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Sample records for single stage spur

  1. Active vibration control of a single-stage spur gearbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogruer, C. U.; Pirsoltan, Abbas K.

    2017-02-01

    The dynamic transmission error between driving and driven gears of a gear mechanism with torsional mode is induced by periodic time-varying mesh stiffness. In this study, to minimize the adverse effect of this time-varying mesh stiffness, a nonlinear controller which adjusts the torque acting on the driving gear is proposed. The basic approach is to modulate the input torque such that it compensates the periodic change in mesh stiffness. It is assumed that gears are assembled with high precision and gearbox is analyzed by a finite element software to calculate the mesh stiffness curve. Thus, change in the mesh stiffness, which is inherently nonlinear, can be predicted and canceled by a feed-forward loop. Then, remaining linear dynamics is controlled by pole placement techniques. Under these premises, it is claimed that any acceleration and velocity profile of the input shaft can be tracked accurately. Thereby, dynamic transmission error is kept to a minimum possible value and a spur gearbox, which does not emit much noise and vibration, is designed.

  2. [Calcaneal spur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenberg, A A

    1991-12-01

    The clinical picture, diagnosis, and treatment of calcaneal spurs are described on the basis of 190 cases (102 females and 88 males whose ages ranged from 38 to 79 years). All were treated by local administration of various steroid hormones. A good immediate result was produced by a single administration of the hormone in 90% of cases; the favourable result persisted in the late-term periods in 78 persons. The author claims hormone therapy to be the most effective among all the known methods of nonoperative treatment of calcaneal spurs and recommends it for a wide surgical practice.

  3. Investigation of hydrodynamics on local scour by shape of single spur dike in river bend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masjedi, A; Foroushani, E P

    2012-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted in which the the scour hole associated with model spur dike was measured in a 180 degree laboratory flume bend under clear-water overtopping flows. In this study, the local scour were conducted for three different shapes of oblong, rectangulat chamfered of straight spur dikes at the bend with various Froude number. The main goals of the experiments were to evaluate the effect of the three different shapes of straight spur dikes on the volume of scour and potential aquatic habitat and on minimizing erosion adjacent to the streambanks. The experiments showed that of the three different shapes of straight spur dikes tested, the least erosion of the around in the near bank region was associated with the spur dikes with oblong shape, while the greatest volume of the scour hole was associated with the rectangular shape. So it was observed that, as Froude number increases, the scour increases.

  4. Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2005-12-15

    This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and

  5. Study of a spur gear dynamic behavior in transient regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabou, M. T.; Bouchaala, N.; Chaari, F.; Fakhfakh, T.; Haddar, M.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper the dynamic behavior of a single stage spur gear reducer in transient regime is studied. Dynamic response of the single stage spur gear reducer is investigated at different rotating velocities. First, gear excitation is induced by the motor torque and load variation in addition to the fluctuation of meshing stiffness due to the variation of input rotational speed. Then, the dynamic response is computed using the Newmark method. After that, a parameter study is made on spur gear powered in the first place by an electric motor and in the second place by four strokes four cylinders diesel engine. Dynamic responses come to confirm a significant influence of the transient regime on the dynamic behavior of a gear set, particularly in the case of engine acyclism condition.

  6. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented...

  7. Dynamic modelling of a one-stage spur gear system and vibration-based tooth crack detection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Omar D.; Rantatalo, Matti; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov

    2015-03-01

    For the purpose of simulation and vibration-based condition monitoring of a geared system, it is important to model the system with an appropriate number of degrees of freedom (DOF). In earlier papers several models were suggested and it is therefore of interest to evaluate their limitations. In the present study a 12 DOF gear dynamic model including a gyroscopic effect was developed and the equations of motions were derived. A one-stage reduction gear was modelled using three different dynamic models (with 6, 8 and 8 reduced to 6 DOF), as well as the developed model (with 12 DOF), which is referred as the fourth model in this paper. The time-varying mesh stiffness was calculated, and dynamic simulation was then performed for different crack sizes. Time domain scalar indicators (the RMS, kurtosis and the crest factor) were applied for fault detection analysis. The results of the first model show a clearly visible difference from those of the other studied models, which were made more realistic by including two more DOF to describe the motor and load. Both the symmetric and the asymmetric disc cases were studied using the fourth model. In the case of disc symmetry, the results of the obtained response are close to those obtained from both the second and third models. Furthermore, the second model showed a slight influence from inter-tooth friction, and therefore the third model is adequate for simulating the pinion's y-displacement in the case of the symmetric disc. In the case of the asymmetric disc, the results deviate from those obtained in the symmetric case. Therefore, for simulating the pinion's y-displacement, the fourth model can be considered for more accurate modelling in the case of the asymmetric disc.

  8. Delayed Single Stage Perineal Posterior Urethroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Shahnawaz; Shahzad, I.; Baloch, M. U.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the delayed single stage perineal posterior urethroplasty for treatment of posterior urethral stricture/distraction defect. Study Design: Descriptive case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Urology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from January 2009 to December 2011. Methodology: Patients were selected for delayed single stage perineal posterior urethroplasty for treatment of posterior urethral stricture / distraction defect. All were initially suprapubically catheterized followed by definitive surgery after at least 3 months. Results: Thirty male patients were analyzed with a mean follow-up of 10 months, 2 patients were excluded as they developed failure in first 3 months postoperatively. Mean patients age was 26.25 ± 7.9 years. On follow-up, 7 patients (23.3 percentage) experienced recurrent stricture during first 10 months. Five (16.6 percentage) patients were treated successfully with single direct visual internal urethrotomy. Two patients (6.6 percentage) had more than one direct visual internal urethrotomy and considered failed. Re-do perineal urethroplasty was eventually performed. The overall success rate was 93.3 percentage with permissive criteria allowing single direct visual internal urethrotomy and 76.6% with strict criteria allowing no more procedures postoperatively. Conclusion: Posterior anastomotic urethroplasty offers excellent long-term results to patients with posterior urethral trauma and distraction defect even after multiple prior procedures. (author)

  9. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented......-forward; - and the grid current controller implemented in two different ways, using the classical proportional integral (PI) and the novel proportional resonant (PR) controllers. The control strategy was tested experimentally on 1.5 kW PV inverter........ The main elements of the PV control structure are: - a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) algorithm using the incremental conductance method; - a synchronization method using the phase-locked-loop (PLL), based on delay; - the input power control using the dc voltage controller and power feed...

  10. Design considerations for single-stage and two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.

    1988-09-01

    Performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors is compared with several models for one-dimensional, compressible fluid flow. Agreement is quite good for models that reflect actual breech chamber geometry and incorporate nonideal effects such as gas friction. Several methods of improving the performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors in the near term are outlined. The design and performance of two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors are discussed, and initial data from the two-stage pneumatic pellet injector test facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are presented. Finally, a concept for a repeating two-stage pneumatic pellet injector is described. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Single-stage repair versus traditional repair of high anorectal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    random number table. The patients in group A were treated with a single-stage operation, whereas the patients in group B were treated with a standard staged operation. (either PSARP or abdominoperineal pull-through). After clinical evaluation using the Kelly score, patients were divided into three clinical groups ...

  12. Design, Construction and Measured Performance of a Single-Stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design philosophy, construction and measured performances of a single stage, single entry centrifugal pump demonstration unit are presented. In the construction, close-coupled induction motor drives the centrifugal pump, which draws fluid (water) from a water storage tank and delivers same through a flow control ...

  13. Comparison between a two-stage and single-stage digesters when ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenol is a pollutant found in many industrial wastewaters, which diminishes biogas formation in anaerobic digesters. In this study, a two-stage (acidogenic and methanogenic) anaerobic digester (TSAD) was compared to a single stage digester (SSD), in treating a synthetic wastewater contaminated with phenol.

  14. Comparisons of single-stage and two-stage approaches to genomic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Streeck, Torben; Ogutu, Joseph O; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a method for predicting breeding values of plants or animals using many molecular markers that is commonly implemented in two stages. In plant breeding the first stage usually involves computation of adjusted means for genotypes which are then used to predict genomic breeding values in the second stage. We compared two classical stage-wise approaches, which either ignore or approximate correlations among the means by a diagonal matrix, and a new method, to a single-stage analysis for GS using ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP). The new stage-wise method rotates (orthogonalizes) the adjusted means from the first stage before submitting them to the second stage. This makes the errors approximately independently and identically normally distributed, which is a prerequisite for many procedures that are potentially useful for GS such as machine learning methods (e.g. boosting) and regularized regression methods (e.g. lasso). This is illustrated in this paper using componentwise boosting. The componentwise boosting method minimizes squared error loss using least squares and iteratively and automatically selects markers that are most predictive of genomic breeding values. Results are compared with those of RR-BLUP using fivefold cross-validation. The new stage-wise approach with rotated means was slightly more similar to the single-stage analysis than the classical two-stage approaches based on non-rotated means for two unbalanced datasets. This suggests that rotation is a worthwhile pre-processing step in GS for the two-stage approaches for unbalanced datasets. Moreover, the predictive accuracy of stage-wise RR-BLUP was higher (5.0-6.1%) than that of componentwise boosting.

  15. Evaluation of an automated single-channel sleep staging algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Loparo, Kenneth A; Kelly, Monica R; Kaplan, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously published the performance evaluation of an automated electroencephalography (EEG)-based single-channel sleep–wake detection algorithm called Z-ALG used by the Zmachine® sleep monitoring system. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of a new algorithm called Z-PLUS, which further differentiates sleep as detected by Z-ALG into Light Sleep, Deep Sleep, and Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep, against laboratory polysomnography (PSG) using a consensus of expert visual scorers. Methods Single night, in-lab PSG recordings from 99 subjects (52F/47M, 18–60 years, median age 32.7 years), including both normal sleepers and those reporting a variety of sleep complaints consistent with chronic insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome, as well as those taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor/serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressant medications, previously evaluated using Z-ALG were re-examined using Z-PLUS. EEG data collected from electrodes placed at the differential-mastoids (A1–A2) were processed by Z-ALG to determine wake and sleep, then those epochs detected as sleep were further processed by Z-PLUS to differentiate into Light Sleep, Deep Sleep, and REM. EEG data were visually scored by multiple certified polysomnographic technologists according to the Rechtschaffen and Kales criterion, and then combined using a majority-voting rule to create a PSG Consensus score file for each of the 99 subjects. Z-PLUS output was compared to the PSG Consensus score files for both epoch-by-epoch (eg, sensitivity, specificity, and kappa) and sleep stage-related statistics (eg, Latency to Deep Sleep, Latency to REM, Total Deep Sleep, and Total REM). Results Sensitivities of Z-PLUS compared to the PSG Consensus were 0.84 for Light Sleep, 0.74 for Deep Sleep, and 0.72 for REM. Similarly, positive predictive values were 0.85 for Light Sleep, 0.78 for Deep Sleep, and 0.73 for REM. Overall, kappa agreement of 0

  16. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  17. How I Manage Heel Spur Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seder, Joseph I.

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses plantar fascitis and heel spurs, the two contributing causes of heel spur syndrome. Treatment methods, which include rest, anti-inflammatory medication, shoe padding, and, as a last resort, surgery are described. (Author/MT)

  18. Calcaneal spurs among San and Khoi skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroline, Cermak; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Only few studies considered the prevalence of calcaneal enthesophytes commonly called heel spurs among historic skeleton samples. In the present study the frequency of plantar calcaneal spurs among 54 19(th) century Khoisan skeletons was analyzed. Five individuals (9.6 %) had a plantar calcaneal spur at the right side or left side. Calcaneal spurs were more likely to occur in older individuals. More than 20 % of the individuals aged between 40 and 60 years (mature) showed plantar spurs, while 6.2 % of the individuals aged between 20 and 40 years had plantar spurs; however this difference was not significant. No sex differences were present in the prevalence of calcaneal spurs. Male and female individuals did not differ in the metric dimensions of the calcanceal spurs significantly.

  19. Comparison of single-stage and temperature-phased two-stage anaerobic digestion of oily food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Li-Jie; Kobayashi, Takuro; Li, Yu-You; Xu, Kai-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A single-stage and two two-stage anaerobic systems were synchronously operated. • Similar methane production 0.44 L/g VS added from oily food waste was achieved. • The first stage of the two-stage process became inefficient due to serious pH drop. • Recycle favored the hythan production in the two-stage digestion. • The conversion of unsaturated fatty acids was enhanced by recycle introduction. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion is an effective technology to recover energy from oily food waste. A single-stage system and temperature-phased two-stage systems with and without recycle for anaerobic digestion of oily food waste were constructed to compare the operation performances. The synchronous operation indicated the similar ability to produce methane in the three systems, with a methane yield of 0.44 L/g VS added . The pH drop to less than 4.0 in the first stage of two-stage system without recycle resulted in poor hydrolysis, and methane or hydrogen was not produced in this stage. Alkalinity supplement from the second stage of two-stage system with recycle improved pH in the first stage to 5.4. Consequently, 35.3% of the particulate COD in the influent was reduced in the first stage of two-stage system with recycle according to a COD mass balance, and hydrogen was produced with a percentage of 31.7%, accordingly. Similar solids and organic matter were removed in the single-stage system and two-stage system without recycle. More lipid degradation and the conversion of long-chain fatty acids were achieved in the single-stage system. Recycling was proved to be effective in promoting the conversion of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids into saturated fatty acids in the two-stage system.

  20. New results for single stage low energy carbon AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klody, G.M.; Schroeder, J.B.; Norton, G.A.; Loger, R.L.; Kitchen, R.L.; Sundquist, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    A new configuration of the NEC single stage, low energy carbon AMS system (U.S. Patent 6,815,666 B2) has been built and tested. The injector includes two 40-sample ion sources, electrostatic and magnetic analysis, and fast sequential injection. The gas stripper, analyzing magnet, electrostatic analyzer, and detector are on an open air 250 kV deck. Both 12 C and 13 C currents are measured on the deck after the stripper, and an SSB detector is used for 14 C counting. Injected 12 C and mass 13 ( 13 C and 12 CH) currents are also measured. Automated controls follow a user-specified run list for unattended operation. Initial test results show precision for 14 C/ 12 C ratios of better than 5 per mil, and backgrounds for unprocessed graphite of less than 0.005 x modern. We will report final results for precision, background, and throughput and discuss related design features

  1. 85,000-GPM, single-stage, single-suction LMFBR intermediate centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fair, C.E.; Cook, M.E.; Huber, K.A.; Rohde, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanical and hydraulic design features of the 85,000-gpm, single-stage, single-suction pump test article, which is designed to circulate liquid-sodium coolant in the intermediate heat-transport system of a Large-Scale Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LS-LMFBR), are described. The design and analytical considerations used to satisfy the pump performance and operability requirements are presented. The validation of pump hydraulic performance using a hydraulic scale-model pump is discussed, as is the featute test for the mechanical-shaft seal system

  2. System and method for single-phase, single-stage grid-interactive inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Li, Hui

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides for the integration of distributed renewable energy sources/storages utilizing a cascaded DC-AC inverter, thereby eliminating the need for a DC-DC converter. The ability to segment the energy sources and energy storages improves the maintenance capability and system reliability of the distributed generation system, as well as achieve wide range reactive power compensation. In the absence of a DC-DC converter, single stage energy conversion can be achieved to enhance energy conversion efficiency.

  3. Two-stage unilateral versus one-stage bilateral single-port sympathectomy for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohsen; Menna, Cecilia; Andreetti, Claudio; Ciccone, Anna Maria; D'Andrilli, Antonio; Maurizi, Giulio; Poggi, Camilla; Vanni, Camilla; Venuta, Federico; Rendina, Erino Angelo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy is currently the best treatment for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis. It can be performed through either one or two stages of surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the operative and postoperative results of two-stage unilateral vs one-stage bilateral thoracoscopic sympathectomy. METHODS From November 1995 to February 2011, 270 patients with severe palmar and/or axillary hyperhidrosis were recruited for this study. One hundred and thirty patients received one-stage bilateral, single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy (one-stage group) and 140, two-stage unilateral, single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy, with a mean time interval of 4 months between the procedures (two-stage group). RESULTS The mean postoperative follow-up period was 12.5 (range: 1–24 months). After surgery, hands and axillae of all patients were dry and warm. Sixteen (12%) patients of the one-stage group and 15 (11%) of the two-stage group suffered from mild/moderate pain (P = 0.8482). The mean operative time was 38 ± 5 min in the one-stage group and 39 ± 8 min in the two-stage group (P = 0.199). Pneumothorax occurred in 8 (6%) patients of the one-stage group and in 11 (8%) of the two-stage group. Compensatory sweating occurred in 25 (19%) patients of the one-stage group and in 6 (4%) of the two-stage group (P = 0.0001). No patients developed Horner's syndrome. CONCLUSIONS Both two-stage unilateral and one-stage bilateral single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomies are effective, safe and minimally invasive procedures. Two-stage unilateral sympathectomy can be performed with a lower occurrence of compensatory sweating, improving permanently the quality of life in patients with palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis. PMID:23442937

  4. Plantar fasciitis/calcaneal spur among security forces personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Ali, M

    1998-01-01

    A prospective single survey was conducted among Security Forces personnel at the Mobile Hospital, Ministry of Interior, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia. One hundred three patients presented to the orthopedic clinic with painful heel. A control group of patients from the other clinics without painful heel was also screened. The average age was 38.81 years and 38.1 years in the patient and the control group, respectively. The mean Quetelet index of body mass in the patient group was 30.36 kg/m2 and in the control group it was 26.71 kg/m2. There was a statistically significant difference of p spur on the calcaneum. The prevalence of painful heel attributable to plantar fasciitis/calcaneum spur was 1.18%. This study suggests that obesity is a cause and initiator of heel pain and plantar fasciitis/calcaneal spur and that improper footwear aggravates the condition.

  5. NASA Glenn's Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility Upgraded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokopp, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center's Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility was upgraded in fiscal year 2003 to expand and improve its research capabilities for testing high-speed fans and compressors. The old 3000-hp drive motor and gearbox were removed and replaced with a refurbished 7000-hp drive motor and gearbox, with a maximum output speed of 21,240 rpm. The higher horsepower rating permits testing of fans and compressors with higher pressure ratio or higher flow. A new inline torquemeter was installed to provide an alternate measurement of fan and compressor efficiency, along with the standard pressure and temperature measurements. A refurbished compressor bearing housing was also installed with bidirectional rotation capability, so that a variety of existing hardware could be tested. Four new lubrication modules with backup capability were installed for the motor, gearbox, torquemeter, and compressor bearing housing, so that in case the primary pump fails, the backup will prevent damage to the rotating hardware. The combustion air supply line for the facility inlet air system was activated to provide dry air for repeatable inlet conditions. New flow conditioning hardware was installed in the facility inlet plenum tank, which greatly reduced the inlet turbulence. The new inlet can also be easily modified to accommodate 20- or 22-in.-diameter fans and compressors, so a variety of existing hardware from other facilities (such as Glenn's 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel) can be tested in the Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility. An exhaust line was also installed to provide bleed capability to remove the inlet boundary layer. To improve the operation and control of the facility, a new programmable logic controller (PLC) was installed to upgrade from hardwired relay logic to software logic. The PLC also enabled the usage of human-machine interface software to allow for easier operation of the facility and easier reconfiguration of the facility controls when

  6. Single-stage mass spectrometric analyses of resin bead samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. H.; Walker, R. L.; Bertram, L. K.; Carter, J. A.

    1978-10-01

    Plutonium and uranium from dissolver solutions loaded on resin beads can be analyzed on single-stage mass spectrometers with little or no degradation of results provided proper care is exercised with regard to sample handling techniques. Additionally, storage of samples on resin beads is feasible for periods at least as long as six months provided the beads are not exposed to residual HNO/sub 3/ and air; it is probable that beads will retain their integrity much longer than six months when stored under collodion, but as yet no data to support this contention have been collected. Conventional or commercial mass spectrometers can readily be adapted to the resin bead technique by installing a pulse-counting detection system. The cost of such conversion will vary depending on whether or not a data acquisition system will be needed. A reasonable estimate is that the cost will be in the neighborhood of $15,000; this figure includes the price of a multi-channel analyzer to serve as a temporary data storage device, but does not include the cost of a computer. It does not appear that it will be practicable to switch easily back and forth between pulse-counting and current integration modes unless the instrument is provided with a movable Faraday cup. Using the same multiplier in both modes would undoubtedly degrade its performance in each. The requirements of low background counting rates and high gain for pulse counting, and of relatively high signal handling capacity in current integration are mutually incompatible if demanded of the same multiplier.

  7. Realization of single-phase single-stage grid-connected PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Arafa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single phase single stage grid-tied PV system. Grid angle detection is introduced to allow operation at any arbitrary power factor but unity power factor is chosen to utilize the full inverter capacity. The system ensures MPPT using the incremental conductance method and it can track the changes in insolation level without oscillations. A PI voltage controller and a dead-beat current controller are used to ensure high quality injected current to the grid. The paper investigates the system structure and performance through numerical simulation using Matlab/Simulink. An experimental setup controlled by the MicrolabBox DSP prototyping platform is utilized to realize the system and study its performance. The precautions for smooth and safe system operation including the startup sequence are fully considered in the implementation.

  8. Two-stage IMZ implants and ITI implants inserted in a single-stage procedure : A prospective comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenrijk, Kees; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Meijer, Henny J.A.; Reijden, Willy A. van der; Winkelhoff, Arie Jan van; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a two-stage implant system in a single-stage procedure and to study the impact of the microgap at crestal level and to monitor the microflora in the peri-implant area. Forty edentulous patients (Cawood & Howell class V–VI) participated

  9. Two-stage IMZ implants and ITI implants inserted in a single-stage procedure - A prospective comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenrijk, K; Raghoebar, GM; Meijer, HJA; van der Reijden, WA; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Stegenga, B

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a two-stage implant system in a single-stage procedure and to study the impact of the microgap at crestal level and to monitor the microflora in the peri-implant area. Forty edentulous patients (Cawood & Howell class V-VI) participated

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of single-stage and multi-stage adsorption refrigeration cycles with activated carbon–ammonia working pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.Z.; Wang, L.W.; Wang, R.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Activated carbon–ammonia multi-stage adsorption refrigerator was analyzed. • COP, exergetic efficiency and entropy production of cycles were calculated. • Single-stage cycle usually has the advantages of simple structure and high COP. • Multi-stage cycles adapt to critical conditions better than single-stage cycle. • Boundary conditions for choosing optimal cycle were summarized as tables. - Abstract: Activated carbon–ammonia multi-stage adsorption refrigeration cycle was analyzed in this article, which realized deep-freezing for evaporating temperature under −18 °C with heating source temperature much lower than 100 °C. Cycle mathematical models for single, two and three-stage cycles were established on the basis of thorough thermodynamic analysis. According to simulation results of thermodynamic evaluation indicators such as COP (coefficient of performance), exergetic efficiency and cycle entropy production, multi-stage cycle adapts to high condensing temperature, low evaporating temperature and low heating source temperature well. Proposed cycle with selected working pair can theoretically work under very severe conditions, such as −25 °C evaporating temperature, 40 °C condensing temperature, and 70 °C heating source temperature, but under these working conditions it has the drawback of low cycle adsorption quantity. It was found that both COP and exergetic efficiency are of great reference value in the choice of cycle, whereas entropy production is not so useful for cycle stage selection. Finally, the application boundary conditions of single-stage, two-stage, and three-stage cycles were summarized as tables according to the simulation results, which provides reference for choosing optimal cycle under different conditions.

  11. Evaluation of an automated single-channel sleep staging algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Richard; Wang,Ying; Loparo,Kenneth; Kelly,Monica

    2015-01-01

    Ying Wang,1 Kenneth A Loparo,1,2 Monica R Kelly,3 Richard F Kaplan1 1General Sleep Corporation, Euclid, OH, 2Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 3Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Background: We previously published the performance evaluation of an automated electroencephalography (EEG)-based single-channel sleep–wake detection algorithm called Z-ALG used by the Zmachine® s...

  12. Single-stage revision for periprosthetic hip infection using antibiotic loaded impaction graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebied, Ayman M; Elseedy, Adel I; Gamal, Osama

    2016-11-10

    Staged revision for periprosthetic infection of the hip is an accepted and widely used technique by many surgeons. However, single-stage exchange of the hip prosthesis remains an attractive option to others because of the advantages of reduced morbidity, shorter treatment time and hospital stay in addition to the reduced cost of treatment. Single-stage revision for periprosthetic hip infection can achieve excellent results if a specific protocol for patients' selection and management is followed. 52 patients with evidence of periprosthetic infection had preoperative aspiration of the affected hip. The infecting organisms were identified in 33/52 and single-stage revision was performed. The remaining 19 patients had a 2-stage exchange arthroplasty. Patients in the single-stage revision protocol had antibiotic loaded morsellized bone graft, a cemented cup and a long cementless stem. At an average follow up of 6 (range 4-8) years postoperatively, only 1 case of persistent infection was found in the single-stage group - a 97% rate of eradicating infection was achieved. Single-stage exchange achieves excellent success rate in patients with periprosthetic infection when a specific protocol for patient selection and management is followed.

  13. Michael J. Fox: Spurring Research on Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Parkinson's Disease Michael J. Fox: Spurring Research on Parkinson's Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents Michael J. Fox and his wife, actress Tracy Pollan, founded ...

  14. PODAAC-SPUR1-MOOR2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study) project is an oceanographic process study and associated field program that aim to elucidate key...

  15. Single-Stage Revision Arthroplasty for Infection-An Underutilized Treatment Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negus, Jonathan J; Gifford, Peter B; Haddad, Fares S

    2017-07-01

    The burden of revision arthroplasty surgery for infection is rising as the rate of primary arthroplasty surgery increases. Infected arthroplasty rates are now relatively low, but the sheer increase in volume is leading to considerable patient morbidity and significant increases in costs to the health care system. Single-stage revision for infection is one of the several accepted treatment options, but the indications and results are debated. This review aims to clarify the current evidence. MEDLINE/PubMed databases were reviewed for studies that looked at single- or one-stage revision knee or hip arthroplasty for infection. There is increasing evidence that single-stage revision for infection can control infection and with decreased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs compared with a staged approach. However, the indications are still debated. Recently, there has been a determined effort to define an infected arthroplasty in a manner that will allow for standardization of reporting in the literature. The evidence supporting single stage for knee arthroplasty is catching up with the result with hip arthroplasty. High-quality data from randomized controlled trials are now pending. After the gradual evolution of using the single-stage approach, with the widespread acceptance of this definition, we can now standardize comparisons across the world and move toward a refined definition of the ideal patient population for single-stage arthroplasty revision in both the hip and the knee population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Single Stage Knee Arthroplasty Revision Surgery: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, E; Khan, W S; Agarwal, S; Morgan-Jones, R

    2015-01-01

    Total Knee Arthroplasty is an increasingly common procedure and revision surgery, particularly for infection, is associated with significant morbidity and healthcare costs. The current gold standard is a two stage revision procedure but single stage revision is increasingly being used in some departments to improve patient outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to determine the up-to-date evidence underlying the use of a single stage knee approach in revision surgery. A total of 12 studies were included in this review amounting to 433 revision surgeries. This is the largest review of single stage knee revision surgery. The procedures described were heterogenous and included the 'two-in-one' technique as well as other single stage revision procedures. There were also differences in implants and antibiotic regimens. The mean re-infection rates described in 10 studies was 9.4% (range 0-19.2%) after a mean follow-up of 40.3 months (range 7-180 months). The re-infection rates in the studies published over the last 30 years are falling, and this is not accounted for by any significant change in duration of follow-up during this period. The outcome scores varied, but patients generally showed an improvement. The Knee Society Score and the Oxford Knee Score were the most commonly used in five and three studies respectively. We conclude that the current evidence for single stage revision is variable and there is a lack of good quality evidence to address whether single stage revisions is thorough enough to eradicate deep infection and is able to restore adequate function. There is a need for larger prospective studies with standardised procedures and protocol, and with adequate follow-up. Till then, patients considered for a single stage approach should be thoroughly assessed and the surgery should be performed by a senior surgeon with experience in single stage knee revisions.

  17. Use of skin stretchers for single-stage bilateral mastectomies in a dog and a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yuta; Aikawa, Takeshi; Shimatsu, Taichi; Nishimura, Masaaki; Sadahiro, Shigeo

    2018-04-01

    To describe the application of skin stretchers for closure of single-stage bilateral mastectomies in a dog and a cat. Clinical case report. A 12-year-old intact female Miniature Dachshund and a 13-year-old spayed female domestic short-hair cat. Skin stretchers were applied to the site of the skin adjacent to mammary glands for 2-4 days before surgery. Cable tension was adjusted every 6-8 hours to elongate the skin and to achieve primary closure of single-stage bilateral mastectomy without tension. Wound closure after single-stage bilateral mastectomy was achieved without tension or major complication in both animals. Use of skin stretchers allows primary closure of single-stage bilateral mastectomy in dogs and cats. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  18. Single-Stage, Gelled Hydrazine System for Mars Ascent Vehicle Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm, Inc. in cooperation with Aerojet Rocketdyne is presenting an innovative approach to the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). The single-stage monopropellant system...

  19. Single Stage Transthoracic Approach to the Right Lung and Liver Dome Hydatid Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasih Yazkan

    2011-09-01

    lung, the hepatic lesions were all of the dome located. Conclusions :Single stage transthoracic approach is prevent the second surgical procedures on simultaneous right lung and liver dome hydatid cyst and it is safe and effective method.

  20. NOFBX Single-Stage-to-Orbit Mars Ascent Vehicle Engine, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continuation of our research and development of a Nitrous Oxide Fuel Blend (NOFBXTM) Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) monopropellant propulsion system for...

  1. Elimination of pharmaceuticals in single- and three-stage pre-denitrifying MBBR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Torresi, Elena; Loreggian, L.

    This study investigated the elimination of pharmaceuticals in pre-denitrifying moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) in single- and three-stage configurations. Under batch conditions, biotransformation and retransformation of two pharmaceuticals (trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole) occurred at comparab...

  2. Is Single-stage Revision Safe Following Infected Total Knee Arthroplasty? A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Rawat, Sudheer K; Singh, Harsh; Vijay, Vipul

    2017-08-30

    With the improvement in outcomes and modern prosthesis design, total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has now become a commonly performed surgery. It is postulated that a total of 2-5% of the primary and revision TKA becomes infected every year, requiring a revision procedure which to date is the conventional two-stage revision. The diagnosis and treatment of these periprosthetic infections is a major and challenging task, as it requires precise identification of the pathogen, meticulous debridement, and postoperative rehabilitation. To date, there have been very few studies in existing literature comparing the outcomes of single-stage versus two-stage procedure in infected TKA. The aim of the review was to provide the clinicians an insight into the outcome of the single-stage procedure compared to two-stage procedures and to suggest ways to improve the results further. In the following critical review, a total of 669 cases that underwent either a single or two-stage revision for infected TKA were studied. The postoperative functional scores were comparable in most studies during the early postoperative period. Our data supports the use of a single-stage revision surgery in infected TKA as an alternative to a conventional two-stage procedure. However, larger prospective and multicentric trials are required to validate our findings.

  3. Two-stage IMZ implants and ITI implants inserted in a single-stage procedure. A prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenrijk, Kees; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Meijer, Henny J A; van der Reijden, Willy A; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a two-stage implant system in a single-stage procedure and to study the impact of the microgap at crestal level and to monitor the microflora in the peri-implant area. Forty edentulous patients (Cawood & Howell class V-VI) participated in this study. After randomisation, 20 patients received two IMZ implants inserted in a single-stage procedure and 20 patients received two ITI implants. After 3 months, overdentures were fabricated, supported by a bar and clip attachment. A standardised clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed immediately after denture insertion and 6 and 12 months later. Twelve months after loading, peri-implant samples were collected with sterile paper points and analysed for the presence of putative periodontal pathogens using culture techniques. One IMZ implant was lost due to insufficient osseointegration. With regard to the clinical parameters at the 12 months evaluation, significant differences for plaque score and probing pocket depth (IMZ: mean 3.3 mm, ITI: mean 2.9 mm) were found between the two groups. The mean bone loss in the first year of functioning was 0.6 mm for both groups. Prevotella intermedia was detected more often in the ITI group (12 implants) than in the IMZ group (three implants). Porphyromonas gingivalis was found in three patients. In one of these patients an implant showed bone loss of 1.6 mm between T0 and T12. Some associations were found between clinical parameters and the target microorganisms in the ITI group. These associations were not present in the IMZ group. The short-term results indicate that two-stage implants inserted in a single-stage procedure may be as predictable as one-stage implants. The microgap at crestal level in nonsubmerged IMZ implants seems to have no adverse influence on the peri-implant microbiological colonisation and of crestal bone loss in the first year of functioning. The peri-implant sulcus can and does harbour

  4. Numerical Simulation of single-stage axial fan operation under dusty flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkov, L. L.; Pikushchak, E. V.

    2017-11-01

    Assessment of the aerodynamic efficiency of the single-stage axial flow fan under dusty flow conditions based on a numerical simulation using the computational package Ansys-Fluent is proposed. The influence of dust volume fraction on the dependences of the air volume flow rate and the pressure drop on the rotational speed of rotor is demonstrated. Matching functions for formulas describing a pressure drop and volume flow rate in dependence on the rotor speed and dust content are obtained by numerical simulation for the single-stage axial fan. It is shown that the aerodynamic efficiency of the single-stage axial flow fan decreases exponentially with increasing volume content of dust in the air.

  5. Outcomes of single-stage grip-release reconstruction in tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt, Carina; Fridén, Jan

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of our technique for single-stage grip-release reconstruction and compare it with previous 1- and 2-stage grip reconstructions in tetraplegia. A total of 14 patients (16 hands) with tetraplegia underwent a single-stage combination of operations to provide pinch, grip, and release function. We compared the study group with a historical control group of 15 patients (18 hands) who had been treated with staged flexion-extension grip-release reconstructions. Both groups were classified as ocular cutaneous 4. Assessment parameters included grip and pinch strength, maximal opening of the first webspace, and Canadian Occupational Performance Measurement. Both groups were rehabilitated with early active mobilization beginning the first day after surgery. Grip strength and opening of the first webspace were significantly greater in the single-stage group than in the comparative group. Pinch strength was not significantly different between groups. On the Canadian Occupational Performance Measurement score, patients belonging to the single-stage group were highly satisfied (increase of 3.7 points) and could perform several of their self-selected goals (3.5 points of improvement). The single-stage grip-release reconstruction provides people who have spinal cord injuries and tetraplegia with improved and reliable grip function; active finger flexion, active thumb flexion, passive thumb extension, and passive interossei function can all be achieved through this procedure. Early active mobilization is particularly important in improving functional outcome after this combination of grip reconstruction procedures. Therapeutic III. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. imulation Results of Single Stage AC- AC Converter for Induction Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ARUMUGAM

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simulation of single stage Induction heating system with series Load Resonance. Low frequency AC is converted in to High Frequency Ac using newly developed ZVS-PWM high frequency inverter. This High Frequency is used for Induction Heating .Single stage AC-AC converter system is modeled and simulated using Matlab Simulink. The simulation results of ZVS-PWM high frequency system are presented. The effectiveness of this UFAC-to-HFAC direct power frequency converter using IGBTs for consumer high-frequency IH appliances is evaluated and proved on the basis of simulation results.

  7. Theoretical evaluation of the efficiency of gas single-stage reciprocating compressor medium pressure units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busarov, S. S.; Vasil'ev, V. K.; Busarov, I. S.; Titov, D. S.; Panin, Ju. N.

    2017-08-01

    Developed earlier and tested in such working fluid as air, the technology of calculating the operating processes of slow-speed long-stroke reciprocating stages let the authors to obtain successful results concerning compression of gases to medium pressures in one stage. In this connection, the question of the efficiency of the application of slow-speed long-stroke stages in various fields of technology and the national economy, where the working fluid is other gas or gas mixture, is topical. The article presents the results of the efficiency evaluation of single-stage compressor units on the basis of such stages for cases when ammonia, hydrogen, helium or propane-butane mixture is used as the working fluid.

  8. BEARING ANALYSIS FOR THE SPUR TURBOGENERATOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of the analysis of journal bearing configuration for the SPUR turbogenerator are presented in this report. For this analysis, a computer...laminar analysis agreed with existing solutions, thereby providing a check of the computer program. Several journal bearing mounting arrangements were considered, and a design was selected for initial testing. (Author)

  9. A two-phase inspection model for a single component system with three-stage degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huiying; Wang, Wenbin; Peng, Rui

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a two-phase inspection schedule and an age-based replacement policy for a single plant item contingent on a three-stage degradation process. The two phase inspection schedule can be observed in practice. The three stages are defined as the normal working stage, low-grade defective stage and critical defective stage. When an inspection detects that an item is in the low-grade defective stage, we may delay the preventive replacement action if the time to the age-based replacement is less than or equal to a threshold level. However, if it is above this threshold level, the item will be replaced immediately. If the item is found in the critical defective stage, it is replaced immediately. A hybrid bee colony algorithm is developed to find the optimal solution for the proposed model which has multiple decision variables. A numerical example is conducted to show the efficiency of this algorithm, and simulations are conducted to verify the correctness of the model. - Highlights: • A two-phase inspection model is studied. • The failure process has three stages. • The delayed replacement is considered.

  10. Mathematical Modelling of Involute Spur Gears Manufactured by Rack Cutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Gürkan YILMAZ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mathematical modelling of asymmetric involute spur gears was situated in by Litvin approach. In this context, firstly, mathematical expressions of rack cutter which manufacture asymmetric involute spur gear, then mathematical expression of asymmetric involute spur gear were obtained by using differential geometry, coordinate transformation and gear theory. Mathematical expressions were modelled in MATLAB and output files including points of involute spur gear’s teeth were designed automatically thanks to macros.

  11. Classification of Calcaneal Spurs and Their Relationship With Plantar Fasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Binghua; Zhou, You; Tao, Xu; Yuan, Chengsong; Tang, Kanglai

    2015-01-01

    Calcaneal spurs, as a cause of plantar fasciitis, are currently debatable. A prospective study was performed to classify calcaneal spurs according to the findings from an investigation of the relationship between calcaneal spurs and plantar fasciitis. Thirty patients with calcaneal spurs and plantar heel pain underwent calcaneal spur removal and endoscopic plantar fasciotomy. The relationship between the classification of calcaneal spurs and plantar fasciitis was evaluated by endoscopic findings, clinical symptoms, radiographic images, and biopsy findings. The visual analog scale for pain and the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scores for functional evaluation were used preoperatively and postoperatively, respectively. The mean follow-up period was 24 months. Two separate types of calcaneal spurs were recognized. Type A calcaneal spurs were located superior to the plantar fascia insertion, and type B calcaneal spurs were located within the plantar fascia. Magnetic resonance imaging results showed a more severe plantar fasciitis grade in type B calcaneal spurs preoperatively. Histologic examination showed that the numbers of granulocytes per image in type B spurs were significantly increased compared with those in type A spurs. Statistically significant improvements were found in the mean visual analog scale and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society scores and magnetic resonance imaging results in both groups. The amount of change in the visual analog scale score and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score, the number of granulocytes per image, and calcaneal spur length showed a high association with the classification of the calcaneal spurs. Calcaneal spurs were completely removed and did not recur in any of the patients on radiographic assessment during the follow-up period. Calcaneal spurs can be classified into 2 distinct types that are indicative of the severity of plantar fasciitis. Copyright © 2015 American College of

  12. Analysis of U and Pu resin bead samples with a single stage mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.; Bertram, L.K.; Carter, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Resin bead sampling enables the shipment of nanogram U and Pu quantities for analysis. Application of this sampling technique to safeguards was investigated with a single-stage mass spectrometer. Standards gave results in good agreement with NBS certified values. External precisions of +-0.5% were obtained on isotopic ratios of approx. 0.01; precisions on quantitative measurements are +-1.0%

  13. Practical Considerations Concerning the Interleaved Transition Mode Single-stage Ballast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a novel single-stage interleaved ballast focusing on practical design aspects like: key current expression, overall losses, harmonic analysis of the differential-mode EMI current and preheating ballast function. A new preheating method is also presented. A PSPI...

  14. Single-Stage Low-Power Quadrature RF Receiver Front-End: The LMV Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liscidini, Antonio; Mazzanti, Andrea; Tonietto, Riccardo

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the first quadrature RF receiver front-end where, in a single stage, low-noise amplifier (LNA), mixer and voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) share the same bias current. The new structure exploits the intrinsic mixing functionality of a classical LC-tank oscillator providing ...

  15. Single stage buck-boost DC-AC neutral point clamped inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wei; Loh, Poh Chiang; Andrew, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new single stage buck-boost DC-AC neutral point clamped inverter topology which integrates the cascaded configurations of recently introduced inductor-capacitor-capacitor-transformer impedance source network (by Adamowicz) and classic NPC configuration. As a consequence...

  16. Genomic Prediction of Single Crosses in the Early Stages of a Maize Hybrid Breeding Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyaneshwar C. Kadam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of single-cross performance has been a major goal of plant breeders since the beginning of hybrid breeding. Recently, genomic prediction has shown to be a promising approach, but only limited studies have examined the accuracy of predicting single-cross performance. Moreover, no studies have examined the potential of predicting single crosses among random inbreds derived from a series of biparental families, which resembles the structure of germplasm comprising the initial stages of a hybrid maize breeding pipeline. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of genomic prediction for identifying superior single crosses early in the hybrid breeding pipeline and optimize its application. To accomplish these objectives, we designed and analyzed a novel population of single crosses representing the Iowa Stiff Stalk synthetic/non-Stiff Stalk heterotic pattern commonly used in the development of North American commercial maize hybrids. The performance of single crosses was predicted using parental combining ability and covariance among single crosses. Prediction accuracies were estimated using cross-validation and ranged from 0.28 to 0.77 for grain yield, 0.53 to 0.91 for plant height, and 0.49 to 0.94 for staygreen, depending on the number of tested parents of the single cross and genomic prediction method used. The genomic estimated general and specific combining abilities showed an advantage over genomic covariances among single crosses when one or both parents of the single cross were untested. Overall, our results suggest that genomic prediction of single crosses in the early stages of a hybrid breeding pipeline holds great potential to redesign hybrid breeding and increase its efficiency.

  17. [Evaluation of the effectiveness of the calcaneal spurs radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczyk, Leszek; Woźniak, Grzegorz; Jochymek, Bozena; Trela, Krystyna; Urban, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    The radiotherapy results of 46 calcaneal spurs were analysed. Patients were irradiated using fraction dose of 1.0 Gy, 1.5 Gy or 2.0 Gy up to total dose of 2.0-22.5 Gy. All patients previously had chronic pain in the plantar region influencing possibility of walking and not reacting for conventional treatment. Whole group was periodically controlled after the treatment completion. The mean follow-up period was 12.5 months. The complete pain relief was observed in 9% cases one month after treatment and in 52% during the last control. The lack of analgetic effect was noted only in 3% cases as well one month after the treatment as during the last examination. Performed statistical analysis showed only inverse significant correlation between degree of pain relief six months after the treatment and duration of symptoms. Obtained results allow to form conclusion that radiotherapy of calcaneal spurs is easy, effective and safe way of analgetic treatment giving good results after low fraction and total delivered doses and that its efficacy depends on symptoms duration what is correlated to disease stage.

  18. Vibration-based Fault Diagnostic of a Spur Gearbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartono Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparative studies of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT as several advanced time-frequency analysis methods for diagnosing an early stage of spur gear tooth failure. An incipient fault of a chipped tooth was investigated in this work using vibration measurements from a spur gearbox test rig. Time Synchronous Averaging was implemented for the analysis to enhance the clarity of fault feature from the gear of interest. Based on the experimental results and analysis, it was shown that FFT method could identify the location of the faulty gear with sufficient accuracy. On the other hand, Short Time Fourier Transform method could not provide the angular location information of the faulty gear. It was found that the Continuous Wavelet Transform method offered the best representation of angle-frequency representation. It was not only able to distinguish the difference between the normal and faulty gearboxes from the joint angle-frequency results but could also provide an accurate angular location of the faulty gear tooth in the gearbox.

  19. Single-session versus staged procedures for elective multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Toshiaki; Morimoto, Takeshi; Shiomi, Hiroki; Yamaji, Kyohei; Ando, Kenji; Ono, Koh; Shizuta, Satoshi; Saito, Naritatsu; Kato, Takao; Kaji, Shuichiro; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Kadota, Kazushige; Horie, Minoru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2017-11-16

    To clarify the effect of single-session multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategy relative to the staged multivessel strategy on clinical outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) or non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. In the Coronary REvascularisation Demonstrating Outcome Study in Kyoto PCI/coronary artery bypass grafting registry cohort-2, there were 2018 patients who underwent elective multivessel PCI. Primary outcome measure was composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction and stroke at 5-year follow-up. Single-session multivessel PCI and staged multivessel PCI were performed in 707 patients (35.0%) and 1311 patients (65.0%), respectively. The cumulative 5-year incidence of and adjusted risk for the primary outcome measure were not significantly different between the single-session and staged groups (26.7% vs 23.0%, p=0.45; HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.16, p=0.47). The 30-day incidence of all-cause death was significantly higher in the single-session group than in the staged group (1.1% vs 0.2%, p=0.009). However, the causes of death in 11 patients who died within 30 days were generally not related to the procedural complications, but related to the serious clinical status before PCI. For the subgroup analyses including age, gender, extent of CAD, severe chronic kidney disease and heart failure, there was no significant interaction between the subgroup factors and the effect of the single-session strategy relative to the staged strategy for the primary outcome measure. The single-session multivessel PCI strategy was associated with at least comparable 5-year clinical outcomes compared with the staged multivessel PCI, although the prevalence of the single-session strategy was low in the present study. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation in surgical treatment for single-segment lumbar spinal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Hao; Wang, Xiyang; Zhang, Penghui; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Yupeng; Liu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility and efficacy of surgical management of single-segment lumbar spinal tuberculosis (TB) by using single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation.Methods: Seventeen cases of single-segment lumbar TB were treated with single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reco...

  1. Efficacy of single-stage and two-stage Fowler–Stephens laparoscopic orchidopexy in the treatment of intraabdominal high testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yuan Wang

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: In the case of testis with good collateral circulation, single-stage F-S laparoscopic orchidopexy had the same safety and efficacy as the two-stage F-S procedure. Surgical options should be based on comprehensive consideration of intraoperative testicular location, testicular ischemia test, and collateral circumstances surrounding the testes. Under the appropriate conditions, we propose single-stage F-S laparoscopic orchidopexy be preferred. It may be appropriate to avoid unnecessary application of the two-stage procedure that has a higher cost and causes more pain for patients.

  2. Single-stage reconstruction of flexor tendons with vascularized tendon transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavadas, P C; Pérez-García, A; Thione, A; Lorca-García, C

    2015-03-01

    The reconstruction of finger flexor tendons with vascularized flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon grafts (flaps) based on the ulnar vessels as a single stage is not a popular technique. We reviewed 40 flexor tendon reconstructions (four flexor pollicis longus and 36 finger flexors) with vascularized FDS tendon grafts in 38 consecutive patients. The donor tendons were transferred based on the ulnar vessels as a single-stage procedure (37 pedicled flaps, three free flaps). Four patients required composite tendon and skin island transfer. Minimum follow-up was 12 months, and functional results were evaluated using a total active range of motion score. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the factors that could be associated with the postoperative total active range of motion. The average postoperative total active range of motion (excluding the thumbs) was 178.05° (SD 50°). The total active range of motion was significantly lower for patients who were reconstructed with free flaps and for those who required composite tendon and skin island flap. Age, right or left hand, donor/motor tendon and pulley reconstruction had no linear effect on total active range of motion. Overall results were comparable with a published series on staged tendon grafting but with a lower complication rate. Vascularized pedicled tendon grafts/flaps are useful in the reconstruction of defects of finger flexor tendons in a single stage, although its role in the reconstructive armamentarium remains to be clearly established. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. [Study on Sleep Staging Based on Support Vector Machines and Feature Selection in Single Channel Electroencephalogram].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiujing; Xia, Yongming; Qian, Songrong

    2015-06-01

    Sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) is an important index in diagnosing sleep disorders and related diseases. Manual sleep staging is time-consuming and often influenced by subjective factors. Existing automatic sleep staging methods have high complexity and a low accuracy rate. A sleep staging method based on support vector machines (SVM) and feature selection using single channel EEG single is proposed in this paper. Thirty-eight features were extracted from the single channel EEG signal. Then based on the feature selection method F-Score's definition, it was extended to multiclass with an added eliminate factor in order to find proper features, which were used as SVM classifier inputs. The eliminate factor was adopted to reduce the negative interaction of features to the result. Research on the F-Score with an added eliminate factor was further accomplished with the data from a standard open source database and the results were compared with none feature selection and standard F-Score feature selection. The results showed that the present method could effectively improve the sleep staging accuracy and reduce the computation time.

  4. Single-stage Modified Duhamel procedure for Hirschsprung′s disease : Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras R Kothari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary single-stage pull-through for Hirschsprung′s disease (HD has been reported to give comparable surgical outcomes to staged operations with less morbidity. Herein, we present our experience with single-stage Modified Duhamel procedure for management of HD. Patients and Methods: This was a review of 48 cases of HD who underwent single-stage Modified Duhamel procedure without a protective colostomy. Results: The age at surgery ranged from 6 months to 10 years (median - 9 months, mean - 2.3 years. The average weight of the child was 7.2 kg (range, 4.9-22 kg. 38 (79.2% patients had classical rectosigmoid HD, the rest being long segment HD (the proximal most level being the splenic flexure. The average duration of surgery was 175 minutes (range, 130-245 minutes. The average blood loss was 45 ml. The average hospital stay was 7.2 days (range: 6-10 days. The major postoperative complications (n=3 included postoperative adhesive intestinal obstruction, anastomotic leak and persistent constipation due to residual aganglionosis. Each required a re-exploration. Minor complications included surgical site infection (n=3 and post-operative enterocolitis (n=3, which were managed conservatively. Six patients had constipation for a limited period post-operatively. All patients have a satisfactory functional outcome and normal development and growth. Conclusions: For HD, we recommend that single-stage Modified Duhamel procedure should be the preferred approach in view of its low morbidity, satisfactory functional outcome and avoidance of stoma, multiple surgeries and economic benefit in view of decreased hospital stay.

  5. BEARING TESTS FOR THE SPUR TURBOGENERATOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of the liquid-potassium journalbearing test program for the SPUR turbogenerator are presented. The activities described include the design, assembly and checkout of the bearing test rig, and the results of a successfully completed 250-h endurance test on a hydrodynamic journal bearing using 600 F liquid potassium as the lubricant. Unidirectional loads from 6 to 25 lbs were applied to the bearing operating at a speed of 24,000 rpm. (Author)

  6. Single-stage electrohydraulic servosystem for actuating on airflow valve with frequencies to 500 hertz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J. A., Jr.; Mehmed, O.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    An airflow valve and its electrohydraulic actuation servosystem are described. The servosystem uses a high-power, single-stage servovalve to obtain a dynamic response beyond that of systems designed with conventional two-stage servovalves. The electrohydraulic servosystem is analyzed and the limitations imposed on system performance by such nonlinearities as signal saturations and power limitations are discussed. Descriptions of the mechanical design concepts and developmental considerations are included. Dynamic data, in the form of sweep-frequency test results, are presented and comparison with analytical results obtained with an analog computer model is made.

  7. A Spur to Atavism: Placing Platypus Poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbins, Peter

    2015-11-01

    For over two centuries, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) has been constructed and categorized in multiple ways. An unprecedented mélange of anatomical features and physiological functions, it long remained a systematic quandary. Nevertheless, since 1797, naturalists and biologists have pursued two recurring obsessions. Investigations into platypus reproduction and lactation have focused attention largely upon females of the species. Despite its apparent admixture of avian, reptilian and mammalian characters, the platypus was soon placed as a rudimentary mammal--primitive, naïve and harmless. This article pursues a different taxonomic trajectory, concentrating on a specifically male anatomical development: the crural spur and venom gland on the hind legs. Once the defining characteristic of both the platypus and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), by 1830 this sexed spur had been largely dismissed as inactive and irrelevant. For a creature regularly depicted as a biological outlier, the systematic and evolutionary implications of platypus poison have remained largely overlooked. In Australia, however, sporadic cases of 'spiking' led to consistent homologies being remarked between the platypus crural system and the venom glands of snakes. As with its reproductive reliance upon eggs, possession of an endogenous poison suggested significant reptilian affinities, yet the platypus has rarely been classed as an advanced reptile. Indeed, ongoing uncertainty regarding the biological purpose of the male's spur has ostensibly posed a directional puzzle. As with so many of its traits, however, platypus poison has been consistently described as a redundant remnant, rather than an emergent feature indicating evolutionary advance.

  8. Surgical reconstruction of pressure ulcer defects: a single- or two-stage procedure?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, Tereze A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The surgical management of pressure ulcers traditionally involved staged procedures, with initial debridement of necrotic or infected material followed by reconstruction at a later date when the wound was deemed viable and free of gross infection. However, over the past decade, it has been suggested that a single-stage procedure, combining initial debridement and definitive reconstruction, may provide advantages over staged surgery. We present our experience with the staged approach and review the current evidence for both methods. SUBJECTS AND SETTINGS: : We reviewed medical records of all patients referred to our service for pressure ulcer management between October 2001 and October 2007. The National Rehabilitation Hospital is the national center in Ireland for primary rehabilitation of adults and children suffering from spinal and brain injury, serving patients locally and from around the country. METHODS: All subjects who were managed surgically underwent a 2-stage procedure, with initial debridement and subsequent reconstruction. The main outcome measures were length of hospital stay, postoperative morbidity and mortality, and time to complete ulcer healing. RESULTS: Forty-one of 108 patients with 58 pressure ulcers were managed surgically. All patients underwent initial surgical debridement and 20 patients underwent subsequent pressure ulcer reconstruction. Postreconstructive complications occurred in 5 patients (20%). The mean time to complete ulcer healing was 17.4 weeks. Partial flap necrosis occurred in 3 patients, but there were no episodes of flap failure. CONCLUSIONS: We achieved favorable results with a 2-stage reconstruction technique and suggest that the paucity of evidence related to single-stage procedures does not support a change in surgical management.

  9. The conundrum of calcaneal spurs: do they matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, Paul J; O'Neill, Barry J; Khan-Bhambro, Khalid; O'Flanagan, Shay J; Keogh, Peter; Kenny, Paddy J

    2014-04-01

    Chronic plantar heel pain is a common and potentially debilitating condition, often caused by plantar fasciitis. Plantar calcaneal spurs were originally considered the cause of plantar fasciitis but are now regarded as an incidental finding by most authors. We aimed to test this hypothesis and to investigate predisposing factors for the development of spurs. We reviewed all lateral ankle X rays taken in our institution over a 6-month period and identified all X rays demonstrating calcaneal spurs. Then, we identified a similar number of age- and sex-matched controls without spurs. We contacted both groups by telephone and compared symptoms of heel pain, plantar fasciitis, associated comorbidities, and foot and ankle outcome scores (FAOSs). We reviewed the X rays of 1103 consecutive patients and found a spur prevalence of 12.4%, more common in women and older patients. Questioning of the spur group and control group found a higher body mass index in the spur group. Patients with spurs were 4 times more likely to have diabetes mellitus and 10 times more likely to have lower-limb osteoarthritis. Patients with spurs had more foot pain and poorer FAOS than the control group, even when patients with plantar fasciitis were excluded. Our results demonstrate that the presence of a plantar calcaneal spur may be an indicator of foot pain independent of plantar fasciitis. Although spurs may not cause foot pain themselves, they may be an indication of other associated conditions. We have demonstrated the relevance of a radiographic finding once considered irrelevant.

  10. Some Experimental and Simulation Results on the Dynamic Behaviour of Spur and Helical Geared Transmissions with Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fargère

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some interactions between the dynamic and tribological behaviour of geared transmissions are examined, and a number of experimental and simulation results are compared. A model is introduced which incorporates most of the possible interactions between gears, shafts and hydrodynamic journal bearings. It combines (i a specific element for wide-faced gears that includes the normal contact conditions between actual mating teeth, that is, with tooth shape deviations and mounting errors, (ii shaft finite elements, and (iii the external forces generated by journal bearings determined by directly solving Reynolds' equation. The simulation results are compared with the measurement obtained on a high-precision test rig with single-stage spur and helical gears supported by hydrodynamic journal bearings. The experimental and simulation results compare well thus validating the simulation strategy both at the global and local scales.

  11. [Arthroscopic treatment for calcaneal spur syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stropek, S; Dvorák, M

    2008-10-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Arthroscopic treatment of calcaneal spur syndrome is a tissue-sparing and effective approach when conservative therapy has failed. This method, its results and our experience with the treatment of this syndrome are presented here. MATERIAL Between January 2003 and November 2007, 26 patients underwent an arthroscopic procedure for calcaneal spur syndrome; of these, 20 were women with an average age of 49 years, and six were men with an average age of 45 years. Four, three women and one man, were lost to follow-up, therefore 22 patients with 24 heels were eventually evaluated. All had conservative therapy for 3 to 6 monts. METHODS The arthroscopic method used was developed by the arthroscopic group of the Orthopaedic Service of Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras in Havana, Cuba. The surgical technique insolves treatment of the spur and plantar fasciitis commonly found in calcaneal spur syndrome, but it also addresses adjacent calcaneal periostitis. RESULTS The results were evaluated on the scale that is part of the foot function index developed by Budiman-Mak for measuring rheumatoid arthritis pain. The patients were asked mine questions on pain intensity during various activities before and after surgery. Pain was evaluated on a scale with grades from 0 to 9. The average value was 5.9 before surgery and 1.4 after surgery. A 0-1 pain range was reported by 25 %, 1-2 by 26 % and 2-4 by 22 % of the patients. All patients reported improvement. DISCUSSION The orthopaedic group in Havana led by Carlos achieved 85 % excellent outcomes (pain range, 0-2) at one-year followup; this was 79 % in our study, in which no problems with foot arches or wound infection were recorded. CONCLUSIONS The heel spur syndrome is a result of an inflamed ligament (plantar fascia) due to repeated microtrauma. It is not a traction osteophyte,but a reaction of the tissue where it attaches to the calcaneus. Adjacent calcaneal periostitis is usually present as well. Therefore, this

  12. Validation of a PC based program for single stage absorption heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltash, A.; Ally, M. R.

    1991-09-01

    An interactive computer code was developed to evaluate single stage absorption heat pump performance for temperature amplifier and heat amplifier modes using water as the refrigerant. This program performs the cycle calculations for single stage cycles based on the polynomial expressions developed to correlate experimental vapor-liquid-equilibrium (VLE) and specific enthalpy-concentration data for LiBr/water and (Li, K, Na)NO3 water systems as well as the properties of pure water. The operating parameters obtained by this program were tested against mass and energy balances in documented cases and the results show that the maximum deviation between coefficient of performance (COP) values obtained by this software and the ones previously calculated is less than 3 percent. In addition, this program was used to study the effect of solution temperature leaving the absorber on the other operating parameters. This type of analysis could be used to improve and optimize cycle design.

  13. Grid Integration of Single Stage Solar PV System using Three-level Voltage Source Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ikhlaq; Kandpal, Maulik; Singh, Bhim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a single stage solar PV (photovoltaic) grid integrated power generating system using a three level voltage source converter (VSC) operating at low switching frequency of 900 Hz with robust synchronizing phase locked loop (RS-PLL) based control algorithm. To track the maximum power from solar PV array, an incremental conductance algorithm is used and this maximum power is fed to the grid via three-level VSC. The use of single stage system with three level VSC offers the advantage of low switching losses and the operation at high voltages and high power which results in enhancement of power quality in the proposed system. Simulated results validate the design and control algorithm under steady state and dynamic conditions.

  14. Single-stage osseointegrated implants for nasal prosthodontic rehabilitation: A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Bruna M D F; Freitas-Pontes, Karina M; de Negreiros, Wagner A; Verde, Marcus A R L

    2015-08-01

    Malignant tumors in the nasal region may be treated by means of invasive surgical procedures, with large facial losses. Nasal prostheses, retained by osseointegrated facial implants, instead of plastic surgery, will, in most patients, offer good biomechanical and cosmetic results. This clinical report describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient with nasal cancer who had the entire nasal vestibule removed in a single-stage surgical procedure in order to shorten the rehabilitation time. The nasal prosthesis was built on a 3-magnet bar and was made of platinum silicone with intrinsic pigmentation, thereby restoring the patient's appearance and self-esteem. The authors concluded that single-stage implants may reduce the rehabilitation time to as little as 1 month, and the correct use of materials and techniques may significantly improve the nasal prosthesis. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of Single-Stage Modified Turbine of Mark 25 Torpedo Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Jack W.

    1947-01-01

    Efficiency investigations have been made on a single-stage modification of the turbine of a Mark 25 aerial torpedo to determine the performance of the unit with five different turbine nozzles. The output of the turbine blades was computed by analyzing the windage and mechanical-friction losses of the unit. The turbine was faund to be most efficient with a cast nozzle having sharp-edged inlets to the nine nozzle ports. An analysis af the effectiveness af the first and second stages of the standard Mark 25 torpedo turbine indicates that the first- stage turbine contributes nearly all the brake power produced at blade-jet speed ratios above 0.26.

  16. [Single-stage bilateral Pemberton's pericapsular osteotomy in bilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorer, Gazi; Bagatur, A Erdem

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the results of single-stage bilateral Pemberton's pericapsular osteotomy with or without open reduction and to demonstrate its advantages over two separate consecutive interventions in bilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). This prospective study included 20 patients (14 girls, 6 boys; mean age 30 months; range 12 to 60 months) with bilateral DDH, who underwent single-stage bilateral Pemberton's pericapsular osteotomy with (14 patients, group A1) or without (6 patients, group A2) open reduction. Twenty patients (16 girls, 4 boys; mean age 24 months; range 13 to 47 months) with unilateral DDH, who underwent Pemberton's pericapsular osteotomy with (12 patients, group B1) or without (8 patients, group B2) open reduction were enrolled into the study as controls. Single- and two-stage procedures were compared with regard to improvement in the acetabular index, complications, mean duration of anesthesia, perioperative need for blood transfusion, length of hospital stay, initiation of walking, overall cost of antibiotic prophylaxis, and total hospital charge. There were no significant differences between A1 and B1, A2 and B2 groups with respect to mean age, gender, pre- and postoperative acetabular indices, and recovery times. However, duration of anesthesia, length of hospital stay, cost of antibiotic prophylaxis, and total hospital charges differed significantly. The amount of blood transfusion differed significantly only between groups A1 and B1. The length of hospital stay and cost of antibiotic prophylaxis in group A2 was twice as much as that of group B2. Increases in other parameters ranged between 22% to 37%. No early or late complications were encountered. Single-stage bilateral Pemberton's pericapsular osteotomy in patients with bilateral DDH seems to have significant advantages over two separate consecutive interventions. However, increased risks of bilateral osteotomies require that sufficiently equipped and

  17. Advanteges of using Two-Switch Forward in Single-Stage Power Factor Corrected Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    A single-Stage power factor corrected power supply using a two-switch forward is proposed to increase efficiency. The converter is operated in the DCM (Discontinues Conduction Mode). This will insure the intermediate DC-bus to be controlled only by means of circuit parameters and therefore...... power supply has been implemented. The measured efficiency and power factor are about 87% and 0.96 respectively....

  18. The first preliminary experiments on an 84 GHz gyrotron with a single-stage depressed collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimozuma, T.; Sato, M.; Takita, Y.

    1997-10-01

    We fabricated and tested an 84GHz gyrotron with a single-stage depressed collector. The gyrotron has a high-voltage insulating section made of a low loss silicon nitride composite. In this preliminary experiment in the depressed collector configuration, we obtained 591kW, 41% operation with a depression voltage of 22.5kV. Access to the higher efficiency region was inhibited by an increase in anode current. (author)

  19. Adaptive kanban control mechanism for a single-stage hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korugan, Aybek; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2002-02-01

    In this paper, we consider a hybrid manufacturing system with two discrete production lines. Here the output of either production line can satisfy the demand for the same type of product without any penalties. The interarrival times for demand occurrences and service completions are exponentially distributed i.i.d. variables. In order to control this type of manufacturing system we suggest a single stage pull type control mechanism with adaptive kanbans and state independent routing of the production information.

  20. Clinical and radiologic evaluation of 2-stage IMZ implants placed in a single-stage procedure : 2-year results of a prospective comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenrijk, K; Raghoebar, GM; Meijer, HJA; Stegenga, B

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a 2-stage implant system in a single-stage procedure and to study the impact of the microgap between the implant and the abutment. Materials and Methods: Sixty edentulous patients (Cawood class V or VI) participated in this

  1. Two-stage single-volume exchange transfusion in severe hemolytic disease of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Wael; Attia, Nayera I; Hassanein, Sahar M A

    2012-07-01

    Evaluation of two-stage single-volume exchange transfusion (TSSV-ET) in decreasing the post-exchange rebound increase in serum bilirubin level, with subsequent reduction of the need for repeated exchange transfusions. The study included 104 neonates with hyperbilirubinemia needing exchange transfusion. They were randomly enrolled into two equal groups, each group comprised 52 neonates. TSSV-ET was performed for the 52 neonates and the traditional single-stage double-volume exchange transfusion (SSDV-ET) was performed to 52 neonates. TSSV-ET significantly lowered rebound serum bilirubin level (12.7 ± 1.1 mg/dL), compared to SSDV-ET (17.3 ± 1.7 mg/dL), p < 0.001. Need for repeated exchange transfusions was significantly lower in TSSV-ET group (13.5%), compared to 32.7% in SSDV-ET group, p < 0.05. No significant difference was found between the two groups as regards the morbidity (11.5% and 9.6%, respectively) and the mortality (1.9% for both groups). Two-stage single-volume exchange transfusion proved to be more effective in reducing rebound serum bilirubin level post-exchange and in decreasing the need for repeated exchange transfusions.

  2. Nitrite reduction and methanogenesis in a single-stage UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, L I; López-Vazquez, C M; García, H; van Lier, J B

    2015-01-01

    In this study, nitrite reduction and methanogenesis in a single-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was investigated, using high-strength synthetic domestic wastewater as substrate. To assess long-term effects and evaluate the mechanisms that allow successful nitrite reduction and methanogenesis in a single-stage UASB, sludge was exposed to relatively high nitrite loading rates (315 ± 13 mgNO(2)(-)-N/(l.d)), using a chemical oxygen demand (COD) to nitrogen ratio of 18 gCOD/gNO(2)(-)-N, and an organic loading rate of 5.4 ± 0.2 gCOD/(l.d). In parallel, the effects of sludge morphology on methanogenesis inhibition were studied by performing short-term batch activity tests at different COD/NO(2)(-)-N ratios with anaerobic sludge samples. In long-term tests, denitrification was practically complete and COD removal efficiency did not change significantly after nitrite addition. Furthermore, methane production only decreased by 13%, agreeing with the reducing equivalents requirement for complete NO(2)(-) reduction to N₂. Apparently, the spatial separation of denitrification and methanogenesis zones inside the UASB reactor allowed nitrite reduction and methanogenesis to occur at the same moment. Batch tests showed that granules seem to protect methanogens from nitrite inhibition, probably due to transport limitations. Combined COD and N removal via nitrite in a single-stage UASB reactor could be a feasible technology to treat high-strength domestic wastewater.

  3. Red Mud Catalytic Pyrolysis of Pinyon Juniper and Single-Stage Hydrotreatment of Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agblevor, Foster A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Burton, Sarah D.; Swita, Marie; Beis, Sedat H.; Christian, Kyle; Sargent, Brandon

    2016-10-20

    Pinyon juniper biomass feedstocks, which cover a large acreage of rangeland in the western United States, are being eradicated and, therefore, considered as a convenient biomass feedstock for biofuel production. Pinyon juniper whole biomass (wood, bark, and leaves) were pyrolyzed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized-bed reactor at 450 °C, and the noncondensable gases were recycled to fluidize the reactor. Red mud was used as the in situ catalyst for the pyrolysis of the pinyon juniper biomass. The pyrolysis products were condensed in three stages, and products were analyzed for physicochemical properties. The condenser oil formed two phases with the aqueous fraction, whereas the electrostatic precipitator oils formed a single phase. The oil pH was 3.3; the higher heating value (HHV) was 28 MJ/kg; and the viscosity was less than 100 cP. There was a direct correlation between the viscosity of the oils and the alcohol/ether content of the oils, and this was also related to the aging rate of the oils. The catalytic pyrolysis oils were hydrotreated in a continuous single-stage benchtop hydrotreater to produce hydrocarbon fuels with a density of 0.80$-$0.82 cm3/g. The hydrotreater ran continuously for over 300 h with no significant catalyst deactivation or coke formation. This is the first time that such a long single-stage hydrotreatment has been demonstrated on biomass catalytic pyrolysis oils.

  4. Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single-stage magnetic pulse compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshnay, N. K.; Singh, A.; Benerji, N. S.

    2017-02-01

    Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single-stage magnetic pulse compression suitable for material processing applications are presented here. The laser incorporates in-built compact gas circulation and gas cooling to ensure fresh gas mixture between the electrodes for repetitive operation. A magnetically coupled tangential blower is used for gas circulation inside the laser chamber for repetitive operation. The exciter consists of C-C energy transfer circuit and thyratron is used as a high-voltage main switch with single-stage magnetic pulse compression (MPC) between thyratron and the laser electrodes. Low inductance of the laser head and uniform and intense pre-ionization are the main features of the electric circuit used in the laser. A 250 ns rise time voltage pulse was compressed to 100 ns duration with a single-stage magnetic pulse compressor using Ni-Zn ferrite cores. The laser can generate about 150 mJ at ˜100 Hz rep-rate reliably from a discharge volume of 100 cm 3. 2D spatial laser beam profile generated is presented here. The profile shows that the laser beam is completely filled with flat-top which is suitable for material processing applications. The SEM image of the microhole generated on copper target is presented here.

  5. New current control based MPPT technique for single stage grid connected PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Sachin; Agarwal, Vivek

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on current control for a single stage grid connected photovoltaic system. The main advantage of this algorithm comes from its ability to predict the approximate amplitude of the reference current waveform or power that can be derived from the PV array with the help of an intermediate variable β. A variable step size for the change in reference amplitude during initial tracking helps in fast tracking. It is observed that if the reference current amplitude is greater than the array capacity, the system gets unstable (i.e. moves into the positive slope region of the p-v characteristics of the array). The proposed algorithm prevents the PV system from entering the positive slope region of the p-v characteristics. It is also capable of restoring stability if the system goes unstable due to a sudden environmental change. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a new single stage grid connected PV configuration recently developed by the authors to feed sinusoidal current into the grid. The system is operated in a continuous conduction mode to realize advantages such as low device current stress, high efficiency and low EMI. A fast MPPT tracker with single stage inverter topology operating in CCM makes the overall system highly efficient. Specific cases of the system, operating in just discontinuous current mode and discontinuous current mode and their relative merits and demerits are also discussed

  6. A study of calcaneal enthesophytes (spurs) in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullar, Jagdev Singh; Randhawa, Gurpreet Kaur; Kullar, Keerat Kaur

    2014-09-01

    Calcaneus or os calcis forms a major component of the skeleton of foot providing posterior pillars for bony arches of the foot. It is largest of seven tarsal bones of foot and forms prominence of heel. Many times anterior to calcaneal tuberosity an osteophytic outgrowth has been observed (calcaneal or heel spur) extending along entire width, for about 2-2.5 cm. The apex of spur seen embedded in plantar fascia, directly anterior to its origin. Hence, the study of calcaneal spurs has been undertaken. The material for the study consisted of 200 dry (100 right and 100 left), adult calcanei of unknown age and sex obtained from Department of Anatomy. The calcaneal enthesophytes/spurs were studied in detail and classified according to types of calcaneum. Maximum incidence of calcaneal spurs were found in Type I calcanei (11%) and no calcaneal spurs were found in Type III calcanei. Total incidence of dorsal calcaneal spurs in all types of calcanei was maximal (15.5%). The incidence of plantar spurs was 6.5% being highest in Type I calcanei (4%). The incidence and type of calcaneal spurs were compared with those of previous studies and etiology of heel pain has been discussed. Correlation between type of calcanei and spurs has been studied for the 1(st) time. Calcaneal spurs are related to type of calcanei with the highest frequency in Type I and least in Type III (no spurs seen in Type III and least in Type IV). Other factors, which contribute toward increase in incidence of spurs, are increasing age and weight, concurrent orthopedic diseases, and heel pain.

  7. Monte Carlo Error Analysis Applied to Core Formation: The Single-stage Model Revived

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, E.; Walter, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    The last decade has witnessed an explosion of studies that scrutinize whether or not the siderophile element budget of the modern mantle can plausibly be explained by metal-silicate equilibration in a deep magma ocean during core formation. The single-stage equilibrium scenario is seductive because experiments that equilibrate metal and silicate can then serve as a proxy for the early earth, and the physical and chemical conditions of core formation can be identified. Recently, models have become more complex as they try to accommodate the proliferation of element partitioning data sets, each of which sets its own limits on the pressure, temperature, and chemistry of equilibration. The ability of single stage models to explain mantle chemistry has subsequently been challenged, resulting in the development of complex multi-stage core formation models. Here we show that the extent to which extant partitioning data are consistent with single-stage core formation depends heavily upon (1) the assumptions made when regressing experimental partitioning data (2) the certainty with which regression coefficients are known and (3) the certainty with which the core/mantle concentration ratios of the siderophile elements are known. We introduce a Monte Carlo algorithm coded in MATLAB that samples parameter space in pressure and oxygen fugacity for a given mantle composition (nbo/t) and liquidus, and returns the number of equilibrium single-stage liquidus “solutions” that are permissible, taking into account the uncertainty in regression parameters and range of acceptable core/mantle ratios. Here we explore the consequences of regression parameter uncertainty and the impact of regression construction on model outcomes. We find that the form of the partition coefficient (Kd with enforced valence state, or D) and the handling of the temperature effect (based on 1-atm free energy data or high P-T experimental observations) critically affects model outcomes. We consider the most

  8. Sleep stage and obstructive apneaic epoch classification using single-lead ECG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Bülent

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polysomnography (PSG is used to define physiological sleep and different physiological sleep stages, to assess sleep quality and diagnose many types of sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea. However, PSG requires not only the connection of various sensors and electrodes to the subject but also spending the night in a bed that is different from the subject's own bed. This study is designed to investigate the feasibility of automatic classification of sleep stages and obstructive apneaic epochs using only the features derived from a single-lead electrocardiography (ECG signal. Methods For this purpose, PSG recordings (ECG included were obtained during the night's sleep (mean duration 7 hours of 17 subjects (5 men with ages between 26 and 67. Based on these recordings, sleep experts performed sleep scoring for each subject. This study consisted of the following steps: (1 Visual inspection of ECG data corresponding to each 30-second epoch, and selection of epochs with relatively clean signals, (2 beat-to-beat interval (RR interval computation using an R-peak detection algorithm, (3 feature extraction from RR interval values, and (4 classification of sleep stages (or obstructive apneaic periods using one-versus-rest approach. The features used in the study were the median value, the difference between the 75 and 25 percentile values, and mean absolute deviations of the RR intervals computed for each epoch. The k-nearest-neighbor (kNN, quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA, and support vector machines (SVM methods were used as the classification tools. In the testing procedure 10-fold cross-validation was employed. Results QDA and SVM performed similarly well and significantly better than kNN for both sleep stage and apneaic epoch classification studies. The classification accuracy rates were between 80 and 90% for the stages other than non-rapid-eye-movement stage 2. The accuracies were 60 or 70% for that specific stage

  9. Tracks, spurs, blobs and delta-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, J.L.; Chatterjee, A.

    1983-01-01

    The track of a high-energy particle is the collection of all transient species created by the particle in the total degradation of its energy. Visible electron tracks are called delta rays. A microscopic description of the track with all its knocked-out electrons leads to spurs, blobs, and short tracks. Energy deposition criteria for these three track entities are 6 to 100 eV, 100 to 500 eV, and 500 eV to 5 keV, respectively

  10. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Plasma gasification of refuse derived fuel in a single-stage system using different gasifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agon, N; Hrabovský, M; Chumak, O; Hlína, M; Kopecký, V; Masláni, A; Bosmans, A; Helsen, L; Skoblja, S; Van Oost, G; Vierendeels, J

    2016-01-01

    The renewable evolution in the energy industry and the depletion of natural resources are putting pressure on the waste industry to shift towards flexible treatment technologies with efficient materials and/or energy recovery. In this context, a thermochemical conversion method of recent interest is plasma gasification, which is capable of producing syngas from a wide variety of waste streams. The produced syngas can be valorized for both energetic (heat and/or electricity) and chemical (ammonia, hydrogen or liquid hydrocarbons) end-purposes. This paper evaluates the performance of experiments on a single-stage plasma gasification system for the treatment of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from excavated waste. A comparative analysis of the syngas characteristics and process yields was done for seven cases with different types of gasifying agents (CO2+O2, H2O, CO2+H2O and O2+H2O). The syngas compositions were compared to the thermodynamic equilibrium compositions and the performance of the single-stage plasma gasification of RDF was compared to that of similar experiments with biomass and to the performance of a two-stage plasma gasification process with RDF. The temperature range of the experiment was from 1400 to 1600 K and for all cases, a medium calorific value syngas was produced with lower heating values up to 10.9 MJ/Nm(3), low levels of tar, high levels of CO and H2 and which composition was in good agreement to the equilibrium composition. The carbon conversion efficiency ranged from 80% to 100% and maximum cold gas efficiency and mechanical gasification efficiency of respectively 56% and 95%, were registered. Overall, the treatment of RDF proved to be less performant than that of biomass in the same system. Compared to a two-stage plasma gasification system, the produced syngas from the single-stage reactor showed more favourable characteristics, while the recovery of the solid residue as a vitrified slag is an advantage of the two-stage set-up. Copyright

  12. Single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction in parallel microbore tubes using MDIMJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darekar, Mayur; Singh, K.K.; Joshi, J.M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Shenoy, K.T.

    2016-01-01

    Single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction of U(VI) from simulated lean streams is explored using micro-scale contactor comprising of a MDIMJ (Monoblock Distributor with Integrated Microfluidic Junction) and PTFE microbore tubes. 30% (v/v) TBP in dodecane has been used as the extracting phase. The objective of the study is to demonstrate numbering up approach for scale-up of micro-scale extraction using indigenously conceptualized and fabricated MDIMJ. First the performance of MIDIMJ for equal flow distribution is tested. Then the effects of inlet flow rate and O/A ratio on stage efficiency and percentage extraction are studied. The experiments show that it is easy to scale-up single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction by using MDIMJ for numbering up approach. Maximum capacity tested is 4.8 LPH. With O/A = 2/1, more than 90% extraction is achieved in a very short contact time of less than 3s. The study thus demonstrates possibility of process intensification and easy scale-up of micro-scale solvent extraction

  13. Analysis of single photon detection in avalanche photodetectors with multi-gain-stage multiplication region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Amir; Zavvari, Mahdi

    2017-02-20

    We report the design and analysis of a single photon avalanche detector (SPAD) with cascaded multiplication stages with asymmetric gain series for near-IR applications. The asymmetric gain profile allows us to selectively enhance the ionization coefficient for injected electrons and suppress the hole-initiated ionization by repetition of high and low field layers. The low field layer acts as a carrier relaxation region, which inhibits avalanche feedback between stages; hence, it is expected to have a lower dark count rate (DCR). The gain stage consists of three distinct layers with different electric fields, which can be adjusted by geometrical and mole fraction design. In this paper we study the effect of these layers' field and thickness on the single photon quantum efficiency (SPQE) and DCR of the proposed SPAD. Our results show that the high-field layer can better influence the performance of the detector rather than the others. In comparison with a conventional SPAD with a uniform multiplication region, our proposed structure shows lower DCR for a same SPQE.

  14. Attainability and minimum energy of single-stage membrane and membrane/distillation hybrid processes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2014-12-01

    As an energy-efficient separation method, membrane technology has attracted more and more attentions in many challenging separation processes. The attainability and the energy consumption of a membrane process are the two basic fundamental questions that need to be answered. This report aims to use process simulations to find: (1) at what conditions a single-stage membrane process can meet the separation task that is defined by product purity and recovery ratio and (2) what are the most important parameters that determine the energy consumption. To perform a certain separation task, it was found that both membrane selectivity and pressure ratio exhibit a minimum value that is defined only by product purity and recovery ratio. The membrane/distillation hybrid system was used to study the energy consumption. A shortcut method was developed to calculate the minimum practical separation energy (MPSE) of the membrane process and the distillation process. It was found that the MPSE of the hybrid system is only determined by the membrane selectivity and the applied transmembrane pressure ratio in three stages. At the first stage when selectivity is low, the membrane process is not competitive to the distillation process. Adding a membrane unit to a distillation tower will not help in reducing energy. At the second medium selectivity stage, the membrane/distillation hybrid system can help reduce the energy consumption, and the higher the membrane selectivity, the lower is the energy. The energy conservation is further improved as pressure ratio increases. At the third stage when both selectivity and pressure ratio are high, the hybrid system will change to a single-stage membrane unit and this change will cause significant reduction in energy consumption. The energy at this stage keeps decreasing with selectivity at slow rate, but slightly increases with pressure ratio. Overall, the higher the membrane selectivity, the more the energy is saved. Therefore, the two

  15. A single-stage polymerase-based protocol for the introduction of deletions and insertions without subcloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, John C; Jones, Rachel J; Erdogan, Eda; Smith, Susan M E

    2005-03-01

    A single-stage polymerase-based procedure is described that allows extensive modifications of DNA. The version described here uses the QuikChange Site-Directed Mutagenesis System kit supplied by Stratagene. The original protocol is replaced by a single-stage method in which linear production of complementary strands is accomplished in separate single primer reactions. This has proved effective in introducing insertions and deletions into large gene/vector combinations without subcloning.

  16. Compressed gas combined single- and two-stage light-gas gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberson, L. E.; Boettcher, P. A.

    2018-02-01

    With more than 1 trillion artificial objects smaller than 1 μm in low and geostationary Earth orbit, space assets are subject to the constant threat of space debris impact. These collisions occur at hypervelocity or speeds greater than 3 km/s. In order to characterize material behavior under this extreme event as well as study next-generation materials for space exploration, this paper presents a unique two-stage light-gas gun capable of replicating hypervelocity impacts. While a limited number of these types of facilities exist, they typically are extremely large and can be costly and dangerous to operate. The design presented in this paper is novel in two distinct ways. First, it does not use a form of combustion in the first stage. The projectile is accelerated from a pressure differential using air and inert gases (or purely inert gases), firing a projectile in a nominal range of 1-4 km/s. Second, the design is modular in that the first stage sits on a track sled and can be pulled back and used in itself to study lower speed impacts without any further modifications, with the first stage piston as the impactor. The modularity of the instrument allows the ability to investigate three orders of magnitude of impact velocities or between 101 and 103 m/s in a single, relatively small, cost effective instrument.

  17. Design and analysis of a radial diffuser in a single-stage centrifugal pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Gao Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial diffusers can improve the flow uniformity in pumps and affect the hydraulic performance of centrifugal pumps directly. The diffusion coefficient d is an important parameter in fluid machinery but it has seldom been used in the diffuser design of single-stage centrifugal pumps. To improve the design method of radial diffuser use in centrifugal pumps, the diffusion coefficient was introduced into the design of radial diffusers based on a single-arc hydraulic design method and it was found that the vane outlet angle, vane outlet thickness and vane number have a significant impact on the design results. A single-stage centrifugal pump with a radial diffuser was selected as the research model. The inner flow was simulated using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD program CFX and verified by experiment. The results indicate that the head and efficiency of the pump are best when the vane outlet angle is 6°. The flow area decreases and the flow velocity at radial diffuser outlet increase when the outlet thickness is greater than 2 mm. The hydraulic loss is minimum and the head and efficiency are better when the vane number is 8 at different flow rates. So, the optimal range of the diffusion coefficient for the model pump is around 1.6 to 2. The study indicates that it is feasible to design radial diffusers according to the diffusion coefficient.

  18. Raman spectral dynamics of single cells in the early stages of growth factor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanezawa, Sota; Morita, Shin-ichi; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Sako, Yasushi

    2015-05-05

    Cell fates change dynamically in response to various extracellular signals, including growth factors that stimulate differentiation and proliferation. The processes underlying cell-fate decisions are complex and often include large cell-to-cell variations, even within a clonal population in the same environment. To understand the origins of these cell-to-cell variations, we must detect the internal dynamics of single cells that reflect their changing chemical milieu. In this study, we used the Raman spectra of single cells to trace their internal dynamics during the early stages of growth factor stimulation. This method allows nondestructive and inclusive time-series analyses of chemical compositions of the same single cells. Applying a Gaussian mixture model to the major principal components of the single-cell Raman spectra, we detected the dynamics of the chemical states in MCF-7 cancer-derived cells in the absence and presence of differentiation and proliferation factors. The dynamics displayed characteristic variations according to the functions of the growth factors. In the differentiation pathway, the chemical composition changed directionally between multiple states, including both reversible and irreversible state transitions. In contrast, in the proliferation pathway, the chemical composition was homogenized into a single state. The differentiation factor also stimulated fluctuations in the chemical composition, whereas the proliferation factor did not. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Single Ion transient-IBIC analyses of semiconductor devices using a cryogenic temperature stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.; Legge, G.J.F.; Jagadish, C.

    1998-01-01

    A new Transient - IBIC data acquisition and analysis system at MARC is described. A discussion on the need for single ion control and temperature control is also given. The recorded signal is used as the trigger for beam pulsing. The new cryostatic temperature control stage is introduced. Data is presented on line profiles across the edge of a Au-Si junction collected over the temperature range of 25-300K using a developed C-V and I-V variable temperature stage incorporating a liquid helium cryostat. It demonstrates the potential improvements in spatial resolution in materials of long lifetime by mapping on timing windows around the prompt charge component in the charge transient

  20. Multi-disciplinary design optimization and performance evaluation of a single stage transonic axial compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sae Il; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Kyu Hong; Park, Tae Choon; Lim, Byeung Jun; Kang, Young Seok

    2013-01-01

    The multidisciplinary design optimization method, which integrates aerodynamic performance and structural stability, was utilized in the development of a single-stage transonic axial compressor. An approximation model was created using artificial neural network for global optimization within given ranges of variables and several design constraints. The genetic algorithm was used for the exploration of the Pareto front to find the maximum objective function value. The final design was chosen after a second stage gradient-based optimization process to improve the accuracy of the optimization. To validate the design procedure, numerical simulations and compressor tests were carried out to evaluate the aerodynamic performance and safety factor of the optimized compressor. Comparison between numerical optimal results and experimental data are well matched. The optimum shape of the compressor blade is obtained and compared to the baseline design. The proposed optimization framework improves the aerodynamic efficiency and the safety factor.

  1. Single Ion transient-IBIC analyses of semiconductor devices using a cryogenic temperature stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Jagadish, C. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). School of Physics, Electronic Materials Engineering

    1998-06-01

    A new Transient - IBIC data acquisition and analysis system at MARC is described. A discussion on the need for single ion control and temperature control is also given. The recorded signal is used as the trigger for beam pulsing. The new cryostatic temperature control stage is introduced. Data is presented on line profiles across the edge of a Au-Si junction collected over the temperature range of 25-300K using a developed C-V and I-V variable temperature stage incorporating a liquid helium cryostat. It demonstrates the potential improvements in spatial resolution in materials of long lifetime by mapping on timing windows around the prompt charge component in the charge transient. 2 figs.

  2. Minimally Invasive, Single-Stage, Multilevel Surgery for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Asian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Ching; Friedman, Michael; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Bonzelaar, Lauren; Salapatas, Anna M; Lin, Meng-Chih; Huang, Kuo-Tung

    2017-02-01

    This study adds to the literature on the efficacy and low complication rates associated with minimally invasive, single-stage, multilevel surgery for Asian adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) for whom conservative treatment had failed. Overall, our experience has produced results that make this procedure an option for select patients with snoring and OSA. To investigate the effectiveness and safety of anatomy-based, minimally invasive, single-stage, multilevel surgery in the treatment of OSA in an Asian population. This retrospective study enrolled 59 consecutive patients with OSA from a tertiary academic medical center who had multilevel obstruction and unsuccessful conservative therapy and then underwent minimally invasive, single-stage, multilevel surgery. The subjective symptoms and objective polysomnographic findings were collected preoperatively and at a minimum of 3 months postoperatively. The Global Patient Assessment questionnaire was used to assess patient satisfaction after minimally invasive, single-stage, multilevel surgery. Scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and bed partner evaluation of patient's snoring on a visual analog scale (scale of 0-10, with 0 indicating no snoring and 10 indicating the bed partner to leave the room or sleep separately, as assessed by the bed partner). The primary outcomes are a 50% decrease in bed partner's snoring visual analog scale level postoperatively and an improvement of 50% or more in apnea-hypopnea index by an at least 3-month follow-up. Adverse events and patient-reported quality measures were also assessed. Forty-seven patients (36 men and 11 women; mean [SD], 47.3 [10.9] years) with a minimum 3-month follow-up and complete data were included in the analysis. None of the patients had serious perioperative or postoperative complications. Three months postoperatively, the mean (SD) scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and bed partner evaluation of patient's snoring on the visual analog scale decreased

  3. [Physiotherapeutic proceeding in symptomatic calcaneal spur treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kociuga, Natalia; Kociuga, Jerzy; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta; Kubsik, Anna

    Calcaneal spur is one of the most common disorders associated with foot pain. According to appearance of pain in each step during the day, it is important to find the most effective method of treatment. This article is a review of medical reports about non-operative treatment method. It shows that ultrasound therapy was the most common physical intervetion used so far, and mostly occurs to be effective. However one of the comparative studies improves higher efficiency of phonopheresis. Another comparative study, shows higher efficiency of combined ultrasound and laser therapy, than exclusive laser therapy. There haven't been found any articles that would evaluate efficacy of electrotherapy and short wave diathermy (electric field) in the treatment of mentioned disorder. Studies that describe the effect of ESWT treatment were also analyzed in this article, and all of them confirm its effectiveness in heel spur therapy, showing no side-effects. Cryotherapy also causes positive effect in treatment of this disorder. However Cryoultrasound therapy that uses the energy of two interconnected terapeutic techniques which is cryotherapy and ultrasounds, proved to be more effective.

  4. Appendicular origin and structure of the spur of Vochysiaceae flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Carmo-Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Floral nectaries are linked with animal pollinators and floral specialization, characterizing some plant groups, such as the mostly Neotropical Vochysiaceae. The phylogeny of these plants has been revised based on molecular data, but their conspicuous spurs were mostly neglected. The appendicular or receptacular origin of these spurs has been discussed but without ontogenetic or anatomical study, and the association between spur structure and pollination systems was never assessed. We studied the spurs of species of four genera of Cerrado Vochysiaceae (tribe Vochysieae, documenting their vascularization and comparing their structure to previously described pollination systems. The spur structure was roughly similar among species, and vascularization confirmed their appendicular origin. Subepidermic secretory tissue surrounded the lumen of the spur and nectar was secreted through nectarostomata. Besides differences in size and cuticle striation, no other association between spur structure and pollination system was observed. However, the structure is somewhat distinct in Qualea parviflora, which sports a pluriseriate internal epidermis padding the spur lumen, which may provide protection against damage by the large bees that visit these relatively small flowers. The conservative histology and vasculature somewhat confirmed the monophyly of the tribe Vochysieae and the appendicular origin of the spur in the Cerrado Vochysiaceae.

  5. Performance Evaluation of Low/Zero Voltage Ride-Through Operations for Single-Stage Single-Phase Photovoltaic Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    With the fast development of distributed power generations, stability and security have attracted extensive attention in the recent years. As a representative of clean energies, Photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed extensively worldwide. This drives grid-connected requirements to be cont......With the fast development of distributed power generations, stability and security have attracted extensive attention in the recent years. As a representative of clean energies, Photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed extensively worldwide. This drives grid-connected requirements......-connected single-stage single-phase PV systems in the case of Low/Zero Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT/ZVRT) operation. A comparative analysis of the two LVRT/ZVRT control methods for PV systems is presented. Simulation results are presented, which verifies that the LVRT/ZVRT methods can help the PV systems...... to temporarily ride-through the grid low-/zero-voltage faults. The power phase-angle control method has a better dynamic response....

  6. The Lifetime Estimate for ACSR Single-Stage Splice Connector Operating at Higher Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Graziano, Joe; Chan, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the continuation of Part I effort to develop a protocol of integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of a full tension single-stage splice connector (SSC) assembly during service at high operating temperature.1The Part II efforts are mainly focused on the thermal mechanical testing, thermal-cycling simulation and its impact on the effective lifetime of the SSC system. The investigation indicates that thermal cycling temperature and frequency, conductor cable tension loading, and the compressive residual stress field within a SSC system have significant impact on the SSC integrity and the associated effective lifetime.

  7. Fault Diagnosis for Engine Based on Single-Stage Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-Stage Extreme Learning Machine (SS-ELM is presented to dispose of the mechanical fault diagnosis in this paper. Based on it, the traditional mapping type of extreme learning machine (ELM has been changed and the eigenvectors extracted from signal processing methods are directly regarded as outputs of the network’s hidden layer. Then the uncertainty that training data transformed from the input space to the ELM feature space with the ELM mapping and problem of the selection of the hidden nodes are avoided effectively. The experiment results of diesel engine fault diagnosis show good performance of the SS-ELM algorithm.

  8. Single-stage MPPT control realization for Aalborg inverter in photovoltaic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Wu, Weimin; Wang, Houqing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the single-stage Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control strategy for the Aalborg photovoltaic inverter is presented. Aalborg inverter has many advantages, such as high efficiency, wide range of input voltage, minimum voltage drop of the filtering inductors, etc. Nevertheless......, it is essentially a “half-bridge” inverter with two input sources, where one source works in MPPT mode, the other is out of control. If without the reasonable parameter design and the proper control, the bus-voltage of this inverter may change greatly, resulting in the serious power oscillation around maximum power...... that the proposed control strategy has good steady-state and dynamic performances....

  9. Simulation model of a single-stage lithium bromide-water absorption cooling unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, D.

    1978-01-01

    A computer model of a LiBr-H2O single-stage absorption machine was developed. The model, utilizing a given set of design data such as water-flow rates and inlet or outlet temperatures of these flow rates but without knowing the interior characteristics of the machine (heat transfer rates and surface areas), can be used to predict or simulate off-design performance. Results from 130 off-design cases for a given commercial machine agree with the published data within 2 percent.

  10. Promising results after single-stage reconstruction of the nipple and areola complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsen-Koch, Mikkel; Bille, Camilla; Thomsen, Jørn B

    2013-01-01

    a technique based on a local flap for reconstruction of the nipple in combination with immediate intradermal tattooing for reconstruction of the areola. Results: We reviewed the outcome of 22 cases of women who had simple single-stage reconstruction over a period of one year. We found no major and only two...... minor complications including one case of partial flap necrosis and one case of infection. Only three patients needed additional tattooing after a three-month period. The cosmetic outcome was satisfactory and none of the patients needed corrective procedures. The mean procedure time for unilateral...

  11. Performance of the rebuilt SUERC single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Richard P.; Ascough, Philippa L.; Dougans, Andrew; Gallacher, Paul; Gulliver, Pauline; Rood, Dylan H.; Xu, Sheng; Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.

    2015-10-01

    The SUERC bipolar single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS) has been dismantled and rebuilt to accommodate an additional rotatable pre-accelerator electrostatic spherical analyser (ESA) and a second ion source injector. This is for the attachment of an experimental positive-ion electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source in addition to a Cs-sputter source. The ESA significantly suppresses oxygen interference to radiocarbon detection, and remaining measurement interference is now thought to be from 13C injected as 13CH molecule scattering off the plates of a second original pre-detector ESA.

  12. Vaginal Radical Trachelectomy for early stage cervical cancer. Results of the Danish National Single Center Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauerberg, L; Høgdall, C; Loft, A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present and evaluate an unselected national single center strategy with fertility preserving trachelectomy in cervical cancer. In 2003 nationwide single-center referral of women for trachelectomies was agreed upon between all Danish departments performing cervical cancer surgery...... with the purpose of increasing volume, to increase surgical safety and facilitate follow-up. METHODS: Prospective data were recorded in the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database of all Vaginal Radical Trachelectomies (VRT) performed in Denmark between 2002 and 2013. Oncologic, fertility and obstetrical outcomes...... of 120 unselected consecutive VRTs were assessed. To obtain complete follow-up about fertility treatment, pregnancy and obstetric outcome the women filled out an electronic questionnaire. Median follow-up: 55.7 months. RESULTS: 85.8% of the patients had stage IB1 disease, 68.3% squamous cell carcinomas...

  13. Immediate two-stage tissue expander vs single-stage direct-to-implant breast reconstruction: two case reports of identical twins with BRCA 2 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Porčnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the best aesthetic result after immediate implant-based breast reconstruction, all the advantages and disadvantages of two-stage tissue expander and single-stage direct-to-implant breast reconstruction should be considered. Decision about the type of implant-based reconstruction is based on the consultations outcomes after multidisciplinary team meeting of breast and reconstructive specialist, but patients own wishes should be prioritised.

  14. The conundrum of calcaneal spurs: do they matter?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moroney, Paul J

    2013-12-30

    Background: Chronic plantar heel pain is a common and potentially debilitating condition, often caused by plantar fasciitis. Plantar calcaneal spurs were originally considered the cause of plantar fasciitis but are now regarded as an incidental finding by most authors. We aimed to test this hypothesis and to investigate predisposing factors for the development of spurs. Methods: We reviewed all lateral ankle X rays taken in our institution over a 6-month period and identified all X rays demonstrating calcaneal spurs. Then, we identified a similar number of age- and sex-matched controls without spurs. We contacted both groups by telephone and compared symptoms of heel pain, plantar fasciitis, associated comorbidities, and foot and ankle outcome scores (FAOSs). Results: We reviewed the X rays of 1103 consecutive patients and found a spur prevalence of 12.4%, more common in women and older patients. Questioning of the spur group and control group found a higher body mass index in the spur group. Patients with spurs were 4 times more likely to have diabetes mellitus and 10 times more likely to have lower-limb osteoarthritis. Patients with spurs had more foot pain and poorer FAOS than the control group, even when patients with plantar fasciitis were excluded. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the presence of a plantar calcaneal spur may be an indicator of foot pain independent of plantar fasciitis. Although spurs may not cause foot pain themselves, they may be an indication of other associated conditions. Clinical relevance: We have demonstrated the relevance of a radiographic finding once considered irrelevant.

  15. Design and analysis of a single stage to orbit nuclear thermal rocket reactor engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, Satira, E-mail: Satira.Labib@duke-energy.com; King, Jeffrey, E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Three NTR reactors are optimized for the single stage launch of 1–15 MT payloads. • The proposed rocket engines have specific impulses in excess of 700 s. • Reactivity and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each reactor. - Abstract: Recent advances in the development of high power density fuel materials have renewed interest in nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) as a viable propulsion technology for future space exploration. This paper describes the design of three NTR reactor engines designed for the single stage to orbit launch of payloads from 1 to 15 metric tons. Thermal hydraulic and rocket engine analyses indicate that the proposed rocket engines are able to reach specific impulses in excess of 800 s. Neutronics analyses performed using MCNP5 demonstrate that the hot excess reactivity, shutdown margin, and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each NTR reactor. The reactors each consist of a 40 cm diameter core packed with hexagonal tungsten cermet fuel elements. The core is surrounded by radial and axial beryllium reflectors and eight boron carbide control drums. The 40 cm long reactor meets the submersion criticality requirements (a shutdown margin of at least $1 subcritical in all submersion scenarios) with no further modifications. The 80 and 120 cm long reactors include small amounts of gadolinium nitride as a spectral shift absorber to keep them subcritical upon submersion in seawater or wet sand following a launch abort.

  16. Heavy metal bioleaching and sludge stabilization in a single-stage reactor using indigenous acidophilic heterotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Akanksha; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2017-11-01

    Simultaneous sludge digestion and metal leaching (SSDML) have been reported at mesophilic temperature. It is generally perceived that while sludge stabilization is effected by heterotrophs at neutral pH, metal bioleaching is done by acidophilic autotrophs. However, little information is available on the microbial communities involved in the process. This study carried out SSDML in a single-stage reactor using sludge indigenous microorganisms and looked at the bacterial communities responsible for the process. Volatile suspended solids were reduced by more than 40%. The concentration of zinc, copper, chromium, cadmium and nickel decreased by more than 45% in the dry sludge. Acidophilic species of Alicyclobacillus genus were the dominant heterotrophs. A few heterotrophic bacteria were detected which can oxidize iron (Alicyclobacillus ferrooxydans, Alicyclobacillus ferripilum and Ferrimicrobium acidiphilum). Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (autotroph) was responsible for the oxidation of both iron and sulfur which lead to a change in the pH from neutral to acidic. The presence of acidophilic heterotrophs, which can oxidize either iron or sulfur, enhanced the efficiency of SSDML process with respect to sludge stabilization and metal leaching. This study shows that it is possible to carry out the SSDML in a single-stage reactor with indigenous microorganisms.

  17. A single stage to orbit rocket with non-cryogenic propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Mitchell B.; Hunter, Maxwell W.

    1993-06-01

    Different propellant combinations for single-stage-to-orbit-rocket applications were compared to oxygen/hydrogen, including nitrogen tetroxide/hydrazine, oxygen/methane, oxygen/propane, oxygen/RP-1, solid core nuclear/hydrogen, and hydrogen peroxide/JP-5. Results show that hydrogen peroxide and JP-5, which have a specific impulse of 328 s in vacuum and a density of 1,330 kg/cu m. This high-density jet fuel offers 1.79 times the payload specific energy of oxygen and hydrogen. By catalytically decomposing the hydrogen peroxide to steam and oxygen before injection into the thrust chamber, the JP-5 can be injected as a liquid into a high-temperature gas flow. This would yield superior combustion stability and permit easy throttling of the engine by adjusting the amount of JP-5 in the mixture. It is concluded that development of modern hydrogen peroxide/JP-5 engines, combined with modern structural technology, could lead to a simple, robust, and versatile single-stage-to-orbit capability.

  18. Performance evaluation of a piezoactuator-based single-stage valve system subjected to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Han, Chulhee; Ung Chung, Jye; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single-stage valve system activated by a piezostack actuator is proposed and experimentally evaluated at both room temperature (20 °C) and high temperature (100 °C) conditions. A hinge-lever displacement amplifier is adopted in the valve system to magnify the displacement generated from the piezostack actuator. After explaining the operating principle of the proposed piezostack-driven single-stage valve system, the geometric dimensions and mechanical properties of the valve components are discussed in details. An experimental apparatus is then manufactured to evaluate the performances of the valve system such as flow rate. The experimental apparatus consists of a heat chamber, which can regulate the temperature of the valve system and oil, pneumatic-hydraulic cylinders, a hydraulic circuit, a pneumatic circuit, electronic devices, an interface card, and a high voltage amplifier. The pneumatic-hydraulic cylinder transforms the pneumatic pressure into hydraulic pressure. The performances of the valve system regarding spool response, pressure drop, and flow rate are evaluated and presented. In addition, the performance of the valve system under high temperature condition is compared with that under room temperature condition. The experimental results are plotted in both frequency and time domains. (paper)

  19. Lengthening Temporalis Myoplasty for Single-Stage Smile Reconstruction in Children with Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panossian, Andre

    2016-04-01

    Free muscle transfer for dynamic smile reanimation in facial paralysis is not always predictable with regard to cosmesis. Hospital stays range from 5 to 7 days. Prolonged operative times, longer hospital stays, and excessive cheek bulk are associated with free flap options. Lengthening temporalis myoplasty offers single-stage smile reanimation with theoretical advantages over free tissue transfer. From 2012 to 2014, 18 lengthening temporalis myoplasties were performed in 14 children for smile reconstruction. A retrospective chart review was completed for demographics, operative times, length of hospital stay, and perioperative complications. Fourteen consecutive patients with complete facial paralysis were included. Four patients underwent single-stage bilateral reconstruction, and 10 underwent unilateral procedures. Diagnoses included Möbius syndrome (n = 5), posterior cranial fossa tumors (n = 4), posttraumatic (n = 2), hemifacial microsomia (n = 1), and idiopathic (n = 2). Average patient age was 10.1 years. Average operative time was 410 minutes (499 minutes for bilateral lengthening temporalis myoplasty and 373 for unilateral lengthening temporalis myoplasty). Average length of stay was 3.3 days (4.75 days for bilateral lengthening temporalis myoplasty and 2.8 for unilateral lengthening temporalis myoplasty). Nine patients required minor revisions. Lengthening temporalis myoplasty is a safe alternative to free tissue transfer for dynamic smile reconstruction in children with facial paralysis. Limited donor-site morbidity, shorter operative times, and shorter hospital stays are some benefits over free flap options. However, revisions are required frequently secondary to tendon avulsions and adhesions. Therapeutic, IV.

  20. Shape Optimization of the Assisted Bi-directional Glenn surgery for stage-1 single ventricle palliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Aekaansh; Shang, Jessica; Esmaily-Moghadam, Mahdi; Wong, Kwai; Marsden, Alison

    2016-11-01

    Babies born with a single functional ventricle typically undergo three open-heart surgeries starting as neonates. The first of these stages (BT shunt or Norwood) has the highest mortality rates of the three, approaching 30%. Proceeding directly to a stage-2 Glenn surgery has historically demonstrated inadequate pulmonary flow (PF) & high mortality. Recently, the Assisted Bi-directional Glenn (ABG) was proposed as a promising means to achieve a stable physiology by assisting the PF via an 'ejector pump' from the systemic circulation. We present preliminary parametrization and optimization results for the ABG geometry, with the goal of increasing PF. To limit excessive pressure increases in the Superior Vena Cava (SVC), the SVC pressure is included as a constraint. We use 3-D finite element flow simulations coupled with a single ventricle lumped parameter network to evaluate PF & the pressure constraint. We employ a derivative free optimization method- the Surrogate Management Framework, in conjunction with the OpenDIEL framework to simulate multiple simultaneous evaluations. Results show that nozzle diameter is the most important design parameter affecting ABG performance. The application of these results to patient specific situations will be discussed. This work was supported by an NSF CAREER award (OCI1150184) and by the XSEDE National Computing Resource.

  1. Hearing rehabilitation with single-stage bilateral vibroplasty in a child with Franceschetti syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, Sona; Rahne, Torsten; Kösling, Sabrina; Eichler, Gerburg; Plontke, Stefan K

    2014-05-01

    Hearing is of utmost importance for normal speech and social development. Even children who have mild or unilateral permanent hearing loss may experience difficulties with understanding speech, as well as problems with educational and psycho-social development. The increasing advantages of middle-ear implant technologies are opening new perspectives for restoring hearing. Active middle-ear implants can be used in children and adolescents with hearing loss. In addition to the well-documented results for improving speech intelligibility and quality of hearing in sensorineural hearing loss active middle-ear implants are now successfully used in patients with conductive and mixed hearing loss. In this article we present a case of successful, single-stage vibroplasty, on the right side with the fixation of the FMT on the stapes and PORP CLiP vibroplasty on the left side in a 6-year-old girl with bilateral mixed hearing loss and multiple dyslalia associated with Franceschetti syndrome (mandibulofacial dysostosis). CT revealed bilateral middle-ear malformations as well as an atretic right and stenotic left external auditory canal. Due to craniofacial dysmorphia airway and (post)operative, management is significantly more difficult in patients with a Franceschetti syndrome which in this case favoured a single-stage bilateral procedure. No intra- or postoperative surgical complications were reported. The middle-ear implants were activated 4 weeks after surgery. In the audiological examination 6 months after surgery, the child showed 100% speech intelligibility with activated implants on each side.

  2. In-situ sludge pretreatment in a single-stage anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Xiao, Keke; Jiang, Xie; Shen, Nan; Zeng, Raymond J; Zhou, Yan

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to develop an in-situ sludge pretreatment method by increasing the temperature from thermophilic to extreme thermophilic condition in a single-stage anaerobic digester. The results revealed that a stable performance was obtained within the temperature range of 55-65°C, and the maximum methane yield of 208.51±13.66mL/g VS was obtained at 65°C. Moreover, the maximum extent of hydrolysis (33%) and acidification (27.1%) was also observed at 65°C. However, further increase of temperature to 70°C did not improve the organic conversion efficiency. Microbial community analysis revealed that Coprothermobacter, highly related to acetate oxidisers, appeared to be the abundant bacterial group at higher temperature. A progressive shift in methanogenic members from Methanosarcina to Methanothermobacter was observed upon increasing the temperature. This work demonstrated single-stage sludge digestion system can be successfully established at high temperature (65°C) with stable performance, which can eliminate the need of conventional thermophilic pretreatment step. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical staging and survival in refractory celiac disease: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Kelly, Darlene G; Lahr, Brian D; Dogan, Ahmet; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Murray, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    Refractory celiac disease (RCD) occurs when both symptoms and intestinal damage persist or recur despite strict adherence to a gluten-free diet. In RCD, the immunophenotype of intraepithelial lymphocytes may be normal and polyclonal (RCD I) or abnormal and monoclonal (RCD II). The aim is to describe the clinical characteristics, treatment, and long-term outcome in a large single-center cohort of patients with RCD. We compared the clinical characteristics and outcome in 57 patients with RCD: 42 with RCD I and 15 with RCD II. Fifteen of 57 patients died during follow-up (n=8 with RCD I and n=7 with RCD II), each within the first 2 years after RCD diagnosis. The overall 5-year cumulative survival is 70%, 80%, and 45% for the entire cohort, RCD I, and RCD II, respectively. The refractory state itself and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) were the most common causes of death, respectively. A new staging system is proposed based on the cumulative effect of 5 prognostic factors investigated at the time of the refractory state diagnosis: for patients in stages I, II, and III, the 5-year cumulative survival rate was 96%, 71%, and 19%, respectively (PRCD is associated with high mortality with RCD II having an especially poor prognosis because of the development of EATL. A new staging model is proposed that may improve the precision of prognosis in patients with RCD.

  4. Fault detection of a spur gear using vibration signal with multivariable statistical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songpon Klinchaeam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a condition monitoring technique of a spur gear fault detection using vibration signal analysis based on time domain. Vibration signals were acquired from gearboxes and used to simulate various faults on spur gear tooth. In this study, vibration signals were applied to monitor a normal and various fault conditions of a spur gear such as normal, scuffing defect, crack defect and broken tooth. The statistical parameters of vibration signal were used to compare and evaluate the value of fault condition. This technique can be applied to set alarm limit of the signal condition based on statistical parameter such as variance, kurtosis, rms and crest factor. These parameters can be used to set as a boundary decision of signal condition. From the results, the vibration signal analysis with single statistical parameter is unclear to predict fault of the spur gears. The using at least two statistical parameters can be clearly used to separate in every case of fault detection. The boundary decision of statistical parameter with the 99.7% certainty ( 3   from 300 referenced dataset and detected the testing condition with 99.7% ( 3   accuracy and had an error of less than 0.3 % using 50 testing dataset.

  5. Contact stress analysis of involute spur gear by Finite Element ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the contact stress in rolling-sliding contact of involute spur gear and the effect of coefficient of friction was analyzed. To achieve this, first, three dimensional involute spur gear pairs were developed in Solid works 2012 Premium and the 3D model was exported to ANSYS workbench 14.5. Next, the analysis was ...

  6. VARIABLE MESH STIFFNESS OF SPUR GEAR TEETH USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VARIABLE MESH STIFFNESS OF SPUR GEAR TEETH USING. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD. Yonatan Afework and Tamrat Tesfaye. Depaliment of Mechanical Engineering. Addis Ababa University. ABSTRACT. The ohiective of this paper is to determine the variahle mesh s/rJlness of spur gear teeth using the finite element ...

  7. Single- or two-stage revision for infected total hip arthroplasty? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Hugh A C; Liddle, Alexander D; Burke, Orlaith; Murray, David W; Pandit, Hemant

    2014-03-01

    The best approach for surgical treatment of an infected THA remains controversial. Two-stage revision is believed to result in lower reinfection rates but may result in significant functional impairment. Some authors now suggest that single-stage revision may provide comparable results in terms of infection eradication while providing superior functional outcomes. We performed a systematic review to determine whether single- or two-stage revision for an infected THA provides lower reinfection rates and higher functional outcome scores. We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase, using the search string [Infection AND ("total hip replacement" OR "total hip arthroplasty") AND revision]. All studies comparing reinfection rates or functional scores for single- and two-stage revision were retrieved and reviewed. A systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA checklist. The initial search retrieved 1128 studies. Following strict exclusion criteria, we identified nine comparative studies comparing reinfection rates (all nine studies) or functional scores (four studies) between single- and two-stage revisions. The overall quality of studies was poor with no randomized studies being identified. Groups often varied in their baseline characteristics. There was no consensus among the studies regarding the relative incidence of reinfection between the two procedures. There was a trend toward better functional outcomes in single-stage surgery, but this reached significance in only one study. In appropriate patients, single-stage revision appears to be associated with similar reinfection rates when compared with two-stage revision with superior functional outcomes. This concurs with earlier studies, but given the methodologic quality of the included studies, these findings should be treated with caution. High-quality randomized studies are needed to compare the two approaches to confirm these findings, and, if appropriate, to determine which patients are

  8. Effect of extracorporeal shock waves on calcaneal bone spurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gregory P; Ogden, John A; Cross, G Lee

    2003-12-01

    In a prospective study of 435 patients with chronic proximal plantar fasciitis, 283 (65%) had an inferior calcaneal bone spur of variable size evident prior to treatment with electrohydraulic high-energy extracorporeal shock waves (ESW). This included 308 patients who received extracorporeal shock wave treatments and 127 placebo (sham control) patients. At both initial (3 months) and final (12 months) evaluations after receiving ESW, no patient who received shock wave applications had significant disappearance or change in the radiographic appearance of the heel spur. Clinical outcome after ESW was satisfactory in 168 patients (82%) with a radiographically demonstrable inferior heel spur and in 81 patients (79%) without such a heel spur. The results showed no correlation between the presence or absence of the heel spur and the eventual treatment outcome.

  9. Comparison of feature and classifier algorithms for online automatic sleep staging based on a single EEG signal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radha, Mustafa; Garcia Molina, Gary; Poel, Mannes; Tononi, Giulio

    Automatic sleep staging on an online basis has recently emerged as a research topic motivated by fundamental sleep research. The aim of this paper is to find optimal signal processing methods and machine learning algorithms to achieve online sleep staging on the basis of a single EEG signal. The

  10. Radiological characteristics of the calcaneal spurs in psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladman, D D; Abufayyah, M; Abuffayah, M; Salonen, D; Thavaneswaran, A; Chandran, V

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation at the entheses is a distinguishing feature of psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Enthesitis at the heel is the most common location at the Achilles and plantar fascia insertions on the calcaneus. This study aimed to 1) describe the morphological features and measurements of plantar calcaneal spurs in subjects with PsA and controls and 2) determine radiological features that differentiate between inflammatory and non-inflammatory calcaneal spurs. Weight bearing lateral foot radiographs of 101 subjects with PsA and 38 control subjects without inflammatory arthritis were examined for plantar calcaneal and Achilles spurs. Three measurements were taken from each radiograph: plantar spur base, mid-segment, and length in millimeters. The differences in radiographic measurements, and the presence of fluffy periostitis of the plantar spurs were then compared between PsA patients and controls. Of the 101 subjects with PsA, 76 (75%) had at least one plantar calcaneal spur and 32 (31.5%) had at least one Achilles tendon spur, compared to 18 (47%) and 3 (8%) respectively in control group (p=0.004). Fluffy plantar periostitis was identified in 14 PsA subjects and none of the controls (p=0.01). The dimensions of plantar spurs were significantly different between groups - longer mid-segment distinguished patients with PsA from controls. Calcaneal spurs are more common in subjects with PsA than controls. Longer mid-segment measurement was associated with PsA. This study indicates that the presence of fluffy plantar periostitis and broad based and longer mid-segment dimensions are radiological features for inflammatory spurs.

  11. Magnesium isotope evidence for single stage formation of CB chondrules by colliding planetesimals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mia Bjørg Stolberg; Schiller, Martin; Krot, Alexander N.

    2013-01-01

    Chondrules are igneous spherical objects preserved in chondritic meteorites and believed to have formed during transient heating events in the solar protoplanetary disk. Chondrules present in the metal-rich CB chondrites show unusual chemical and petrologic features not observed in other chondrite...... groups, implying a markedly distinct formation mechanism. Here, we report high-precision Mg-isotope data for 10 skeletal olivine chondrules from the Hammadah al Hamra 237 (HH237) chondrite to probe the formation history of CB chondrules. The Al/Mg ratios of individual chondrules are positively correlated...... to their stable Mg-isotope composition (μMg), indicating that the correlated variability was imparted by a volatility-controlled process (evaporation/condensation). The mass-independent Mg composition (μMg*) of chondrules is consistent with single stage formation from an initially homogeneous magnesium reservoir...

  12. Aeration Strategies To Mitigate Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Single-Stage Nitritation/Anammox Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo Felez, Carlos; Mutlu, A. Gizem; Jensen, Marlene Mark

    2014-01-01

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal is regarded as a resource efficient process to manage nitrogen-rich residual streams. However, nitrous oxide emissions of these processes are poorly documented and strategies to mitigate emissions unknown. In this study, two sequencing batch reactors performing single......-stage nitritation/anammox were operated under different aeration strategies, gradually adjusted over six months. At constant but limiting oxygen loading, synthetic reject water was fed (0.75g-N/L.d) and high nitrogen removal efficiencies (83 +/- 5 and 88 +/- 2%) obtained. Dynamics of liquid phase nitrous (N2O......) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were monitored and N2O emissions calculated. Significant decreases in N2O emissions were obtained when the frequency of aeration was increased while maintaining a constant air flow rate (from >6 to 1.7% Delta N2O/Delta TN). However, no significant effect on the emissions...

  13. A numerical investigation on the unstable flow in a single stage of an axial compressors

    CERN Document Server

    Farhanieh, B; Ghorbanian, K

    2003-01-01

    An unsteady two-dimensional finite-volume solver was developed based on Van Leer's flux splitting algorithm in conjunction with sup M onotonic Upstream Scheme for Conservation Laws sup l imiters to improve the order of accuracy and the two-layer Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model was also implemented. Two test cases were prepared to validate the solver. The computed results were compared with the experimental data and a good agreement validated the solver. Finally, the solver was used for the flow through a multi-blade stage of an axial compressor in its off-design condition. The computed results showed a rotating stall-like instability with a periodic behavior. To investigate the flow properties during the instability condition, the flow pattern, vortex properties and the axial velocity were studied. It was concluded that the instability vortices in the multi-blade cascade do not have the same generation history of the separated vortices over a single body.

  14. The Integrity of ACSR Full Tension Single-Stage Splice Connector at Higher Operation Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; King Jr, Thomas J [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    Due to increases in power demand and limited investment in new infrastructure, existing overhead power transmission lines often need to operate at temperatures higher than those used for the original design criteria. This has led to the accelerated aging and degradation of splice connectors. It is manifested by the formation of hot-spots that have been revealed by infrared imaging during inspection. The implications of connector aging is two-fold: (1) significant increases in resistivity of the splice connector (i.e., less efficient transmission of electricity) and (2) significant reductions in the connector clamping strength, which could ultimately result in separation of the power transmission line at the joint. Therefore, the splice connector appears to be the weakest link in electric power transmission lines. This report presents a protocol for integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of full tension single-stage splice connector assemblies and the associated effective lifetime at high operating temperature.

  15. Clean-chemistry synthesis of 2-tetralones in a single-stage acylation-cycloalkylation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A D; Smyth, T P

    2001-10-19

    The preparation of substituted-2-tetralones by direct reaction of a 1-alkene with a substituted phenylacetic acid in a reaction system of trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) and phosphoric acid is described. This single-stage process involves in situ formation of a mixed anhydride of the phenylacetic acid and acylation of the alkene by this species followed by cycloalkylation of the aromatic ring. This is a cleaner approach to the synthesis of 2-tetralones compared to Friedel-Crafts aliphatic acylation-cycloalkylation in that use of thionyl chloride, aluminum trichloride, and a chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent is eliminated. In addition, the atom efficiency is augmented by recovery of the spent TFAA as trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and conversion of this back to TFAA by dehydration.

  16. Isolated EWiRaC: A New Low-Stress Single-Stage Isolated PFC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Bergendorff, Stefan Pihl; Petersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    A new PFC-family of Efficient Wide Range Converters named EWiRaC was recently introduced. EWiRaC has a major advantage in terms of efficiency at low-line and handles challenges like inrush current limiting as an integrated part of the conversion scheme. The main objective of this paper is to inve......A new PFC-family of Efficient Wide Range Converters named EWiRaC was recently introduced. EWiRaC has a major advantage in terms of efficiency at low-line and handles challenges like inrush current limiting as an integrated part of the conversion scheme. The main objective of this paper...... is to investigate the performance of an isolated EWiRaC (I-EWiRaC) in a single-stage PFC configuration....

  17. Identification of Dewetting Stages and Preparation of Single Chain Gold Nanoparticle Rings by Colloidal Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Norbert; Zámbó, Dániel; Pothorszky, Szilárd; Gergely-Fülöp, Eszter; Deák, András

    2016-02-02

    Massively parallel nanoparticle assembly was carried out by means of colloidal lithographic experiments over a silicon substrate supported (sub)microparticle Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer, using high purity aqueous solution of PEGylated gold nanoparticles. The size of the polystyrene template particles in the monolayer was varied between 608 nm and 2.48 μm, while gold nanoparticles with diameters between 18 and 65 nm were used. Thanks to the PEGylation of the gold nanoparticles, they could be used as tracer objects to follow the drying process. In this way, different dewetting stages could be identified in the confined space between and underneath the template polystyrene spheres. Depending on the concentration of the nanoparticles, the presented approach allows the preparation of single-particle width necklace structures composed of gold particles. At the same time, the high purity of the substrate as well as of the evolved particle rings is preserved and unwanted particle deposition on the substrate surface is minimized.

  18. Single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon-interference identification and positive-ionisation characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcken, K.M., E-mail: klaus.wilcken@ansto.gov.au [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride G75 0QF (United Kingdom); Freeman, S.P.H.T.; Xu, S.; Dougans, A. [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride G75 0QF (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    A single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS) is a good alternative to conventional spectrometers based on tandem electrostatic acceleration for radiocarbon measurement and permits experimentation with both negative and positive carbon ions. However, such {sup 14}C AMS of either polarity ions is limited by an interference. In the case of anion acceleration we have newly determined this to be summed {sup 13}C and {sup 16}O by improvising an additional Wien filter on our SSAMS deck. Also, {sup 14}C AMS might be improved by removing its dependency on negative-ionisation in a sputter ion source. This requires negative-ionisation of sample atoms elsewhere to suppress the {sup 14}N interference, which we accomplish by transmitting initially positive ions through a thin membrane. The ionisation dependence on ion-energy is found to be consistent with previous experimentation with vapours and thicker foils.

  19. High efficiency 40 K single-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. L.; Chen, L. B.; Pan, C. Z.; Cui, C.; Wang, J. J.; Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A high efficiency single-stage Stirling-type coaxial pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) operating at around 40 K has been designed, built and tested. The double-inlet and the inertance tubes together with the gas reservoir were adopted as the phase shifters. Under the conditions of 2.5 MPa charging pressure and 30 Hz operating frequency, the prototype has achieved a no-load temperature of 23.8 K with 330 W of electric input power at a rejection temperature of 279 K. When the input power increases to 400 W, it can achieve a cooling capacity of 4.7 W/40 K while rejecting heat at 279 K yielding an efficiency of 7.02% relative to Carnot. It achieves a cooling capacity of 5 W/40 K with an input power of 450 W. It takes 10 minutes for the SPTC to cool to its no-load temperature of 40 K from 295 K.

  20. Self-Excited Single-Stage Power Factor Correction Driving Circuit for LED Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Nong Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This pa\tper proposes a self-excited single-stage high power factor LED lighting driving circuit. Being featured with power factor correction capability without needing any control devices, the proposed circuit structure is with low cost and suitable for commercial production. The power factor correction function is accomplished by using inductor in combination with a half-bridge quasi resonant converter to achieve active switching and yield out voltage regulation according to load requirement. Furthermore, the zero-voltage switching in the half-bridge converter can be attained to promote the overall performance efficiency of the proposed circuit. Finally, the validity and production availability of the proposed circuit will be verified as well.

  1. Detection of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus strains using a single-stage PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamian, S.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus are of the most important causes of brucellosis, an infectious disease which is transmitted either directly or indirectly including consuming unpasteurized dairy products. Both strains are considered endemic in Iran. Common diagnostic methods such as bacteriologic cultures are difficult and time consuming regarding the bacteria. The aim of this study was to suggest a single-stage PCR method using a pair of primers to detect both B. melitensis and B. abortus. The primers were named UF1 and UR1 and the results showed that the final size of PCR products were 84 bp and 99 bp for B. melitensis and B. abortus, respectively. Therefore the method could be useful for rapid detection of B. melitensis and B. abortus simultaneously.

  2. Single stage to orbit mass budgets derived from propellant density and specific impulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1996-06-06

    The trade between specific impulse (Isp) and density is examined in view of Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) requirements. Mass allocations for vehicle hardware are derived from these two properties, for several propellant combinations and a dual-fuel case. This comparative analysis, based on flight-proven hardware, indicates that the higher density of several alternative propellants compensates for reduced Isp, when compared with cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen. Approximately half the orbiting mass of a rocket- propelled SSTO vehicle must be allocated to propulsion hardware and residuals. Using hydrogen as the only fuel requires a slightly greater fraction of orbiting mass for propulsion, because hydrogen engines and tanks are heavier than those for denser fuels. The advantage of burning both a dense fuel and hydrogen in succession depends strongly on tripropellant engine weight. The implications of the calculations for SSTO vehicle design are discussed, especially with regard to the necessity to minimize non-tankage structure.

  3. Single-stage management with combined tri-endoscopic approach for concomitant cholecystolithiasis and choledocholithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Fujing; Zhang, Shutian; Ji, Ming; Wang, Yongjun; Li, Peng; Han, Wei

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the value of a single stage with combined tri-endoscopic (duodenoscopy, laparoscopy and choledochoscopy) approach for patients with concomitant cholecystolithiasis and choledocholithiasis. Fifty-three patients with combined gallbladder stones and common bile duct stones from February 2014 to April 2015 were randomized assigned to two groups: 29 patients underwent single-stage surgery with combined duodenoscope, laparoscope and choledochoscope (combined tri-endoscopic group), and 29 patients underwent endoscopic sphincterotomy to remove common bile duct stones followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy several days later (control group). The success rate of complete stone removal, procedure-related complication, hospital stay and the cost of hospitalization were compared between the two groups. Altogether, 53 patients (29 patients in combined tri-endoscopic group and 24 patients in control group) successfully underwent the surgery and ERCP procedure. Three patients in the control group developed post-ERCP pancreatitis. One case of bile leaking and one case of residual stone were noted in the combined tri-endoscopic group. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to both complete stone removal [96.6 % (28/29) vs. 100 % (24/24)] and procedure-related complication rate [3.4 % (1/29) vs. 12.5 % (3/24)] (p > 0.05). No open surgery was required in either group. There were significant differences between the two groups with regard to hospital stay (6.72 ± 1.3 days vs. 10.91 ± 1.6 days, p choledocholithiasis was just as safe and successful as the control group. In addition, it resulted in a shorter hospital stay and less cost.

  4. Outcome of single stage vertebral column resection in treatment of kyphotic deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Mohammad; Satar, Abdul; Saeed, Muhammad; Wazir, Zahid; Inam, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    To find the frequency of deformity correction, functional outcome and complications of single-stage vertebral column resection in patients with kyphotic deformity. The prospective case series was conducted at Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar, and Aman Hospital, Peshawar, from January 2012 to December 2013, and comprised all patients who underwent single-stage posterior vertebral column resection. Only patients with severe rigid sharp deformity of different aetiology that required more than 40 degree correction and who had at least 3-month follow-up were included. Data was processed using SPSS 16. Of the total 18 patients, 11(61.1%) were male and 7(38.9%) were female, with an overall mean age of 28.7±13.6 years (range: 12-60 years). Among them, 8(44.4%) patients had congenital kyphosis, 5(27.8%) had posttraumatic origin, 4(22.2%) had post-tuberculous deformity, while 1(5.6%) had iatrogenic kyphosis. The apex of the deformity was in thoracic spine in 12(66.7%) patients, while in 6(33.3%) patients it was in the lumbar spine. The average pre- and post-operative Cobb's angle was 66.2±18.9 degrees and 18.8±12.8 degrees respectively. Mean correction of deformities was 47.3±13.3 degrees. The mean correction achieved in percentage terms was 73.5±8.6 per cent (range: 56-87%). There were no patients with post-operative deterioration of neurological status. Two (11%) patients underwent re-exploration of the wounds with wash and cultures due to wound discharge. Posterior vertebral column resection was found to be a very effective method of correction of severe kyphotic deformities in expert hands with acceptable morbidity.

  5. Metoidioplasty as a single stage sex reassignment surgery in female transsexuals: Belgrade experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Miroslav L; Stanojevic, Dusan; Bizic, Marta; Kojovic, Vladimir; Majstorovic, Marko; Vujovic, Svetlana; Milosevic, Alexandar; Korac, Gradimir; Perovic, Sava V

    2009-05-01

    Metoidioplasty represents one of the variants of phalloplasty in female transsexuals. Its main characteristic is that it is a one-stage procedure. It involves lengthening and straightening of hypertrophied clitoris to create a neophallus, urethral lengthening to enable voiding while standing, and scrotal reconstruction with insertion of testicle prostheses. Our aim is to describe our technique and highlight its advantages. Between September 2002 and April 2007, 82 female transsexuals, aged 18-54 years (mean age 31) underwent one-stage metoidioplasty. Clitoris is lengthened and straightened by division of clitoral ligaments and short urethral plate. Urethroplasty is done with combined buccal mucosa graft and genital skin flaps. Scrotum is created from labia majora in which two testicle prostheses are inserted. Simultaneously, female genitalia are removed. Patients' personal satisfaction about sensitivity and length of neophallus, possibility to void in standing position, real length of reconstructed urethra as well as complication rate comparing to other published data. The median follow-up was 32 months (range 14-69). The mean neophallic length was 5.7 cm (range 4-10). Voiding in standing position was reported in all patients, while dribbling and spraying were noticed in 23 cases and solved spontaneously. There were two urethral strictures and seven fistulas that required secondary minor revision. All patients reported preserved sensation and normal postoperative erection. Testicle prostheses rejection was not observed in any of the patients. Metoidioplasty is a single-stage and time-saving procedure. It could be an alternative to total phalloplasty in female transsexuals who do not wish to have sexual intercourse. Also, it represents a first step in cases where additional augmentation phalloplasty is required.

  6. Single-Mode Deceleration Stage Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Growth in Cylindrical Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauppe, J. P.; Palaniyappan, S.; Bradley, P. A.; Batha, S. H.; Loomis, E. N.; Kline, J. L.; Srinivasan, B.; Bose, A.; Malka, E.; Shvarts, D.

    2017-10-01

    We present design calculations demonstrating the feasibility of measuring single-mode deceleration stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) growth at a factor of four convergence. RTI growth rates are modified as a result of convergence [Bell LA-1321, 1951], and cylindrical targets are considered here, as they allow direct diagnostic access along the interface. The 2D computations, performed with the radiation-hydrodynamics code xRAGE [Gittings et al., CSD 2008] utilizing a new laser ray-tracing package, predict growth factors of 6 to 10 for mode 10 and 4 to 6 for mode 4, both of high interest in evaluating inertial confinement fusion capsule degradation mechanisms [Bose et al., this conference]. These results compare favorably to a linear theory [Epstein, PoP 2004] and to a buoyancy-drag model [Srebro et al., LPB 2003], which accounts for the linear and non-linear stages. Synthetic radiographs, produced by combining 2D computations of axial and transverse cross-sections, indicate this growth will be observable, and these will be compared to experimental data obtained at the OMEGA laser facility. Work performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396 for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy. (LA-UR-17-25608).

  7. Single-Stage Step up/down Driver for Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T. R.; Juan, Y. L.; Huang, C. Y.; Kuo, C. T.

    2017-11-01

    The two-stage circuit composed of a step up/down dc converter and a three-phase voltage source inverter is usually adopted as the electric vehicle’s motor driver. The conventional topology is more complicated. Additional power loss resulted from twice power conversion would also cause lower efficiency. A single-stage step up/down Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor driver for Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor is proposed in this study. The number components and circuit complexity are reduced. The low frequency six-step square-wave control is used to reduce the switching losses. In the proposed topology, only one active switch is gated with a high frequency PWM signal for adjusting the rotation speed. The rotor position signals are fed back to calculate the motor speed for digital close-loop control in a MCU. A 600W prototype circuit is constructed to drive a BLDC motor with rated speed 3000 rpm, and can control the speed of six sections.

  8. Single stage: dorsolateral onlay buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures using perineal route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Prabha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess the outcome of single stage dorsolateral onlay buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures (>4cm long using a perineal incision. Materials and Methods From August 2010 to August 2013, 20 patients underwent BMG urethroplasty. The cause of stricture was Lichen sclerosis in 12 cases (60%, Instrumentation in 5 cases (25%, and unknown in 3 cases (15%. Strictures were approached through a perineal skin incision and penis was invaginated into it to access the entire urethra. All the grafts were placed dorsolaterally, preserving the bulbospongiosus muscle, central tendon of perineum and one-sided attachement of corpus spongiosum. Procedure was considered to be failure if the patient required instrumentation postoperatively. Results Mean stricture length was 8.5cm (range 4 to 12cm. Mean follow-up was 22.7 months (range 12 to 36 months. Overall success rate was 85%. There were 3 failures (meatal stenosis in 1, proximal stricture in 1 and whole length recurrent stricture in 1. Other complications included wound infection, urethrocutaneous fistula, brownish discharge per urethra and scrotal oedema. Conclusion Dorsolateral buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures using a single perineal incision is simple, safe and easily reproducible by urologists with a good outcome.

  9. A study of calcaneal enthesophytes (spurs) in Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Kullar, Jagdev Singh; Randhawa, Gurpreet Kaur; Kullar, Keerat Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Calcaneus or os calcis forms a major component of the skeleton of foot providing posterior pillars for bony arches of the foot. It is largest of seven tarsal bones of foot and forms prominence of heel. Many times anterior to calcaneal tuberosity an osteophytic outgrowth has been observed (calcaneal or heel spur) extending along entire width, for about 2-2.5 cm. The apex of spur seen embedded in plantar fascia, directly anterior to its origin. Hence, the study of calcaneal spurs ...

  10. Feasibility of a single-stage tracheostomy decannulation protocol with endoscopy in adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Oded; Tzelnick, Sharon; Lahav, Yonatan; Stavi, Dekel; Shoffel-Havakuk, Hagit; Hain, Moshe; Halperin, Doron; Adi, Nimrod

    2016-09-01

    Gradual decrease in tube size and tube capping are considered the standard of care for tracheostomy decannulation. Both of these actions result in increased airway resistance. Immediate decannulation may offer a more tolerable approach. To assess the feasibility of immediate tracheostomy decannulation compared with the traditional decannulation methods. This study is a single institute, case-control retrospective study of patients between the years 2009 to 2014. The study group included all patients who underwent immediate decannulation, whereas the control group comprised patients who underwent traditional staged decannulation. An immediate decannulation protocol included admission to the intensive care unit, a comprehensive evaluation, decannulation, 24 hours of monitoring, and observation until discharge. Twenty-nine patients were included in the study group and 20 in the control group. No significant statistical difference was found between the two groups in the patients' medical history and tracheostomy data, except for the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and duration of the deflated cuff, which were significantly higher in the control group. A significant difference was found in the complication rate between the groups. In the staged decannulation group, four patients failed decannulation and required reinsertion of the tracheostomy cannula, whereas there were no such failures in the immediate decannulation group. Hospitalization duration after decannulation of the study group patients was significantly shorter than that of the control group. Immediate decannulation may offer a safe alternative for weaning from tracheostomy. It may also reduce the duration of the weaning process and hospitalization. 3b Laryngoscope, 126:2057-2062, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Evaluation of single-stage adjustable strabismus surgery under conscious sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pradeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and stability of ocular alignment after single-stage adjustable strabismus surgery (SSASS performed under topical anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients of concomitant exodeviations were randomized into three groups of 15 cases each and were operated with three different techniques: Group I - conventional surgery, Group II - two-stage adjustable suture technique with suture adjustment performed 6h postoperatively and Group III- SSASS under topical anesthesia and intravenous conscious sedation with midazolam and fentanyl. Intraoperative suture adjustment was done by giving a cross target to the patient on the ceiling at the end of the procedure. Surgical results were compared among the three groups at three months follow-up. Intraoperative hemodynamic parameters and patients′ experience of the surgery (by questionnaire were also compared. Results: Mean preoperative deviation for distance in Groups I, II, III was -41.67 prism diopter (pd ±9.0, -38.93 pd ±11.05 and -41.87 pd ±8.91 ( P =0.6 respectively. At three months, mean correction achieved for distance was +31.87 pd ±11.71, +35.47 pd ±10.86 and +42.80 pd ±10.71 respectively which was significantly different between Group III and Group I ( P =0.03. Intraoperatively all hemodynamic parameters remained stable and comparable ( P =0. 5 in all groups. Intraoperative pain ( P < 0.001 and time taken for surgery ( P < 0.001 was more in the SSASS group. Amount of exodrift was 10-12 pd, comparable in all three groups ( P = 0.5. Conclusions: SSASS, performed under topical anesthesia, is safe and has better outcomes than conventional recession-resection surgery for concomitant exodeviation. An overcorrection of about 10-12 pd is recommended to check the exodrift and achieve stable alignment.

  12. Thrombotic complications and thromboprophylaxis across all three stages of single ventricle heart palliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlhiot, Cedric; Brandão, Leonardo R; Kwok, Judith; Kegel, Stefan; Menjak, Ines B; Carew, Caitlin L; Chan, Anthony K; Schwartz, Steven M; Sivarajan, V Ben; Caldarone, Christopher A; Van Arsdell, Glen S; McCrindle, Brian W

    2012-09-01

    To describe the incidence of thrombotic complications across all 3 stages of single ventricle palliation and the association between thromboprophylaxis use and thrombotic risk. Two separate cross-sectional studies were performed that included 195 patients born between 2003-2008 and 162 patients who underwent Fontan after 2000. The incidence of thrombotic complications was 40% and 28% after initial palliation and superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC), respectively; 5-year freedom from thrombotic complications after Fontan was 79%. Thromboprophylaxis was initiated for 70%, 46%, and 94% of patients after initial palliation, SCPC, and Fontan, respectively. Thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin (vs no thromboprophylaxis) was associated with a reduction in risk of thrombotic complications after initial palliation (hazard ratio [HR] 0.5, P = .05) and SCPC (HR 0.2, P = .04). Thromboprophylaxis with warfarin was associated with a reduction in thrombotic complications after Fontan (HR 0.27, P = .05 vs acetylsalicylic acid; HR 0.18, P = .02 vs no thromboprophylaxis). Thrombotic complications were associated with increased mortality after initial palliation (HR 5.5, P SCPC (HR 12.5, P < .001). Three patients experienced major bleeding complications without permanent sequelae (2 enoxaparin, 1 warfarin). Given the negative impact of thrombotic complications on survival, the low risk of serious bleeding complications, and the association between thromboprophylaxis and lowered thrombotic complication risk across all 3 palliative stages, routine use of thromboprophylaxis from the initial palliation to the early post-Fontan period in this population may be indicated. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular asymmetry in the 8-cell stage Xenopus tropicalis embryo described by single blastomere transcript sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Domenico, Elena; Owens, Nick D L; Grant, Ian M; Gomes-Faria, Rosa; Gilchrist, Michael J

    2015-12-15

    Correct development of the vertebrate body plan requires the early definition of two asymmetric, perpendicular axes. The first axis is established during oocyte maturation, and the second is established by symmetry breaking shortly after fertilization. The physical processes generating the second asymmetric, or dorsal-ventral, axis are well understood, but the specific molecular determinants, presumed to be maternal gene products, are poorly characterized. Whilst enrichment of maternal mRNAs at the animal and vegetal poles in both the oocyte and the early embryo has been studied, little is known about the distribution of maternal mRNAs along either the dorsal-ventral or left-right axes during the early cleavage stages. Here we report an unbiased analysis of the distribution of maternal mRNA on all axes of the Xenopus tropicalis 8-cell stage embryo, based on sequencing of single blastomeres whose positions within the embryo are known. Analysis of pooled data from complete sets of blastomeres from four embryos has identified 908 mRNAs enriched in either the animal or vegetal blastomeres, of which 793 are not previously reported as enriched. In contrast, we find no evidence for asymmetric distribution along either the dorsal-ventral or left-right axes. We confirm that animal pole enrichment is on average distinctly lower than vegetal pole enrichment, and that considerable variation is found between reported enrichment levels in different studies. We use publicly available data to show that there is a significant association between genes with human disease annotation and enrichment at the animal pole. Mutations in the human ortholog of the most animally enriched novel gene, Slc35d1, are causative for Schneckenbecken dysplasia, and we show that a similar phenotype is produced by depletion of the orthologous protein in Xenopus embryos. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of five lubricants on life of AISI 9310 spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Spur-gear surface fatigue tests were conducted with five lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The lot of gears was divided into five groups, each of which was tested with a different lubricant. The test lubricants are classified as either a synthetic hydrocarbon, mineral oil, or ester-based lubricant. All five lubricants have imilar viscosity and pressure-viscosity coefficients. A pentaerythritol base stock without sufficient antiwear additives produced a surface fatigue life pproximately 22 percent that of the same base stock with chlorine and phosphorus type additives. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears tested. No statistical difference in the 10-percent surface fatigue life was produced with four of the five lubricants.

  15. Thermodynamic simulation of condensation heat recovery characteristics of a single stage centrifugal chiller in a hotel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Guangcai; Chen, Feihu; Su, Huan; Zhou, Jianyong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamic model of a two-condenser condensation system has been carried out. ► Dynamic simulation method has been presented. ► COP and g of the refrigerating system is better than the single condensation system. ► The optimal parameters for the two-condenser condensation system have been studied. -- Abstract: A thermodynamic simulation study has been carried out for a single stage centrifugal chiller in this paper. The cooling capacity of the chiller unit is about 1750 kW. The chiller unit has been set and tested, and the work refrigerant is R22. A heat exchanger has been set between outlet of the compressor and the condenser for sanitary hot water supplying. Then the chiller unit is a kind of combined system that can provide sanitary hot water supplying and air conditioning simultaneously. A thermodynamic simulation model of the combined system has been established with the system simulation toolbox Simulink. Performance of the components and the combined system of the chiller unit has been studied over a wide range of operating conditions. The potential energy and fuel cost saving associated with the use of the proposed combined system for a typical hotel in south China has been estimated. It is showed that the combined system of the chiller unit is very useful in hotel buildings. And the thermodynamic simulation model of the combined system is significance for the optimization of parameters of the chiller unit such as condensation and evaporation temperature, mass flow of the sanitary hot water and size of hot water storage tank.

  16. Single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation in surgical treatment for single-segment lumbar spinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hao; Wang, Xiyang; Zhang, Penghui; Peng, Wei; Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Yupeng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility and efficacy of surgical management of single-segment lumbar spinal tuberculosis (TB) by using single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation. Seventeen cases of single-segment lumbar TB were treated with single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation. The mean follow-up was 36.9 months (range: 24-62 months). The kyphotic angle ranged from 15.2-35.1° preoperatively, with an average measurement of 27.8°. The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) score system was used to evaluate the neurological deficits and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) used to judge the activity of TB. Spinal TB was completely cured in all 17 patients. There was no recurrent TB infection. The postoperative kyphotic angle was 6.6-10.2°, 8.1° in average, and there was no significant loss of the correction at final follow-up. Solid fusion was achieved in all cases. Neurological condition in all patients was improved after surgery. Single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation can be a feasible and effective method the in treatment of single-segment lumbar spinal TB.

  17. Outcomes of single-stage total arch replacement via clamshell incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishizaka Toru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of complex aortic pathologies involving the transverse arch with extensive involvement of the descending aorta remains a surgical challenge. Since clamshell incision provides superior exposure of the entire thoracic aorta, we evaluated the use of this technique for single-stage total arch replacement by arch vessel reconstruction. Methods The arch-first technique combined with clamshell incision was used in 38 cases of aneurysm and aortic disease in 2008 and 2009. Extensive total arch replacement was used with clamshell incision for reconstruction of arch vessels under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Results Overall 30-day mortality was 13%. The mean operating time was approximately 8 hours. Deep hypothermia resulted in mean CPB time exceeding 4.5 hours and mean duration of circulatory arrest was 25 minutes. The overall postoperative temporary and permanent neurologic dysfunction rates were 3% and 3% for elective and 3% and 0% for emergency surgery, respectively. All patients except the five who died in hospital were discharged without nursing care after an average post-operative hospital stay of 35 days. Conclusions The arch-first technique, combined with clamshell incision, provides expeditious replacement of the thoracic aorta with an acceptable duration of hypothermic circulatory arrest and minimizes the risk of retrograde atheroembolism by using antegrade perfusion.

  18. Solvent Carryover Characterization and Recovery for a 10-inch Single Stage Centrifugal Contactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentsch, R.D.; Stephens, A.B.; Leung, D.T.; Baffling, K.E.; Harmon, H.D.; Suggs, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    A test program has been performed to characterize the organic solvent carryover and recovery from centrifugal contactors in the Caustic-side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. CSSX is the baseline design for removing cesium from salt solutions for Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site's Salt Waste Processing Facility. CSSX uses a custom solvent to extract cesium from the salt solution in a series of single stage centrifugal contactors. Meeting the Waste Acceptance Criteria at the Defense Waste Processing Facility and Saltstone, as well as plant economics, dictate that solvent loss should be kept to a minimum. Solvent droplet size distribution in the aqueous outlet streams of the CSSX contactors is of particular importance to the design of solvent recovery equipment. Because insufficient solvent droplet size data existed to form a basis for the recovery system design, DOE funded the CSSX Solvent Carryover Characterization and Recovery Test (SCCRT). This paper presents the droplet size distribution of solvent and concentration in the contactor aqueous outlet streams as a function of rotor speed, bottom plate type, and flow rate. It also presents the performance data of a prototype coalescer. (authors)

  19. Single-stage Kanban system with deterioration failures and condition-based preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xanthopoulos, A.S.; Koulouriotis, D.E.; Botsaris, P.N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that the fields of pull type production control policies and condition-based preventive maintenance have much in common contextually, they have evolved independently up to now. In this investigation, an attempt is made to bridge the gap between these two branches of knowledge by introducing the single-stage Kanban system with deterioration failures and condition-based preventive maintenance. The formalism of continuous time Markov chains is used to model the system and expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. Two important, from a managerial perspective, constrained optimization problems for the proposed model are defined where the objective is the simultaneous optimization of the Kanban policy, the preventive maintenance policy and the inspection schedule under conflicting performance criteria. Multiple instances of each optimization problem are solved by means of the augmented Lagrangian genetic algorithm. The results from the optimization trials coupled by the results from extensive numerical examples facilitate the thorough investigation of the system’s behaviour. - Highlights: • Kanban system with deterioration failures and preventive maintenance is introduced. • The system is modeled as a continuous time Markov chain. • Expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. • The behavior of the system is studied through numerical examples. • Optimization results for selected performance metrics are presented

  20. [Achieve single-stage autotrophic biological nitrogen removal process by controlling the concentration of free ammonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li-Li; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Xu, Zheng-Yong; Li, Xiao-Jiang; Tang, Zhi-Gang; Deng, Jiu-Hu

    2011-01-01

    Through controlling the concentration of free ammonia in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR), the single-stage autotrophic biological nitrogen removal process was achieved, including partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation. The experiment was completed via two steps, the enrichment of nitrite bacteria and the inoculation of the mixture of anammox biomass. The operating temperature in the SBR was (31 +/- 2) degrees C. During the step of the enrichment of nitrite bacteria, pH was about 7.8. Changes of FA concentration were achieved by controlling the concentration of influent NH4(+) -N(56-446 mg x L(-1)), in order to inhibit and eliminate the nitrate bacteria. The activity tests of the sludge, 55d after enrichment, showed strong activity of aerobic ammonium oxidation [2.91 kg x (kg x d)(-1)] and low activity of nitrite oxidation [0.03 kg x(kg x d)(-1)]. During the inoculation of the mixture of anammox biomass, changes of FA concentration were achieved by controlling the concentration of influent NH4(+) -N and pH. As the inoculation of anammox biomass, abundant of bacteria and nutrient content were into the reactor and there kept high activity of aerobic ammonium oxidation [2.83 kg x (kg x d)(-1)] and a certain activity of nitrite oxidation, at the same time, the activity of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification reached 0.65 kg x (kg x d)(-1) and 0.11 kg x (kg x d)(-1), respectively.

  1. Wind-driven SEIG supplying DC microgrid through a single-stage power converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellapatchi Nayanar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increased emphasis on utilizing the renewable energy sources and selection of suitable power converters for supplying dc microgrid. Among the various renewable energy sources, wind energy stands first in terms of installed capacity. So, an attempt is made in this paper for supplying dc microgrid utilizing wind energy. A self-excited induction generator has been used in the proposed wind energy conversion system (WECS. A single-stage power converter, namely, semi-converter is connected between the SEIG and dc grid terminals for closed-loop control of the proposed system. A perturb and observe (P&O based maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm has been developed and implemented using a dsPIC30F4011 digital controller. In this MPPT algorithm, the firing angle of the converter is adjusted by continuously monitoring the dc grid current for a given wind velocity. For analyzing the proposed system, a MATLAB/Simulink model has been developed by selecting the various components starting from wind-turbine model to the power converter supplying dc microgrid. Successful working of the proposed WECS has also been shown through experimental results obtained on a prototype model developed in the laboratory.

  2. Construction and characterization of a single stage dual diaphragm gas gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminiak, Nathaniel Steven

    In the interest of studying the propagation of shock waves, this work sets out to design, construct, and characterize a pneumatic accelerator that performs high-velocity flyer plate impact tests. A single stage gas gun with a dual diaphragm breach allows for a non-volatile, reliable experimental testing platform for shock phenomena. This remotely operated gas gun utilizes compressed nitrogen to launch projectiles down a 14 foot long, 2 inch diameter bore barrel, which subsequently impacts a target material of interest. A dual diaphragm firing mechanism allows the 4.5 liter breech to reach a total pressure differential of 10ksi before accelerating projectiles to velocities as high as 1,000 m/s (1570-2240 mph). The projectile's velocity is measured using a series of break pin circuits. The target response can be measured with Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) and/or stress gauge system. A vacuum system eliminates the need for pressure relief in front of the projectile, while additionally allowing the system to remain closed over the entire firing cycle. Characterization of the system will allow for projectile speed to be estimated prior to launching based on initial breach pressure.

  3. Orifice Mass Flow Calculation in NASA's W-8 Single Stage Axial Compressor Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozak, Richard F.

    2018-01-01

    Updates to the orifice mass flow calculation for the W-8 Single Stage Axial Compressor Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center are provided to include the effect of humidity and incorporate ISO 5167. A methodology for including the effect of humidity into the inlet orifice mass flow calculation is provided. Orifice mass flow calculations provided by ASME PTC-19.5-2004, ASME MFC-3M-2004, ASME Fluid Meters, and ISO 5167 are compared for W-8's atmospheric inlet orifice plate. Differences in expansion factor and discharge coefficient given by these standards give a variation of about +/- 75% mass flow except for a few cases. A comparison of the calculations with an inlet static pressure mass flow correlation and a fan exit mass flow integration using test data from a 2017 turbofan rotor test in W-8 show good agreement between the inlet static pressure mass flow correlation, ISO 5167, and ASME Fluid Meters. While W-8's atmospheric inlet orifice plate violates the pipe diameter limit defined by each of the standards, the ISO 5167 is chosen to be the primary orifice mass flow calculation to use in the W-8 facility.

  4. Single-stage transforaminal decompression, debridement, interbody fusion, and posterior instrumentation for lumbosacral brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulizi, Yakefu; Liang, Wei-Dong; Muheremu, Aikeremujiang; Maimaiti, Maierdan; Sheng, Wei-Bin

    2017-07-14

    Spinal brucellosis is a less commonly reported infectious spinal pathology. There are few reports regarding the surgical treatment of spinal brucellosis in existing literature. This retrospective study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of single-stage transforaminal decompression, debridement, interbody fusion, and posterior instrumentation for lumbosacral spinal brucellosis. From February 2012 to April 2015, 32 consecutive patients (19 males and 13 females, mean age 53.7 ± 8.7) with lumbosacral brucellosis treated by transforaminal decompression, debridement, interbody fusion, and posterior instrumentation were enrolled. Medical records, imaging studies, laboratory data were collected and summarized. Surgical outcomes were evaluated based on visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale. The changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), clinical symptoms and complications were investigated. Graft fusion was evaluated using Bridwell grading criteria. The mean follow-up period was 24.9 ± 8.2 months. Back pain and radiating leg pain was relieved significantly in all patients after operation. No implant failures were observed in any patients. Wound infection was observed in two patients and sinus formation was observed in one patient. Solid bony fusion was achieved in 30 patients and the fusion rate was 93.8%. The levels of ESR and CRP were returned to normal by the end of three months' follow-up. VAS and ODI scores were significantly improved (P brucellosis.

  5. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Results of a Single-stage Approach Using Allograft Dowel Bone Grafting for Femoral Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Gilmore, Carl J; Hamann, Joshua C; Gaskin, Cree M; Carroll, John J; Hart, Joseph M; Miller, Mark D

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to present results of single-stage revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using an allograft bone dowel for isolated femoral bony deficiency. Sixteen patients underwent single-stage revision ACL reconstruction using an allograft bone dowel for isolated femoral bony deficiency between 2007 and 2012. Twelve patients (75%) completed study visits, which included CT scans as well as completion of validated outcomes measures. The average KT-1000 side-to-side difference was 1.0 mm ± 2.9 mm. The average International Knee Documentation Committee score was 70.2 ± 17.8, the Tegner score was 4.8 ± 2.8, and the visual analog scale pain score was 2.8 ± 2.4. An analysis of CT scans showed that all 12 dowels had excellent (>75%) incorporation. A single-stage approach for revision ACL reconstruction using allograft dowels for isolated femoral bony deficiency yields objective and subjective outcomes comparable to those reported in the literature for two-stage and other single-stage techniques, with good incorporation of the dowels. Retrospective case series, level IV.

  6. Statistical issues for design and analysis of single-arm multi-stage phase II cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2015-05-01

    Phase II trials have been very widely conducted and published every year for cancer clinical research. In spite of the fast progress in design and analysis methods, single-arm two-stage design is still the most popular for phase II cancer clinical trials. Because of their small sample sizes, statistical methods based on large sample approximation are not appropriate for design and analysis of phase II trials. As a prospective clinical research, the analysis method of a phase II trial is predetermined at the design stage and it is analyzed during and at the end of the trial as planned by the design. The analysis method of a trial should be matched with the design method. For two-stage single arm phase II trials, Simon's method has been the standards for choosing an optimal design, but the resulting data have been analyzed and published ignoring the two-stage design aspect with small sample sizes. In this article, we review analysis methods that exactly get along with the exact two-stage design method. We also discuss some statistical methods to improve the existing design and analysis methods for single-arm two-stage phase II trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Control of a Two-Stage Direct Power Converter with a Single Voltage Sensor Mounted in the Intermediary Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Wheeler, P.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    Controlling a converter requires not only a powerful processors but also accurate voltage and current sensors and fast and precise analogue-digital converters, which increase the cost per kW of the assembly, especially in the low power range. A matrix converter requires less transducers than a back...... converters but in two stages (AC/DC/AC) without using energy storage in the intermediary circuit. They also offer the possibility to reduce the number of switches compared to the standard single-stage matrix converter. This paper presents a new method to control a two-stage DPC providing sine-wave in sine...

  8. Nebivolol reduces central blood pressure in stage I hypertensive patients: experimental single cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Oliveira Vaz-de-Melo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Assessment of central blood pressure (BP has grown substantially over recent years because evidence has shown that central BP is more relevant to cardiovascular outcomes than peripheral BP. Thus, different classes of antihypertensive drugs have different effects on central BP despite similar reductions in brachial BP. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nebivolol, a β-blocker with vasodilator properties, on the biochemical and hemodynamic parameters of hypertensive patients.DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental single cohort study conducted in the outpatient clinic of a university hospital.METHODS: Twenty-six patients were recruited. All of them underwent biochemical and hemodynamic evaluation (BP, heart rate (HR, central BP and augmentation index before and after 3 months of using nebivolol.RESULTS: 88.5% of the patients were male; their mean age was 49.7 ± 9.3 years and most of them were overweight (29.6 ± 3.1 kg/m2 with large abdominal waist (102.1 ± 7.2 cm. There were significant decreases in peripheral systolic BP (P = 0.0020, diastolic BP (P = 0.0049, HR (P < 0.0001 and central BP (129.9 ± 12.3 versus 122.3 ± 10.3 mmHg; P = 0.0083 after treatment, in comparison with the baseline values. There was no statistical difference in the augmentation index or in the biochemical parameters, from before to after the treatment.CONCLUSIONS: Nebivolol use seems to be associated with significant reduction of central BP in stage I hypertensive patients, in addition to reductions in brachial systolic and diastolic BP.

  9. An operation protocol for facilitating start-up of single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removing reactors based on process stoichiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutlu, A. Gizem; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    Start-up and operation of single-stage nitritation/anammox reactor employing complete autotrophic nitrogen can be difficult. Keeping the performance criteria and monitoring the microbial community composition may not be easy or fast enough to take action on time. In this study, a control strategy...

  10. Low voltage ride-through capability control for single-stage inverter-based grid-connected photovoltaic power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Shetwi, Ali Q.; Sujod, Muhamad Zahim; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    The low voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability is one of the challenges faced by the integration of large-scale photovoltaic (PV) power stations into electrical grid which has not been fully investigated. Therefore, this paper presents a comprehensive control strategy of single-stage PV power pla...

  11. Optimization of atrazine and imidacloprid removal from water using biochars: Designing single or multi-staged batch adsorption systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhishek; Singh, Neera

    2017-05-01

    Contamination of surface and ground water by pesticides from agricultural runoff and industrial discharge is one of the main causes of aqueous contaminations world over. Biochar, agricultural waste derived highly aromatic substance produced after pyrolysis and carbonification of biomass have exhibited good adsorption capacity for pesticides and can be used to develop on-site bio-purification systems for organic contaminant removal from polluted waters. However, high amounts of adsorbent required in single stage-batch sorption plant increases the cost of water treatment; therefore, multistage plant systems were investigated. Normal (RSBC) and phosphoric acid treated (T-RSBC) rice straw biochars were evaluated for atrazine and imidacloprid sorption and data fitted to the Freundlich isotherm. The adsorption data was modelled to develop single or multi-staged adsorber plants for pesticide removal from water. Both biochars showed significantly high adsorption capacity for imidacloprid and atrazine. Modelling studies using the Freundlich adsorption parameters suggested that the amounts (kg/1000L) of RSBC and T-RSBC for 95% of atrazine removal (10mg/L) in single-, two- and three-staged adsorber plant models were 8.84, 2.44, 1.61kg and 4.47, 1.42, 0.98kg, respectively. Corresponding amounts for 95% imidacloprid removal (10mg/L) were 3.97, 1.22, 0.84kg and 3.98, 1.38, 0.96kg, respectively. Thus, the two-staged model suggested 65-72% reduction in amount of adsorbent required over the single stage model, while the three-staged model suggested 30-34% adsorbent saving over the two-staged plant model. Single and two-staged adsorber plant model findings were validated for atrazine removal using T-RSBC. Results suggested that amounts calculated using modelling studies were fairly accurate. Biochars, as low cost adsorbents for atrazine and imidacloprid removal from contaminated water, can be used to develop low cost adsorber plants based on multiple batch sorption systems for the

  12. Single stage incubators and Hypercapnia during incubation affect the vascularization of the chorioallantoic membrane in broiler embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, J I M; Bortoluzzi, C; Schmidt, J M; Scapini, L B; Santos, T C; Murakami, A E

    2017-01-01

    Incubation management can have direct effects on neonate health and consequently affect post-hatching development. The effects of incubation in multiple and single stage incubators with different concentrations of CO 2 were evaluated in terms of the vessel density in the chorioallantoic membrane, hatching, heart morphology, and body development of the neonate up to the tenth day. A total of 2,520 fertile eggs were used and distributed in a completely randomized design with 4 levels of CO 2 in 4 single-stage incubators (4,000; 6,000; 8,000; and 10,000 ppm) and a control treatment based on multiple-stage incubation, totaling 5 treatments. The levels of CO 2 were used during the first 10 d of the incubation period, and after this period, all eggs were submitted to the same level of CO 2 (4,000 ppm). Eggs that were incubated in multiple-stage incubators presented a lower percentage of vessels in the chorioallantoic membrane, lower yolk absorption by the embryo, wall depth of the right ventricle, and greater humidity losses in the eggs when compared to eggs in the single-stage incubators. The eggs submitted to hypercapnia, between 5,000 and 6,000 ppm of CO 2 , had a higher percentage of vessels in the chorioallantoic membrane; the embryos originating from these eggs had higher weight, with higher relative weight of the liver. However, the same levels reduced the yolk absorption. Single-stage incubation with moderate levels of hypercapnia is an efficient tool to be adopted by the hatcheries when attempting to improve chick quality. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Plantar fasciitis and the calcaneal spur: Fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, K S; Milner, S A

    2012-03-01

    Plantar fasciitis is a common diagnosis in patients presenting with heel pain. The presence of co-existing calcaneal spurs has often been reported but confusion exists as to whether it is a casual or significant association. The lateral heel radiographs of nineteen patients with a diagnosis of plantar fasciitis and nineteen comparison subjects with a lateral ankle ligament sprain matched for age and sex, were reviewed independently by two observers. Objective measurements of calcaneal spur length and a subjective grading of spur size were recorded. There was a significantly higher prevalence of calcaneal spurs in the cases than the comparison group (89% versus 32%; McNemar chi-square=9.09, df=2, p=0.00257). There was good inter- and intra-observer agreement. The current study has demonstrated a significant association between plantar fasciitis and calcaneal spur formation. Further research is warranted to assess whether the association is causal. Copyright © 2011 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preoperative Single Fraction Partial Breast Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palta, Manisha; Yoo, Sua; Adamson, Justus D.; Prosnitz, Leonard R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Horton, Janet K., E-mail: janet.horton@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Several recent series evaluating external beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (PBI) have reported adverse cosmetic outcomes, possibly related to large volumes of normal tissue receiving near-prescription doses. We hypothesized that delivery of external beam PBI in a single fraction to the preoperative tumor volume would be feasible and result in a decreased dose to the uninvolved breast compared with institutional postoperative PBI historical controls. Methods and Materials: A total of 17 patients with unifocal Stage T1 breast cancer were identified. Contrast-enhanced subtraction magnetic resonance images were loaded into an Eclipse treatment planning system and used to define the target volumes. A 'virtual plan' was created using four photon beams in a noncoplanar beam arrangement and optimized to deliver 15 Gy to the planning target volume. Results: The median breast volume was 1,713 cm{sup 3} (range: 1,014-2,140), and the median clinical target volume was 44 cm{sup 3} (range: 26-73). In all cases, 100% of the prescription dose covered 95% of the clinical target volume. The median conformity index was 0.86 (range: 0.70-1.12). The median percentage of the ipsilateral breast volume receiving 100% and 50% of the prescribed dose was 3.8% (range: 2.2-6.9) and 13.3% (range: 7.5-20.8) compared with 18% (range: 3-42) and 53% (range: 24-65) in the institutional historical controls treated with postoperative external beam PBI (p = .002). The median maximum skin dose was 9 Gy. The median dose to 1 and 10 cm{sup 3} of skin was 6.7 and 4.9 Gy. The doses to the heart and ipsilateral lung were negligible. Conclusion: Preoperative PBI resulted in a substantial reduction in ipsilateral breast tissue dose compared with postoperative PBI. The skin dose appeared reasonable, given the small volumes. A prospective Phase I trial evaluating this technique is ongoing.

  15. Preoperative Single Fraction Partial Breast Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palta, Manisha; Yoo, Sua; Adamson, Justus D.; Prosnitz, Leonard R.; Horton, Janet K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Several recent series evaluating external beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (PBI) have reported adverse cosmetic outcomes, possibly related to large volumes of normal tissue receiving near-prescription doses. We hypothesized that delivery of external beam PBI in a single fraction to the preoperative tumor volume would be feasible and result in a decreased dose to the uninvolved breast compared with institutional postoperative PBI historical controls. Methods and Materials: A total of 17 patients with unifocal Stage T1 breast cancer were identified. Contrast-enhanced subtraction magnetic resonance images were loaded into an Eclipse treatment planning system and used to define the target volumes. A “virtual plan” was created using four photon beams in a noncoplanar beam arrangement and optimized to deliver 15 Gy to the planning target volume. Results: The median breast volume was 1,713 cm 3 (range: 1,014–2,140), and the median clinical target volume was 44 cm 3 (range: 26–73). In all cases, 100% of the prescription dose covered 95% of the clinical target volume. The median conformity index was 0.86 (range: 0.70–1.12). The median percentage of the ipsilateral breast volume receiving 100% and 50% of the prescribed dose was 3.8% (range: 2.2–6.9) and 13.3% (range: 7.5–20.8) compared with 18% (range: 3–42) and 53% (range: 24–65) in the institutional historical controls treated with postoperative external beam PBI (p = .002). The median maximum skin dose was 9 Gy. The median dose to 1 and 10 cm 3 of skin was 6.7 and 4.9 Gy. The doses to the heart and ipsilateral lung were negligible. Conclusion: Preoperative PBI resulted in a substantial reduction in ipsilateral breast tissue dose compared with postoperative PBI. The skin dose appeared reasonable, given the small volumes. A prospective Phase I trial evaluating this technique is ongoing.

  16. Multi Stage Strategies for Single Point Incremental Forming of a Cup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Bay, Niels; Endelt, Benny

    2008-01-01

    A five stage forming strategy for forming of a circular cylindrical cup with a height/radius ratio of one is presented. Geometrical relations are discussed and theoretical strains are calculated. The influence of forming direction (upwards or downwards) is investigated for the second stage...... comparing explicit FE analysis with experiments. Good agreement is found between calculated and measured thickness distribution, overall geometry and strains. Using the proposed multi stage strategy it is shown possible to produce a cup with a height close to the radius and side parallel to the symmetry...

  17. Large Conization and Laparoendoscopic Single-Port Pelvic Lymphadenectomy in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer for Fertility Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat Dursun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility preservation in early-stage cervical cancer is a hot topic in gynecologic oncology. Although radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT is suggested as a fertility preserving approach, there are some serious concerns like cervical stenosis, second trimester loss, preterm delivery in survivors, and lack of residual tumor in the majority of the surgical specimens. Therefore, less radical surgical operations have been proposed in early-stage cervical carcinomas. On the other hand, single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS is an evolving endoscopic approach for minimal access surgery. In this report, we present a case with early-stage cervical cancer who wishes to preserve fertility. We successfully performed single-port pelvic lymphadenectomy and large conization to preserve fertility potential of the patient. We think that combination of less radical approach like conization and single-port pelvic lymphadenectomy might be less minimally invasive and is still an effective surgical approach in well-selected cases with cervical carcinomas. Incorporation of single-port laparoscopy into the minimally invasive fertility sparing management of the cervical cancer will improve patients outcome with less complications and better cosmesis. Further studies are needed to reach a clear conclusion.

  18. Control of a Two-Stage Direct Power Converter with a Single Voltage Sensor Mounted in the Intermediary Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Wheeler, P.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    Controlling a converter requires not only a powerful processors but also accurate voltage and current sensors and fast and precise analogue-digital converters, which increase the cost per kW of the assembly, especially in the low power range. A matrix converter requires less transducers than a back......-wave out operation while using a single voltage sensor mounted in the intermediary link between the rectification and the inversion stages and the information of the sign of the input line-to-line voltages, which is needed anyway for the safe-commutation of the rectification stage....

  19. Single Port Management: Critical Link in the Reception, Staging, Onward Movement, and Integration Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bush, Ralph

    1998-01-01

    .... The doctrine on single port management is still evolving and not entirely written. With clearly defined responsibilities and accepted doctrine, our ability to support geographic commanders greatly improves...

  20. Single vacancy defects diffusion at the initial stage of graphene growth: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, H.B.; Jia, Y.; Sun, Q.; Guo, Z.X.

    2015-01-01

    The migration of a single vacancy (SV) defect in graphene fragment (GF) has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT). The results revealed that a single vacancy defect is easy to migrate to the GF edge. The interaction between an SV and a five-numbered ring at the edge results in two neighboring five-membered rings finally, while the interaction between an SV and a seven-membered ring defect at the edge of the GF leads to a five-numbered ring and a neighbor seven-numbered ring. Our findings shed light upon understanding of the growth process of the graphene grain boundary. - Highlights: • The migration of single vacancy in graphene fragment. • The interaction between single vacancy and five- or seven-membered ring. • The possible reason why it is difficult to find single vacancy inside graphene

  1. Effects of Stator Shroud Injection on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Single-Stage Transonic Axial Compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Cong-Truong; Ma, Sang-Bum; Kim, Kwang Yong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, stator shroud injection in a single-stage transonic axial compressor is proposed. A parametric study of the effect of stator shroud injection on aerodynamic performances was conducted using the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The curvature, length, width, and circumferential angle of the stator shroud injector and the air injection mass flow rate were selected as the test parameters. The results of the parametric study show that the aerodynamic performances of the single-stage transonic axial compressor were improved by stator shroud injection. The aerodynamic performances were the most sensitive to the injection mass flow rate. Further, the total pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency were the maximum when the ratio of circumferential angle was 10%.

  2. Effects of Stator Shroud Injection on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Single-Stage Transonic Axial Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, Cong-Truong; Ma, Sang-Bum; Kim, Kwang Yong [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    In this study, stator shroud injection in a single-stage transonic axial compressor is proposed. A parametric study of the effect of stator shroud injection on aerodynamic performances was conducted using the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The curvature, length, width, and circumferential angle of the stator shroud injector and the air injection mass flow rate were selected as the test parameters. The results of the parametric study show that the aerodynamic performances of the single-stage transonic axial compressor were improved by stator shroud injection. The aerodynamic performances were the most sensitive to the injection mass flow rate. Further, the total pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency were the maximum when the ratio of circumferential angle was 10%.

  3. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling: Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 95. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, M.; Conrad, R.

    1997-09-01

    ESH-19 personnel collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during FY 95 to characterize possible radionuclide movement out of Area G through surface water and entrained sediment runoff. Soil samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241, and cesium-137. The single-stage water samples were analyzed for tritium and plutonium isotopes. All radiochemical data was compared with analogous samples collected during FY 93 and 94 and reported in LA-12986 and LA-13165-PR. Six surface soils were also submitted for metal analyses. These data were included with similar data generated for soil samples collected during FY 94 and compared with metals in background samples collected at the Area G expansion area.

  4. Modeling of DNA single stage splicing language via Yusof-Goode approach: One string with two rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wen Li; Yusof, Yuhani; Mudaber, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-02-01

    Splicing system plays a pivotal role in attempts to recombine sets of double-stranded DNA molecules when acted by restriction enzymes and ligase. Traditional method of finding the result of DNA recombination through experiment is both time and money consuming. Hence, finding the number of patterns of DNA single stage splicing language through formalism of splicing system is a way to optimize the searching process. From the biological perspective, it predicts the number of types of molecules that will exist in the system under existence of restriction enzymes and ligase. In this paper, some theorems, corollaries and examples that lead to the predictions of single stage splicing languages involving one pattern string and two rules are presented via Yusof-Goode approach.

  5. Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Stages II and III Resected Thymoma: A Single-institutional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinchun; Liu, Qin; Moseley, Jessica N; Baik, Christina S; Chow, Laura Q M; Goulart, Bernardo H M; Zlotnick, David; Papanicolau-Sengos, Antoni; Gallaher, Ian; Knopp, Joy M; Zeng, Jing; Patel, Shilpen

    2016-06-01

    The role of adjuvant radiation for Masaoka stages II and III thymoma remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefit of radiation therapy for resected stages II and III thymoma patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 175 thymoma patients treated from July 1996 to January 2013 at University of Washington Medical Center; 88 patients with adequate follow-up and who met histologic criteria were included. We evaluated progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), and compared these outcomes in patients treated by surgery (S) alone versus surgery plus radiotherapy (S+RT). Cox regression models and log-rank tests were used to compare PFS and OS for S versus S+RT, and they were further assessed by margin-positive versus margin-negative subgroups using Kaplan-Meier curves. Among the 88 thymoma patients, 22 were stage II and 18 were stage III. For all stages II and III patients, adjuvant radiation was not identified as a significant predictor for PFS (P=0.95) or OS (P=0.63). A positive surgical margin predicted for a worse OS (hazard ratio=7.1; P=0.004). Further investigation revealed for resection margin-positive patients; S+RT had higher OS than S alone (P=0.006). For stages II and III thymoma, postoperative adjuvant radiation was not associated with statistically significant differences in PFS or OS in this study. Our results indicated a potential OS benefit of adjuvant RT in patients with positive resection margins, and therefore may be considered in this patient population.

  6. Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Stages II and III Resected Thymoma: a Single Institution Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinchun; Liu, Qin; Moseley, Jessica N.; Baik, Christina S.; Chow, Laura Q. M.; Goulart, Bernardo H. M.; Zlotnick, David; Papanicolau-Sengos, Antoni; Gallaher, Ian; Knopp, Joy M.; Zeng, Jing; Patel, Shilpen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Role of adjuvant radiation for Masaoka stage II and III thymoma remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefits of radiation therapy for resected stages II and III thymoma. Methods and Materials We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 175 thymoma patients treated from July 1996 to January 2013 at University of Washington Medical Center; 88 patients with adequate follow-up and who met histologic criteria were included. We evaluated progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), and compared these outcomes in patients treated by surgery (S) alone versus surgery plus radiotherapy (S + RT). Cox regression models and log-rank tests were used to compare PFS and OS for S versus S + RT, and they were further assessed by margin-positive versus margin-negative subgroups using Kaplan-Meier curves. Results Among the 88 thymoma patients, 22 were stage II and 18 were stage III. For all stages II and III patients, adjuvant radiation was not identified as a significant predictor for PFS (P = 0.95) or OS (P = 0.63). A positive surgical margin predicted for a worse OS (hazard ratio = 7.1; P = 0.004). Further investigation revealed for resection margin-positive patients; S + RT had higher OS than S alone (P = 0.006). Conclusions For stages II and III thymoma, postoperative adjuvant radiation was not associated with statistically significant differences in PFS or OS in this study. Our results indicated a potential OS benefit of adjuvant RT in patients with positive resection margins, and therefore may be considered in this patient population. PMID:24517958

  7. Performance analysis of a single stage four bed metal hydride cooling system, part A: Influence of mass recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Kevin; Prakash Maiya, M.; Srinivasa Murthy, S. [Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, 600036, Chennai (India)

    2003-01-01

    The concept of mass recovery in metal hydride systems is studied with a single stage multi-bed cooling system as example. Mass recovery results in variation of bed temperatures due to removal or addition of heat of desorption or absorption respectively. Coefficient of performance and cold output increase while required heat input decreases for the mass recovery cycle. Thus mass recovery between hydride reactors is found to improve system performance compared to that of a basic system. (authors)

  8. Single-stage revision from gastric band to gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy: 6- and 12-month outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Louise; Durkan, Brandice; Barrett, Allison; Kraft, Cary; Vu, Kim; Phillips, Edward; Cunneen, Scott; Burch, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is increasingly requiring revisional surgery for complications and failures. Removal of the band and conversion to either laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass (LRYGB) or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is feasible as a single-stage procedure. The objective of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of single-stage revision from LAGB to either LRYGB or LSG at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Retrospective analysis was performed on patients undergoing single-stage revision between 2009 and 2014 at a single academic medical center. Patients were reassessed for weight loss and complications at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Thirty-two patients underwent single-stage revision to LRYGB, and 72 to LSG. Preoperative BMIs were similar between the two groups (p = 0.27). Median length of stay for LRYGB was 3 days versus 2 for LSG (p = 0.14). Four patients in the LRYGB group required reoperation within 30 days, and two patients in the LSG group required reoperation within 30 days (p = 0.15). There was no difference in ER visits (p = 0.24) or readmission rates (p = 0.80) within 30 days of operation. Six delayed complications were seen in the LSG group with three requiring intervention. At 6 months postoperatively, percent excess weight loss (%EWL) was 50.20 for LRYGB and 30.64 for LSG (p = 0.056). At 12 months, %EWL was 51.19 for LRYGB and 34.89 for LSG (p = 0.31). There was no difference in diabetes or hypertension medication reduction at 12 months between LRYGB and LSG (p > 0.07). Single-stage revision from LAGB to LRYGB or LSG is technically feasible, but not without complications. The complications in the bypass group were more severe. There was no difference in readmission or reoperation rates, weight loss or comorbidity reduction. Revision to LRYGB trended toward higher rate and greater severity of complications with equivalent weight loss and comorbidity reduction.

  9. Numerical simulations of single and multi-staged injection of H2 in a supersonic scramjet combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abu-Farah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations of a single staged injection of H2 through a central wedge shaped strut and a multi-staged injection through wall injectors are carried out by using Ansys CFX-12 code. Unstructured tetrahedral grids for narrow channel and quarter geometries of the combustor are generated by using ICEM CFD. Steady three-dimensional (3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-stokes (RANS simulations are carried out in the case of no H2 injection and compared with the simulations of single staged pilot and/or main H2 injections and multistage injection. Shear stress transport (SST based on k-ω turbulent model is adopted. Flow field visualization (complex shock waves interactions and static pressure distribution along the wall of the combustor are predicted and compared with the experimental schlieren images and measured wall static pressures for validation. A good agreement is found between the CFD predicted results and the measured data. The narrow and quarter geometries of the combustor give similar results with very small differences. Multi-staged injections of H2 enhance the turbulent H2/air mixing by forming vortices and additional shock waves (bow shocks.

  10. Theoretical comparison of single-stage and advanced absorption heat transformers used to increase solar pond's temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, W; Best, Roberto [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Mathematical models of single-stage and advanced absorption heat transformers operating with the water/Carrol{sup T}M mixture were developed to simulate the performance of these systems coupled to a solar pond in order to increase the temperature of the useful heat produced by solar ponds. The results showed that the single-stage and the double absorption heat transformer are the most promising configuration to be coupled to solar ponds. With single-stage heat transformers it is possible to increase solar pond's temperature until 50 Celsius degrees with coefficients of performance of about 0.48 and with double absorption heat transformers until 100 Celsius degrees with coefficients of performance of 0.33. [Spanish] Se desarrollaron modelos matematicos de una sola etapa y transformadores avanzados de absorcion de calor operando con la mezcla agua/Carrol{sup T}M para simular el rendimiento de estos sistemas acoplados a un estanque solar con el objeto de aumentar la temperatura del calor util producido por los estanques solares. Los resultados mostraron que la etapa sencilla y el transformador de calor de absorcion doble son la configuracion mas prometedora para ser acoplado a estanques solares. Con los transformadores de calor de una sola etapa es posible aumentar la temperatura del estanque solar hasta 50 grados Celsius con coeficientes de rendimiento de alrededor de 0.48 y con transformadores de calor de doble absorcion hasta 100 grados Celsius con coeficientes de rendimiento de 0.33.

  11. How can recovery be enhanced after single-stage laparoscopic management of CBD stones? Endoscopic treatment versus laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis-Roux, Emilie; Pellissier, Laurent; Browet, Francois; Berthou, Jean Charles; Hakim, Sami; Brazier, Franck; Cosse, Cyril; Delcenserie, Richard; Regimbeau, Jean Marc

    2017-07-01

    Single-stage management of CBD stones comprises simultaneous common bile duct (CBD) clearance and cholecystectomy. The CBD can be cleared by using endoscopic treatment (ET) or laparoscopic surgery (LS) alone. To determine the most rapid recovery after the single-stage laparoscopic management of CBD stones. Patients with CBD stones treated at either of two centers (one performing ET only and one performing LS only for single-stage treatment) were included. The primary endpoint was "the textbook outcome". The feasibility rate was 74% for ET and 100% for LS (p≤0.001). The proportion of cases with the textbook outcome was higher in the ET group than in the LS-only group (73% vs. 10%; pCBD clearance rate was similar in the ET and LS-only groups (100% vs. 96.6%, respectively; p=0.17). The overall morbidity rate was lower in the ET group than in the LS-only group (23% vs. 29%, p=0.05). Both ET and LS are feasible, safe and effective for clearance of the CBD. ET was better than LS in terms of a less frequent requirement for drainage and a shorter length of hospital stay. LS was associated with a shorter operating time. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A 0.18 {mu}m CMOS single-inductor single-stage quadrature frontend for GNSS receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Bing; Zhuang Yiqi; Han Yeqi; Xing Xiaoling; Li Zhenrong; Long Qiang, E-mail: waxmax@126.com [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2011-09-15

    This paper presents an improved merged architecture for a low-IF GNSS receiver frontend, where the bias current and functions are reused in a stacked quadrature LNA-mixer-VCO. Only a single spiral inductor is implemented for the LC resonator and an extra 1/2 frequency divider is added as the quadrature LO signal generator. The details of the design are presented. The gain plan and noise figure are discussed. The phase noise, quadrature accuracy and power consumption are improved. The test chip is fabricated though a 0.18 {mu}m RF CMOS process. The measured noise figure is 5.4 dB on average, with a gain of 43 dB and a IIP3 of -39 dBm. The measured phase noise is better than -105 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset. The total power consumption is 19.8 mW with a 1.8 V supply. The experimental results satisfy the requirements for GNSS applications. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  13. Changes in prevalence of calcaneal spurs in men & women: a random population from a trauma clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Hechmi; Davies, Ryan; Mazor, Marija; Coursier, Raphael; Best, Thomas M; Jennane, Rachid; Lespessailles, Eric

    2014-03-15

    This study reports the changing prevalence of ankle (Achilles and plantar) spurs with age, in order to comment on their significance to rheumatologists. 1080 lateral ankle radiographs from each of 9 (50 men and 50 women) age cohorts from 2 to 96 years old of patients attending a trauma clinic were examined and spurs classified as small or large. The prevalence of both Achilles and plantar spurs in relation to the age categories and sex was variable. Overall, there was 38% of the population who had a spur (Achilles or plantar) and only third (11%) with spurs at both sites (Achilles and plantar). Large spurs were more prevalent in older individuals (40 to 79 years). There were no large plantar spurs in individuals spurs (Achilles and plantar) was significantly higher for woman than men in individuals spurs for women spurs are highly prevalent in older people and the radiographic appearance of spurs differs between men and women. In individuals spur (Achilles and plantar) formation is more common in women than in men. Additionally, there was a notable moderate positive correlation between Achilles and plantar spurs for women <30 years of age.

  14. Single Stage Reconstruction of Type IIA Defect of the Ear Lobule ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    technique using a doubled‑over skin flap allows a one stage reconstruction of the ear lobule. It is technically simple and may be performed under local anesthesia. The aesthetic results are generally well acceptable and there is a good color match between the neolobule and the surrounding skin. Key words: Ear lobule, ...

  15. Strain Paths and Fractures in Rotational Symmetric Multi Stage Single Point Incremental Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Silva, M.B.; Martins, P.A.F.

    2008-01-01

    A multi stage strategy, which allows forming of SPIF parts with vertical walls, is investigated with emphasis on strain paths and fracture strains. Whereas downwards movement of the tool pin results in deformation close to plane strain upwards moving tool results in biaxial strains. A good correl...

  16. California condors spotted nesting in Big Spur | San Hose Mercury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    California condors spotted nesting in Big Spur. Associated Press San Hose Mercury News. Abstract. No Abstract. Vulture News Vol. 55, 2006: 59. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  17. Endoscopic treatment of calcaneal spur syndrome: A comprehensive technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, C E; Leon, H O; Guthrie, T B

    2001-05-01

    We describe a comprehensive approach to the endoscopic treatment of calcaneal spur syndrome developed by the Arthroscopic Group of the Orthopedic Service of Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras in Havana, Cuba. The surgical technique involves treatment of the heel spur and plantar fasciitis commonly found in calcaneal spur syndrome, but it also addresses adjacent calcaneal periostitis and allows decompression of the nerve to the abductor digiti quinti. Medial endoscopy and lateral instrumentation are used in a sequential approach with exposure and debridement of the posterior roof of the calcaneal arch, followed by removal of the calcaneal spur, lateral to medial release of the medial 75% of the plantar fascia, and if necessary, debridement of the calcaneal tuberosity periosteum. This technique was used in a prospective case series from June 1997 to May 1998 to treat a select group of 38 feet in 30 patients who reported unacceptable levels of pain despite 5 months of conservative treatment, which included an aggressive 8-week physical therapy program prescribed by the treating physician. Good to excellent results were obtained at 3 months postoperatively in all patients with regard to pain relief and return to normal activity, although 5 patients required a short course of physical therapy to resolve symptoms brought on by sports, trauma, or impact loading before 1-year follow-up, at which time all patients reported good to excellent results. Complications included 3 superficial wound infections cured by oral antibiotics and 2 transient lateral paresthesias that resolved with rest and nonsteroidal inflammatory medications. The described technique may provide a useful method for treating refractory heel spur syndrome and warrants further study.

  18. Design model for bending vibrations of single-stage tunnel fan rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasyuk, AM; Kosykh, PV

    2018-03-01

    Using of one-mass model of tunnel fan rotor is justified for estimation calculation of the natural bending vibrations frequency during the design stage. It’s shown that the evaluative computation of the main axial tunnel fan at the early design stage yields the acceptable accuracy. It is shown that after completion of the design, the mass of the stepped-type shaft differs from the mass of the calculated uniform-diameter shaft no more than by 40%. Inclusion of this additional mass in the estimation calculation makes it possible to improve the calculation accuracy. The region of the dimensionless rotor design parameters at which the relative difference of frequency in the evaluative and verification calculations is not higher than 5 % is determined.

  19. Weibull aging models for the single protective channel unavailability analysis by the device of stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, M.E.C.; Noriega, H.C.; Melo, P.F.F.

    1997-01-01

    Among the features to take into account in the unavailability analysis of protective channels, there is one that plays a dominant role - that of considering the equipment aging. In this sense, the exponential failure model is not adequate, since some transition rates are no more constant. As a consequence, Markovian models cannot be used anymore. As an alternative, one may use the device of stages that allows for transforming a Non Markovian model into an equivalent Markovian one by insertion of a fictitious states set, called stages. For a given time-dependent transition rate, its failure density is analysed as to the best combination of exponential distributions and then the moments of the original distribution and those of the combination are matched to estimate the necessary parameters. In this paper, the aging of the protective channel is supposed to follow Weibull distributions. Typical means and variances for the times to failure are considered and combinations of stages are checked. Initial conditions features are discussed in connection with states that are fictitious and to check the validity of the developed models. Alternative solutions by the discretization of the failure rates are generated. The results obtained agree quite well. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs

  20. Dynamic variability of the heading-flowering stages of single rice in China based on field observations and NDVI estimations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Song, Xiao; Chen, Yi; Wang, Pin; Wei, Xing; Tao, Fulu

    2015-05-01

    Although many studies have indicated the consistent impact of warming on the natural ecosystem (e.g., an early flowering and prolonged growing period), our knowledge of the impacts on agricultural systems is still poorly understood. In this study, spatiotemporal variability of the heading-flowering stages of single rice was detected and compared at three different scales using field-based methods (FBMs) and satellite-based methods (SBMs). The heading-flowering stages from 2000 to 2009 with a spatial resolution of 1 km were extracted from the SPOT/VGT NDVI time series data using the Savizky-Golay filtering method in the areas in China dominated by single rice of Northeast China (NE), the middle-lower Yangtze River Valley (YZ), the Sichuan Basin (SC), and the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (YG). We found that approximately 52.6 and 76.3 % of the estimated heading-flowering stages by a SBM were within ±5 and ±10 days estimation error (a root mean square error (RMSE) of 8.76 days) when compared with those determined by a FBM. Both the FBM data and the SBM data had indicated a similar spatial pattern, with the earliest annual average heading-flowering stages in SC, followed by YG, NE, and YZ, which were inconsistent with the patterns reported in natural ecosystems. Moreover, diverse temporal trends were also detected in the four regions due to different climate conditions and agronomic factors such as cultivar shifts. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the FBM and the SBM in both the regional average value of the phenological stages and the trends, implying the consistency and rationality of the SBM at three scales.

  1. SPURS: Salinity Processes in the Upper-Ocean Regional Study: THE NORTH ATLANTIC EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Eric; Bryan, Frank; Schmitt, Ray

    2015-01-01

    In this special issue of Oceanography, we explore the results of SPURS-1, the first part of the ocean process study Salinity Processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS). The experiment was conducted between August 2012 and October 2013 in the subtropical North Atlantic and was the first of two experiments (SPURS come in pairs!). SPURS-2 is planned for 20162017 in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean.

  2. Plantar calcaneal spurs in older people: longitudinal traction or vertical compression?

    OpenAIRE

    Landorf Karl B; Zammit Gerard V; Menz Hylton B; Munteanu Shannon E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Plantar calcaneal spurs are common, however their pathophysiology is poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of plantar calcaneal spurs in a large sample of older people. Methods Weightbearing lateral foot radiographs of 216 people (140 women and 76 men) aged 62 to 94 years (mean age 75.9, SD 6.6) were examined for plantar calcaneal and Achilles tendon spurs. Associations between the presence of spurs and sex, body mass index, radiogra...

  3. Near-net shape manufacturing of miniature spur gears by wire spark erosion machining

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    This work describes an experimental investigation with the aim to evaluate and establish wire spark erosion machining (WSEM) as a viable alternative for high quality miniature gear manufacturing. External spur type miniature brass (ASTM 858) gears with 12 teeth, 9.8 mm outside diameter and 5 mm face width were manufactured by WSEM. The research work was accomplished in four distinct experimental stages viz., preliminary, pilot, main and confirmation. The aim, scope and findings of each stage are progressively presented and discussed. In essence, the investigation found that it was possible to manufacture miniature gears to high quality by using WSEM. Gears up to DIN 5 quality with a good surface finish (1.2 µm average roughness) and satisfactory surface integrity were achieved. The results suggest that WSEM should be considered a viable alternative to conventional miniature gear manufacturing techniques and that in some instances it may even be superior. This work will prove useful to researchers and profess...

  4. Approaches to building single-stage AC/AC conversion switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible topologies and promising approaches towards direct single-phase AC-AC conversion of the mains voltage for audio applications. When compared to standard Class-D switching audio power amplifiers with a separate power supply, it is expected that direct conversion...

  5. Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy effectively reduces calcaneal spur length and spur-related pain in overweight and obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayta, Emrullah; Salk, Ismail; Gumus, Cesur; Tuncay, Mehmet Siddik; Cetin, Ali

    2016-05-20

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of extra corporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) on the calcaneal spur length and pain severity in overweight and obese patients with symptomatic calcaneal spur. In eighty patients with symptomatic calcaneal spur, ESWT was administered on days 0 and 7, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores and calcaneal spur lengths (CSLs) before and 3 months later after treatment were recorded. A lateral heel radiograph was used for computer-aided linear measurements of CSL. Of 80 patients, 59 (73.7%) were female and 21 were male (26.3%); age was 45.9 ± 8.3 years; BMI was 31.6 ± 4.4 kg/m2; and symptom duration was 2.3 ± 2.4 years. The CSL and VAS score after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment (CSL before vs. after: 5.7 ± 1.0 vs. 4.4 ± 0.9, p = 0.001; VAS score before vs. after: 8.3 ± 1.4 vs. 4.6 ± 2.2; p = 0.03). The CSLs before and after treatment had a significant strong correlation (r = 0.832, p = 0.001). The VAS scores before and after treatment presented a significant mild correlation (r = 0.242, p = 0.03). In overweight and obese patients with symptomatic calcaneal spur, ESWT reduces the CSL and pain severity during a follow-up of three-month duration.

  6. Model of spur processes in aqueous radiation chemistry including spur overlap and a novel initial hydrated electron distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from computer calculations based upon an improved diffusion-kinetic model of the spur which includes a novel initial distribution for the hydrated electron and an approximate mathematical treatment of the overlap of spurs in three dimensions. Experimental data for the decay of the hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical before one in electron-pulse-irradated, solute-free and air-free water are fit wihtin experimental uncertainty by adjustment of the initial spatial distributions of spur intermediates and the average energy deposited in the spur. Using the same values of these parameters, the hydrated electron decay is computed for times from 1 ps 10 μs after the radiatio pulse. The results of such calcuations for various conditions of pulse dose and concentrations of scavengers of individual primary chemical species in the spur are compared with corresponding experimental data obtained predominantly from water and aqueous solutions irradiated with 10 to 15 MeV electron pulses. Very good agreement between calculated and experimental hydrated electron decay in pure water is observed for the entire time range studied when a pulse dose of approximately 7900 rads is modeled, but the calcuated and experimental curves are observed to deviate for times greater than 10 ns nanoseconds when low pulse doses and low scavenger concentrations are considered. It is shown that this deviation is experimental and calculated hydrated electron decay cannot be explained by assuming the presence of a hydrated electron scavenging impurity nor by employing a distribution of nearest neighbor interspur distances to refine the overlap approximation

  7. A single cidofovir treatment rescues animals at progressive stages of lethal orthopoxvirus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israely Tomer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an event of a smallpox outbreak in humans, the window for efficacious treatment by vaccination with vaccinia viruses (VACV is believed to be limited to the first few days post-exposure (p.e.. We recently demonstrated in a mouse model for human smallpox, that active immunization 2–3 days p.e. with either VACV-Lister or modified VACV Ankara (MVA vaccines, can rescue animals from lethal challenge of ectromelia virus (ECTV, the causative agent of mousepox. The present study was carried out in order to determine whether a single dose of the anti-viral cidofovir (CDV, administered at different times and doses p.e. either alone or in conjunction with active vaccination, can rescue ECTV infected mice. Methods Animals were infected intranasally with ECTV, treated on different days with various single CDV doses and monitored for morbidity, mortality and humoral response. In addition, in order to determine the influence of CDV on the immune response following vaccination, both the "clinical take”, IFN-gamma and IgG Ab levels in the serum were evaluated as well as the ability of the mice to withstand a lethal challenge of ECTV. Finally the efficacy of a combined treatment regime of CDV and vaccination p.e. was determined. Results A single p.e. CDV treatment is sufficient for protection depending on the initiation time and dose (2.5 – 100 mg/kg of treatment. Solid protection was achieved by a low dose (5 mg/kg CDV treatment even if given at day 6 p.e., approximately 4 days before death of the control infected untreated mice (mean time to death (MTTD 10.2. At the same time point complete protection was achieved by single treatment with higher doses of CDV (25 or 100 mg/kg. Irrespective of treatment dose, all surviving animals developed a protective immune response even when the CDV treatment was initiated one day p.e.. After seven days post treatment with the highest dose (100 mg/kg, virus was still detected in some

  8. Robotic-assisted transperitoneal aortic lymphadenectomy as part of staging procedure for gynaecological malignancies: single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanagnolo, V; Rollo, D; Tomaselli, T; Rosenberg, P G; Bocciolone, L; Landoni, F; Aletti, G; Peiretti, M; Sanguineti, F; Maggioni, A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study was designed to confirm the feasibility and safety of robotic-assisted transperitoneal aortic lymphadenectomy as part of staging procedure for gynecologic malignancies. Methods. Chart review of 51 patients who had undergone robotic staging with aortic lymphadenectomy for different gynaecologic malignancies was performed. Results. The primary diagnosis was as follows: 6 cases of endometrial cancer, 31 epithelial ovarian cancer, 9 nonepithelial ovarian cancer, 4 tubal cancer, and 1 cervical cancer. Median BMI was 23 kg/m(2). Except for a single case of aortic lymphadenectomy only, both aortic and pelvic lymphadenectomies were performed at the time of the staging procedure. All the para-aortic lymphadenectomies were carried out to the level of the renal veinl but 6 cases were carried out to the level of the inferior mesenteric artery. Hysterectomy was performed in 24 patiens (47%). There was no conversion to LPT. The median console time was 285 (range 195-402) with a significant difference between patients who underwent hysterectomy and those who did not. The median estimated blood loss was 50 mL (range 20-200). The mean number of removed nodes was 29 ± 9.6. The mean number of pelvic nodes was 15 ± 7.6, whereas the mean number of para-aortic nodes was 14 ± 6.6. Conclusions. Robotic transperitoneal infrarenal aortic lymphadenectomy as part of staging procedure is feasible and can be safely performed. Additional trocars are needed when pelvic surgery is also performed.

  9. Single-channel EEG sleep stage classification based on a streamlined set of statistical features in wavelet domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Thiago L T; Kozakevicius, Alice J; Rodrigues, Cesar R

    2017-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to enhance the performance of sleep stage classification using single-channel electroencephalograms (EEGs), which are highly desirable for many emerging technologies, such as telemedicine and home care. The proposed method consists of decomposing EEGs by a discrete wavelet transform and computing the kurtosis, skewness and variance of its coefficients at selected levels. A random forest predictor is trained to classify each epoch into one of the Rechtschaffen and Kales' stages. By performing a comprehensive set of tests on 106,376 epochs available from the Physionet public database, it is demonstrated that the use of these three statistical moments has enhanced performance when compared to their application in the time domain. Furthermore, the chosen set of features has the advantage of exhibiting a stable classification performance for all scoring systems, i.e., from 2- to 6-state sleep stages. The stability of the feature set is confirmed with ReliefF tests which show a performance reduction when any individual feature is removed, suggesting that this group of feature cannot be further reduced. The accuracies and kappa coefficients yield higher than 90 % and 0.8, respectively, for all of the 2- to 6-state sleep stage classification cases.

  10. Approaches to building single-stage AC/AC conversion switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the possible topologies and promising approaches towards direct single-phase AC-AC conversion of the mains voltage for audio applications. When compared to standard Class-D switching audio power amplifiers with a separate power supply, it is expected that direct conversion will provide better efficiency and higher level of integration, leading to lower component count, volume and cost, but at the expense of a minor performance deterioration. (au)

  11. Single-stage treatment of infected tibial non-unions and osteomyelitis with bone marrow granulocytes precursors protecting bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe; Dubory, Arnaud; Homma, Yasuhiro; Flouzat Lachaniette, Charles Henri; Chevallier, Nathalie; Rouard, Helene

    2017-11-13

    Infected non-unions present a clinical challenge, especially with risk of recurrent infection. Bone marrow contains granulocyte precursors identified in vitro as colony forming units-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) have a prophylactic action against infection. We therefore tested the hypothesis that bone marrow concentrated granulocytes precursors added to a standard bone graft could decrease the risk of recurrence of infection when single-stage treatment of infected tibial non-unions is performed with bone graft. During a single-stage procedure 40 patients with infected tibial non-union received a spongious bone graft supercharged with granulocytes precursors after debridement (study group). A control group (40 patients) was treated in a single stage with local debridement and standard bone graft obtained from the iliac crest. The antibiotic therapy protocol was the same (60 days) in the two groups. CFU-GM progenitors were harvested from bone marrow aspirated on the opposite iliac crest of the site where the cancellous bone was obtained. Union (radiographs and CT scan), a recurrence of clinical infection, and need for subsequent surgery were evaluated. Thirty-eight (95%) patients who received graft supercharged with granulocytes precursors achieved successful union without recurrence of infection during the seven-year follow-up versus 28 (70%) control patients; for the control group the mean graft resorption volume was 40%, while no bone graft resorption was found for the study group. Supercharging the cancellous bone graft with bone marrow granulocytes precursors protect the site of infected non-union from recurrence of infection and bone resorption of the graft.

  12. Single-port one-stage bilateral thoracoscopic sympathicotomy for severe hyperhidrosis: prospective analysis of a standardized approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary palmar and/or axillary focal hyperhidrosis is a frequent disorder characterized by excessive sweating beyond physiological needs, often leading to a substantial impairment of quality of life. Over the years several minimally invasive surgical treatments have been described, however results vary, and due to a lack of uniform surgical approach, technique and nomenclature are often difficult to compare. In this prospective study we sought to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of our standardized technique of single-port, one-stage bilateral thoracoscopic sympathicotomy. Methods On a prospective basis a hundred consecutive patients with severe or intolerable primary hyperhidrosis underwent one-stage bilateral single-port thoracoscopic sympathicotomy. Primary outcome was measured in pre- vs. post-operative Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale scores. Location and extend of compensatory hyperhidrosis, and satisfaction with the procedure were registered. Results A significant reduction in mean Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale score (3.69 ± 0.47 preoperatively vs. 1.06 ± 0.34 postoperatively) (p 80% reduction in sweat production was achieved. Compensatory hyperhidrosis was seen in 27 patients (27%). It was rated as mild by 21 patients (78%) and as moderate by 6 (22%) of these patients. No severe compensatory hyperhidrosis was reported. Major complications, such as intraoperative bleeding, infections, and Horner’s syndrome were not observed. Conclusions Highly selective sympathicotomy at well-defined levels with a one-stage bilateral single-port transaxillary thoracoscopic approach is a save procedure, with excellent and reproducible immediate results in the treatment of primary palmar and/or axillary hyperhidrosis. PMID:24279511

  13. The tribological failure diagnosis of spur gear by an expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y. L.; Lin, J. S.; Hsieh, S. K.

    1993-07-01

    The failure of tribo-elements at an early stage, before the designed lifetime, is attributable to the complex interaction of many factors, which can be diagnosed by various techniques. These techniques can be learned in a certain period of time, while the knowledge of failure analysis must have accumulated from a long experience of practical work. For this reason, a computerized expert system program, developed from artificial intelligence (PC Plus, an inference engine shell), was constructed for spur gear tribological failure diagnosis. The knowledge was expressed as many 'if-then' rules and a 'frame' structure of inheritance. Note that the certainty factor of the rules is itself a special characteristic of this system and the 'man-machine' interface is very friendly, the graphical interpretation being an example. The system was finally validated by the twin roller wear test which can be recognized as the motion of a spur gear near the pitch-line region. The failure characteristics of the worn rollers were transferred to the expert system by means of a 'user-friendly' interface to deduce the reason for the failure.

  14. Morphological classification of acromial spur: correlation between Rockwood tilt view and arthroscopic finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongmalai Pinkawas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and hypothesis: Acromion spur is the extrinsic factor for impingement syndrome and rotator cuff tear. The Rockwood tilt view can be used to evaluate prominence of the anterior acromion, however no study has shown the correlation of findings between the Rockwood tilt view and the arthroscopic finding. Methods: We developed the arthroscopic classification of acromion spur as type 1 flat spur, type 2 bump spur, type 3 heel spur, type 4 keel spur, and type 5 irregular spur. Patients with rotator cuff syndrome who underwent arthroscopic surgery were recruited. Two observers were asked to classify the type of spur from arthroscopic findings and Rockwood tilt views separately in random pattern. The prevalence of supraspinatus tendon tear was also recorded as no tear, partial-thickness tear, and full-thickness tear. Results: The keel spur (33.9% was the most common finding followed by the heel spur (27.8%. The correlation was high especially for the heel, the keel, and the irregular spur (75.47%, 74.03%, and 72.73%, respectively. These three types of spurs have a high prevalence of full thickness of supraspinatus tendon tear. Conclusion: The Rockwood tilt view can be used to evaluate the morphology of an acromion spur, especially the at-risk spur that correlates highly with the full-thickness supraspinatus tendon tear. The arthroscopic classification will also be a useful tool to improve communication between the surgeon and the guide for appropriate treatment in a rotator cuff tear patient when encountering the heel, keel, and irregular spur.

  15. Tumour burden in early stage Hodgkin's disease: the single most important prognostic factor for outcome after radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Nordentoft, A M; Cold, Søren

    1987-01-01

    --from 15 to 146 months after initiation of therapy. The initial tumour burden of each patient was assessed, combining tumour size of each involved region and number of regions involved. Tumour burden thus assessed proved to be the single most important prognostic factor with regard to disease free survival....... Other known prognostic factors such as number of involved regions, mediastinal size, pathological stage, systemic symptoms, and ESR were related to tumour burden and lost their prognostic significance in a multivariate analysis. The only other factors of independent significance were histologic subtype...

  16. A clinical case of single-stage correction of penetration combined orofacial defect with two microsurgical autografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After surgical treatment for locally advanced oral tumors with resection of soft tissues, mucosal membrane, and facial skeletal structures, there are penetration combined defects, removal of which is a challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Mandibular repair is one of the problems in the correction of combined oral defects. Surgeons use different grafts to remove mandibular defects. One-flap transplantation does not always solve all reconstruction problems and ensure the repair of the mucosal membrane, a soft-tissue component, skin integuments, and facial skeleton.The authors describe a clinical case of successful single-stage correction of penetration combined orofacial defect after resection of the tongue, mouth floor, en bloc resection of the lower jaw and mental soft tissues, bilateral cervical supramyochoroidal lymphadenectomy, stage LCL CM mandibular defect formation after J. Boyd, by using two microsurgical autografts (a peroneal skin-muscle-skin autograft and a radial skin-fascia one in a 39-year-old female patient clinically diagnosed with carcinoma of the left mandibular alveolar ridge mucosa, Stage IVA (T4аN0M0.The Department of Microsurgery, P.A. Herzen Moscow Oncology Research Institute, Ministry of Health of Russia, has gained experience in comprehensively correcting extensive combined maxillofacial defects with two or more grafts in 27 patients who underwent autografting with a total of 73 flaps. The most functionally incapacitating and life-incompatible defect was removed at Stage 1 of reconstructive treatment. Delayed reconstruction was made after a complex of specialized antitumor therapy and assessment of treatment results in the absence of progressive growth. A great problem during multi-stage defect correction is presented by the lack of recipient vessels after cervical lymphadenectomy, the presence of soft tissue scar changes, trismus, temporomandibular joint ankylosis, contractures and displacement of the edges of the

  17. Test Facility Simulation Results for Aerospace Loss-of-Lubrication of Spur Gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Gargano, Lucas J.

    2014-01-01

    Prior to receiving airworthiness certification, extensive testing is required during the development of rotary wing aircraft drive systems. Many of these tests are conducted to demonstrate the drive system's ability to operate at extreme conditions, beyond that called for in the normal to maximum power operating range. One of the most extreme tests is referred to as the loss-of-lubrication or run dry test. During this test, the drive system is expected to last at least 30 min without failure while the primary lubrication system is disabled for predetermined, scripted flight conditions. Failure of this test can lead to a partial redesign of the drive system or the addition of an emergency lubrication system. Either of these solutions can greatly increase the aircraft drive system cost and weight and extend the schedule for obtaining airworthiness certification. Recent work at NASA Glenn Research Center focused on performing tests, in a relevant aerospace environment, to simulate the behavior of spur gears under loss-of-lubrication conditions. Tests were conducted using a test facility that was used in the past for spur gear contact fatigue testing. A loss-oflubrication test is initiated by shutting off the single into mesh lubricating jet. The test proceeds until the gears fail and can no longer deliver the applied torque. The observed failures are typically plastically deformed gear teeth, due to the high tooth temperatures, that are no longer in mesh. The effect of several different variables to gear tooth condition during loss-of-lubrication have been tested such as gear pitch, materials, shrouding, lubrication condition, and emergency supplied mist lubrication in earlier testing at NASA. Recent testing has focused on newer aerospace gear steels and imbedding thermocouples in the shrouding to measure the air-oil temperatures flung off the gear teeth. Along with the instrumented shrouding, an instrumented spur gear was also tested. The instrumented spur gear had

  18. Hydrocarbon columns and leakage at the Tampen Spur

    OpenAIRE

    Storemark, Sondre Straume

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about hydrocarbon column heights and the mechanisms that control them are of great importance to the exploration industry, as they are the main control for in-place volumes in a reservoir. The Tampen Spur is a structural high located in the northern North Sea, which hosts some of the largest hydrocarbon accumulations on the Norwegian continental margin. Hydrocarbons are located in both the Jurassic-Triassic interval, as well as in the Cretaceous and Paleocene strata, where oil is cu...

  19. Role of radiotherapy in the management of heel spur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Bora; Beyzadeoglu, Murat; Sager, Omer; Demıral, Selcuk; Gamsız, Hakan; Dıncoglan, Ferrat; Akın, Mustafa; Dırıcan, Bahar

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of low-dose radiotherapy (RT) in benign painful heel spur management. Between the years of 2009 and 2012, in Gulhane Military Medical Academy Radiation Oncology Department, patients with heel spur undergoing radiotherapy for pain relief were analyzed retrospectively. In the evaluation of treatment response, Verbal Numeric Scale (VNS) scoring method was used to compare the pain status before and after radiotherapy. Age, gender, laterality, VNS score before RT, VNS score after RT, RT doses of the patients and patients undergoing second course of radiotherapy were recorded. All patients received 8 Gy RT in two fractions with Co-60 teletherapy machine. Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 16.0 was used for data analysis with the level of significance set at p spur pain was 450. Median age was 52 years (range 40-85 years). Two hundred and ninety-two (65%) of the patients were women and 158 (35%) were men. Radiologically calcaneal spurs were bilateral in 432 (96%) patients, whereas unilateral left in 8 (1.8%) patients and unilateral right heel location in 10 (2.2%) patients. Ten (2.2%) of the patient group received second course of RT due to refractory pain. Comparative evaluation of VNS scores before and after RT revealed statistically significant pain relief by radiotherapy (p < 0.05). Low-dose radiotherapy is an effective and reliable painkilling treatment method that can be used in the treatment of epin calcanei refractory to medical and surgical treatment.

  20. Epidemiology of end-stage renal disease in Dubai: Single-center data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhriya Alalawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis (HD was first established in Dubai in the year 1980 and was in its full capacity by the year 1983. Since then, the HD population has been growing rapidly. This report represents the demographic data and clinical characteristics of our HD patients during the period between January 2012 and October 2016. Diabetic nephropathy (57% and hypertension (12.4% are emerging as the most common causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD in our data, followed by undetermined causes in those who presented as ESRD (10.9%, and then by rejected transplant in 4.6%. Obstructive uropathy in our data was 4.37% among all causes. The causes were primary glomerulonephritis (only proven cases in kidney biopsy were counted in 3.6%, adult polycystic kidney disease in 2.43%, and lupus nephritis in 1.45% of cases. The prevalence of ESRD in the current study was 152 patients per million population per year.

  1. Single-stage quintuplet for upgrading triplet based lens system: Simulation for Atomki microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarov, Artem; Rajta, Istvan; Nagy, Gyula; Romanenko, Oleksandr V.

    2017-08-01

    Among different configurations of lens systems for nuclear microprobes, the most common one is a triplet of magnetic quadrupole lenses. Nowadays, microanalysis and material modification will undoubtedly benefit from an improvement in spatial resolution. This work presents the results of simulations for improvement of the Oxford Triplet lens system at the Atomki microprobe with consideration of its system parameters and measured beam brightness distribution. For this purpose, an additional single-unit doublet of lenses with two power supplies was introduced. Using earlier developed methods, such a quintuplet system was optimized in order to determine the parameters which provided the highest resolution for different current operational modes with the same microprobe geometry. The tolerances for lens positioning accuracy were also calculated. The obtained quintuplet parameters indicate a resolution improvement for the Atomki microprobe compared to the Oxford Triplet system and these results validate further experimental testing of the proposed quintuplet.

  2. Single-Cell Analysis Identifies Distinct Stages of Human Endothelial-to-Hematopoietic Transition

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    Carolina Guibentif

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available During development, hematopoietic cells originate from endothelium in a process known as endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT. To study human EHT, we coupled flow cytometry and single-cell transcriptional analyses of human pluripotent stem cell-derived CD34+ cells. The resulting transcriptional hierarchy showed a continuum of endothelial and hematopoietic signatures. At the interface of these two signatures, a unique group of cells displayed both an endothelial signature and high levels of key hematopoietic stem cell-associated genes. This interphase group was validated via sort and subculture as an immediate precursor to hematopoietic cells. Differential expression analyses further divided this population into subgroups, which, upon subculture, showed distinct hematopoietic lineage differentiation potentials. We therefore propose that immediate precursors to hematopoietic cells already have their hematopoietic lineage restrictions defined prior to complete downregulation of the endothelial signature. These findings increase our understanding of the processes of de novo hematopoietic cell generation in the human developmental context.

  3. [Percutaneous surgery for plantar fasciitis due to a calcaneal spur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apóstol-González, Saúl; Herrera, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Determine the efficacy of percutaneous surgical treatment for talalgia due to a calcaneal spur. This is an observational, descriptive, clinical series analyzing the outcomes of 10 patients with a diagnosis of talalgia due to plantar fasciitis with a calcaneal spur treated with percutaneous foot surgery. The end result was assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS) to measure pain, the patients' opinion and their return to activities of daily living. Central tendency and scatter measurements were calculated. The inferential analysis was done with the non-parametric chi square (chi2) test. Most patients were females (90%) and mean age was 40.5 years. Follow-up was 12 months. One patient had bleeding of the approached area. Pain was reduced from 8 to 1.5 in the VAS. Nine patients returned to their activities. Two patients had occasional mild pain upon prolonged bipedestation. Ninety percent of results were satisfactory. Percutaneous foot surgery in talalgias caused by plantar fasciitis due to a calcaneal spur is a simple and effective method. It reduces the operative time and allows for an early return of patients to their activities of daily living.

  4. Heel spur radiotherapy and radiation carcinogenesis risk estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surenkok, Serdar; Dirican, Bahar; Beyzadeoglu, Murat; Oysul, Kaan

    2006-10-01

    Radiotherapy is a nonsurgical alternative therapy of painful heel spur patients. Nonetheless, cancer induction is the most important somatic effect of ionizing radiation. This study was designed to evaluate the carcinogenesis risk factor in benign painful heel spur patients treated by radiotherapy. Between 1974 and 1999, a total of 20 patients received mean 8.16 Gy total irradiation dose in two fractions. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD(100)) were placed on multiple phantom sites in vivo within the irradiated volume to verify irradiation accuracy and carcinogenesis risk factor calculation. The 20 still-alive patients, who had a minimum 5-year and maximum 29-year follow-up (mean 11.9 years), have been evaluated by carcinogenic radiation risk factor on the basis of tissue weighting factors as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 60. Reasonable pain relief has been obtained in all 20 patients. The calculated mean carcinogenesis risk factor is 1.3% for radiation portals in the whole group, and no secondary cancer has been clinically observed. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment modality for relieving pain in calcaneal spur patients. The estimated secondary cancer risk factor for irradiation of this benign lesion is not as high as was feared.

  5. Single stage reconstruction of ruptured tendoachilles tendon with skin cover using distally based superficial sural artery flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Suhas V; Kulkarni, Ananta; Agarwal, Naveen Kumar

    2009-10-01

    Ruptured tendoachilles along with skin defect is a complex problem to reconstruct. Both things require a priority. Single stage reconstruction of ruptured tendoachilles tendon with skin cover using distally based superficial sural arterial flap allows us to perform both. This procedure gives excellent result, shortens the stay, thereby reducing the cost. This method is a simple solution to the complex problem like ruptured tendoachilles with skin defect. In this study, 6 patients with rupture of tendoachilles tendon due to penetrating injury, with skin defect are presented. The repair was done using aponeurotic part of tendoachilles tendon, taken from proximal part of tendoachilles in the midline measuring around 2 to 2.5 cm in width and 8 to 10 cm in length, with intact distal attachment. The tendon was turned upside down by 180 degrees and sutured to the distal stump of the tendoachilles tendon without tension. The skin defect was covered using distally based superficial sural artery flap in the same sitting. The follow-up period was 9 to 30 months. All patients showed good results. In one patient there was distal necrosis of 1.5 cm of the distally based superficial sural artery flap, which healed satisfactorily with conservative treatment. Single stage tendoachilles reconstruction can be used with good functional result and patient satisfaction.

  6. Single-virus tracking approach to reveal the interaction of Dengue virus with autophagy during the early stage of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Li-Wei; Huang, Yi-Lung; Lee, Jin-Hui; Huang, Long-Ying; Chen, Wei-Jun; Lin, Ya-Hsuan; Chen, Jyun-Yu; Xiang, Rui; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Ping, Yueh-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the major infectious pathogens worldwide. DENV infection is a highly dynamic process. Currently, no antiviral drug is available for treating DENV-induced diseases since little is known regarding how the virus interacts with host cells during infection. Advanced molecular imaging technologies are powerful tools to understand the dynamics of intracellular interactions and molecular trafficking. This study exploited a single-virus particle tracking technology to address whether DENV interacts with autophagy machinery during the early stage of infection. Using confocal microscopy and three-dimensional image analysis, we showed that DENV triggered the formation of green fluorescence protein-fused microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) puncta, and DENV-induced autophagosomes engulfed DENV particles within 15-min postinfection. Moreover, single-virus particle tracking revealed that both DENV particles and autophagosomes traveled together during the viral infection. Finally, in the presence of autophagy suppressor 3-methyladenine, the replication of DENV was inhibited and the location of DENV particles spread in cytoplasma. In contrast, the numbers of newly synthesized DENV were elevated and the co-localization of DENV particles and autophagosomes was detected while the cells were treated with autophagy inducer rapamycin. Taken together, we propose that DENV particles interact with autophagosomes at the early stage of viral infection, which promotes the replication of DENV.

  7. A single centre experience with sequential and concomitant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced stage IV tonsillar cancer

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    Coyle Catherine

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemo-radiotherapy offers an alternative to primary surgery and adjuvant therapy for the management of locally advanced stage IV squamous cell carcinomas of the tonsil. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed of the outcomes of 41 patients with locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated non-surgically at the Yorkshire Cancer Centre between January 2004 and December 2005. Due to long radiotherapy waiting times, patients received induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil followed by either cisplatin concurrent chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. Results Median age was 55 years (range 34-76 years and 28 (68% patients were male. 35/41 patients (85% received 2 or more cycles of induction chemotherapy. Following induction chemotherapy, 32/41 patients (78% had a clinical response. Concomitant chemotherapy was given to 30/41 (73%. All patients received the planned radiotherapy dose with no delays. There were no treatment related deaths. Six (15% patients had gastrostomy tubes placed before treatment, and 22 (54% required nasogastric tube placement during or after treatment for nutritional support. 17 patients required unplanned admissions during treatment for supportive care. At 4 months post treatment assessment 35 out of 41 (85% patients achieved complete clinical and radiographic response. Median follow-up is 38 months (8-61 months. Local and regional control rate in complete responders at 3 years was 91%. Distant metastases have been found in 4 (9.8% patients. Three year progression-free survival rate in all patients is 75%. The 3-year cause specific survival and overall survival are 75% and 66% respectively. Conclusion Cisplatin-based induction and concurrent chemoradiotherapy provides excellent tumour control with acceptable toxicity for patients with locally advanced tonsillar cancer.

  8. A single centre experience with sequential and concomitant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced stage IV tonsillar cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Prestwich, Robin J; Kancherla, Kiran; Oksuz, Didem Colpan; Williamson, Deborah; Dyker, Karen E; Coyle, Catherine; Sen, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    Chemo-radiotherapy offers an alternative to primary surgery and adjuvant therapy for the management of locally advanced stage IV squamous cell carcinomas of the tonsil. A retrospective analysis was performed of the outcomes of 41 patients with locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated non-surgically at the Yorkshire Cancer Centre between January 2004 and December 2005. Due to long radiotherapy waiting times, patients received induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil followed by either cisplatin concurrent chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. Median age was 55 years (range 34-76 years) and 28 (68%) patients were male. 35/41 patients (85%) received 2 or more cycles of induction chemotherapy. Following induction chemotherapy, 32/41 patients (78%) had a clinical response. Concomitant chemotherapy was given to 30/41 (73%). All patients received the planned radiotherapy dose with no delays. There were no treatment related deaths. Six (15%) patients had gastrostomy tubes placed before treatment, and 22 (54%) required nasogastric tube placement during or after treatment for nutritional support. 17 patients required unplanned admissions during treatment for supportive care. At 4 months post treatment assessment 35 out of 41 (85%) patients achieved complete clinical and radiographic response. Median follow-up is 38 months (8-61 months). Local and regional control rate in complete responders at 3 years was 91%. Distant metastases have been found in 4 (9.8%) patients. Three year progression-free survival rate in all patients is 75%. The 3-year cause specific survival and overall survival are 75% and 66% respectively. Cisplatin-based induction and concurrent chemoradiotherapy provides excellent tumour control with acceptable toxicity for patients with locally advanced tonsillar cancer

  9. Endoscopic mucosal resection for staging and treatment of early esophageal carcinoma: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Justin T; Walker, Jon P; Meara, Michael P; Hazey, Jeffrey W; Melvin, W Scott; Perry, Kyle A

    2015-08-01

    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) has emerged for evaluation and treatment of esophageal nodules. We report our initial experience with EMR for T staging and management of early esophageal cancer. We reviewed patients undergoing EMR for esophageal adenocarcinoma between 2008 and 2013. The primary outcome measure was needed for esophagectomy. Secondary outcomes included complete eradication of adenocarcinoma, recurrence or persistence of cancer, nodal status for those undergoing esophagectomy, and complications of endoscopic treatment. During the study period, 24 patients underwent EMR demonstrating carcinoma, and a grossly margin negative endoscopic resection was achieved in all cases. Ten patients (42 %) had evidence of submucosal invasion and were referred for esophagectomy. Patients with margin negative EMR (n = 10, 42 %) or positive radial margins (n = 4, 16 %) underwent endoscopic surveillance and treatment with radiofrequency ablation or repeat EMR as needed. Thirteen patients (93 %) with intramucosal cancer (IMC) have been successfully managed with ongoing endoscopic surveillance and treatment with a median follow-up of 15.5 months. One patient underwent esophagectomy due to recurrent IMC in the setting of long-segment multifocal high-grade dysplasia. There were no esophageal perforations, one patient developed a self-limited gastrointestinal hemorrhage following EMR, and one had an esophageal stricture following endoscopic management. IMC can be successfully managed endoscopically and thus esophagectomy is avoided in a significant proportion of patients. Endoscopic management may be utilized in the setting of complete resection or radial margin involvement without evidence of submucosal invasion. Close endoscopic follow-up is of paramount importance even in those with negative margins, because recurrent disease may occur following EMR in these patients.

  10. Effect of two synthetic lubricants on life of AISI 9310 spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Shimski, John

    1991-01-01

    Spur-gear fatigue tests were conducted with two lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum-melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The gears were case carburized and hardened to Rockwell C60. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm. The lot of gears was divided into two groups, each of which was tested with a different lubricant. The test lubricants can be classified as synthetic polyol-ester-based lubricants. One lubricant was 30 percent more viscous that the other. Both lubricants have similar pressure viscosity coefficients. Test conditions included a bulk gear temperature of 350 K, a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa at the pitch line, and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The surface fatigue life of gears tested with one lubricant was approximately 2.4 times that for gears tested with the other lubricant. The lubricant with the 30 percent higher viscosity gave a calculated elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness that was 20 percent higher than the other lubricant. This increased EHD film thickness is the most probable reason for the improvement in surface fatigue life of gears tested with this lubricant over gears tested with the less viscous lubricant.

  11. Exergy analysis of an experimental single-stage heat transformer operating with single water/lithium bromide and using additives (1-octanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, W.; Martinez, H.; Cerezo, J.; Romero, R.J.; Cardoso, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Second law of Thermodynamics has been used to analyze the performance of an experimental single-stage heat transformer operating with the water/lithium bromide as single working pair and subsequently, using 1-octanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol as additives. Additives have been used in order to increase the heat transfer in the absorber and generator decreasing their irreversibilities. The enthalpy-based coefficients of performance (COP), external coefficients of performance (COP EXT ), exergy-based coefficients of performance (ECOP) and the irreversibilities of the equipment components were calculated for the main operating temperatures of the system. The results showed that for absorber temperatures between 84 o C and 88 o C the highest COP, COP EXT , and ECOP are obtained with the use of the 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (400 parts per million) additive, reaching values up to 0.49, 0.40 and 0.43, respectively. The lowest coefficients of performance and highest irreversibilities were obtained by using the single water/lithium bromide mixture. Analysing the irreversibilities in each one of the main components of the system, it was found that 2-ethyl-1-hexanol decreases considerably the irreversibility in the absorber then increasing the efficiency of this component and hence of the entire equipment. - Highlights: → An exergy analysis has been used to analyze an experimental heat transformer. → The system operated with single water/lithium bromide and then adding two additives. → The additives were 1-octanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. → The 2-ethyl-1-hexanol additive reduced the system irreversibilities. → The highest coefficients of performance were obtained with the 2-ethyl-1-hexanol additive.

  12. Transverse preputial onlay island flap urethroplasty for single-stage correction of proximal hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Arbinder Kumar; Dubey, Manish; Jain, Viral

    2016-07-01

    Transverse preputial onlay island flap urethroplasty (TPOIF) was described initially for distal hypospadias, but has seen extended application for proximal hypospadias. We describe a set of modifications in the technique and results in a large series of proximal hypospadias. All children who underwent TPOIF repair for proximal hypospadias (proximal penile, penoscrotal and scrotal) from June 2006 to June 2013 by a single surgeon were prospectively followed till June, 2014. A standard technique and postoperative protocol were followed. Salient points to be emphasized in the technique: (1) dissection of the dartos pedicle till penopubic junction to prevent penile torsion, (2) incorporation of the spongiosum in the urethroplasty, (3) midline urethral plate incision in glans (hinging the plate), (4) Dartos blanket cover on whole urethroplasty. Out of 136 children with proximal hypospadias, 92 children who underwent TPOIF formed the study group. Out of 92 children, 48 (52 %) children required a tunica albuginea plication for chordee correction. In total, 16 (17 %) patients developed 24 complications and 11 children (12 %) required second surgeries: fistula closure in 7 (with meatoplasty in 5), glansplasty for glans dehiscence in 2 and excision of diverticulum in 2. Two children required a third surgery. Only 5 children had a noticeable penile torsion (less than 30 degree), and 7 had a patulous meatus. Transverse preputial onlay island flap urethroplasty can deliver reliable cosmetic and functional outcomes in proximal hypospadias.

  13. Advanced exergy analysis applied to a single-stage heat transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorado, D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Endogenous, exogenous, avoidable and unavoidable exergy destruction was calculated for a heat transformer. • 14.78% of the total exergy destruction could be reduced assuming improvements in the efficiency and design of the equipment. • A parametric study was discussed considering variations in the operation conditions. - Abstract: This study presents an advanced exergy analysis of a single-state absorption heat transformer operating with a lithium bromide water solution. A traditional exergy analysis was also conducted to identify the components with the highest contribution to the exergy destruction, and an advanced exergy approach was developed to estimate a realistic design and improve the operating conditions of the system. According to the base case of this study, when calculating the total reversibility of the cycle, only 14.78% could be reduced by improving its design and configuration. In addition, a parametric study was presented to discuss the sensitivity of splitting exergy destruction concepts taking into account temperature variations in the heat source, sink, and seawater outlet. Considering improvements to the generator a top priority, followed by improving the absorber, the condenser and finally the evaporator. The numerical results of this work have been developed to help design engineers experiment and assemble future equipment.

  14. Robotic-Assisted Transperitoneal Aortic Lymphadenectomy as Part of Staging Procedure for Gynaecological Malignancies: Single Institution Experience

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    V. Zanagnolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study was designed to confirm the feasibility and safety of robotic-assisted transperitoneal aortic lymphadenectomy as part of staging procedure for gynecologic malignancies. Methods. Chart review of 51 patients who had undergone robotic staging with aortic lymphadenectomy for different gynaecologic malignancies was performed. Results. The primary diagnosis was as follows: 6 cases of endometrial cancer, 31 epithelial ovarian cancer, 9 nonepithelial ovarian cancer, 4 tubal cancer, and 1 cervical cancer. Median BMI was 23 kg/m2. Except for a single case of aortic lymphadenectomy only, both aortic and pelvic lymphadenectomies were performed at the time of the staging procedure. All the para-aortic lymphadenectomies were carried out to the level of the renal veinl but 6 cases were carried out to the level of the inferior mesenteric artery. Hysterectomy was performed in 24 patiens (47%. There was no conversion to LPT. The median console time was 285 (range 195–402 with a significant difference between patients who underwent hysterectomy and those who did not. The median estimated blood loss was 50 mL (range 20–200. The mean number of removed nodes was 29±9.6. The mean number of pelvic nodes was 15±7.6, whereas the mean number of para-aortic nodes was 14±6.6. Conclusions. Robotic transperitoneal infrarenal aortic lymphadenectomy as part of staging procedure is feasible and can be safely performed. Additional trocars are needed when pelvic surgery is also performed.

  15. Fractional Models Simulating Non-Fickian Behavior in Four-Stage Single-Well Push-Pull Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kewei; Zhan, Hongbin; Yang, Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Four-stage single-well push-pull (SWPP) tracer tests, including injection, chasing, resting, and pumping, were conducted in a fractured aquifer at Newark basin. An anomalous transport phenomenon observed in the SWPP tests is the linear decline of breakthrough curves (BTCs) at late time with slope of -1.8 in log-log plots. A time-dependent fractional model is developed to interpret the anomalous transport behavior. This model considers a time-dependent power law memory function and a time-dependent fractional advection-dispersion operator. The fractional advection-dispersion equations (fADE) are solved in a radial coordinate system using the implicit Euler method. A semi-analytical solution of the first-order rate-limited mobile-immobile model (FORMIM) is derived for comparison. It is found that both the nonlocal transport in time and space can produce the long-tailed BTC. A smaller time-fractional or space-fractional index leads to a lower peak concentration and a larger late-time slope. The mass distribution of the fractional-in-space (FS) model exhibits power law decline at the leading plume edge. Early breakthrough during pumping is not observed because the mobile mass at the start of pumping is nonzero and more concentrated near the wellbore. The capacity ratio is an important factor that affects the peak concentration. A larger capacity ratio leads to greater peak concentration. A smaller time-fractional index in the injection, chasing, or resting stage will move the BTC downward and the slope of the late time BTC is determined by the space-fractional index over all stages and the time-fractional index in the pumping stage. The capability of the existing models to recover the BTC of the SWPP test is discussed and some guidelines for how to choose the appropriate model to interpret the SWPP test data are proposed.

  16. Sorting of cells of the same size, shape, and cell cycle stage for a single cell level assay without staining

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    Yomo Tetsuya

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-cell level studies are being used increasingly to measure cell properties not directly observable in a cell population. High-performance data acquisition systems for such studies have, by necessity, developed in synchrony. However, improvements in sample purification techniques are also required to reveal new phenomena. Here we assessed a cell sorter as a sample-pretreatment tool for a single-cell level assay. A cell sorter is routinely used for selecting one type of cells from a heterogeneous mixture of cells using specific fluorescence labels. In this case, we wanted to select cells of exactly the same size, shape, and cell-cycle stage from a population, without using a specific fluorescence label. Results We used four light scatter parameters: the peak height and area of the forward scatter (FSheight and FSarea and side scatter (SSheight and SSarea. The rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line, a neuronal cell line, was used for all experiments. The living cells concentrated in the high FSarea and middle SSheight/SSarea fractions. Single cells without cell clumps were concentrated in the low SS and middle FS fractions, and in the higher FSheight/FSarea and SSheight/SSarea fractions. The cell populations from these viable, single-cell-rich fractions were divided into twelve subfractions based on their FSarea-SSarea profiles, for more detailed analysis. We found that SSarea was proportional to the cell volume and the FSarea correlated with cell roundness and elongation, as well as with the level of DNA in the cell. To test the method and to characterize the basic properties of the isolated single cells, sorted cells were cultured in separate wells. The cells in all subfractions survived, proliferated and differentiated normally, suggesting that there was no serious damage. The smallest, roundest, and smoothest cells had the highest viability. There was no correlation between proliferation and differentiation. NGF increases

  17. Low Energy Multi-Stage Atrial Defibrillation Therapy Terminates Atrial Fibrillation with Less Energy than a Single Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Janardhan, Ajit H.; Fedorov, Vadim V.; Sha, Qun; Schuessler, Richard B.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Implantable device therapy of atrial fibrillation (AF) is limited by pain from high-energy shocks. We developed a low-energy multi-stage defibrillation therapy and tested it in a canine model of AF. Methods and Results AF was induced by burst pacing during vagus nerve stimulation. Our novel defibrillation therapy consisted of three stages: ST1 (1-4 low energy biphasic shocks), ST2 (6-10 ultra-low energy monophasic shocks), and ST3 (anti-tachycardia pacing). Firstly, ST1 testing compared single or multiple monophasic (MP) and biphasic (BP) shocks. Secondly, several multi-stage therapies were tested: ST1 versus ST1+ST3 versus ST1+ST2+ST3. Thirdly, three shock vectors were compared: superior vena cava to distal coronary sinus (SVC>CSd), proximal coronary sinus to left atrial appendage (CSp>LAA) and right atrial appendage to left atrial appendage (RAA>LAA). The atrial defibrillation threshold (DFT) of 1BP shock was less than 1MP shock (0.55 ± 0.1 versus 1.38 ± 0.31 J; p =0.003). 2-3 BP shocks terminated AF with lower peak voltage than 1BP or 1MP shock and with lower atrial DFT than 4 BP shocks. Compared to ST1 therapy alone, ST1+ST3 lowered the atrial DFT moderately (0.51 ± 0.46 versus 0.95 ± 0.32 J; p = 0.036) while a three-stage therapy, ST1+ST2+ST3, dramatically lowered the atrial DFT (0.19 ± 0.12 J versus 0.95 ± 0.32 J for ST1 alone, p=0.0012). Finally, the three-stage therapy ST1+ST2+ST3 was equally effective for all studied vectors. Conclusions Three-stage electrotherapy significantly reduces the AF defibrillation threshold and opens the door to low energy atrial defibrillation at or below the pain threshold. PMID:21980076

  18. Single stage bilateral uniportal videothoracoscopic sympathicotomy for hyperhidrosis: can it be managed as an outpatient procedure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Demirkaya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The videothoracoscopic approach is minimally invasive with benefits that include less postoperative pain and shorter hospital stay. It is also a safe procedure which can be performed on an outpatient basis. Aim: To determine whether videothoracoscopic sympathicotomy can be performed safely in most patients as an outpatient procedure. Material and methods: Between July 2005 and October 2015, a total of 92 patients underwent bilateral and single port thoracoscopic sympathicotomy in our department on an outpatient basis. The level of sympathicotomy was T2 in 2 (2.2% patients, T2 to T3 in 31 (33% patients, T2 to T4 in 46 (50% patients and T3 to T4 in 12 (13% patients. Demographic data, length of postoperative stay, substitution index (SI, admission rate (AR and readmission rate (RR, complications and patient satisfaction were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Two (2.2% patients suffered from chest pain, while 4 (4.3% patients complained about pain at the port site. Mean discharge time after surgery was 5.1 h (range: 4–6 h, mean duration of hospital stay was 0.15 days (0–3 days postoperatively and the mean operation time was 43.6 min (15–130 min. In 8 (8.6% patients, pneumothorax was detected on postoperative chest X-ray, while 5 (5.4% patients required chest tube drainage. Mild or moderate compensatory sweating developed in 32 (34.7% patients. No recurrence was observed, and the satisfaction rate was 96.7%. Substitution index and admission rate were 91.3% and 11% respectively, while RR was 0%. Conclusions : Bilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathicotomy can be performed safely in most patients as an outpatient procedure.

  19. Results of single-staged rotational osteotomy in a child with congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis: subjective and objective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingade, Viraj U; Shingade, Rashmi V; Ughade, Suresh N

    2014-01-01

    For congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis, both conservative and operative treatments have been described. Most of the studies describing surgical interventions are based on subjective evaluation of the forearm function and have used severe degree of forearm pronation as an indication for surgery. This study describes a single-staged rotational osteotomy of the proximal third ulna and distal third radius. The aim of the study was to assess the utility of the described surgical procedure by subjective and objective evaluations of the forearm function. Forty-eight children with congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis were evaluated by subjective and objective assessments and were followed up prospectively. Subjective evaluation consisted of a set of 12 questions regarding the basic activities of life. Objective evaluation was made using the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test and a classification system used by Failla and colleagues for 15 tasks described by Morrey and colleagues. Eleven children were treated conservatively. Thirty-six children underwent a single-staged rotational osteotomy of the proximal third ulna and distal third radius. After surgery, the evaluations were repeated. The mean age at surgery was 8.6±3.7 years, and the mean postoperative follow-up period was 54±13 months. All operated forearms showed a statistically significant improvement in functioning after surgery as per the subjective and objective evaluations. The mean time taken to carry out all activities before surgery was 47.7+10.0 seconds, which significantly reduced to 33.3+6.6 seconds after surgery (P=0.0001) as per the results of the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test. All good (n=19) and fair (n=11) results were converted to excellent (n=30) after surgery as per the modified Failla classification. There were no neurovascular injuries as compared with other published techniques. Only 1 child had delayed union, and 1 had persistent dorsal angulation at the radial osteotomy site. For

  20. Plantar calcaneal spurs in older people: longitudinal traction or vertical compression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Zammit, Gerard V; Landorf, Karl B; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2008-08-11

    Plantar calcaneal spurs are common, however their pathophysiology is poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of plantar calcaneal spurs in a large sample of older people. Weightbearing lateral foot radiographs of 216 people (140 women and 76 men) aged 62 to 94 years (mean age 75.9, SD 6.6) were examined for plantar calcaneal and Achilles tendon spurs. Associations between the presence of spurs and sex, body mass index, radiographic measures of foot posture, self-reported co-morbidities and current or previous heel pain were then explored. Of the 216 participants, 119 (55%) had at least one plantar calcaneal spur and 103 (48%) had at least one Achilles tendon spur. Those with plantar calcaneal spurs were more likely to have Achilles tendon spurs (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 3.5). Prevalence of spurs did not differ according to sex. Participants with plantar calcaneal spurs were more likely to be obese (OR = 7.9, 95% CI 3.6 to 17.0), report osteoarthritis (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 4.8) and have current or previous heel pain (OR = 4.6, 95% CI 2.3 to 9.4). No relationship was found between the presence of calcaneal spurs and radiographic measures of foot posture. Calcaneal spurs are common in older men and women and are related to obesity, osteoarthritis and current or previous heel pain, but are unrelated to radiographic measurements of foot posture. These findings support the theory that plantar calcaneal spurs may be an adaptive response to vertical compression of the heel rather than longitudinal traction at the calcaneal enthesis.

  1. Plantar calcaneal spurs in older people: longitudinal traction or vertical compression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landorf Karl B

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plantar calcaneal spurs are common, however their pathophysiology is poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of plantar calcaneal spurs in a large sample of older people. Methods Weightbearing lateral foot radiographs of 216 people (140 women and 76 men aged 62 to 94 years (mean age 75.9, SD 6.6 were examined for plantar calcaneal and Achilles tendon spurs. Associations between the presence of spurs and sex, body mass index, radiographic measures of foot posture, self-reported co-morbidities and current or previous heel pain were then explored. Results Of the 216 participants, 119 (55% had at least one plantar calcaneal spur and 103 (48% had at least one Achilles tendon spur. Those with plantar calcaneal spurs were more likely to have Achilles tendon spurs (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 3.5. Prevalence of spurs did not differ according to sex. Participants with plantar calcaneal spurs were more likely to be obese (OR = 7.9, 95% CI 3.6 to 17.0, report osteoarthritis (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 4.8 and have current or previous heel pain (OR = 4.6, 95% CI 2.3 to 9.4. No relationship was found between the presence of calcaneal spurs and radiographic measures of foot posture. Conclusion Calcaneal spurs are common in older men and women and are related to obesity, osteoarthritis and current or previous heel pain, but are unrelated to radiographic measurements of foot posture. These findings support the theory that plantar calcaneal spurs may be an adaptive response to vertical compression of the heel rather than longitudinal traction at the calcaneal enthesis.

  2. A Rocket Powered Single-Stage-to-Orbit Launch Vehicle With U.S. and Soviet Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacConochie, Ian O.; Stnaley, Douglas O.

    1991-01-01

    A single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle is used to assess the applicability of Soviet Energia high-pressure-hydrocarbon engine to advanced U.S. manned space transportation systems. Two of the Soviet engines are used with three Space Shuttle Main Engines. When applied to a baseline vehicle that utilized advanced hydrocarbon engines, the higher weight of the Soviet engines resulted in a 20 percent loss of payload capability and necessitated a change in the crew compartment size and location from mid-body to forebody in order to balance the vehicle. Various combinations of Soviet and Shuttle engines were evaluated for comparison purposes, including an all hydrogen system using all Space Shuttle Main Engines. Operational aspects of the baseline vehicle are also discussed. A new mass properties program entitles Weights and Moments of Inertia (WAMI) is used in the study.

  3. Advantages of using a two-switch forward in single-stage power factor corrected power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    A single-stage power factor corrected power supply using a two-switch forward is proposed to increase efficiency. The converter is operated in the DCM (discontinues conduction mode) and it is shown that this operation mode ensures the intermediate DC-bus to be controlled only by means of circuit...... parameters and therefore independent of load variations. The DCM operation often has a diminishing effect on the efficiency but by use of the two-switch topology high efficiency with minimum circuit complexity can be achieved in this mode. A 500 W 70 V prototype of the two-switch boost-forward PFC power...... supply has been implemented. The measured efficiency is between 85% and 88.5% in the range 30 W-500 W and the measured power factor at full load is 0.95....

  4. Slip-band formation and dislocation kinetics in the stage I deformation of neutron-irradiated copper single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Sadakichi; Shinohara, Kazutoshi; Kutsuwada, Masanori

    1995-01-01

    The velocity of edge and screw dislocations moving in primary slip bands and the formation rate of primary slip bands were measured in stage I deformation of neutron-irradiated copper single crystals at different strain rates at room temperature using micro-cinematography and optical micrography. The average velocity of edge dislocations was larger at least by one order than that of screw ones, and that of screw dislocations did not depend so strongly on strain rate. The formation rate of primary slip bands was proportional to strain rate. From these results, it is concluded that (1) jogs produced on moving dislocations by cutting dislocation loops result in the difference in velocity between edge and screw dislocations and (2) the change in the density of mobile dislocations as well as velocity of dislocations is responsible for the change of plastic strain rate of a crystal. (author)

  5. Bilateral Simultaneous Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty as a Single Staged Procedure: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Jaiswal, Chirag; Vijay, Vipul; Vaish, Abhishek

    2017-03-23

    Bilateral revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a surgical procedure, which is rarely done simultaneously as it is a difficult surgery and the safety of simultaneous bilateral single stage surgery remains unknown. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman who presented to us with bilateral painful and unstable TKA (right > left) of six months duration. The primary bilateral TKA were done 14 years ago. Bilateral simultaneous revision TKA was performed, using cemented, constrained, long-stem prostheses. The intraoperative and postoperative periods remained uneventful. At last follow-up at four years, she had a pain-free range of motion of up to 0-115°, and the patient had returned to the activities of daily living. She had stable knees with good function and no evidence of loosening or wear.

  6. A rapid method for optimization of the rocket propulsion system for single-stage-to-orbit vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldred, C. H.; Gordon, S. V.

    1976-01-01

    A rapid analytical method for the optimization of rocket propulsion systems is presented for a vertical take-off, horizontal landing, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle. This method utilizes trade-offs between propulsion characteristics affecting flight performance and engine system mass. The performance results from a point-mass trajectory optimization program are combined with a linearized sizing program to establish vehicle sizing trends caused by propulsion system variations. The linearized sizing technique was developed for the class of vehicle systems studied herein. The specific examples treated are the optimization of nozzle expansion ratio and lift-off thrust-to-weight ratio to achieve either minimum gross mass or minimum dry mass. Assumed propulsion system characteristics are high chamber pressure, liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen propellants, conventional bell nozzles, and the same fixed nozzle expansion ratio for all engines on a vehicle.

  7. The Naso-labial and lateral forehead flaps as a single stage: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adigun I

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here the case of a patient with a major traumatic nasal loses who had a near-total nasal reconstruction as a single-stage procedure. A 35 year-old civil servant who was involved in a road traffic injury about two years before presentation. He sustained extensive and multiple facial injuries with complete loss of nasal cover and lining. Reconstruction was performed by using superiorly based, bilateral, nasolabial flaps to line the floor and the nasal septum, and a paramedian forehead flap for skin cover. The patient did well postoperatively and was discharged home on the 7 th postoperative day. If the principles concerning cover, support, and lining are adhered to, excellent functional and aesthetic results can be achieved as we have obtained in our patient.

  8. Studies on water turbine runner which fish can pass through: In case of single stage axial runner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yukimari; Maeda, Takao; Nagoshi, Osamu; Ieda, Kazuma; Shinma, Hisako; Hagimoto, Michiko

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between water turbine runner design and operation and the safe passage of fish through the turbine is studied. The kinds of fish used in the tests are a dace, a sweet fish and a small salmon. A single stage axial runner is used. The velocity and pressure distributions were measured inside the turbine casing and along the casing wall. Many pictures showing fish passing through the rotating runner were taken and analyzed. The swimming speed of the fish was examined from video recordings. Fish pass through the runner more rapidly when they can determine and choose the easier path. Injury and mortality of fish are affected by the runner speed and the location of impact of the runner on the fish body

  9. Single stage concrete pumping through 2.432 km (1.51 miles: Weather and execution challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Hazaree

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the execution challenges faced during single stage pumping of concrete through 2.432 km. Pump and pipeline selection and installation, materials’ development, establishing of control points and controlling variations are discussed. Concrete responses to weather changes play a vital role in concreting and pumping methodology development. Measuring pump pressure during pumping can provide insightful guidance to concreting. In order to optimize concrete mixtures, distance-specific mixture designs were developed and a relation between air-free paste volume (AFPV and pumping distance is derived. Pipeline priming and washout procedures specific to long-distance pumping are elaborated in detail. The paper presents a broad understanding regarding the challenges encountered; changes in pumping distance, materials, and climate would change the approach to solutions.

  10. Correlation Between the Microstructural Defects and Residual Stress in a Single Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloy During Different Creep Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Fangjie; Wu, Erdong; Zhang, Changsheng; Wang, Hong; Zhong, Zhengye; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Bo; Hofmann, Michael; Gan, Weimin; Sun, Guangai

    2018-03-01

    The present work attempts to reveal the correlation between the microstructural defects and residual stress in the single crystal nickel-based superalloy, both of which play the significant role on properties and performance. Neutron diffraction was employed to investigate the microstructural defects and residual stresses in a single crystal (SC) nickel-based superalloy, which was subjected to creeping under 220 MPa and 1000 °C for different times. The measured superlattice and fundamental lattice reflections confirm that the mismatch and tetragonal distortions with c/a > 1 exist in the SC superalloy. At the initially unstrained state, there exists the angular distortion between γ and γ' phases with small triaxial compressive stresses, ensuring the structural stability of the superalloy. After creeping, the tetragonal distortion for the γ phase is larger than that for the γ' phase. With increasing the creeping time, the mismatch between γ and γ' phases increases to the maximum, then decreases gradually and finally remains unchanged. The macroscopic residual stress shows a similar behavior with the mismatch, indicating the correlation between them. Based on the model of shear and dislocations, the evolution of microstructural defects and residual stress are reasonably explained. The effect of shear is dominant at the primary creep stage, which greatly enlarges the mismatch and the residual stress. The dislocations weaken the effect of shear for the further creep stage, resulting in the decrease of the mismatch and relaxation of the residual stress. Those findings add some helpful understanding into the microstructure-performance relationship in the SC nickel-based superalloy, which might provide the insight to materials design and applications.

  11. The MARVEL domain protein, Singles Bar, is required for progression past the pre-fusion complex stage of myoblast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Beatriz; Maeland, Anne D; Gisselbrecht, Stephen S; Bloor, James W; Brown, Nicholas H; Michelson, Alan M

    2007-07-15

    Multinucleated myotubes develop by the sequential fusion of individual myoblasts. Using a convergence of genomic and classical genetic approaches, we have discovered a novel gene, singles bar (sing), that is essential for myoblast fusion. sing encodes a small multipass transmembrane protein containing a MARVEL domain, which is found in vertebrate proteins involved in processes such as tight junction formation and vesicle trafficking where--as in myoblast fusion--membrane apposition occurs. sing is expressed in both founder cells and fusion competent myoblasts preceding and during myoblast fusion. Examination of embryos injected with double-stranded sing RNA or embryos homozygous for ethane methyl sulfonate-induced sing alleles revealed an identical phenotype: replacement of multinucleated myofibers by groups of single, myosin-expressing myoblasts at a stage when formation of the mature muscle pattern is complete in wild-type embryos. Unfused sing mutant myoblasts form clusters, suggesting that early recognition and adhesion of these cells are unimpaired. To further investigate this phenotype, we undertook electron microscopic ultrastructural studies of fusing myoblasts in both sing and wild-type embryos. These experiments revealed that more sing mutant myoblasts than wild-type contain pre-fusion complexes, which are characterized by electron-dense vesicles paired on either side of the fusing plasma membranes. In contrast, embryos mutant for another muscle fusion gene, blown fuse (blow), have a normal number of such complexes. Together, these results lead to the hypothesis that sing acts at a step distinct from that of blow, and that sing is required on both founder cell and fusion-competent myoblast membranes to allow progression past the pre-fusion complex stage of myoblast fusion, possibly by mediating fusion of the electron-dense vesicles to the plasma membrane.

  12. Single-cell pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to detect the early stage of DNA fragmentation in human sperm nuclei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Kaneko

    Full Text Available Single-cell pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (SCPFGE with dual electrode pairs was developed to detect the early stage of DNA fragmentation in human sperm. The motile sperm were purified by the commonly used density-gradient centrifugation technique and subsequent swim-up. The sperm were embedded in a thin film of agarose containing bovine trypsin (20 µg/mL and were then lysed. Prior to SCPFGE, proteolysis of DNA-binding components, such as protamine and the nuclear matrix was essential to separate the long chain fibers from the fibrous and granular fragments derived from a single nucleus. The overall electrophoretic profiles elucidated the course of DNA fragmentation. A few large fibrous fragments were observed at the beginning of the process, however, as the fragmentation advanced, the long chain fibers decreased and shortened, and, conversely, the granular fragments increased until finally almost all the DNA was shredded. Although the ejaculate contained sperm with heterogeneous stages, the purified motile sperm exhibited several dozens of uniformly elongated fibers arising from the tangled DNA at the origin, whereas a part of these fibers gave rise to fibrous fragments beyond the tip of the elongated fibers, and their numbers and sizes varied among the sperm. Conventional intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI usually depends on intra-operative light microscopic observation to select a sperm for injection. The present results revealed that sperm motility could not give full assurance of DNA integrity. SCPFGE is likely to serve an important role in the preoperative differential diagnosis to determine the competence of the sperm population provided for injection.

  13. From a Single Presentation of Poetry Up to Its Stylized Stage Image in the Form of Theatre Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podmaková Ú Dagmar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1940s the Drama Company of the Slovak National Theatre introduced four poetry productions, which demonstrated the stage potential of the symbiosis of verse and a music-accompanied recitation in an original stage design solution. The single presentation of poetry of Poézia revolúcie a boja [The Poetry of Revolution and Fight, 1945] directed by Ján Jamnický and Pásmo poézie Janka Jesenského [The Show of Poetry by Janko Jesenský, 1946] directed by Jozef Budský were the first independent attempts at staging selected poetry. Besides recitation, they were dominated by the visual sign, powerful music sometimes accompanied by the singing of individuals and a voice band, and distinctive lighting design. Botto’s Smrť Jánošíkova [The Death of Jánošík] and Sládkovič’s Marína (both in 1948 directed by Jozef Budský displayed all features of synthetic theatre, combining recitation, voice band singing, scenic and visual solutions, metaphor, originally composed music inspired by the folk song, dance, film screening, and meaningful lighting. Jozef Budský indirectly built on Czech theatre, particularly on E. F. Burian. Both masterpieces by the authors of Štúr’s generation (Ján Botto, Andrej Sládkovič aroused the interest of the expert public and the audience. It triggered arguments about excessive directorial intervention and insufficient ideological character, especially in the theatre form of Marína.

  14. Brain single-photon emission tomography with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime in adolscents with intial-stage schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, J.F.; Galiano, M.C.; Torres, L.A.; Hernandez, M.C.; Sosa, F.; Perera, A.; Perez, M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to search for regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities in adolescents with initial-stage schizophrenia by means of brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). SPET studies were performed on a homogeneous sample of 15 carefully selected adolescents with a recent diagnosis of schizophrenia, and without previous electroconvulsive or antipsychotic drug treatment. Computed tomography (CT) and electro-encephalographic (EEG) studies were performed in all patients. Qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of 99m Tc-HMPAO SPET studies showed an impaired rCBF in 12 patients (80%). The most common pattern was a decreased uptake of 99m Tc-HMPAO in the frontal lobes, usually in the left hemisphere. Conventional and quantitative EEG was positive in 12 (80%) and 15 (100%) patients, respectively. CT findings were positive in two patients (13%). There was a high level of concordance between SPET and EEG results and between SPET and clinical features (P > 0.05). This study suggests that previously untreated patients in the first stages of schizophrenia present functional abnormalities that are revealed by brain SPET. (orig.)

  15. Brain single-photon emission tomography with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime in adolscents with intial-stage schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, J.F. [Centro de Investigaciones Clinicas, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Galiano, M.C. [Clinica del Adolescente, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Torres, L.A. [Centro de Investigaciones Clinicas, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Hernandez, M.C. [Clinica del Adolescente, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Sosa, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Clinicas, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Perera, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Clinicas, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Perez, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Clinicas, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this study was to search for regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities in adolescents with initial-stage schizophrenia by means of brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). SPET studies were performed on a homogeneous sample of 15 carefully selected adolescents with a recent diagnosis of schizophrenia, and without previous electroconvulsive or antipsychotic drug treatment. Computed tomography (CT) and electro-encephalographic (EEG) studies were performed in all patients. Qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET studies showed an impaired rCBF in 12 patients (80%). The most common pattern was a decreased uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO in the frontal lobes, usually in the left hemisphere. Conventional and quantitative EEG was positive in 12 (80%) and 15 (100%) patients, respectively. CT findings were positive in two patients (13%). There was a high level of concordance between SPET and EEG results and between SPET and clinical features (P > 0.05). This study suggests that previously untreated patients in the first stages of schizophrenia present functional abnormalities that are revealed by brain SPET. (orig.)

  16. Test-compatible confidence intervals for adaptive two-stage single-arm designs with binary endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Kevin; Kieser, Meinhard

    2018-01-01

    Inference after two-stage single-arm designs with binary endpoint is challenging due to the nonunique ordering of the sampling space in multistage designs. We illustrate the problem of specifying test-compatible confidence intervals for designs with nonconstant second-stage sample size and present two approaches that guarantee confidence intervals consistent with the test decision. Firstly, we extend the well-known Clopper-Pearson approach of inverting a family of two-sided hypothesis tests from the group-sequential case to designs with fully adaptive sample size. Test compatibility is achieved by using a sample space ordering that is derived from a test-compatible estimator. The resulting confidence intervals tend to be conservative but assure the nominal coverage probability. In order to assess the possibility of further improving these confidence intervals, we pursue a direct optimization approach minimizing the mean width of the confidence intervals. While the latter approach produces more stable coverage probabilities, it is also slightly anti-conservative and yields only negligible improvements in mean width. We conclude that the Clopper-Pearson-type confidence intervals based on a test-compatible estimator are the best choice if the nominal coverage probability is not to be undershot and compatibility of test decision and confidence interval is to be preserved. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Treatment of metastatic uveal melanoma with adoptive transfer of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes: a single-centre, two-stage, single-arm, phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Smita S; Somerville, Robert P T; Yang, James C; Sherry, Richard M; Klebanoff, Christopher A; Goff, Stephanie L; Wunderlich, John R; Danforth, David N; Zlott, Daniel; Paria, Biman C; Sabesan, Arvind C; Srivastava, Abhishek K; Xi, Liqiang; Pham, Trinh H; Raffeld, Mark; White, Donald E; Toomey, Mary Ann; Rosenberg, Steven A; Kammula, Udai S

    2017-06-01

    Uveal melanoma is a rare tumour with no established treatments once metastases develop. Although a variety of immune-based therapies have shown efficacy in metastatic cutaneous melanoma, their use in ocular variants has been disappointing. Recently, adoptive T-cell therapy has shown salvage responses in multiple refractory solid tumours. Thus, we sought to determine if adoptive transfer of autologous tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) could mediate regression of metastatic uveal melanoma. In this ongoing single-centre, two-stage, phase 2, single-arm trial, patients (aged ≥16 years) with histologically confirmed metastatic ocular melanoma were enrolled. Key eligibility criteria were an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, progressive metastatic disease, and adequate haematological, renal, and hepatic function. Metastasectomies were done to procure tumour tissue to generate autologous TIL cultures, which then underwent large scale ex-vivo expansion. Patients were treated with lymphodepleting conditioning chemotherapy (intravenous cyclophosphamide [60 mg/kg] daily for 2 days followed by fludarabine [25 mg/m 2 ] daily for 5 days, followed by a single intravenous infusion of autologous TILs and high-dose interleukin-2 [720 000 IU/kg] every 8 h). The primary endpoint was objective tumour response in evaluable patients per protocol using Response to Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.0. An interim analysis of this trial is reported here. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01814046. From the completed first stage and ongoing expansion stage of this trial, a total of 21 consecutive patients with metastatic uveal melanoma were enrolled between June 7, 2013, and Sept 9, 2016, and received TIL therapy. Seven (35%, 95% CI 16-59) of 20 evaluable patients had objective tumour regression. Among the responders, six patients achieved a partial response, two of which are ongoing and have not reached maximum

  18. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a vetical projection with geometric seam correction.

  19. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  20. Intercommunications of indexes of speed and power qualities of sportsmen single combat on the stage of the specialized base preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Nykytenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of work is a study of interdependence between indexes specially-preparatory and general preparatory exercises of sportsmen (boxing, sporting hand-to-hand fight hopak, fencing. 42 sportsmen took part in researches. Statistical reliable intercommunications are set: a indexes of force of shots by hands with the indexes of rate of single movement; b indexes of force of shots by feet with indexes from maximal force of muscles (tractive forces; c indexes of speed of shots by hands (pricking with the indexes of distance of shove of balls by mass 300 gramme; d indexes of speed of movement a step in a battle bar with indexes: speeds of shots by hands (pricking; e indexes of frequency of shots of boxers and sportsmen hand-to-hand fight hopak with the indexes of frequency of movement (manoeuvring on feet. Facilities which it is expedient to apply in the training process of single combats on this stage of long-term preparation are certain.

  1. Infestation of the spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) by Hyalomma aegyptium in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Rouatbi, Mariem; Mabrouk, Moez; Mhadhbi, Moez; Amairia, Safa; Amdouni, Yosra; Boussaadoun, Mohamed Anis

    2015-04-01

    We examined 210 spur-thighed tortoises (Testudo graeca) for the presence of ticks in Tunisia during May 2014. A total number of 602 adult ticks were collected and identified leading to the estimation of parasitological indicators. All the ticks belonged to a single species: Hyalomma aegyptium. The mean infestation prevalence was 66.2%, mean overall infestation intensity and abundance were 4.33 and 2.86 ticks/tortoise respectively. Our survey showed that tortoises were significantly more infested by male ticks than females (pTunisia; further investigations are needed to determine exactly the role of this tick species in the transmission of different zoonotic pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Single cell analysis facilitates staging of Blimp1-dependent primordial germ cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Vincent

    Full Text Available The cell intrinsic programming that regulates mammalian primordial germ cell (PGC development in the pre-gonadal stage is challenging to investigate. To overcome this we created a transgene-free method for generating PGCs in vitro (iPGCs from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs. Using labeling for SSEA1 and cKit, two cell surface molecules used previously to isolate presumptive iPGCs, we show that not all SSEA1+/cKit+ double positive cells exhibit a PGC identity. Instead, we determined that selecting for cKit(bright cells within the SSEA1+ fraction significantly enriches for the putative iPGC population. Single cell analysis comparing SSEA1+/cKit(bright iPGCs to ESCs and embryonic PGCs demonstrates that 97% of single iPGCs co-express PGC signature genes Blimp1, Stella, Dnd1, Prdm14 and Dazl at similar levels to e9.5-10.5 PGCs, whereas 90% of single mouse ESC do not co-express PGC signature genes. For the 10% of ESCs that co-express PGC signature genes, the levels are significantly lower than iPGCs. Microarray analysis shows that iPGCs are transcriptionally distinct from ESCs and repress gene ontology groups associated with mesoderm and heart development. At the level of chromatin, iPGCs contain 5-methyl cytosine bases in their DNA at imprinted and non-imprinted loci, and are enriched in histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation, yet do not have detectable levels of Mvh protein, consistent with a Blimp1-positive pre-gonadal PGC identity. In order to determine whether iPGC formation is dependent upon Blimp1, we generated Blimp1 null ESCs and found that loss of Blimp1 significantly depletes SSEA1/cKit(bright iPGCs. Taken together, the generation of Blimp1-positive iPGCs from ESCs constitutes a robust model for examining cell-intrinsic regulation of PGCs during the Blimp1-positive stage of development.

  3. Single cell proteomics using frog (Xenopus laevis) blastomeres isolated from early stage embryos, which form a geometric progression in protein content

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Liangliang; Dubiak, Kyle M.; Peuchen, Elizabeth H.; Zhang, Zhenbin; Zhu, Guijie; Huber, Paul W.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2016-01-01

    Single cell analysis is required to understand cellular heterogeneity in biological systems. We propose that single cells (blastomeres) isolated from early stage invertebrate, amphibian, or fish embryos are ideal model systems for the development of technologies for single cell analysis. For these embryos, although cell cleavage is not exactly symmetric, the content per blastomere decreases roughly by half with each cell division, creating a geometric progression in cellular content. This pro...

  4. A Study of Incidence of calcaneal spurs in North Indian population: A dry bone study

    OpenAIRE

    G. S. Ghindha; S. Kaushal; H. Kaur; M. Singh

    2015-01-01

    The calcaneal spurs are the most common cause of pain in heel. The pain appears when patient stands on the foot for walking and pain disappears when patient walks some distance. The most common causes of spur formation is chronic fasciitis, wears and tears of ligaments and fascia present in the sole of foot. When the fasciitis heals, during the healing process the calcification of fascia or ligaments takes place, which results into the spur formation. The present study has been conducted on...

  5. Characterization and single-stage denitrification anaerobic digestion of spent stream from the hydrolysis-fermentation-combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramnik

    The demand for ethanol as an oxygenate and octane booster in automobile fuel is growing. A number of processes are being investigated for conversion of biomass to ethanol. The Hydrolysis-Fermentation-Combustion (HFC) process for fuel ethanol production developed at the University of California Forest Products Laboratory, Richmond, California is at the stage of technology transfer following over two decades of research and development. This study addresses the technology to be used in treatment of spent streams to be discharged from this process. The treatment design combines a single stage denitrification and anaerobic digestion (SSDAD) for the biological treatment of a representative stream from this process. A typical spent stream contained a wide range of soluble organic materials including: unfermented sugars, components of the feedstocks solubilized in the hydrolysis, acid degradation products of carbohydrates, cleavage products of lignin, water-soluble extractives and phenolics, terpenes and other unfermented organic material, and nitrate ion from the nitric acid used as a catalyst in the hydrolysis reaction. Three sets of experiments were conducted in laboratory scale anaerobic digesters. Commonly available anaerobic sludge from local sewage treatment plants was used as a starter seed and was successfully acclimated to the high nitrate substrate leading to enrichment of denitrifiers. Necessary nutrients and trace elements were identified and supplied to satisfy the obligatory requirements of different groups of bacterial groups present. A major finding was the unique role of ammonium hydroxide in controlling pH leading to steady-state operation of the digester. At steady state operation the reduction in COD was 65%, the nitrate reduction was 88% and the nitrite reduction was 100%. Nitrate was reduced to safe nitrogen gas without buildup of any intermediate products. Organic material was converted to useful methane gas and carbon dioxide. The SSDAD system was

  6. Prospective study of single-stage repair of contaminated hernias using a biologic porcine tissue matrix: the RICH Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Kamal M F; Rosen, Michael; Vargo, Daniel; Awad, Samir S; Denoto, George; Butler, Charles E

    2012-09-01

    In the presence of contamination, the repair of a ventral incisional hernia (VIH) is challenging. The presence of comorbidities poses an additional risk for postoperative wound events and hernia recurrence. To date, very few studies describe the outcomes of VIH repair in this high-risk population. A prospective, multicenter, single-arm, the Repair of Infected or Contaminated Hernias study was performed to study the clinical outcomes of open VIH repair of contaminated abdominal defects with a non-cross-linked, porcine, acellular dermal matrix, Strattice. Of 85 patients who consented to participate, 80 underwent open VIH repair with Strattice. Hernia defects were 'clean-contaminated' (n = 39), 'contaminated' (n = 39), or 'dirty' (n = 2), and the defects were classified as grade 3 (n = 60) or grade 4 (n = 20). The midline was restored, and primary closure was achieved in 64 patients; the defect was bridged in 16 patients. At 24 months, 53 patients (66%) experienced 95 wound events. There were 28 unique, infection-related events in 24 patients. Twenty-two patients experienced seromas, all but 5 of which were transient and required no intervention. No unanticipated adverse events occurred, and no tissue matrix required complete excision. There were 22 hernia (28%) recurrences by month 24. There was no correlation between infection-related events and hernia recurrence. The use of the intact, non-cross-linked, porcine, acellular dermal matrix, Strattice, in the repair of contaminated VIH in high-risk patients allowed for successful, single-stage reconstruction in >70% of patients followed for 24 months after repair. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  7. A Robust High-Performance GPS L1 Receiver with Single-stage Quadrature Redio-Frequency Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghua; Xu, Weilin; Wan, Qinq; Liu, Tianci

    2018-03-01

    A low power current reuse single-stage quadrature raido-frequency part (SQRF) is proposed for GPS L1 receiver in 180nm CMOS process. The proposed circuit consists of LNA, Mixer, QVCO, is called the QLMV cell. A two blocks stacked topology is adopted in this design. The parallel QVCO and mixer placed on the top forms the upper stacked block, and the LNA placed on the bottom forms the other stacked block. The two blocks share the current and achieve low power performance. To improve the stability, a float current source is proposed. The float current isolated the local oscillation signal and the input RF signal, which bring the whole circuit robust high-performance. The result shows conversion gain is 34 dB, noise figure is three dB, the phase noise is -110 dBc/Hz at 1MHz and IIP3 is -20 dBm. The proposed circuit dissipated 1.7mW with 1 V supply voltage.

  8. FunSAV: predicting the functional effect of single amino acid variants using a two-stage random forest model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Wang

    Full Text Available Single amino acid variants (SAVs are the most abundant form of known genetic variations associated with human disease. Successful prediction of the functional impact of SAVs from sequences can thus lead to an improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms of why a SAV may be associated with certain disease. In this work, we constructed a high-quality structural dataset that contained 679 high-quality protein structures with 2,048 SAVs by collecting the human genetic variant data from multiple resources and dividing them into two categories, i.e., disease-associated and neutral variants. We built a two-stage random forest (RF model, termed as FunSAV, to predict the functional effect of SAVs by combining sequence, structure and residue-contact network features with other additional features that were not explored in previous studies. Importantly, a two-step feature selection procedure was proposed to select the most important and informative features that contribute to the prediction of disease association of SAVs. In cross-validation experiments on the benchmark dataset, FunSAV achieved a good prediction performance with the area under the curve (AUC of 0.882, which is competitive with and in some cases better than other existing tools including SIFT, SNAP, Polyphen2, PANTHER, nsSNPAnalyzer and PhD-SNP. The sourcecodes of FunSAV and the datasets can be downloaded at http://sunflower.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp/sjn/FunSAV.

  9. Heat transfer and oil flow studies on a single-stage-to-orbit control-configured winged entry vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, V. T., III; Bradley, P. F.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented for oil flow and phase change paint heat transfer tests conducted on a 0.006 scale model of a proposed single stage to orbit control configured vehicle. The data were taken at angles of attack up to 40 deg at a free stream Mach number of 10 for Reynolds numbers based on model length of 0.5 x 10 to the 6th power, 1.0 x 10 to the 6th power and 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power. The magnitude and distribution of heating are characterized in terms of angle of attack and Reynolds number aided by an analysis of the flow data which are used to suggest the presence of various three dimensional flow structures that produce the observed heating patterns. Of particular interest are streak heating patterns that result in high localized heat transfer rates on the wing windward surface at low to moderate angles of attack. These streaks are caused by the bow-shock/wing-shock interaction and formation of the wing-shock. Embedded vorticity was found to be associated with these interactions.

  10. Effectiveness and prognostic factors of radiotherapy for painful plantar heel spurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, O.; Bosch, E.; Gott, C.; Adamietz, I.A.; Stueckle, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the effectiveness (pain relief rate and long-term results) and prognostic factors of RT for plantar heel pain have been investigated. Patients and methods: From January 2000 to October 2000, 62 patients (73 heels) with painful plantar heel spurs and a minimum pain history of 3 months were treated and evaluated in a prospective study. Mean age was 54 years (range 28-84 years). All patients were treated with a total dose of 5 Gy in seven fractions (= one series), given twice a week at a single-dose sequence of 0.25-0.25-0.5-1.0-1.0-1.0-1-0. Gy (10-MV photons, source-skin distance [SSD] 100 cm, direct portal, field size 12 x 17 cm). The mean duration of heel pain before RT was 26 weeks (= 6.5 months; range 3-120 months). By means of a visual analog scale (VAS) the patients had to self-assess the quantity of their heel pain once before, three times during and four times after RT at a long-term median follow-up of 28 and 40 months. Additionally, the patients had to assess their mechanical heel stress extent during RT. Effectiveness was estimated according to the patients' judgment of pain reduction. The results confirm the high efficacy of RT in painful plantar spur and add new aspects to formerly published data concerning the time course of changes in heel pain reduction. Pain relief can be expected during and shortly after RT. In addition, the initial success can be transformed into effective long-term results >2 years after RT; however, further improvement is not to be expected. As a new prognostic factor, the reduction of mechanical heel stress during RT may ameliorate the short-term results, whereas short heel pain history improves the long-term results. Especially for older patients, RT should be taken into consideration as primary treatment. (orig.)

  11. Coefficient of friction of a starved lubricated spur gear pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huaiju; Zhu, Caichao; Sun, Zhangdong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Song, Chaosheng

    2016-01-01

    The frictional power loss issue of gear pairs becomes an important concern in both industry and academia due to the requirement of the energy saving and the improvement of power density of gear drives. A thermal starved elastohydrodynamic lubrication model is developed to study the tribological performance of a spur gear pair under starved lubrication conditions. The contact pressure, the film thickness, the temperature rise, the frictional power loss, as well as the coefficient of friction are evaluated by considering the variation of the curvature radius, the sliding/rolling motion, and the load distribution of gear tooth within the meshing period. Effects of lubrication starvation condition, load and speed on the coefficient of friction are studied.

  12. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (3-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 This 360-degree stereo panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The stereo-anaglyph view presented here is a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction. Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  13. Subpicosecond pulse radiolysis studies on spur reactions and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, S.

    2003-01-01

    Recently we developed a subpicosecond pulse radiolysis system, although the time resolution of pulse radiolysis had remained about 30 ps for these 30 years. Time resolution and S/N ratio have been improved dramatically. The subpicosecond pulse radiolysis is a very powerful method to detect and observe transient phenomena in radiation chemistry and physics within 30 ps. By using the subpicosecond pulse radiolysis, many researches have been carried out on ultrafast phenomena in radiation chemistry, physics, biology and applied fields such as material science.Especially the spur reaction, which is one of the most important reactions in radiation chemistry, physics and biology, has been studied in the very wide time range from subpicosecond to several hundred nanoseconds by very high S/N ratio. These experimental results were analyzed theoretically and applied to the basic data for nanofabrication, which are very important in both next generation lithography and nanotechnology

  14. [Excessively long calcaneal spur. A rudimentary form of calcaneo-navicular synostosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, J; Pouliquen, J C

    1983-01-01

    The authors have seen 5 children aged between 12 and 16 years suffering from a painful foot described as a recurrent sprain. Movements of the subtalar joint were limited and radiographs showed a hypertrophic calcaneal spur projecting towards the navicular but without fusion between the calcaneus and navicular. The calcaneal spurs were resected with good results and with an immediate symptomatic improvement.

  15. Calcaneal spurs: examining etiology using prehistoric skeletal remains to understand present day heel pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Elizabeth

    2012-09-01

    Calcanei are the most common sites for bony spurs. Although calcaneal enthesophytes have been extensively researched, many unknowns remain. Whether biological factors, such as age, weight and genetics, play a greater role in calcaneal spur etiology than activity is still unknown. The current study examines 121 adults from a prehistoric hunter-gatherer population to aid in understanding bony spur etiology. Calcaneal spurs are scored as present or absent on the dorsal or plantar side; they are analyzed in regards to their relationships with age, sex, osteoarthritis, cortical index, femoral head breadth and muscle markers. Dorsal and plantar spurs frequencies increase with age (chi-squares=16.90, 7.268, Psspurs were more frequent than plantar spurs (chi-square=38.000; Pcalcaneal spurs and upper limb and lower limb osteoarthritis (chi-squares=5.587, 7.640, Psspurs are in part the result of activities, but plantar spurs may be a more modern phenomena resulting from long periods of standing and excess weight. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulating Army-Relevant Spur Gear Contacts with a Ball-on-Disc Tribometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    ARL-TR-7492 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Simulating Army-Relevant Spur Gear Contacts with a Ball -on-Disc Tribometer...Research Laboratory Simulating Army-Relevant Spur Gear Contacts with a Ball -on-Disc Tribometer by Mark R Riggs, Stephen P Berkebile, Adrian A...

  17. Relationships between spur- and orchard-level fruit bearing in almond (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Sergio; Lampinen, Bruce D; Metcalf, Samuel; DeJong, Theodore M

    2011-12-01

    Almond is often considered to be a moderately alternate-bearing species but historical yield data typically do not exhibit clear patterns of alternate bearing at the orchard level, while research has indicated that spurs (the main fruit bearing unit in almond trees) rarely produce fruit in two subsequent years. The objective of the present work was to analyze the bearing behavior of almond trees at both the orchard level and the individual spur level over multiple years to explain this apparent paradox. The 10-year yield patterns of three almond cultivars grown at three different sites within California were analyzed for tendencies of alternate bearing at the orchard level. At the individual spur level, data on spur viability, and number of flowers and fruits per spur were collected on 2400 individually tagged spurs that were observed over 6 years to characterize bearing at that level. At the orchard level one cultivar (Nonpareil) did exhibit a tendency for alternate bearing at one site (Kern) but other cultivars and sites did not. The orchard and the individual trees in which the spur population study was conducted showed tendencies for alternate bearing but the spur population did not. Only a relatively small percentage of the total tagged spur population bore fruit in any given year and therefore while individual fruiting spurs exhibited a high level of non-bearing after fruiting the previous year the spurs that did produce fruit in any year generally did not constitute enough of the total spur population to exhibit alternate bearing at the whole population level. Our results suggest that annual bearing fluctuations in almond are probably mainly due to year-to-year variations of parameters affecting fruit set and that high rates of fruit set in a given year may involve a larger-than-normal percentage of a spur population in fruit bearing. This would limit the size of the spur population available for flowering in the subsequent year and could cause alternate

  18. Apodization of spurs in radar receivers using multi-channel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2017-11-21

    The various technologies presented herein relate to identification and mitigation of spurious energies or signals (aka "spurs") in radar imaging. Spurious energy in received radar data can be a consequence of non-ideal component and circuit behavior. Such behavior can result from I/Q imbalance, nonlinear component behavior, additive interference (e.g. cross-talk, etc.), etc. The manifestation of the spurious energy in a radar image (e.g., a range-Doppler map) can be influenced by appropriate pulse-to-pulse phase modulation. Comparing multiple images which have been processed using the same data but of different signal paths and modulations enables identification of undesired spurs, with subsequent cropping or apodization of the undesired spurs from a radar image. Spurs can be identified by comparison with a threshold energy. Removal of an undesired spur enables enhanced identification of true targets in a radar image.

  19. Seismic characterization of fluid migration and Pockmarks in the Estremadura Spur, West Iberian Margin, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Débora; Magalhães, Vitor Hugo; Terrinha, Pedro; Ribeiro, Carlos; Madureira, Pedro; Menezes Pinheiro, Luís; Benazzouz, Omar; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Duarte, Henrique

    2017-04-01

    Recently a field with more than 70 pockmarks was discovered in the NW region of the Estremadura Spur outer shelf (West Iberian margin), a trapezoidal promontory elongated in an east-west direction, between Cabo Carvoeiro and Cabo da Roca, extending until the Tore seamount. Pockmarks are the seabed culminations of fluid migration through the sedimentary column and their characteristic seabed morphologies correspond to cone-shaped circular or elliptical depressions. These features and the associated fluid escape process are the main objectives of this work. Here we characterize these structures to understand their structural and stratigraphic control based on: 1) Seismic processing and interpretation of the high resolution 2D single-channel sparker seismic dataset, 2) Bathymetric and Backscatter interpretation and 3) ROV direct observation of the seafloor. The analysis of the seismic profiles allowed the identification of six seismic units, disturbed by the migration and accumulation of fluids. The Estremadura Spur outer shelf has been affected by several episodes of fluid migration and fluid escape during the Pliocene-Quaternary that are expressed by a vast number of seabed and buried pockmarks. At present, the pockmarks are mainly inactive, as the seabed pockmarks are covered by recent sediments. The stacking of various pockmarks suggests a cyclical fluid flow activity that can possibly be the result of the eustatic sea level variations and the subsequent changes of the hydrostatic pressure. The origin of the seep fluids is still under debate but considering the low-sedimentation rate of the area and the low productivity a deep source for the fluids is most probable, possibly related with the Jurassic hydrocarbon system. It was concluded that the migration of fluids to the seabed occurred over the Pliocene-Quaternary in several episodes, as indicated by the buried pockmarks at different depths. Acknowledgements: This work was carried out in the framework of the PES

  20. Effects of a saturated layer and recirculation on nitrogen treatment performances of a single stage Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland (VFCW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, S; Paing, J; Andres, Y; Chazarenc, F

    2013-01-01

    Upgrades to enhance nitrogen removal were tested in a 2 year old pilot vertical flow constructed wetland in spring and summer periods. The effects of a saturated layer and of recirculation were tested in particular. Two pilots (L = 2 m, W = 1.25 m, H = 1.2 m), filled with expanded schist (Mayennite(®)), were designed with hydraulic saturated layers of 20 and 40 cm at the bottom. Each pilot was fed with raw domestic wastewater under field conditions according to a hydraulic load of 15-38 cm d(-1) (i.e. 158-401 g COD (chemical oxygen demand) m(-2) d(-1)) and to recirculation rates ranging from 0% up to 150%. The initial load during the first 2 years of operation resulted in an incomplete mineralized accumulated sludge leading to total suspended solids (TSS), COD and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) release. A 40 cm hydraulic saturated layer enabled an increase of 5-10% total nitrogen (TN) removal compared to a 20 cm saturated layer. Recirculation allowed the dilution of raw wastewater and enhanced nitrification in a single stage. A design of 1.8 m² pe(-1) (48 cm d(-1), 191 g COD m(-2) d(-1)) with a 40 cm saturated layer and 100% recirculation enabled the French standard D4 (35 mg TSS L(-1), 125 mg COD L(-1), 25 mg BOD5 L(-1)), nitrogen concentrations below 20 mg TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen) L(-1) and 50 mg TN L(-1), to be met.

  1. Influence of the effectiveness of raw materials on the reliability of thermoelectric cooling devices. Part I: single-stage TEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaikov V. P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increase of the reliability of information systems depends on the reliability improvement of their component elements, including cooling devices, providing efficiency of thermally loaded components. Thermoelectric devices based on the Peltier effect have significant advantages compared with air and liquid systems for thermal modes of the radio-electronic equipment. This happens due to the absence of moving parts, which account for the failure rate. The article presents research results on how thermoelectric efficiency modules affect the failure rate and the probability of non-failure operation in the range of working temperature of thermoelectric coolers. The authors investigate a model of relative failure rate and the probability of failure-free operation single-stage thermoelectric devices depending on the main relevant parameters: the operating current flowing through the thermocouple and resistance, temperature changes, the magnitude of the heat load and the number of elements in the module. It is shown that the increase in the thermoelectric efficiency of the primary material for a variety of thermocouple temperature changes causes the following: maximum temperature difference increases by 18%; the number of elements in the module decreases; cooling coefficient increases; failure rate reduces and the probability of non-failure operation of thermoelectric cooling device increases. Material efficiency increase by 1% allows reducing failure rate by 2,6—4,3% in maximum refrigeration capacity mode and by 4,2—5,0% in minimal failure rate mode when temperature difference changes in the range of 40—60 K. Thus, the increase in the thermoelectric efficiency of initial materials of thermocouples can significantly reduce the failure rate and increase the probability of failure of thermoelectric coolers depending on the temperature difference and the current operating mode.

  2. A Three-Level Quasi-Two-Stage Single-Phase PFC Converter with Flexible Output Voltage and Improved Conversion Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Zhu, Dexuan; Jin, Chi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a three-level quasi-two-stage single-phase power factor correction (PFC) converter that has flexible output voltage and improved conversion efficiency. The proposed PFC converter features sinusoidal input current, three-level output characteristic, and a wide range of output dc...

  3. An operational protocol for facilitating start-up of single-stage autotrophic nitrogen-removing reactors based on process stoichiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutlu, Ayten Gizem; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    Start-up and operation of single-stage nitritation–anammox sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for completely autotrophic nitrogen removal can be challenging and far from trivial. In this study, a step-wise procedure is developed based on stoichiometric analysis of the process performance from...

  4. Enamel pits in hamster molars, formed by a single high fluoride dose, are associated with a perturbation of transitional stage ameloblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyaruu, D.M.; Vermeulen, L.; Stienen, N.; Bervoets, T.J.M.; Denbesten, P.K.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Excessive intake of fluoride (F) by young children results in the formation of enamel subsurface porosities and pits, called enamel fluorosis. In this study, we used a single high dose of F administered to hamster pups to determine the stage of ameloblasts most affected by F and whether pit

  5. Temperature-phased anaerobic digestion of food waste: A comparison with single-stage digestions based on performance and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Benyi; Qin, Yu; Zhang, Wenzhe; Wu, Jing; Qiang, Hong; Liu, Junxin; Li, Yu-You

    2018-02-01

    The temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) of food waste was studied for the purpose of comparing with single-stage mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion. The biogas and methane yields in the TPAD during the steady period were 0.759 ± 0.115 L/g added VS and 0.454 ± 0.201 L/g added VS, which were lower than those in the two single-stage anaerobic digestion. The improper sludge retention time may be the reason for the lower biogas and methane production in TPAD. The removal of volatile solids in the TPAD was 78.55 ± 4.59% and the lowest among the three anaerobic digestion processes. The reaction ratios of the four anaerobic digestion steps in the TPAD were all lower than those in the two single-stage anaerobic digestion. The energy conversion efficiency of the degraded substrate in the TPAD was similar with those in single-stage mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics and Sampling Efficiencies of Two Impactor Bioaerosol Samplers: MAS-100(Registered) (Microbial Air Monitoring System) and Single-Stage Andersen Viable Microbial Samplers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hottell, K

    2004-01-01

    .... A petri dish with agar is used as the impaction surface for these samplers. The MAS-l00 is a single-stage impactor that aspirates air through a 400-hole perforated entry plate onto an agar plate at an airflow rate of 100 L/min...

  7. Advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers for space applications in NLIP/SITP/CAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Haizheng; Tan, Jun; Zha, Rui; Li, Jiaqi; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yibo; Gao, Zhiqian; Bao, Dingli; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Yongjiang; Zhao, Bangjian

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a review of recent advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTCs) for space applications developed at the National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NLIP/SITP/CAS). A variety of single-stage SPTCs operating at 25-150 K have been developed, including several mid-sized ones operating at 80-110 K. Significant progress has been achieved in coolers operating at 30-40 K which use common stainless steel meshes as regenerator matrices. Another important advance is the micro SPTCs with an overall mass of 300-800 g operating at high frequencies varying from 100 Hz to 400 Hz. The main purpose of developing two-stage SPTCs is to simultaneously acquire cooling capacities at both stages, obviating the need for auxiliary precooling in various applications. The three-stage SPTCs are developed mainly for applications at around 10 K, which are also used for precooling the J-T coolers to achieve further lower temperatures. The four-stage SPTCs are developed to directly achieve the liquid helium temperature for cooling space low-Tc superconducting devices and for the deep space exploration as well. Several typical development programs are described and an overview of the cooler performances is presented.

  8. The new target chamber at LIPSION: The new translation stage and goniometer and the new irradiation platform for single cell experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Charlotta; Petriconi, Silvio; Reinert, Tilo; Butz, Tilman

    2007-01-01

    A new target chamber as well as a new 7-axes translation stage with goniometer will shortly be implemented at the LIPSION nanoprobe in Leipzig. This new stage should enable linear motion as well as rotary motion with high precision, positioning accuracy and repeatability. These different features have been investigated online as well as offline, with encouraging results. Along with the new equipment, new software is also being developed, to provide stage control running over network. These software developments, including a graphical user interface, will also be described. As part of the new target chamber, a new external beam facility and irradiation platform for single ion experiments on single living cells is being assembled. A detailed description of the new cell irradiation platform, including beam extraction, new cell dishes, and cell recognition aspects will be given. It will be shown that the possibility of offline cell recognition, possibly using a differential interference contrast microscope, is an option

  9. Studying the effect of over-modulation on the output voltage of three-phase single-stage grid-connected boost inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abbas Elserougi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Voltage boosting is very essential issue in renewable-energy fed applications. The classical two-stage power conversion process is typically used to interface the renewable energy sources to the grid. For better efficiency, single-stage inverters are recommended. In this paper, the performance of single-stage three-phase grid-connected boost inverter is investigated when its gain is extended by employing over-modulation technique. Using of over-modulation is compared with the employment of third order harmonic injection. The latter method can increase the inverter gain by 15% without distorting the inverter output voltage. The performance of extended gain grid-connected boost inverter is also tested during normal operation as well as in the presence of grid side disturbances. Simulation and experimental results are satisfactory.

  10. Administration of toltrazuril during experimental coccidiosis in mule ducks: comparison of the efficacy of a single administration at two different endogenous stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, M C; Chauve, C M; Gastellu, J; Gounel, J M

    1999-03-15

    An experimental Eimeria mulardi coccidiosis was reproduced in mule ducks. A single dose of toltrazuril (7 mg per kg) was administered at two different endogenous stages: Day 2 (first meronts) or Day 5 (last meronts and gamonts). The efficacy of the drug was assessed on four criteria (body weight, oocyst counts, macroscopic lesions, and presence of the meronts and gamonts). To have a curative effect, a single dose of toltrazuril should be administered early on. However, a single treatment on Day 5 had a prophylactic effect.

  11. Is less also better? A single-institution experience on treatment of early stage Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoglio, P; Ambrogi, M C; Chella, A; Aprile, V; Dini, P; Korasidis, S; Fanucchi, O; Mussi, A

    2017-07-01

    No clear evidence of which surgical procedure should be performed for early stage mesothelioma is available to date. We analyzed our 10-year experience in the treatment of early stage mesothelioma with surgery and Hyperthermic IntraTHOracic Chemotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed all cases of histologically proven epithelioid or biphasic IMIG stage I and II mesothelioma that we operated between 2005 and 2014. We performed an open pleurectomy and partial decortication of any visible lesion on the visceral pleura in all cases and both diaphragm and pericardium were always spared; Hyperthermic IntraTHOracic Chemotherapy was ran using Cisplatin 80 mg/m 2 and Doxorubicin 25 mg/m 2 at a target temperature of 42.5 °C for 60 min. We operated on 26 patients (23 male and 3 female); epithelioid tumor was diagnosed in 23 cases. Twelve patients were in IMIG stage I and 14 in IMIG stage II; median overall survival for all patients, stage I and II were 35.6, 46 and 23 months respectively and disease free survival was 18, 18 and 16 months respectively. Our results for stage I were better than those reported in literature and were similar for stage II. We observe no 30- and 90- mortality and the rate of severe complication (all CTCAE stage 3) were 30%; the median postoperative stay was 7.5 days. Our lung sparing approach for the treatment of pleural mesothelioma in early stages allows promising long term outcomes with a complete sparing of pulmonary and diaphragmatic function. Larger studies are needed to confirm our good results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  12. First TRUE Stage - Transport of solutes in an interpreted single fracture. Proceedings from the 4th international seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    The First Stage of the Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE-1) was initiated in 1994 and the experimental activities were officially concluded in December 1998 with the termination of the final test with radioactive sorbing tracers. The programme also included a laboratory programme focused on both generic (Aespoe HRL) and site-specific (Feature A) geological material. Modelling, both scopings, predictions and evaluation of the final tests with sorbing tracers has been performed parallel to the experimental work. The work and conclusions of the SKB TRUE project team have been published in a SKB technical report. The TRUE-1 experiments have also been subject to blind prediction and evaluation by an international group of modelling teams within the auspices of the Aespoe Task Force on Groundwater on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport. A list of relevant reports and publications related to the First TRUE Stage are presented in Appendix A. The present seminar provides a venue to present and discuss the results of the TRUE-1 experiments in terms of identified transport and retention processes and concepts/approaches used to model. However, given the fact that may international programs, including that of SKB, are either underway or preparing for site characterisation programs, the seminar provides a possibility to discuss research priorities and the specific data needs for development of a geological repository. In his opening address, the director of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory emphasised the need to carefully integrate available experience from other research sites, e.g. Grimsel (Switzerland), Stripa (Sweden) and El Berrocal (Spain). The two important questions to be asked are; What do we know? What is the way forward? For the subsequent discussions four different discussion themes were identified; 1. Identification of transport processes. 2. Model concepts. 3. Site-specific data needs for a geological repository. 4. Research priorities

  13. Single-stage epidural catheter lavage with posterior spondylodesis in lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis with multilevel epidural abscess formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschoeke, Sven K; Kayser, Ralph; Gulow, Jens; Hoeh, Nicolas von der; Salis-Soglio, Georg von; Heyde, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    Despite significant advances in the conservative management of pyogenic spondylodiscitis, consecutive instability, deformity, and/or neurologic compromise demands a prompt surgical intervention. However, in rare cases involving additional multilevel epidural abscess formation, the appropriate surgical strategy remains controversial. In this retrospective cohort analyses, we evaluated the efficacy of a single-stage posterior approach with the addition of a one-time multilevel epidural lavage via the surgically exposed interlaminar fenestration of the infected segment. From January 2009 through December 2010, 73 patients presenting pyogenic spondylodiscitis with instability of the lumbar spine were admitted. In all cases, the surgical strategy included a radical resection of the affected intervertebral disc and stabilization by intervertebral fusion using a titanium cage with autologous bone grafting in a level-dependent posterior approach with additional pedicle screw-and-rod instrumentation. In cases where multilevel abscess formation was evident, the standard surgical procedure was complemented by drainage and irrigation of the abscess from posterior by carefully advancing a soft infant feeding tube via the surgically exposed epidural space under fluoroscopic guidance. All patients received complementary oral antibiotic therapy for 12 weeks and were followed-up for a minimum of 12 months postoperatively. Ten patients (three male and seven female patients; mean age: 64.9 ± 10.9 years) presented with an additional lumbar epidural abscess extending beyond three levels proximal or distal to the infected disc. In all 10 patients the laboratory-chemical inflammatory parameters (leukocyte count, C-reactive protein) remained within the physiologic range after completing antibiotic therapy throughout the 1-year follow-up period. The plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated solid fusion and the complete remission of the initial abscess formation after

  14. Rapid near-optimal trajectory generation and guidance law development for single-stage-to-orbit airbreathing vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calise, A. J.; Flandro, G. A.; Corban, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    General problems associated with on-board trajectory optimization, propulsion system cycle selection, and with the synthesis of guidance laws were addressed for an ascent to low-earth-orbit of an air-breathing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The NASA Generic Hypersonic Aerodynamic Model Example and the Langley Accelerator aerodynamic sets were acquired and implemented. Work related to the development of purely analytic aerodynamic models was also performed at a low level. A generic model of a multi-mode propulsion system was developed that includes turbojet, ramjet, scramjet, and rocket engine cycles. Provisions were made in the dynamic model for a component of thrust normal to the flight path. Computational results, which characterize the nonlinear sensitivity of scramjet performance to changes in vehicle angle of attack, were obtained and incorporated into the engine model. Additional trajectory constraints were introduced: maximum dynamic pressure; maximum aerodynamic heating rate per unit area; angle of attack and lift limits; and limits on acceleration both along and normal to the flight path. The remainder of the effort focused on required modifications to a previously derived algorithm when the model complexity cited above was added. In particular, analytic switching conditions were derived which, under appropriate assumptions, govern optimal transition from one propulsion mode to another for two cases: the case in which engine cycle operations can overlap, and the case in which engine cycle operations are mutually exclusive. The resulting guidance algorithm was implemented in software and exercised extensively. It was found that the approximations associated with the assumed time scale separation employed in this work are reasonable except over the Mach range from roughly 5 to 8. This phenomenon is due to the very large thrust capability of scramjets in this Mach regime when sized to meet the requirement for ascent to orbit. By accounting for flight path

  15. Which Stage of ADPKD Is More Appropriate for Decortication? A Retrospective Study of 137 Patients from a Single Clinic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Qian

    Full Text Available To study retrospectively the efficacy of decortication in patients with different stages of ADPKD and to determine which stage for decortication is more appropriate.We analyzed 137 patients with ADPKD from 2001 to 2010. All patients were divided into three stages. A total of 70 patients underwent decortication, and we studied intraoperative indicators and postoperative indicators at 1 and 3 years follow-up.In 70 patients who underwent decortication, significant differences were observed in operative duration and bleeding volume between patients with stage I and II ADPKD (P 0.05. The total complication occurrence rate was significantly different between them (P 0.05. Scr levels were significantly decreased in patients with stage II ADPKD in the 1st postoperative year (P 0.05. In the 1st postoperative year, VAS value, blood pressure and renal volume significantly differed (P 0.05.Decortication in patients with stage I ADPKD can alleviate back pain symptoms and decrease blood pressure within 1 year, but the long-term efficacy is not ideal. Scr levels can be maintained within normal limits, suggesting that decortication does not lead to deterioration of renal function. For patients with stage II ADPKD, decortication can significantly improve renal function over the short term. However, after 3 years, renal function returns to the preoperative level, and surgical difficulties and complications also increase.

  16. Single-stage endoscopic treatment for mild to moderate acute cholangitis associated with choledocholithiasis: a multicenter, non-randomized, open-label and exploratory clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Kazunori; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Haba, Shin; Yamato, Hiroaki; Okuda, Toshinori; Yane, Kei; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Ehira, Nobuyuki; Onodera, Manabu; Matsumoto, Ryusuke; Matsubara, Yu; Takagi, Tomofumi; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2015-12-01

    Two-stage treatment involving stone removal after drainage is recommended for mild to moderate acute cholangitis associated with choledocholithiasis. However, single-stage treatment has some advantages. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of single-stage endoscopic treatment for mild to moderate acute cholangitis associated with choledocholithiasis. A multicenter, non-randomized, open-label, exploratory clinical trial was performed in 12 institutions. A total of 50 patients with a naïve papilla and a body temperature ≥37 °C who were diagnosed with mild to moderate cholangitis associated with choledocholithiasis were enrolled between August 2012 and February 2014. Of the 50 patients, 15 had mild cholangitis and 35 had moderate cholangitis. The median number of common bile duct stones was 2 (range, 1-8), and the median diameter of the common bile duct stones was 7.5 mm (range, 1-18). The cure rate of acute cholangitis within 4 days after single-stage treatment was 90% (45/50) based on a body temperature choledocholithiasis (clinical trial registration number: UMIN000008494). © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  17. Operational limit conditions of the spur gears in lubricated modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benilha, S.; Belarifi, F.

    2018-01-01

    The calculation of the gear teeth resistance, shows the using of a certain number of coefficients determined experimentally and which are accepted by the various international standards. However, this kind of calculation determines the gears by excess material and does not support the tribological parameters of operation. We propose in this work the support of these parameters, to determine the limit operation conditions of the spur gears, using the equivalent geometry. This is represented by two cylinders, which geometrically models of the contact between two teeth of a gear and whose lubrication is generally in mixed lubrication mode. The concept of Mc cool is used to determine the distribution of the load and the friction force, which are distributed in liquid (elastohydrodynamic) and solid domains and interact with each other. The phenomenon of interaction between the two domains is used, to predict the tribological limit conditions of operation. The proposed model is based on the resolution of elastohydrodynamic equations for the determination of load and friction as well as the deduction of mixed friction by tracing the Stribeck curve. This is calculated by the model of the decomposition of the patterns profile of rough surfaces in contacts. The results of non-dimensional calculations allow us to deduce the boundary conditions and can be adapted for any type of gear pair defined according to pre-established operating conditions.

  18. Canine hip dysplasia: significance of early bony spurring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to call attention to new bone production that often occurs early in the sequence of pathological changes associated with canine hip dysplasia. New bone production extending to bony remodeling, as well as femoral head subluxation, both occur in the sequence of pathologic changes associated with canine hip dysplasia. Subluxation is considered primary, while osteoarthrosis is a secondary feature, and both are used in the diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia. This report concerns the significance of the presence of a solitary bony osteophyte, or spur, that is frequently evident on the caudal aspect of the femoral neck as viewed on the conventional ventrodorsal projection. This report utilizes findings from pelvic radiographs of 605 dogs (five breeds). There was a greater frequency (54%)of this bony change in cases diagnosed radiographically as dysplastic than in cases diagnosed as normal(15%).Thus, it is suggested that this minimal radiographic change can be used as an indicator of early canine hip dysplasia, especially in the absence of subluxation of the femoral head

  19. Multi-stage versus single-stage inflation and deflation cycle for alternating low pressure air mattresses to prevent pressure ulcers in hospitalised patients: a randomised-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarré, L; Beeckman, D; Vanderwee, K; Defloor, T; Grypdonck, M; Verhaeghe, S

    2012-04-01

    The duration and the amount of pressure and shear must be reduced in order to minimize the risk of pressure ulcer development. Alternating low pressure air mattresses with multi-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells have been developed to relieve pressure by sequentially inflating and deflating the air cells. Evidence about the effectiveness of this type of mattress in clinical practice is lacking. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of an alternating low pressure air mattress that has a standard single-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells with an alternating low pressure air mattress with multi-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. A randomised controlled trial was performed in a convenience sample of 25 wards in five hospitals in Belgium. In total, 610 patients were included and randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=298) or the control group (n=312). In the experimental group, patients were allocated to an alternating low pressure air mattress with multi-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. In the control group, patients were allocated to an alternating low pressure air mattress with a standard single-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. The outcome was defined as cumulative pressure ulcer incidence (Grade II-IV). An intention-to-treat analysis was performed. There was no significant difference in cumulative pressure ulcer incidence (Grade II-IV) between both groups (Exp.=5.7%, Contr.=5.8%, p=0.97). When patients developed a pressure ulcer, the median time was 5.0 days in the experimental group (IQR=3.0-8.5) and 8.0 days in the control group (IQR=3.0-8.5) (Mann-Whitney U-test=113, p=0.182). The probability to remain pressure ulcer free during the observation period in this trial did not differ significantly between the experimental group and the control group (log-rank χ(2)=0.013, df=1, p=0.911). An alternating low pressure air mattress with multi-stage inflation

  20. [The incidence, age dependence and sex distribution of the calcaneal spur. An analysis of its x-ray morphology in 1027 patients of the central European population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riepert, T; Drechsler, T; Urban, R; Schild, H; Mattern, R

    1995-06-01

    In 1027 lateral radiograms of the ankle in a Caucasian population, 161 plantar and/or dorsal calcaneal spurs (15.7%) were diagnosed. Plantar spurs were more common than dorsal spurs (11.2 and 9.3% respectively). Prevalence of both spurs increases considerably with the rising age. Dorsal spurs appear slightly earlier than plantar spurs. The spur frequencies are similar in left and right feet. The plantar spurs were significantly (p spurs were more frequent in men than in women up to the age of 70. The previously reported higher frequencies of plantar and dorsal calcaneal spurs in women than in men are probably a result of a disproportionally higher number of women in higher age in the groups studied. In forensic medicine, calcaneal spurs provide evidence for identity and age of unknown corpses, and to certain extend their profession, physical activities and constitution during life.

  1. Anatomic relationship of heel spur to surrounding soft tissues: greater variability than previously reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Muehleman, C

    2007-11-01

    The stimulating factor for the development of heel spur (calcaneal exostosis) is controversial. In a sample of elderly cadaveric specimens, using radiographic, gross morphological, and histological investigation, we demonstrate that heel spurs are generally not found in the trajectory of traction from the plantar aponeurosis enthesis or plantar muscles. Rather, they are variably associated with soft tissues including loose connective tissue, fibrocartilage, muscle, and aponeurosis. Furthermore, the bony trabeculae of the spur are not aligned in the direction of soft tissue traction, but rather in the direction of stress on the calcaneus during walking and standing. These results substantiate the view that the heel spur may be a skeletal response to stress and may serve to protect the bone against the development of microfractures. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  2. 77 FR 45965 - Determination of Attainment for the Paul Spur/Douglas PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Pirtleville, 2010 population 1,744, (U.S. Census). The 2010 population of Agua Prieta, Mexico, just across the... Paul Spur/Douglas NA covers approximately 220 square miles along the border with Mexico within Cochise...

  3. Low Voltage Ride-Through Capability of a Single-Stage Single-Phase Photovoltaic System Connected to the Low-Voltage Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    The progressively growing of single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems makes the Distribution System Operators (DSO) to update or revise the existing grid codes in order to guarantee the availability, quality and reliability of the electrical system. It is expected that the future PV systems connected...... to the low-voltage grid will be more active with functionalities of low voltage ride-through (LVRT) and the grid support capability, which is not the case today. In this paper, the operation principle is demonstrated for a single-phase grid-connected PV system in low voltage ride through operation in order...... to map future challenges. The system is verified by simulations and experiments. Test results show that the proposed power control method is effective and the single-phase PV inverters connected to low-voltage networks are ready to provide grid support and ride-through voltage fault capability...

  4. The association of calcaneal spur length and clinical and functional parameters in plantar fasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyucu, Ersin; Koçyiğit, Figen; Erdil, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    Plantar fasciitis (PF)is the most common cause of plantar heel pain. Despite many treatment alternatives for heel spur, the association of calcaneal spur size with clinical and functional parameters is inconclusive. The objective of this study to investigate the correlation of calcaneal spur length with clinical findings and functional status documented with Foot Function Index in patients with plantar fasciitis. We performed power analysis for the sample size estimation. 87 patients with PF were scrutinized to reach the estimated patient number 75. Computer-aided linear measurements were done for spur length from tip to base in milimeters. Perceived pain intensity was evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS). Patients were asked to rate the pain experienced on a 10-cm VAS. Foot function index was applied to the patients to evaluate pain, disability and activity limitation of the patients. Of the 75 participants, 24 were males (32%) and 51 were females (68%). The mean age was 47 ± 10 years (range 30-65 years). The mean calcaneal spur length was 3.86 ± 3.36 mm (range between 0 and 12.2). Calcaneal spur length was significantly correlated with age (p = 0.003), BMI (p = 0.029), symptom duration, (p = 0.001) VAS (p = 0.003), and FFI total score (p calcaneal spur is significantly correlated with age, BMI, symptom duration, perceived pain, FFI pain and disability subscores, and FFI total scores. The size of the calcaneal spur is an important parameter correlated with pain and functional scores in PF. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Single-stage oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butaneand isopentane in adiabatic sectional reactors with supply of oxygene and water steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizov, A.G; Gadji-Kasumov, V.S

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The advanced technique of single-stage dehydrogenation of n-butane and iso-pentane in adiabatic sectional with separate supply of oxygen on every section is offered. The substance of the novel method consist in water metering for every section. Such technological technique considerably cut the specific energy expenses on high temperature water steam production, increase the yield and selectivity of main products formation at the expense of more complete partial oxidation of the correspondend olefins.

  6. Effect of laser shock peening on bending fatigue performance of AISI 9310 steel spur gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chong; Xiao, Yuzhe; Wang, Yanzhong; Guo, Wei

    2017-09-01

    The effect of laser shock peening (LSP) on bending fatigue performance of AISI 9310 steel spur gear has been investigated in this study. To help to explain bending fatigue test results, residual stress distribution induced by LSP is studied by means of finite element modelling, results of which are verified by X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that a compressive layer of desirable depth can be induced on the gear root fillet after LSP, and both magnitude and depth of compressive stress increase with laser energy. The bending fatigue test is conducted using the single-tooth bending method to compare fatigue performance of laser peened teeth and non-peened teeth, which is followed by relevant statistical analysis. S-N curves acquired from the fatigue test reveal that bending fatigue lives of gear teeth has been significantly improved after LSP in comparison with those non-peened teeth, and the bending fatigue limit is enhanced correspondingly. It is noticeable that higher laser energy does not necessarily lead to much better fatigue performance of test gears.

  7. Comparative Study of Vibration Condition Indicators for Detecting Cracks in Spur Gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanadic, Nenad; Ardis, Paul; Hood, Adrian; Thurston, Michael; Ghoshal, Anindya; Lewicki, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an empirical study on the tooth breakage failure mode in spur gears. Of four dominant gear failure modes (breakage, wear, pitting, and scoring), tooth breakage is the most precipitous and often leads to catastrophic failures. The cracks were initiated using a fatigue tester and a custom-designed single-tooth bending fixture to simulate over-load conditions, instead of traditional notching using wire electrical discharge machining (EDM). The cracks were then propagated on a dynamometer. The ground truth of damage level during crack propagation was monitored with crack-propagation sensors. Ten crack propagations have been performed to compare the existing condition indicators (CIs) with respect to their: ability to detect a crack, ability to assess the damage, and sensitivity to sensor placement. Of more than thirty computed CIs, this paper compares five commonly used: raw RMS, FM0, NA4, raw kurtosis, and NP4. The performance of combined CIs was also investigated, using linear, logistic, and boosted regression trees based feature fusion.

  8. Posterior symphyseal spurs--an unusual differential diagnosis in athletes with groin pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Sascha Jörg; Ojodu, Ishaq; Pohlemann, Tim; Kelm, Jens

    2015-05-01

    We set out to highlight the significance of posterior symphyseal spurs as an unusual diagnostic possibility in athletes with chronic groin pain and to demonstrate that operative resection was successful in quickly and safely returning the patients to sporting activities. Five competitive nonprofessional male athletes, three soccer players, and two marathon runners (median age: 30 [26/33] years), who presented to us with significant groin and central pubic pain with duration of at least 12 months, and who had failed conservative or surgical interventions (symphyseal plating), were evaluated. Physical examination as well as pelvic radiographs confirmed the diagnosis of posterior symphyseal spurs. Four out of five athletes underwent complete resection of the spur. Size of spurs was 2.2 (1.3/2.9) cm (median) with four of them posterosuperiorly and one posterocentrally located. All of them had uneventful postoperative recovery period and were still pain-free at the latest follow up after 26.6 months (24/30). Median time-to-return to competitive sports level was 10 weeks (8/13). None of the patients developed pubic instability due to symphyseal spur resection. The results of considerable postoperative improvement in our patients highlight the significance of posterior symphyseal spurs as a diagnostic possibility in athletes with chronic groin pain.

  9. Performance and genome-centric metagenomics of thermophilic single and two-stage anaerobic digesters treating cheese wastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontana, Alessandra; Campanaro, Stefano; Treu, Laura

    2018-01-01

    configurations were remarkably different, demonstrating a higher methanogenic biodiversity in the two-stage configuration. In fact, the acidogenic reactor of the serial configuration was almost solely composed by the lactose degrader Bifidobacterium crudilactis UC0001. The predictive functional analyses...... Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans UC0018 and to the absence of aceticlastic methanogens....

  10. Clinical results of stereotactic body radiotherapy for Stage I small-cell lung cancer. A single institutional experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Nonoshita, Takeshi; Asai, Kaori; Terashima, Koutarou; Matsumoto, Keiji; Hirata, Hideki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for Stage I small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). From April 2003 to September 2009, a total of eight patients with Stage I SCLC were treated with SBRT in our institution. In all patients, the lung tumors were proven as SCLC pathologically. The patients' ages were 58-84 years (median: 74). The T-stage of the primary tumor was T1a in two, T1b in two and T2a in four patients. Six of the patients were inoperable because of poor cardiac and/or pulmonary function, and two patients refused surgery. SBRT was given using 7-8 non-coplanar beams with 48 Gy in four fractions. Six of the eight patients received 3-4 cycles of chemotherapy using carboplatin (CBDCA) + etoposide (VP-16) or cisplatin (CDDP) + irinotecan (CPT-11). The follow-up period for all patients was 6-60 months (median: 32). Six patients were still alive without any recurrence. One patient died from this disease and one died from another disease. The overall and disease-specific survival rate at three years was 72% and 86%, respectively. There were no patients with local progression of the lesion targeted by SBRT. Only one patient had nodal recurrence in the mediastinum at 12 months after treatment. The progression-free survival rate was 71%. No Grade 2 or higher SBRT-related toxicities were observed. SBRT plus chemotherapy could be an alternative to surgery with chemotherapy for inoperable patients with Stage I small-cell lung cancer. However, further investigation is needed using a large series of patients. (author)

  11. Posterior or Single-stage Combined Anterior and Posterior Approach Decompression for Treating Complex Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Coincident Multilevel Anterior and Posterior Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoxiao; Cai, Pan; Li, Yuwei; Wang, Haijiao; Xia, Shengli; Wang, Xiuhui

    2017-12-01

    A single-center, retrospective, longitudinal matched cohort clinical study of prospectively collected outcomes. To compare retrospectively the clinical outcomes and complications of the posterior approach laminoplasty and single-stage anterior approach laminoplasty combined with anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for treating patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy coincident multilevel anterior and posterior compression, known as complex cervical spondylotic myelopathy (cCSM) here. The optimal surgical management of this type of cCSM remains controversial. Sixty-seven patients with multilevel cCSM underwent decompression surgery from 1996 to 2007. Among these patients, 31 underwent a single-stage combined approach with decompression (combined approach group) and 36 underwent laminoplasty for posterior approach (posterior approach group). Average operative duration, operative estimated blood loss, surgical costs, and cervical alignment were measured. Average operative duration, operative estimated blood loss, and surgical costs were significantly lower in the posterior approach group than those in the combined approach group (P0.05). No statistical difference was observed in the preoperative Cobb angle (P>0.05), whereas a significant statistical difference was observed for the postoperative Cobb angle (Pgroups. The surgical incidences of complications were 22.2% and 48.4% in the posterior and combined approach groups (Papproach laminoplasty and single-stage combined approach led to significant neurological improvement and pain reduction in the majority of patients. Both approaches showed similar results in terms of decompression and neurological improvement. The posterior approach was superior to the combined approach in terms of surgical costs, surgical time, blood loss, and complication rate.

  12. Hybrid phase-locked loop with fast locking time and low spur in a 0.18-μm CMOS process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Si-Heng; Si, Li-Ming; Guo, Chao; Shi, Jun-Yu; Zhu, Wei-Ren

    2014-07-01

    We propose a novel hybrid phase-locked loop (PLL) architecture for overcoming the trade-off between fast locking time and low spur. To reduce the settling time and meanwhile suppress the reference spurs, we employ a wide-band single-path PLL and a narrow-band dual-path PLL in a transient state and a steady state, respectively, by changing the loop bandwidth according to the gain of voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and the resister of the loop filter. The hybrid PLL is implemented in a 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process with a total die area of 1.4×0.46 mm2. The measured results exhibit a reference spur level of lower than -73 dB with a reference frequency of 10 MHz and a settling time of 20 μs with 40 MHz frequency jump at 2 GHz. The total power consumption of the hybrid PLL is less than 27 mW with a supply voltage of 1.8 V.

  13. Hybrid phase-locked loop with fast locking time and low spur in a 0.18-μm CMOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Si-Heng; Si Li-Ming; Guo Chao; Shi Jun-Yu; Zhu Wei-Ren

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel hybrid phase-locked loop (PLL) architecture for overcoming the trade-off between fast locking time and low spur. To reduce the settling time and meanwhile suppress the reference spurs, we employ a wide-band single-path PLL and a narrow-band dual-path PLL in a transient state and a steady state, respectively, by changing the loop bandwidth according to the gain of voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and the resister of the loop filter. The hybrid PLL is implemented in a 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process with a total die area of 1.4×0.46 mm 2 . The measured results exhibit a reference spur level of lower than −73 dB with a reference frequency of 10 MHz and a settling time of 20 μs with 40 MHz frequency jump at 2 GHz. The total power consumption of the hybrid PLL is less than 27 mW with a supply voltage of 1.8 V. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  14. Research on High Efficient Single-Phase Multi-Stage Interleaved Bridgeless PFC Frontend for Class-D Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a 3.5kW single-phase high efficient interleaved Bridgeless PFC (IBPFC) is proposed for class-D amplifiers. This topology achieves a relatively higher efficiency in a wide output power range, which helps to reduce the energy consuming of the whole system. In addition, a detailed...

  15. Clinical utility of simultaneous whole-body 18F-FDG PET/MRI as a single-step imaging modality in the staging of primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sheng-Chieh; Yeh, Chih-Hua; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Ng, Shu-Hang; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Yu; Yen-Ming, Tsang; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Huang, Bing-Shen; Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Chang, Kai-Ping; Wang, Hung-Ming; Liao, Chun-Ta

    2018-03-03

    Both head and neck magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) play a crucial role in the staging of primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, we sought to prospectively investigate the clinical utility of simultaneous whole-body 18F-FDG PET/MRI for primary staging of NPC patients. We examined 113 patients with histologically confirmed NPC who underwent pretreatment, simultaneous whole-body PET/MRI and PET/CT for primary tumor staging. The images obtained with the different imaging modalities were interpreted independently and compared with each other. PET/MRI increased the accuracy of head and neck MRI for assessment of primary tumor extent in four patients via addition of FDG uptake information to increase the conspicuity of morphologically subtle lesions. PET/MR images were more discernible than PET/CT images for mapping tumor extension, especially intracranial invasion. Regarding the N staging assessment, the sensitivity of PET/MRI (99.5%) was higher than that of head and neck MRI (94.2%) and PET/CT (90.9%). PET/MRI was particularly useful for distinguishing retropharyngeal nodal metastasis from adjacent nasopharyngeal tumors. For distant metastasis evaluation, PET/MRI exhibited a similar sensitivity (90% vs. 86.7% vs. 83.3%), but higher positive predictive value (93.1% vs. 78.8% vs. 83.3%) than whole-body MRI and PET/CT, respectively. For tumor staging of NPC, simultaneous whole-body PET/MRI was more accurate than head and neck MRI and PET/CT, and may serve as a single-step staging modality.

  16. Postoperative radiotherapy for completely resected Masaoka stage III thymoma: a retrospective study of 65 cases from a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Chengcheng; Hui, Zhouguang; Liang, Jun; Lv, Jima; Mao, Yousheng; Wang, Luhua; He, Jie; Feng, Qinfu; Chen, Yidong; Zhai, Yirui; Zhou, Zongmei; Chen, Dongfu; Xiao, Zefen; Zhang, Hongxing; Li, Jian

    2013-01-01

    The role of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for patients with stage III thymoma after complete resection is not definite. Some authors have advocated postoperative RT after complete tumor resection, but some others suggested observation. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the effect of postoperative RT on survival as well as tumor control in patients with Masaoka stage III thymoma. Between June 1982 and December 2010, 65 patients who underwent complete resection of stage III thymoma entered the study. Fifty-three patients had adjuvant RT after surgery (S + R) and 12 had surgery only (S alone). Of patients who had adjuvant RT, 28 had three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT)/intensity modulated RT (IMRT) and 25 had conventional RT. A median prescribed dose of 56 Gy (range, 28–60 Gy) was given. The median follow-up time was 50 months (range, 5–360 months). Five- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 91.7% and 71.6%, respectively, for S + R and 81.5% and 65.2% for S alone (P = 0.5), respectively. In the subgroup analysis, patients with 3D-CRT/IMRT showed a trend of improved 5-year OS rate compared with conventional RT (100% vs. 86.9%, P =0.12). Compared with S alone, the 5-year OS rate was significantly improved (100% vs. 81.5%, P = 0.049). Relapses occurred in 15 patients (23.1%). There was a trend of lower crude local recurrence rates for S + R (3.8%) compared with S alone (16.7%) (P = 0.09), whereas the crude regional recurrence rates were similar (P = 0.9). No clear dose–response relationship was found according to prescribed doses. Adjuvant 3D-CRT/IMRT showed potential advantages in improving survival and reducing relapse in patients with stage III thymoma after complete resection, whereas adjuvant RT did not significantly improve survival or reduce recurrence for the cohort as a whole. Doses of ≤ 50 Gy may be effective and could be prescribed for adjuvant RT. To confirm the role of adjuvant 3D-CRT/IMRT in patients who undergo a complete

  17. MRI-guided single fraction ablative radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer: a brachytherapy versus volumetric modulated arc therapy dosimetry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charaghvandi, Ramona K; den Hartogh, Mariska D; van Ommen, Anne-Mar L N; de Vries, Wilfred J H; Scholten, Vincent; Moerland, Marinus A; Philippens, Mariëlle E P; Schokker, Rogier I; van Vulpen, Marco; van Asselen, Bram; van den Bongard, Desirée H J G

    2015-12-01

    A radiosurgical treatment approach for early-stage breast cancer has the potential to minimize the patient's treatment burden. The dosimetric feasibility for single fraction ablative radiotherapy was evaluated by comparing volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with an interstitial multicatheter brachytherapy (IMB) approach. The tumors of 20 patients with early-stage breast cancer were delineated on a preoperative contrast-enhanced planning CT-scan, co-registered with a contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), both in radiotherapy supine position. A dose of 15 Gy was prescribed to the planned target volume of the clinical target volume (PTVCTV), and 20 Gy integrated boost to the PTV of the gross tumor volume (PTVGTV). Treatment plans for IMB and VMAT were optimized for adequate target volume coverage and minimal organs at risk (OAR) dose. The median PTVGTV/CTV receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose was ⩾99% with both techniques. The median PTVCTV unintentionally receiving 95% of the prescribed PTVGTV dose was 65.4% and 4.3% with IMB and VMAT, respectively. OAR doses were comparable with both techniques. MRI-guided single fraction radiotherapy with an integrated ablative boost to the GTV is dosimetrically feasible with both techniques. We perceive IMB less suitable for clinical implementation due to PTVCTV overdosage. Future studies have to confirm the clinical feasibility of the single fraction ablative approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of honeybush tea (Cyclopia spp.) volatiles by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using a single-stage thermal modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntlhokwe, Gaalebalwe; Tredoux, Andreas G J; Górecki, Tadeusz; Edwards, Matthew; Vestner, Jochen; Muller, Magdalena; Erasmus, Lené; Joubert, Elizabeth; Christel Cronje, J; de Villiers, André

    2017-07-01

    The applicability of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) using a single-stage thermal modulator was explored for the analysis of honeybush tea (Cyclopia spp.) volatile compounds. Headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) was used in combination with GC×GC separation on a non-polar × polar column set with flame ionisation (FID) detection for the analysis of fermented Cyclopia maculata, Cyclopia subternata and Cyclopia genistoides tea infusions of a single harvest season. Method optimisation entailed evaluation of the effects of several experimental parameters on the performance of the modulator, the choice of columns in both dimensions, as well as the HS-SPME extraction fibre. Eighty-four volatile compounds were identified by co-injection of reference standards. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed clear differentiation between the species based on their volatile profiles. Due to the highly reproducible separations obtained using the single-stage thermal modulator, multivariate data analysis was simplified. The results demonstrate both the complexity of honeybush volatile profiles and the potential of GC×GC separation in combination with suitable data analysis techniques for the investigation of the relationship between sensory properties and volatile composition of these products. The developed method therefore offers a fast and inexpensive methodology for the profiling of honeybush tea volatiles. Graphical abstract Surface plot obtained for the GC×GC-FID analysis of honeybush tea volatiles.

  19. Resection of a plantar calcaneal spur using the holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W K; Noriega, J A; Smith, W K

    2001-03-01

    Many procedures have been described for the resection of plantar calcaneal spurs as treatment of heel spur syndrome and chronic plantar fasciitis. Most of these techniques involve a medial incision of between 2 and 6 cm for adequate exposure of the calcaneal spur. This article describes a new technique for resecting a calcaneal spur with a smaller medial incision using the holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser. This laser permits adequate resection of a plantar calcaneal spur as well as coagulation of the bone and surrounding tissues. This minimally invasive procedure has been used with good results over the past year by the senior author (W.K.S.) for the resection of calcaneal spurs.

  20. Single-stage gain-clamped L-band EDFA with C-band ASE self-oscillation in ring cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdi, M A; Al-Mansoori, M H; Bakar, A A A; Shaari, S; Zamzuri, A K

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate single-stage gain-clamped L-band Er 3+ -doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) utilizing self-oscillation modes as the control light. The amplifier structure exploits the characteristics of C/L-band coupler to isolate between lasing modes and L-band signal. The self-lasing cavity modes are obtained without any tunable bandpass filter in the loop and generated from the amplified spontaneous emission in the C-band region. The amplifier configuration has lower noise figures as opposed to a dual-stage partially gain-clamped amplifier. The gain and noise figure fluctuations are less than ± 0.4 dB in the gain-clamping region. The transient analysis confirms that the maximum power excursion is less than 0.3 dB for 10-dB add/drop

  1. ANALISIS PEMAHAMAN MATEMATIKA SISWA SMP DENGAN PENDEKATAN MULTIDIMENSI SPUR (SKILLS, PROPERTIES, USES, DAN REPRESENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Bagus Riyandiarto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah 1 menganalisis pemahaman matematika siswa dalam menyelesaikan soal matematika dengan pendekatan multidimensi SPUR yang dikaitkan dengan kesalahan pada objek langsung matematika berupa fakta, keterampilan, konsep, dan prinsip, 2 mengetahui perbedaan pemahaman matematika dari siswa etnis Cina dan etnis Jawa dengan pendekatan multidimensi SPUR. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif studi kasus, subjek penelitian sebanyak 27 siswa kelas VIII B dengan rincian 15 siswa dari etnis Cina dan 12 siswa dari etnis Jawa. Sebelum pelaksanaan tes SPUR, model Discovery Learning¸ Project Based Learning, dan Problem Based Learning diterapkan sebagai proses untuk membiasakan siswa dengan soal berpendekatan multidimensi SPUR, sedangkan kesalahan pekerjaan siswa dianalisis dengan mengaitkan pada objek langsung matematika. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan 1 Pada pelaksanaan model pembelajaran Discovery Learning¸ Project Based Learning, dan Problem Based Learning diketahui bahwa dimensi pemahaman matematika Properties dan  Representations merupakan dimensi dengan pencapaian tertinggi, sedangkan dimensi  Skills dan Uses mengalami  pencapaian terendah, 2 Kesalahan mayoritas siswa pada ketiga tes berpendekatan SPUR terjadi pada objek langsung matematika berupa keterampilan dan fakta, 3 Dari sudut pandang etnisitas, terdapat perbedaan pencapaian pada salah satu dimensi pemahaman yang cukup siginifikan yakni siswa etnis Cina lebih baik dalam menyelesaikan soal-soal dalam dimensi pemahaman Skills dibandingkan pada siswa Jawa.The purpose of this study was 1 analyze students 'understanding of mathematics with multidimensional approach SPUR and Direct Object of mathematical errors on facts, skills, concepts, and principles, 2 determine differences in mathematical understanding of Chinese and Javanese students in SPUR multidimensional approach. This study used qualitative method of case studies, research subjects by 27 students of class VIII

  2. Performance analysis of the single-stage absorption heat transformer using a new working pair composed of ionic liquid and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaodong; Hu Dapeng

    2012-01-01

    The performance simulation of a single-stage absorption heat transformer using a new working pair composed of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate, and water (H 2 O + [EMIM][DMP]), was performed based on the thermodynamic properties of the new working pair and on the mass and energy balance for each component of the system. In order to evaluate the new working pair, the simulation results were compared with those of aqueous solution of lithium bromide (H 2 O + LiBr), Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + tetraethylenglycol dimethylether (E181). The results indicate that when generation, evaporation, condensing and absorption temperatures are 90 °C, 90 °C, 35 °C and 130 °C, the coefficients of performance of the single-stage absorption heat transformer using H 2 O + LiBr, H 2 O + [EMIM][DMP] and TFE + E181 as working pairs will reach 0.494, 0.481 and 0.458 respectively. And the corresponding exergy efficiency will reach 0.64, 0.62 and 0.59, respectively. Meanwhile the available heat outputs for per unit mass of refrigerant are 2466 kJ/kg, 2344 kJ/kg and 311 kJ/kg, respectively. The above excellent cycle performance together with the advantages of negligible vapor pressure, no crystallization and more weak corrosion tendency to iron-steel materials may make the new working pair better suited for the industrial absorption heat transformer. - Highlights: ► The cycle performance of the single-stage absorption heat transformer was simulated. ► Water and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate was used as new working pair. ► Water and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate are entirely miscible. ► The COP and exergy efficiency for this new working pairs were 0.481 and 0.62. ► The new working pairs has potential application to absorption heat transformer.

  3. Retrospective analysis of 56 edentulous dental arches restored with 344 single-stage implants using an immediate loading fixed provisional protocol: statistical predictors of implant failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsel, Richard P; Liss, Mindy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effects of implant dimensions, surface treatment, location in the dental arch, numbers of supporting implant abutments, surgical technique, and generally recognized risk factors on the survival of a series of single-stage Straumann dental implants placed into edentulous arches using an immediate loading protocol. Each patient received between 4 and 18 implants in one or both dental arches. Periapical radiographs were obtained over a 2- to 10-year follow-up period to evaluate crestal bone loss following insertion of the definitive metal-ceramic fixed prostheses. Univariate tests for failure rates as a function of age ( or = 60 years), gender, smoking, bone grafting, dental arch, surface type, anterior versus posterior, number of implants per arch, and surgical technique were made using Fisher exact tests. The Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to evaluate the presence of a linear trend in failure rates regarding implant length and implant diameter. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine which, if any, of the aforementioned factors would predict patient and implant failure. A significance criterion of P = .05 was utilized. Data were collected for 344 single-stage implants placed into 56 edentulous arches (39 maxillae and 17 mandibles) of 43 patients and immediately loaded with a 1-piece provisional fixed prosthesis. A total of 16 implants failed to successfully integrate, for a survival rate of 95.3%. Increased rates of failure were associated with reduced implant length, placement in the posterior region of the jaw, increased implant diameter, and surface treatment. Implant length emerged as the sole significant predictor of implant failure. In this retrospective analysis of 56 consecutively treated edentulous arches with multiple single-stage dental implants loaded immediately, reduced implant length was the sole significant predictor of failure.

  4. A Cost-Effective Power Ramp-Rate Control Strategy for Single-Phase Two-Stage Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    In the case of a wide-scale adoption of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems, more fluctuated power will be injected into the grid due to the intermittency of solar PV energy. A sudden change in the PV power can potentially induce grid voltage fluctuations, and thus challenge the stability......-point. Experiments conducted on a 3-kW single-phase two-stage grid-connected PV system have verified that the proposed solution can accomplish fast dynamics, high accuracy, and high robustness in the power ramp-rate control for PV systems....

  5. Safety and efficacy of staged retrograde intrarenal surgery for large stone burden of renal stones in selected patients: A single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Feng Lin

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, RIRS for large renal stone manipulation is an effective and safe treatment modality currently. In our study, the single RIRS SFR was superior to PNL or SWL even when the stone burden was between 2.0 cm and 3.0 cm (80.2%. For those patients whose stone burden was over 3.0 cm or for those with comorbidities, staged RIRS resulted in a lower complication rate, reduced hospital stay, and better SFR (76.5%.

  6. Tumour burden in early stage Hodgkin's disease: the single most important prognostic factor for outcome after radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Nordentoft, A M; Cold, Søren

    1987-01-01

    One hundred and forty-two patients with Hodgkin's disease PS I or II were treated with total or subtotal nodal irradiation as part of a prospective randomized trial in the Danish National Hodgkin Study during the period 1971-83. They were followed till death or--at the time of this analysis......--from 15 to 146 months after initiation of therapy. The initial tumour burden of each patient was assessed, combining tumour size of each involved region and number of regions involved. Tumour burden thus assessed proved to be the single most important prognostic factor with regard to disease free survival...

  7. One stage revision single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with impacted morselized bone graft following a failed double-bundle reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jong Ra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction has theoretical benefits such as more accurate reproduction of ACL anatomy, it is technically more demanding surgery. This report describes the case of a one stage revision single-bundle ACL reconstruction after primary double-bundle ACL reconstruction. A professional dancer had an ACL previously reconstructed with a double-bundle technique, but the femoral tunnels were malpositioned resulting in residual laxity and rotational instability. The previous femoral tunnel positions were vertical and widened. The previous vertical tunnels were filled with impacted bone graft and a revision single-bundle ACL reconstruction was performed via the new femoral tunnel with a 2 O'clock position between the previous two tunnels. After 10 months of postoperative rehabilitation, the patient returned to professional dancing with sound bony union and without any residual instability.

  8. Single Stage String Inverter for Gridconnected Photovoltaic System with Modified Perturb and Observe (P&O Fuzzy Logic Control(FLC-based MPPT Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z.Mohammad Noor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an implementation of Single-phase Single stage String inverter for Grid connected Photovoltaic (PV system. The proposed system uses Modified Perturb and Observe (P&O algorithm implemented using Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC as Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT. The inverter is designed for 340W system using two series of STP170s24/Ac PV modules. The MPPT unit keeps tracking the maximum power from the PV array by changing the modulation index and the phase angle of inverter’s output voltage. The simulation model is developed using Matlab/Simulink to evaluate the performance of the converter. Selected experimental results are also presented in this paper.

  9. Clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with stage III esophageal carcinoma: a single-center experience from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugur, Vahide I; Kara, Sakire P; Kucukplakci, Bulent; Demirkasimoglu, Taciser; Misirlioglu, Cem; Ozgen, Aytul; Elgin, Yesim; Sanri, Ergun; Altundag, Kadri; Ozdamar, Nadi

    2008-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma is an extremely deadly disease, and prognosis is poor. We retrospectively evaluated stage III esophageal carcinoma patients in our center. Median age of the patients was 52. Men to women ratio were 3/1. Epidermoid carcinoma was the major histology. Incidence of esophageal carcinoma was higher in the distal and middle third of the esophagus. In 19 patients tumor size was more than 5 cm. In total of 17 of the patients were operated. About 58 patients were irradiated. About 45 of the patients were irradiated with curative intent, 31 of them were primarily irradiated and 14 of them were irradiated postoperatively. Only 13 of the patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Overall 1, 2, 3, and 4 year survival rates were 38.9%, 11.1%, 5.6%, and %1.9, respectively and median survival was 12 months. Median survival for tumors located in cervical esophageal, middle esophagus, and distal esophagus were 23, 8, and 14 months, respectively. One, 2, 3, 4 year survival rates of operated patients were 58.8%, 29.4%, 17.6%, 5.9%, respectively and median survival was 23 months. For inoperable patients 1 and 2 year survival rates were 29.7% and 2.7% and median survival was 8 months. Differences between operable and inoperable patients were statistically significant (P: 0.0003). One, 2, 3, 4 years survival results of patients treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy was 62.5%, 25%, 12.5%, 12.5% and median survival was 21 months, 1, 2, 3, 4 years survival results of patients treated with surgery and concurrent chemoradiotherapy was 55.6%, 33.3%, 22.2%, and 0% and median survival was 27 months. There was no statistically significant difference between groups (P: 0.5390). During the therapy, disphagia was the major side effect observed in seven patients. Fatigue, pain, and mild weight loss were the other side effects. Three patients could not tolerate the treatment and left the therapy. We demonstrated that stage III esophageal carcinoma is an extremely

  10. Reduction of Noise and Vibration of Spur Gear by Using Asymmetric Teeth Profiles with Tip Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Qasim Abdullah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of noise and vibration in spur gear experimentally by using asymmetric teeth profiles with tip relief was presented. Both of classical (symmetric and asymmetric (with and without tip relief spur gears are used in this work. Gear test rig was constructed to achieve torsional vibration measuring, and two modified cutters are designed and manufactured to achieve tooth profile modifications. First to cut asymmetric gear tooth with pressure angles (14.5o/25 o without tip relief for loaded and unloaded tooth sides respectively, and second to cut asymmetric gear tooth with pressure angles (14.5o/25 o for loaded and unloaded tooth sides respectively with tip relief to achieve best dynamic performance. Dynamic load factor, transmission error and noise level are carried out in this work. Final results showed improvement in dynamic load factor and noise level for asymmetric gear (with and without tip relief compared with classical spur gear .

  11. Surface fatigue life of CBN and vitreous ground carburized and hardened AISI 9310 spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Patel, P. R.

    1988-01-01

    Spur gear surface endurance tests were conducted to investigate CBN ground AISI 9310 spur gears for use in aircraft applications, to determine their endurance characteristics and to compare the results with the endurance of standard vitreous ground AISI 9310 spur gears. Tests were conducted with VIM-VAR AISI 9310 carburized and hardened gears that were finish ground with either CBN or vitreous grinding methods. Test conditions were an inlet oil temeprature of 320 K (116 F), an outlet oil temperature of 350 K (170 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 ksi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The CBN ground gears exhibited a surface fatigue life that was slightly better than the vitreous ground gears. The subsurface residual stress of the CBN ground gears was approximately the same as that for the standard vitreous ground gears for the CBN grinding method used.

  12. The relationship of pes planus and calcaneal spur to plantar heel pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichasuk, S; Subhadrabandhu, T

    1994-09-01

    A prospective study of pes planus by using calcaneal pitch and calcaneal spur was carried out in 82 patients with plantar heel pain and in 400 normal subjects. The mean normal calcaneal pitch was 20.54 degrees. The mean calcaneal pitch in patients with plantar heel pain was 15.99 degrees, which was significantly lower than in normal subjects. The incidence of calcaneal spur in normal subjects and in patients with plantar heel pain was 15.5% percent (62 of 400) and 65.9% (54 of 82), respectively. Again, this was a highly significant difference. Excessive weight gain, aging, and gender may be important factors effecting the lowering of the pitch and the increasing of spur formation. These factors could lead to the development of plantar heel pain.

  13. Plantar fascia release and calcaneal spur excision for sub-calcaneal heel pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torudom, Yingyong

    2009-06-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the results of open plantar fascia release and calcaneal spur excision in patients with plantar fasciitis. The author studied retrospectively the results in 16 patients who had been treated with open plantar fascia release and calcaneal spur excision from 2002 to 2008. Two patients were men and fourteen were women. Their mean age was 43.3 years (39 to 52). Based on visual analog scale the results were pain free in 12 feet and some pain in four. There are two patients with superficial skin infection which can be manage with local wound care and oral antibiotic. We conclude that open plantar fascia release and calcaneal spur excision can relieve pain in patients who resist conservative treatment.

  14. Single-Fraction Carbon-Ion Radiation Therapy for Patients 80 Years of Age and Older With Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karube, Masataka, E-mail: mstk117@gmail.com [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Naoyoshi; Nakajima, Mio [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakagawa, Keiichi [Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Miyamoto, Tadaaki; Tsuji, Hiroshi [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Fujisawa, Takehiko [Chiba Foundation for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Chiba (Japan); Kamada, Tadashi [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: In an aging society, many senior citizens want less invasive treatment because of potential medical complications. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences has started to treat stage I lung cancer with single-fraction carbon-ion radiation therapy (CIRT) as a dose escalation prospective phase 1/2 trial. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of CIRT for patients 80 years of age and older, undergoing single-fraction CIRT. Methods and Materials: Peripheral non-small cell lung cancer patients who were treated with single-fraction CIRT were prospectively followed. We analyzed the data from among these patients 80 years of age and older. Results: There were 70 patients. Median age was 83 years (range: 80-89) and median follow-up period was 42.7 months (range: 12-128 months). Three-year local control, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were 88.0%, 81.6%, and 72.4%, respectively. Five-year local control, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were 85.8%, 64.9%, and 39.7%, respectively. There were no adverse effects higher than grade 2 either in the acute or late phase in terms of skin and lung. Analgesic agents were necessary for only 5 patients (7.1%), to relieve muscular or rib fracture pain caused by irradiation. Conclusions: Single-fraction CIRT was low-risk and effective, even for the elderly.

  15. Malnutrition, inflamation and atherosclerosis (MIA syndrome) in patients with end stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis (a single centre experience).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allawi, Ali Abdulmajid Dyab

    2017-09-21

    Inflammation and malnutrition play an important role in endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and excessive cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in ESRD patients AIM OF THE STUDY: The primary objective is to determine the prevalence of inflammation, malnutrition and atherosclerosis in patients on maintenance haemodialysis. Secondary objective was to determine the association for atherosclerosis with inflammation and malnutrition. One hundred and one adult patients with end stage renal disease on maintenance haemodialysis who are met with the exclusion criteria were enrolled in this cross sectional study from haemodialysis unit of Baghdad teaching hospital over the period of July/2015 - June 2016. All patients were thoroughly examined and many variables were evaluated (age, gender, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, serum lipid profile, smoking habits, serum albumin, CRP, calcium, Phosphate, Parathyroid hormone and haemoglobin measurements). All patients underwent a carotid Doppler ultrasound study. Atherosclerosis was present in 65.3%: 58.4% of patients had malnutrition and 43.6% had inflammation. The association for atherosclerosis and high CRP and low serum albumin is strong and independent of other atherosclerosis risk factors. There is significant inverse and independent correlation between CRP and albumin. Inflammation (high serum CRP) and malnutrition (low serum albumin) in patients on haemodialysis are significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis. Inflammation was more prevalent in the malnourished patients than in those with normal nutritional status. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-staging for extraction of cesium from nitric acid by a single liquid-liquid countercurrent centrifugal extractor with Taylor vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakase, Masahiko; Kinuhata, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Fission products that emit considerable decay heat and radioactivity, such as 137 Cs, have a large impact on waste management. Small and high-performance extractor is desirable for separating such nuclei. In this study, we implemented the continuous extraction of Cs from nitric acid in a single liquid-liquid countercurrent centrifugal extractor with Taylor Vortices by calix arene-bis(t-octylbenzo-crown-6)(BOBCalixC6) as an extractant with trioctylamine(TOA) as a suppressant and with 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB) as a phase modifier. Because of slow extraction kinetics of this process, extraction with multiple theoretical stages by just replacing conventional extractors into the single centrifugal extractor is difficult. Hence, we improved the dispersion of organic phase by an inner rotor made of lipophilic epoxy resin and elevating the solution temperature to lower the viscosity. Higher temperature was not appropriate from the aspect of chemical equilibrium in this process, but extraction with multiple theoretical stages was found to be possible. (author)

  17. Effects of sludge recirculation rate and mixing time on performance of a prototype single-stage anaerobic digester for conversion of food wastes to biogas and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanatamskul, Chavalit; Saleart, Tawinan

    2016-04-01

    Food wastes have been recognized as the largest waste stream and accounts for 39.25 % of total municipal solid waste in Thailand. Chulalongkorn University has participated in the program of in situ energy recovery from food wastes under the Ministry of Energy (MOE), Thailand. This research aims to develop a prototype single-stage anaerobic digestion system for biogas production and energy recovery from food wastes inside Chulalongkorn University. Here, the effects of sludge recirculation rate and mixing time were investigated as the main key parameters for the system design and operation. From the results obtained in this study, it was found that the sludge recirculation rate of 100 % and the mixing time of 60 min per day were the most suitable design parameters to achieve high efficiencies in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total solids (TS), and total volatile solid (TVS) removal and also biogas production by this prototype anaerobic digester. The obtained biogas production was found to be 0.71 m(3)/kg COD and the composition of methane was 61.6 %. Moreover, the efficiencies of COD removal were as high as 82.9 % and TVS removal could reach 83.9 % at the optimal condition. Therefore, the developed prototype single-stage anaerobic digester can be highly promising for university canteen application to recover energy from food wastes via biogas production.

  18. Reactive Power Control of Single-Stage Three-Phase Photovoltaic System during Grid Faults Using Recurrent Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faa-Jeng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new active and reactive power control scheme for a single-stage three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV system during grid faults. The presented PV system utilizes a single-stage three-phase current-controlled voltage-source inverter to achieve the maximum power point tracking (MPPT control of the PV panel with the function of low voltage ride through (LVRT. Moreover, a formula based on positive sequence voltage for evaluating the percentage of voltage sag is derived to determine the ratio of the injected reactive current to satisfy the LVRT regulations. To reduce the risk of overcurrent during LVRT operation, a current limit is predefined for the injection of reactive current. Furthermore, the control of active and reactive power is designed using a two-dimensional recurrent fuzzy cerebellar model articulation neural network (2D-RFCMANN. In addition, the online learning laws of 2D-RFCMANN are derived according to gradient descent method with varied learning-rate coefficients for network parameters to assure the convergence of the tracking error. Finally, some experimental tests are realized to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  19. A simulation study on performance evaluation of single-stage LiBr–H2O vapor absorption heat pump for chip cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Lithium Bromide–Water (LiBr–H2O absorption based heat pump is encouraged for the necessity of extracting high heat from the electronic chips. This paper presents a simulation study of single-stage LiBr–H2O vapor absorption heat pump for chip cooling. In this study, a detailed thermodynamic analysis of the single-stage LiBr–H2O vapor absorption heat pump for chip cooling in the nonexistence of solution heat exchanger was performed and a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI package including visual components was developed by using MATlab (2008b. The influence of chip temperature on COP (Coefficient of Performance, flow rates and conductance was examined by using the developed package. The model is validated by using the values available in the literature and indicates that there is a greater reduction in the absorber load. The influence of chip temperature on the performance and thermal loads of individual components was studied and it was concluded that, COP increases from 0.7145 to 0.8421 with an increase in chip temperature.

  20. Melorheostosis of the hand with complicating bony spur formation and bursal inflammation: diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameen, S.; Anderson, S.E.; Nagy, L.; Gerich, U.

    2002-01-01

    A 37-year old woman presented with intolerable pain associated with a slowly growing mass on the dorsum of the right hand. The radiographs were characteristic of melorheostosis involving the third and fourth metacarpals, with a cortical bony projection extending from the base of the third metacarpal eroding slightly into the fourth metacarpal, associated with bursal formation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an inflamed bursal collection adjacent to the spur. This region corresponded to the patient's severe clinical, focal pain. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in which melorheostosis of the hand has been associated with bony spur formation and complicated by an inflamed bursa. (orig.)

  1. Design and analysis of composite spur gears using finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshkumar, S.; Manoharan, R.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the parametric design and contact analysis of composite spur gears are investigated numerically. Composite gear provides an adequate strength to weight ratio, more hardness, durability and low maintenance cost. It is emerging better alternatives for replacing metallic gears. The finite element model of spur gear is developed with the assistance of the Ansys software. In this study each design factor such has stress distributions, strain and deformation are considered to compare composite gear with steel and polymer gears. An APDL gear model has been developed for the design evaluation and comparison study.

  2. Source identification of nitrous oxide emission pathways from a single-stage nitritation-anammox granular reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Muhammad

    2016-06-16

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) production pathway in a signal-stage nitritation-anammox sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated based on a multilateral approach including real-time N2O monitoring, N2O isotopic composition analysis, and in-situ analyses of spatial distribution of N2O production rate and microbial populations in granular biomass. N2O emission rate was high in the initial phase of the operation cycle and gradually decreased with decreasing NH4+ concentration. The average emission of N2O was 0.98 ± 0.42% and 1.35 ± 0.72% of the incoming nitrogen load and removed nitrogen, respectively. The N2O isotopic composition analysis revealed that N2O was produced via NH2OH oxidation and NO2− reduction pathways equally, although there is an unknown influence from N2O reduction and/or anammox N2O production. However, the N2O isotopomer analysis could not discriminate the relative contribution of nitrifier denitrification and heterotrophic denitrification in the NO2− reduction pathway. Various in-situ techniques (e.g. microsensor measurements and FISH (fluorescent in-situ hybridization) analysis) were therefore applied to further identify N2O producers. Microsensor measurements revealed that approximately 70% of N2O was produced in the oxic surface zone, where nitrifiers were predominantly localized. Thus, NH2OH oxidation and NO2 reduction by nitrifiers (nitrifier-denitrification) could be responsible for the N2O production in the oxic zone. The rest of N2O (ca. 30%) was produced in the anammox bacteria-dominated anoxic zone, probably suggesting that NO2− reduction by coexisting putative heterotrophic denitrifiers and some other unknown pathway(s) including the possibility of anammox process account for the anaerobic N2O production. Further study is required to identify the anaerobic N2O production pathways. Our multilateral approach can be useful to quantitatively examine the relative contributions of N2O production pathways. Good understanding of the key N2O

  3. Single-stage multilevel soft-tissue surgery in the lower limbs with spastic cerebral palsy: Experience from a rehabilitation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Anupam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the effect of single-stage multilevel soft-tissue surgery (Single Event Multiple Level Resections, SEMLR on deformities and locomotion in patients with cerebral palsy (CP with static contracture(s in lower limbs. Patients and Methods: Study included 34 patients (M:F, 23:11 with mean age of 9.53 ± 3.92 years (4-16 years. Among them 22 had diplegia and four each had quadriplegia and right and left hemiplegia. Fourteen patients (41.2% had their intelligence quotient (IQ in the normal range (IQ ≥ 80, while others had mental retardation (MR of varying severity: borderline MR (IQ = 70-79 in 12, mild MR (IQ = 50-69 in 5, and moderate MR (IQ = 35-49 in patients 3. All patients underwent surgery (total number of procedures 153, average 4.5 procedures/patient over a period of 30 months (April 2005 to September 2007. Improvement in functional abilities and locomotion was assessed using Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS scores and by physical examination. Results: Significant improvement in function was observed ( P = 0.000 after surgery when comparing the preoperative and postoperative GMFCS scores. All patients were maintaining ambulation at a mean follow-up duration of 13.12 ± 6.07 months (3-24 months, with five patients using knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFO, 22 using ankle-foot orthoses (AFO, and six patients using knee gaiters. Sixteen patients were using walker, and two were using crutches as assistive devices. Conclusion: This study suggests that CP patients with good trunk control and static contractures at multiple joints in the lower limbs can be made ambulant with single-stage multilevel soft-tissue surgery. It has to be a team effort of the surgeon and the rehabilitation team in the postoperative period for the attainment of satisfactory goal.

  4. Urochordate ascidians possess a single isoform of Aurora kinase that localizes to the midbody via TPX2 in eggs and cleavage stage embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Hebras

    Full Text Available Aurora kinases are key proteins found throughout the eukaryotes that control mitotic progression. Vertebrate Aurora-A and B kinases are thought to have evolved from a single Aurora-kinase isoform closest to that found in present day urochordates. In urochordate ascidians Aurora binds both TPX2 (a vertebrate AURKA partner and INCENP (a vertebrate AURKB partner and localizes to centrosomes and spindle microtubules as well as chromosomes and midbody during both meiosis and mitosis. Ascidian Aurora also displays this localization pattern during mitosis in echinoderms, strengthening the idea that non-vertebrate deuterostomes such as the urochordates and echinoderms possess a single form of Aurora kinase that has properties of vertebrate Aurora-kinase A and B. In the ascidian, TPX2 localizes to the centrosome and the spindle poles also as in vertebrates. However, we were surprised to find that TPX2 also localized strongly to the midbody in ascidian eggs and embryos. We thus examined more closely Aurora localization to the midbody by creating two separate point mutations of ascidian Aurora predicted to perturb binding to TPX2. Both forms of mutated Aurora behaved as predicted: neither localized to spindle poles where TPX2 is enriched. Interestingly, neither form of mutated Aurora localized to the midbody where TPX2 is also enriched, suggesting that ascidian Aurora midbody localization required TPX2 binding in ascidians. Functional analysis revealed that inhibition of Aurora kinase with a pharmacological inhibitor or with a dominant negative kinase dead form of Aurora caused cytokinesis failure and perturbed midbody formation during polar body extrusion. Our data support the view that vertebrate Aurora-A and B kinases evolved from a single non-vertebrate deuterostome ancestor. Moreover, since TPX2 localizes to the midbody in ascidian eggs and cleavage stage embryos it may be worthwhile re-assessing whether Aurora A kinase or TPX2 localize to the midbody

  5. Combined inflatable penile prosthesis-artificial urinary sphincter implantation: no increased risk of adverse events compared to single or staged device implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Robert L; Cabrini, Mercelo R; Harris, Elaine D; Mostwin, Jacek L; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Burnett, Arthur L

    2013-12-01

    Little data exist on the outcome of combined inflatable penile prosthesis and artificial urinary sphincter insertion for erectile dysfunction and stress urinary incontinence. We assessed patient outcomes for combined vs single device implantation at a single institution. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients who underwent inflatable penile prosthesis and artificial urinary sphincter insertion at our hospital from January 2000 to December 2011. A total of 55 combined procedures were performed compared to the single insertion of 336 inflatable penile prostheses and 279 artificial urinary sphincters. The surgical approach consisted of penoscrotal incisions for inflatable penile prostheses and transperineal incisions for artificial urinary sphincter cuff placement with a secondary lower abdominal incision for reservoir placement. Men treated with combined implantation had greater mean age and were at greater risk for prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment, and at lesser risk for Peyronie disease than men who received an inflatable penile prosthesis alone (each pprosthesis alone and the AUS alone (mean 218.1 vs 145.9 and 114.7 minutes, respectively, p0.05). Combined inflatable penile prosthesis-artificial urinary sphincter implantation and staged prosthesis implantation are feasible without an increased risk of adverse outcomes compared to implantation of a single prosthesis. Patients with concomitant erectile dysfunction and stress urinary incontinence should be counseled about the possible advantages of this surgical option, which include a single anesthesia event and faster resumption of sexual activity and urinary control. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stage-independent, single lead EEG sleep spindle detection using the continuous wavelet transform and local weighted smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios eTsanas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindles are critical in characterizing sleep and have been associated with cognitive function and pathophysiological assessment. Typically, their detection relies on the subjective and time-consuming visual examination of electroencephalogram (EEG signal(s by experts, and has led to large inter-rater variability as a result of poor definition of sleep spindle characteristics. Hitherto, many algorithmic spindle detectors inherently make signal stationarity assumptions (e.g. Fourier transform-based approaches which are inappropriate for EEG signals, and frequently rely on additional information which may not be readily available in many practical settings (e.g. more than one EEG channels, or prior hypnogram assessment. This study proposes a novel signal processing methodology relying solely on a single EEG channel, and provides objective, accurate means towards probabilistically assessing the presence of sleep spindles in EEG signals. We use the intuitively appealing continuous wavelet transform (CWT with a Morlet basis function, identifying regions of interest where the power of the CWT coefficients corresponding to the frequencies of spindles (11-16 Hz is large. The potential for assessing the signal segment as a spindle is refined using local weighted smoothing techniques. We evaluate our findings on two databases: the MASS database comprising 19 healthy controls and the DREAMS sleep spindle database comprising eight participants diagnosed with various sleep pathologies. We demonstrate that we can replicate the experts’ sleep spindles assessment accurately in both databases (MASS database: sensitivity: 84%, specificity: 90%, false discovery rate 83%, DREAMS database: sensitivity: 76%, specificity: 92%, false discovery rate: 67%, outperforming six competing automatic sleep spindle detection algorithms in terms of correctly replicating the experts’ assessment of detected spindles.

  7. Phenotype profiling and multivariate statistical analysis of Spur-pruning type Grapevine in National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR, Davis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most Korean vineyards employed spur-pruning type modified-T trellis system. This produce system is suitable to spur-pruning type cultivars. But most European table grape is not adaptable to this produce system because their fruitfulness is sufficient to cane-pruning type system. Total 20 of fruit ch...

  8. Retrospective analysis of calcaneal spur removal and complete fascial release for the treatment of chronic heel pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, J; Kuwada, G T

    1992-01-01

    Doctors Gormley and Kuwada investigate the pathology of chronic heel pain secondary to soft tissue and osseous inflammatory conditions. Pertinent literature review regarding success following fascial release as well as bone spur removal is provided. Ninety-four patients are reported having sustained spur removal with fascia resection according to the authors' technique. They report a 95% success rate postoperatively.

  9. Single-stage osseointegrated reconstruction and rehabilitation of lower limb amputees: the Osseointegration Group of Australia Accelerated Protocol-2 (OGAAP-2) for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Muderis, Munjed; Lu, William; Tetsworth, Kevin; Bosley, Belinda; Li, Jiao Jiao

    2017-03-22

    Lower limb amputations have detrimental influences on the quality of life, function and body image of the affected patients. Following amputation, prolonged rehabilitation is required for patients to be fitted with traditional socket prostheses, and many patients experience symptomatic socket-residuum interface problems which lead to reduced prosthetic use and quality of life. Osseointegration has recently emerged as a novel approach for the reconstruction of amputated limbs, which overcomes many of the socket-related problems by directly attaching the prosthesis to the skeletal residuum. To date, the vast majority of osseointegration procedures worldwide have been performed in 2 stages, which require at least 4 months and up to 18 months for the completion of reconstruction and rehabilitation from the time of the initial surgery. The current prospective cohort study evaluates the safety and efficacy of a single-stage osseointegration procedure performed under the Osseointegration Group of Australia Accelerated Protocol-2 (OGAAP-2), which dramatically reduces the time of recovery to ∼3-6 weeks. The inclusion criteria for osseointegrated reconstruction under the OGAAP-2 procedure are age over 18 years, unilateral transfemoral amputation and experiencing problems or difficulties in using socket prostheses. All patients receive osseointegrated implants which are press-fitted into the residual bone. Functional and quality-of-life outcome measures are recorded preoperatively and at defined postoperative follow-up intervals up to 2 years. Postoperative adverse events are also recorded. The preoperative and postoperative values are compared for each outcome measure, and the benefits and harms of the single-stage OGAAP-2 procedure will be compared with the results obtained using a previously employed 2-stage procedure. This study has received ethics approval from the University of Notre Dame, Sydney, Australia (014153S). The study outcomes will be disseminated

  10. Detecting the Spur Marks of Ink-Jet Printed Documents Using a Multiband Scanner in NIR Mode and Image Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Takeshi

    Ink-jet printers are frequently used in crime such as counterfeiting bank notes, driving licenses, and identification cards. Police investigators required us to identify makers or brands of ink-jet printers from counterfeits. In such demands, classifying ink-jet printers according to spur marks which were made by spur gears located in front of print heads for paper feed has been addressed by document examiners. However, spur marks are significantly faint so that it is difficult to detect them. In this study, we propose the new method for detecting spur marks using a multiband scanner in near infrared (NIR) mode and estimations of point spread function (PSF). As estimating PSF we used cepstrum which is inverse Fourier transform of logarithm spectrum. The proposed method provided the clear image of the spur marks.

  11. contact stress analysis of involute spur gear by finite element method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    section using C- programming. Bending stress analysis has been performed using finite element analysis with ANSYS software. Comparison of bending stress analysis has been performed for symmetric and asymmetric spur gear tooth at critical section. Mushin J. Jweeg, et.al. [7] used 2D contact stress FEA model to ...

  12. Variable Mesh Stiffness of spur gear teeth using finite element method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to determine the variable mesh stiffness of spur gear teeth using the finite element method. There are many factors for the variation of stiffness. In this paper only the numbers of contact tooth pairs and applied load are taken into considerations. For accomplishing the objective, a computer ...

  13. SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF PLANETARY NEBULAE IN THE NORTHERN SPUR OF M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, X.; Liu, X.-W. [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Garcia-Benito, R. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Yuan, H.-B., E-mail: fangx@pku.edu.cn [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-09-10

    We present spectroscopy of three planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Northern Spur of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) obtained with the Double Spectrograph on the 5.1 m Hale Telescope at the Palomar Observatory. The samples were selected from the observations of Merrett et al. Our purpose is to investigate the formation of the substructures of M31 using PNe as a tracer of chemical abundances. The [O III] {lambda}4363 line is detected in the spectra of two objects, enabling temperature determinations. Ionic abundances are derived from the observed collisionally excited lines, and elemental abundances of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur, and argon are estimated. We study the correlations between oxygen and the {alpha}-element abundance ratios using our sample and the M31 disk and bulge PNe from the literature. In one of the three PNe, we observed a relatively higher oxygen abundance compared to the disk sample of M31 at similar galactocentric distances. The results of at least one of the three Northern Spur PNe might be in line with the proposed possible origin of the Northern Spur substructure of M31, i.e., the Northern Spur is connected to the Southern Stream and both substructures comprise the tidal debris of the satellite galaxies of M31.

  14. Diagnosis of hyperostosis of the medial calcaneal tubercle similar to a heel spur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Egemen; Senaran, Hakan; Can, Nuray; Aydin, Bahattin Kerem; Erkocak, Omer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    Calcaneal osteochondromas are rare conditions. To our knowledge, we present the first report of a calcaneal osteochondroma in an adolescent patient that was surprisingly similar to a heel spur, and, in addition, symptoms due to compression of the medial plantar nerve were present.

  15. Endoscopic plantar fascia release, calcaneal drilling and calcaneal spur removal for management of painful heel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shazly, Ossama; El Beltagy, Atef

    2010-12-01

    The pathogenesis of painful heel syndrome is multifactorial including plantar fasciitis, increased intra-osseous pressure of the os calcis, calcaneal periostitis and presence of calcaneal spur. The currently used endoscopic treatment of painful heel syndromes involves endoscopic plantar fascia release alone without addressing other pathological changes. To evaluate the clinical outcome of endoscopic plantar fascia release, calcaneal drilling and calcaneal spur removal. The study was conducted on 22 cases/24 feet with idiopathic painful heel syndrome resistant to conservative treatment. All cases were treated by plantar fasciotomy; calcaneal drilling and calcaneal spur removal using a modified cannula trocar system. Evaluation of pain was done using VAS and functional evaluation was done using the Modified Mayo Scoring System for Plantar Fasciotomy. Also patient's satisfaction was evaluated by direct questionnaire. There was statistically significant improvement in the mean VAS from 82.81 (±7.8 std) preoperative to 6.63 (±2.75 std) and the Mayo score form 7.05 (±3.67 std) preoperative to 87.5 (±4.81 std) at 2 years follow up (Pcalcaneal drilling and calcaneal spur removal has high success rate and patient's satisfaction rate when compared to published reports on isolated endoscopic plantar release. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Application of Reverse Engineering in Design of the Spur Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Çiçek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed that the gear parameters required the design of a spur gear are obtained by use of reverse engineering techniques. Therefore, point cloud of tooth profile of the manufactured spur gear is extracted by a coordinate measuring machine (CMM. The gear parameters are derived by processing the obtained point cloud. 3D model of the spur gear are modeled through this parameters in a CAD environment. In the system, a hybrid programming approach is used. Generating and processing the point cloud, extraction of the gear parameters are performed by Visual BASIC programming language. 3D modeling in the CAD environment is performed also by AutoLISP programming language due to programming simplicity. These two softwares are provided to be in harmony by integrating them. In the study, SolidworksTM and AutoCADTM are selected as CAD environments. With this study, an alternative approach for the design of the spur gear is presented and modeling of the gears in the CAD environment is carried out using reverse engineering techniques.

  17. Effect of an External Electric Field on Positronium Formation in Positron Spur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.

    1975-01-01

    The decrease of positronium (Ps) formation in condensed matter caused by the presence of an external electric field is discussed in terms of the spur reaction model of Ps formation. The rather few experimental results available are shown to be in good agreement with the predictions of the model...

  18. The SPURS Data Management System: Real-time Situational Awareness at Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, F.; Chao, Y.; Li, P.; Vu, Q. A.

    2012-12-01

    SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper ocean Regional Study) is a field program in the North Atlantic to study the subtropical surface salinity maximum. It is a heterogeneous array consisting of research ships, profiling floats, surface drifters, gliders, microstructure profilers and moorings, as well as satellite observations and models. The SPURS Data Management System aims to capture the status of the observing system in near-real time and allow SPURS science team members to deploy observational assets "on the fly". At the heart of this is a visualization system that tracks the positions of the various assets and displays them in a an interface using Google Earth. The interface was used by program participants on land and at sea to coordinate the deployment of instrumentation. Before the Fall AGU, SPURS will have completed the first part of its mission with a 6-week cruise to the study area. This poster presents some of the highlights of the field campaign, and details the lessons learned in doing real-time oceanography on the high seas.

  19. Drivers of epibenthic megafaunal composition in the sponge grounds of the Sackville Spur, northwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazley, Lindsay; Kenchington, Ellen; Yashayaev, Igor; Murillo, Francisco Javier

    2015-04-01

    Deep-water sponges are considered ecosystem engineers, and the presence of large aggregations of these organisms, commonly referred to as sponge grounds, is associated with enhanced biodiversity and abundance of epibenthic fauna compared to non-sponge habitat. However, the degree and magnitude to which the presence of these sponge grounds elicits large changes in composition of the associated megafaunal community remains unknown. Here we identify the external drivers of epibenthic megafaunal community composition and explore the patterns and magnitude of compositional change in the megafaunal community within the sponge grounds of the Sackville Spur, northwest Atlantic. Epibenthic megafauna were quantified from five image transects collected on the Sackville Spur in 2009 between 1080 and 1723 m depth. Using Gradient Forest Modelling we found that the abundance of structure-forming sponges was the most important variable for predicting compositional patterns in the Sackville Spur megafaunal community, followed by depth, range in bottom current speed, in situ salinity, and longitude. Along the gradient in structure-forming sponge abundance, the largest turnover in megafaunal community composition occurred when the sponges reached 15 individuals m-2. Examination of the regional hydrographic conditions suggests that the dense sponge grounds of the Sackville Spur are associated with a warm, salty water mass that occurs between ~1300 and 1800 m.

  20. Research on the Problem of Spur Gear Teeth Contact in the Car Gear Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Skrickij

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on the problem of two gear contact in the car gearbox. Contact stiffness is evaluated for the whole period of mesh. Also, contact stresses are evaluated in the contact place. The presented method can be used for calculating spur gear.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Influence of Spur Processes on Positronium Formation in Some Mixtures of Organic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, P.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Mogensen, O. E.

    1974-01-01

    To test some predictions of the spur reaction model of positronium (Ps) formation, positron lifetime studies of the following binary organic mixtures: (a) dioxane/n-heptane, (b) triethylamine/n-heptane, (c) pyrrolidine/n-heptane, and (d) carbon disulphide/n-hexane were performed. The results were...

  2. A Proposal Of Simulation Model Of A Wind-Steering System For Sailing Yachts, Based On Single-Stage Servo-Pendulum Coupled With Main Rudder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piętak Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate possible application of fast design prototyping methods for wind-steering systems used in offshore sailing yachts. The development of such methods would help to speed up the construction work and reduce the scope of necessary experimental research, prior to implementation of the system. In the present work, based on an analysis of existing designs of windvane systems, a preliminary selection of the system configuration has been undertaken, in terms of a compromise between efficiency, performance, and design complexity. Construction design of a single-stage, servo – pendulum system, has been developed by using the Autodesk Inventor design package. Next, based on the design data, a simulation model of the system, has been produced by using Matlab - Simulink software and SimMechanics library. The model was further verified in terms of kinematics mapping with the use of Matlab visualization tools.

  3. Performance comparison of single-stage mixed-refrigerant Joule–Thomson cycle and reverse Brayton cycle for cooling 80 to 120 K temperature-distributed heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. C.; Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    Thermodynamic performance comparison of single-stage mixed-refrigerant Joule–Thomson cycle (MJTR) and pure refrigerant reverse Brayton cycle (RBC) for cooling 80 to 120 K temperature-distributed heat loads was conducted in this paper. Nitrogen under various liquefaction pressures was employed as the heat load. The research was conducted under nonideal conditions by exergy analysis methods. Exergy efficiency and volumetric cooling capacity are two main evaluation parameters. Exergy loss distribution in each process of refrigeration cycle was also investigated. The exergy efficiency and volumetric cooling capacity of MJTR were obviously superior to RBC in 90 to 120 K temperature zone, but still inferior to RBC at 80 K. The performance degradation of MJTR was caused by two main reasons: The high fraction of neon resulted in large entropy generation and exergy loss in throttling process. Larger duty and WLMTD lead to larger exergy losses in recuperator.

  4. Correlation of precursor and product ions in single-stage high resolution mass spectrometry. A tool for detecting diagnostic ions and improving the precursor elemental composition elucidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borràs, S. [Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kaufmann, A., E-mail: anton.kaufmann@klzh.ch [Official Food Control Authority, Fehrenstrasse 15, 8032 Zürich (Switzerland); Companyó, R. [Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We are describing a technique to spot ions which are derived from each other. ► Single stage high resolution data is used. ► This “in silicon” technique is compared to conventional precursor scan. ► Some applications for this technique are presented. -- Abstract: Monitoring of common diagnostic fragments is essential for recognizing molecules which are members of a particular compound class. Up to now, unit resolving tandem quadrupole mass spectrometers, operating in the precursor ion scan mode, have been typically used to perform such analysis. By means of high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) a much more sensitive and selective detection can be achieved. However, using a single-stage HRMS instrument, there is no unequivocal link to the corresponding precursor ion, since such instrumentation does not permit a previous precursor selection. Thus, to address this limitation, an in silico approach to locate precursor ions, based on diagnostic fragments, was developed. Implemented as an Excel macro, the algorithm rapidly assembles and surveys exact mass data to provide a list of feasible precursor candidates according to the correlation of the chromatographic peak shape profile and other additional filtering criteria (e.g. neutral losses and isotopes). The macro was tested with two families of veterinary drugs, sulfonamides and penicillins, which are known to yield diagnostic product ions when fragmented. Data sets obtained from different food matrices (fish and liver), both at high and low concentration of the target compounds, were investigated in order to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of the reported approach. Finally, other possible applications of this technique, such as the elucidation of elemental compositions based on product ions and corresponding neutral losses, were also presented and discussed.

  5. Evaluation of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 1. Single-stage regulated pump turbines for operating heads of 500 to 1000 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, A.A.; Blomquist, C.A.; Degnan, J.R.

    1979-10-01

    High-head, large-capacity turbomachinery is needed for the concept of underground pumped hydroelectric storage to be technically and economically attractive. Single-stage, reversible, Francis-type pump turbines with adjustable wicket gates appear to offer the most economically attractive option for heads between about 500 and 1000 m. The feasibility of developing these types of machines for capacities up to 500 MW and operating heads up to 1000 m has been evaluated. Preliminary designs have been generated for six single-stage pump turbines. The designs are for capacities of 350 and 500 MW and for operating heads of 500, 750, and 1000 m. The report contains drawings of the machines along with material specifications and hydraulic performance data. Mechanical, hydraulic, and economic analyses indicate that these machines will behave according to the criteria used to design them and that they can be built at a reasonable cost. The stress and deflection responses of the 500-MW, 100-m-head pump turbine, determined by detailed finite element analysis techniques, give solid evidence of the integrity of the conceptual designs of the six units and indicate no unsolvable problems. Results of a life expectancy analysis of the wicket gates indicate that a near infinite life can be expected for these components when they are subjected to normal design loads. Efficiencies of 90.7 and 91.4% in the generating and pumping modes, respectively, can be expected for the 500-MW, 1000-m-head unit. Performances of the other five machines are comparable. The specific costs of the pump turbines in mid-1978 US dollars per kW vary from 19.2 to 11.8 over a head range of from 500 to 1000 m for the 500-MW machines and from 20.0 to 12.3 for the 350-MW machines.

  6. In-source collision-induced dissociation (IS-CID): Applications, issues and structure elucidation with single-stage mass analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jon F; Wang, Mei; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2018-01-01

    A discussion of the definition, advantages, and issues with the formation of ions in the transition region between an electrospray ionization (ESI) source and the ion optics of a mass analyzer is presented. The various types of ions formed in the so-called in-source collision-induced dissociation (IS-CID) process are illustrated. Applications of IS-CID with single-stage mass analyzers, such as structure elucidation and quantitation, are demonstrated. The discussion is illustrated by examples of the in-source fragmentation of ginkgolides, which are marker compounds found only in Ginkgo biloba. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with non-aqueous eluents was used to achieve a fast resolution of the ginkgolides without the hydrolysis reactions possible with aqueous high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) eluents. In-source ion generation occurs at relatively high pressures (ca. 1-3 torr) compared to the low pressure normally observed in collision chambers of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). As a result, the fragmentation process is complex and often generates ions other than the fragments observed with classic CID or the same ions at different intensities. The objective of the current tutorial is to illustrate the conditions under which single-stage, quadrupole or time-of-flight mass analyzers with electrospray or in-air (direct analysis in real time; DART) ionization can be used for quantitation and structure elucidation in a manner similar to that observed with MS/MS. While the low m/z (≤ [M±H] ± ) ions formed in-source often duplicate the ions observed in MS/MS systems, it is the focus of this discussion to illustrate the utility of in-source generated fragment ions that may not be observed or observed at different intensities than in the collision cells of MS/MS instruments. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Efficacy of single-stage breast-conserving treatment using multicatheter partial breast brachytherapy evaluated by GEC-ESTRO phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiko; Fuchikami, Hiromi; Kato, Masahiro; Shimo, Takahiro; Kubota, Jun; Takeda, Naoko; Inoue, Yuko; Seto, Hiroshi; Okawa, Tomohiko

    2017-10-01

    The GEC-ESTRO has reported the equivalent outcomes of partial breast irradiation (PBI) using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy (MCB) to whole breast irradiation (WBI) in breast-conserving therapy (BCT). We performed single-stage BCT with partial breast brachytherapy by intraoperative catheter placement. After the categorization of patients into inclusion and exclusion criteria on this trial, our databases were evaluated in order to translate it to Japanese patients. Patients undergoing BCT were retrospectively examined between November 2007 and December 2015. The technique is an open-cavity implant with a dose of 32 Gy in 8 fractions. The 4-year clinical outcomes of MCB-PBI were evaluated in the 2 distinct categories, and the comparison of the outcomes of MCB-PBI with WBI was performed in patients with unfavorable features. Of a total of 501 lesions undergoing BCT, 301 lesions were treated with MCB-PBI and 200 lesions with WBI. At the median follow-up time of 52 months, the 4-year rate of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR)-free, disease-free (DFS), and overall survival (OS) in patients with MCB-PBI and WBI were 98.9% vs. 98.0% ( p = 0.56), 97.0% vs. 95.3% ( p = 0.78), and 99.6% vs. 98.2% ( p = 0.38), respectively. Although in exclusion cohort treated with MCB-PBI, IBTR-free, and disease-free survival were significantly worse than in inclusion cohort, non-significantly worse outcomes was demonstrated than in exclusion cohort with WBI; IBTR-free survival (95.0% vs. 97.2%, p = 0.24), and disease-free survival (95.0% vs. 95.8%, p = 0.31). Single-stage BCT using MCB-PBI offered similar tumor control rates compering to WBI. However, further research is needed to define the benefit for patients with an exclusion criteria.

  8. A novel, fast and efficient single-sensor automatic sleep-stage classification based on complementary cross-frequency coupling estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Stavros I; Salis, Christos; Linden, David

    2018-04-01

    Limitations of the manual scoring of polysomnograms, which include data from electroencephalogram (EEG), electro-oculogram (EOG), electrocardiogram (ECG) and electromyogram (EMG) channels have long been recognized. Manual staging is resource intensive and time consuming, and thus considerable effort must be spent to ensure inter-rater reliability. As a result, there is a great interest in techniques based on signal processing and machine learning for a completely Automatic Sleep Stage Classification (ASSC). In this paper, we present a single-EEG-sensor ASSC technique based on the dynamic reconfiguration of different aspects of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) estimated between predefined frequency pairs over 5 s epoch lengths. The proposed analytic scheme is demonstrated using the PhysioNet Sleep European Data Format (EDF) Database with repeat recordings from 20 healthy young adults. We validate our methodology in a second sleep dataset. We achieved very high classification sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 96.2 ± 2.2%, 94.2 ± 2.3%, and 94.4 ± 2.2% across 20 folds, respectively, and also a high mean F1 score (92%, range 90-94%) when a multi-class Naive Bayes classifier was applied. High classification performance has been achieved also in the second sleep dataset. Our method outperformed the accuracy of previous studies not only on different datasets but also on the same database. Single-sensor ASSC makes the entire methodology appropriate for longitudinal monitoring using wearable EEG in real-world and laboratory-oriented environments. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. STAT3 single nucleotide polymorphism rs4796793 SNP does not correlate with response to adjuvant IFNα therapy in stage III melanoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eSchrama

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Interferon alpha (IFNα is approved for adjuvant treatment of stage III melanoma in Europe and the US. Its clinical efficacy, however, is restricted to a subpopulation of patients while side effects occur in most of treated patients. Thus, the identification of predictive biomarkers would be highly beneficial to improve the benefit to risk ratio. In this regard, STAT3 is important for signaling of the IFNα receptor. Moreover, the STAT3 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs4796793 has recently been reported to be associated with IFNα sensitivity in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. To translate this notion to melanoma, we scrutinized the impact of rs4796793 functionally and clinically in this cancer. Interestingly, melanoma cells carrying the minor allele of rs4796793 were the most sensitive to IFNα in vitro. However, we did not detect a correlation between SNP genotype and STAT3 mRNA expression for either melanoma cells or for peripheral blood lymphocytes. Next, we analyzed the impact of rs4796793 on the clinical outcome of 259 stage III melanoma patients of which one third had received adjuvant IFNα treatment. These analyses did not reveal a significant association between the STAT3 rs4796793 SNP and patients’ progression free or overall survival when IFN treated and untreated patients were compared. In conclusion, STAT3 rs4796793 SNP is no predictive marker for the efficacy of adjuvant IFNα treatment in melanoma patients.

  10. Single-cell analysis of differences in transcriptomic profiles of oocytes and cumulus cells at GV, MI, MII stages from PCOS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiwei; Li, Yumei; Feng, Yun; Liu, Chaojie; Ma, Jieliang; Li, Yifei; Xiang, Huifen; Ji, Yazhong; Cao, Yunxia; Tong, Xiaowen; Xue, Zhigang

    2016-12-22

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common frequent endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. Although assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) are used to address subfertility in PCOS women, their effectiveness is not clear. Our aim was to compare transcriptomic profiles of oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) between women with and without PCOS, and assess the effectiveness of ARTs in treating PCOS patients. We collected oocytes and CCs from 16 patients with and without PCOS patients to categorize them into 6 groups according to oocyte nuclear maturation. Transcriptional gene expression of oocyte and CCs was determined via single-cell RNA sequencing. The ratio of fertilization and cleavage was higher in PCOS patients than in non-PCOS patients undergoing ARTs, and there was no difference in the number of high-quality embryos between the groups. Differentially expressed genes including PPP2R1A, PDGFRA, EGFR, GJA1, PTGS2, TNFAIP6, TGF-β1, CAV1, INHBB et al. were investigated as potential causes of PCOS oocytes and CCs disorder at early stages, but their expression returned to the normal level at the metaphase II (MII) stage via ARTs. In conclusion, ARTs can improve the quality of cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) and increase the ratio of fertilization and cleavage in PCOS women.

  11. High flux coherent super-continuum soft X-ray source driven by a single-stage, 10mJ, Ti:sapphire amplifier-pumped OPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chengyuan; Xiong, Wei; Fan, Tingting; Hickstein, Daniel D; Popmintchev, Tenio; Zhang, Xiaoshi; Walls, Mike; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2014-03-10

    We demonstrate the highest flux tabletop source of coherent soft X-rays to date, driven by a single-stage 10 mJ Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier at 1 kHz. We first down-convert the laser to 1.3 µm using a parametric amplifier, before up-converting it to soft X-rays using high harmonic generation in a high-pressure, phase matched, hollow waveguide geometry. The resulting optimally phase matched broadband spectrum extends to 200 eV, with a soft X-ray photon flux of > 10(6) photons/pulse/1% bandwidth at 1 kHz, corresponding to > 10(9) photons/s/1% bandwidth, or approximately a three order-of-magnitude increase compared with past work. Finally, using this broad bandwidth X-ray source, we demonstrate X-ray absorption spectroscopy of multiple elements and transitions in molecules in a single spectrum, with a spectral resolution of 0.25 eV, and with the ability to resolve the near edge fine structure.

  12. Performance analysis of single stage libr-water absorption machine operated by waste thermal energy of internal combustion engine: Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Hafiz Zafar; Leman, A. M.; Muthuraman, S.; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Zakaria, Supaat

    2017-09-01

    Combined heating, cooling, and power is also known as Tri-generation. Tri-generation system can provide power, hot water, space heating and air -conditioning from single source of energy. The objective of this study is to propose a method to evaluate the characteristic and performance of a single stage lithium bromide-water (LiBr-H2O) absorption machine operated with waste thermal energy of internal combustion engine which is integral part of trigeneration system. Correlations for computer sensitivity analysis are developed in data fit software for (P-T-X), (H-T-X), saturated liquid (water), saturated vapor, saturation pressure and crystallization temperature curve of LiBr-H2O Solution. Number of equations were developed with data fit software and exported into excel work sheet for the evaluation of number of parameter concerned with the performance of vapor absorption machine such as co-efficient of performance, concentration of solution, mass flow rate, size of heat exchangers of the unit in relation to the generator, condenser, absorber and evaporator temperatures. Size of vapor absorption machine within its crystallization limits for cooling and heating by waste energy recovered from exhaust gas, and jacket water of internal combustion engine also presented in this study to save the time and cost for the facilities managers who are interested to utilize the waste thermal energy of their buildings or premises for heating and air conditioning applications.

  13. Laser cellulite treatment and laser-assisted lipoplasty of the thighs and buttocks: Combined modalities for single stage contouring of the lower body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Christine; Stoneburner, Jacqueline; McLaughlin, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Cellulite and lipodystrophy are often found together, especially in areas of the buttocks and thighs, causing skin surface irregularities. Each of these conditions is currently treated independently as two separate surgical procedures. In our practice, we developed a novel combined approach for the simultaneous treatment of cellulite and lipodystrophy, as a single stage procedure in the same anatomic area. For the treatment of cellulite, we used the Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1,440-nm, along with an innovative 1,000-micron directional side-firing fiber optic laser system. For the treatment of lipodystrophy, the Nd:YAG laser with a 1,440 nm wavelength, along with a fiber optic laser system was used. The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of a combined approach for the simultaneous treatment of cellulite and lipodystrophy. In 2012, 16 subjects with noticeable cellulite, Grade II and Grade III, accompanied by mild-to-moderate lipodystrophy of the lower body received single treatments of the Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1,440-nm along with the 1,000-micron side-firing fiber optic laser system for simultaneous treatments of both cellulite and lipodystrophy. Patients were assessed at baseline and 3-6 months post-treatment by a modified Nurnberger-Muller scale utilized to quantify the cellulite severity. Additionally, patient satisfaction and a global aesthetic improvement scale were used to measure the improvement in lipodystrophy. Blinded reviewers identified the correct baseline photographs 97% of the time when presented with a set of photographs. The median modified Nurnberger-Muller scale score at baseline was 4.75 ± 1.2 and the average improvement was 2.0 ± 1.2. Global aesthetic improvement scores ranged from 1 to 3 with an average of 1.58 indicating a much-improved overall appearance. Satisfaction was high for both physicians and patients with scores corresponding to extremely satisfied/satisfied. Precise, effective

  14. Effectiveness of using ultrasound therapy and manual therapy in the conservative treatment of calcaneal spur – pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twarowska Natalia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcaneal spur is a pathology of the fibrocartilage enthesis of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia or a pathology of the mixed enthesis of the flexor digitorum brevis muscle. Ultrasound therapy is commonly applied in the conservative treatment of a calcaneal spur. Foot muscle strengthening exercises, stretching exercises and soft tissue therapy are indicated as effective methods of conservative treatment. The aim of the study was to compare and assess the effects of ultrasound therapy and selected techniques of manual therapy on pain level and functional state in patients with calcaneal spur.

  15. Cystic calculi removal in African spurred Tortoise (Geochelone sulcata using transplstron coeliotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Che' Amat

    Full Text Available The present report was carried out to manage a case of calculi in the bladder of African spurred tortoise. A 6 year old African spurred tortoise presented with history of anorexia and whitish discharged from the vent. Upon physical examination, the tortoise were 10% dehydrated, hindlegs muscle wasting and whitish materials came out from the vent. Plain radiograph revealed increased radiopacity in the bladder and also both right and left kidney. Contrast gastrointestinal radiograph showed less possibility of foreign body. Inconclusive radiological findings required the decision to proceed with exploratory transplastron coeliotomy by using dental burr. About 4 cm solid, hard whitish mass was removed from the bladder and both kidney was congested with whitish material. The findings were suggestive for urates crystal calculi based on histology result. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 489-492

  16. Improvement of retinal blood vessel detection by spur removal and Gaussian matched filtering compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Di; Vignarajan, Janardhan; An, Dong; Tay-Kearney, Mei-Ling; Kanagasingam, Yogi

    2016-03-01

    Retinal photography is a non-invasive and well-accepted clinical diagnosis of ocular diseases. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of retinal images is crucial in ocular diseases related clinical application. In this paper, we proposed approaches for improving the quality of blood vessel detection based on our initial blood vessel detection methods. A blood vessel spur pruning method has been developed for removing the blood vessel spurs both on vessel medial lines and binary vessel masks, which are caused by artifacts and side-effect of Gaussian matched vessel enhancement. A Gaussian matched filtering compensation method has been developed for removing incorrect vessel branches in the areas of low illumination. The proposed approaches were applied and tested on the color fundus images from one publicly available database and our diabetic retinopathy screening dataset. A preliminary result has demonstrated the robustness and good performance of the proposed approaches and their potential application for improving retinal blood vessel detection.

  17. Scavenging and recombination kinetics in a radiation spur: The successive ordered scavenging events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samra, Eyad H.; Green, Nicholas J. B.

    2018-03-01

    This study describes stochastic models to investigate the successive ordered scavenging events in a spur of four radicals, a model system based on a radiation spur. Three simulation models have been developed to obtain the probabilities of the ordered scavenging events: (i) a Monte Carlo random flight (RF) model, (ii) hybrid simulations in which the reaction rate coefficient is used to generate scavenging times for the radicals and (iii) the independent reaction times (IRT) method. The results of these simulations are found to be in agreement with one another. In addition, a detailed master equation treatment is also presented, and used to extract simulated rate coefficients of the ordered scavenging reactions from the RF simulations. These rate coefficients are transient, the rate coefficients obtained for subsequent reactions are effectively equal, and in reasonable agreement with the simple correction for competition effects that has recently been proposed.

  18. Thermal Behavior of Aerospace Spur Gears in Normal and Loss-of-Lubrication Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Testing of instrumented spur gears operating at aerospace rotorcraft conditions was conducted. The instrumented gears were operated in a normal and in a loss-of-lubrication environment. Thermocouples were utilized to measure the temperature at various locations on the test gears and a test utilized a full-field, high-speed infrared thermal imaging system. Data from thermocouples was recorded during all testing at 1 hertz. One test had the gears shrouded and a second test was run without the shrouds to permit the infrared thermal imaging system to take data during loss-of-lubrication operation. Both tests using instrumented spur gears were run in normal and loss-of-lubrication conditions. Also the result from four other loss-of-lubrication tests will be presented. In these tests two different torque levels were used while operating at the same rotational speed (10000 revolutions per minute).

  19. A prospective phase I comparison of toxicity and cosmesis outcomes of single-fraction IORT and hypofractionated radiotherapy with IORT boost in early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Tanuja; Babaran, Wesley; Forouzannia, Afshin; Williams, Venita; Harness, Jay; Carpenter, Michele; Gobran, Maher; Khanijou, Rajesh; Wagman, Brittany; Ash, Robert; Wagman, Lawrence D

    Radiation therapy is proven to reduce local recurrence in patients with early-stage breast cancer. To reduce toxicity, treatment time, and improve accuracy, intraoperative radiation therapy was used as definitive treatment or as a boost. The study's objective was to compare the short-term toxicity and cosmesis of single-fraction (SF) IORT and hypofractionated radiotherapy with IORT boost (HfB) given as definitive treatment. Between March 2011 and December 2013, 57 patients aged 45-91 years and 24 patients aged 43-83 years (total n = 81) with Stage 0-II were treated with SF or HfB (Mobetron, IntraOp Medical, Sunnyvale, CA). For SF treatment, 21 Gy was delivered using 4.5-6 cm applicators with electron energies from 6 to 12 MeV. For HfB, an intraoperative boost of 10 Gy was delivered using 4-7 cm applicators with energies from 4 to 12 MeV followed by whole-breast radiation with 40.5 Gy over 15 fractions. Toxicity was assessed at 2 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months per Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute skin toxicity criteria and cosmesis. At 12 months, SF and HfB were well tolerated by all patients with no Grade 3+ toxicity. At 1 year, Grade-2 toxicity was resolved. Ninety-eight percent of SF patients and ninety percent of HfB patients had 0-1 grade toxicity. In the SF and HfB groups, 100% of patients had excellent or good cosmesis at 12-month followup interval. The SF exhibited a more favorable cosmesis with a higher percentage of excellent scores compared with HfB (80.4% vs. 45%; p = 0.0033). After breast conservation surgery, SF or HfB may be an option for patients with early-stage breast cancer compared to conventional external beam radiotherapy. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrating Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald

    1999-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. The deficiencies in the scramjet powered concept led to a revival of interest in Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. At this point the transitions to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scram4jet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance.

  1. Control scheme towards enhancing power quality and operational efficiency of single-phase two-stage grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Salem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieving high reliable grid-connected photovoltaic (PV systems with high power quality and high operation efficiency is highly required for distributed generation units. A double grid-frequency voltage ripple is found on the dc-link voltage in single-phase photovoltaic grid-connected systems due to the unbalance of the instantaneous dc input and ac output powers. This voltage ripple has undesirable effects on the power quality and operational efficiency of the whole system. Harmonic distortion in the injected current to the grid is one of the problems caused by this double grid-frequency voltage ripple. The double grid frequency ripple propagates to the PV voltage and current which disturb the extracted maximum power from the PV array. This paper introduces intelligent solutions towards mitigate the side effects of the double grid-frequency voltage ripple on the transferred power quality and the operational efficiency of single-phase two-stage grid-connected PV system. The proposed system has three control loops: MPPT control loop, dc-link voltage control loop and inverter current control loop. Solutions are introduced for all the three control loops in the system. The current controller cancels the dc-link voltage effect on the total harmonic distortion of the output current. The dc-link voltage controller is designed to generate a ripple free reference current signal that leads to enhance the quality of the output power. Also a modified MPPT controller is proposed to optimize the extracted power from the PV array. Simulation results show that higher injected power quality is achieved and higher efficiency of the overall system is realized.

  2. Immediate, single stage, truly anatomic zirconia implant in lower molar replacement: a case report with 2.5 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirker, W; Wiedemann, D; Lidauer, A; Kocher, A A

    2011-02-01

    This report demonstrates the clinical use of a modified, truly anatomic, root-analogue zirconia implant for immediate replacement of a two-rooted, left first mandibular molar. A 50-year-old female patient with chronic apical periodontitis of the left mandibulary first molar was referred and the tooth was extracted. The mesial root had to be removed surgically due to a root fracture. A truly anatomical, root identical, roughened zirconia implant modified by macro-retentions was manufactured and placed into the extraction socket by tapping 7 days later. After 4 months a composite crown was cemented in place. No complications occurred during the healing period. A good functional and aesthetic result was achieved with minimal bone resorption and soft tissue recession at 30 months follow-up. This report describes the successful clinical use of an immediate, single stage, truly anatomical root-analogue zirconia implant for replacement of a two-rooted tooth. Significant modifications such as macro-retentions yielded primary stability and excellent osseointegration. This novel approach is minimally invasive, respects the underlying anatomy, aids socket prevention, is time- and cost-saving with good patient acceptance as there is no need for bone drilling, sinus lift, bone augmentation or other traumatic procedures. Copyright © 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhancement of the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite process in a modified single-stage subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland: Effect of saturated zone depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Menglu; Wang, Zhen; Qi, Ran

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to explore enhancement of the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process in a modified single-stage subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland (VSSF) with saturated zone, and nitrogen transformation pathways in the VSSF treating digested swine wastewater were investigated at four different saturated zone depths (SZDs). SZD significantly affected nitrogen transformation pathways in the VSSF throughout the experiment. As the SZD was 45cm, the CANON process was enhanced most effectively in the system owing to the notable enhancement of anammox. Correspondingly, the VSSF had the best TN removal performance [(76.74±7.30)%] and lower N 2 O emission flux [(3.50±0.22)mg·(m 2 ·h) - 1 ]. It could be concluded that autotrophic nitrogen removal via CANON process could become a primary route for nitrogen removal in the VSSF with optimized microenvironment that developed as a result of the appropriate SZD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multi-analysis determination of tropane alkaloids in cereals and solanaceaes seeds by liquid chromatography coupled to single stage Exactive-Orbitrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Sáez, Jesús; Romero-González, Roberto; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2017-10-06

    Tropane alkaloids are a wide group of substances that comprises more than 200 compounds occurring especially in the Solanaceae family. The main aim of this study is the development of a method for the analysis of the principal tropane alkaloids as atropine, scopolamine, anisodamine, tropane, tropine, littorine, homatropine, apoatropine, aposcopolamine, scopoline, tropinone, physoperuvine, pseudotropine and cuscohygrine in cereals and related matrices. For that, a simple solid-liquid extraction was optimized and a liquid chromatographic method coupled to a single stage Exactive-Orbitrap was developed. The method was validated obtaining recoveries in the range of 60-109% (except for some compounds in soy), precision values (expressed as relative standard deviation) lower than 20% and detection and quantification limits equal to or lower than 2 and 3μg/kg respectively. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of different types of samples as buckwheat, linseed, soy and millet, obtaining positives for anisodamine, scopolamine, atropine, littorine and tropinone in a millet flour sample above the quantification limits, whereas atropine and scopolamine were detected in a buckwheat sample, below the quantification limit. Contaminated samples with Solanaceaes seeds (Datura Stramonium and Brugmansia Arborea) were also analysed, detecting concentrations up to 693μg/kg (scopolamine) for contaminated samples with Brugmansia seeds and 1847μg/kg (atropine) when samples were contaminated with Stramonium seeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of resorbable membranes on one-stage ridge augmentation in anterior single-tooth replacement: A randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Brend P; Wolvius, Eppo B; van der Tas, Justin T; Pijpe, Justin

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of resorbable membranes on one-stage ridge augmentation procedures in small (2-4 mm) buccal bony dehiscences in anterior maxillary single-tooth replacement. Patients with a buccal bony dehiscence after implant placement in the esthetic zone were randomly allocated to one-stage ridge augmentation with (M+) or without a membrane (M-). Second-phase surgery was performed after 8 weeks, and follow-up was performed 1, 6, and ≥12 months after loading. Outcomes included implant survival and success, complications, clinical and radiographic parameters, esthetic results and patient satisfaction. Fifty-two patients were randomized to one-stage ridge augmentation with (n = 25) or without use of a membrane (n = 27). No significant differences in implant survival and success have been observed. The risk of having a small mucosal dehiscence was more than six times higher in the M+ group than in the M- group (RR 6.24, 95% CI 0.81 to 48.21). At the last follow-up, the bleeding index (BI) was marginally higher in the M+ group (14/9/2/0) compared to the M- group (24/2/0/0) (U = 205, Z = -2.97, p = .003, r = .42). The median change in marginal bone level was statistically lower in the M+ group (0.06 mm) than the M- group (0.60 mm) at last follow-up (U = 120, Z = -2.73 a p = .006 r = .42). Total pink esthetic index (PES) and white esthetic score (WES) and combined PES/WES were not significantly different between treatment groups at more than 12 months after loading. Only the subcategory root convexity/soft tissue color scored significantly lower in the M+ group (1.5) compared to the M- group (2.0) at the last follow-up (U = 172, Z = -2.34, p = .019 r = .34). No differences were found in patient satisfaction. The use of a resorbable membrane in small buccal bony dehiscences in anterior maxillary single-tooth replacement resulted in less marginal bone loss, but showed more mucosal dehiscences, higher bleeding scores and lower

  6. Randomized multicenter follow-up trial on the effect of radiotherapy for plantar fasciitis (painful heels spur) depending on dose and fractionation – a study protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtmann, Henrik; Niewald, Marcus; Prokein, Benjamin; Graeber, Stefan; Ruebe, Christian

    2015-01-01

    An actual clinical trial showed the effect of low dose radiotherapy in painful heel spur (plantar fasciitis) with single doses of 1.0 Gy and total doses of 6.0 Gy applied twice weekly. Furthermore, a lot of animal experimental and in vitro data reveals the effect of lower single doses of 0.5 Gy which may be superior in order to ease pain and reduce inflammation in patients with painful heel spur. Our goal is therefore to transfer this experimentally found effect into a randomized multicenter trial. This was a controlled, prospective, two-arm phase III-multicenter trial. The standard arm consisted of single fractions of 1.0 Gy applied two times a week, for a total dose of 6.0 Gy (total therapy time: 3 weeks). The experimental arm consisted of single fractions of 0.5 Gy applied 3 times a week, for a total dose of 6.0 Gy (total therapy time: 4 weeks). Following a statistical power calculation, there were 120 patients for each investigation arm. The main inclusion criteria were: age > = 40 years, clinical and radiologically diagnosed painful heel spur (plantar fasciitis), and current symptoms for at least 6 months. The main exclusion criteria were: former local trauma, surgery or radiotherapy of the heel; pregnant or breastfeeding women; and a pre-existing severe psychiatric or psychosomatic disorder. After approving a written informed consent the patients are randomized by a statistician into one of the trial arms. After radiotherapy, the patients are seen after six weeks, after twelve weeks and then every twelve weeks up to 48 weeks. Additionally, they receive a questionnaire every six weeks after the follow-up examinations up to 48 weeks. The effect is measured using the visual analogue scale of pain (VAS), the calcaneodynia score according to Rowe and the SF-12 score. The primary endpoint is the pain relief three months after therapy. Patients of both therapy arms with an insufficient result are offered a second radiotherapy series applying the standard dose

  7. Plantar fasciitis and calcaneal spur formation are associated with abductor digiti minimi atrophy on MRI of the foot

    OpenAIRE

    Chundru, Usha; Liebeskind, Amy; Seidelmann, Frank; Fogel, Joshua; Franklin, Peter; Beltran, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of atrophy of the abductor digiti minimi muscle (ADMA), an MRI manifestation of chronic compression of the inferior calcaneal nerve suggesting the clinical diagnosis of Baxter?s neuropathy, with MRI markers of potential etiologies, including calcaneal spur formation, plantar fasciitis, calcaneal edema, Achilles tendinosis and posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD). Materials and methods Prevalence of calcaneal spur formation, plantar fasciitis, calca...

  8. Effectiveness of using ultrasound therapy and manual therapy in the conservative treatment of calcaneal spur – pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Twarowska Natalia; Niemierzycka Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Calcaneal spur is a pathology of the fibrocartilage enthesis of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia or a pathology of the mixed enthesis of the flexor digitorum brevis muscle. Ultrasound therapy is commonly applied in the conservative treatment of a calcaneal spur. Foot muscle strengthening exercises, stretching exercises and soft tissue therapy are indicated as effective methods of conservative treatment. The aim of the study was to compare and assess the effects of ultrasou...

  9. Plantar fasciitis and calcaneal spur formation are associated with abductor digiti minimi atrophy on MRI of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chundru, Usha; Liebeskind, Amy; Seidelmann, Frank; Fogel, Joshua; Franklin, Peter; Beltran, Javier

    2008-06-01

    To determine the association of atrophy of the abductor digiti minimi muscle (ADMA), an MRI manifestation of chronic compression of the inferior calcaneal nerve suggesting the clinical diagnosis of Baxter's neuropathy, with MRI markers of potential etiologies, including calcaneal spur formation, plantar fasciitis, calcaneal edema, Achilles tendinosis and posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD). Prevalence of calcaneal spur formation, plantar fasciitis, calcaneal edema, Achilles tendinosis and PTTD was assessed retrospectively on 100 MRI studies with ADMA and 100 MRI studies without ADMA. Patients ranged in age from 10-92 years. Pearson chi-square analyses and Fisher's exact test were used to compare prevalence of the above findings in patients with and without ADMA. Logistic regression was used to determine which variables were significantly associated with ADMA. Among patients with ADMA, there was significantly greater age (57.2 years vs 40.8 years, pcalcaneal edema (15.0% vs 3.0%, P=0.005), calcaneal spur (48.0% vs 7.0%, Pcalcaneal spur (OR 3.60, 95% CI 1.28, 10.17), and plantar fasciitis (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.31, 8.56) remained significant. Advancing age, calcaneal spur, and plantar fasciitis are significantly associated with ADMA. Their high odds ratios support the notion of a possible etiologic role for calcaneal spur and plantar fasciitis in the progression to Baxter's neuropathy.

  10. Minilaparoscopic radical hysterectomy (mLPS-RH) vs laparoendoscopic single-site radical hysterectomy (LESS-RH) in early stage cervical cancer: a multicenter retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagotti, Anna; Ghezzi, Fabio; Boruta, David M; Scambia, Giovanni; Escobar, Pedro; Fader, Amanda N; Malzoni, Mario; Fanfani, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    To compare the perioperative outcomes of laparoendoscopic single-site radical hysterectomy (LESS-RH) and minilaparoscopic radical hysterectomy (mLPS-RH). Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Seven institutions in Italy. Forty-six patents with early cervical cancer (FIGO stage IA2-IB1/IIA1) were included in the study. Nineteen patients (41.3%) underwent LESS-RH, and 27 (58.7%) underwent mLPS-RH. Pelvic lymph node dissection was performed in all patients. In the LESS-RH group, all surgical procedures were performed through a single umbilical multichannel port. In the mLPS-RH group, the procedure was completed using a 5-mm umbilical optical trocar and 3 additional 3-mm ancillary trocars, placed suprapubically and in the left and right lower abdominal regions. There was no difference in clinicopathologic characteristics at the time of diagnosis between the LESS-RH and mLPS-RH groups. Median operative time was 270 minutes (range, 149-380 minutes) for LESS-RH, and was 180 minutes (range, 90-240 minutes) for mLPS-RH (p = .001). No further differences were detected between the 2 groups insofar as type of radical hysterectomy, number of lymph nodes removed, or perioperative outcomes. In the LESS-RH group, conversion to laparotomy was necessary in 1 patient (5.3%) because of external iliac vein injury, and in another patient, conversion to standard laparoscopy was required because of truncal obesity. In the mLPS-RH group, no conversions were observed; however, a repeat operation was performed to repair a ureteral injury. The percentage of patients discharged 1 day after surgery was significantly higher in the LESS-RH group (57.9%) compared with the mLPS-RH group (25.0%) (p = .03). After a median follow-up of 27 months (range, 9-73 months), only 1 patient, who had undergone mLPS-RH, experienced pelvic recurrence and died of the disease. Both LESS-RH and mLPS-RH are feasible ultra-minimally invasive approaches for performance of radical hysterectomy

  11. Evaluation of a single-stage consumable-free modulator for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography: analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and chlorobenzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscalu, Alina M; Edwards, Matthew; Górecki, Tadeusz; Reiner, Eric J

    2015-04-24

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) has been rapidly growing in popularity. The GC×GC separation is performed by interfacing a modulator between two columns of different selectivities. The modulator periodically traps and then re-injects the analytes eluting from the first column into the second column. The most popular GC×GC systems require consumables such as liquid N2 for the trapping function of the modulator. Although these systems are very effective, their costs are a hindrance to more widespread use. A new, single-stage thermal modulator for GC×GC that requires no consumables has been developed and tested. The device traps analytes using a proprietary stainless steel capillary trap compressed between two ceramic cooling pads. Analytes are thermally desorbed from the trap into the second column via resistive heating. To evaluate this system, a routine accredited method for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and chlorobenzenes was run using the new modulator and its performance was compared to that of an industry standard modulation system. Within-day repeatability (% RSD ranging from 2% to 13%), between-day reproducibility (% RSD from 3% to 15%), as well as between-trap reproducibility were assessed. The results are very encouraging as negligible shifts in retention times (% RSD from 0.3% to 0.6% in the 1st dimension and 0.8% to 2% in the 2nd dimension) were observed for both within-day and day-to-day comparisons of the studied samples (ANOVA, p=0.9893 for the sediment reference material compared), and the quantitative results were comparable. Routine analysis and quality control applications will benefit from the improved reproducibility as the variances in cold/hot jet flows and temperatures are eliminated. An overview of the device operation and the results from this study are summarized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Feasibility of Urgent-Start Peritoneal Dialysis in Older Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: A Single-Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haijiao; Ni, Zhaohui; Mou, Shan; Lu, Renhua; Fang, Wei; Huang, Jiaying; Hu, Chunhua; Zhang, Haifen; Yan, Hao; Li, Zhenyuan; Yu, Zanzhe

    2018-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) frequently require urgent-start dialysis. Recent evidence suggests that peritoneal dialysis (PD) might be a feasible alternative to hemodialysis (HD) in these patients, including in older patients. This retrospective study enrolled patients aged > 65 years with ESRD who underwent urgent dialysis without functional vascular access or PD catheter at a single center, from January 2011 to December 2014. Patients were grouped based on their dialysis modality (PD or HD). Patients unable to tolerate PD catheter insertion or wait for PD were excluded. Each patient was followed for at least 30 days after catheter insertion. Short-term (30-day) dialysis-related complications and patient survival were compared between the 2 groups. A total of 94 patients were enrolled, including 53 (56.4%) who underwent PD. The incidence of dialysis-related complications during the first 30 days was significantly lower in PD compared with HD patients (3 [5.7%] vs 10 [24.4%], p = 0.009). Logistic regression identified urgent-start HD as an independent risk factor for dialysis-related complications compared with urgent-start PD (odds ratio 4.760 [1.183 - 19.147], p = 0.028). The 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-month survival rates in the PD and HD groups were 92.3% vs 94.6%, 82.4% vs 81.3%, 75.7% vs 74.2%, and 69.5% vs 60.6%, respectively, with no significant differences between the groups (log-rank = 0.011, p = 0.915). Urgent-start PD was associated with fewer short-term dialysis-related complications and similar survival to urgent-start HD in older patients with ESRD. Peritoneal dialysis may thus be a safe and effective dialysis modality for older ESRD patients requiring urgent dialysis. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  13. Influence of Different Tibial Fixation Techniques on Initial Stability in Single-Stage Anterior Cruciate Ligament Revision With Confluent Tibial Tunnels: A Biomechanical Laboratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliemann, Benedikt; Treder, Maximilian; Schulze, Martin; Müller, Viktoria; Vasta, Sebastiano; Zampogna, Biaggio; Herbort, Mirco; Kösters, Clemens; Raschke, Michael J; Lenschow, Simon

    2016-01-01

    To kinematically and biomechanically compare 4 different types of tibial tunnel management in single-stage anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) revision reconstruction with the control: primary ACL reconstruction using a robotic-based knee testing setup. Porcine knees and flexor tendons were used. One hundred specimens were randomly assigned to 5 testing groups: (1) open tibial tunnel, (2) bone plug technique, (3) biodegradable interference screw, (4) dilatation technique, and (5) primary ACL reconstruction. A robotic/universal force-moment sensor testing system was used to simulate the KT-1000 (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA) and pivot-shift tests. Cyclic loading and load-to-failure testing were performed. Anterior tibial translation increased significantly with all of the techniques compared with the intact ACL (P .05). The open tunnel and dilated tunnel techniques showed significantly greater anterior tibial translation (P < .05). The results of the simulated pivot-shift test were in accordance with those of the KT-1000 test. No significant differences could be observed regarding stiffness or maximum load to failure. However, elongation was significantly lower in the primary ACL reconstruction group compared with groups 1 and 3 (P = .02 and P = .03, respectively). Filling an incomplete and incorrect tibial tunnel with a press-fit bone plug or a biodegradable interference screw in a standardized laboratory situation provided initial biomechanical properties and knee stability comparable with those of primary ACL reconstruction. In contrast, the dilatation technique or leaving the malplaced tunnel open did not restore knee kinematics adequately in this model. Backup extracortical fixation should be considered because the load to failure depends on the extracortical fixation when an undersized interference screw is used for aperture fixation. Our biomechanical results could help orthopaedic surgeons to optimize the results of primary ACL revision with incomplete, incorrect

  14. Post-Burn Skin Deformities of the Face and Neck Region in Pediatric Patients: Single-Stage Treatment Using Collagen Elastin Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağlayan Yağmur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Treating severe post-burn deformities of the face and neck region in pediatric populations is challenging because of technical difficulties (e.g., limited full thickness skin graft donor site, limited flap options, unavailability for expander placement and increased donor site morbidity (e.g., related to flap and graft donor sites. In this study, we present the single-stage treatment of severe post-burn skin deformities of the face and neck region in pediatric patients using collagen-elastin matrix (Matriderm® combined with partial thickness skin grafts. Material and Methods: The total number of cases was eight (four females, four males, and the ages were between two and 11 years. All cases were operated on for only one region. Following the release of contractures and/or excision of wide excessive/ unfavorable dermal scars, defects were reconstructed using collagen- elastin matrix (Matriderm® combined with partial-thickness skin grafts. The final functional and aesthetic results were evaluated using photography and examination. Results: The deformities were in the form of contractures and/ or excessive dermal scarring. The involved regions were the face (n=3 and neck (n=5. The grafts yielded favorable plication and texture, and no recurrence of excessive dermal scarring was observed. All contractures healed unproblematically. Two patients were re-operated on for regrafting caused by minor graft loss (5% and 12% of the total area, respectively. Conclusion: In this study, we observed that collagen elastin matrix combined with partial-thickness skin grafts provides a favorable option for the treatment of pediatric late post-burn complications in the face and neck region with limited surgical options.

  15. On the spur lifetime and its temperature dependence in the low linear energy transfer radiolysis of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguanmith, Sunuchakan; Meesungnoen, Jintana; Muroya, Yusa; Lin, Mingzhang; Katsumura, Yosuke; Jay-Gerin, Jean-Paul

    2012-12-28

    In the spirit of the radiation chemical "spur model", the lifetime of a spur (τ(s)) is an important indicator of overlapping spurs and the establishment of homogeneity in the distribution of reactive species created by the action of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation (such as fast electrons or γ irradiation). In fact, τ(s) gives the time required for the changeover from nonhomogeneous spur kinetics to homogeneous kinetics in the bulk solution, thus defining the so-called primary (or "escape") radical and molecular yields of radiolysis, which are obviously basic to the quantitative understanding of any irradiated chemical system. In this work, τ(s) and its temperature dependence have been determined for the low-LET radiolysis of deaerated 0.4 M aqueous solutions of H(2)SO(4) and pure liquid water up to 350 °C using a simple model of energy deposition initially in spurs, followed by random diffusion of the species of the spur during track expansion until spur overlap is complete. Unlike our previous τ(s) calculations, based on irradiated Fricke dosimeter simulations, the current model is free from any effects due to the presence of oxygen or the use of scavengers. In acidic solutions, the spur lifetime values thus obtained are in very good agreement with our previous calculations (after making appropriate corrections, however, to account for the possibility of competition between oxygen and Fe(2+) ions for H˙ atoms in the Fricke dosimeter, an effect which was not included in our original simulations). In this way, we confirm the validity of our previous approach. As expected, in the case of pure, oxygen-free water, our calculated times required to reach complete spur overlap are essentially the same (within uncertainty limits) as those found in acidic solutions. This explicitly reflects the fact that the diffusion coefficients for the hydrated electron and the H˙ atom that are involved in the overall calculation of the lifetime of spurs in neutral or

  16. Single-staged resections and 3D reconstructions of the nasion, glabella, medial orbital wall, and frontal sinus and bone: Long-term outcome and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciporen, Jeremy; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Mendez, Gustavo; Chen, Anton; Banerjee, Amit; Akins, Paul T; Balough, Ben J

    2016-01-01

    Aesthetic facial appearance following neurosurgical ablation of frontal fossa tumors is a primary concern for patients and neurosurgeons alike. Craniofacial reconstruction procedures have drastically evolved since the development of three-dimensional computed tomography imaging and computer-assisted programming. Traditionally, two-stage approaches for resection and reconstruction were used; however, these two-stage approaches have many complications including cerebrospinal fluid leaks, necrosis, and pneumocephalus. We present two successful cases of single-stage osteoma resection and craniofacial reconstruction in a 26-year-old female and 65-year-old male. The biopolymer implants were preselected and contoured based on imaging prior to surgery. The ideal selection of appropriate flaps for reconstruction was imperative. The flaps were well vascularized and included a pedicle for easy translocation. Using a titanium mesh biopolymer implant for reconstruction in conjunction with a forehead flap proved advantageous, and the benefits of single-stage approaches were apparent. The patients recovered quickly after the surgery with complete resection of the osteoma and good aesthetic appearance. The flap adhered to the biopolymer implant, and the cosmetic appearance years after surgery remained decent. The gap between the bone and implant was less than 2 mm. The patients are highly satisfied with the symmetrical appearance of the reconstruction. Advances in technology are allowing neurosurgeons unprecedented opportunities to design complex yet feasible single-stage craniofacial reconstructions that improve a patient's quality of life by enhancing facial contours, aesthetics, and symmetry.

  17. Effects of extracorporal shock wave therapy on symptomatic heel spurs: a correlation between clinical outcome and radiologic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, E; Keskin Akca, A; Selcuk, B; Kurtaran, A; Akyuz, M

    2012-02-01

    Plantar heel pain, a chronic and disabling foot alignment, occurs in the adult population. Extracorporal shock wave therapy (ESWT) offers a nonsurgical option in addition to stretching exercises, heel cups, NSAI, and corticosteroid injections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ESWT on calcaneal bone spurs and the correlation between clinical outcomes and radiologic changes. The study involved 108 patients with heel pain and radiologically diagnosed heel spurs. All patients underwent ESWT once a week for 5 weeks at the clinic. Each patient received 2,000 impulses of shock waves, starting with 0.05 mJ/mm2 (1.8 bar) and increasing to 0.4 mJ/mm2 (4.0 bar). Standard radiographies of the affected heels were obtained before and after the therapy. Clinical results demonstrated excellent (no pain) in 66.7% of the cases, good (50% of pain reduced) in 15.7% of the cases, and unsatisfactory (no reduction in pain) in 17.6%. After five ESWT treatments, no patients who received shock wave applications had significant spur reductions, but 19 patients (17.6%) had a decrease in the angle of the spur, 23 patients (21.3%) had a decrease in the dimensions of the spur, and one patient had a broken spur. Therefore, results showed no correlation between clinical outcome and radiologic changes. The present study supports the finding that even with no radiologic change after ESWT therapy, the therapy produces significant effects in reducing patients' complaints about heel spurs.

  18. Imaging diagnosis--seminoma causing liver compression in a spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pees, Michael; Ludewig, Eberhard; Plenz, Bastian; Schmidt, Volker

    2015-01-01

    A 13-year-old male spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) was presented with anorexia, apathy, and prolapse of penile tissue. Ultrasonography revealed a large heterogeneous mass in the coelomic cavity, and fine-needle aspiration demonstrated sperm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a sharply defined mass originating from the left testis. Appearance and signal intensities were similar to those reported in testicular neoplasms in humans, in particular sharing similarities with seminomas. Necropsy results and histopathological findings were consistent with a seminoma. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of the diagnosis of testicular neoplasia in a reptile using imaging techniques. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  19. Apodization of Spurs in Radar Receivers Using Multi-Channel Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). ISR Mission Engineering; Bickel, Douglas Lloyd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). ISR Analysis and Applications

    2014-03-01

    Spurious energy in received radar data is a consequence of nonideal component and circuit behavior. This might be due to I/Q imbalance, nonlinear component behavior, additive interference (e.g. cross-talk, etc.), or other sources. The manifestation of the spurious energy in a range-Doppler map or image can be influenced by appropriate pulse-to-pulse phase modulation. Comparing multiple images having been processed with the same data but different signal paths and modulations allows identifying undesired spurs and then cropping or apodizing them.

  20. Quantitative targeted and retrospective data analysis of relevant pesticides, antibiotics and mycotoxins in bakery products by liquid chromatography-single-stage Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dominicis, Emiliano; Commissati, Italo; Gritti, Elisa; Catellani, Dante; Suman, Michele

    2015-01-01

    In addition to 'traditional' multi-residue and multi-contaminant multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometric techniques devoted to quantifying a list of targeted compounds, the global food industry requires non-targeted methods capable of detecting other possible potentially hazardous compounds. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with a single-stage Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer (UHPLC-HRMS Exactive™-Orbitrap Technology) was successfully exploited for the complete selective and quantitative determination of 33 target compounds within three major cross categories (pesticides, antibiotics and mycotoxins) in bakery matrices (specifically milk, wheat flour and mini-cakes). Resolution was set at 50 000 full width at half maximum (FWHM) to achieve the right compromise between an adequate scan speed and selectivity, allowing for the limitations related to the necessary generic sample preparation approach. An exact mass with tolerance of 5 ppm and minimum peak threshold of 10 000 units were fixed as the main identification conditions, including retention time and isotopic pattern as additional criteria devoted to greatly reducing the risk of false-positive findings. The full validation for all the target analytes was performed: linearity, intermediate repeatability and recovery (28 analytes within 70-120%) were positively assessed; furthermore, limits of quantification between 5 and 100 µg kg(-1) (with most of the analytes having a limit of detection below 6 µg kg(-1)) indicate good performance, which is compatible with almost all the regulatory needs. Naturally contaminated and fortified mini-cakes, prepared through combined use of industrial and pilot plant production lines, were analysed at two different concentration levels, obtaining good overall quantitative results and providing preliminary indications of the potential of full-scan HRMS cluster analysis. The effectiveness of this analytical approach was also tested in

  1. Single or dual experimental infections with Vibrio aestuarianus and OsHV-1 in diploid and triploid Crassostrea gigas at the spat, juvenile and adult stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azéma, Patrick; Travers, Marie-Agnès; Benabdelmouna, Abdellah; Dégremont, Lionel

    2016-09-01

    French production of the Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas, is currently threatened by two pathogens, OsHV-1 and V. aestuarianus. While oysters selected for their higher resistance to OsHV-1 are now available for the industry, the impact of V. aestuarianus on such oysters is unknown, especially for triploids. In addition, experimental infection has used the virus or the bacteria alone, but there have been no investigations of dual exposure to these pathogens. This study is the first report of single or dual exposure in spat (Spat1 and Spat2), juvenile and adult naïve oysters. For each of the two stocks evaluated, unselected oysters and oysters selected for their higher resistance to OsHV-1 infection were tested, as well as their triploid siblings of the selected oysters produced using cytochalasin B. We confirmed that resistance to OsHV-1 infection and susceptibility to V. aestuarianus increased with age and size, although selected oysters were not significantly impacted by OsHV-1 whatever their ploidy, size or age. We found different mortality patterns depending on the pathogen tested. The mortality pattern was similar for oysters exposed to OsHV-1 or to both pathogens in the Spat1 trial (4months old and 1.9g). The mortality pattern was similar for oysters exposed to V. aestuarianus or to both pathogens in the Adult trial (25months old and 63.1g). Surprisingly, mortality was much higher (ranging from 75.9% to 100%), in particular for the selected oysters, for the Spat2 (8months old/3.9g) and Juvenile trials (16months old/18.4g) given a dual exposure, regardless of the level of selection for OsHV-1 and the ploidy state. Our findings highlight an important threat for oyster farmers: oysters exposed to both pathogens could experience dramatic mortality rates, even in oysters selected for their higher resistance to OsHV-1. Finally, our study demonstrated for the first time that triploid oysters were more susceptible to experimental challenges with V

  2. Effeciency of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in patients with plantar fasciitis and the relationship with subcalcaneal spur length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Tuna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: ESWT is widely used in the treatment of plantar fascitis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of ESWT on heel pain and symptoms in the short and medium term. We also compared the subcalcaneal spur length and the heel pain severity and examined the effect of the subcalcaneal spur length on the efficiency of ESWT therapy. Methods: The efficiency of ESWT applied to 59 heel of 48 patients compared retrospectively . We used Visual Analog Scale (VAS and Wolgin scale to evaluate the treatment outcomes. We measure the subcalcaneal spurs length of the patients with foot x-ray . Correlation between the VAS scores and the length of subcalcaneal spur were also evaluated. Results: Improvement in VAS in the first week and 3 months after ESWT treatment was statistically significant. There was no correlation between subcalcaneal spur length and the severity of pain. The number of patients in the'' medium, bad'' group decreased while the number of patients in the '' good'' group incresed according to WDS after ESWT treatment. Conclusion: As a result of this study we concluded that ESWT is effective in the treatment of plantar fasciitis in the short and medium term.

  3. Further studies of the spur processes of positronium formation in mixtures of organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, P.; Mogensen, O.E.

    1977-01-01

    To test some predictions of the spur model of positronium (Ps) formation, positron lifetime studies were made of the following binary organic mixtures: (a) carbondisulphide mixtures with n-tetradecane, n-hexane, isooctane, neopentane, and tetramethylsilane (TMS); (b) neopentane mixtures with methanol, ethanol, cyclohexanol, and methylcyclohexane; (c) cis-2-butene/trans-2-butene, and benzene/ethanol. The results were in agreement with the model. A minimum in the Ps yield versus CS 2 concentration, explained as being caused by electron localization on CS 2 at low and delocalization on several CS 2 molecules at higher CS 2 concentration, depended on the electron work function V 0 of the solvent. This minimum was pronounced (shallow or absent) at high (low) V 0 . Solvation of electrons and positrons in alcohol clusters strongly influenced the Ps yield for the neopentane mixtures. The Ps yield was higher in cis- than in trans-2-butene. The Ps formation process in polar liquids is discussed. Experimental facts do not preclude that Ps is also formed by the encounter pair process of fully solvated particles in the positron spur. (Auth.)

  4. Spur gears: Optimal geometry, methods for generation and Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Zhang, Jiao

    1988-01-01

    The contents of this report include the following: (1) development of optimal geometry for crowned spur gears; (2) methods for their generation; and (3) tooth contact analysis (TCA) computer programs for the analysis of meshing and bearing contact on the crowned spur gears. The method developed for synthesis is used for the determination of the optimal geometry for crowned pinion surface and is directed to reduce the sensitivity of the gears to misalignment, localize the bearing contact, and guarantee the favorable shape and low level of the transmission errors. A new method for the generation of the crowned pinion surface has been proposed. This method is based on application of the tool with a surface of revolution that slightly deviates from a regular cone surface. The tool can be used as a grinding wheel or as a shaver. The crowned pinion surface can also be generated by a generating plane whose motion is provided by an automatic grinding machine controlled by a computer. The TCA program simulates the meshing and bearing contact of the misaligned gears. The transmission errors are also determined.

  5. Analytical Expressions of the Efficiency of Standard and High Contact Ratio Involute Spur Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pleguezuelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple, traditional methods for computation of the efficiency of spur gears are based on the hypotheses of constant friction coefficient and uniform load sharing along the path of contact. However, none of them is accurate. The friction coefficient is variable along the path of contact, though average values can be often considered for preliminary calculations. Nevertheless, the nonuniform load sharing produced by the changing rigidity of the pair of teeth has significant influence on the friction losses, due to the different relative sliding at any contact point. In previous works, the authors obtained a nonuniform model of load distribution based on the minimum elastic potential criterion, which was applied to compute the efficiency of standard gears. In this work, this model of load sharing is applied to study the efficiency of both standard and high contact ratio involute spur gears (with contact ratio between 1 and 2 and greater than 2, resp.. Approximate expressions for the friction power losses and for the efficiency are presented assuming the friction coefficient to be constant along the path of contact. A study of the influence of some transmission parameters (as the gear ratio, pressure angle, etc. on the efficiency is also presented.

  6. [Symptomatic low-energy shockwave therapy in heel pain and radiologically detected plantar heel spur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischek, O; Rompe, J D; Herbsthofer, B; Nafe, B

    1998-01-01

    The long-term analgetic effect of low-energetic shock-wave therapy in heel spur for two different numbers of applicated impulses is investigated. 50 patients with recalcitrant heel pain and a plantar calcaneal spur on the X-ray received in a controlled, prospective and randomized study low-energetic extracorporal shock-wave-therapy. The first group received 3 x 500 impulses and the second group 3 x 100 impulses of 0.08 mJ/mm2 with an experimental device. The follow-up was 1 1/2, 3 and by telephone after 12 months. There was clear improvement and relief of pain in both groups on manual pressure and while walking and an increase of the pain-free walking ability from 10 minutes before the treatment to 2 and 3 hours respectively after 12 months. We saw a significantly better results after the treatment with 3 x 500 impulses. The extracorporal shock-wave therapy is an effective treatment in refractory heel pain. An amount of at least 3 x 500 impulses in the low energetic treatment is useful.

  7. The plantar calcaneal spur: a review of anatomy, histology, etiology and key associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Joshua; Yassaie, Omid; Mirjalili, Seyed Ali

    2017-06-01

    The plantar calcaneal spur (PCS) is a bony outgrowth from the calcaneal tuberosity and has been studied using various methods including cadavers, radiography, histology and surgery. However, there are currently a number of discrepancies in the literature regarding the anatomical relations, histological descriptions and clinical associations of PCS. Historically, authors have described the intrinsic muscles of the foot and/or the plantar fascia as attaching to the PCS. In this article we review the relationship between the PCS and surrounding soft tissues as well as examining the histology of the PCS. We identify a number of key associations with PCS, including age, weight, gender, arthritides, plantar fasciitis and foot position; these factors may function as risk factors in PCS formation. The etiology of these spurs is a contentious issue and it has been explained through a number of theories including the degenerative, inflammatory, traction, repetitive trauma, bone-formers and vertical compression theories. We review these and finish by looking clinically at the evidence that PCS causes heel pain. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  8. The internal calcar septum (femoral thigh spur) in computed tomography and conventional radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, F. [Orthopaedic Dept., University Hospital of Saarland, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Universitaetskliniken des Saarlandes, Orthopaedische Klinik und Poliklinik, 66421 Homburg/Saar (Germany); Hammer, D.S.; Pape, D.; Kohn, D. [Orthopaedic Dept., University Hospital of Saarland, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    Objective. The femoral ''thigh spur'', a cortical septum in the region of the lesser trochanter of the human femur, was first described and named by the German anatomist Merkel in 1874, but it was never examined in detail. To evaluate the frequency and the shape of this structure, a combined anatomical and radiological study was performed using saw-cuts from specimens, high-resolution CT and conventional radiography.Design. Thirty human cadaveric femora of central European origin were analyzed by high-precision computed tomography (CT) using thin slices and high-resolution imaging. The CT data were image processed with thresholding to obtain a reconstruction of high-density bone formations and for three-dimensional imaging. Additionally three macerated femur specimens were cut exactly corresponding to the CT slices. The computed images were validated with the anatomical saw-cuts.Results. A dense trabecular ridge protruding endosteally from the posteromedial cortex was found in all femora. This cortical septum reaching from the femoral neck to the distal part of the lesser trochanter separated the femoral cavity from the cancellous bone inside the lesser trochanter. On conventional radiography the femoral thigh spur could be visualized best in the frog-lateral view of the hip.Conclusion. The internal calcar septum is a constant cortical structure. It should be recognized when radiographs or CT images of the proximal femur are interpreted. It could be of importance for metaphyseal fitting of an endoprosthetic stem. (orig.)

  9. Plantar fasciitis and calcaneal spur formation are associated with abductor digiti minimi atrophy on MRI of the foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chundru, Usha [Maimonides Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Liebeskind, Amy; Beltran, Javier [Maimonides Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Beachwood, Franklin and Seidelmann Subspecialty Radiology, Beachwood, OH (United States); Seidelmann, Frank; Franklin, Peter [Beachwood, Franklin and Seidelmann Subspecialty Radiology, Beachwood, OH (United States); Fogel, Joshua [Maimonides Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Brooklyn College, Department of Economics, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2008-06-15

    To determine the association of atrophy of the abductor digiti minimi muscle (ADMA), an MRI manifestation of chronic compression of the inferior calcaneal nerve suggesting the clinical diagnosis of Baxter's neuropathy, with MRI markers of potential etiologies, including calcaneal spur formation, plantar fasciitis, calcaneal edema, Achilles tendinosis and posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD). Prevalence of calcaneal spur formation, plantar fasciitis, calcaneal edema, Achilles tendinosis and PTTD was assessed retrospectively on 100 MRI studies with ADMA and 100 MRI studies without ADMA. Patients ranged in age from 10-92 years. Pearson chi-square analyses and Fisher's exact test were used to compare prevalence of the above findings in patients with and without ADMA. Logistic regression was used to determine which variables were significantly associated with ADMA. Among patients with ADMA, there was significantly greater age (57.2 years vs 40.8 years, p < 0.001), presence of Achilles tendinosis (22.0% vs 3.0%, P<0.001), calcaneal edema (15.0% vs 3.0%, P = 0.005), calcaneal spur (48.0% vs 7.0%, P < 0.001), plantar fasciitis (52.5% vs 11.0%, P<0.001), and PTTD (32.0% vs 11.0%, P<0.001). After multivariate logistic regression analysis, only age [odds ratio (OR) 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 1.09], calcaneal spur (OR 3.60, 95% CI 1.28, 10.17), and plantar fasciitis (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.31, 8.56) remained significant. Advancing age, calcaneal spur, and plantar fasciitis are significantly associated with ADMA. Their high odds ratios support the notion of a possible etiologic role for calcaneal spur and plantar fasciitis in the progression to Baxter's neuropathy. (orig.)

  10. Insertion of a solo LTR retrotransposon associates with spur mutations in 'Red Delicious' apple (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mengxue; Sun, Qibao; Zhou, Junyong; Qiu, Huarong; Guo, Jing; Lu, Lijuan; Mu, Wenlei; Sun, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Insertion of a solo LTR, which possesses strong bidirectional, stem-specific promoter activities, is associated with the evolution of a dwarfing apple spur mutation. Spur mutations in apple scions revolutionized global apple production. Since long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are tightly related to natural mutations, inter-retrotransposon-amplified polymorphism technique and genome walking were used to find sequences in the apple genome based on these LTRs. In 'Red Delicious' spur mutants, a novel, 2190-bp insertion was identified as a spur-specific, solo LTR (sLTR) located at the 1038th nucleotide of another sLTR, which was 1536 bp in length. This insertion-within-an-insertion was localized within a preexisting Gypsy-50 retrotransposon at position 3,762,767 on chromosome 4. The analysis of transcriptional activity of the two sLTRs (the 2190- and 1536-bp inserts) indicated that the 2190-bp sLTR is a promoter, capable of bidirectional transcription. GUS expression in the 2190-bp-sense and 2190-bp-antisense transgenic lines was prominent in stems. In contrast, no promoter activity from either the sense or the antisense strand of the 1536-bp sLTR was detected. From ~150 kb of DNA on each side of the 2190 bp, sLTR insertion site, corresponding to 300 kb of the 'Golden Delicious' genome, 23 genes were predicted. Ten genes had predicted functions that could affect shoot development. This first report, of a sLTR insertion associated with the evolution of apple spur mutation, will facilitate apple breeding, cloning of spur-related genes, and discovery of mechanisms behind dwarf habit.

  11. Positron emission tomography with 2-[18F]-Fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-Glucose for initial staging of hodgkin lymphoma: a single center experience in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Julio Cerci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 2-[18F]-Fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-Glucose (FDG-PET is a well established functional imaging modality for the initial staging of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL in patients from Western Europe and North America. The reliability of FDG-PET in populations of different ethnic groups is unclear, as all investigations published to date have come from developed countries. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of FDG-PET in the initial staging of HL patients in a Brazilian population. METHODS: Eighty-two patients with newly diagnosed HL were prospectively included in the study. All patients were staged with both conventional clinical staging (CCS methods, including computed tomography (CT and whole-body FDG-PET methods. A standard of reference for the nodal regions and the extranodal organs was determined using all available information, including the CCS methods, FDG-PET, the diagnostic histology and the follow-up examinations. The results of the CCS were then compared to the FDG-PET results. RESULTS: The sensitivity of FDG-PET was higher for nodal staging than that of CT (87.8% vs. 61.6%, respectively. FDG-PET was also more sensitive than CT in regard to evaluating the extranodal organs for lymphomatous involvement (96.2% vs. 40.0%, respectively. FDG-PET detected all 16 patients who were characterized by a positive bone marrow biopsy and identified an additional 4 patients with bone marrow disease. The incorporation of FDG-PET coupled with CCS in the staging procedure upstaged 20% (17/82 of the patients and downstaged 11% (9/82 of the patients. As a result of these changes in staging, 15% (13/82 of the patients would have received a different therapeutic regimen. CONCLUSIONS: The FDG-PET method is superior to CT for the detection of nodal and extra-nodal HL. The observation that the FDG-PET method upstaged the disease was the most common result (20% of patients brought about by the addition of PET to the staging algorithm

  12. Role of staging laparoscopy in the management of Pancreatic Duct Carcinoma (PDAC): Single-center experience from a tertiary hospital in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Victor Hugo Fonseca; da Costa Junior, Wilson Luiz; de Miranda Marques, Tomás Mansur Duarte; Diniz, Alessandro Landskron; de Castro Ribeiro, Héber Salvador; de Godoy, André Luis; de Farias, Igor Correia; Coimbra, Felipe José Fernandez

    2018-03-06

    Proper staging is critical to the management of pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDAC). Laparoscopy has been used to stage patients without gross metastatic disease with variable success. We aimed to identify the frequency of patients diagnosed by laparoscopy with occult metastatic disease. Also, we looked for variables related to a higher chance of occult metastasis. Patients with PDAC submitted to staging laparoscopy either immediately before pancreatectomy or as a separate procedure between January 2010 and December 2016 were included. None presented gross metastatic disease at initial staging. We used logistic regression to search for variables associated with metastatic disease. The study population consisted of 63 patients. Among all patients, nine (16.7%) had occult metastases at laparoscopy. Unresectable tumor (Odds ratio = 18.0, P = 0.03), increasing tumor size (Odds ratio = 1.36, P = 0.01), and abdominal pain (Odds ratio = 5.6, P = 0.04) significantly predicted the risk of occult metastases in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, only tumor size predicted the risk of occult metastases. Laparoscopy remains a valuable tool in PDAC staging. Patients with either large or unresectable tumors, or presenting with abdominal pain present the highest risk for occult intra-abdominal metastases. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Painful plantar heel spur treatment with Co-60 teletherapy: factors influencing treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Timur; Aydın, Ayşen; Sezen, Duygu; Başaran, Hamit; Karaca, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    Painful plantar heel spur (PPHS) is a benign disorder with painful heels as a result of plantar calcaneal bone spur. Exact etiological factors are still unclear. Treatment typically consists of osteoarthritis tretment schedules and surgical techniques. External radiotherapy is another treatment option. This study is aimed to determine effectiveness and treatment outcomes of external radiotherapy in patients with PPHS. Sixty-two patients with PPHS were analysed for radiotherapy success and other possible prognostic factors. All patients were treated with Co-60 units from parallel opposed lateral portals, to a total dose of 8 Gy. Responses to radiotherapy was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain. Follow-up completed in December 2012 with 28 months median duration (range 22 to 35 months). Age, sex, patient number, spur settlement site, prior treatments, time interval between diagnosis and radiotherapy, pain scores (before and after radiotherapy), plantar fat-pillow thickness (PFPT; thickness of the plantar fat pad) and Böhler's angle estimations were analysed. Study included 53 female and 9 male patients with median age 57 (range 43-70). Time interval between PPHS diagnosis and radiotherapy were median 33 months (range10-60). Radiotherapy response time interval were 6 months (range 3-10 months). Responses to radiotherapy were no response in 13 patients (21%), partial response in 13 patients (21%)- pain relief below 50% and complete response - no pain in 36 patients (58%) respectively. Median PFPT of patients were 3.5 cm (range 1.20-4.50 cm). Complete response rate was statistically significant in patients whom PFPT is greater than 3.5 cm. The Böhler's angle range is about 20-40 deg. Complete response rates were higher in patients with degree of Böhler's Angle 30 and below. Simplicity of treatment, lack of acute adverse effects and low cost, seem to make radiotherapy one of the safest, cheapest and also an effective treatment modality for PPHS.

  14. Can neck irradiation be an alternative to neck dissection in early stage carcinoma oral tongue operated for primary alone? Experience from a single institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Ghoshal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study pattern of failure, locoregional control rates (LCR and disease free survival (DFS in post-operative patients of carcinoma oral tongue, and to study the impact of nodal dissection on DFS in stage I and II patients.Methods: 102 patients of carcinoma oral tongue treated between January 2009 and December 2013 were analyzed. All patients were operated for primary disease, but neck dissection was done in 78 (76.5% patients only. However, radiation to primary site along with neck region was received by all patients. Pattern of failure, LCR and DFS were estimated.Results: At median follow up of 12 months, 10.8% patients failed locally, 10.8% in nodal region, 2.9% both at local and nodal site, and 5.9% patients failed distally. 2 year LCR and DFS was 71.2%, 90.9%, 79.5%, 0% and 55.2%, 64.4%, 57.8%, 0% in stage I, II, III, IV respectively. 2 year DFS in stage I patients, who underwent nodal dissection and post-operative radiation (14 patients was 64.3% and in whom only neck irradiation was done (15 patients, it was 45.8%, however difference was not significant (p = 0.5. But in stage II patients, 33 patients who underwent nodal dissection and post-operative radiation, 2 year DFS was 85.4% and it was 21.4% in 7 patients who underwent neck radiation only, and difference showed trend towards significance (p = 0.05. 2 or more positive lymph nodes post dissection was the only poor prognostic factor that correlated with DFS (p = 0.02Conclusion: While in stage I, neck irradiation alone can be a possible alternative to neck dissection and post-operative radiation; for stage II, neck dissection is mandatory.

  15. Randomised study on single stage laparo-endoscopic rendezvous (intra-operative ERCP procedure versus two stage approach (Pre-operative ERCP followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the management of cholelithiasis with choledocholithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash Ranjan Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The ′Rendezvous′ technique consists of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC standards with intra-operative cholangiography followed by endoscopic sphincterotomy. The sphincterotome is driven across the papilla through a guidewire inserted by the transcystic route. In this study, we intended to compare the two methods in a prospective randomised trial. Materials And Methods: From 2005 to 2012, we enrolled 83 patients with a diagnosis of cholecysto-choledocolithiasis. They were randomised into two groups. In ′group-A′,41 patients were treated with two stages management, first by pre-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP and common bile duct (CBD clearance and second by LC. In ′group-B′, 42 patients were treated with LC and intra-operative cholangiography; and when diagnosis of choledocholithiasis was confirmed, patients had undergone one stage management of by Laparo-endoscopic Rendezvous technique. Results: In arm-A and arm-B groups, complete CBD clearance was achieved in 29 and 38 patients, respectively. Failure of the treatment in arm-A was 29% and in arm-B was 9.5%. In arm-A, selective CBD cannulation was achieved in 33 cases (80.5% and in arm-B in 39 cases (93%. In arm-Agroup, post-ERCP hyperamylasia was presented in nine patients (22% and severe pancreatitis in five patients (12% versus none of the patients (0% in arm-B group, respectively. Mean post-operative hospital stay in arm-A and arm-B groups are 10.9 and 6.8 days, respectively. Conclusion: One stage laparo-endoscopic rendezvous approach increases selective cannulation of CBD, reduces post-ERCP pancreatitis, reduces days of hospital stay, increases patient′s compliance and prevents unnecessary intervention to CBD.

  16. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrated Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald; Landrum, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. Then there is a transition to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scramjet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance. To adequately determine the performance of the engine/vehicle, the Hypersonic Flight Inlet Model (HYFIM) module was designed to interface with the RBCC

  17. FARADAY TOMOGRAPHY OF THE NORTH POLAR SPUR: CONSTRAINTS ON THE DISTANCE TO THE SPUR AND ON THE MAGNETIC FIELD OF THE GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, X. H.; Gaensler, B. M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Landecker, T. L.; Wolleben, M.; Douglas, K. A.; Gray, A. D. [National Research Council Canada, Herzberg Program in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, P.O. Box 248, Penticton, British Columbia, V2A 6J9 (Canada); Carretti, E. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, New South Wales 1710 (Australia); Reich, W. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Leahy, J. P. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Crocker, R. M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australia National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Haverkorn, M., E-mail: X.Sun@physics.usyd.edu.au, E-mail: Tom.Landecker@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2015-09-20

    We present radio continuum and polarization images of the North Polar Spur (NPS) from the Global Magneto-ionic Medium Survey conducted with the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory 26 m Telescope. We fit polarization angle versus wavelength squared over 2048 frequency channels from 1280 to 1750 MHz to obtain a Faraday rotation measure (RM) map of the NPS. Combining this RM map with a published Faraday depth (FD) map of the entire Galaxy in this direction, we derive the FD introduced by the NPS and the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM) in front of and behind the NPS. The FD contributed by the NPS is close to zero, indicating that the NPS is an emitting only feature. The FD caused by the ISM in front of the NPS is consistent with zero at b > 50°, implying that this part of the NPS is local at a distance of approximately several hundred parsecs. The FD contributed by the ISM behind the NPS gradually increases with Galactic latitude up to b = 44°, and decreases at higher Galactic latitudes. This implies that either the part of the NPS at b < 44° is distant or the NPS is local but there is a sign change of the large-scale magnetic field. If the NPS is local, there is then no evidence for a large-scale anti-symmetry pattern in the FD of the Milky Way. The FD introduced by the ISM behind the NPS at latitudes b > 50° can be explained by including a coherent vertical magnetic field.

  18. Oral cancer trends in a single head-and-neck cancer center in the Netherlands; decline in T-stage at the time of admission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, M.; Leemans, C.R.; Aartman, I.H.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; van der Waal, I.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study we evaluated the possible epidemiologic changes of oral cancer patients in the Netherlands between the years 1980-1984 and 2000-2004. We specifically studied the differences in male-female ratio, age, TNM-stage, site distribution, and alcohol and tobacco use. MATERIALS AND

  19. Performance of a generic non-axisymmetric end wall in a single stage, rotating turbine at on and off-design conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snedden, Glen C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of non-axisymmetric end walls in turbine stages has gained wide spread acceptance as a means to improve the performance of turbines in both power generation and aero-derivative applications. Non-axisymmetric end walls are aimed...

  20. Volume optimization of gear trains with spur gears using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Nenad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gear train volume optimization presents a complex problem tied to practical application in gear train manufacturing. This paper is oriented on the analysis of the problem of gear train volume minimization from a shaft axes positioning aspect. An original mathematical model has been developed where the objective function gives a minimum volume with changed shaft (spur gear axes positions, while at the same time complying with all physical constraints. An original optimization software has also been developed using RCGA (Real Coded Genetic Algorithm optimization methods. The general mathematical model was applied to three real conceptions of gear train as well as a comparative analysis of initial and optimal values. The results show a decrease of volume being directly linked to a decrease of not only space but material used to make the housing, costs, documentation formulation rate, etc.

  1. Demography and conservation of an isolated Spur-thighed tortoise Testudo graeca population in Dobrogea (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Buică

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Spur-thighed tortoise is a vulnerable species. The local declines of populations led to an imperative need for conservation. Testudo graeca reaches its northern range limit in Dobrogea region, Romania. We studied a population from this region, which occupies an enclosed area of 32 ha within Histria Archaeological Complex. Based on a capture-mark-recapture study we estimated the population size of 221 ± 12.2 individuals. The observed density was 5.1 individuals/ha. The predicted population size suggests a relatively high density in relation to the area thus raising attention for a future conservation strategy. The population structure shows reduced sexual dimorphism and an unbiased sex ratio, implying a young population structure. We suggest correlating the future archaeological studies with conservation requirements of tortoises.

  2. Endurance and failure characteristics of modified Vasco X-2, CBS 600 and AISI 9310 spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    Gear endurance tests and rolling-element fatigue tests were conducted to compare the performance of spur gears made from AISI 9310, CBS 600 and modified Vasco X-2 and to compare the pitting fatigue lives of these three materials. Gears manufactured from CBS 600 exhibited lives longer than those manufactured from AISI 9310. However, rolling-element fatigue tests resulted in statistically equivalent lives. Modified Vasco X-2 exhibited statistically equivalent lives to AISI 9310. CBS 600 and modified Vasco X-2 gears exhibited the potential of tooth fracture occurring at a tooth surface fatigue pit. Case carburization of all gear surfaces for the modified Vasco X-2 gears results in fracture at the tips of the gears.

  3. Effect of tip relief on endurance characteristics of super nitralloy and AISI M-50 spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted with two groups of 8.89-centimeter (3.5-in.) pitch diameter spur gears with standard 20 deg involute profile with tip relief made of CVM Super-Nitralloy (5Ni-2Al) and CVM AISI M-50 at a temperature of 350 K (170 F). Super-Nitralloy gears with tip relief had a life 150 percent that of gears without tip relief. An increased scoring phenomenon was noted with the Super-Nitralloy gears with tip relief. Through-hardened AISI M-50 gears with tip relief failed due to tooth fracture. AISI M-50 gears without tip relief had a life approximately 40 times greater than the AISI M-50 gears with tip relief.

  4. Irregular Distortion of The Erythrocytes (Acanthocytes, Spur Cells in Senile Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Goodall

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available An excess of irregularly di storted red cells with spiked forms (acanthocytes. spur cells has been found in a substantial minority of patient s with seni le dementia of Alzheimer type (7 of 50 patients, 3 of 21 men and 4 of 29 women. Of 100 control patients, 42 men and 58 women, 5 (men and 2 women showed comparable distortion, but, of these, one man may well have incipient dementia and the others had serious organic di seases which may be associated with comparable erythrocytic changes. The cause of the distortion is not yet clear, but the presence of occasional giant erythrocytes in the absence of general macrocytosis suggests a possible abnormality of cell membrane synthes is. This distortion may be a useful marker in patients with loss of memory. Whether it is a manifestation of a haemopoietic clone or a constitutional anomaly associated with Alzheimer’s disease remains to be seen.

  5. Random dynamics of a nonlinear spur gear pair in probabilistic domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yubing; Yang, Jianming; Wang, Shiyu

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates the response of a spur gear pair subjected to both deterministic and random loads. Backlash nonlinearity and time-varying mesh stiffness in gear systems are considered in the model. Path integration is adopted to capture the random response in probabilistic domain. In the path integration algorithm, the transition probability density function (PDF) within a short time interval is assumed as Gaussian. Then the mean and variance of the responses are calculated and expressed as closed forms for two different cases in gear systems, which are further used to construct the transition PDF. The simulation results are compared with that from Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and deterministic numerical integration. Good agreements are shown between these results. In addition, the multi-solutions feature characterizing the nonlinear gear system is also captured.

  6. Primary Solitary Melanoma of the Lymphatic Nodes Or a Single Metastasis of Unknown Melanoma: Do We Need a New Staging System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-12-01

    CONCLUSION: The affection of a single lymph node in the absence of a primary tumour should not automatically lead to the conclusion that it is a single metastasis, but rather a primary melanoma of the lymph nodes, in cases of a negative PET scan, for example. In these cases, the measuring of the tumour thickness should guide the further therapeutic behaviour and determine the approach.

  7. Diagnostic performance of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of sub-coracoacromial spurs causing subacromial impingement syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nörenberg, Dominik; Armbruster, Marco; Bender, Yi-Na; Walter, Thula; Ebersberger, Hans U; Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd; Ockert, Ben; Makowski, Marcus R

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the potential of susceptibility-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging (SWMR) for the detection of sub-coracoacromial spurs in patients with clinically suspected subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS), compared to standard MR-sequences and radiographs. Forty-four patients with suspected SAIS were included. All patients underwent radiography, standard MRI of the shoulder and SWMR. Radiograph-based identification of sub-coracoacromial spurs served as goldstandard. Radiographs identified twenty-three spurs in twenty-three patients. Twenty-one patients without spur formation served as reference group. Detection rate, sensitivity/specificity and interobserver-agreements were calculated. Linear regression was applied to determine the relationship between size measurements on radiographs and MRI. Detection rates for spurs on standard MRI and SWMR were 47.8 % and 91.3 % compared to radiography (pformation in patients with SAIS and is superior to standard MR-sequences using radiography as goldstandard. • SWMR has the potential to reliably identify sub-coracoacromial spurs without radiation exposure. • SWMR provides comparable detection rates to conventional radiography for sub-coracoacromial spur formation. • SWMR yields higher detection rates compared to standard-MR regarding sub-coracoacromial spur formation. • SWMR can be implemented in routine shoulder MRI protocols.

  8. Conservation assessment for great-spurred violet in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher

    2003-01-01

    Great-spurred violet (Viola selkirkii Pursh ex Goldie; Violaceae) is an early spring flowering herb that occurs in the boreal and Rocky Mountain regions of North America, and cool temperate regions of Eurasia, eastern China and Japan. In the Black Hills, the species is restricted to spruce-dominated forests in cold, shady ravines from 5,400 to 7,000...

  9. Feeding types of the benthic community and particle transport across the slope of the NW European Continental Margin (Goban Spur)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, E.; Lavaleye, M.; De Stigter, H.; Thomsen, L.

    1998-01-01

    Densities and biomass of feeding guilds of benthic foraminifera, macrofauna and megafauna were estimated at seven stations ranging from 208 m to 4460 m water depth along the OMEX-transect at the continental margin of the Goban Spur N.E. Atlantic. At the same stations flow velocities in the Bottom

  10. Seasonal variations in faunal distribution and activity across the continental slope of the Goban Spur area (NE Atlantic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, E.; Heip, C.H.R.

    1996-01-01

    Density, biomass and community structure of macrofauna were estimated together with several sediment characteristics at seven stations ranging from 208 m to 4460 m water depth along the OMEX transect in the Goban Spur area (NE Atlantic) during three seasons (October 1993, May 1994, and August 1995),

  11. Removal of pharmaceuticals in pre-denitrifying MBBR – Influence of organic substrate availability in single- and three-stage configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Torresi, Elena; Loreggian, L.

    2017-01-01

    kinetics in the different MBBRs. Experimental results revealed the possible influence of retransformation (e.g., from conjugated metabolites) and enantioselectivity on the removal of selected pharmaceuticals. In the second set of experiments, specific trends in denitrification and biotransformation...... and highest removal in S1 within the three-stage MBBR. Notably, biotransformation rate constants obtained for non-recalcitrant pharmaceuticals correlated with mean specific denitrification rates, maximum specific growth rates and observed growth yield values. Overall, these findings suggest that: (i) the long......-term exposure to tiered substrate accessibility in the three-stage configuration shaped the denitrification and biotransformation capacity of biofilms, with significant reduction under substrate limitation; (ii) biotransformation of pharmaceuticals may have occurred as a result of cometabolism by heterotrophic...

  12. Stage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  13. Tissue reduction of map numbers after post-exposure vaccination with single latency antigen is improved by combination with acute-stage antigens in goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, C.; Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen

    compared to unvaccinated control goats. FET11 and FET13 vaccination, however, provided significantly protection with absent or very low Map numbers in tissues. No goats seroconverted in ID Screen® ELISA, except for a single goat in the unvaccinated control group at last sampling prior to euthanasia. PPDj...

  14. Oral cancer trends in a single head-and-neck cancer center in the Netherlands; decline in T-stage at the time of admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijers, Manon; Leemans, C René; Aartman, Irene H; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; van der Waal, Isaäc

    2011-11-01

    In this study we evaluated the possible epidemiologic changes of oral cancer patients in the Netherlands between the years 1980-1984 and 2000-2004. We specifically studied the differences in male-female ratio, age, TNM-stage, site distribution, and alcohol and tobacco use. Patients from the VU University Medical Center with an oral squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity registered in 1980-1984 (n=200), group 1, were compared to patients registered in 2000-2004 (n=184), group 2. Trends in prevalence, site distribution, TNM-stage, alcohol and tobacco use, age and gender were studied. The male-female ratio has decreased from 1.8 to 1.2. There were no differences in age between the two groups of patients. The site distribution was similar in both groups. The most commonly involved sites were the tongue and the floor of mouth. In group 2 more patients were diagnosed with a T1 tumour. There were no differences in tobacco use between the two different groups. There were much more light drinkers (0-2 drinks per day) in group 2 than in group 1, whereas there were more heavy drinkers (>4 per day) in group 1 than in group 2 (p<0.001). This was observed in both male and female patients. In our study there were no significant differences between the patients registered in the years 1980-1984 and 2000-2004 regarding the mean age of the patients, site distribution and smoking habits. The male-female ratio has decreased. In the recent group more patients were staged T1N0 and there was a strong decrease of the patients who were heavy drinkers.

  15. Body weight, hemoglobin, and absolute neutrophil count in patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer who received chemotherapy: A single-center study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Y.; Winarto, H.

    2017-08-01

    The side effects of chemotherapy, a treatment modality of ovarian cancer, can disrupt overall treatment. To date, the clinical and laboratory profiles of ovarian cancer patients during chemotherapy have not been investigated. This study aimed to elucidate the clinical and laboratory profiles of patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer who received chemotherapy in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, including body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin (Hb), and absolute neutrophil count (ANC). To generate these clinical and laboratory profiles, we collected secondary data from the medical records of advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer patients who received six cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy. We enrolled 23 patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer patients who received six cycles of chemotherapy. Mean patient BMI before and after chemotherapy was 22.86 kg/m2 and 21.78 kg/m2, respectively. Hb levels before chemotherapy were 8-13 g/dl, with Hb Hb ≥ 10 g/dl in 22 patients (95.65%). Mean ANC was 5845.6 ± 3325.0. An average of 24.65% of patients experienced anemia after each cycle of chemotherapy. Mean ANC before chemotherapy was 3.5582 ± 3.3250. An average of 26.81% of patients had ANC Hb ≥ 10 g/dl before chemotherapy, 16 (72.72%) experienced a decrease in ANC during chemotherapy. Of the 20 patients (60.87%) with normal BMI or higher, 14 experienced a decrease in ANC during chemotherapy. The mean patient body weight decreased after six cycles of chemotherapy. Hb and ANC were persistently decreased in approximately a quarter of the 23 subjects. The decrease in ANC was not influenced by initial Hb and BMI.

  16. Californium versus cobalt brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy for IIB stage cervical cancer: long-term experience of a single institute

    OpenAIRE

    Janulionis, Ernestas; Valuckas, Konstantinas Povilas; Liukpetryte, Sarune; Samerdokiene, Vitalija; Atkocius, Vydmantas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper was to observe and compare long-term curative effects and complications of FIGO stage IIB cervical cancer patients (n = 232) treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) californium (252Cf) neutron or cobalt (60Co) photon intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) combined with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Material and methods The EBRT dose to the small pelvis was 50 Gy in both groups. The brachytherapy component of 252Cf or 60Co was added in the 3rd week of EBRT, 5 fract...

  17. Effects of regularly consuming dietary fibre rich soluble cocoa products on bowel habits in healthy subjects: a free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarriá Beatriz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibre is both preventive and therapeutic for bowel functional diseases. Soluble cocoa products are good sources of dietary fibre that may be supplemented with this dietary component. This study assessed the effects of regularly consuming two soluble cocoa products (A and B with different non-starch polysaccharides levels (NSP, 15.1 and 22.0% w/w, respectively on bowel habits using subjective intestinal function and symptom questionnaires, a daily diary and a faecal marker in healthy individuals. Methods A free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention was carried out in 44 healthy men and women, between 18-55 y old, who had not taken dietary supplements, laxatives, or antibiotics six months before the start of the study. In the four-week-long intervention stages, separated by a three-week-wash-out stage, two servings of A and B, that provided 2.26 vs. 6.60 g/day of NSP respectively, were taken. In each stage, volunteers' diet was recorded using a 72-h food intake report. Results Regularly consuming cocoa A and B increased fibre intake, although only cocoa B significantly increased fibre intake (p Conclusions Regular consumption of the cocoa products increases dietary fibre intake to recommended levels and product B improves bowel habits. The use of both objective and subjective assessments to evaluate the effects of food on bowel habits is recommended.

  18. Bayesian enhancement two-stage design for single-arm phase II clinical trials with binary and time-to-event endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haolun; Yin, Guosheng

    2018-02-21

    Simon's two-stage design is one of the most commonly used methods in phase II clinical trials with binary endpoints. The design tests the null hypothesis that the response rate is less than an uninteresting level, versus the alternative hypothesis that the response rate is greater than a desirable target level. From a Bayesian perspective, we compute the posterior probabilities of the null and alternative hypotheses given that a promising result is declared in Simon's design. Our study reveals that because the frequentist hypothesis testing framework places its focus on the null hypothesis, a potentially efficacious treatment identified by rejecting the null under Simon's design could have only less than 10% posterior probability of attaining the desirable target level. Due to the indifference region between the null and alternative, rejecting the null does not necessarily mean that the drug achieves the desirable response level. To clarify such ambiguity, we propose a Bayesian enhancement two-stage (BET) design, which guarantees a high posterior probability of the response rate reaching the target level, while allowing for early termination and sample size saving in case that the drug's response rate is smaller than the clinically uninteresting level. Moreover, the BET design can be naturally adapted to accommodate survival endpoints. We conduct extensive simulation studies to examine the empirical performance of our design and present two trial examples as applications. © 2018, The International Biometric Society.

  19. Risk strata-based therapy and outcome in stage Ib-IIa carcinoma cervix: single-centre ten-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundargi, Rajshekar S; Guruprasad, B; Rathod, Praveen Shankar; Shakuntala, Pn; Shobha, K; Pallavi, Vr; Uma Devi, K; Bafna, Ud

    2013-01-01

    To review the outcome of stage (Ib, IIa), cervical cancer patients were primarily treated with radical hysterectomy and risk-based postoperative therapy. Between January 2001 and December 2011, 601 cases underwent surgery followed by tailored therapy. Patients were classified into low risk (pelvic lymph node negative, tumour less than 4 cm, no evidence of lympho-vascular invasion, less than one-third of thickness of surgical stoma involved), intermediate risk (positive lympho-vascular space invasion, tumour size more than 4 cm, and deep invasion of cervical stroma), and high risk (pelvic lymph node involved, positive parametrial, or vaginal margins) groups. Postoperative adju-vant therapy in the form of radiotherapy alone to those with intermediate risk and chemo-radiotherapy to those with high risk was given to patients. The median follow-up was 60 months. The majority of patients had intermediate risk. The overall event-free survival (EFS) at five years was 74.37%, with EFS of 86.5% in those from the low-risk group, 73% in those from the intermediate-risk group, and 64% in those from the high-risk group. In conclusion, risk strata-based adjuvant postoperative therapy is able to provide a favourable outcome in patients with stage Ib-IIa cervical cancer with a nearly 11% improvement in survival compared with historical control.

  20. Intention-to-Treat Analysis of Radical Trachelectomy for Early-Stage Cervical Cancer With Special Reference to Oncologic Failures: Single-Institutional Experience in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Póka, Robert; Molnár, Szabolcs; Daragó, Péter; Lukács, János; Lampé, Rudolf; Krasznai, Zoárd; Hernádi, Zoltán

    2017-09-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate clinical and pathological data in order to draw eligibility criteria for oncologically sufficient radical trachelectomy (RT) in early-stage cervical cancer. Reviewing all cases of attempted RT performed at our unit, we focused attention on prognostic indicators of the need for additional oncologic treatment following RT. The analysis was extended by extensive literature review to include previously published cases of oncologic failures. The authors retrospectively analyzed data of patients who underwent RT at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Debrecen. Electronic records and case notes of RT cases were reviewed to determine the incidence of abdominal and vaginal route, distribution of clinicopathologic data, and follow-up results of individual cases. Individual procedures were categorized as oncologically insufficient if additional oncologic treatment was necessary following RT. Theoretical eligibility criteria for RT in early-stage cervical cancer were determined retrospectively by selecting prognostic features that were associated with oncologic insufficiency from clinicopathologic indicators of the complete series. Twenty-four cases of RT were performed by the authors, 15 vaginal RTs with laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy and 9 abdominal RTs with open pelvic lymphadenectomy. Fifteen of 24 cases proved oncologically sufficient. Three cases required immediate conversion to radical hysterectomy because of positive sentinel nodes and/or positive isthmic disc on frozen section. In further 5 cases, final pathology results indicated additional oncologic treatment, that is, radical hysterectomy (n = 2), chemoradiotherapy (n = 2), or chemotherapy (n = 1). One patient among immediately converted cases and another 3 among those who required additional oncologic treatment died of their disease later. There were no other cases of recurrences over a median follow-up of 34 months (range, 12-188 months). Factors

  1. Radiotherapy of painful heel spur with two fractionation regimens : Results of a randomized multicenter trial after 48 weeks' follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokein, Benjamin; Holtmann, Henrik; Hautmann, Matthias G; Rösler, Hans-Peter; Graeber, Stefan; Dzierma, Yvonne; Ruebe, Christian; Fleckenstein, Jochen; Niewald, Marcus

    2017-06-01

    In this randomized multicenter trial, we compared the effect of a lower single dose of 0.5 Gy vs. a standard single dose of 1 Gy concerning pain relief and quality of life, while maintaining a uniform total dose of 6 Gy. On the basis of laboratory observations, the lower single dose would be expected to be more effective. A total of 127 patients suffering from painful heel spur were randomized: Patients in the standard group were treated with single fractions of 6 × 1 Gy twice a week, while the experimental group was treated with single fractions of 12 × 0.5 Gy three times a week. Patients who did not show satisfactory pain relief after 12 weeks were offered re-irradiation with the standard dose. The study's primary endpoints were pain relief and quality of life. Therapy results were evaluated and compared based on follow-up examinations after 12 and 48 weeks. The data of 117 patients could be evaluated. There was no significant difference between the groups concerning the results of a visual analogue scale (VAS), Calcaneodynia Score (CS), and the somatic scale of the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey(SF-12). Patients undergoing re-irradiation showed a significant benefit concerning pain relief. Their total outcome was comparable to patients showing a good response from the beginning. No relevant acute or chronic side effects were recorded. Both patient groups showed good results concerning pain relief. A fractionation schedule of 12 × 0.5 Gy was not superior to the current standard dose of 6 × 1 Gy. Further trials are necessary to explore the best fractionation schedule.

  2. Feasibility of perfusion CT technique integrated into conventional 18FDG/PET-CT studies in lung cancer patients: clinical staging and functional information in a single study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Davide; Capraro, Cristina; Guerra, Luca; De Ponti, Elena; Messa, Cristina; Sironi, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    To assess the additional functional vascular information and the relationship between perfusion measurements and glucose metabolism (SUVmax) obtained by including a perfusion CT study in a whole-body contrast-enhanced PET/CT protocol in primary lung cancer lesions. Enrolled in this prospective study were 34 consecutive patients with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of lung cancer who were referred for contrast-enhanced PET/CT staging. This prospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Perfusion CT was performed with the following parameters: 80 kV, 200 mAs, 30 scans during intravenous injection of 50 ml contrast agent, flow rate 5 ml/s. Another bolus of contrast medium (3.5 ml/s, 80 ml, 60-s delay) was administered to ensure a full diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT scan for clinical staging. The perfusion CT data were used to calculate a range of tumour vascularity parameters (blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time), and tumour FDG uptake (SUVmax) was used as a metabolic indicator. Quantitative and functional parameters were compared and in relation to location, histology and tumour size. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was used for statistical analysis. A cut-off value of 3 cm was used according to the TNM classification to discriminate between T1 and T2 tumours (i.e. T1b vs. T2a). There were significant perfusion differences (lower blood volumes and higher mean transit time) between tumours with diameter >30 mm and tumours with diameter 30 mm in diameter. Perfusion CT combined with PET/CT is feasible technique that may provide additional functional information about vascularity and tumour aggressiveness as a result of lower perfusion and higher metabolism shown by larger lesions.

  3. Usefulness of conventional transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis, staging and molecular characterization of pulmonary neoplasias by thin-prep based cytology: experience of a single oncological institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramieri, Maria Teresa; Marandino, Ferdinando; Visca, Paolo; Salvitti, Tommaso; Gallo, Enzo; Casini, Beatrice; Giordano, Francesca Romana; Frigieri, Claudia; Caterino, Mauro; Carlini, Sandro; Rinaldi, Massimo; Ceribelli, Anna; Pennetti, Annarita; Alò, Pier Luigi; Marino, Mirella; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Filippetti, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (c-TBNA) contributed to improve the bronchoscopic examination, allowing to sample lesions located even outside the tracheo-bronchial tree and in the hilo-mediastinal district, both for diagnostic and staging purposes. We have evaluated the sensitivity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the c-TBNA performed during the 2005-2015 period for suspicious lung neoplasia and/or hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy at the Thoracic endoscopy of the Thoracic Surgery Department of the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome. Data from 273 consecutive patients (205 males and 68 females) were analyzed. Among 158 (58%) adequate specimens, 112 (41%) were neoplastic or contained atypical cells, 46 (17%) were negative or not diagnostic. We considered in the analysis first the overall period; then we compared the findings of the first [2005-2011] and second period [2012-2015] and, finally, only those of adequate specimens. During the overall period, sensibility and accuracy values were respectively of 53% and 63%, in the first period they reached 41% and 53% respectively; in the second period sensibility and accuracy reached 60% and 68%. Considering only the adequate specimens, sensibility and accuracy during the overall period were respectively of 80% and 82%; the values obtained for the first period were 68% and 72%. Finally, in the second period, sensibility reached 86% and accuracy 89%. Carcinoma-subtyping was possible in 112 cases, adenocarcinomas being diagnosed in 50 cases; further, in 30 cases molecular predictive data could be obtained. The c-TBNA proved to be an efficient method for the diagnosis/staging of lung neoplasms and for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Endoscopist's skill and technical development, associated to thin-prep cytology and to a rapid on site examination (ROSE), were able to provide by c-TBNA a high diagnostic yield and molecular predictive

  4. Parenchymal and Functional Lung Changes after Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer—Experiences from a Single Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Hörner-Rieber

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThis study aimed to evaluate parenchymal and functional lung changes following stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients and to correlate radiological and functional findings with patient and treatment characteristics as well as survival.Materials and methodsSeventy patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with SBRT from 2004 to 2015 with more than 1 year of CT follow-up scans were analyzed. Incidence, morphology, severity of acute and late lung abnormalities as well as pulmonary function changes were evaluated and correlated with outcome.ResultsMedian follow-up time was 32.2 months with 2-year overall survival (OS of 83% and local progression-free survival of 88%, respectively. Regarding parenchymal changes, most patients only developed mild to moderate CT abnormalities. Mean ipsilateral lung dose (MLD in biological effective dose and planning target volume size were significantly associated with maximum severity score of parenchymal changes (p = 0.014, p < 0.001. Furthermore, both maximum severity score and MLD were significantly connected with OS in univariate analysis (p = 0.043, p = 0.025. For functional lung changes, we detected significantly reduced total lung capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and forced vital capacity (FVC parameters after SBRT (p ≤ 0.001. Multivariate analyses revealed SBRT with an MLD ≥ 9.72 Gy and FVC reduction ≥0.54 L as independent prognostic factors for inferior OS (p = 0.029, p = 0.004.ConclusionSBRT was generally tolerated well with only mild toxicity. For evaluating the possible prognostic impact of MLD and FVC reduction on survival detected in this analysis, larger prospective studies are truly needed.

  5. Californium versus cobalt brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy for IIB stage cervical cancer: long-term experience of a single institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulionis, Ernestas; Valuckas, Konstantinas Povilas; Liukpetryte, Sarune; Samerdokiene, Vitalija; Atkocius, Vydmantas

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to observe and compare long-term curative effects and complications of FIGO stage IIB cervical cancer patients (n = 232) treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) californium ((252)Cf) neutron or cobalt ((60)Co) photon intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) combined with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The EBRT dose to the small pelvis was 50 Gy in both groups. The brachytherapy component of (252)Cf or (60)Co was added in the 3(rd) week of EBRT, 5 fractions were performed once per week resulting in a total ICBT dose of 40 Gy/Gyeq (point A). Overall survival (OS) at 5, 10 and 15 years was 63.6%, 50.4% and 38.8% in the (252)Cf group and 62.2%, 50.5%, 39.9%, in the (60)Co group, respectively (p = 0.74). The percentage of tumour recurrence was statistically significantly lower in the (252)Cf group with 7.4% versus 17.1% in the (60)Co group (p = 0.02). Second primary cancers have developed similarly 9.1% and 8.1% cases for (252)Cf and (60)Co groups, respectively. Our long-term retrospective study comparing (252)Cf and (60)Co isotopes with brachytherapy in combined treatment of FIGO IIB stage cervix carcinoma patients shows, that overall survival in the both groups are similar. However, the recurrence of tumour was significantly lower in the (252)Cf group. The incidence of second primary cancers was similar in both groups.

  6. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    because they are hard to use and interpret, and tools for age and stage structured populations are missing. We present easily interpretable expressions for the sensitivities and elasticities of life expectancy to vital rates in age-stage models, and illustrate their application with two biological......Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  7. A Phase 2 Trial of Concurrent Chemotherapy and Proton Therapy for Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results and Reflections Following Early Closure of a Single-Institution Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Bradford S., E-mail: bhoppe@floridaproton.org [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Henderson, Randal [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Pham, Dat; Cury, James D.; Bajwa, Abubakr [Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Morris, Christopher G. [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); D' Agostino, Harry [Department of Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Flampouri, Stella; Huh, Soon; Li, Zuofeng [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); McCook, Barry [Department of Radiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Nichols, Romaine C. [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Proton therapy has been shown to reduce radiation dose to organs at risk (OAR) and could be used to safely escalate the radiation dose. We analyzed outcomes in a group of phase 2 study patients treated with dose-escalated proton therapy with concurrent chemotherapy for stage 3 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: From 2009 through 2013, LU02, a phase 2 trial of proton therapy delivering 74 to 80 Gy at 2 Gy/fraction with concurrent chemotherapy for stage 3 NSCLC, was opened to accrual at our institution. Due to slow accrual and competing trials, the study was closed after just 14 patients (stage IIIA, 9 patients; stage IIIB, 5 patients) were accrued over 4 years. During that same time period, 55 additional stage III patients were treated with high-dose proton therapy, including 7 in multi-institutional proton clinical trials, 4 not enrolled due to physician preference, and 44 who were ineligible based on strict entry criteria. An unknown number of patients were ineligible for enrollment due to insurance coverage issues and thus were treated with photon radiation. Median follow-up of surviving patients was 52 months. Results: Two-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 57% and 25%, respectively. Median lengths of overall survival and progression-free survival were 33 months and 14 months, respectively. There were no acute grade 3 toxicities related to proton therapy. Late grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and pulmonary toxicity each occurred in 1 patient. Conclusions: Dose-escalated proton therapy with concurrent chemotherapy was well tolerated with encouraging results among a small cohort of patients. Unfortunately, single-institution proton studies may be difficult to accrue and consideration for pragmatic and/or multicenter trial design should be considered when developing future proton clinical trials.

  8. On Reconstructing School Segregation: The Efficacy and Equity of Single-Sex Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billger, Sherrilyn M.

    2009-01-01

    A change to Title IX has spurred new single-sex public schooling in the US. Until recently, nearly all gender-segregated schools were private, and comprehensive data for public school comparisons are not yet available. To investigate the effects of single-sex education, I focus on within private sector comparisons, and additionally address…

  9. Randomized multicenter trial on the effect of radiotherapy for plantar Fasciitis (painful heel spur) using very low doses – a study protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niewald, Marcus; Seegenschmiedt, M Heinrich; Micke, Oliver; Gräber, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    A lot of retrospective data concerning the effect of radiotherapy on the painful heel spur (plantar fasciitis) is available in the literature. Nevertheless, a randomized proof of this effect is still missing. Thus, the GCGBD (German cooperative group on radiotherapy for benign diseases) of the DEGRO (German Society for Radiation Oncology) decided to start a randomized multicenter trial in order to find out if the effect of a conventional total dose is superior compared to that of a very low dose. In a prospective, controlled and randomized phase III trial two radiotherapy schedules are to be compared: standard arm: total dose 6.0 Gy in single fractions of 1.0 Gy applied twice a week experimental arm: total dose 0.6 Gy in single fractions of 0.1 Gy applied twice a week (acting as a placebo) Patients aged over 40 years who have been diagnosed clinically and radiologically to be suffering from a painful heel spur for at least six months can be included. Former trauma, surgery or radiotherapy to the heel are not allowed nor are patients with a severe psychiatric disease or women during pregnancy and breastfeeding. According to the statistical power calculation 100 patients have to be enrolled into each arm. After having obtaining a written informed consent a patient is randomized by the statistician to one of the arms mentioned above. After radiotherapy, the patients are seen first every six weeks, then regularly up to 48 months after therapy, they additionally receive a questionnaire every six weeks after the follow-up examinations. The effect is measured using several target variables (scores): Calcaneodynia-score according to Rowe et al., SF-12 score, and visual analogue scale of pain. The most important endpoint is the pain relief three months after therapy. Patients with an inadequate result are offered a second radiotherapy series applying the standard dose (equally in both arms). This trial protocol has been approved by the expert panel of the DEGRO as well as

  10. Are the dinosauromorph femora from the Upper Triassic of Hayden Quarry (New Mexico) three stages in a growth series of a single taxon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rodrigo T

    2017-01-01

    The lagerpetid Dromomeron romeri and the theropod Tawa hallae are two dinosauromorphs from the Norian (Upper Triassic) of the Chinle Formation, situated in New Mexico, USA. However, a recent study suggests the inclusion of the holotype of D. romeri (GR 218) and paratype (GR 155) and referred (GR 235) specimens of T. hallae in an ontogenetic series of a single species. The specimens GR 218 and GR 155 include just an isolated femur, while GR235 includes femora, pelvis and tail. The inclusion of the specimens in an unique ontogenetic series relies on the putative immature condition and plastic deformation of the specimen GR 218. However, as observed here, the disparity between the femora of D. romeri and T. hallae is considerably higher than those expected from the ontogenetic variance in dinosauromorphs. In addition, D. romeri shares an unique suite of traits with Dromomeron gigas, a species known from a mature specimen. Therefore, the high disparity between D. romeri and T. hallae, lack of traits shared solely between the three femora, and a suite of traits shared between D. romeri and D. gigas, precludes the inclusion of the three femora from Hayden Quarry in a growth series of a single taxon.

  11. Fault diagnosis in spur gears based on genetic algorithm and random forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Mariela; Zurita, Grover; Cabrera, Diego; Sánchez, René-Vinicio; Artés, Mariano; Li, Chuan

    2016-03-01

    There are growing demands for condition-based monitoring of gearboxes, and therefore new methods to improve the reliability, effectiveness, accuracy of the gear fault detection ought to be evaluated. Feature selection is still an important aspect in machine learning-based diagnosis in order to reach good performance of the diagnostic models. On the other hand, random forest classifiers are suitable models in industrial environments where large data-samples are not usually available for training such diagnostic models. The main aim of this research is to build up a robust system for the multi-class fault diagnosis in spur gears, by selecting the best set of condition parameters on time, frequency and time-frequency domains, which are extracted from vibration signals. The diagnostic system is performed by using genetic algorithms and a classifier based on random forest, in a supervised environment. The original set of condition parameters is reduced around 66% regarding the initial size by using genetic algorithms, and still get an acceptable classification precision over 97%. The approach is tested on real vibration signals by considering several fault classes, one of them being an incipient fault, under different running conditions of load and velocity.

  12. Analytical and Numerical Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA of Standard and Modified Involute Profile Spur Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassear Rasheid Hmoad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among all the common mechanical transmission elements, gears still playing the most dominant role especially in the heavy duty works offering extraordinary performance under extreme conditions and that the cause behind the extensive researches concentrating on the enhancement of its durability to do its job as well as possible. Contact stress distribution within the teeth domain is considered as one of the most effective parameters characterizing gear life, performance, efficiency, and application so that it has been well sought for formal gear profiles and paid a lot of attention for moderate tooth shapes. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of pressure angle, speed ratio, and correction factor on the maximum contact and bending stress value and principal stresses distribution for symmetric and asymmetric spur gear. The analytical investigation adopted Hertz equations to find the contact stress value, distribution, and the contact zone width while the numerical part depends on Ansys software version 15, as a FE solver with Lagrange and penalty contact algorithm. The most fruitful points to be noticed are that the increasing of pressure angle and speed ratio trends to minimize all the induced stresses for the classical gears and the altered teeth shape with larger loaded side pressure angle than the unloaded side one behave better than the symmetric teeth concerning the stress reduction.

  13. Hyalomma aegyptium on Spur-thighed Tortoise (Testudo graeca in Urmia Region West Azerbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tavassoli

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ticks are obligate blood feeders that parasitize a wide variety of animals. Hyalomma aegyptium, parasitize tortoises and other small wild life and livestock. This study was carried out to determine spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca infestation to H. ageyptium in Urmia region West Azerbaijan of Iran. Methods: The study was carried out over a 16 month period from the spring of 2004 to the fall of 2005. A total of 32 tor¬toises were sampled. Results: The results indicated that 14 tortoises infected with ticks. A total of 117 ticks were collected from infested animals, the minimum and maximum tick infestation was 1-60. Ticks were attached to the axilla of fore and hind legs of tortoises. All ticks were determined to be H. aegyptium. Conclusion: H. aegyptium was the most common tick species in the study area. Due to tendency of some people to keeping tortoise as pet animal, more attention must be done to tortoise’s tick infestation. Due to existence of H. aegyptium on tor¬toises in this region more study will need to evaluate presence of this tick on other animal species and its role on transmis¬sion of diseases.

  14. Reproducibility of Scleral Spur Identification and Angle Measurements Using Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. Cumba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate intraobserver and interobserver agreement in locating the scleral spur landmark (SSL and anterior chamber angle measurements obtained using Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (ASOCT images. Methods. Two independent, masked observers (SR and AZC identified SSLs on ASOCT images from 31 eyes with open and nonopen angles. A third independent reader, NPB, adjudicated SSL placement if identifications differed by more than 80 μm. Nine months later, SR reidentified SSLs. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement in SSL placement, trabecular-iris space area (TISA750, and angle opening distance (AOD750 were calculated. Results. In 84% of quadrants, SR’s SSL placements during 2 sessions were within 80 μm in both the X- and Y-axes, and in 77% of quadrants, SR and AZC were within 80 μm in both axes. In adjudicated images, 90% of all quadrants were within 80 μm, 88% in nonopen-angle eyes, and 92% in open-angle eyes. The intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients (with and without adjudication were above 0.9 for TISA750 and AOD750 for all quadrants. Conclusions. Reproducible identification of the SSL from images obtained with FD-ASOCT is possible. The ability to identify the SSL allows reproducible measurement of the anterior chamber angle using TISA750 and AOD750.

  15. Effect of lubricant extreme-pressure additives on surface fatigue life of AISI 9310 spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scibbe, H. W.; Townsend, D. P.; Aron, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Surface fatigue tests were conducted with AISI 9310 spur gears using a formulated synthetic tetraester oil (conforming to MIL-L-23699 specifications) as the lubricant containing either sulfur or phosphorus as the EP additive. Four groups of gears were tested. One group of gears tested without an additive in the lubricant acted as the reference oil. In the other three groups either a 0.1 wt % sulfur or phosphorus additive was added to the tetraester oil to enhance gear surface fatigue life. Test conditions included a gear temperature of 334 K (160 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 000 psi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The gears tested with a 0.1 wt % phosphorus additive showed pitting fatigue life 2.6 times the life of gears tested with the reference tetraester based oil. Although fatigue lives of two groups of gears tested with the sulfur additive in the oil showed improvement over the control group gear life, the results, unlike those obtained with the phosphorus oil, were not considered to be statistically significant.

  16. Effect of shot peening on surface fatigue life of carburized and hardened AISI 9310 spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1982-01-01

    Surface fatigue tests were conducted on two groups of AISI 9310 spur gears. Both groups were manufactured with standard ground tooth surfaces, with the second group subjected to an additional shot peening process on the gear tooth flanks. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm (3.5 in.). Test conditions were a gear temperature of 350 K (170 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 billion N/sq m (248,000 psi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The shot peened gears exhibited pitting fatigue lives 1.6 times the life of standard gears without shot peening. Residual stress measurements and analysis indicate that the longer fatigue life is the result of the higher compressive stress produced by the shot peening. The life for the shot peened gear was calculated to be 1.5 times that for the plain gear by using the measured residual stress difference for the standard and shot peened gears. The measured residual stress for the shot peened gears was much higher than that for the standard gears.

  17. A life study of ausforged, standard forged, and standard machined AISI M-50 spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Bamberger, E. N.

    1975-01-01

    Tests were conducted at 350 K with three groups of 8.9 cm pitch diameter spur gears made of vacuum-induction melted (VIM), vacuum-arc remelted (VAR), AISI M-50 steel and one group of vacuum-arc remelted (VAR) AISI 9310 steel. The pitting fatigue life of the standard forged and ausforged gears was approximately five times that of the VAR AISI 9310 gears and ten times that of the bending fatigue life of the standard machined VIM-VAR AISI M-50 gears run under identical conditions. There was a slight decrease in the 10-percent life of the ausforged gears from that for the standard forged gears. However, the difference is not statistically significant. The standard machined gears failed primarily by gear tooth fracture while the forged and ausforged VIM-VAR AISI M-50 and the VAR AISI 9310 gears failed primarily by surface pitting fatigue. The ausforged gears had a slightly greater tendency to fail by tooth fracture than the standard forged gears.

  18. Selective Carbon Fiber Reinforced Nylon 66 Spur Gears: Development and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilvelan, S.; Gnanamoorthy, R.

    2006-01-01

    A new design methodology is developed to mold the polymer spur gears with high strength fiber reinforcement only in the highly stressed region. High performance high cost short carbon fiber reinforced Nylon 66 is used in the highly stressed tooth region and low cost unreinforced Nylon 66 is used in the hub region. Two different geometries, circular and spline shaped hubs were used for developing the selective reinforced gears by multi-shot injection-molding process. Joint strength of the selectively reinforced gear was estimated using shear tests. Clear hub and tooth region separation without any distortion was observed in joint shear tests. A molten material due to fusion bonding was observed at the interfaces. The joint strength was also evaluated by conducting gear fatigue tests using a power absorption test rig at various torque levels and at a constant gear rotational speed. Monolithic reinforced gear and selective reinforced gears with spline hub exhibited similar fatigue behavior. The failure mode depends upon the test torque level. The selective reinforced gears with circular hub showed joint failures at high-test torque levels. Absence of mechanical interlocking feature in the circular hub geometry contributes to the joint failure. Thermal bond, part interference and mechanical interlocking feature provide sufficient joint strength to the selective reinforced gear with spline hub.

  19. HITECH spurs EHR vendor competition and innovation, resulting in increased adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Seth; Sow, Max; Furukawa, Michael F; Posnack, Steven; Chaffee, Mary Ann

    2014-09-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act was enacted to increase electronic health record (EHR) adoption by providers and hospitals. Experts expressed skepticism about whether the program would indeed hasten adoption and could be implemented in time for the initial reporting period. Could EHR vendors meet the certification requirements, and could the industry innovate to meet small-practice needs? This study, in addition to documenting increased provider adoption, provides the first evidence of increased competitiveness and innovation in the EHR industry spurred by HITECH. For example, the number of EHR vendors certified for e-prescribing with Surescripts increased from 96 to 229 over the program's first 3 years. We also find that prescribers in small practices increasingly adopted lower-cost, Web-based e-prescribing and EHR applications at significantly higher rates (15%-35%) than did large practices (3%-4%), which generally have more human and capital resources to make significant investments. These findings suggest that EHR vendors were highly responsive to HITECH requirements and have been adapting their strategies to meet nuanced market needs, providing reason to be optimistic about the Programs' future.

  20. Using Behavior Over Time Graphs to Spur Systems Thinking Among Public Health Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calancie, Larissa; Anderson, Seri; Branscomb, Jane; Apostolico, Alexsandra A; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller

    2018-02-01

    Public health practitioners can use Behavior Over Time (BOT) graphs to spur discussion and systems thinking around complex challenges. Multiple large systems, such as health care, the economy, and education, affect chronic disease rates in the United States. System thinking tools can build public health practitioners' capacity to understand these systems and collaborate within and across sectors to improve population health. BOT graphs show a variable, or variables (y axis) over time (x axis). Although analyzing trends is not new to public health, drawing BOT graphs, annotating the events and systemic forces that are likely to influence the depicted trends, and then discussing the graphs in a diverse group provides an opportunity for public health practitioners to hear each other's perspectives and creates a more holistic understanding of the key factors that contribute to a trend. We describe how BOT graphs are used in public health, how they can be used to generate group discussion, and how this process can advance systems-level thinking. Then we describe how BOT graphs were used with groups of maternal and child health (MCH) practitioners and partners (N = 101) during a training session to advance their thinking about MCH challenges. Eighty-six percent of the 84 participants who completed an evaluation agreed or strongly agreed that they would use this BOT graph process to engage stakeholders in their home states and jurisdictions. The BOT graph process we describe can be applied to a variety of public health issues and used by practitioners, stakeholders, and researchers.

  1. A single-institution retrospective analysis of outcomes for stage I-II primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma treated with immunochemotherapy with or without radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Michael S; Hiniker, Susan M; Wu, Sharon; Natkunam, Yasodha; Mittra, Erik S; Advani, Ranjana H; Hoppe, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    As the optimal treatment for primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) remains undefined, we evaluated outcomes of patients treated with standard and dose-intense rituximab-chemotherapy (R-CT) with and without radiotherapy (RT). We retrospectively identified 28 patients with stage I-II PMBCL in our lymphoma database, re-reviewed pathology slides and scored interim or post-chemotherapy PET/CTs using the Deauville scale. Fourteen patients received RT (36-45 Gy) preceded by either six cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) or 12 weeks of rituximab, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone and bleomycin (R-VACOP-B) with median follow-up of 94 months. Fourteen patients received 4-8 cycles of dose-adjusted etoposide, vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (DA-EPOCH-R) with median follow-up of 38 months; one of these received RT (36 Gy) due to post-chemotherapy PET/CT Deauville score 4. Following R-CT and RT or DA-EPOCH-R, 5-year and 3-year FFP and OS were both 100%. Both R-CHOP/R-VACOP-B with RT and DA-EPOCH-R demonstrate excellent outcomes.

  2. Association analysis for detecting significant single nucleotide polymorphisms for phosphorus-deficiency tolerance at the seedling stage in soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Lihua; Kan, Guizhen; Du, Wenkai; Guo, Shiwei; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Guozheng; Cheng, Hao; Yu, Deyue

    2016-03-01

    Tolerance to low-phosphorus soil is a desirable trait in soybean cultivars. Previous quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies for phosphorus-deficiency tolerance were mainly derived from bi-parental segregating populations and few reports from natural population. The objective of this study was to detect QTLs that regulate phosphorus-deficiency tolerance in soybean using association mapping approach. Phosphorus-deficiency tolerance was evaluated according to five traits (plant shoot height, shoot dry weight, phosphorus concentration, phosphorus acquisition efficiency and use efficiency) comprising a conditional phenotype at the seedling stage. Association mapping of the conditional phenotype detected 19 SNPs including 13 SNPs that were significantly associated with the five traits across two years. A novel cluster of SNPs, including three SNPs that consistently showed significant effects over two years, that associated with more than one trait was detected on chromosome 3. All favorable alleles, which were determined based on the mean of conditional phenotypic values of each trait over the two years, could be pyramided into one cultivar through parental cross combination. The best three cross combinations were predicted with the aim of simultaneously improving phosphorus acquisition efficiency and use efficiency. These results will provide a thorough understanding of the genetic basis of phosphorus deficiency tolerance in soybean.

  3. S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Augmentation in Patients with Stage II Treatment-Resistant Major Depressive Disorder: An Open Label, Fixed Dose, Single-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico De Berardis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the efficacy of S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe augmentation in patients with treatment-resistant depressive disorder (TRD. Thirty-three outpatients with major depressive episode who failed to respond to at least 8 weeks of treatment with two adequate and stable doses of antidepressants were treated openly with fixed dose of SAMe (800 mg for 8 weeks, added to existing medication. The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline in total score on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. The Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I was rated at the endpoint. Patients with a reduction of 50% or more on HAM-D total score and a CGI-I score of 1 or 2 at endpoint were considered responders; remission was defined as a HAM-D score ≤7. Secondary outcome measures included the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS. At 8 weeks, a significant decrease in HAM-D score was observed with response achieved by 60% of the patients and remission by 36%. Also a statistically significant reduction in SHAPS and SDS was observed. Our findings indicate that SAMe augmentation may be effective and well tolerated in stage II TRD. However, limitations of the present study must be considered and further placebo-controlled trials are needed.

  4. Patients come from populations and populations contain patients. A two-stage scientific and ethics review: The next adaptation for single institutional review boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopman, David; Alford, Eli; Tate, Kaitlin; Long, Mark; Khachaturian, Ara S

    2017-08-01

    For nearly 50 years, institutional review boards (IRB) and independent ethics committees have featured local oversight as a core function of research ethics reviews. However growing complexity in Alzheimer's clinical research suggests current approaches to research volunteer safety is hampering development of new therapeutics. As a partial response to this challenge, the NIH has mandated that all NIH-funded multi-site studies will use a single Institutional Review Board. The perspective describes a joint program to provide a single IRB of record (sIRB) for phases of multi-site studies. The approach follows two steps. One, an expert Scientific Review Committee (SRC) of senior researchers in the field will conduct the review principally of scientific merit, significance, feasibility, and the likelihood of meaningful results. The second step will be the IRB's regulatory and ethics review. The IRB will apply appropriate regulatory criteria for approval including minimization of risks to subjects and risks reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits, equitable subject selection, informed consent, protections for vulnerable populations, and application of local context considerations, among others. There is a steady demand for scientific, ethical and regulatory review of planned Alzheimer's studies. As of January 15, 2017, there are nearly 400 open studies, Phase II and III, industry and NIH sponsored trials on disease indications affecting memory, movement and mood in the US. The effort will initially accept protocols for studies of Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and related disorders effecting memory, movement and mood. Future aims will be to provide scientific review and, where applicable, regulatory and ethical review in an international context outside North America with sites possibly in Asia, Europe and Australia. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Spur-free Fractional-N Sigma-Delta PLL for GSM Applications: Linear Model and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassia, Marco; Shah, Peter Jivan; Bruun, Erik

    2003-01-01

    A new PLL topology and a new simplified linear model are presented. The new ΣΔ fractional-N synthesizer presents no reference spurs and lowers the overall phase noise, thanks to the presence of a Sample/Hold block. With a new simulation methodology it is possible to perform very accurate...... simulations, whose results match closely those obtained with the linear PLL model developed....

  6. Experimental studies on a single-stage compressor equipped with profiles with controlled retardation. Phase 2. Final report; Experimentelle Untersuchungen an einem einstufigen Verdichter mit Profilen mit kontrollierter Verzoegerung. Phase 2. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaha, C.; Schulze, G.

    1996-04-01

    As part of the TurboTech study detailed measurements were performed on compressor cascades, single-stage machines, and whole compressors. The purpose of this was to gain greater clarity concerning flow conditions in compressors. The experimental results obtained were to permit a refinement of the calculation methods thus creating a reliable tool for dimensioning the HTGT compressors. The project described here is dedicated to the single stage. The tasks of phase II can be divided as follows: determination of the performance map; numerical simulation of operating behaviour; dimensioning check; analysis of the simulation and measurements and their comparison; and further measurements for the study of special flow phenomena and development of an experimental - data base for the validation of calculation methods. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen von TurboTech werden detaillierte Messungen an Verdichtergittern, einstufigen Maschinen und Gesamtverdichtern durchgefuehrt, um groessere Klarheit ueber die Stroemungsverhaeltnisse in Verdichtern zu erlangen. Hierbei sollen mit Hilfe der Versuchsergebnisse die Rechenverfahren verfeinert werden, um so ein zuverlaessiges Werkzeug zur Auslegung des HTGT Verdichters in die Hand zu bekommen. Das beschriebene Vorhaben ist der Einzelstufe gewidmet. Die Aufgaben der Phase II unterteilten sich in folgende Punkte: - Vermessung des Kennfeldes - Numerische Simulation des Betriebsverhaltens - Ueberpruefung der Auslegung - Analyse der Simulation und der Messungen sowie deren Vergleich - Durchfuehrung weiterer Messungen zur Untersuchung spezieller Stroemungsphaenomene und Schaffung einer Basis experimenteller Daten zur Validierung von Rechenverfahren. (orig./GL)

  7. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, and double strand break genes as markers for response to radiotherapy in patients with Stage I to II head-and-neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carles, Joan; Monzo, Mariano; Amat, Marta; Jansa, Sonia; Artells, Rosa; Navarro, Alfons; Foro, Palmira; Alameda, Francesc; Gayete, Angel; Gel, Bernat; Miguel, Maribel; Albanell, Joan; Fabregat, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes can influence response to radiotherapy. We analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in nine DNA repair genes in 108 patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNSCC) who had received radiotherapy only. Methods and Materials: From May 1993 to December 2004, patients with Stage I and II histopathologically confirmed HNSCC underwent radiotherapy. DNA was obtained from paraffin-embedded tissue, and SNP analysis was performed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction allelic discrimination TaqMan assay with minor modifications. Results: Patients were 101 men (93.5%) and 7 (6.5%) women, with a median age of 64 years (range, 40 to 89 years). Of the patients, 76 (70.4%) patients were Stage I and 32 (29.6%) were Stage II. The XPF/ERCC1 SNP at codon 259 and XPG/ERCC5 at codon 46 emerged as significant predictors of progression (p 0.00005 and 0.049, respectively) and survival (p = 0.0089 and 0.0066, respectively). Similarly, when variant alleles of XPF/ERCC1, XPG/ERCC5 and XPA were examined in combination, a greater number of variant alleles was associated with shorter time to progression (p = 0.0003) and survival (p 0.0002). Conclusions: Genetic polymorphisms in XPF/ERCC1, XPG/ERCC5, and XPA may significantly influence response to radiotherapy; large studies are warranted to confirm their role in HNSCC

  8. Comparison of "sandwich chemo-radiotherapy" and six cycles of chemotherapy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with stage IIIC endometrial cancer: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Yavas, Guler; Yavas, Cagdas; Ata, Ozlem; Yılmaz, Setenay Arzu; Celik, Cetin

    2013-10-01

    To compare "sandwich chemo-radiotherapy" with six cycles of chemotherapy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy with respect to tolerability and acute toxicity. Twenty-five women with surgically staged IIIC endometrial cancer were included. Treatment consisted of either three cycles of paclitaxel (175 mg/m²) and carboplatin (AUC 6) on a q21-day schedule followed by irradiation (45-50.4 Gy) or six cycles of the same chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Acute toxicity related to either chemotherapy or radiotherapy was evaluated. Median age was 61.5 years (range 36-83 years). Eleven patients had sandwich chemo-radiotherapy, and the other 14 patients had 6 cycles of chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Three out of the five patients who could not complete all the cycles in the sandwich chemo-radiotherapy group had pelvic and para-aortic radiotherapy. Acute radiotherapy related grade 1-2 gastrointestinal system (GIS) and genitourinary system (GUS) toxicities were observed in 72.8 and 63.6 % of patients, respectively, for sandwich group. Undesired treatment breaks in the course of radiotherapy were observed in six patients for sandwich chemo-radiotherapy and in one patient receiving six cycles of chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. All the patients who had undesired treatment breaks in the sandwich chemo-radiotherapy group had pelvic and para-aortic radiotherapy. Sandwich chemo-radiotherapy seems to be more toxic particularly for patients who had pelvic and para-aortic irradiation. Therefore, it might be more convenient to delay radiotherapy after six cycles of chemotherapy for patients with the indication of pelvic para-aortic radiotherapy.

  9. Long-term Outcomes of Augmentation Enterocystoplasty in Patients With End-Stage Bladder Diseases: A Single-Institute Experience Involving 102 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Yu; Jiang, Yuan-Hong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2017-06-01

    Augmentation enterocystoplasty (AE) has been shown to improve clinical symptoms in patients with end-stage bladder disease (ESBD). Herein, we report the long-term outcomes of a series of patients with different etiologies of ESBD who received AE. We retrospectively reviewed 102 patients with ESBD who received AE at the Hualien Tzu Chi General Hospital from 1992 to 2014. ESBD in this study was defined as including neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) due to spinal cord injury (SCI) or myelomeningocele, inflammatory bladder disease (IBD), ESBD occurring after pelvic cancer surgery, and other etiologies. Complications including active lower urinary tract problems and urinary tract infection (UTI), as well as patients' self-reported satisfaction with the procedure, were evaluated. A total of 102 patients were included in the study. A majority of patients received AE for NLUTD (n=43), followed by IBD (n=38), ESBD after pelvic cancer surgery (n=15), and the other etiologies (n=6). Patients had a mean age of 39.4±18.7 years and were followed for a mean of 78 months. All patients had significantly increased cystometric bladder capacity and compliance at the time of follow-up. Fifty-four patients (52.9%) reported moderate to excellent satisfaction with the outcome, and there were no significant differences among the groups (P=0.430). The most common reason for dissatisfaction was the need for clean intermittent catheterization (CIC; 41.7%), followed by urinary incontinence (25.0%) and recurrent UTI (16.7%). AE is a safe and effective procedure for patients with ESBD. Postoperative urinary incontinence and UTI as well as the need for CIC may affect quality of life and decrease patient satisfaction.

  10. Mechanisms of physiological adjustment of N2 fixation in Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) during early stages of water deficit: single or multi-factor controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Sulieman, Saad; Schulze, Joachim; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2014-09-01

    Drought negatively impacts symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea), thereby limiting yield potential. Understanding how drought affects chickpea nodulation will enable the development of strategies to biotechnologically engineer chickpea varieties with enhanced SNF under drought conditions. By analyzing carbon and nitrogen metabolism, we studied the mechanisms of physiological adjustment of nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants nodulated with Mesorhizobium ciceri during both drought stress and subsequent recovery. The nitrogenase activity, levels of several key carbon (in nodules) and nitrogen (in both nodules and leaves) metabolites and antioxidant compounds, as well as the activity of related nodule enzymes were examined in M. ciceri-inoculated chickpea plants under early drought stress and subsequent recovery. Results indicated that drought reduced nitrogenase activity, and that this was associated with a reduced expression of the nifK gene. Furthermore, drought stress promoted an accumulation of amino acids, mainly asparagine in nodules (but not in leaves), and caused a cell redox imbalance in nodules. An accumulation of organic acids, especially malate, in nodules, which coincided with the decline of nodulated root respiration, was also observed under drought stress. Taken together, our findings indicate that reduced nitrogenase activity occurring at early stages of drought stress involves, at least, the inhibition of respiration, nitrogen accumulation and an imbalance in cell redox status in nodules. The results of this study demonstrate the potential that the genetic engineering-based improvement of SNF efficiency could be applied to reduce the impact of drought on the productivity of chickpea, and perhaps other legume crops. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Concurrent Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced (Stage III) Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Single Institution Experience With 600 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremic, Branislav, E-mail: nebareje@gmail.com [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia); Milicic, Biljana; Milisavljevic, Slobodan [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Our institutional experience with the use of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (RT) alone or concurrently with chemotherapy (RT-CHT) in Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer was reviewed. Methods and Materials: Three phase III and two phase II studies included a total of 600 patients. Hyperfractionated RT alone was given to 127 patients, and hyperfractionated RT-CHT was given to 473 patients. RT doses were 64.8 Gy and 69.6 Gy (using 1.2 Gy twice daily) and 67.6 Gy (using 1.3 Gy twice daily). CHT consisted of concurrent administration of carboplatin and etoposide to 409 patients and concurrent administration of carboplatin and paclitaxel to 64 patients. Results: The median survival times were 19 months, 21 months, and 12 months for all, RT-CHT, and RT-only patients, respectively. The survival difference between the RT-CHT and RT group was significant (p < 0.0001). Four-year rates of local progression-free survival (LPFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were 29% and 35%, respectively, for the entire group. The RT-CHT group had significantly better LPFS rates than the RT group (31% for the RT-CHT group vs. 16% for the RT group; p = 0.0015) but not DMFS rates (36% for the RT-CHT group vs. 36% for the RT group, p = 0.0571). Acute high-grade esophagitis, pneumonitis, and hematological toxicities were seen most frequently and in 11%, 9%, and 12% of patients, respectively. Late high-grade esophageal and bronchopulmonary toxicity were each seen in 6% of patients. Conclusions: Compared to the majority of existing phase II and III studies, this study reconfirmed the excellent results achieved with concurrent RT-CHT, including low toxicity. Concurrent RT-CHT results in survival benefit primarily by increasing LPFS, not DMFS.

  12. Effects of palatal crib and bonded spurs in early treatment of anterior open bite: A prospective randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Juliana S; Matiussi, Luciano B; Salem, Anne C; Provenzano, Maria G A; Ramos, Adilson L

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the overbite correction of fixed palatal crib (FPC) and bonded lingual spur (BLS) in the early treatment of anterior open bite (AOB) in mixed dentition (primary outcome) as well as its influence on dental and skeletal cephalometric measurements (secondary outcome). The selected patients had AOB and a mean age of 8.23 years. They were divided into the following three groups by casting lots: control (n  =  13), palatal crib (n  =  13), and spur (n  =  13). Data from the lateral teleradiography was obtained at the beginning, at 6 months, and after 1 year. The cephalometric analysis was performed by Cef-X program, recording the values of SNA, SNB, ANB, SnG oGn, 1.PP, IMPA, nasolabial angle, overbite, and overjet. Intergroup and intragroup comparisons were obtained via one-way analysis of variance. The degree of AOB was similar at baseline (P > .05). At 6 months and then after 1 year all groups showed improvement in the overbite. However, only the crib and spur groups showed positive overbite. No cephalometric measurements changed significantly over the period analyzed. We conclude that the FPC and BLS are simple and effective for the treatment of anterior open bite, with the advantage given to the FPC.

  13. Effects of single-dose, low-level laser therapy on pain associated with the initial stage of fixed orthodontic treatment: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamruddin, Irfan; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Abdullah, Habiba; Kamran, Muhammad Abdullah; Jawaid, Nausheen; Mahroof, Verda

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the analgesic effect of a single application of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on spontaneous pain and pain on chewing after placement of initial archwires. Forty-two patients (26 women, 16 men) were randomly recruited for this split-mouth randomized clinical trial. Each patient received super-elastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) initial archwires (0.012, 0.014, 0.016, and 0.018-inch [in]) in the maxilla for leveling and alignment for an interval of 4 weeks between archwires. One side of the mouth was randomly designated as experimental, while the other side served as placebo. After insertion of each archwire, the experimental side was irradiated with a diode laser for 3 seconds each on 5 points facially and palatally per tooth, from the central incisor to first molar. On the placebo side, the laser device was held the same way but without laser application. A numerical rating scale was used to assess the intensity of spontaneous and masticatory pain for the following 7 days. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare pain scores between sides. Patients in the LLLT group exhibited significantly lower mean scores for spontaneous pain after insertion of the initial two archwires (0.012-in and 0.014-in NiTi; p leveling.

  14. Reoperative complications after primary orthotopic liver transplantation: a contemporary single-center experience in the post-model for end-stage liver disease era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNorcia, Joseph; Lee, Minna K; Harlander-Locke, Michael; Zarrinpar, Ali; Kaldas, Fady M; Yersiz, Hasan; Farmer, Douglas G; Hiatt, Jonathan R; Busuttil, Ronald W; Agopian, Vatche G

    2014-11-01

    Data on complications requiring reoperation after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) are limited. We sought to describe the spectrum of reoperative complications after OLT, evaluate the associations with graft and patient survival, and identify predictors of need for reoperation. We retrospectively studied adult patients who underwent primary OLT at our institution from February 2002 to July 2012. The primary outcomes included occurrence of a reoperative complication. Secondary outcomes were graft and patient survival. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to model the associations of recipient, donor, and operative variables with reoperation. Of 1,620 patients, 470 (29%) had complications requiring reoperation. The most common reoperative complication was bleeding (17.3%). Compared with patients not requiring reoperation, patients with reoperative complications had greater Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores and need for pretransplantation hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, and renal replacement therapy; considerably longer cold and warm ischemia times and greater intraoperative blood transfusion requirements; and substantially worse 1-, 3-, and 5-year graft and patient survival rates. In multivariable analysis, predictors of reoperative complications included intraoperative transfusion of packed RBCs (odds ratio [OR] = 2.21; 95% CI, 1.91-2.56), donor length of hospitalization >8 days (OR = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.28-2.73), recipient pretransplantation mechanical ventilation (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.21-2.24), cold ischemia time >9 hours (OR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.23-2.17), warm ischemia time >55 minutes (OR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.02-2.44), earlier major abdominal surgery (OR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.03-1.92), and elevated donor serum sodium (OR = 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03-1.31). Patients who require reoperation for complications after OLT have high pretransplantation acuity and inferior post-transplantation survival. We identified factors associated

  15. Large scale collective modeling the final 'freeze out' stages of energetic heavy ion reactions and calculation of single particle measurables from these models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyiri, Agnes

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this PhD project was to develop the already existing, but far not complete Multi Module Model, specially focusing on the last module which describes the final stages of a heavy ion collision, as this module was still missing. The major original achievements summarized in this thesis correspond to the freeze out problem and calculation of an important measurable, the anisotropic flow. Summary of results: Freeze out: The importance of freeze out models is that they allow the evaluation of observables, which then can be compared to the experimental results. Therefore, it is crucial to find a realistic freeze out description, which is proved to be a non-trivial task. Recently, several kinetic freeze out models have been developed. Based on the earlier results, we have introduced new ideas and improved models, which may contribute to a more realistic description of the freeze out process. We have investigated the applicability of the Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) to describe dynamical freeze out. We have introduced the so-called Modified Boltzmann Transport Equation, which has a form very similar to that of the BTE, but takes into account those characteristics of the FO process which the BTE can not handle, e.g. the rapid change of the phase-space distribution function in the direction normal to the finite FO layer. We have shown that the main features of earlier ad hoc kinetic FO models can be obtained from BTE and MBTE. We have discussed the qualitative differences between the two approaches and presented some quantitative comparison as well. Since the introduced modification of the BTE makes it very difficult to solve the FO problem from the first principles, it is important to work out simplified phenomenological models, which can explain the basic features of the FO process. We have built and discussed such a model. Flow analysis: The other main subject of this thesis has been the collective flow in heavy ion collisions. Collective flow from ultra

  16. Large scale collective modeling the final 'freeze out' stages of energetic heavy ion reactions and calculation of single particle measurables from these models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyiri, Agnes

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this PhD project was to develop the already existing, but far not complete Multi Module Model, specially focusing on the last module which describes the final stages of a heavy ion collision, as this module was still missing. The major original achievements summarized in this thesis correspond to the freeze out problem and calculation of an important measurable, the anisotropic flow. Summary of results: Freeze out: The importance of freeze out models is that they allow the evaluation of observables, which then can be compared to the experimental results. Therefore, it is crucial to find a realistic freeze out description, which is proved to be a non-trivial task. Recently, several kinetic freeze out models have been developed. Based on the earlier results, we have introduced new ideas and improved models, which may contribute to a more realistic description of the freeze out process. We have investigated the applicability of the Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) to describe dynamical freeze out. We have introduced the so-called Modified Boltzmann Transport Equation, which has a form very similar to that of the BTE, but takes into account those characteristics of the FO process which the BTE can not handle, e.g. the rapid change of the phase-space distribution function in the direction normal to the finite FO layer. We have shown that the main features of earlier ad hoc kinetic FO models can be obtained from BTE and MBTE. We have discussed the qualitative differences between the two approaches and presented some quantitative comparison as well. Since the introduced modification of the BTE makes it very difficult to solve the FO problem from the first principles, it is important to work out simplified phenomenological models, which can explain the basic features of the FO process. We have built and discussed such a model. Flow analysis: The other main subject of this thesis has been the collective flow in heavy ion collisions. Collective flow from ultra

  17. Diagnostic performance of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of sub-coracoacromial spurs causing subacromial impingement syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noerenberg, Dominik; Armbruster, Marco [Munich University Hospitals Campus Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Bender, Yi-Na; Walter, Thula; Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Ebersberger, Hans U. [Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany); Ockert, Ben [Munich University Hospitals Campus Grosshadern, Department of Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery, Shoulder and Elbow Service, Munich (Germany); Makowski, Marcus R. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    To evaluate the potential of susceptibility-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging (SWMR) for the detection of sub-coracoacromial spurs in patients with clinically suspected subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS), compared to standard MR-sequences and radiographs. Forty-four patients with suspected SAIS were included. All patients underwent radiography, standard MRI of the shoulder and SWMR. Radiograph-based identification of sub-coracoacromial spurs served as goldstandard. Radiographs identified twenty-three spurs in twenty-three patients. Twenty-one patients without spur formation served as reference group. Detection rate, sensitivity/specificity and interobserver-agreements were calculated. Linear regression was applied to determine the relationship between size measurements on radiographs and MRI. Detection rates for spurs on standard MRI and SWMR were 47.8 % and 91.3 % compared to radiography (p<0.001). SWMR demonstrated a sensitivity of 97.7 % (CI=0.92-1) and a specificity of 91.3 % (CI=0.788-1) for the identification of spurs. Standard MR-sequences achieved a sensitivity of 47.8 % (CI=0.185-0.775) and a specificity of 80.8 % (CI=0.642-0.978). Size measurements between SWMR and radiography showed a good correlation (R{sup 2}=0.75;p<0.0001), while overestimating lesion size (5.7±1.2 mm; 4.3±1.3 mm;p<0.0001). Interobserver-agreement for spurs was high on SWMR (R{sup 2}=0.74;p<0.0001), but low on standard MRI (R{sup 2}=0.24;p<0.0001). SWMR allows a reliable detection of sub-coracoacromial spur formation in patients with SAIS and is superior to standard MR-sequences using radiography as goldstandard. (orig.)

  18. Diagnostic performance of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of sub-coracoacromial spurs causing subacromial impingement syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noerenberg, Dominik; Armbruster, Marco; Bender, Yi-Na; Walter, Thula; Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd; Ebersberger, Hans U.; Ockert, Ben; Makowski, Marcus R.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of susceptibility-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging (SWMR) for the detection of sub-coracoacromial spurs in patients with clinically suspected subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS), compared to standard MR-sequences and radiographs. Forty-four patients with suspected SAIS were included. All patients underwent radiography, standard MRI of the shoulder and SWMR. Radiograph-based identification of sub-coracoacromial spurs served as goldstandard. Radiographs identified twenty-three spurs in twenty-three patients. Twenty-one patients without spur formation served as reference group. Detection rate, sensitivity/specificity and interobserver-agreements were calculated. Linear regression was applied to determine the relationship between size measurements on radiographs and MRI. Detection rates for spurs on standard MRI and SWMR were 47.8 % and 91.3 % compared to radiography (p<0.001). SWMR demonstrated a sensitivity of 97.7 % (CI=0.92-1) and a specificity of 91.3 % (CI=0.788-1) for the identification of spurs. Standard MR-sequences achieved a sensitivity of 47.8 % (CI=0.185-0.775) and a specificity of 80.8 % (CI=0.642-0.978). Size measurements between SWMR and radiography showed a good correlation (R 2 =0.75;p<0.0001), while overestimating lesion size (5.7±1.2 mm; 4.3±1.3 mm;p<0.0001). Interobserver-agreement for spurs was high on SWMR (R 2 =0.74;p<0.0001), but low on standard MRI (R 2 =0.24;p<0.0001). SWMR allows a reliable detection of sub-coracoacromial spur formation in patients with SAIS and is superior to standard MR-sequences using radiography as goldstandard. (orig.)

  19. Retrospective study on radiotherapy efficacy in case of painful heel spur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klossok-Niethammer, Ruth Giuliana

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The effect of radiotherapy in context of a plantar fasciitis in order to reduce pain was evaluated in this retrospective study. Patients and methods: The data of 188 patients who suffered of heel spur pain and who were irradiated in the period from 1994 to 2009 were evaluated in this study. All of them had at least one follow up examination after radiatiotherapy. The mean age amounted to 57 years. 76.5% of the patients were female. All patients described a local pain which was the basis for the indication. 74.4 % of the patients described pain especially under stress. The duration of anamnesis was averaged as follows: 15 % of the patients had pain for some weeks to 3 months, 43 % for 4 to 6 months, 28% even for 7 to 12 months. The period of medical history was longer than 12 months for 12 % of the patients in this study. 122 of 188 patients received orthopedic arch support (shoe inlays) as first therapy method. Most of the patients were irradiated using regular lateral opposing fields with photons of the energy 4 MV and 6 MV of a linear accelerator, applying a total dose of 6Gy in 6 fractions to 1,0Gy twice weekly. Only one patient was irradiated using a Co 60 machine. The acquisition of data regarding the effect was performed on the last day of the radiotherapy and in 3 to 6 monthly follow ups. Additionally the doctors who attended the patients beyond the radiotherapy received a special questionnaire about the pain reduction, so that the follow up data could be completed. Results: On the last day of radiotherapy 120/188 patients (63,8%)reported an improvement of pain reduction, 7/188 patients (3,7%) absence of pain. For 52/188 patients (27.6 %) pain remained constant. At the second follow up examination after in the median 100 days the effect of radiotherapy of 165 patients could be evaluated, 43/165 patients (26 %) were pain free, 79/165 patients (47,8 %) reported an obvious pain reduction, and for 33/165 patients there was no pain improvement. At the

  20. A retrospective study of homoeopathic treatment in patients with heel pain with or without Calcaneal Spur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraia Parveen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heel pain is a common clinical condition which significantly affects the quality of life. It is frequently associated with calcaneal spur (CS. Despite its high prevalence, the optimal treatment remains unclear. The aim and objective of this study is to evaluate the extent of CS in heel pain; correlation of CS with some sociodemographic and health-related factors; and outcome of homoeopathic treatment over a period of 6 months. Methodology: It was a retrospective study done at Dr. Anjali Chatterjee Regional Research Institute for Homoeopathy, Kolkata. Samples were selected from the patients referred for ankle X-ray from August 2014 to July 2015 for nontraumatic heel pain. Their files were traced from outpatient department, and treatment records were reviewed over the next 6 months. Results: Totally 92 patients, 70 women and 22 men, had undergone lateral X-ray of ankle for nontraumatic heel pain, of which 76 (82.6% patients had CS. Extent of CS was found to be higher in case of females, older age, overweight, and profession of housemaid or manual labor. Homoeopathic treatment showed positive response in nearly 75% of the CS patients. The most useful medicines were Calcarea flouricum, Rhus toxicodendron, Ledum palustre, and Aranea diadema. Conclusion: CS was found in nearly 80% of patients presenting with heel pain, which showed association with female sex, overweight, increasing age, and profession requiring heel stress. Homoeopathic treatment was effective in 3/4th of CS patients, and Rhus toxicodendron and Calcarea flouricum are the two most commonly used medicines.

  1. Radiotherapy of plantar heel spur. Indication, technique and clinical results for different dose concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmiedt, M.H.; Keilholz, L.; Stecken, A.; Katalinic, A.; Sauer, R.

    1996-01-01

    From 1.1.1984 through 1.3.1994, 182 patients with refractory painful heel symptoms and radiologically proven plantar heel spur received radiotherapy. A total of 141 patients and 170 heels (due to double-sided symptoms) were completely documented in long-term follow-up. Clearly defined semi-quantitative criteria (9-point score) were used to analyze heel pain and ankle function prior to RT, 6 to 12 weeks post-radiation, and at last follow-up. The treatment outcome, i.e. (un)favourable response, of 3 radiation dose concepts were compared: Group A (n=72 heels) received 12 Gy total radiation dose in 3 fractions per week and 2 series (6x1 Gy per series) separated by 6 weeks; group B (n=98 heels) received 3 Gy total radiation dose in 10 fractions of 0.3 Gy (n=50) or 5 Gy (10x0.5 Gy) (n=48) with conventiona fraction in 1 series. Radiotherapy was very effective: At last follow-up 67% (group A) and 71% (group B) remained completely free of pain. The rate of 'complete pain relief' (i.e. free of any pain symptoms) was not different between the 3 radiation concepts. However, significant differences were observed with regard to 'incomplete or insufficient pain relief', i.e. a subjective pain relief of less than 80%, a delayed pain relief after more than 4 weeks or a relapse of pain symptoms in long-term follow-up. More favourable results were achieved in patients receiving 5 Gy or 12 Gy total dose, while patients with 3 Gy total dose had significantly worse results. Prognostic factors for 'complete pain relief' were short duration of pain symptoms and acute pain symptoms prior to radiotherapy; with regard to 'incomplete or insufficient pain relief' the total dose was found to be a prognostic parameter. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Modeling and monitoring of tooth fillet crack growth in dynamic simulation of spur gear set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbault, Raynald; Lalonde, Sébastien; Thomas, Marc

    2015-05-01

    This study integrates a linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis of the tooth fillet crack propagation into a nonlinear dynamic model of spur gear sets. An original formulation establishes the rigidity of sound and damaged teeth. The formula incorporates the contribution of the flexible gear body and real crack trajectories in the fillet zone. The work also develops a KI prediction formula. A validation of the equation estimates shows that the predicted KI are in close agreement with published numerical and experimental values. The representation also relies on the Paris-Erdogan equation completed with crack closure effects. The analysis considers that during dN fatigue cycles, a harmonic mean of ΔK assures optimal evaluations. The paper evaluates the influence of the mesh frequency distance from the resonances of the system. The obtained results indicate that while the dependence may demonstrate obvious nonlinearities, the crack progression rate increases with a mesh frequency augmentation. The study develops a tooth fillet crack propagation detection procedure based on residual signals (RS) prepared in the frequency domain. The proposed approach accepts any gear conditions as reference signature. The standard deviation and mean values of the RS are evaluated as gear condition descriptors. A trend tracking of their responses obtained from a moving linear regression completes the analysis. Globally, the results show that, regardless of the reference signal, both descriptors are sensitive to the tooth fillet crack and sharply react to tooth breakage. On average, the mean value detected the crack propagation after a size increase of 3.69 percent as compared to the reference condition, whereas the standard deviation required crack progressions of 12.24 percent. Moreover, the mean descriptor shows evolutions closer to the crack size progression.

  3. Analysis of risk factors for pulmonary complications in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer. A single-centre retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sas-Korczynska, Beata; Kamzol, Wojciech [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Cracow Branch, Clinic of Oncology and Department of Radiotherapy, Cracow (Poland); Luczynska, Elzbieta [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Cracow Branch, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cracow (Poland); Sokolowski, Andrzej [Cracow University of Economics, Department of Statistics, Cracow (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    The most effective therapy in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS SCLC) seems to be chemotherapy (using platinum-based regimens) and thoracic radiotherapy (TRT), which is followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation. The analysed group comprised 217 patients who received combined treatment for LS SCLC, i.e. chemotherapy (according to cisplatin and etoposide schedule) and TRT (concurrent in 101 and sequential in 116 patients). The influence of chemoradiotherapy (ChT-RT) schedule on treatment results (frequency of complete response, survival rates, and incidence of treatment failure and complications) was evaluated, and the frequency and severity of pulmonary complications were analysed to identify risk factors. The 5-year survival rates in concurrent vs. sequential ChT-RT schedules were 27.3 vs. 11.7% (overall) and 28 vs. 14.3% (disease-free). The frequencies of adverse events in relation to concurrent vs. sequential therapy were 85.1 vs. 9.5% (haematological complications) and 58.4 vs. 38.8% (pulmonary fibrosis), respectively. It was found that concurrent ChT-RT (hazard ratio, HR 2.75), a total dose equal to or more than 54 Gy (HR 2.55), the presence of haematological complications (HR 1.89) and a lung volume receiving a dose equal to or greater than 20 Gy exceeding 31% (HR 1.06) were the risk factors for pulmonary complications. Pulmonary complications after ChT-RT developed in 82% of patients treated for LS SCLC. In comparison to the sequential approach, concurrent ChT-RT had a positive effect on treatment outcome. However, this is a factor that can impair treatment tolerance, which manifests in the appearance of side effects. (orig.) [German] Die wirksamste Therapie bei einem kleinzelligen Lungenkrebs im limitierten Stadium (LS SCLC) scheinen Chemotherapie (platinbasierte Regime) und thorakale Strahlentherapie (TRT) zu sein, begleitet von der prophylaktischen Schaedelbestrahlung. Analysiert wurden 217 Patienten, die eine kombinierte Behandlung

  4. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  5. DETERMINING OF THE EQUIVALENT AND OPTIMUM DIAMETERS OF CONE-CYLINDER TIP WITH SOIL BROACHING SPURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kravets

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Building of new railway tracks and facilities, repair and replacement of existent underground utilities and communications is related to the receipt of horizontal cavities in soil by trenchless method. A static soil broaching with a working body with cone tip is the most widespread method in practice of forming a pilot hole at the trenchless laying of distributive communications. However, in the process of implementation of project calculations, receipt of pilot hole and subsequent expansion to the necessary sizes, there is a question of workings effort calculation methods. Existent methods are based on empiric dependences and experimental coefficients which diminish exactness of calculations and increase the cost of works. Methodology. The work proposes the dependence for determination of equivalent diameter of cone tip depending on the hole diameter and theoretical method for calculation of optimum parameters of soil broaching head using the well-known parameters: type of soil and its humidity, that determined by the State Construction Regulations (DBN. Findings. The results of the theoretical studies can be used to increase the efficiency of the working equipment for soil broaching by static method during trenchless laying of underground utilities and communications. Originality. The authors establish the dependence of the equivalent diameter of the cone base on the diameter of the cylindrical part of the broaching head, which allows for removal of the frictional force from the static broaching on the lateral cylindrical surface of the tip. Practical value. The obtained theoretical calculations for determining the optimal diameters of the cone tip with soil broaching spurs made it possible to establish that if thediameteroftheconeisgreaterthanthemaximumdiameterofthehole (soilcavity, thenthefrontalresistanceofthecone-cylindertipincreasesmoreintensivelythantheresistanceofthecylindricalpartofthetip. The maximum reduction in the

  6. GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND SPUR CLUSTERS IN NGC 4921, THE BRIGHTEST SPIRAL GALAXY IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung, E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: isjang@astro.snu.ac.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    We resolve a significant fraction of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4921, the brightest spiral galaxy in the Coma cluster. We also find a number of extended bright star clusters (star complexes) in the spur region of the arms. The latter are much brighter and bluer than those in the normal star-forming region, being as massive as 3 × 10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}. The color distribution of the GCs in this galaxy is found to be bimodal. The turnover magnitudes of the luminosity functions of the blue (metal-poor) GCs (0.70 < (V − I) ≤ 1.05) in the halo are estimated V(max) = 27.11 ± 0.09 mag and I(max) = 26.21 ± 0.11 mag. We obtain similar values for NGC 4923, a companion S0 galaxy, and two Coma cD galaxies (NGC 4874 and NGC 4889). The mean value for the turnover magnitudes of these four galaxies is I(max) = 26.25 ± 0.03 mag. Adopting M{sub I} (max) = −8.56 ± 0.09 mag for the metal-poor GCs, we determine the mean distance to the four Coma galaxies to be 91 ± 4 Mpc. Combining this with the Coma radial velocity, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, H{sub 0} = 77.9 ± 3.6 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}. We estimate the GC specific frequency of NGC 4921 to be S{sub N} = 1.29 ± 0.25, close to the values for early-type galaxies. This indicates that NGC 4921 is in the transition phase to S0s.

  7. A method of selecting grid size to account for Hertz deformation in finite element analysis of spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, J. J.; Chao, C. H. C.

    1981-01-01

    A method of selecting grid size for the finite element analysis of gear tooth deflection is presented. The method is based on a finite element study of two cylinders in line contact, where the criterion for establishing element size was that there be agreement with the classical Hertzian solution for deflection. The results are applied to calculate deflection for the gear specimen used in the NASA spur gear test rig. Comparisons are made between the present results and the results of two other methods of calculation. The results have application in design of gear tooth profile modifications to reduce noise and dynamic loads.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of a Single Oral Dose of the MEK1/2 Inhibitor Selumetinib in Subjects With End-Stage Renal Disease or Varying Degrees of Hepatic Impairment Compared With Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Angela W; Martin, Paul; So, Karen; Huang, Yifan; Severin, Paul; Holmes, Victoria; Mariani, Gabriella; Marbury, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Two phase I open-label studies were conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of single oral doses of selumetinib in subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis and subjects with varying degrees of hepatic impairment; both studies included a matched control group comprised of healthy individuals. In the renal impairment study, subjects received single doses of selumetinib 50 mg; those with ESRD received selumetinib before and after dialysis (with a between-treatment washout period of ≥7 days). In the hepatic impairment study, subjects received varying single doses of selumetinib (20-50 mg) depending on liver dysfunction (mild, moderate, or severe as per Child-Pugh classification). PK, safety, and tolerability data were collected from both studies. Overall, 24 subjects were included in the renal impairment study (ESRD, N = 12; healthy subjects, N = 12). Selumetinib exposure (AUC and C max ) was not increased in the ESRD group vs healthy subjects. Selumetinib exposure was lower when selumetinib was dosed before vs after dialysis, although individual exposure was variable. Overall, 32 subjects were included in the hepatic impairment study (mild, moderate, and severe impairment, N = 8 per group; healthy subjects, N = 8). Generally, dose-normalized total selumetinib exposure was increased by 25% to 59% in subjects with moderate and severe hepatic impairment compared with healthy subjects. Increasing Child-Pugh score, decreasing serum albumin, and increasing prothrombin time correlated with increasing unbound selumetinib exposure. In both studies, selumetinib was well tolerated with no new safety concerns. These studies will inform dose adjustment considerations in patients. © 2016, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    In recent years, the social sciences have taken a “mobilities turn.” There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not “just happen.” Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and li......, the book asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities?...... that mobility is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments...

  10. Effect of Field Size and Length of Plantar Spur on Treatment Outcome in Radiation Therapy of Plantar Fasciitis: The Bigger the Better?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Robert Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Becker, Alexandra; Schneider, Michael; Reible, Michael; Carl, Ulrich Martin; Christiansen, Hans; Nitsche, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy is well established in the treatment of painful plantar fasciitis or heel spur. A retrospective analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of field definition on treatment outcome and to determine the impact of factors potentially involved. Methods and Materials: A review of treatment data of 250 patients (285 heels) with a mean follow-up time of 11 months showed that complete symptom remission occurred in 38%, partial remission in 32%, and no change in 19% (11% were lost to follow-up). Variables such as radiologic evidence of plantar spurs, their length, radiation dose, field size, age, sex, and onset of pain before administration of radiation therapy were investigated in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results: Treatment response depended upon age >53 years, length of heel spur ≤6.5 mm (or no radiologic evidence of a heel spur), and onset of pain <12 months before radiation therapy. Patients with these clinical prerequisites stood a 93% chance of clinical response. Without these prerequisites, only 49% showed any impact. No influence of field size on treatment outcome became evident. Conclusion: Patients with short plantar heel spurs benefit from radiation therapy equally well as patients without any radiologic evidence. Moreover, smaller field sizes have the same positive effect as commonly used large field definitions covering the entire calcaneal bone. This leads to a recommendation of a considerable reduction of field size in future clinical practice

  11. Effect of field size and length of plantar spur on treatment outcome in radiation therapy of plantar fasciitis: the bigger the better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Robert Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Becker, Alexandra; Schneider, Michael; Reible, Michael; Carl, Ulrich Martin; Christiansen, Hans; Nitsche, Mirko

    2013-12-01

    Radiation therapy is well established in the treatment of painful plantar fasciitis or heel spur. A retrospective analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of field definition on treatment outcome and to determine the impact of factors potentially involved. A review of treatment data of 250 patients (285 heels) with a mean follow-up time of 11 months showed that complete symptom remission occurred in 38%, partial remission in 32%, and no change in 19% (11% were lost to follow-up). Variables such as radiologic evidence of plantar spurs, their length, radiation dose, field size, age, sex, and onset of pain before administration of radiation therapy were investigated in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Treatment response depended upon age >53 years, length of heel spur ≤6.5 mm (or no radiologic evidence of a heel spur), and onset of pain spurs benefit from radiation therapy equally well as patients without any radiologic evidence. Moreover, smaller field sizes have the same positive effect as commonly used large field definitions covering the entire calcaneal bone. This leads to a recommendation of a considerable reduction of field size in future clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Field Size and Length of Plantar Spur on Treatment Outcome in Radiation Therapy of Plantar Fasciitis: The Bigger the Better?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Robert Michael, E-mail: hermann@strahlentherapie-westerstede.com [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Abteilung Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Meyer, Andreas [Abteilung Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Gemeinschaftspraxis für Strahlentherapie Hildesheim/Goslar (Germany); Becker, Alexandra [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Schneider, Michael [Orthopaedic Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Würzburg (Germany); Reible, Michael; Carl, Ulrich Martin [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Christiansen, Hans [Abteilung Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Nitsche, Mirko [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Klinik für Strahlentherapie, Karl-Lennert-Krebscentrum, Universität Kiel (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy is well established in the treatment of painful plantar fasciitis or heel spur. A retrospective analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of field definition on treatment outcome and to determine the impact of factors potentially involved. Methods and Materials: A review of treatment data of 250 patients (285 heels) with a mean follow-up time of 11 months showed that complete symptom remission occurred in 38%, partial remission in 32%, and no change in 19% (11% were lost to follow-up). Variables such as radiologic evidence of plantar spurs, their length, radiation dose, field size, age, sex, and onset of pain before administration of radiation therapy were investigated in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results: Treatment response depended upon age >53 years, length of heel spur ≤6.5 mm (or no radiologic evidence of a heel spur), and onset of pain <12 months before radiation therapy. Patients with these clinical prerequisites stood a 93% chance of clinical response. Without these prerequisites, only 49% showed any impact. No influence of field size on treatment outcome became evident. Conclusion: Patients with short plantar heel spurs benefit from radiation therapy equally well as patients without any radiologic evidence. Moreover, smaller field sizes have the same positive effect as commonly used large field definitions covering the entire calcaneal bone. This leads to a recommendation of a considerable reduction of field size in future clinical practice.

  13. Creating Innovative Frameworks to Spur Cultural Change at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Aamod; Lozano, Joel; Carte, Olivia; Robillos, Troy

    2018-01-01

    Changing the culture of an organization is a monumental task that often takes years and has no set formula. Steps can be taken, however, to spur cultural change by creating spaces and infrastructure to serve as the initial driving force. An innovation space and a bicycle sharing (bike share) program were implemented at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) (Edwards, California) with a vision toward connecting Center personnel, fostering collaboration and innovation, retaining newer employees, promoting flexibility, and improving the culture and workplace atmosphere. This paper discusses the steps taken, challenges faced, novel culture-change-focused design elements, lessons learned, acquired metrics, and how these initiated cultural change at AFRC. For both the innovation space and the bike share program, funding was negotiated and provided through the NASA Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) project, which was seeking to improve the innovation and collaboration capabilities at each of the four NASA aeronautics Centers. Key stakeholders across AFRC from upper management, facilities, safety, engineering, and procurement were identified early in the process and were consulted and included throughout execution to ensure that any encountered roadblocks could be easily navigated. Research was then conducted by attending conferences and visiting culture-changing organizations both inside and outside United States Government agencies. Distilling the research, identifying available space, and deciding on specific design elements for the space was conducted by a subset of individuals of diverse backgrounds to enable quick, effective decision-making. Decisions were made with the intent to increase usage and diversity of users of the space; care was taken to ensure a well-crafted atmosphere that would foster the desired culture change. The allocated physical space required major structural modifications, new

  14. Dentoskeletal effects produced by removable palatal crib, bonded spurs, and chincup therapy in growing children with anterior open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insabralde, Natalia Martins; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; Flores-Mir, Carlos; de Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the dentoskeletal effects of different anterior open bite treatment modalities in children. This cephalometric study assessed changes resulting from different treatment approaches on 77 growing children with anterior open bite. A control group (n = 30) was used for comparison. Lateral cephalograms were available before treatment and after 12 months. The sample was divided into four groups: removable palatal crib associated with a chincup (G1), bonded spurs associated with a chincup (G2), chincup (G3), and nontreated control (G4). Statistical comparisons among the four groups were performed on T1 and the treatment changes using analysis of variance with Tukey's post hoc tests. No statistically significant changes in skeletal variables were found among the groups, except for lower anterior face height (LAFH) increase in G1. Overall, effects in all of the treated groups were exclusively dentoalveolar. A larger overbite (OB) increase was observed in G1 and G2 when compared with G3 and G4. The maxillary incisors in G1 showed increased palatal tipping, retrusion, and more vertical dentoalveolar development as well as increased lingual tipping among mandibular incisors. There was less vertical development of maxillary and mandibular molars in G3. A removable palatal crib provided an improvement in OB (97.5%), followed by the bonded spurs (84.5%). Conversely, the chincup-only group did not have positive OB effects.

  15. Artificial Neural Network Model for Monitoring Oil Film Regime in Spur Gear Based on Acoustic Emission Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Hassan Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The thickness of an oil film lubricant can contribute to less gear tooth wear and surface failure. The purpose of this research is to use artificial neural network (ANN computational modelling to correlate spur gear data from acoustic emissions, lubricant temperature, and specific film thickness (λ. The approach is using an algorithm to monitor the oil film thickness and to detect which lubrication regime the gearbox is running either hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, or boundary. This monitoring can aid identification of fault development. Feed-forward and recurrent Elman neural network algorithms were used to develop ANN models, which are subjected to training, testing, and validation process. The Levenberg-Marquardt back-propagation algorithm was applied to reduce errors. Log-sigmoid and Purelin were identified as suitable transfer functions for hidden and output nodes. The methods used in this paper shows accurate predictions from ANN and the feed-forward network performance is superior to the Elman neural network.

  16. Comparison of pitting fatigue life of ausforged and standard forged AISI M-50 and AISI 9310 spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D. P.; Bamberger, E. N.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1975-01-01

    Standard forged and ausforged spur gears made of vacuum-induction-melted, consumable-electrode, vacuum-arc-remelted AISI M-50 steel were tested under conditions that produced fatigue pitting. The gears were 8.89 cm (3.5 in.) in pitch diameter and had tip relief. The M-50 standard forged and ausforged test results were compared with each other. They were then compared with results for machined vacuum-arc-remelted AISI 9310 gears tested under identical conditions. Both types of M-50 gears had lives approximately five times that of the 9310 gears. The life at which 10 percent of the M-50 ausforged gears failed was slightly less than that at which the M-50 standard forged gears failed. The ausforged gears had a slightly greater tendency to fail by tooth fracture than did the standard forged gears, most likely because of the better forging and grain flow pattern of standard forged gears.

  17. Endurance and failure characteristics of modified Vasco X-2, CBS 600 and AISI 9310 spur gears. [aircraft construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    Gear endurance tests and rolling-element fatigue tests were conducted to compare the performance of spur gears made from AISI 9310, CBS 600 and modified Vasco X-2 and to compare the pitting fatigue lives of these three materials. Gears manufactured from CBS 600 exhibited lives longer than those manufactured from AISI 9310. However, rolling-element fatigue tests resulted in statistically equivalent lives. Modified Vasco X-2 exhibited statistically equivalent lives to AISI 9310. CBS 600 and modified Vasco X-2 gears exhibited the potential of tooth fracture occurring at a tooth surface fatigue pit. Case carburization of all gear surfaces for the modified Vasco X-2 gears results in fracture at the tips of the gears.

  18. Experimental Investigation on the Scour Hole Geometric Dimensions in Different Spur Dikes in 90 Degree Bend for Non-Submerged Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    somayeh rahimi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Outer bank region is always exposed to destruction and scour due to secondary flow. Different methods are generally used to protect the outer bank. One of the most common and economical ways is spur dike. As an obstacle in the flow, spur dikes protect the outer bank through decreasing the velocity and forming vortexes between them and as a result sedimentation along that area. However, the spur dike increases the shear stress and local scour around the spur, especially its nose.. This study investigates the scour hole dimensions around three types of spur dike including permeable, impermeable and bandal-like spur dike which is done as a combination of permeable and impermeable spur dike. Few studies were focused on field applications and laboratory experiments to investigate the practical applicability of the bandal-like structure in natural rivers. Rahman et al. (4 Studied the prediction of main channel degradation and local scour around hydraulic structures (impermeable and bandal-like spur dikes under non-submerged condition. Teraguchi et al. (9 Investigated the influenced of submerged condition on flow characteristics and sediment transport process caused by bandal-like structures with different spacing and alignment under live-bed scour condition through laboratory experiments. Materials and Methods: Experiments were carried out in the Physical Modeling Laboratory of Faculty of Water Science Engineering of Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz. The main channel consisted of a 5m long upstream and a 3m long downstream straight reaches. A 90 degree bend was located between the two straight reach. The channel was of rectangular cross section, having a width of 0.7m and depth of 0.6m, with mild bends (ratio of radius to a width equal to 4 and it was filled with almost uniform sediment with a median particle size of D50=1.5 mm. The discharges were measured using an ultrasonic flow meter, which was installed on the pipe inlet of the

  19. Comparative trial of the foot pressure patterns between corrective orthotics,formthotics, bone spur pads and flat insoles in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Kok Kiong Jason; Suresh, Sanjay; Kuah, Angeline; Ong, Jean L J; Phua, Jessie M T; Seah, Ai Ling

    2009-10-01

    The objective of the study is to compare the efficacy of fl at insoles, bone spur pads, pre-fabricated orthotics and customised orthotics in reducing plantar contact pressure of subjects with plantar fasciitis. This is a controlled non-blinded comparative study conducted in a tertiary medical institute. Thirty subjects with unilateral plantar fasciitis between the ages of 20 and 65 years were recruited at the sports medicine clinic. The contact pressures and pressure distribution patterns in both feet for each subject were measured with sensor pressure mats while standing. Repeat measurements were made with the subjects wearing shoes, fl at insoles, bone spur heel pads, pre-fabricated insoles and customised orthotics on both feet. The asymptomatic side was used as the control. Contact pressure measurements of the symptomatic and asymptomatic feet and power ratio of the pressure distribution pattern of the rearfoot were then compared. Contact pressure was higher on the asymptomatic side due to unequal distribution of weight. Bone spur heel pads were ineffective in reducing rearfoot pressure while formthotics and customised orthotics reduced peak rearfoot pressures significantly. The power ratio of the rearfoot region decreased with the use of formthotics and customised orthotics. Pre-fabricated orthotics and customised orthotics reduced rearfoot peak forces on both sides while bone spurs heel pad increase rearfoot peak pressures. Pre-fabricated and customised orthotics are useful in distributing pressure uniformly over the rearfoot region.

  20. Meiofauna and macrofauna community structure in relation to sediment composition at the Iberian margin compared to the Goban Spur (NE Atlantic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, E.; Muthumbi, A.; Heip, C.H.R.

    2002-01-01

    Meiofauna and macrofauna communities and several sediment characteristics were compared between a slope situated far from the coast (Goban Spur) and two transects across the Iberian Margin with steep slopes and close to the shore. The northern Galician transect (off La Coruña) was situated in an