given RGA unit can be done by controlling the cycle time for each analysis and increasing analysis temperatures to minimize moisture adsorption. It was also found that a "one time event" in the subzero storage of the large SSC did not effect the units ability to continuously supply precise samples of the same chemistry, however the "event" caused a permanent +8% shift in the reported value of the moisture content. Lastly, a set of SSC RGA results was plotted on a common graph with DSCC "correlation study" RGA data. The result demonstrates the ability of the SSC to remove many of the individual variances that single, individual samples introduce. The consensus standards are now in storage at Oneida Research Services, one of the DSCC certified houses that does RGA to Military Standards, where they await future studies. The analytical data and the operational parameters of the instruments used are provided in the following discussion. Limitations and suggested means for improvement of both precision and accuracy are provided.

  11. Pseudospectral operational matrix for numerical solution of single and multiterm time fractional diffusion equation

    OpenAIRE

    GHOLAMI, SAEID; BABOLIAN, ESMAIL; JAVIDI, MOHAMMAD

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new numerical approach to solve single and multiterm time fractional diffusion equations. In this work, the space dimension is discretized to the Gauss$-$Lobatto points. We use the normalized Grunwald approximation for the time dimension and a pseudospectral successive integration matrix for the space dimension. This approach shows that with fewer numbers of points, we can approximate the solution with more accuracy. Some examples with numerical results in tables and fig...

  12. Technology development for evaluation of operational quantities and measurement standard in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, J. L.; Kim, B. H.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, J. I.; Park, T. S.; Ha, S. H.; Oh, P. J.; Jun, K. J

    1999-03-01

    A study on the fabrication of a new personal thermo-luminescence dosimeter, which can evaluate the personal dose equivalent H{sub p}(d), has been performed. Optimum conditions for fabrications of a LiF:Mg, Cu, Na, Si TL phosphor powder has been determined and a disc type TL pellet has been fabricated from this TL powder. Another type of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy, Mo TL material has been also fabricated. These two TL materials have shown greater TL sensitivity than the foreign-made commercial TL materials. Mono-energetic florescence X-rays from 8.6 response have been constructed and evaluated for the performance of the purity, air kerma, beam uniformity and distribution,and scattered fraction of X-rays.A free-air ionization chamber for the absolute measurement of air kerma in medium X-ray has been designed and constructed. Experimental results showed that the homemade chamber leaves nothing to be desired, compared with the national standard chambers in other advanced countries. Gas proportional counting system has been designed and constructed for absolute activity measurements of gaseous radionuclides. Unattached fractions of radon progeny were evaluated in the characteristic study on the detection of radon progeny.

  13. Compact teleoperated laparoendoscopic single-site robotic surgical system: Kinematics, control, and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Lowry, Oran Jacob; Okamoto, Steele; Pedram, Sahba Aghajani; Woo, Russell; Berkelman, Peter

    2017-12-01

    To date a variety of teleoperated surgical robotic systems have been developed to improve a surgeon's ability to perform demanding single-port procedures. However typical large systems are bulky, expensive, and afford limited angular motion, while smaller designs suffer complications arising from limited motion range, speed, and force generation. This work was to develop and validate a simple, compact, low cost single site teleoperated laparoendoscopic surgical robotic system, with demonstrated capability to carry out basic surgical procedures. This system builds upon previous work done at the University of Hawaii at Manoa and includes instrument and endoscope manipulators as well as compact articulated instruments designed to overcome single incision geometry complications. A robotic endoscope holder was used for the base, with an added support frame for teleoperated manipulators and instruments fabricated mostly from 3D printed parts. Kinematics and control methods were formulated for the novel manipulator configuration. Trajectory following results from an optical motion tracker and sample task performance results are presented. Results indicate that the system has successfully met the goal of basic surgical functionality while minimizing physical size, complexity, and cost. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Impact of standardized clinical assessment and management plans on resource utilization and costs in children after the arterial switch operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Rahul H; Jurgen, Brittney; Hamershock, Rose A; Friedman, Kevin G; Marshall, Audrey C; Samnaliev, Mihail; Graham, Dionne A; Jenkins, Kathy; Lock, James E; Powell, Andrew J

    2017-12-01

    Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPs) are a quality improvement initiative designed to reduce unnecessary utilization, decrease practice variation, and improve patient outcomes. We created a novel methodology, the SCAMP managed episode of care (SMEOC), which encompasses multiple encounters to assess the impact of the arterial switch operation (ASO) SCAMP on total costs. All ASO SCAMP patients (dates March 2009 to July 2015) were compared to a control group of ASO patients (January 2001 to February 2009). Patients were divided into "younger" (stress tests (P = .01), and a 14% total reduction in costs. The total cost savings of the ASO SCAMP was $216 649 in the first 6 years of the SCAMP. There was no difference in clinical outcomes between the historical and SCAMP cohorts. SCAMPs can improve resource utilization and reduce costs after the ASO operation while maintaining quality of care. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. HMI/ SCADA standards in the design of data center interfaces: A network operations center case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Filali-Yachou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta la evaluación de las interfaces de la sala del Centro de Operaciones NOC (Network Operations Cent er del NAP (Network Access Point de Canarias, siguiendo estándares y normativas HMI, así como la guía ergonómica de supervisión GEDI S. En base a los resultados obtenid os, se presenta un prototipo de mejora de la interfaz actual.El Centro de Operaciones NOC del Instituto Tecnológico y de Energías Renovables (ITER se encarga de monit orizar las diversas infraestructuras del Data Center como son l a climatización, suminis tro eléctrico, protec ción contra incendio s, seguridad, centros técnicos, parques eólicos, plantas fotovo ltaicas, así como las distintas infraestructura s desplegadas alrededor del c able submarino perteneciente al consorcio de Cana-Link (el cabl e que une la Península y Canarias, el anillo terrestre y la Red IRIS. Para unificar algunos de estos sistemas y facilitar la tarea diaria de supervisión, se emplea un software SC ADA especializad o en la gestió n de edificios.

  16. Expert training with standardized operative technique helps establish a successful penile prosthetics program for urologic resident education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ashley B; Klausner, Adam P; Johnson, Corey M; Moore, Blake W; Wilson, Steven K; Grob, B Mayer

    2011-10-01

    The challenge of resident education in urologic surgery programs is to overcome disparity imparted by diverse patient populations, limited training times, and inequalities in the availability of expert surgical educators. Specifically, in the area of prosthetic urology, only a small proportion of programs have full-time faculty available to train residents in this discipline. To examine whether a new model using yearly training sessions from a recognized expert can establish a successful penile prosthetics program and result in better outcomes, higher case volumes, and willingness to perform more complex surgeries. A recognized expert conducted one to two operative training sessions yearly to teach standardized technique for penile prosthetics to residents. Each session consisted of three to four operative cases performed under the direct supervision of the expert. Retrospective data were collected from all penile prosthetic operations before (February, 2000 to June, 2004: N = 44) and after (July, 2004 to October, 2007: N = 79) implementation of these sessions. Outcomes reviewed included patient age, race, medical comorbidities, operative time, estimated blood loss, type of prosthesis, operative approach, drain usage, length of stay, and complications including revision/explantation rates. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-tests, Fisher's tests, and survival curves using the Kaplan-Meier technique (P value ≤ 0.05 to define statistical significance). Patient characteristics were not significantly different pre- vs. post-training. Operative time and estimated blood loss significantly decreased. Inflatable implants increased from 19/44 (43.2%, pre-training) to 69/79 (87.3%, post-training) (P prosthetics surgery. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Complex Number Representation in RCBNS Form for Arithmetic Operations and Conversion of the Result into Standard Binary Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Zaini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available paper introduces a novel method for complex number representation. The proposed Redundant Complex Binary Number System (RCBNS is developed by combining a Redundant Binary Number and a complex number in base (-1+j. Donald [1] and Walter Penny [2,3] represented complex numbers using base –j and (-1+j in the classified algorithmic models. A Redundant Complex Binary Number System consists of both real and imaginary-radix number systems that form a redundant integer digit set. This system is formed by using complex radix of (-1+j and a digit set of á= 3, where á assumes a value of -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3. The arithmetic operations of complex numbers with this system treat the real and imaginary parts as one unit. The carry-free addition has the advantage of Redundancy in number representation in the arithmetic operations. Results of the arithmetic operations are in the RCBNS form. The two methods for conversion from the RCBNS form to the standard binary number form have been presented. In this paper the RCBNS reduces the number of steps required to perform complex number arithmetic operations, thus enhancing the speed.

  18. Standard operating procedure for air quality stationary source management at Air Force installations in the Air Force Materiel Command

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, C.M.; Ryckman, S.J. [Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Environmental Compliance Branch

    1997-12-31

    To sustain compliance and avoid future enforcement actions associated with air quality stationary sources and to provide installation commanders with a certification process for Title V permitting, and Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Stationary Source Management has been developed. The SOP consists of two major sections: Stationary Source Planning and Administration, and Stationary Source Operations These two main sections are further subdivided into twelve subsections which delineate requirements (e.g. maintaining inventories, applying for and maintaining permits, keeping records, reporting and certifying compliance) and assign ownership of processes and responsibilities (e.g. appointing a manager/alternate for each identified stationary air source). In addition, the SOP suggests training that should be provided from operator to commander levels to ensure that all personnel involved with a stationary air source are aware of their responsibilities. Implementation of the SOP should provide for the essential control necessary for installation commanders to eliminate stationary air source non-compliance and to certify compliance in accordance with the Title V Operating Permit requirements. This paper will discuss: the background and purpose for the SOPs content, the twelve subsections of the SOP, the success of implementation at various installations, the relevance or the recommended training, the success of negotiating with various labor unions for SOP implementation and the success of the SOP in reference to its intended purpose.

  19. Operation of a quantum dot in the finite-state machine mode: Single-electron dynamic memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klymenko, M. V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Liège, B4000 Liège (Belgium); Klein, M. [The Fritz Haber Center for Molecular Dynamics and the Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Levine, R. D. [The Fritz Haber Center for Molecular Dynamics and the Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging and Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Remacle, F., E-mail: fremacle@ulg.ac.be [Department of Chemistry, University of Liège, B4000 Liège (Belgium); The Fritz Haber Center for Molecular Dynamics and the Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-07-14

    A single electron dynamic memory is designed based on the non-equilibrium dynamics of charge states in electrostatically defined metallic quantum dots. Using the orthodox theory for computing the transfer rates and a master equation, we model the dynamical response of devices consisting of a charge sensor coupled to either a single and or a double quantum dot subjected to a pulsed gate voltage. We show that transition rates between charge states in metallic quantum dots are characterized by an asymmetry that can be controlled by the gate voltage. This effect is more pronounced when the switching between charge states corresponds to a Markovian process involving electron transport through a chain of several quantum dots. By simulating the dynamics of electron transport we demonstrate that the quantum box operates as a finite-state machine that can be addressed by choosing suitable shapes and switching rates of the gate pulses. We further show that writing times in the ns range and retention memory times six orders of magnitude longer, in the ms range, can be achieved on the double quantum dot system using experimentally feasible parameters, thereby demonstrating that the device can operate as a dynamic single electron memory.

  20. Operation of a quantum dot in the finite-state machine mode: Single-electron dynamic memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klymenko, M. V.; Klein, M.; Levine, R. D.; Remacle, F.

    2016-01-01

    A single electron dynamic memory is designed based on the non-equilibrium dynamics of charge states in electrostatically defined metallic quantum dots. Using the orthodox theory for computing the transfer rates and a master equation, we model the dynamical response of devices consisting of a charge sensor coupled to either a single and or a double quantum dot subjected to a pulsed gate voltage. We show that transition rates between charge states in metallic quantum dots are characterized by an asymmetry that can be controlled by the gate voltage. This effect is more pronounced when the switching between charge states corresponds to a Markovian process involving electron transport through a chain of several quantum dots. By simulating the dynamics of electron transport we demonstrate that the quantum box operates as a finite-state machine that can be addressed by choosing suitable shapes and switching rates of the gate pulses. We further show that writing times in the ns range and retention memory times six orders of magnitude longer, in the ms range, can be achieved on the double quantum dot system using experimentally feasible parameters, thereby demonstrating that the device can operate as a dynamic single electron memory.

  1. Numerical investigation of refrigeration machine compressor operation considering single-phase electric motor dynamic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidak, Y.; Smyk, V.

    2017-08-01

    Using as the base the differential equations system which was presented in relative units for generalized electric motor of hermetic refrigeration compressor, mathematical model of the software for dynamic performance calculation of refrigeration machine compressors drive low-power asynchronous motors was developed. Performed on its ground calculations of the basic model of two-phase electric motor drive of hermetic compressor and the proposed newly developed model of the motor with single-phase stator winding, which is an alternative to the industrial motor winding, have confirmed the benefits of the motor with innovative stator winding over the base engine. Given calculations of the dynamic characteristics of compressor drive motor have permitted to determine the value of electromagnetic torque swinging for coordinating compressor and motor mechanical characteristics, and for taking them into consideration in choosing compressor elements construction materials. Developed and used in the process of investigation of refrigeration compressor drive asynchronous single-phase motor mathematical and software can be considered as an element of computer-aided design system for design of the aggregate of refrigeration compression unit refrigerating machine.

  2. Biobanking human endometrial tissue and blood specimens: standard operating procedure and importance to reproductive biology research and diagnostic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Elizabeth; Vo, Kim Chi; McIntire, Ramsey A; Aghajanova, Lusine; Zelenko, Zara; Irwin, Juan C; Giudice, Linda C

    2011-05-01

    To develop a standard operating procedure (SOP) for collection, transport, storage of human endometrial tissue and blood samples, subject and specimen annotation, and establishing sample priorities. The SOP synthesizes sound scientific procedures, the literature on ischemia research, sample collection and gene expression profiling, good laboratory practices, and the authors' experience of workflow and sample quality. The National Institutes of Health, University of California, San Francisco, Human Endometrial Tissue and DNA Bank. Women undergoing endometrial biopsy or hysterectomy for nonmalignant indications. Collecting, processing, storing, distributing endometrial tissue and blood samples under approved institutional review board protocols and written informed consent from participating subjects. Standard operating procedure. The SOP addresses rigorous and consistent subject annotation, specimen processing and characterization, strict regulatory compliance, and a reference for researchers to track collection and storage times that may influence their research. The comprehensive and systematic approach to the procurement of human blood and endometrial tissue in this SOP ensures the high quality, reliability, and scientific usefulness of biospecimens made available to investigators by the National Institutes of Health, University of California, San Francisco, Human Endometrial Tissue and DNA Bank. The detail and perspective in this SOP also provides a blueprint for implementation of similar collection programs at other institutions. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tunable single and dual mode operation of an external cavity quantum-dot injection laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biebersdorf, A [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Physics Department and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Amalienstrasse 54, D-80799 Munich (Germany); Lingk, C [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Physics Department and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Amalienstrasse 54, D-80799 Munich (Germany); De Giorgi, M [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Physics Department and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Amalienstrasse 54, D-80799 Munich (Germany); Feldmann, J [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Physics Department and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Amalienstrasse 54, D-80799 Munich (Germany); Sacher, J [Sacher Lasertechnik GmbH, Hannah Arendt Strasse 3-7, D-35037 Marburg (Germany); Arzberger, M [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ulbrich, C [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Boehm, G [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Amann, M-C [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Abstreiter, G [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2003-08-21

    We investigate quantum-dot (QD) lasers in an external cavity using Littrow and Littman configurations. Here, we report on a continuously tunable QD laser with a broad tuning range from 1047 to 1130 nm with high stability and efficient side mode suppression. The full-width at half-maximum of the laser line is 0.85 nm determined mainly by the quality of the external grating. This laser can be operated in a dual-mode modus, where the mode-spacing can be tuned continuously between 1.1 and 34 nm. Simultaneous emission of the two laser modes is shown by sum frequency generation experiments.

  4. How much can a single webcam tell to the operation of a water system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea; Fedorov, Roman; Fraternali, Piero

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances in environmental monitoring are making a wide range of hydro-meteorological data available with a great potential to enhance understanding, modelling and management of environmental processes. Despite this progress, continuous monitoring of highly spatiotemporal heterogeneous processes is not well established yet, especially in inaccessible sites. In this context, the unprecedented availability of user-generated data on the web might open new opportunities for enhancing real-time monitoring and modeling of environmental systems based on data that are public, low-cost, and spatiotemporally dense. In this work, we focus on snow and contribute a novel crowdsourcing procedure for extracting snow-related information from public web images, either produced by users or generated by touristic webcams. A fully automated process fetches mountain images from multiple sources, identifies the peaks present therein, and estimates virtual snow indexes representing a proxy of the snow-covered area. The operational value of the obtained virtual snow indexes is then assessed for a real-world water-management problem, where we use these indexes for informing the daily control of a regulated lake supplying water for multiple purposes. Numerical results show that such information is effective in extending the anticipation capacity of the lake operations, ultimately improving the system performance. Our procedure has the potential for complementing traditional snow-related information, minimizing costs and efforts for obtaining the virtual snow indexes and, at the same time, maximizing the portability of the procedure to several locations where such public images are available.

  5. High energy, single frequency, tunable laser source operating in burst mode for space based lidar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Alberto; Mondello, Alessia; Sapia, Adalberto; D'Ottavi, Alessandro; Brotini, Mauro; Nava, Enzo; Stucchi, Emanuele; Trespidi, Franco; Mariottini, Cristina; Wazen, Paul; Falletto, Nicolas; Fruit, Michel

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the laser transmitter assembly used in the ALADIN instrument currently in C/D development phase for the ESA ADM-AEOLUS mission (EADS Astrium as prime contractor for the satellite and the instrument). The Laser Transmitter Assembly (TXA), based on a diode pumped tripled Nd:YAG laser, is used to generate tunable laser pulses of 150 mJ at a nominal wavelength of 355 nm. This laser is operated in burst mode, with a pulse repetition cycle of 100 Hz. The TXA is composed of the following units: a diodepumped CW Nd:YAG Laser named Reference Laser Head (RLH), used to inject a diode-pumped, Q-switched, amplified and frequency tripled Nd:YAG Laser working in the third harmonic referred as Power Laser Head (PLH) and a Transmitter Laser Electronics (TLE) containing all the control and power electronics needed for PLH and RLH operation. The TXA is made by an European consortium under the leadership of Galileo Avionica (It), and including CESI (It), Quantel (Fr), TESAT (Ge) and Thales (Fr).

  6. Operative Treatment of Hepatic Hydatid Cysts: A Single Center Experience in Israel, a Nonendemic Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Daniel; Greif, Franklin; Chen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Background. Hydatid cyst disease is a zoonosis caused by Echinococcus genera. The disease is endemic to certain rural areas in the world. Operative treatment is the main component in curing hydatid cysts of the liver. Objective. Describing the unique characteristics of the hydatid cyst patients in Israel, a nonendemic country. Methods. Data was collected form 29 patients treated operatively in Rabin Medical Center from 1994 to 2007. Results. The study included 18 females and 11 males with an average age of 54.9 years. Fifty-two% of the patients immigrated as children from Arab countries to Israel, 21% were Arab-Israelis leaving in the north and center of Israel, and 24% immigrated from the former Communist Bloc. Pericystectomy was performed in 20/29, and cyst unroofing was performed in 9/29. Hydatid cysts average size was 10.7 cm, and the cysts were located in the right or left or involved both lobes in 62%, 28%, and 10% of the lesions, respectively. Postoperative mortality occurred in one case, and severe morbidity occurred in 4 patients. Conclusions. Hydatid cyst disease in Israel is uncommon and is mostly seen in distinct 3 demographic groups. Despite the relatively low patient volume, good results in terms of morbidity, mortality, and recurrence were achieved. PMID:24175100

  7. Single-longitudinal-mode Er:GGG microchip laser operating at 2.7  μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhenyu; Wang, Yan; Xu, Jinlong; Zhu, Zhaojie; Li, Jianfu; Wang, Hongyan; Tu, Chaoyang

    2015-08-15

    We reported on a diode-end-pumped single-longitudinal-mode microchip laser using a 600-μm-thick Er:GGG crystal at ∼2.7  μm, generating a maximum output power of 50.8 mW and the maximum pulsed energy of 0.306 mJ, with repetition rates of pumping light of 300, 200, and 100 Hz, respectively. The maximum slope efficiency of the laser was 20.1%. The laser was operated in a single-longitudinal mode centered at about 2704 nm with a FWHM of 0.42 nm. The laser had a fundamental beam profile and the beam quality parameter M(2) was measured as 1.46. These results indicate that the Er:GGG microchip laser is a potential compact mid-infrared laser source.

  8. First year's operation experience of the deepest SPM (Single Point Mooring) in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.L.; Hughes, H.; Dyer, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    The British National Oil Corp. had a Single Anchor Leg Mooring (SALM) installed at the Thistle Field in Apr. 1977 for export loading of tankers pending completion of the Brent System 36 in. pipeline to Sullom-Voe, which became operational in Dec. 1978; the SALM will continue to be maintained in good condition as a standby alternative export outlet. Modification of the original three 80,000 dwt tankers during 1977 provided the original design capacity of an 80,000 dwt tanker, but with added clean ballast capacity to eliminate tank cleaning and treatment of dirty ballast water. A fully integrated tanker/SALM/platform instrumentation system monitors mooring loads, buoy and riser angles, and tanker status; the latter being radio telemetered to the nearby block platform. Operation of the system and necessary modifications are described.

  9. Performance of a residential heat pump operating in the cooling mode with single faults imposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsung; Payne, W. Vance; Domanski, Piotr A.; Yoon, Seok Ho; Hermes, Christian J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The system behavior of a R410A residential unitary split heat pump operating in the cooling mode was investigated. Seven artificial faults were implemented: compressor/reversing valve leakage, improper outdoor air flow, improper indoor air flow, liquid line restriction, refrigerant undercharge, refrigerant overcharge, and presence of non-condensable gas in the refrigerant. This study monitored eight fault detection features and identified the most sensitive features for each fault. The effect of the various fault levels on energy efficiency ratio (EER) was also estimated. Since the studied system employed a thermostatic expansion valve (TXV) as an expansion device, it could adapt to some faults making the fault less detectable. The distinctiveness of the fault depended on the TXV status (fully open or not)

  10. The Usability Analysis of Different Standard Single-Mode Optical Fibers and Its Installation Methods for the Interferometric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Cubik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With optical fibers we are able to measure a variety of physical quantities. Optical fiber sensors sensitive to the change of the light phase, so-called interferometers referred in this article are one of the most sensitive sensors. Because we are able to detect phase changes with extreme precision, these sensors are thus suitable for demanding applications, where cost is not the main requirement. We have used the Mach-Zehnder configuration. The paper deals with the usage of different types of standard single-mode optical fibers in the civil engineering as an integrated acoustic sensor. Further experiments are focused on the different types of fiber installation methods, such as placement in the mounting foam, into the polystyrene or attachment onto the wooden surface and their effect on the measurements. Through the repeated measurements of harmonic frequencies were obtained information about the usable frequency range and sensitivity of the particular arrangement. Measurement was performed for both cases, where the specific type of fiber or specifically installed fiber was used as the measurement or as the reference. The final evaluation is based both on the experience gained during measurements and also using the statistical calculations.

  11. A retrospective wound review of standard four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy: is there need for single-port laparoscopic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkhouse, S J W; Court, E L; Beard, L A; Bunni, J; Burgess, P

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the satisfaction or otherwise of a proportion of the U.K. population who have undergone standard four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy within the past 18 months. The results should indicate whether there is potential demand for a new, improved approach to surgery. Patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy between October 2008 and October 2009 in two geographically separated general hospitals were identified from hospital databases. Notes were reviewed to confirm the technique and lack of conversion to an open procedure. Those who had immediate complications were excluded. A telephone questionnaire was conducted to answer questions related to long-term cosmetic and general satisfaction of the current procedure. Of the patients surveyed, 93% were happy or extremely happy with the current procedure, 48% experienced some wound-related issues (pain, infection), and 65% of those were at the umbilicus (a possible reflection of location and retrieval site for gallbladder). Cosmesis was rated less important than hospital cleanliness and experience of the surgeon. Overall satisfaction was high with the existing technique. The high rate of umbilical wound problems is an issue that will not be eradicated by introduction of single-port laparoscopic surgery.

  12. Analysis of the learning curve for peroral endoscopic myotomy for esophageal achalasia: Single-center, two-operator experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Houning; Zhao, Ningning; Zheng, Zhongqing; Wang, Tao; Yang, Fang; Jiang, Xihui; Lin, Lin; Sun, Chao; Wang, Bangmao

    2017-05-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has emerged as an advanced technique for the treatment of achalasia, and defining the learning curve is mandatory. From August 2011 to June 2014, two operators in our institution (A&B) carried out POEM on 35 and 33 consecutive patients, respectively. Moving average and cumulative sum (CUSUM) methods were used to analyze the POEM learning curve for corrected operative time (cOT), referring to duration of per centimeter myotomy. Additionally, perioperative outcomes were compared among distinct learning curve phases. Using the moving average method, cOT reached a plateau at the 29th case and at the 24th case for operators A and B, respectively. CUSUM analysis identified three phases: initial learning period (Phase 1), efficiency period (Phase 2) and mastery period (Phase 3). The relatively smooth state in the CUSUM graph occurred at the 26th case and at the 24th case for operators A and B, respectively. Mean cOT of distinct phases for operator A were 8.32, 5.20 and 3.97 min, whereas they were 5.99, 3.06 and 3.75 min for operator B, respectively. Eckardt score and lower esophageal sphincter pressure significantly decreased during the 1-year follow-up period. Data were comparable regarding patient characteristics and perioperative outcomes. This single-center study demonstrated that expert endoscopists with experience in esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection reached a plateau in learning of POEM after approximately 25 cases. © 2016 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  13. Development and operational performance of a single calibration chamber for radon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Coto, I.; Bolivar, J.P.; Mas, J.L.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Vargas, A.

    2007-01-01

    This work shows the design, setup and performance of a new single radon detector calibration chamber developed at the University of Huelva (Environmental Radioactivity Group). This system is based on a certified radon source and a traceable reference radon detector, which allows radon concentrations inside the chamber radon to be obtained in steady-state conditions within a range of 400-22 000 Bq m -3 with associated uncertainties in the range of 4%. In addition, the development of a new ad hoc calibration protocol (UHU-RC/01/06 'Rachel'), which is based on the modelling of radon concentration within the chamber, allows it to be used without the reference detector. To do that, a complete characterization and calibration of the different leakage constants and the flow meter reading have been performed. The accuracy and general performance of both working methods for the same chamber (i.e., with and without the reference detector) have been tested by means of their participation in an intercomparison exercise involving five active radon monitors

  14. A novel L-shaped linear ultrasonic motor operating in a single resonance mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bailiang; Yao, Zhiyuan; Liu, Zhen; Li, Xiaoniu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a large thrust linear ultrasonic motor using an L-shaped stator is described. The stator is constructed by two mutually perpendicular rectangular plate vibrators, one of which is mounted in parallel with the slider to make the motor structure to be more compact. The symmetric and antisymmetric modes of the stator based on the first order bending vibration of two vibrators are adopted, in which each resonance mode is assigned to drive the slider in one direction. The placement of piezoelectric ceramics in a stator could be determined by finite element analysis, and the influence of slots in the head block on the vibration amplitudes of driving foot was studied as well. Three types of prototypes (non-slotted, dual-slot, and single-slot) were fabricated and experimentally investigated. Experimental results demonstrated that the prototype with one slot exhibited the best mechanical output performance. The maximum loads under the excitation of symmetric mode and antisymmetric mode were 65 and 90 N, respectively.

  15. Optimizing reproducibility of operant testing through reinforcer standardization: identification of key nutritional constituents determining reward strength in touchscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Woo; Phillips, Benjamin U; Heath, Christopher J; Cho, So Yeon; Kim, Hyunjeong; Sreedharan, Jemeen; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Jong Eun; Bussey, Timothy J; Kim, Chul Hoon; Kim, Eosu; Saksida, Lisa M

    2017-07-17

    Reliable and reproducible assessment of animal learning and behavior is a central aim of basic and translational neuroscience research. Recent developments in automated operant chamber technology have led to the possibility of universal standard protocols, in addition to increased translational potential, reliability and accuracy. However, the impact of regional and national differences in the supplies of available reinforcers in this system on behavioural performance and inter-laboratory variability is an unknown and at present uncontrolled variable. Therefore, we aimed to identify which constituent(s) of the reward determines reinforcer strength to enable improved standardization of this parameter across laboratories. Male C57BL/6 mice were examined in the touchscreen-based fixed ratio (FR) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules, reinforced with different kinds of milk-based reinforcers to directly compare the incentive values of plain milk (PM, high-calorie: high-fat/low-sugar), strawberry-flavored milk (SM, high-calorie: low-fat/high-sugar), and semi-skimmed low-fat milk (LM, low-calorie: low-fat/low-sugar) on the basis of differences in caloric content, sugar/fat content, and flavor. Use of a higher caloric content reward was effective in increasing operant training acquisition rate. Total trial number completed in FR and breakpoint in PR were higher using the two isocaloric milk products (PM and SM) than the lower caloric LM, with comparable outcomes between PM and SM conditions, suggesting that total caloric content determines reward strength. Analysis of within-session changes in response rate revealed that overall outputs in FR and PR primarily depend on the response rate at the initial phase of a session, which itself was dependent on reinforcer caloric content. Interestingly, the rate of satiation, indicated by decay in response rate within a FR session, was highest when reinforced with SM, suggesting a rapid satiating effect of sugar. The key contribution

  16. Standardizing operational vector sampling techniques for measuring malaria transmission intensity: evaluation of six mosquito collection methods in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jacklyn; Bayoh, Nabie; Olang, George; Killeen, Gerry F; Hamel, Mary J; Vulule, John M; Gimnig, John E

    2013-04-30

    Operational vector sampling methods lack standardization, making quantitative comparisons of malaria transmission across different settings difficult. Human landing catch (HLC) is considered the research gold standard for measuring human-mosquito contact, but is unsuitable for large-scale sampling. This study assessed mosquito catch rates of CDC light trap (CDC-LT), Ifakara tent trap (ITT), window exit trap (WET), pot resting trap (PRT), and box resting trap (BRT) relative to HLC in western Kenya to 1) identify appropriate methods for operational sampling in this region, and 2) contribute to a larger, overarching project comparing standardized evaluations of vector trapping methods across multiple countries. Mosquitoes were collected from June to July 2009 in four districts: Rarieda, Kisumu West, Nyando, and Rachuonyo. In each district, all trapping methods were rotated 10 times through three houses in a 3 × 3 Latin Square design. Anophelines were identified by morphology and females classified as fed or non-fed. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were further identified as Anopheles gambiae s.s. or Anopheles arabiensis by PCR. Relative catch rates were estimated by negative binomial regression. When data were pooled across all four districts, catch rates (relative to HLC indoor) for An. gambiae s.l (95.6% An. arabiensis, 4.4% An. gambiae s.s) were high for HLC outdoor (RR = 1.01), CDC-LT (RR = 1.18), and ITT (RR = 1.39); moderate for WET (RR = 0.52) and PRT outdoor (RR = 0.32); and low for all remaining types of resting traps (PRT indoor, BRT indoor, and BRT outdoor; RR < 0.08 for all). For Anopheles funestus, relative catch rates were high for ITT (RR = 1.21); moderate for HLC outdoor (RR = 0.47), CDC-LT (RR = 0.69), and WET (RR = 0.49); and low for all resting traps (RR < 0.02 for all). At finer geographic scales, however, efficacy of each trap type varied from district to district. ITT, CDC-LT, and WET appear to be effective methods for large-scale vector sampling in

  17. Standard Operating Procedure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...) plastic collection bag system. Red blood cell concentrates stored at 4 C in the 800 ml primary plastic collection bag can be biochemically modified to increase the red cell 2,3 DPG and ATP levels...

  18. Sexual Desire and Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder in Women. Introduction and Overview. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP Part 1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitzer, Johannes; Giraldi, Annamaria; Pfaus, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Introduction.  Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition as persistent or recurrent deficiency (or absence) of sexual fantasies/thoughts, and/or desire for or receptivity to sexual activity, which causes personal......-factor models (e.g., excitation-inhibition, appetitive-consummatory) or more specific multifactorial models (in which the different components of sexual activity and their interaction are delineated). The etiology of the disorder is generally considered as multifactorial. Biomedical factors like diseases, drugs...... must be based on a biopsychosocial, multidimensional, and integrative perspective. Bitzer J, Giraldi A, and Pfaus J. Sexual desire and hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women. Introduction and overview. Standard operating procedure (SOP part 1). J Sex Med **;**:**-**....

  19. Design of standard operating procedure production proceses (case study on the home industry Bedugul Baturiti Tabanan Bali)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiani; Suhantono, Djoko; Mirah Kencanawati, AAA

    2018-01-01

    Candikuning is part of the district of Baturiti, tourism village, better known by the name of Bedugul. No less interesting is the variety of chips produced by two partner groups as a souvenir after the tour, such as Chips: Spinach; beans; Tempeh. The purpose of this research were to design a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP): Production Processes on the Home Industry Bedugul Baturiti Tabanan Bali. The data technic collected use: observation; Documentation; and then interview to collect information. The data analysis technic done by using the Miles & Huberman. Result this research that the draft SOP: Production Processes Chips (Menu). The conclusion in this research SOP Production Processes use with flowchart and description on the Home Industry Bedugul Baturiti Tabanan Bali.

  20. Standard Operating Procedures, ethical and legal regulations in BTB (Brain/Tissue/Bio) banking: what is still missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Rivka

    2008-06-01

    The use of human biological specimens in scientific research is the focus of current international public and professional concern and a major issue in bioethics in general. Brain/Tissue/Bio banks (BTB-banks) are a rapid developing sector; each of these banks acts locally as a steering unit for the establishment of the local Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and the legal regulations and ethical guidelines to be followed in the procurement and dissemination of research specimens. An appropriat Code of Conduct is crucial to a successful operation of the banks and the research application they handle. What are we still missing ? (1) Adequate funding for research BTB-banks. (2) Standard evaluation protocls for audit of BTB-bank performance. (3) Internationally accepted SOP's which will facilitate exchange and sharing of specimens and data with the scientific community. (4) Internationally accepted Code of Conduct. In the present paper we review the most pressing organizational, methodological, medico-legal and ethical issues involved in BTB-banking; funding, auditing, procurement, management/handling, dissemination and sharing of specimens, confidentiality and data protection, genetic testing, "financial gain" and safety measures. Taking into consideration the huge variety of the specimens stored in different repositories and the enormous differences in medico-legal systems and ethics regulations in different countries it is strongly recommend that the health-care systems and institutions who host BTB-Banks will put more efforts in getting adequate funding for the infrastructure and daily activities. The BTB-banks should define evaluation protocols, SOPs and their Code of Conduct. This in turn will enable the banks to share the collected specimens and data with the largest possible number of researchers and aim at a maximal scientific spin-off and advance in public health research.

  1. Standard Operating Procedures, ethical and legal regulations in BTB (Brain/Tissue/Bio) banking: what is still missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Rivka

    2008-09-01

    The use of human biological specimens in scientific research is the focus of current international public and professional concern and a major issue in bioethics in general. Brain/Tissue/Bio banks (BTB-banks) are a rapid developing sector; each of these banks acts locally as a steering unit for the establishment of the local Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and the legal regulations and ethical guidelines to be followed in the procurement and dissemination of research specimens. An appropriat Code of Conduct is crucial to a successful operation of the banks and the research application they handle. What are we still missing ? (1) Adequate funding for research BTB-banks. (2) Standard evaluation protocls for audit of BTB-bank performance. (3) Internationally accepted SOP's which will facilitate exchange and sharing of specimens and data with the scientific community. (4) Internationally accepted Code of Conduct. In the present paper we review the most pressing organizational, methodological, medico-legal and ethical issues involved in BTB-banking; funding, auditing, procurement, management/handling, dissemination and sharing of specimens, confidentiality and data protection, genetic testing, "financial gain" and safety measures. Taking into consideration the huge variety of the specimens stored in different repositories and the enormous differences in medico-legal systems and ethics regulations in different countries it is strongly recommend that the health-care systems and institutions who host BTB-Banks will put more efforts in getting adequate funding for the infrastructure and daily activities. The BTB-banks should define evaluation protocols, SOPs and their Code of Conduct. This in turn will enable the banks to share the collected specimens and data with the largest possible number of researchers and aim at a maximal scientific spin-off and advance in public health research.

  2. Methodological Study to Develop Standard Operational Protocol on Intramuscular (IM, Intradermal (ID and Subcutaneous Drug Administration for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Bijarania

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medicine administration is a major role played by registered nurses. Medicines are prescribed by the physician and dispensed by the pharmacist but responsibility for meticulous administration rests with the registered nurse. It becomes even more important when drugs are to be administered to children. Drug administration via Intramuscular (IM, Intradermal (ID and Subcutaneous route is a complex process. Errors are associated with medicine administration. Aim: The objective of this study was to develop Standard Operational Protocol (SOP for IM, ID and Subcutaneous drug administration and checklist to assess the implementation of the developed SOP. Materials and Methods: A methodological research design adapted to carry out the present study to develop standard operational protocol for IM, ID and subcutaneous drug administration for children, admitted in Advanced Paediatric Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. The study included 58 bedside nurses and 90 observations of medicine administration procedure. Results: The Content Validity Index (CVI was prepared to assess the validity of content (items of SOPs and checklists. Over all Cronbach's-alpha values was calculated to assess the internal consistency of Items in SOPs and checklists. CVI of SOP and checklists were 98.51%, 97.83% and 99.03%. Over all Cronbach'salpha values were calculated 0.96, 0.82 and 0.95. All the nurses felt that SOPs are useful. Conclusion: Valid and feasible SOPs for drug administration in children along with valid and reliable checklists were developed. It is recommended to use this document for drug administration in children to prevent any possible error during drug administration to children.

  3. Task performance in standard laparoscopy in comparison with single-incision laparoscopy in a modified skills trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew S; Khandelwal, Saurabh

    2016-08-01

    Single-incision laparoscopy (SIL) is similar to conventional laparoscopic surgery (LAP), but carries specific technical challenges due to lack of triangulation, reduced dexterity, conflicts due to inline instrumentation, and impaired visualization. This study was designed to evaluate technical skill performance of SIL versus LAP surgery in a simulated environment. We developed a modified laparoscopic skills trainer for SIL based upon the fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) model. This includes a standard laparoscopic tower for visualization, allowing replication of the conflicts between scope and instruments. It also has a modified trainer box allowing use of different access devices and instruments for SIL. Sixteen subjects at different levels of training (novice through expert) completed four FLS tasks with standard LAP techniques. They then practiced the same tasks using SIL technique until they reached a steady state of performance. The first and last SIL trials were recorded. Baseline SIL peg transfer was worse than FLS (254 ± 157 s vs 99 ± 27, p < 0.0002). Final SIL time was still significantly worse than FLS (173 ± 130, p < 0.02). FLS, baseline SIL, and final SIL circle cutting were not significantly different (p = 0.058). Final SIL loop ligation was significantly faster than FLS (48 ± 19 vs 70 ± 42, p < 0.05). FLS suturing was faster than SIL suturing (281 ± 188 vs. 526 ± 105, p < 0.01). There was substantial dropout due to frustration with SIL, and only two surgeons were able to successfully complete SIL suturing. There are technical challenges with SIL that vary depending on task. Peg transfer and suturing were significantly impaired in SIL, while circle cutting was not significantly affected, and ligating loop was faster with SIL than LAP. These challenges may impact clinical outcomes of SIL and should influence training in SIL as well as future product development.

  4. Raising the quality of rheumatology management recommendations: lessons from the EULAR process 10 years after provision of standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colebatch-Bourn, Alexandra N; Conaghan, Philip G; Arden, Nigel K; Cooper, Cyrus; Dougados, Maxime; Edwards, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    To increase understanding of how to raise the quality of rheumatology guidelines by reviewing European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) management recommendations, using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument, 10 years after publication of the EULAR standardized operating procedures (SOP) for the production of recommendations. It was hoped that this work could help inform improvements in guideline development by other societies and organizations. The SOP were published in 2004 to ensure the quality of EULAR-endorsed recommendations. We reviewed 27 published EULAR recommendations for management using the AGREE II tool. This provides a framework to assess the quality of guidelines across six broad domains using 23 specific questions. Overall the EULAR recommendations reviewed have been performed to a high standard. There are particular strengths in the methodology and presentation of the guidelines; however, the results indicate areas for development in future recommendations: in particular, stakeholder involvement and applicability of the recommendations. Improvements in quality were evident in recent years, with patient representation in 9 of 15 (60.0%) recommendations published 2010-14 compared with 4 of 12 (33.3%) published 2000-09. In the last 10 years the overall quality of recommendations was good, with standards improving over the decade following publication of the SOP. However, this review process has identified potential areas for improvement, especially in patient representation and provision of implementation tools. The lessons from this work can be applied to the development of rheumatology guidelines by other societies and organizations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Chemical Treatment - Lime Precipitation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasek, Al, Jr.

    This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary chemical treatment - lime precipitation process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. In addition, some theoretical material is presented along with some relevant…

  6. Operative and Oncologic Outcomes in 9861 Patients with Operable Breast Cancer: Single-Institution Analysis of Breast Conservation with Oncoplastic Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stacey A; Lyons, Genevieve R; Kuerer, Henry M; Bassett, Roland L; Oates, Scott; Thompson, Alastair; Caudle, Abigail S; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Lucci, Anthony; DeSnyder, Sarah M; Babiera, Gildy; Yi, Min; Baumann, Donald P; Clemens, Mark W; Garvey, Patrick B; Hunt, Kelly K; Hwang, Rosa F

    2016-10-01

    Oncoplastic reconstruction is an approach that enables patients with locally advanced or adversely located tumors to undergo breast conserving surgery (BCS). The objectives were to identify the use of BCS with oncoplastic reconstruction (BCS + R) and determine the operative and oncologic outcomes compared with other breast surgical procedures for breast cancer. This retrospective cohort study interrogated a single institution's prospectively maintained databases to identify patients who underwent surgery for breast cancer between 2007 and 2014. Surgeries were categorized as BCS, BCS + R, total mastectomy (TM), or TM with immediate reconstruction (TM + R). Demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics and postoperative complications were analyzed. There were 10,607 operations performed for 9861 patients. Median follow-up was 3.4 years (range, 0-9.1 years). The use of BCS + R had a nearly fourfold increase in the percentage of all breast cancer surgeries during the study period; 75 % of patients who underwent BCS + R had a T1 or T2 tumor. There was no difference in the use of BCS + R compared with BCS for any quadrant of the breast except the lower outer quadrant (11.1 vs. 6.8 %; p < .0001). BCS + R had a lower rate of seroma formation (13.4 vs. 18 %; p = .002) and positive or close margins compared with BCS (5.8 vs. 8.3 %; p = .04). There was no difference in overall survival or recurrence-free survival when comparing BCS and BCS + R. Patients undergoing BCS + R are not disadvantaged in terms of complications and short-term (3-year) outcomes compared with BCS patients or patients who underwent TM.

  7. Single temperature liquefaction process at different operating pHs to improve ethanol production from Indian rice and corn feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, V; Ranganathan, K; Duan, G

    2017-04-21

    Conventional grain ethanol manufacturing is a high-temperature energy-intensive process comprising of multiple-unit operations when combined with lower ethanol recovery results in higher production cost. In liquefaction, jet cooking accounts for significant energy cost, while strong acid or base used for pH adjustment presents a safety hazard. A need is felt for sustainable ethanol manufacturing process that is less hazardous, consumes lower energy, and operates in a low pH range of 4.50-5.50. A single temperature liquefaction (STL) process that could efficiently operate at lower liquefaction temperature over a pH range of 4.50-5.50 was developed using rice and corn feedstock. Ethanol recovery witnessed at pH 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 are 481.2 ± 1.5, 492.4 ± 1.5, and 493.6 ± 1.5 L MT -1 rice, respectively. Similarly, ethanol recovery witnessed at pH 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 are 404.6 ± 1.3, 413.9 ± 0.8, and 412.4 ± 1.8 L MT -1 corn, respectively. The improvement in ethanol recovery is attributed to higher starch conversion by alpha-amylase even at pH as low as 4.50. Thus, the STL process operated at pH lower than 5.20 is poised to enhance sustainability by offering dual advantage of energy as well as chemical saving.

  8. The Israeli EA-FEL Upgrade Towards Long Pulse Operation for Ultra-High Resolution Single Pulse Coherent Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A; Kanter, M; Kapilevich, B; Litvak, B; Peleg, S; Socol, Y; Volshonok, M

    2005-01-01

    The Israeli Electrostatic Accelerator FEL (EA-FEL) is now being upgraded towards long pulse (1005s) operation and ultra-high resolution (10(-6)) single pulse coherent spectroscopy. We present quantitative estimations regarding the applications of controlled radiation chirp for spectroscopic applications with pulse-time Fourier Transform limited spectral resolution. Additionally, we describe a novel extraction-efficiency-improving scheme based on increase of accelerating voltage (boosting) after saturation is achieved. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is confirmed by theoretical and numerical calculations. The latter are performed using software, based on 3D space-frequency domain model. The presentation provides an overview of the upgrade status: the high-voltage terminal is being reconfigured to accept the accelerating voltage boost system; a new broad band low-loss resonator is being manufactured; multi-stage depressed collector is assembled.

  9. Single Spatial-Mode Room-Temperature-Operated 3.0 to 3.4 micrometer Diode Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frez, Clifford F.; Soibel, Alexander; Belenky, Gregory; Shterengas, Leon; Kipshidze, Gela

    2010-01-01

    Compact, highly efficient, 3.0 to 3.4 m light emitters are in demand for spectroscopic analysis and identification of chemical substances (including methane and formaldehyde), infrared countermeasures technologies, and development of advanced infrared scene projectors. The need for these light emitters can be currently addressed either by bulky solid-state light emitters with limited power conversion efficiency, or cooled Interband Cascade (IC) semiconductor lasers. Researchers here have developed a breakthrough approach to fabrication of diode mid-IR lasers that have several advantages over IC lasers used for the Mars 2009 mission. This breakthrough is due to a novel design utilizing the strain-engineered quantum-well (QW) active region and quinternary barriers, and due to optimization of device material composition and growth conditions (growth temperatures and rates). However, in their present form, these GaSb-based laser diodes cannot be directly used as a part of sensor systems. The device spectrum is too broad to perform spectroscopic analysis of gas species, and operating currents and voltages are too high. In the current work, the emitters were fabricated as narrow-ridge waveguide index-guided lasers rather than broad stripe-gain guided multimode Fabry-Perot (FP) lasers as was done previously. These narrow-ridge waveguide mid-IR lasers exhibit much lower power consumptions, and can operate in a single spatial mode that is necessary for demonstration of single-mode distributed feedback (DBF) devices for spectroscopic applications. These lasers will enable a new generation of compact, tunable diode laser spectrometers with lower power consumption, reduced complexity, and significantly reduced development costs. These lasers can be used for the detection of HCN, C2H2, methane, and ethane.

  10. A safety equipment list for rotary mode core sampling systems operation in single shell flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMALLEY, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies all interim safety equipment to be used for rotary mode core sampling of single-shell flammable gas tanks utilizing Rotary Mode Core Sampling systems (RMCS). This document provides the safety equipment for RMCS trucks HO-68K-4600, HO-68K-4647, trucks three and four respectively, and associated equipment. It is not intended to replace or supersede WHC-SD-WM-SEL-023, (Kelly 1991), or WHC-SD-WM-SEL-032, (Corbett 1994), which classifies 80-68K-4344 and HO-68K-4345 respectively. The term ''safety equipment'' refers to safety class (SC) and safety significant (SS) equipment, where equipment refers to structures, systems and components (SSC's). The identification of safety equipment in this document is based on the credited design safety features and analysis contained in the Authorization Basis (AB) for rotary mode core sampling operations in single-shell flammable gas tanks. This is an interim safety classification since the AB is interim. This document will be updated to reflect the final RMCS equipment safety classification designations upon completion of a final AB which will be implemented with the release of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

  11. Stable Operation and Electricity Generating Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Free Piston Engine Linear Generator: Simulation and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel design of a single-cylinder free piston engine linear generator (FPELG incorporating a linear motor as a rebound device. A systematic simulation model of this FPELG system was built containing a kinematic and dynamic model of the piston and mover, a magneto-electric model of the linear generator, a thermodynamic model of the single-cylinder engine, and a friction model between the piston ring and cylinder liner. Simulations were performed to understand the relationships between pre-set motor parameters and the running performance of the FPELG. From the simulation results, it was found that a motor rebound force with a parabolic profile had clear advantages over a force with a triangular profile, such as a higher running frequency and peak cylinder pressure, faster piston motion, etc. The rebound position and the amplitude of rebound force were also determined by simulations. The energy conversion characteristics of the generator were obtained from our FPELG test rig. The parameters of intake pressure, motor frequency, and load resistance were varied over certain ranges, and relationships among these three parameters were obtained. The electricity-generating characteristic parameters include output power and system efficiency, which can measure the quality of matching the controllable parameters. The output power can reach 25.9 W and the system efficiency can reach 13.7%. The results in terms of matching parameters and electricity-generating characteristics should be useful to future research in adapting these engines to various operating modes.

  12. An operational approach to standard nuclear process model (SNPM) and SAP nuclear software implementation at Slovenske Elektrarne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Benchmarking efforts in the fall of 2006 showed significant performance gaps in multiple measured processes between the Slovenske Elektrarne (SE) nuclear organization and the highest performing nuclear organizations in the world. While overall performance of the SE nuclear fleet was good and in the second quartile, when compared to the worldwide population of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), SE leadership set new goals to improve safety and operational performance to the first decile of the worldwide PWR Fleet. To meet these goals the SE nuclear team initiated a project to identify and implement the Best Practice nuclear processes in multiple areas. The benchmarking process identified the Standard Nuclear Performance Model (SNPM), used in the US nuclear fleet, as the industry best practice process model. The Slovenske Elektrarne nuclear management team used various change management techniques to clearly establish the case for organizational and process change within the nuclear organization. The project organization established by the SE nuclear management team relied heavily on functional line organization personnel to gain early acceptance of the project goals and methods thereby reducing organizational opposition to the significant organizational and process changes. The choice of a standardized process model used, all or in part, by approximately one third of the nuclear industry worldwide greatly facilitated the development and acceptance of the changes. Use of a nuclear proven templated software platform significantly reduced development and testing efforts for the resulting fully integrated solution. In the spring of 2007 SE set in motion a set of initiatives that has resulted in a significant redesign of most processes related to nuclear plant maintenance and continuous improvement. Significant organizational structure changes have been designed and implemented to align the organization to the SNPM processes and programs. The completion of the initial

  13. Validation of standard operating procedures in a multicenter retrospective study to identify -omics biomarkers for chronic low back pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Dagostino

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain (CLBP is one of the most common medical conditions, ranking as the greatest contributor to global disability and accounting for huge societal costs based on the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Large genetic and -omics studies provide a promising avenue for the screening, development and validation of biomarkers useful for personalized diagnosis and treatment (precision medicine. Multicentre studies are needed for such an effort, and a standardized and homogeneous approach is vital for recruitment of large numbers of participants among different centres (clinical and laboratories to obtain robust and reproducible results. To date, no validated standard operating procedures (SOPs for genetic/-omics studies in chronic pain have been developed. In this study, we validated an SOP model that will be used in the multicentre (5 centres retrospective "PainOmics" study, funded by the European Community in the 7th Framework Programme, which aims to develop new biomarkers for CLBP through three different -omics approaches: genomics, glycomics and activomics. The SOPs describe the specific procedures for (1 blood collection, (2 sample processing and storage, (3 shipping details and (4 cross-check testing and validation before assays that all the centres involved in the study have to follow. Multivariate analysis revealed the absolute specificity and homogeneity of the samples collected by the five centres for all genetics, glycomics and activomics analyses. The SOPs used in our multicenter study have been validated. Hence, they could represent an innovative tool for the correct management and collection of reliable samples in other large-omics-based multicenter studies.

  14. Standardized postoperative handover process improves outcomes in the intensive care unit: a model for operational sustainability and improved team performance*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Hemant S; Saville, Benjamin R; Slayton, Jennifer M; Donahue, Brian S; Daves, Suanne; Christian, Karla G; Bichell, David P; Harris, Zena L

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether structured handover tool from operating room to pediatric cardiac intensive care unit following cardiac surgery is associated with a reduction in the loss of information transfer and an improvement in the quality of communication exchange. In addition, whether this tool is associated with a decrease in postoperative complications and an improvement in patient outcomes in the first 24 hrs of pediatric cardiac intensive care unit stay. Prospective observational clinical study. Pediatric cardiac intensive care unit of an academic medical center. Pediatric cardiac surgery patients over a 3-yr period. Evaluation of communication and patients studied for two time periods: verbal handover (July 2007-June 2009) and structured handover (July 2009-June 2010). None. Two anonymous surveys administered to the entire clinical team of the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit evaluated loss of information transfer for each of the two handover processes. Quality of structured handover tool was evaluated by Likert scale responses in the second survey. Patient complications including cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mediastinal reexploration, placement on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, development of severe metabolic acidosis, and number of early extubations in the first 24-hr pediatric cardiac intensive care unit stay were compared for the two time periods. Survey results showed the general opinion that the structured handover tool was of excellent quality to enhance communication (Likert scale: 4.4 ± 0.7). In addition, the tool was associated with a significant reduction (p < .001) in loss of information for every category of patient clinical care including patient, preoperative, anesthesia, operative, and postoperative details and laboratory values. Patient data revealed significant decrease (p < .05) for three of the four major complications studied and a significant increase (p < .04) in the number of early extubations following introduction of our

  15. A simulator investigation of the use of digital data link for pilot/ATC communications in a single pilot operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, David A.; Lohr, Gary W.

    1988-01-01

    Studies have shown that radio communications between pilots and air traffic control contribute to high pilot workload and are subject to various errors. These errors result from congestion on the voice radio channel, and missed and misunderstood messages. The use of digital data link has been proposed as a means of reducing this workload and error rate. A critical factor, however, in determining the potential benefit of data link will be the interface between future data link systems and the operator of those systems, both in the air and on the ground. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the pilot interface with various levels of data link capability, in simulated general aviation, single-pilot instrument flight rule operations. Results show that the data link reduced demands on pilots' short-term memory, reduced the number of communication transmissions, and permitted the pilots to more easily allocate time to critical cockpit tasks while receiving air traffic control messages. The pilots who participated unanimously indicated a preference for data link communications over voice-only communications. There were, however, situations in which the pilot preferred the use of voice communications, and the ability for pilots to delay processing the data link messages, during high workload events, caused delays in the acknowledgement of messages to air traffic control.

  16. Projected interaction picture of field operators and memory superoperators. A master equation for the single-particle Green's function in a Liouville space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinberg, H.

    1983-11-01

    The projection operator method of Zwanzig and Feshbach is used to construct the time-dependent field operators in the interaction picture. The formula developed to describe the time dependence involves time-ordered cosine and sine projected evolution (memory) superoperators, from which a master equation for the interaction-picture single-particle Green's function in a Liouville space is derived. (author)

  17. Standard operating procedures for pre-analytical handling of blood and urine for metabolomic studies and biobanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernini, Patrizia; Bertini, Ivano; Luchinat, Claudio; Nincheri, Paola; Staderini, Samuele; Turano, Paola

    2011-01-01

    1 H NMR metabolic profiling of urine, serum and plasma has been used to monitor the impact of the pre-analytical steps on the sample quality and stability in order to propose standard operating procedures (SOPs) for deposition in biobanks. We analyzed the quality of serum and plasma samples as a function of the elapsed time (t = 0−4 h) between blood collection and processing and of the time from processing to freezing (up to 24 h). The stability of the urine metabolic profile over time (up to 24 h) at various storage temperatures was monitored as a function of the different pre-analytical treatments like pre-storage centrifugation, filtration, and addition of the bacteriostatic preservative sodium azide. Appreciable changes in the profiles, reflecting changes in the concentration of a number of metabolites, were detected and discussed in terms of chemical and enzymatic reactions for both blood and urine samples. Appropriate procedures for blood derivatives collection and urine preservation/storage that allow maintaining as much as possible the original metabolic profile of the fresh samples emerge, and are proposed as SOPs for biobanking.

  18. Standard operating procedures for pre-analytical handling of blood and urine for metabolomic studies and biobanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernini, Patrizia; Bertini, Ivano, E-mail: bertini@cerm.unifi.it; Luchinat, Claudio [University of Florence, Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) (Italy); Nincheri, Paola; Staderini, Samuele [FiorGen Foundation (Italy); Turano, Paola [University of Florence, Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    {sup 1}H NMR metabolic profiling of urine, serum and plasma has been used to monitor the impact of the pre-analytical steps on the sample quality and stability in order to propose standard operating procedures (SOPs) for deposition in biobanks. We analyzed the quality of serum and plasma samples as a function of the elapsed time (t = 0-4 h) between blood collection and processing and of the time from processing to freezing (up to 24 h). The stability of the urine metabolic profile over time (up to 24 h) at various storage temperatures was monitored as a function of the different pre-analytical treatments like pre-storage centrifugation, filtration, and addition of the bacteriostatic preservative sodium azide. Appreciable changes in the profiles, reflecting changes in the concentration of a number of metabolites, were detected and discussed in terms of chemical and enzymatic reactions for both blood and urine samples. Appropriate procedures for blood derivatives collection and urine preservation/storage that allow maintaining as much as possible the original metabolic profile of the fresh samples emerge, and are proposed as SOPs for biobanking.

  19. Evaluasi Penerapan Standard Operating Procedure-Good Agriculture Practice (SOP-GAP pada Usahatani Padi Organik di Kabupaten Bantul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriyadi Sriyadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Food security has meaning not only the availability of adequate food, but also providing security for producers and consumers and ensuring environmental sustainability for sustainable production. Organic farming systems are expected to solve the problem for realizing food security and enhancement of people's welfare. The results of research indicated that, (1 The implementation level of Standard Operating Procedure-Good Agriculture Practice (SOP-GAP of Organic Rice Farming in Bantul district was quite high, (2 The implementation level of SOP-GAP of Organic Rice Farming related to the availability of capital, the selling price and the purchase price of inputs (seeds and fertilizers, (3 The level of the farmer's decision related to the implementation level of SOP-GAP of organic rice farming, and (4 development of organic rice farming required availability of sufficient capital. In this regard the government, particularly the agriculture authority and food security agency need to disburse or facilitate capital for farmers in revolving as well as low interest loans.

  20. Correlation study among the International Atomic Energy Agency standards and market standards on management system applicable to a UF6 conversion plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Dirceu Paulo de

    2008-01-01

    The Agency - International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), following the market trend of the management system integration, has decided to revise the quality assurance standards - IAEA 50-C/SG-Q publishing, in 2006, the standard on Management System (MS). IAEA GS-R-3 and its IAEA GS-G-3.1 guide. Also, the IAEA is about to publish a supplementary guide - IAEA DS349, which consider the integration of several functions involved in management of nuclear facilities, such as: safety, health, environmental and quality, ensuring that nuclear safety is not compromised. Conversion plants of 'Yellowcake' in UF 6 use and process radioactive materials, as well as other substances normally found in the chemical conventional industry, inserting themselves in the organization profile that require a high pattern of definition, implementation and continuous improvement of their MS and, therefore, should consider an approach of management integrated system (MIS). Taking a UF 6 conversion plant as focus, the correlation was performed among the Agency MS standards and those of the market - ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001, as well as with the Agency drafts standards on safety (DS316 and DS344), concluding that, in structuring an MIS, in compliance with the Agency MS standards, except for some adjustments, the ISO 9001, ISO 14001, and OHSAS 18001 are going to be met. On the other hand, the structuring of MIS should identify other requirements on safety, health and environmental, which also consider the conventional chemical and industrial characteristics that are out of the scope (ionizing radiation) of the safety standards of the Agency. The research proposes a documental procedure for a MIS applicable to this plant, providing elements for rationalization and contents of the identified documentation, for the promotion of the integration of the considered MS functions. (author)

  1. Truck Rollover Characterization for Class-8 Tractor-Trailers Utilizing Standard Dual Tires and New-Generation Single Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capps, Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Knee, Bill [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Franzese, Oscar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Pollock, Paul [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Coleman, Daniel [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Janajreh, Ibrahim [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Haas, Steven [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Frey, Norm [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Law, Harry [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Johnson, Eric [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Lawson, Robert [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Petrolino, Joe [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Rice, Dave [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2005-07-30

    The Heavy Truck Rollover Characterization Project is a major research effort conducted by the National Transportation Research Center, Inc. (NTRCI) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Dana Corporation (Dana), Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation (Michelin) and Clemson University (Clemson), under the NTRCIs Heavy Vehicle Safety Research Center (HVSRC) for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). ORNL provided the day-to-day management of the project. The expertise mix of this team coupled with complementary research needs and interests, and a positive can-do attitude provided an extremely positive experimental research opportunity for all involved. Furthermore, this team supplied significant and valuable resources that provided a strong positive benchmark regarding the ability to conduct research within a public-private partnership. The work conducted by this team focused on initial efforts to generate data and information on heavy truck rollover not currently available in the industry. It reflects efforts within Phases 1 and 2 of a longer-term four-phase research program. A 1999 Peterbilt 379 class-8 tractor and 2004 Wabash dry freight van trailer were the test vehicles utilized in this effort. Both were instrumented with a number of sensors to capture the dynamics of the tractor and trailer as it engaged in various testing maneuvers that included: an evasive maneuver, swept sine, constant radius, and a run-off-the-road maneuver. The run-off-the-road maneuver was discontinued because the test track could not safety accommodate such a maneuver. These maneuvers were carried out utilizing both standard dual tires and new-generation dual tires in six test series. Two test series also included the use of a wider-slider suspension. Outriggers were placed on the test vehicle to assure that an actual rollover would not occur, however, the tests were designed to generate lift-off of tires during the tests. One of the main objectives

  2. Superconducting single-photon detectors designed for operation at 1.55-μm telecommunication wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milostnaya, I; Korneev, A; Rubtsova, I; Seleznev, V; Minaeva, O; Chulkova, G; Okunev, O; Voronov, B; Smirnov, K; Gol'tsman, G; Slysz, W; Wegrzecki, M; Guziewicz, M; Bar, J; Gorska, M; Pearlman, A; Kitaygorsky, J; Cross, A; Sobolewski, Roman

    2006-01-01

    We report on our progress in development of superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs), specifically designed for secure high-speed quantum communications. The SSPDs consist of NbN-based meander nanostructures and operate at liquid helium temperatures. In general, our devices are capable of GHz-rate photon counting in a spectral range from visible light to mid-infrared. The device jitter is 18 ps and dark counts can reach negligibly small levels. The quantum efficiency (QE) of our best SSPDs for visible-light photons approaches a saturation level of ∼30-40%, which is limited by the NbN film absorption. For the infrared range (1.55μm), QE is ∼6% at 4.2 K, but it can be significantly improved by reduction of the operation temperature to the 2-K level, when QE reaches ∼20% for 1.55-μm photons. In order to further enhance the SSPD efficiency at the wavelength of 1.55 μm, we have integrated our detectors with optical cavities, aiming to increase the effective interaction of the photon with the superconducting meander and, therefore, increase the QE. A successful effort was made to fabricate an advanced SSPD structure with an optical microcavity optimized for absorption of 1.55 μm photons. The design consisted of a quarter-wave dielectric layer, combined with a metallic mirror. Early tests performed on relatively low-QE devices integrated with microcavities, showed that the QE value at the resonator maximum (1.55-μm wavelength) was of the factor 3-to-4 higher than that for a nonresonant SSPD. Independently, we have successfully coupled our SSPDs to single-mode optical fibers. The completed receivers, inserted into a liquid-helium transport dewar, reached ∼1% system QE for 1.55 μm photons. The SSPD receivers that are fiber-coupled and, simultaneously, integrated with resonators are expected to be the ultimate photon counters for optical quantum communications

  3. Prototype readout system for a multi Mpixels UV single-photon imaging detector capable of space flight operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seljak, A.; Cumming, H. S.; Varner, G.; Vallerga, J.; Raffanti, R.; Virta, V.

    2018-02-01

    Our collaboration works on the development of a large aperture, high resolution, UV single-photon imaging detector, funded through NASA's Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program. The detector uses a microchannel plate for charge multiplication, and orthogonal cross strip (XS) anodes for charge readout. Our target is to make an advancement in the technology readiness level (TRL), which enables real scale prototypes to be tested for future NASA missions. The baseline detector has an aperture of 50×50 mm and requires 160 low-noise charge-sensitive channels, in order to extrapolate the incoming photon position with a spatial resolution of about 20 μm FWHM. Technologies involving space flight require highly integrated electronic systems operating at very low power. We have designed two ASICs which enable the construction of such readout system. First, a charge sensitive amplifier (CSAv3) ASIC provides an equivalent noise charge (ENC) of around 600 e-, and a baseline gain of 10 mV/fC. The second, a Giga Sample per Second (GSPS) ASIC, called HalfGRAPH, is a 12-bit analog to digital converter. Its architecture is based on waveform sampling capacitor arrays and has about 8 μs of analog storage memory per channel. Both chips encapsulate 16 measurement channels. Using these chips, a small scale prototype readout system has been constructed on a FPGA Mezzanine Board (FMC), equipped with 32 measurement channels for system evaluation. We describe the construction of HalfGRAPH ASIC, detector's readout system concept and obtained results from the prototype system. As part of the space flight qualification, these chips were irradiated with a Cobalt gamma-ray source, to verify functional operation under ionizing radiation exposure.

  4. Impact of coil price knowledge by the operator on the cost of aneurysm coiling. A single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finitsis, Stephanos; Fahed, Robert; Gaulin, Ian; Roy, Daniel; Weill, Alain

    2017-09-15

    Endovascular treatment of aneurysms with coils is among the most frequent treatments in interventional neuroradiology, and represents an important expense. Each manufacturer has created several types of coils, with prices varying among brands and coil types. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of cost awareness of the exact price of each coil by the operating physician on the total cost of aneurysm coiling. This was a comparative study conducted over 1 year in a single tertiary care center. The reference cohort and the experimental cohort consisted of all aneurysm embolization procedures performed during the first 6 months and the last 6 months, respectively. During the second period, physicians were given an information sheet with the prices of all available coils and were requested to look at the sheet during each procedure with the instruction to try to reduce the total cost of the coils used. Expenses related to the coiling procedures during each period were compared. 77 aneurysms (39 ruptured) in the reference cohort and 73 aneurysms (36 ruptured) in the experimental cohort were treated, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference regarding aneurysm location and mean size. The overall cost of the coiling procedures, the mean number of coils used per procedure, and the median cost of each procedure did not differ significantly between the two cohorts. Awareness of the precise price of coils by operators without any additional measure did not have a scientifically proven impact on the cost of aneurysm embolization. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. PFGE standard operating procedures for Listeria monocytogenes: harmonizing the typing of food and clinical strains in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelon, Damien; Félix, Benjamin; Vingadassalon, Noemie; Mariet, Jean-François; Larsson, Jonas T; Møller-Nielsen, Eva; Roussel, Sophie

    2015-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen responsible for a severe disease known as listeriosis. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) coordinates a network of national public health laboratories (NPHLs) in charge of typing clinical strains. In food, it is the European Union Reference Laboratory for L. monocytogenes (EURL Lm), which manages a network of National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). A pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) standard operating procedure (EURL SOP) has been used routinely at the EURL Lm since 2007. The EURL Lm has recommended that NRLs use the EURL SOP, whereas the Statens Serum Institut (SSI), under contract for ECDC, requested that NPHLs use Halpins' SOP (HSOP) published in 2010 for the PulseNet USA network. An update of Halpins' SOP (uHSOP) was published in 2013. To facilitate the exchange of profiles among human and food European reference laboratories, it is crucial to ensure that the PFGE profiles obtained with these different SOPs are comparable. The aim here was to compare the EURL SOP with HSOP and uHSOP. The panel comprised 114 well-characterized SSI/EURL strains. All were characterized at the EURL using both the EURL SOP and uHSOP. Seventy of the 114 strains were also characterized at the SSI using HSOP. The EURL SOP and uHSOP produced indistinguishable combined (ApaI/AscI) profiles for the 114 strains tested. The EURL SOP and HSOP produced indistinguishable combined profiles for 69 of the 70 strains tested. One strain displayed for the AscI profile an additional low-intensity band at 184 kbp with HSOP. For this strain, SSI and EUR Lm had already observed the same profile from NPHLs and NRLs. However, this deviation is minor as it accounted for about 1% of all the 114 combined profiles. This study should facilitate the exchange of reproducible PFGE profiles among human and food reference laboratories.

  6. Potential Advantages of a Single-Port, Operator-Controlled Flexible Endoscope System for Transoral Surgery of the Larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Daniel T; Scheithauer, Marc O; Greve, Jens; Duvvuri, Uma; Sommer, Fabian; Hoffmann, Thomas K; Schuler, Patrick J

    2015-08-01

    Transoral surgery of the larynx is commonly performed with a rigid laryngoscope, a microscope, and a laser. We investigated the potential utility of a flexible, single-port, robot-assisted and physician-controlled endoscopic system to enable easy, transoral surgical access to the larynx. Transoral laryngeal surgery was performed in human cadavers (n = 4) using the Flex System and compatible flexible instruments. Anatomical landmarks were identified, and mock surgical procedures were performed. Standard laryngeal surgical procedures were completed successfully in a human cadaver model. The built-in HD digital camera enabled high-quality visualization of the larynx. Epiglottectomy, as well as posterior cordectomy, were performed by laser and radio-frequency resection. The flexible design of the compatible tools enabled a nontraumatic approach. The Flex System has the potential to improve surgical access to the larynx, especially in patients with challenging anatomy. The associated flexible instruments enabled completion of surgical procedures in the larynx in a human cadaveric model. Further clinical studies, as well as the development of supplemental technology and tools, are recommended for future clinical applications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Information Technology Management: Report on Standard Finance System Controls Placed in Operation and Tests of Operating Effectiveness for the Period October 1, 2004 through March 31, 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... Department of Defense personnel who manage and use the Standard Finance System (STANFINS) will also find this report of interest as it contains information about STANFINS general and application controls...

  8. Intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 administered by high single-dose infusions or standard medical care for the treatment of fatigue in women after postpartum haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Charlotte; Thomsen, Lars Lykke; Norgaard, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    randomised controlled studies have compared the clinical efficacy and safety of standard medical care with intravenous administration of iron supplementation after postpartum haemorrhage.The primary objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of an intravenous high single-dose of iron isomaltoside...... medical care. Healthy parturients with a singleton pregnancy will be included within 48 hours after delivery.Participants will complete structured questionnaires that focus on several dimensions of fatigue and mental health (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale...... Inventory. The primary objective will be considered to have been met if an intravenous high single dose of iron isomaltoside 1000 is shown to be superior to standard medical care in women after postpartum haemorrhage regarding physical fatigue.For claiming superiority, we set the minimal clinically relevant...

  9. Sharps and Needlestick Injuries Among Medical Students, Surgical Residents, Faculty, and Operating Room Staff at a Single Academic Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Lynn Y; Torres, Rosalicia; Syed, Sohail; Boyle, Sean; Ata, Ashar; Beyer, Todd D; Rosati, Carl

    The hospital is a place of high risk for sharps and needlestick injuries (SNI) and such injuries are historically underreported. This institutional review board approved study compares the incidence of SNI among all surgical personnel at a single academic institution via an anonymous electronic survey distributed to medical students, surgical residents, general surgery attendings, surgical technicians, and operating room nurses. The overall survey response rate was 37% (195/528). Among all respondents, 55% (107/195) had a history of a SNI in the workplace. The overall report rate following an initial SNI was 64%. Surgical staff reported SNIs more frequently, with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.33 (p = 0.085) when compared with attendings. When compared with surgical attendings, medical students (IRR of 2.86, p = 0.008) and residents (IRR of 2.21, p = 0.04) were more likely to cite fear as a reason for not reporting SNIs. Approximately 65% of respondents did not report their exposure either because of the time consuming process or the patient involved was perceived to be low-risk or both. The 2 most common reasons for not reporting SNIs at our institution are because of the inability to complete the time consuming reporting process and fear of embarrassment or punitive response because of admitting an injury. Further research is necessary to mitigate these factors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The outcome after aortic valve-sparing (David) operation in 179 patients: a single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontyev, Sergey; Trommer, Constanze; Subramanian, Sreekumar; Lehmann, Sven; Dmitrieva, Yaroslava; Misfeld, Martin; Mohr, Friedrich W; Borger, Michael A

    2012-08-01

    The David aortic valve-sparing reimplantation (AVr-D) operation is increasingly being used in patients with aortic root aneurysmal disease and pliable aortic cusps. The objective of this study was to assess our early and medium-term outcomes with the AVr-D operation. Between 2003 and 2011, a total of 179 patients underwent AVr-D procedures. The mean patient age was 49.7 ± 15.1 years, and 23.5% (n = 42) were females. Marfan syndrome was present in 17.3% of patients (n = 31), and acute Type A aortic dissection in 15.6% (n = 28). Clinical follow-up was 100% complete and was 1.8 ± 1.6 years (0 days to 7.5 years) long. Echocardiographic follow-up was performed 2.2 ± 1.5 years (0 days to 7.5 years) postoperatively and was 77% complete. Early mortality was 1.1% (n = 2), with both deaths occurring in patients with Type A dissection. Pre-discharge echocardiography revealed no patients with >2+ aortic insufficiency (AI), 19.6% of patients (n = 34) with 1+ or 2+ AI and 80.4% of patients (n = 145) with trace or no AI. Left ventricular end-diastolic diameters decreased significantly from 5.6 ± 0.9 to 5.1 ± 0.8 cm early postoperatively (P valve re-replacement during follow-up, two due to early endocarditis and two due to non-coronary leaflet prolapse in Marfan patients. Five-year freedom from aortic valve reoperation was 95.9 ± 2.0%. AVr-D is associated with a low mortality and morbidity rate, even in patients with Type A aortic dissection. Although a slightly higher rate of recurrent AI may be present in patients with Marfan syndrome, freedom from recurrent AI and reoperation remains excellent during medium-term follow-up. The David operation should be considered the gold standard for patients with proximal aortic root pathology (aneurysm or dissection) and pliable aortic cusps.

  11. Standardized reporting of adverse events after microvascular decompression of cranial nerves; a population-based single-institution consecutive series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartek, Jiri; Gulati, Sasha; Unsgård, Geirmund

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequencies of adverse events occurring within 30 days after microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery using a standardized report form of adverse events. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 98 adult patients (≥16 years) treated with MVD between 1 January 199...

  12. Alignment of single-case design (SCD) research with individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing with the what Works Clearinghouse standards for SCD research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Erica; Cawthon, Stephanie W; Ge, Jin Jin; Beretvas, S Natasha

    2015-04-01

    The authors assessed the quality of single-case design (SCD) studies that assess the impact of interventions on outcomes for individuals who are deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH). More specifically, the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards for SCD research were used to assess design quality and the strength of evidence of peer-reviewed studies available in the peer-reviewed, published literature. The analysis yielded four studies that met the WWC standards for design quality, of which two demonstrated moderate to strong evidence for efficacy of the studied intervention. Results of this review are discussed in light of the benefits and the challenges to applying the WWC design standards to research with DHH individuals and other diverse, low-incidence populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Is There a Cosmetic Advantage to Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgical Techniques Over Standard Laparoscopic Surgery? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Luke; Manley, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery represents an evolution of minimally invasive techniques, but has been a controversial development. A cosmetic advantage is stated by many authors, but has not been found to be universally present or even of considerable importance by patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrates that there is a cosmetic advantage of the technique regardless of the operation type. The treatment effect in terms of cosmetic improvement is of the order of 0.63.

  14. Increasing cDNA yields from single-cell quantities of mRNA in standard laboratory reverse transcriptase reactions using acoustic microstreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Wah Chin; Petkovic-Duran, Karolina; Zhu, Yonggang; Manasseh, Richard; Horne, Malcolm K; Aumann, Tim D

    2011-07-11

    Correlating gene expression with cell behavior is ideally done at the single-cell level. However, this is not easily achieved because the small amount of labile mRNA present in a single cell (1-5% of 1-50 pg total RNA, or 0.01-2.5 pg mRNA, per cell) mostly degrades before it can be reverse transcribed into a stable cDNA copy. For example, using standard laboratory reagents and hardware, only a small number of genes can be qualitatively assessed per cell. One way to increase the efficiency of standard laboratory reverse transcriptase (RT) reactions (i.e. standard reagents in microliter volumes) comprising single-cell amounts of mRNA would be to more rapidly mix the reagents so the mRNA can be converted to cDNA before it degrades. However this is not trivial because at microliter scales liquid flow is laminar, i.e. currently available methods of mixing (i.e. shaking, vortexing and trituration) fail to produce sufficient chaotic motion to effectively mix reagents. To solve this problem, micro-scale mixing techniques have to be used. A number of microfluidic-based mixing technologies have been developed which successfully increase RT reaction yields. However, microfluidics technologies require specialized hardware that is relatively expensive and not yet widely available. A cheaper, more convenient solution is desirable. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate how application of a novel "micromixing" technique to standard laboratory RT reactions comprising single-cell quantities of mRNA significantly increases their cDNA yields. We find cDNA yields increase by approximately 10-100-fold, which enables: greater numbers of genes to be analyzed per cell; more quantitative analysis of gene expression; and better detection of low-abundance genes in single cells. The micromixing is based on acoustic microstreaming, a phenomenon where sound waves propagating around a small obstacle create a mean flow near the obstacle. We have developed an acoustic microstreaming

  15. Diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure to sulfur mustard: Development of a standard operating procedure for hemoglobin adducts: Exploratory research on albumin and keratin adducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Schans, G.P. van der; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    A standard operating procedure (SOP) for determination of the sulfur mustard adduct to the N-terminal valine in hemoglobin was developed. By using this SOP, it was found that the Nterminal valine adduct in globin of hairless guinea pigs and marmosets which had been exposed to sulfur mustard (0.5

  16. Diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure to sulfur mustard: Development of a standard operating procedure for mass spectrometric analysis of haemoglobin adducts - Exploratory research on albumin and keratin adducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to develop a standard operating procedure for analysis of sulfur mustard adducts to the N-terminal valine in haemoglobin and to explore adduct formation with albumin and keratin. In the first approach, gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization/mass spectrometry

  17. Towards mouse models of perseveration: a heritable component in extinction of operant behavior in fourteen standard and recombinant inbred mouse lines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malkki, H.A.I.; Donga, L.A.B.; de Groot, S.E.; Brussaard, A.B.; Borst, J.G.G.; Elgersma, J.W.; Galjart, N.; van der Horst, G.T.; Levelt, C.N.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Smit, A.B.; Spruijt, B.M.; Verhage, M.; de Zeeuw, C.I.; Battaglia, F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Extinction of instrumental responses is an essential skill for adaptive behavior such as foraging. So far, only few studies have focused on extinction following appetitive conditioning in mice. We studied extinction of appetitive operant lever-press behavior in six standard inbred mouse strains

  18. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Activated Sludge - Aeration & Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, George J.

    This guide for developing standard operating job procedures for wastewater treatment facilities is devoted to the activated sludge aeration and sedimentation process. This process is for conversion of nonsettleable and nonfloatable materials in wastewater to settleable, floculated biological groups and separation of the settleable solids from the…

  19. Authorization for change in operating standards, 221 and 224 Building, pertaining to process changes during the period March 1, 1951--December 1, 1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailor, W.C.

    1952-12-02

    Since the issuance of HW-17398, Separations Section Operating Standards - Part I relating to the Bismuth Phosphate Process on March 1, 1951, several changes in the process have been found desirable and have been reduced to practice. This document presents these changes.

  20. American National Standard administrative controls and quality assurance for the operational phase of nuclear power plants, revision of N18.7-1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This Standard provides requirements and recommendations for an administrative controls and quality assurance program necessary to provide assurance that operational phase activities at nuclear power plants are carried out without undue risk to the health and safety of the public. The requirements of this Standard apply to all activities affecting the safety-related functions of nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components. It is not intended to apply to test mobile and experimental reactors nor reactors not subject to U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing. However, applicable sections of this Standard should be used as they apply to related activities. Activities included are: design changes, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, inspecting, testing, operating, maintaining, repairing, refueling and modifying

  1. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative detection of five genetically modified rice events using a single standard reference molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Park, Saet-Byul; Roh, Hyo-Jeong; Shin, Min-Ki; Moon, Gui-Im; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2017-07-01

    One novel standard reference plasmid, namely pUC-RICE5, was constructed as a positive control and calibrator for event-specific qualitative and quantitative detection of genetically modified (GM) rice (Bt63, Kemingdao1, Kefeng6, Kefeng8, and LLRice62). pUC-RICE5 contained fragments of a rice-specific endogenous reference gene (sucrose phosphate synthase) as well as the five GM rice events. An existing qualitative PCR assay approach was modified using pUC-RICE5 to create a quantitative method with limits of detection correlating to approximately 1-10 copies of rice haploid genomes. In this quantitative PCR assay, the square regression coefficients ranged from 0.993 to 1.000. The standard deviation and relative standard deviation values for repeatability ranged from 0.02 to 0.22 and 0.10% to 0.67%, respectively. The Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (Korea) validated the method and the results suggest it could be used routinely to identify five GM rice events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Single-operator cholangioscopy in patients requiring evaluation of bile duct disease or therapy of biliary stones (with videos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang K; Parsi, Mansour A; Binmoeller, Kenneth F; Hawes, Robert H; Pleskow, Douglas K; Slivka, Adam; Haluszka, Oleh; Petersen, Bret T; Sherman, Stuart; Devière, Jacques; Meisner, Søren; Stevens, Peter D; Costamagna, Guido; Ponchon, Thierry; Peetermans, Joyce A; Neuhaus, Horst

    2011-10-01

    The feasibility of single-operator cholangioscopy (SOC) for biliary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures was previously reported. To confirm the utility of SOC in more widespread clinical use. Prospective clinical cohort study. Fifteen endoscopy referral centers in the United States and Europe. Two hundred ninety-seven patients requiring evaluation of bile duct disease or biliary stone therapy. SOC examination and, as indicated, SOC-directed stone therapy or forceps biopsy. Procedural success defined as ability to (1) visualize target lesions and, if indicated, collect biopsy specimens adequate for histological evaluation or (2) visualize biliary stones and initiate fragmentation and removal. The overall procedure success rate was 89% (95% CI, 84%-92%). Adequate tissue for histological examination was secured in 88% of 140 patients who underwent biopsy. Overall sensitivity in diagnosing malignancy was 78% for SOC visual impression and 49% for SOC-directed biopsy. Sensitivity was higher (84% and 66%, respectively) for intrinsic bile duct malignancies. Diagnostic SOC procedures altered clinical management in 64% of patients. Procedure success was achieved in 92% of 66 patients with stones and complete stone clearance during the study SOC session in 71%. The incidence of serious procedure-related adverse events was 7.5% for diagnostic SOC and 6.1% for SOC-directed stone therapy. The study was observational in design with no control group. Evaluation of bile duct disease and biliary stone therapy can be safely performed with a high success rate by using the SOC system. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Operative outcomes of single-port-access laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy compared with single-port-access total laparoscopic hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sung Yoon

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: SPA-TLH with laparoscopic vaginal suture required the longest operating time, and hemoglobin changes were smaller in the SPA-LAVH group than in the other groups. In patients undergoing SPA laparoscopy, we recommend the SPA-LAVH procedure.

  4. On the existence and uniqueness problems of solutions for set-valued and single-valued nonlinear operator equations in probabilistic normed spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Sen Chang

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the concept of more general probabilistic contractors in probabilistic normed spaces and show the existence and uniqueness of solutions for set-valued and single-valued nonlinear operator equations in Menger probabilistic normed spaces.

  5. An operational protocol for facilitating start-up of single-stage autotrophic nitrogen-removing reactors based on process stoichiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutlu, Ayten Gizem; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    Start-up and operation of single-stage nitritation–anammox sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for completely autotrophic nitrogen removal can be challenging and far from trivial. In this study, a step-wise procedure is developed based on stoichiometric analysis of the process performance from...

  6. Simultaneous determination of multiple sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin herbal medicines and related products with one single reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing-Jing; An, Yue-Wei; Hu, Guang; Yin, Guo-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2013-02-06

    Some Curcuma species are widely used as herbal medicines. Sesquiterpenes are their important bioactive compounds and their quantitative analysis is generally accomplished by gas chromatography (GC) or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), but the instability and high cost of some sesquiterpene reference standards have limited their application. It is necessary to find a practicable means to control the quality of herbal medicines. Using one stable component contained in Curcuma species to determine multiple analogues should be a practical option. In this study, a simple HPLC method for determination of sesquiterpenes using relative response factors (RRFs) has been developed. The easily available and stable active component curdione was selected as the reference compound for calculating the RRFs of the other eight sesquiterpenes, including zedoarondiol (Zedo), isozedoarondiol (Isoz), aerugidiol (Aeru), (4S,5S)-(+)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide (Epox), curcumenone (Curc), neocurdione (Neoc), germacrone (Germ) and furanodiene (Fura). Their RRFs against curdione were between 0.131-1.301, with a good reproducibility. By using the RRFs, the quantification of sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin herbal medicines and related products was carried out. The method is especially useful for the determination of (4S,5S)-(+)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide, curcumenone, germacrone and furanodiene, which often are regarded as the principle components in Curcuma species, but unstable when were purified. It is an ideal means to analyze the components for which reference standards are not readily available.

  7. Standard operational radiation protection instructions for process instrumentation and control engineering applying radiometric equipment containing sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    According to article 16(3) of the Ordinance on the Implementation of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection of 11 October 1984, operational radiation protection instructions have to be worked out for each type of nuclear energy application. Based on the valid legal provisions of the GDR and on experience and knowledge gained in practice, the most important operational instructions and procedures for the operation of radiometric equipment containing sealed sources were compiled. The example should enable the management to make the instructions directly applicable and, if necessary, to modify or supplement them

  8. 25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accountability of sales versus inventory; (iii) Card games, including but not limited to, card games operation... MICS procedures for gaming machines that accept currency or coin(s) and issue cash-out tickets or...

  9. 25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accountability of sales versus inventory; (iii) Card games, including but not limited to, card games operation... MICS procedures for gaming machines that accept currency or coin(s) and issue cash-out tickets or...

  10. Analysis and meta-analysis of single-case designs with a standardized mean difference statistic: a primer and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadish, William R; Hedges, Larry V; Pustejovsky, James E

    2014-04-01

    This article presents a d-statistic for single-case designs that is in the same metric as the d-statistic used in between-subjects designs such as randomized experiments and offers some reasons why such a statistic would be useful in SCD research. The d has a formal statistical development, is accompanied by appropriate power analyses, and can be estimated using user-friendly SPSS macros. We discuss both advantages and disadvantages of d compared to other approaches such as previous d-statistics, overlap statistics, and multilevel modeling. It requires at least three cases for computation and assumes normally distributed outcomes and stationarity, assumptions that are discussed in some detail. We also show how to test these assumptions. The core of the article then demonstrates in depth how to compute d for one study, including estimation of the autocorrelation and the ratio of between case variance to total variance (between case plus within case variance), how to compute power using a macro, and how to use the d to conduct a meta-analysis of studies using single-case designs in the free program R, including syntax in an appendix. This syntax includes how to read data, compute fixed and random effect average effect sizes, prepare a forest plot and a cumulative meta-analysis, estimate various influence statistics to identify studies contributing to heterogeneity and effect size, and do various kinds of publication bias analyses. This d may prove useful for both the analysis and meta-analysis of data from SCDs. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PENYUSUNAN DRAFT STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE (SOP PENGOLAHAN KERIPIK PISANG (STUDI KASUS DI SALAH SATU INDUSTRI RUMAH TANGGA KERIPIK PISANG BANDAR LAMPUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didit Haryanto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Standard operating procedure (SOP is a procedure or steps which is standardized and must be passed to complete a particular work process. Arranging SOP draft is based on a review of Good Manufacture Practice. SOP is made for being a guide line in doing process in an industry. Purposes of this research is arranging SOP draft for home industries of banana chips making, so the product will meet the standard. In this research, drafting standard operating procedure (SOP of the banana chips industry was begun with observating and recording every detail process. The research was conducted through four steps. Firstly, field observation to observate  process, including sanitation, tools specification, and description about step of processing banana chips. Second step was determining the critical point and optimating the condition. The next step was arranging the SOP draft. The last was the testing of SOP draft. Then the data were compared and discussed descriptively.  The result was a SOP draft which was used as in processing banana chips the products consistenly had meet the standard quality of SNI 01-4315-1996, they include moisture content, ash content, fat content, wholeness, with flavor, aroma, color, and texture.  The analysis data are, Moisture content (0,17%, ash content (1,35%, fat content (27,90% and wholeness (88,00%. Otherwise the data analysis for banana chips that produce without SOP are, moisture content (0,15%, ash content (1,88%, fat content (39,41% and wholeness (83,00%. Keywords: standard operating procedure (SOP, banana chips, consistency of quality

  12. [Single or double moral standards? Professional ethics of psychiatrists regarding self-determination, rights of third parties and involuntary treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmächer, T

    2015-09-01

    The current intensive discussion on the legal and moral aspects of involuntary treatment of psychiatric patients raises a number of ethical issues. Physicians are unambiguously obligated to protect patient welfare and autonomy; however, in psychiatric patients disease-related restrictions in the capacity of self-determination and behaviors endangering the rights of third parties can seriously challenge this unambiguity. Therefore, psychiatry is assumed to have a double function and is also obligated to third parties and to society in general. Acceptance of such a kind of double obligation carries the risk of double moral standards, placing the psychiatrist ethically outside the community of physicians and questioning the unrestricted obligation towards the patient. The present article formulates a moral position, which places the psychiatrist, like all other physicians, exclusively on the side of the patient in terms of professional ethics and discusses the practical problems arising from this moral position.

  13. Operationally Comparable Effect Sizes for Quantifying Changes in Behavior, with Application to Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustejovsky, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Single-case designs (SCDs) are a class of research methods for evaluating intervention effects by taking repeated measurements of an outcome over time on a single case, both before and after the deliberate introduction of a treatment. SCDs are used heavily in fields such as special education, school psychology, social work, and applied behavior…

  14. CP violation, single lepton polarization asymmetry, and polarized CP asymmetry in B→K*l+l- decay in the four-generation standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashiry, V.; Shirkhanghah, N.; Zeynali, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of CP asymmetry, single lepton polarization asymmetry and polarized CP asymmetry in B→K*l + l - decay within the four-generation standard model. Taking |V t ' s *V t ' b |=0.01, 0.02, 0.03 with phase {60 deg. -120 deg.}, which is consistent with the b→sl + l - rate and the Bs mixing parameter Δm Bs , we find that CP asymmetry, single lepton polarization asymmetry and polarized CP asymmetry are sensitive to the existence of the fourth generation. This can serve as an indirect method to search for new physics effects, in particular, to search for the fourth-generation quarks(t ' ,b ' ) via their indirect manifestations in loop diagrams.

  15. Post-operative Pain Analysis between Single Visit and Two Visit Root Canal Treatments using Visual Analogue Scale: An In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Tarale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate post-operative pain, after root canal therapy, performed in one appointment versus two appointment using calcium hydroxide intracanal medicament. Study design: In this in-vivo study, 60 patients requiring root canal therapy on permanent 1st molars were included. Patients were randomly divided into two experimental and one control group. Group1: One visit therapy (n=20 Group2: Two visit therapy with 1 week of calcium hydroxide dressing (n=20 Group3(Control: Two visit therapy with 1 week of sterile dry cotton pellet dressing (n=20 Materials and method : The standard protocol for all the patients included local anaesthesia, isolation & access cavity preparation, chemomechanical preparation with Rotary Protaper NiTi instruments, and irrigation with 3% sodium hypochlorite, 17% EDTA, 0.9%saline and 2% chlorhexidine. Teeth in group1 (n=20 were obturated on the same appointment using single cone technique (6% gutta percha points and AH Plus sealer. Teeth in group 2(n=20 and group 3(n=20 were given a dressing of calcium hydroxide and dry cotton pellet respectively for a week followed by double seal with Cavit G and IRM. These teeth were obturated on the 2nd appointment using same material and techniques as in group 1. Teeth in all three groups were restored with dual cure composite resin. A modified Visual Analogue Scale was used to measure preoperative pain and postoperative pain after 6, 12, 24 & 48hrs interval. Statistical analysis was performed using an independent-sample t test. There was no statistically significant difference between groups at any of the four postoperative intervals. There was no significant difference among all the three groups studied after 12, 24hrs & 48hrs. Conclusion : Within the limitations of this in vivo study, it may be concluded that Single Visit Endodontics provides excellent results, if care in diagnosis and proper case selection is given importance. Calcium hydroxide

  16. A new architecture for a single-chip multi-channel beamformer based on a standard FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2001-01-01

    A new architecture for a compact medical ultrasound beamformer has been developed. Combination of novel and known principles has been utilized, leading to low processing power requirements and simple analog circuitry. Usage of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) for the digital signal processing...... provides programming flexibility. First, sparse sample processing is performed by generating the in-phase and quadrature beamformed signals. Hereby only 512 samples are beamformed for each line in an image. That leads to a 15-fold decrease in the number of operations and enables the use of Delta-Sigma (ΔΣ....... The control logic consists of few adders and counters and requires very limited resources. Fourth, the beamformer is fully programmable. Any channel can be set to use an arbitrary delay curve, and any number of these channels can be used together in an extendable modular multi-channel system. A prototype...

  17. Standard practice for measurement of the glass dissolution rate using the single-pass flow-through test method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method that can be used to measure the dissolution rate of a homogeneous silicate glass, including nuclear waste glasses, in various test solutions at temperatures less than 100°C. Tests may be conducted under conditions in which the effects from dissolved species on the dissolution rate are minimized to measure the forward dissolution rate at specific values of temperature and pH, or to measure the dependence of the dissolution rate on the concentrations of various solute species. 1.2 Tests are conducted by pumping solutions in either a continuous or pulsed flow mode through a reaction cell that contains the test specimen. Tests must be conducted at several solution flow rates to evaluate the effect of the flow rate on the glass dissolution rate. 1.3 This practice excludes static test methods in which flow is simulated by manually removing solution from the reaction cell and replacing it with fresh solution. 1.4 Tests may be conducted wit...

  18. 40 CFR 63.5820 - What are my options for meeting the standards for continuous lamination/casting operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Options for Meeting Standards § 63.5820 What are my options for... weight percent organic HAP emissions reduction limit in Table 3 to this subpart, you have the option of demonstrating that you achieve 95 percent reduction of all wet-out area organic HAP emissions. (d) Combination...

  19. 40 CFR 63.5810 - What are my options for meeting the standards for open molding and centrifugal casting operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Options for Meeting Standards... factor calculation should include any and all emission reduction techniques used including any add-on... the amount of neat resin plus and neat gel coat plus usage that corresponds to the individual factors...

  20. Standard Guide for On-Site Inspection and Verification of Operation of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures and test methods for conducting an on-site inspection and acceptance test of an installed domestic hot water system (DHW) using flat plate, concentrating-type collectors or tank absorber systems. 1.2 It is intended as a simple and economical acceptance test to be performed by the system installer or an independent tester to verify that critical components of the system are functioning and to acquire baseline data reflecting overall short term system heat output. 1.3 This guide is not intended to generate accurate measurements of system performance (see ASHRAE standard 95-1981 for a laboratory test) or thermal efficiency. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine th...

  1. 78 FR 16051 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ...: Serve as practical standards with sound physical and mathematical bases; account for a range of vehicle... mild curve at high speed. However, the onboard sensors, installed per specification on every truck, did... the last few decades, computer models of rail vehicles interacting with track have become practical...

  2. 75 FR 25927 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... strove to develop revisions that would: Serve as practical standards with sound physical and mathematical... instrumentation in a mild curve at high speed. However, the onboard sensors, installed per specification on every... advancements made over the last few decades, computer models of rail vehicles interacting with track have...

  3. Development and evaluation of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for quality control tests and radiological protection activities in a Nuclear Medicine Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempser, Alexandre R.; Soares, Alexandre B.; Corbo, Rossana

    2011-01-01

    The quality management in Nuclear Medicine Services is a requirement of national and international standards. The Brazilian regulatory agency in health surveillance, the Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA), in its Resolucao de Diretoria Colegiada (Collegiate Directory Resolution) no. 38, requires the elaboration of documents describing the technical and clinical routine activities. This study aimed to elaborate, implement and evaluate Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for quality control tests and radiological protection activities in the Nuclear Medicine Service of a university hospital. Eighteen SOPs were developed, involving tasks related to dose calibrator, gamma camera, Geiger-Muller detectors and radiological protection activities. The performance of its application was evaluated for a period of six months. It was observed a reduction in 75% of reported operational errors and 42% of the number of reported incidents with contamination by radioactive material. The SOPs were adequate and successful in its application. New procedures involving clinical activities will also be developed and evaluated. (author)

  4. Development of a Single-Frequency Narrow Linewidth 1.5mm Semiconductor Laser Suitable for Spaceflight Operation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many space applications rely on the utilization of Light Detection and Raging (LIDAR) techniques. A key component of any LIDAR system is the laser source. Single...

  5. Development of a Single-Frequency Narrow Linewidth 1.5mm Semiconductor Laser Suitable for Spaceflight Operation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II proposal we plan to design and develop a semiconductor, low phase/frequency noise, single-frequency, external cavity semiconductor laser (ECL)...

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIii of... - Work Practice Standards-Design, Operation, and Maintenance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from your footwear or replace your footwear immediately. 6. End boxes a. Either equip each end box with a fixed cover that is leak tight, or route the end box head space to an end box ventilation system... electrolyzers a. Operate and maintain each electrolyzer, decomposer, end box, and mercury pump to minimize...

  7. Undetected residual cement on standard or individualized all-ceramic abutments with cemented zirconia single crowns - a prospective randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Eiffler, Constantin; Lorenzo-Bermejo, Justo; Stober, Thomas; Rammelsberg, Peter

    2016-09-01

    To assess the frequency and amount of residual cement after attachment of monolithic zirconia crowns to standard and individualized ceramic abutments. Twenty patients (mean age 58.9 years at inclusion in the study; 30% male) were randomized to receive either a standard or an individualized abutment on a bone-level implant. Monolithic zirconia single crowns were attached to abutments by use of permanent glass-ionomer cement. Crowns were fabricated with an occlusal hole to enable unscrewing of the abutment-crown complex. Immediately after cementation, superstructures were removed and both the peri-implant soft tissue and the abutment-crown complex were photographed in a standardized manner, to detect residual cement. Photographs were analyzed using Corel Photo Paint X7, and residual cement-to-total abutment and residual cement-to-peri-implant soft tissue area ratios were calculated. Residual cement was observed for 9 of 10 (90%) individualized abutments, compared with 4 of 10 (40%) standard abutments (OR = 13.5, P = 0.049). Twenty-seven of 40 (68%) individualized abutment surfaces were affected, compared with 12 of 40 (30%) standard abutment surfaces. The probability of observing residual cement was approximately five times higher for the surfaces of individualized abutments than for those of standard abutments (P = 0.005). The mean amount of sulcus surface covered by cement was 1.17% (SD 2.85) for the individualized abutments and 3.78% (SD 7.40) for the standard abutments. The position of the margin significantly affected the amount of residual cement. Both individualized and standard all-ceramic abutments result in small amounts of subgingival residual cement on abutment and sulcus surfaces. However, use of individualized abutments does not guarantee complete avoidance of undetected cement rests. Undetected residual cement might be avoided by use of all-ceramic abutments with visible abutment shoulders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  8. Real-time monitoring and calculation of the derating of single-phase transformers under nonsinusoidal operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batan, Tufan

    The extensive use of power electronic devices in the last two decades have degraded the quality of the power system by introducing voltage and current harmonics as well as DC excitations. Such phenomena cause additional losses in transformers, resulting in elevated temperatures of transformers above their rated temperatures. This added heat degrades the insulating material of the windings, decreasing the rated lifetime of transformers. For this reason, transformers feeding nonlinear loads must be derated; that is. by limiting either their output apparent or real power such that rated temperatures are not exceeded. It is of advantage to measure the derating of transformers which are already in service, for given nonlinear loads and to calculate the derating of large transformers that cannot readily be tested in laboratories. It is one of the objectives of this thesis to validate the computed derating values of transformers with corroborating measurements. A 25kVA 7200V/240V single-phase pole transformer is analyzed using two dimensional field analysis based on the diffusion equation, employing either rectangular or polycentric grid structures. Such a field analysis allows us to visualize the complex vector potential and flux density distributions inside the unsaturated transformer operating under short-circuit conditions. One can calculate the eddy currents within conducting materials, such as copper and aluminum windings, from complex vector potential values. Short-circuit tests applied to low and high voltage windings allow us to calculate the eddy currents inside each winding and consequently their eddy-current losses. The frequency dependent AC winding resistance RAC as well as the per-unit eddy-current loss coefficient PEC-R are computed. These values are used to determine the derating of transformers via either the K-factor as proposed by Underwriters Laboratory, Inc., or via the harmonic loss factor FHL, as favored by IEEE and IEC. A new digital data

  9. Anthracycline and concurrent radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment of operable breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study in a single institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Guddari Brahim

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT after breast surgery was investigated by few authors and remains controversial, because of concerns of toxicity with taxanes/anthracyclines and radiation. This treatment is not standard and is more commonly used for locally advanced breast cancer. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the concomitant use of anthracycline with radiotherapy (RT. Findings Four hundred women having operable breast cancer, treated by adjuvant chemotherapy (CT and RT in concomitant way between January 2001 and December 2003, were included in this retrospective cohort study. The study compares 2 adjuvant treatments using CCRT, the first with anthracycline (group A and the second with CMF (group B. The CT treatment was repeated every 21 days for 6 courses and the total delivered dose of RT was 50 Gy, divided as 2 Gy daily fractions. Locoregional recurrence free (LRFS, event free (EFS, and overall survivals (OS were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to compare survival events. Multivariate Cox-regression was used to evaluate the relationship between patient characteristics, treatment and survival. In the 2 groups (A+B (n = 400; 249 in group A and 151 in group B, the median follow-up period was 74.5 months. At 5 years, the isolated LRFS was significantly higher in group A compared to group B (98.7% vs 95.3%; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.258; 95% CI, 0.067 to 0.997; log-rank P = .034. In addition, the use of anthracycline regimens was associated with a higher rate of 5 years EFS (80.4% vs 75.1%; HR = 0.665; 95% CI, 0.455 to 1.016; log-rank P = .057. The 5 years OS was 83.2% and 79.2% in the anthracycline and CMF groups, respectively (HR = 0.708; 95% CI, 0.455 to 1.128; log-rank P = .143. Multivariate analysis confirmed the positive effect of anthracycline regimens on LRFS (HR = 0.347; 95% CI, 0.114 to 1.053; log-rank P = .062, EFS (HR = 0.539; 95% CI, 0.344 to 0.846; P

  10. Magnetic field modeling and optimal operational control of a single-side axial-flux permanent magnet motor with center poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-T.; Lee, S.-C.

    2006-01-01

    A detailed approach for analyzing magnetic field distributions of a single-sided axial-flux permanent magnet motor with center poles will be provided. Based on the devised flux model, the related position-dependent torque and axial force of the motor can be systematically developed. By incorporating adequate control designs, the optimal operational performance of the motor system can be conveniently achieved. Results showed that not only the motor structure is suitable for related military and transportation applications, but also the magnetic field model can provide appropriate mathematical basis for relative operational realizations

  11. The position of a standard optical computer mouse affects cardiorespiratory responses during the operation of a computer under time constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Sako

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigated the association between task-induced stress and fatigue by examining the cardiovascular responses of subjects using different mouse positions while operating a computer under time constraints. Material and Methods: The study was participated by 16 young, healthy men and examined the use of optical mouse devices affixed to laptop computers. Two mouse positions were investigated: (1 the distal position (DP, in which the subjects place their forearms on the desk accompanied by the abduction and flexion of their shoulder joints, and (2 the proximal position (PP, in which the subjects place only their wrists on the desk without using an armrest. The subjects continued each task for 16 min. We assessed differences in several characteristics according to mouse position, including expired gas values, autonomic nerve activities (based on cardiorespiratory responses, operating efficiencies (based on word counts, and fatigue levels (based on the visual analog scale – VAS. Results: Oxygen consumption (VO2, the ratio of inspiration time to respiration time (Ti/Ttotal, respiratory rate (RR, minute ventilation (VE, and the ratio of expiration to inspiration (Te/Ti were significantly lower when the participants were performing the task in the DP than those obtained in the PP. Tidal volume (VT, carbon dioxide output rates (VCO2/VE, and oxygen extraction fractions (VO2/VE were significantly higher for the DP than they were for the PP. No significant difference in VAS was observed between the positions; however, as the task progressed, autonomic nerve activities were lower and operating efficiencies were significantly higher for the DP than they were for the PP. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the DP has fewer effects on cardiorespiratory functions, causes lower levels of sympathetic nerve activity and mental stress, and produces a higher total workload than the PP. This suggests that the DP is preferable to the PP when

  12. Electrophysiological Features of Single Store-Operated Calcium Channels in HEK S4 Cell Line with Stable STIM1 Protein Knockdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalygin, A V; Vigont, V A; Glushankova, L N; Zimina, O A; Kolesnikov, D O; Skopin, A Yu; Kaznacheeva, E V

    2017-07-01

    An important role in intracellular calcium signaling is played by store-operated channels activated by STIM proteins, calcium sensors of the endoplasmic reticulum. In stable STIM1 knockdown HEK S4 cells, single channels activated by depletion of intracellular calcium stores were detected by cell-attached patch-clamp technique and their electrophysiological parameters were described. Comparison of the properties of single channels in HEK293 and HEK S4 cells revealed no significant differences in their current-voltage curves, while regulation of store-operated calcium channels in these cell lines depended on the level of STIM1 expression. We can conclude that electrophysiological peculiarities of store-regulated calcium entry observed in different cells can be explained by differences in STIM1 expression.

  13. Cavity-enhanced radiative emission rate in a single-photon-emitting diode operating at 0.5 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, David J P; Bennett, Anthony J; Dewhurst, Samuel J; Shields, Andrew J; Nicoll, Christine A; Ritchie, David A

    2008-01-01

    We report the observation of a Purcell enhancement in the radiative decay rate of a single quantum dot, embedded in a microcavity light-emitting-diode structure. Lateral confinement of the optical mode was achieved using an annulus of low-refractive-index aluminium oxide, formed by wet oxidation. The same layer acts as a current aperture, reducing the active area of the device without impeding the electrical properties of the p-i-n diode. This allowed single photon electroluminescence to be demonstrated at repetition rates up to 0.5 GHz

  14. Simple visual review of pre- to post-operative renal ultrasound images predicts pyeloplasty success equally as well as geometric measurements: A blinded comparison with a gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Adam J M; Schlomer, Bruce J; Timberlake, Matthew D; Peters, Craig A; Hammer, Matthew R; Jacobs, Micah A

    2017-08-01

    MAG3 diuretic renal scan remains the gold standard for determination of improvement in renal drainage following pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction. We hypothesized that (i) a change in geometric measurements between pre-operative and post-operative renal ultrasound (RUS) images and (ii) blinded simple visual review of images both would predict pyeloplasty success. To determine if simple visual review and/or novel geometric measurement of renal ultrasounds can detect pyeloplasty failure. This study was a retrospective, blinded comparison with a gold standard. Included were children aged ≤18 years undergoing pyeloplasty at our institution from 2009 to 2015. For each kidney, representative pre-operative and post-operative RUS images were chosen. Our standard for pyeloplasty success was improved drainage curve on MAG3 and lack of additional surgery. Measurements for collecting system circularity, roundness, and renal parenchymal to collecting system area ratio (RPCSR) were obtained by three raters (Figure), who were blinded to the outcome of the pyeloplasty. Changes in geometric measurements were analyzed as a diagnostic test for MAG3-defined pyeloplasty success using ROC curve analysis. In addition, six reviewers blinded to pyeloplasty success reviewed pre-operative and post-operative images visually for improved hydronephrosis and categorized pyeloplasty as success or failure based on simple visual review of RUS. Fifty-three repaired renal units were identified (50 children). There were five pyeloplasty failures, four of which underwent revision or nephrectomy. While all geometric measurements could discriminate pyeloplasty failure and success, the geometric measurements that discriminated best between pyeloplasty failure and success were change in collecting system roundness and change in RPCSR. Consensus opinion among six blinded reviewers using simple visual review had a sensitivity of 94% and PPV of 100% with respect to identifying pyeloplasty

  15. Experimental study on effects of particle shape and operating conditions on combustion characteristics of single biomass particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momenikouchaksaraei, Maryam; Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the ignition, devolatilization, and burnout of single biomass particles of various shapes and sizes under process conditions that are similar to those in an industrial combustor. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is used to record the whole...

  16. An Ergonomic Study on Influence of Touch-screen Phone Size on Single-hand Operation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Rui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Touch-screen smart phones have gradually occupied the market of traditional Qwerty Phones and become the mainstream products of mobile phone industry. However, few ergonomics research has been conducted on the touch screens of smart phones, while it has led to tendosynovitis among users owing to the overuse of thumbs. Sizes of smart phones in market range from 3.0 to 7.0 inches. What’s more, 4.0 inches and above are the common size of current touch screens. Also, considering the users’ habits, one-hand operation is preferred when the other hand is occupied. This paper has collected hand parameters of 80 subjects and has adopted an experiment which includes the performance testing and surveys of subjective evaluation by means of usability evaluation. After analysing correlation between touch-screen sizes and operation performances, the result indicates that under one-hand operation, the size of touch screen affects the operation performance significantly. However, it’s hard to implement one-hand operation if the touch-screen size is over 5.7 inches. Additionally, the thickness of smart phones affects the degree of comfort remarkably.

  17. U.S. Geological Survey Noble Gas Laboratory’s standard operating procedures for the measurement of dissolved gas in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-08-12

    This report addresses the standard operating procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Noble Gas Laboratory in Denver, Colorado, U.S.A., for the measurement of dissolved gases (methane, nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide) and noble gas isotopes (helium-3, helium-4, neon-20, neon-21, neon-22, argon-36, argon-38, argon-40, kryton-84, krypton-86, xenon-103, and xenon-132) dissolved in water. A synopsis of the instrumentation used, procedures followed, calibration practices, standards used, and a quality assurance and quality control program is presented. The report outlines the day-to-day operation of the Residual Gas Analyzer Model 200, Mass Analyzer Products Model 215–50, and ultralow vacuum extraction line along with the sample handling procedures, noble gas extraction and purification, instrument measurement procedures, instrumental data acquisition, and calculations for the conversion of raw data from the mass spectrometer into noble gas concentrations per unit mass of water analyzed. Techniques for the preparation of artificial dissolved gas standards are detailed and coupled to a quality assurance and quality control program to present the accuracy of the procedures used in the laboratory.

  18. International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, K. P.

    2010-02-01

    · Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials · Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

  19. Tool coupling for the design and operation of building energy and control systems based on the Functional Mock-up Interface standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouidui, Thierry Stephane; Wetter, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes software tools developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) that can be coupled through the Functional Mock-up Interface standard in support of the design and operation of building energy and control systems. These tools have been developed to address the gaps and limitations encountered in legacy simulation tools. These tools were originally designed for the analysis of individual domains of buildings, and have been difficult to integrate with other tools for runtime data exchange. The coupling has been realized by use of the Functional Mock-up Interface for co-simulation, which standardizes an application programming interface for simulator interoperability that has been adopted in a variety of industrial domains. As a variety of coupling scenarios are possible, this paper provides users with guidance on what coupling may be best suited for their application. Furthermore, the paper illustrates how tools can be integrated into a building management system to support the operation of buildings. These tools may be a design model that is used for real-time performance monitoring, a fault detection and diagnostics algorithm, or a control sequence, each of which may be exported as a Functional Mock-up Unit and made available in a building management system as an input/output block. We anticipate that this capability can contribute to bridging the observed performance gap between design and operational energy use of buildings.

  20. Review and meta-analysis of prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing laparo-endoscopic single site and multiport laparoscopy in gynecologic operative procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontis, Alessandro; Sedda, Federica; Mereu, Liliana; Podda, Mauro; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Pisanu, Adolfo; Angioni, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    To critically appraise published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing laparo-endoscopic single site (LESS) and multi-port laparoscopic (MPL) in gynecologic operative surgery; the aim was to assess feasibility, safety, and potential benefits of LESS in comparison to MPL. A systematic review and meta-analysis of eleven RCTs. Women undergoing operative LESS and MPL gynecologic procedure (hysterectomy, cystectomy, salpingectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy, myomectomy). Outcomes evaluated were as follows: postoperative overall morbidity, postoperative pain evaluation at 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, cosmetic patient satisfaction, conversion rate, body mass index (BMI), operative time, blood loss, hemoglobin drop, postoperative hospital stay. Eleven RCTs comprising 956 women with gynecologic surgical disease randomized to either LESS (477) or MPL procedures (479) were analyzed systematically. The LESS approach is a surgical procedure with longer operative and better cosmetic results time than MPL but without statistical significance. Operative outcomes, postoperative recovery, postoperative morbidity and patient satisfaction are similar in LESS and MPL. LESS may be considered an alternative to MPL with comparable feasibility and safety in gynecologic operative procedures. However, it does not offer the expected advantages in terms of postoperative pain and cosmetic satisfaction.

  1. Validation of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing assay with 49 SNPs for forensic genetic testing in a laboratory accredited according to the ISO 17025 standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Rockenbauer, Eszter; Morling, Niels

    2009-01-01

    cases and 33 twin cases were typed at least twice for the 49 SNPs. All electropherograms were analysed independently by two expert analysts prior to approval. Based on these results, detailed guidelines for analysis of the SBE products were developed. With these guidelines, the peak height ratio...... of a heterozygous allele call or the signal to noise ratio of a homozygous allele call is compared with previously obtained ratios. A laboratory protocol for analysis of SBE products was developed where allele calls with unusual ratios were highlighted to facilitate the analysis of difficult allele calls......A multiplex assay with 49 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for human identification was validated for forensic genetic casework and accredited according to the ISO 17025 standard. The multiplex assay was based on the SNPforID 52plex SNP assay [J.J. Sanchez, C. Phillips, C...

  2. Optimization of a DPP-BOTDA sensor with 25 cm spatial resolution over 60 km standard single-mode fiber using Simplex codes and optical pre-amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Marcelo A; Taki, Mohammad; Bolognini, Gabriele; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio

    2012-03-26

    Sub-meter distributed optical fiber sensing based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis with differential pulse-width pairs (DPP-BOTDA) is combined with the use of optical pre-amplification and pulse coding. In order to provide significant measurement SNR enhancement and to avoid distortions in the Brillouin gain spectrum due to acoustic-wave pre-excitation, the pulse width and duty cycle of Simplex coding based on return-to-zero pulses are optimized through simulations. In addition, the use of linear optical pre-amplification increases the receiver sensitivity and the overall dynamic range of DPP-BOTDA measurements. Experimental results demonstrate for first time a spatial resolution of ~25 cm over a 60 km standard single-mode fiber (equivalent to ~240 k discrete sensing points) with temperature resolution of 1.2°C and strain resolution of 24 με.

  3. Why a Year Round School District Moved from a Multi-Track to a Single Track Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William D.

    One of the most rapidly growing innovations in education in the United States is the adoption of year-round calendars. The largest year-round operation during the 1970's and a model for many districts was run by the Jefferson County, Colorado, School District. After 14 years of year-round schooling, the district returned to a modified 9-month…

  4. EC nuclear: toward the single market 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, L.V.

    1991-01-01

    The setting-up of a single market has long been an objective (Euratom Treaty). One of the Commission's (CEC) concerns will be to ensure that safety requirements are met in the worldwide trend in standardization of components. Cost advantages (manufacture, operation and maintenance) and improved safety are gained from standardization, and are important in a slack market

  5. On-chip beamsplitter operation on single photons from quasi-resonantly excited quantum dots embedded in GaAs rib waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rengstl, U.; Schwartz, M.; Herzog, T.; Hargart, F.; Paul, M.; Portalupi, S. L.; Jetter, M.; Michler, P., E-mail: p.michler@ihfg.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Halbleiteroptik und Funktionelle Grenzflächen and Research Center SCoPE, University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-07-13

    We present an on-chip beamsplitter operating on a single-photon level by means of a quasi-resonantly driven InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot. The single photons are guided by rib waveguides and split into two arms by an evanescent field coupler. Although the waveguides themselves support the fundamental TE and TM modes, the measured degree of polarization (∼90%) reveals the main excitation and propagation of the TE mode. We observe the preserved single-photon nature of a quasi-resonantly excited quantum dot by performing a cross-correlation measurement on the two output arms of the beamsplitter. Additionally, the same quantum dot is investigated under resonant excitation, where the same splitting ratio is observed. An autocorrelation measurement with an off-chip beamsplitter on a single output arm reveal the single-photon nature after evanescent coupling inside the on-chip splitter. Due to their robustness, adjustable splitting ratio, and their easy implementation, rib waveguide beamsplitters with embedded quantum dots provide a promising step towards fully integrated quantum circuits.

  6. Single-mode distributed feedback laser operation with no dependence on the morphology of the gain medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umar, Muhammad [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyungtaek [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Inter-university Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heonsu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunghwan [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Organic distributed feedback (DFB) lasers can be useful photonic tools for biological applications where the roles of organic materials are important, because highly coherent single mode emission with broad tuning range can be obtained. However, the formulaic structures of organic lasers, and the uses of gain media as resonators themselves, are not suitable for inducing laser emission from irregular shaped gain media, such as dye-staining cells and tissues. Here, we report a reusable photonic template comprising an exceedingly thin and discrete titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) layer on a one-dimensional (1D) quartz grating to induce single mode DFB lasing from a variety of states of optical gain media. Using the same template, the external gain media of optically thick and thin casted film, liquid, and a free-standing thick film reveal single mode lasing with reliable performance. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the 25-nm thick TiO{sub 2} disconnected grating lines support a spatially confined DFB mode in the vertical direction, even under no index difference between superstrate and substrate. Additionally, not using the typical waveguide gain layer promises high sensitivity and detection limit in refractometric sensing. These results suggest that the photonic structure may serve as a versatile sensing platform for bioapplications. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Iodine Image of Dual-energy Computed Tomography at Rest: Comparison With 99mTc-Tetrofosmin Stress-rest Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion Imaging as the Reference Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Takehiro; Toyama, Takuji; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Seki, Ryotaro; Saito, Yuichiro; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Yamada, Minoru; Arai, Masashi; Tsushima, Yoshito; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2018-03-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) can be used for visual determination of iodine distribution in the myocardium (iodine image); however, the accuracy and reproducibility of the process remains debatable. Because of the low contrast-to-noise ratio of CT, we hypothesized that quantitative measurement may be more accurate for detecting myocardial ischemia. In this study, we evaluated our quantitative method by comparing it with visual analysis using Tc-tetrofosmin (TF) stress-rest single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) as the reference standard. Forty-three patients who had a significant stenosis on cardiac rest DECT and had received Tc-TF stress-rest SPECT MPI within 1 month were retrospectively analyzed. The regions of interest were set on iodine images in accordance with the American Heart Association (AHA) 17-segment model (a total of 731 segments). The regions of interest values were divided by the amount of iodine (mg) per unit weight (kg) and defined as perfusion value (perfusion value analysis). All segments were also visually analyzed and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis performed to identify the superior analysis. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that perfusion value analysis is significantly superior to visual analysis [the area under the curve: 0.921 (95% confidence interval, 0.860-0.981) versus 0.685 (95% confidence interval, 0.580-0.791), respectively, PQuantitative analysis of the iodine image of rest DECT, called perfusion value analysis, is more accurate than visual analysis when compared with Tc-TF SPECT MPI as the reference standard.

  8. A novel strategy with standardized reference extract qualification and single compound quantitative evaluation for quality control of Panax notoginseng used as a functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S P; Qiao, C F; Chen, Y W; Zhao, J; Cui, X M; Zhang, Q W; Liu, X M; Hu, D J

    2013-10-25

    Root of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Sanqi in Chinese) is one of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) based functional food. Saponins are the major bioactive components. The shortage of reference compounds or chemical standards is one of the main bottlenecks for quality control of TCMs. A novel strategy, i.e. standardized reference extract based qualification and single calibrated components directly quantitative estimation of multiple analytes, was proposed to easily and effectively control the quality of natural functional foods such as Sanqi. The feasibility and credibility of this methodology were also assessed with a developed fast HPLC method. Five saponins, including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rd and notoginsenoside R1 were rapidly separated using a conventional HPLC in 20 min. The quantification method was also compared with individual calibration curve method. The strategy is feasible and credible, which is easily and effectively adapted for improving the quality control of natural functional foods such as Sanqi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Signal-to-Crosstalk Ratio Variations due to Four-Wave Mixing in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Systems Implemented with Standard Single-Mode Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Eser KARLIK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, variation of the signal-to-crosstalk ratio (SXR due to effects of four-wave mixing (FWM has been analyzed on center channels of 5-, 7-, 9-channel dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM systems implemented with G.652 standard single-mode fibers (SSMFs for 12.5 GHz, 25 GHz, 50 GHz and 100 GHz equal channel spacing values. Center channels on such systems are the most severely impacted channels by FWM. Therefore, results obtained are the worst-case values for the DWDM system performance and important for system design. Simulations have been performed for systems using three different commercially available SMFs having different design parameter values for chromatic dispersion, dispersion slope, nonlinearity coefficient and attenuation coefficient which are all in the scope of the G.652 Recommendation of Telecommunication Standardization Sector of International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T for SSMFs. In those simulations, under the impact of FWM, variation of SXR with variations in input powers, channel spacings and link lengths have been observed. Simulation results display the combined effect of the optical fiber and system design parameters on FWM performance of DWDM systems and give important clues for not only long-haul but also access network implementations of DWDM systems.

  10. Is Peace Journalism possible in the ‘war’ against terror in Somalia? How the Kenyan Daily Nation and the Standard represented Operation Linda Nchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Ogenga

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concludes that in Africa the non-Western press may have the best chance to employ peace journalism, given its proximity to major conflicts. Nevertheless, the Kenyan press has so far failed to take advantage of an ideal opportunity for such an experiment in reporting on the war against terror. Kenya's press still operates within the war journalism framework. This paper employs a theoretical approach that combines theories of media representation in mainstream journalism with the concepts of peace journalism. Methodologically, it adopts a triangulating approach, employing both quantitative and qualitative content analysis to study the representations of Operation Linda Nchi by the Kenyan Daily Nation and The Standard and thereby offers a critical appraisal of the possibility for peace journalism to cover international terrorism in Africa.

  11. Unreamed intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures: operative technique and early clinical experience with the standard locking option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krettek, C; Rudolf, J; Schandelmaier, P; Guy, P; Könemann, B; Tscherne, H

    1996-05-01

    Nailing techniques have changed in recent years in ways which are not just limited to omitting the reaming process. These changes concern positioning patients, techniques of reduction and selecting implants. Techniques of approach and exposure have been modified to new, less-invasive procedures to fulfill technical, functional and cosmetic requirements. In addition, techniques have been developed to avoid fragment diastasis, rotational and sagittal malalignment, and leg-length discrepancy. Finally, simple algorithms have been elaborated for the management of specific fracture patterns (bilateral shaft fractures, ipsilateral tibial fractures or associated femoral neck fractures) and to determine the number and location of locking bolts. We developed these algorithms, techniques and procedures in a series of 133 femoral shafts, which were stabilized with the AO unreamed femoral nail (URFN) in a prospective study between 1991 and 1994. Of these, the first 57 cases with a mean follow-up of 17.9 months (range, 5-44) after injury were reviewed. Fractures were classified according to Müller's 1990 system: 12 type A, 29 type B and 16 type C. Closed soft-tissue injuries were classified by our classification of 1982: 17 type C 0/I, 42 type C II. Of 15 open fractures, six were OI, six OII, two OIIIA and one was OIIIB by Gustilo's classification of 1984. The major complications were two broken locking bolts, one nail breaking after 9 weeks, one case of osteitis and one of intra-operative lung embolism.

  12. Perception of educational environment in the operating theatre by surgical residents, a single-centre prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Shahzaib Habib; Ur Rehman, Syed Sheeraz; Hussain, Farhad

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the perception of operation theatre educational environment using surgical theatre educational environmental measure. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, from August 2015 to February 2016, and comprised surgical and allied trainees. The reliability of the surgical theatre educational environmental measure questionnaire was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. The minimum score on the questionnaire was 40 and possible maximum score was 200. A score of at least 120 out of 200 was considered favourable. SPSS 22 was used for data analysis. Of the 103 participants who completed the questionnaire, 52(50.4%) were males and 51(49.5%) females. The results showed favourable operating theatre educational environment with the total score of 129. The overall reliability was calculated to be 0.97. Male residents perceived the educational environment more adequate than females (peducational environment.

  13. Correctness of multi-detector-row computed tomography for diagnosing mechanical prosthetic heart valve disorders using operative findings as a gold standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, I.Chen [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taichung (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei (China); Lin, Yung-Kai; Chang, Yen; Wang, Chung-Chi; Hsieh, Shih-Rong; Wei, Hao-Ji; Tsai, Hung-Wen [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Section of Cardiovascular Surgery, Cardiovascular Center, Taichung (China); Fu, Yun-Ching; Jan, Sheng-Ling [Institute of Clinical Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei (China); Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Taichung (China); Wang, Kuo-Yang [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Section of General Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Taichung (China); Chung-Shan Medical University, Department of Medicine, Taichung (China); Chen, Min-Chi; Chen, Clayton Chi-Chang [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taichung (China); Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Department of Radiological Technology, Taichung (China)

    2009-04-15

    The purpose was to compare the findings of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in prosthetic valve disorders using the operative findings as a gold standard. In a 3-year period, we prospectively enrolled 25 patients with 31 prosthetic heart valves. MDCT and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) were done to evaluate pannus formation, prosthetic valve dysfunction, suture loosening (paravalvular leak) and pseudoaneurysm formation. Patients indicated for surgery received an operation within 1 week. The MDCT findings were compared with the operative findings. One patient with a Bjoerk-Shiley valve could not be evaluated by MDCT due to a severe beam-hardening artifact; thus, the exclusion rate for MDCT was 3.2% (1/31). Prosthetic valve disorders were suspected in 12 patients by either MDCT or TTE. Six patients received an operation that included three redo aortic valve replacements, two redo mitral replacements and one Amplatzer ductal occluder occlusion of a mitral paravalvular leak. The concordance of MDCT for diagnosing and localizing prosthetic valve disorders and the surgical findings was 100%. Except for images impaired by severe beam-hardening artifacts, MDCT provides excellent delineation of prosthetic valve disorders. (orig.)

  14. Correctness of multi-detector-row computed tomography for diagnosing mechanical prosthetic heart valve disorders using operative findings as a gold standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, I.Chen; Lin, Yung-Kai; Chang, Yen; Wang, Chung-Chi; Hsieh, Shih-Rong; Wei, Hao-Ji; Tsai, Hung-Wen; Fu, Yun-Ching; Jan, Sheng-Ling; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Chen, Min-Chi; Chen, Clayton Chi-Chang

    2009-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the findings of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in prosthetic valve disorders using the operative findings as a gold standard. In a 3-year period, we prospectively enrolled 25 patients with 31 prosthetic heart valves. MDCT and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) were done to evaluate pannus formation, prosthetic valve dysfunction, suture loosening (paravalvular leak) and pseudoaneurysm formation. Patients indicated for surgery received an operation within 1 week. The MDCT findings were compared with the operative findings. One patient with a Bjoerk-Shiley valve could not be evaluated by MDCT due to a severe beam-hardening artifact; thus, the exclusion rate for MDCT was 3.2% (1/31). Prosthetic valve disorders were suspected in 12 patients by either MDCT or TTE. Six patients received an operation that included three redo aortic valve replacements, two redo mitral replacements and one Amplatzer ductal occluder occlusion of a mitral paravalvular leak. The concordance of MDCT for diagnosing and localizing prosthetic valve disorders and the surgical findings was 100%. Except for images impaired by severe beam-hardening artifacts, MDCT provides excellent delineation of prosthetic valve disorders. (orig.)

  15. A dark-field microscope for background-free detection of resonance fluorescence from single semiconductor quantum dots operating in a set-and-forget mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Andreas V; Houel, Julien; Brunner, Daniel; Ludwig, Arne; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D; Warburton, Richard J

    2013-07-01

    Optically active quantum dots, for instance self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots, are potentially excellent single photon sources. The fidelity of the single photons is much improved using resonant rather than non-resonant excitation. With resonant excitation, the challenge is to distinguish between resonance fluorescence and scattered laser light. We have met this challenge by creating a polarization-based dark-field microscope to measure the resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot at low temperature. We achieve a suppression of the scattered laser exceeding a factor of 10(7) and background-free detection of resonance fluorescence. The same optical setup operates over the entire quantum dot emission range (920-980 nm) and also in high magnetic fields. The major development is the outstanding long-term stability: once the dark-field point has been established, the microscope operates for days without alignment. The mechanical and optical designs of the microscope are presented, as well as exemplary resonance fluorescence spectroscopy results on individual quantum dots to underline the microscope's excellent performance.

  16. A dark-field microscope for background-free detection of resonance fluorescence from single semiconductor quantum dots operating in a set-and-forget mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Houel, Julien; Warburton, Richard J.; Brunner, Daniel; Ludwig, Arne; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D.

    2013-01-01

    Optically active quantum dots, for instance self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots, are potentially excellent single photon sources. The fidelity of the single photons is much improved using resonant rather than non-resonant excitation. With resonant excitation, the challenge is to distinguish between resonance fluorescence and scattered laser light. We have met this challenge by creating a polarization-based dark-field microscope to measure the resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot at low temperature. We achieve a suppression of the scattered laser exceeding a factor of 10 7 and background-free detection of resonance fluorescence. The same optical setup operates over the entire quantum dot emission range (920–980 nm) and also in high magnetic fields. The major development is the outstanding long-term stability: once the dark-field point has been established, the microscope operates for days without alignment. The mechanical and optical designs of the microscope are presented, as well as exemplary resonance fluorescence spectroscopy results on individual quantum dots to underline the microscope's excellent performance

  17. A dark-field microscope for background-free detection of resonance fluorescence from single semiconductor quantum dots operating in a set-and-forget mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Houel, Julien; Warburton, Richard J. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Brunner, Daniel [Instituto de Física Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos, IFISC (CSIC-UIB), Campus Universitat Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Ludwig, Arne [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Reuter, Dirk [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Department Physik, Universität Paderborn, Warburger Strasse 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany); Wieck, Andreas D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Optically active quantum dots, for instance self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots, are potentially excellent single photon sources. The fidelity of the single photons is much improved using resonant rather than non-resonant excitation. With resonant excitation, the challenge is to distinguish between resonance fluorescence and scattered laser light. We have met this challenge by creating a polarization-based dark-field microscope to measure the resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot at low temperature. We achieve a suppression of the scattered laser exceeding a factor of 10{sup 7} and background-free detection of resonance fluorescence. The same optical setup operates over the entire quantum dot emission range (920–980 nm) and also in high magnetic fields. The major development is the outstanding long-term stability: once the dark-field point has been established, the microscope operates for days without alignment. The mechanical and optical designs of the microscope are presented, as well as exemplary resonance fluorescence spectroscopy results on individual quantum dots to underline the microscope's excellent performance.

  18. A single pre-operative antibiotic dose is as effective as continued antibiotic prophylaxis in implant-based breast reconstruction: A matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, William A; Baluch, Narges; Bagher, Shaghayegh; Maass, Saskia W M C; O'Neill, Anne; Zhong, Toni; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2015-05-01

    Infections following implant-based breast reconstruction can lead to devastating consequences. There is currently no consensus on the need for post-operative antibiotics in preventing immediate infection. This study compared two different methods of infection prevention in this group of patients. A retrospective matched cohort study was performed on consecutive women undergoing implant-based breast reconstruction at University Health Network, Toronto (November 2008-December 2012). All patients received a single pre-operative intravenous antibiotic dose. Group A received minimal interventions and Group B underwent maximal prophylactic measures. Patient (age, smoking, diabetes, co-morbidities), oncologic and procedural variables (timing and laterality) were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to compare outcomes between the two groups. Two hundred and eight patients underwent 647 implant procedures. After matching the two treatment groups by BMI, 94 patients in each treatment group yielding a total of 605 implant procedures were selected for analysis. The two groups were comparable in terms of patient and disease variables. Post-operative wound infection was similar in Group A (n = 11, 12%) compared with Group B (n = 9, 10%; p = 0.8). Univariate analysis revealed only pre-operative radiotherapy to be associated with the development of infection (0.004). Controlling for the effect of radiotherapy, multivariate analysis demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference between the two methods for infection prevention. Our findings suggest that a single pre-operative dose of intravenous antibiotics is equally as effective as continued antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing immediate infection in patients undergoing implant-based breast reconstructions. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. IPM Motor Drive Method Using a New Inverter Having the Operation of High Power Factor Single-phase Diode Rectifier without Electrolytic Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Isao; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    This paper proposes a new inverter drive system for an interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous motor and an inverter control strategy to obtain the unity power factor operation of the single-phase diode rectifier. The motor drive system for home appliances requires improving the input power factor without a reactor, an electrolytic capacitor and a switching device. This paper can achieve to improve the input power factor without a reactor, a current control-switching converter and an electrolytic capacitor. The proposed system consists of only single-phase diode rectifier, small film capacitor (10uF/kW) across the dc-bus, three-phase inverter and IPM motor. Source side energy provides directly to the motor without smoothing the dc-bus voltage. There are many ripple voltages across the dc-bus. A principle of unity-power-factor operation is that the inverter makes the waveform of input current sinusoidal. The unity power factor operation is achieved by dither effect. For IPM motor, the inverter control scheme in this paper is based on direct torque control (DTC). The proposed system is constructed by the input current controller based on DTC. The additional current controller improves its input current waveform. This paper describes that the proposed method achieves the power factor 98.8% by experimental tests.

  20. Fast all-optical multistate flip-flop operation realized by a single self-sustained micro-ring laser memory cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhuoran; Yuan, Guohui

    2013-01-01

    We investigate all-optical multistate flip-flop operation realized by a single self-sustained micro-ring laser memory cell based on a time-domain multi-mode nonlinear model. Each state is written by the corresponding 100 ps-width input non-return-to-zero (NRZ) pulse carrying the directional and wavelength information, and the cell remains in the written state until another trigger arrives. The effects of key parameters including the detuning frequency and injection power ratio on the injection locking and flipping regions of different modes in both directions of the micro-ring device are studied. By optimizing the operation conditions, we simulate the minimal switching speed for each mode. The fast switching speed of less than 20 ps and up to ten mode flip-flop operation indicate that this single optical memory cell can support ten states at a data rate of at least 10 Gbps, which is particularly valuable for the realization of future all-optical networking and functional sub-system technology. (letter)

  1. Analysis of complications of percutaneous X-Ray endoscopic surgical operations of patients with urolithiasis and nephrolithiasis with a single functioning kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Zenkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented article focuses on the important matters of development of intraoperative and postoperative complications in patients with urolithiasis undergoing percutaneous operative treatment for coral calculus of a solitary or sole functioning kidney. Complications of percutaneous X-ray-endoscopic operations in these patients always require careful medical and diagnostic approach, as they can lead to oppression of an already impaired solitary kidney function and, as a consequence, can have life-threatening nature. They are divided into two groups: intraoperative and postoperative complications. Intraoperative complications include: bleeding, damage of the renal pelvis in the course of creating of puncture access, perforation of internal organs, loss of stroke. Postoperative complications include: development of acute inflammation in a single kidney, bleeding, urinoma or hematoma development, progression of renal failure, leave of residual concretions, organ loss. There is a sufficient amount of data on the development of complications after percutaneous endoscopic surgeries in the literature, but very few works are devoted to a solitary kidney matter. The object of this study was the group of patients with urolithiasis, coral nephrolithiasis by a solitary or a single functioning kidney, who were on treatment in the urology department of the N.I. Pirogov City Clinical Hospital No. 1 from January 2007 to July 2014. All patients underwent percutaneous operative treatment for the removal of coral calculi. 

  2. HipMatch: an object-oriented cross-platform program for accurate determination of cup orientation using 2D-3D registration of single standard X-ray radiograph and a CT volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guoyan; Zhang, Xuan; Steppacher, Simon D; Murphy, Stephen B; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Tannast, Moritz

    2009-09-01

    The widely used procedure of evaluation of cup orientation following total hip arthroplasty using single standard anteroposterior (AP) radiograph is known inaccurate, largely due to the wide variability in individual pelvic orientation relative to X-ray plate. 2D-3D image registration methods have been introduced for an accurate determination of the post-operative cup alignment with respect to an anatomical reference extracted from the CT data. Although encouraging results have been reported, their extensive usage in clinical routine is still limited. This may be explained by their requirement of a CAD model of the prosthesis, which is often difficult to be organized from the manufacturer due to the proprietary issue, and by their requirement of either multiple radiographs or a radiograph-specific calibration, both of which are not available for most retrospective studies. To address these issues, we developed and validated an object-oriented cross-platform program called "HipMatch" where a hybrid 2D-3D registration scheme combining an iterative landmark-to-ray registration with a 2D-3D intensity-based registration was implemented to estimate a rigid transformation between a pre-operative CT volume and the post-operative X-ray radiograph for a precise estimation of cup alignment. No CAD model of the prosthesis is required. Quantitative and qualitative results evaluated on cadaveric and clinical datasets are given, which indicate the robustness and the accuracy of the program. HipMatch is written in object-oriented programming language C++ using cross-platform software Qt (TrollTech, Oslo, Norway), VTK, and Coin3D and is transportable to any platform.

  3. Chapter 1. Introduction. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprung, Charles L; Cohen, Robert; Adini, Bruria

    2010-04-01

    In December 2007, the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine established a Task Force to develop standard operating procedures (SOPs) for operating intensive care units (ICU) during an influenza epidemic or mass disaster. To provide direction for health care professionals in the preparation and management of emergency ICU situations during an influenza epidemic or mass disaster, standardize activities, and promote coordination and communication among the medical teams. Based on a literature review and contributions of content experts, a list of essential categories for managing emergency situations in the ICU were identified. Based on three cycles of a modified Delphi process, consensus was achieved regarding the categories. A primary author along with an expert group drafted SOPs for each category. Based on the Delphi cycles, the following key topics were found to be important for emergency preparedness: triage, infrastructure, essential equipment, manpower, protection of staff and patients, medical procedures, hospital policy, coordination and collaboration with interface units, registration and reporting, administrative policies and education. The draft SOPs serve as benchmarks for emergency preparedness and response of ICUs to emergencies or outbreak of pandemics.

  4. [Advantages and disadvantages of different methods for the implementation and the support of standard operating procedures: From PDF files to an app- and webbased SOP management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M; Riech, S; Brandes, I; Waeschle, R M

    2015-11-01

    The quality assurance of care and patient safety, with increasing cost pressure and performance levels is of major importance in the high-risk and high cost area of the operating room (OR). Standard operating procedures (SOP) are an established tool for structuring and standardization of the clinical treatment pathways and show multiple benefits for quality assurance and process optimization. An internal project was initiated in the department of anesthesiology and a continuous improvement process was carried out to build up a comprehensive SOP library. In the first step the spectrum of procedures in anesthesiology was transferred to PDF-based SOPs. The further development to an app-based SOP library (Aesculapp) was due to the high resource expenditure for the administration and maintenance of the large PDF-based SOP collection and to deficits in the mobile availability. The next developmental stage, the SOP healthcare information assistant (SOPHIA) included a simplified and advanced update feature, an archive feature previously missing and notably the possibility to share the SOP library with other departments including the option to adapt each SOP to the individual situation. A survey of the personnel showed that the app-based allocation of SOPs (Aesculapp, SOPHIA) had a higher acceptance than the PDF-based developmental stage SOP form. The SOP management system SOPHIA combines the benefits of the forerunner version Aesculapp with improved options for intradepartmental maintenance and administration of the SOPs and the possibility of an export and editing function for interinstitutional exchange of SOPs.

  5. Enabling benchmarking and improving operational efficiency at nuclear power plants through adoption of a common process model: SNPM (standard nuclear performance model)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pete Karns

    2006-01-01

    To support the projected increase in base-load electricity demand, nuclear operating companies must maintain or improve upon current generation rates, all while their assets continue to age. Certainly new plants are and will be built, however the bulk of the world's nuclear generation comes from plants constructed in the 1970's and 1980's. The nuclear energy industry in the United States has dramatically increased its electricity production over the past decade; from 75.1% in 1994 to 91.9% by 2002 (source NEI US Nuclear Industry Net Capacity Factors - 1980 to 2003). This increase, coupled with lowered production costs; $2.43 in 1994 to $1.71 in 2002 (factored for inflation source NEI US Nuclear Industry net Production Costs 1980 to 2002) is due in large part to a focus on operational excellence that is driven by an industry effort to develop and share best practices for the purposes of benchmarking and improving overall performance. These best-practice processes, known as the standard nuclear performance model (SNPM), present an opportunity for European nuclear power generators who are looking to improve current production rates. In essence the SNPM is a model for the safe, reliable, and economically competitive nuclear power generation. The SNPM has been a joint effort of several industry bodies: Nuclear Energy Institute, Electric Cost Utility Group, and Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). The standard nuclear performance model (see figure 1) is comprised of eight primary processes, supported by forty four sub-processes and a number of company specific activities and tasks. The processes were originally envisioned by INPO in 1994 and evolved into the SNPM that was originally launched in 1998. Since that time communities of practice (CoPs) have emerged via workshops to further improve the processes and their inter-operability, CoP representatives include people from: nuclear power operating companies, policy bodies, industry suppliers and consultants, and

  6. Experimental Study on Effects of Particle Shape and Operating Conditions on Combustion Characteristics of Single Biomass Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momeni, M.; Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the ignition, devolatilization, and burnout of single biomass particles of various shapes and sizes under process conditions that are similar to those in an industrial combustor. A chargecoupled device (CCD) camera is used to record the whole...... combustion process. For the particles with similar volume (mass), cylindrical particles are found to lose mass faster than spherical particles and the burnout time is shortened by increasing the particle aspect ratio (surface area). The conversion times of cylindrical particles with almost the same surface...... area/volume ratio are very close to each other. The ignition, devolatilization, and burnout times of cylindrical particles are also affected by the oxidizer temperature and oxygen concentration, in which the oxygen concentration is found to have a more pronounced effect on the conversion times at lower...

  7. Assessment of a Standardized Pre-Operative Telephone Checklist Designed to Avoid Late Cancellation of Ambulatory Surgery: The AMBUPROG Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gaucher

    Full Text Available To assess the impact of a standardized pre-operative telephone checklist on the rate of late cancellations of ambulatory surgery (AMBUPROG trial.Multicenter, two-arm, parallel-group, open-label randomized controlled trial.11 university hospital ambulatory surgery units in Paris, France.Patients scheduled for ambulatory surgery and able to be reached by telephone.A 7-item checklist designed to prevent late cancellation, available in five languages and two versions (for children and adults, was administered between 7 and 3 days before the planned date of surgery, by an automated phone system or a research assistant. The control group received standard management alone.Rate of cancellation on the day of surgery or the day before.The study population comprised 3900 patients enrolled between November 2012 and September 2013: 1950 patients were randomized to the checklist arm and 1950 patients to the control arm. The checklist was administered to 68.8% of patients in the intervention arm, 1002 by the automated phone system and 340 by a research assistant. The rate of late cancellation did not differ significantly between the checklist and control arms (109 (5.6% vs. 113 (5.8%, adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.91 [0.65-1.29], (p = 0.57. Checklist administration revealed that 355 patients (28.0% had not undergone tests ordered by the surgeon or anesthetist, and that 254 patients (20.0% still had questions concerning the fasting state.A standardized pre-operative telephone checklist did not avoid late cancellations of ambulatory surgery but enabled us to identify several frequent causes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01732159.

  8. Relationship of the Levitation Force Between Single and Multiple YBCO Bulks Above a Permanent Magnet Guideway Operating Dive-Lift Movement with Different Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, R.; Wang, S. Y.; Liao, X. L.; Deng, Z. G.; Wang, J. S.

    2013-04-01

    In practical applications, the acceleration and deceleration motions inevitably happen in the operation of high temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev trains. For further research of the maglev properties of YBaCuO bulk above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG), by moving a fixed vertical distance, this paper studies the relationship of the levitation force between single and multiple YBCO bulks above a PMG operating dive-lift movement with different angles. Experimental results show that the maximal levitation force increment of two bulks than one bulk is smaller than the maximal levitation force increment of three bulks than two bulks. With the degree decreasing, the maximal levitation force increment of three bulks is bigger than the maximal levitation force increment of two bulks and one bulk, and the hysteresis loop of the levitation force of the three-bulk arrangement is getting smaller.

  9. Peri-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak during single-stage bone-anchored hearing aid implantation: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimbleby, G; Mitchell-Innes, A; Murphy, J

    2014-12-01

    A bone-anchored hearing aid uses the principle of bone conduction and osseointegration to transfer sound vibrations to a functioning inner ear. It consists of a permanent titanium implant, and removable abutment and sound processor. Informed consent requires discussion of the procedural benefits, alternatives and complications. The risks of bone-anchored hearing aid surgery include infection, soft tissue hypertrophy, skin graft or flap failure, osseointegration failure, and the need for further surgery. A case of cerebrospinal fluid leak in a patient undergoing bone-anchored hearing aid surgery is reported and discussed. Bone-anchored hearing aid surgery poses a risk of breaching the inner table of the temporal bone and dura, resulting in a cerebrospinal fluid leak; the risk of meningitis is rare but serious. The surgeon should discuss the possibility of cerebrospinal fluid leak when consenting patients. Pre-operative computerised tomography scanning should be considered in certain individuals to aid implant placement.

  10. Bidirectional control of a one-dimensional robotic actuator by operant conditioning of a single unit in rat motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Jean eArduin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of efficient neuroprosthetic devices has become a major challenge for the long-term goal of restoring autonomy to motor-impaired patients. One approach for brain control of actuators consists in decoding the activity pattern obtained by simultaneously recording large neuronal ensembles in order to predict in real-time the subject’s intention, and move the prosthesis accordingly. An alternative way is to assign the output of one or a few neurons by operant conditioning to control the prosthesis with rules defined by the experimenter, and rely on the functional adaptation of these neurons during learning to reach the desired behavioral outcome. Here, several motor cortex neurons were recorded simultaneously in head-fixed awake rats and were conditioned, one at a time, to modulate their firing rate up and down in order to control the speed and direction of a one-dimensional actuator carrying a water bottle. The goal was to maintain the bottle in front of the rat’s mouth, allowing it to drink. After learning, all conditioned neurons modulated their firing rate, effectively controlling the bottle position so that the drinking time was increased relative to chance. The mean firing rate averaged over all bottle trajectories depended non-linearly on position, so that the mouth position operated as an attractor. Some modifications of mean firing rate were observed in the surrounding neurons, but to a lesser extent. Notably, the conditioned neuron reacted faster and led to a better control than surrounding neurons, as calculated by using the activity of those neurons to generate simulated bottle trajectories. Our study demonstrates the feasibility, even in the rodent, of using a motor cortex neuron to control a prosthesis in real-time bidirectionally. The learning process includes modifications of the activity of neighboring cortical neurons, while the conditioned neuron selectively leads the activity patterns associated with the prosthesis

  11. Ankle Block vs Single-Shot Popliteal Fossa Block as Primary Anesthesia for Forefoot Operative Procedures: Prospective, Randomized Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Oliver N; Hunt, Kenneth J; Anderson, Robert B; Davis, W Hodges; Jones, Carroll P; Cohen, Bruce E

    2017-11-01

    Postoperative pain is often difficult to control with oral medications, requiring large doses of opioid analgesia. Regional anesthesia may be used for primary anesthesia, reducing the need for general anesthetic and postoperative pain medication requirements in the immediate postoperative period. The purpose of this study was to compare the analgesic effects of an ankle block (AB) to a single-shot popliteal fossa block (PFB) for patients undergoing orthopedic forefoot procedures. All patients having elective outpatient orthopedic forefoot procedures were invited to participate in the study. Patients were prospectively randomized to receive either an ultrasound-guided AB or PFB by a board-certified anesthesiologist prior to their procedure. Intraoperative conversion to general anesthesia and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) opioid requirements were recorded. Postoperative pain was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) at regular time intervals until 8 am on postoperative day (POD) 2. Patients rated the effectiveness of the block on a 1 to 5 scale, with 5 being very effective. A total of 167 patients participated in the study with 88 patients (53%) receiving an AB and 79 (47%) receiving a single-shot PFB. There was no significant difference in the rate of conversion to general anesthesia between the 2 groups (13.6% [12/88] AB vs 12.7% [10/79] PFB). PACU morphine requirements and doses were significantly reduced in the PFB group ( P = .004) when compared to the AB group. The VAS was also significantly lower for the PFB patients at 10 pm on POD 0 (4.6 vs 1.6, P PFB 10.1%, P = .51) and there were no significant differences in residual sensory paresthesias (AB 2.3% [2/88] vs PFB 5.1% [4/79], P = .29), motor loss (0% vs 0%), or block site pain and/or erythema (AB 6.9% [6/88] vs PFB 5.1% [4/79], P = .44). The analgesic effect of the PFB lasted significantly longer when compared to the ankle block (AB 14.5 hours vs PFB 20.9 hours, P PFB 4.82/5, P = .68). Regional

  12. International Framework Agreements
    An analysis of the international framework agreement as an instrument for improving working standards in global business operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aalt G. Colenbrander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The international framework agreement is a relatively new instrument, used by global trade unions to respond to the impact of globalization on the business operations of companies operating worldwide. This way, they address an issue (inter-national legislators and regulators have difficulties dealing with. This paper combines information available from existing literature with empirical data derived from interviews with relevant actors and desk research. It aims to analyse the present state of the international framework agreement as an instrument and to formulate conclusions with regard to conditions an international framework agreement has to fulfil in order to be able to meet its objectives. Although in general the emergence of international framework agreements is perceived as a positive development with the potential of improving fundamental working standards in global business operations, some comments have been made in literature that are confirmed and fleshed out by the empirical data presented in this paper. These comments address the substantive content of the agreement, and emphasise the relevance of implementation and monitoring processes, both in the contracting company’s organisation and in its supply chain. They stress the relevance of investigating which parties are involved in these processes. If the issues identified in literature and in this paper are properly considered, the international framework agreement can be a compelling tool for global trade unions to pursue their aims. Unfortunately, research demonstrates that not all existing international framework agreements deal with these issues and some appear to achieve no direct practical impact at all.

  13. One single standard substance for the simultaneous determination of 17 triterpenes in Ganoderma lingzhi and its related species using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jingsong; Han, Wei; Liu, Yanfang; Feng, Jie; Tang, Chuanhong; Feng, Na; Tang, Qingjiu

    2017-11-15

    Due to the difficulty and high cost for the preparation of triterpenes, one single standard for the simultaneous determination of multi-components (SSDMC) with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is an advanced solution for multi-component analysis. Experiments were carried out to investigate the feasibility of SSDMC for the analysis of Ganoderma triterpenes, with external standard method (ESM) compared, and the samples of Ganoderma were classified by the content of Ganoderma triterpenes. The analysis was performed by using a Fortis Speed Core-C18 column (150mm×4.6mm I.D., 2.6μm) at gradient elution of 0.01% glacial acetic acid-water (V/V) and acetonitrile with diode array detection (252nm), at a flow rate of 1mL/min. The results showed that all calibration curves had good linearity (r 2 >0.9999) within test ranges. The LOD and LOQ were lower than 2.52ng and 6.43ng, respectively. The RSD for intra-day and inter-day of the seventeen analytes were less than 3.12% at three levels, and the recoveries were 91.4-103.0%. The contents of other 16 triterpenes were determined with ganoderic acid A by SSDMC, which showed that there were few differences compared with the results obtained by ESM. Moreover, the classification of 25 different species and strains of Ganoderma by using the content of triterpenes intuitively reflected the distinction among Ganoderma. In summary, the developed method could be readily utilized as a method of quality evaluation for Ganoderma triterpenes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Knee Viscosupplementation: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis between Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid in a Single Injection versus Five Injections of Standard Hyaluronic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Estades-Rubio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the wide difference in price per vial between various presentations of hyaluronic acid, this study seeks to compare the effectiveness and treatment cost of stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA in a single injection with standard preparations of hyaluronic acid (HA in five injections in osteoarthritis (OA of the knee. Fifty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren–Lawrence Grade II and III and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC pain score greater than 7, with a homogeneous distribution of age, sex, BMI, and duration of disease, were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group I was treated with NASHA (Durolane® and Group II with HA (Go-ON®. Patient’s evolution was followed up at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 26th week after treatment. A statistically significant improvement in WOMAC score was observed for patients treated with NASHA versus those who received HA at Week 26. In addition, the need for analgesia was significantly reduced at Week 26 in the NASHA-treated group. Finally, the economic analysis showed an increased cost of overall treatment with HA injections. Our data support the use of the NASHA class of products in the treatment of knee OA.

  15. Knee Viscosupplementation: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis between Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid in a Single Injection versus Five Injections of Standard Hyaluronic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estades-Rubio, Francisco J; Reyes-Martín, Alvaro; Morales-Marcos, Victor; García-Piriz, Mercedes; García-Vera, Juan J; Perán, Macarena; Marchal, Juan A; Montañez-Heredia, Elvira

    2017-03-17

    Given the wide difference in price per vial between various presentations of hyaluronic acid, this study seeks to compare the effectiveness and treatment cost of stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) in a single injection with standard preparations of hyaluronic acid (HA) in five injections in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Fifty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence Grade II and III) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score greater than 7, with a homogeneous distribution of age, sex, BMI, and duration of disease, were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group I was treated with NASHA (Durolane ® ) and Group II with HA (Go-ON ® ). Patient's evolution was followed up at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 26th week after treatment. A statistically significant improvement in WOMAC score was observed for patients treated with NASHA versus those who received HA at Week 26. In addition, the need for analgesia was significantly reduced at Week 26 in the NASHA-treated group. Finally, the economic analysis showed an increased cost of overall treatment with HA injections. Our data support the use of the NASHA class of products in the treatment of knee OA.

  16. Simultaneous determination of four active components in Alisma orientale (Sam. Juz. by HPLC–DAD using a single reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Wen Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple and practical high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detector (HPLC–DAD was developed to evaluate the quality of Alisma orientale (Sam. Juz. through a simultaneous determination of four major active triterpenes using a single standard to determine the multi-components (SSDMCs. Alisol B 23-acetate was selected as the reference compound for calculating the relative response factors. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R2>0.9998 within test ranges. RSDs for intra- and inter-day of four analytes were less than 3.6% and 2.3%; the overall recovery was 92.1–110.2% (SSDMC. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify the four components in 20 samples from different localities in China. Moreover, significant variations were demonstrated in the content of these compounds. In addition, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA and principal components analysis (PCA were performed to differentiate and classify the samples based on the contents of Alisol C 23-acetate, Alisol A, Alisol A 24-acetate and Alisol B 23-acetate. This simple, rapid, low-cost and reliable HPLC–DAD method using SSDMC is suitable for routine quantitative analysis and quality control of A. orientale (Sam. Juz. Keywords: SSDMC, Alisma orientale (Sam. Juz, Quality control, HCA, PCA

  17. The role of the specialized team in the operation of continuous renal replacement therapy: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Harin; Jang, Gum Sook; Han, Miyeun; Park, In Seong; Kim, Il Young; Song, Sang Heon; Seong, Eun Young; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Soo Bong; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2017-11-13

    The requirement of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is increasing with the growing incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI). The decision to initiate CRRT is not difficult if an adequate medical history is obtained. However, the handling and maintenance of CRRT constitute a labor-intensive intervention that requires specialized skills. For these reasons, our center organized a specialized CRRT team in March 2013. The aim of this study is to report on the role of a specialized CRRT team and to evaluate the team's outcome. This retrospective single-center study evaluated AKI patients who underwent CRRT in the intensive care unit (ICU) from March 2011 to February 2015. Patients were divided into two groups based on whether they received specialized CRRT team intervention. We collected information on demographic characteristics, laboratory parameters, SOFA score, CRRT initiation time, actual delivered dose and CRRT down-time. In-hospital mortality was defined by medical chart review. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to define factors associated with in-hospital mortality. A total of 1104 patients were included in this study. The mean patient age was 63.85 ± 14.39 years old, and 62.8% of the patients were male. After the specialized CRRT team intervention, there was a significant reduction in CRRT initiation time (5.30 ± 13.86 vs. 3.60 ± 11.59 days, p = 0.027) and CRRT down-time (1.78 ± 2.23 vs. 1.38 ± 2.08 h/day, p = 0.002). The rate of in-hospital mortality decreased after the specialized CRRT team intervention (57.5 vs. 49.2%, p = 0.007). When the multivariable analysis was adjusted, delayed CRRT initiation (HR 1.054(1.036-1.072), p team intervention reduced CRRT initiation time, down-time and in-hospital mortality. This study could serve as a logical basis for implementing specialized CRRT teams hospital-wide.

  18. Pulsed irradiation improves target selectivity of infrared laser-evoked gene operator for single-cell gene induction in the nematode C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motoshi; Toyoda, Naoya; Takagi, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Methods for turning on/off gene expression at the experimenter's discretion would be useful for various biological studies. Recently, we reported on a novel microscope system utilizing an infrared laser-evoked gene operator (IR-LEGO) designed for inducing heat shock response efficiently in targeted single cells in living organisms without cell damage, thereby driving expression of a transgene under the control of a heat shock promoter. Although the original IR-LEGO can be successfully used for gene induction, several limitations hinder its wider application. Here, using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as a subject, we have made improvements in IR-LEGO. For better spatial control of heating, a pulsed irradiation method using an optical chopper was introduced. As a result, single cells of C. elegans embryos as early as the 2-cell stage and single neurons in ganglia can be induced to express genes selectively. In addition, the introduction of site-specific recombination systems to IR-LEGO enables the induction of gene expression controlled by constitutive and cell type-specific promoters. The strategies adopted here will be useful for future applications of IR-LEGO to other organisms.

  19. Control scheme towards enhancing power quality and operational efficiency of single-phase two-stage grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Salem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieving high reliable grid-connected photovoltaic (PV systems with high power quality and high operation efficiency is highly required for distributed generation units. A double grid-frequency voltage ripple is found on the dc-link voltage in single-phase photovoltaic grid-connected systems due to the unbalance of the instantaneous dc input and ac output powers. This voltage ripple has undesirable effects on the power quality and operational efficiency of the whole system. Harmonic distortion in the injected current to the grid is one of the problems caused by this double grid-frequency voltage ripple. The double grid frequency ripple propagates to the PV voltage and current which disturb the extracted maximum power from the PV array. This paper introduces intelligent solutions towards mitigate the side effects of the double grid-frequency voltage ripple on the transferred power quality and the operational efficiency of single-phase two-stage grid-connected PV system. The proposed system has three control loops: MPPT control loop, dc-link voltage control loop and inverter current control loop. Solutions are introduced for all the three control loops in the system. The current controller cancels the dc-link voltage effect on the total harmonic distortion of the output current. The dc-link voltage controller is designed to generate a ripple free reference current signal that leads to enhance the quality of the output power. Also a modified MPPT controller is proposed to optimize the extracted power from the PV array. Simulation results show that higher injected power quality is achieved and higher efficiency of the overall system is realized.

  20. Impact of single versus multiple policy options on the economic feasibility of biogas energy production: Swine and dairy operations in Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Bettina B.; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K.; Gordon, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The economic feasibility of on-farm biogas energy production was investigated for swine and dairy operations under Nova Scotia, Canada farming conditions, using net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and payback period (PP) economic decision criteria. In addition, the effects of selected environmental and 'green' energy policy schemes on co-generation of on-farm biogas energy production and other co-benefits from anaerobic digestion of livestock manure were investigated. Cost-efficiencies arising from economies of scale for on-farm anaerobic biogas production were found for swine farms, and less so for dairy production systems. Without incentive schemes, on-farm biogas energy production was not economically feasible across the farm size ranges studied, except for 600- and 800-sow operations. Among single policy schemes investigated, green energy credit policy schemes generated the highest financial returns, compared to cost-share and low-interest loan schemes. Combinations of multiple policies that included cost-share and green energy credit incentive schemes generated the most improvement in financial feasibility of on-farm biogas energy production, for both swine and dairy operations