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Sample records for single social defeat

  1. Long-term changes in open field behaviour following a single social defeat in rats can be reversed by sleep deprivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; Overkamp, GJF; Benning, MA; Koolhaas, JM; vandenHoofdakker, RH

    1996-01-01

    The long-term consequences of a single social defeat on open field behaviour in rats were studied, with special emphasis on the time course of stress-induced changes. Animals were subjected to social defeat by placing them into the territory of an aggressive male conspecific for 1 h. After the

  2. A single social defeat reduces aggression in a highly aggressive strain of Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, Jill K. M.; Zito, Michael F.; Kravitz, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Genes and prior experience both influence the behavior of animals, but the relative contribution of each to fighting behavior in Drosophila remains unclear. To address this issue, we bred hyperaggressive flies by selecting winners of fights over 34–37 generations. Males of this strain initiate fights sooner, retaliate more often, and regularly defeat opponents from the nonselected parent Canton-S strain. After a defeat, however, these highly aggressive flies lose their second fights against s...

  3. A single social defeat induces short-lasting behavioral sensitization to amphetamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, JG; Wasilewski, M; van der Vegt, BJ; Buwalda, B; Koolhaas, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Repeated, intermittent exposure to psychostimulants or stressors results in long-lasting, progressive sensitization of the behavioral effects of a subsequent amphetamine (AMPH) challenge. Although behavioral sensitization has also been observed following a single drug pretreatment, the sensitizing

  4. Restraint stress and social defeat: What they have in common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Simone Cristina; Canteras, Newton Sabino

    2015-07-01

    Bob Blanchard was a great inspiration for our studies on the neural basis of social defense. In the present study, we compared the hypothalamic pattern of activation between social defeat and restraint stress. As important stress situations, both defeated and immobilized animals displayed a substantial increase in Fos in the parvicellular part of the paraventricular nucleus,mostly in the region that contains the CRH neurons. In addition, socially defeated animals, but not restrained animals, recruited elements of the medial hypothalamic conspecific-responsive circuit, a region also engaged in other forms of social behavior. Of particular interest, both defeated and immobilized animals presented a robust increase in Fos expression in specific regions of the lateral hypothalamic area (i.e., juxtaparaventricular and juxtadorsomedial regions) likely to convey septo-hippocampal information encoding the environmental boundary restriction observed in both forms of stress, and in the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus which seems to work as a key player for the expression of, at least, part of the behavioral responses during both restraint and social defeat. These results indicate interesting commonalities between social defeat and restraint stress, suggesting, for the first time, a septo-hippocampal–hypothalamic path likely to respond to the environmental boundary restriction that may act as common stressor component for both types of stress. Moreover, the comparison of the neural circuits mediating physical restraint and social defense revealed a possible path for encoding the entrapment component during social confrontation.

  5. Effects of ethanol on social avoidance induced by chronic social defeat stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favoretto, Cristiane A; Macedo, Giovana C; Quadros, Isabel M H

    2017-01-01

    In rodents, chronic social defeat stress promotes deficits in social interest and social interaction. We further explored these antisocial effects by comparing the consequences of two different defeat stress protocols (episodic vs. continuous stress) in a social investigation test. We expected that continuous, but not episodic, stress would induce social deficits in this model. Furthermore, we tested whether a potentially anxiolytic dose of ethanol reverses social deficits induced by defeat stress. Male Swiss mice were exposed to a 10-day social defeat protocol, using daily confrontations with an aggressive resident mouse. Episodic stress consisted of brief defeat episodes, after which the defeated mouse was returned to its home cage, until the next defeat 24 h later (n = 7-11/group). For continuous stress, similar defeat episodes were followed by cohabitation with the aggressive resident for 24 h, separated by a perforated divider, until the following defeat (n = 8-14/group). Eight days after stress termination, defeated and control mice were assessed in a social investigation test, after treatment with ethanol (1.0 g/kg, i.p.) or 0.9% saline. Considering the time spent investigating a social target, mice exposed to episodic or continuous social stress showed less social investigation than controls (p stress or ethanol. Thus, a history of social defeat stress, whether episodic or continuous, promotes deficits in social investigation that were not reversed by acute treatment with ethanol.

  6. Social skills of persons with self-defeating personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, T

    1995-10-01

    55 undergraduate men and 55 women took Schill's 1990 Self-defeating Personality Scale and Lorr, Youniss, and Stefic's (1991) multidimensional Social Relations Survey. As expected, persons who endorsed more self-defeating characteristics scored lower on scales which make up the Social Skills or Assertiveness Factor. However, these scores did not have significant correlations with the Empathy or Social Approval Need Scales; two of the three scales which make up the Empathy Factor. The results were discussed in terms of prior work relating deficits in social skills to dysfunctional early parenting.

  7. Antidepressant Effects of (+)-MK-801 and (-)-MK-801 in the Social Defeat Stress Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bangkun; Ren, Qian; Ma, Min; Chen, Qian-Xue

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current data on antidepressant action of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, (+)-MK-801, is inconsistent. This study was conducted to examine the effects of (+)-MK-801 and its less potent stereoisomer, (-)-MK-801, in the social defeat stress model of depression. Methods: The antidepressant effects of (+)-MK-801 (0.1mg/kg) and (-)-MK-801 (0.1mg/kg) in the social defeat stress model were examined. Results: In the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, both stereoisomers significantly attenuated increased immobility time in susceptible mice. In the sucrose preference test, (+)-MK-801, but not (-)-MK-801, significantly enhanced reduced sucrose consumption 2 or 4 days after a single dose. However, no antianhedonia effects were detected 7 days after a single dose of either stereoisomer. Conclusions: Both stereoisomers of MK-801 induced rapid antidepressant effects in the social defeat stress model, although neither produced a long-lasting effect (7 days). PMID:27608811

  8. Effects of Social Defeat Stress on Sleep in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Fiona; Vialou, Vincent; El Mestikawy, Salah; Fabre, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Stress plays a key role in the development of psychiatric disorders and has a negative impact on sleep integrity. In mice, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) is an ethologically valid model of stress-related disorders but little is known about its effects on sleep regulation. Here, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of 10 consecutive days of social defeat (SD) on vigilance states in C57Bl/6J male mice. Social behavior was assessed to identify susceptible mice, i.e., mice tha...

  9. Voluntary exercise increases resilience to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Rody C; Smith, Michael; Lacey, Tiara; Edwards, Malcolm; Best, Janae N; Markham, Chris M

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to social stressors can cause profound changes in an individual's well-being and can be an underlying factor in the etiology of a variety of psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In Syrian hamsters, a single social defeat experience results in behavioral changes collectively known as conditioned defeat (CD), and includes an abolishment of territorial aggression and the emergence of high levels of defensive behaviors. In contrast, voluntary exercise has been shown to promote stress resilience and can also have anxiolytic-like effects. Although several studies have investigated the resilience-inducing effects of voluntary exercise after exposure to physical stressors, such as restraint and electric shock, few studies have examined whether exercise can impart resilience in response to ethologically-based stressors, such as social defeat. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that voluntary exercise can have anxiolytic-like effects in socially defeated hamsters. In the elevated plus maze, the exercise group exhibited a significant reduction in risk assessment, a commonly used index of anxiety, compared to the no-exercise group. In the open-field test, animals in the exercise group exhibited a significant reduction in locomotor behavior and rearing, also an indication of an anxiolytic-like effect of exercise. In Experiment 2, we examined whether exercise can reverse the defeat-induced potentiation of defensive behaviors using the CD model. Socially defeated hamsters in the exercise group exhibited significantly lower levels of defensive/submissive behaviors compared to the no-exercise group upon exposure to the resident aggressor. Taken together, these results are among the first to suggest that voluntary exercise may promote resilience to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adolescent social defeat alters markers of adult dopaminergic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Andrew M; Forster, Gina L; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M; Watt, Michael J

    2011-08-10

    Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defeat. Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative autoradiography was used to measure [(3)H]-GBR12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [(3)H]-SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes specific changes to the adult dopamine system, which may contribute to behavioral alterations and increased drug seeking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic social defeat induces long-term behavioral depression of aggressive motivation in an invertebrate model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jacqueline; Rillich, Jan; Stevenson, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Losing a fight against a conspecific male (social defeat) induces a period of suppressed aggressiveness and general behaviour, often with symptoms common to human psychiatric disorders. Agonistic experience is also discussed as a potential cause of consistent, behavioral differences between individuals (animal "personality"). In non-mammals, however, the impact of single agonistic encounters typically last only hours, but then again studies of repeated intermittent defeat (chronic social defeat) are seldom. We report the effect of chronic social defeat in adult male crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus), for which all known behavioral effects of defeat last only 3 h. Firstly, after 48 h social isolation, crickets that experienced 5 defeats at 24 h intervals against the same, weight-matched opponent exhibited suppressed aggressiveness lasting >24 h, which was still evident when the animals were matched against an unfamiliar opponent at the last trial. Secondly, this longer-term depression of aggression also occurred in 48 h isolated crickets that lost 6 fights at 1 h intervals against unfamiliar opponents at each trial. Thirdly, crickets isolated as larvae until adult maturity (>16 days) were significantly more aggressive, and less variable in their aggressiveness at their very first fight than 48 h isolates, and also significantly more resilient to the effects of chronic social defeat. We conclude that losing an aggressive encounter in crickets has a residual effect, lasting at least 24 h, that accumulates when repeated defeats are experienced, and leads to a prolonged depression of aggressive motivation in subordinates. Furthermore, our data indicate that social interactions between young adults and possibly larvae can have even longer, possibly lifelong influences on subsequent behavior. Social subjugation is thus likely to be a prime determinant of inter-individual behavioral differences in crickets. Our work also opens new avenues for investigating proximate

  12. Orexin signaling during social defeat stress influences subsequent social interaction behaviour and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eacret, Darrell; Grafe, Laura A; Dobkin, Jane; Gotter, Anthony L; Rengerb, John J; Winrow, Christopher J; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2018-06-11

    Orexins are neuropeptides synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus that influence arousal, feeding, reward pathways, and the response to stress. However, the role of orexins in repeated stress is not fully characterized. Here, we examined how orexins and their receptors contribute to the coping response during repeated social defeat and subsequent anxiety-like and memory-related behaviors. Specifically, we used Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) to stimulate orexins prior to each of five consecutive days of social defeat stress in adult male rats. Additionally, we determined the role of the orexin 2 receptor in these behaviors by using a selective orexin 2 receptor antagonist (MK-1064) administered prior to each social defeat. Following the 5 day social defeat conditioning period, rats were evaluated in social interaction and novel object recognition paradigms to assess anxiety-like behavior and recognition memory, respectively. Activation of orexin neurons by DREADDs prior to each social defeat decreased the average latency to become defeated across 5 days, indicative of a passive coping strategy that we have previously linked to a stress vulnerable phenotype. Moreover, stimulation of orexin signaling during defeat conditioning decreased subsequent social interaction and performance in the novel object recognition test indicating increased subsequent anxiety-like behavior and reduced working memory. Blocking the orexin 2 receptor during repeated defeat did not alter these effects. Together, our results suggest that orexin neuron activation produces a passive coping phenotype during social defeat leading to subsequent anxiety-like behaviors and memory deficits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The Inflammatory Response to Social Defeat is Increased in Older Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsey, Steven G.; Bailey, Michael T.; Sheridan, John F.; Padgett, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research indicates that repeated social defeat of mice causes increased lymphocyte trafficking to the spleen, elevated proinflammatory cytokine production, and induced glucocorticoid insensitivity in splenocytes. Social defeat also causes increases in anxiety-like behavior. This study investigated whether repeated social defeat results in similar immunoregulatory and behavioral changes in older mice as those seen previously in young adult mice. The data revealed that, regardless of a...

  14. Adolescent social defeat induced alterations in anxious behavior and cognitive flexibility in adult mice: effects of developmental stage and social condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Negative social experiences during adolescence increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Using resident-intruder stress, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social defeat on emotional and cognitive symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders during adulthood and the effects of the developmental stage and social condition on this process. In experiment 1, animals were exposed to social defeat or manipulation for 10 days during early adolescence (EA, PND 28-37, late adolescence (LA, PND 38-47, and adulthood (ADULT, PND 70-79 and then singly housed until the behavioral tests. Behaviors, including social avoidance of the defeat context and cortically mediated cognitive flexibility in an attentional set-shifting task (AST, were assessed during the week following stress or after 6 weeks during adulthood. We determined that social defeat induced significant and continuous social avoidance across age groups at both time points. The mice that experienced social defeat during adulthood exhibited short-term impairments in reversal learning on the AST that dissipated after 6 weeks. In contrast, social defeat during EA but not LA induced a delayed deficit in extra-dimensional set-shifting in adulthood but not during adolescence. In experiment 2, we further examined the effects of social condition (isolation or social housing after stress on the alterations induced by social defeat during EA in adult mice. The adult mice that had experienced stress during EA exhibited social avoidance similar to the avoidance identified in experiment 1 regardless of the isolation or social housing after the stress. However, social housing after the stress ameliorated the cognitive flexibility deficits induced by early adolescent social defeat in the adult mice, and the social condition had no effect on cognitive function. These findings suggest that the effects of social defeat on emotion and cognitive function are differentially

  15. Long-term impairment of social memory in the rat after social defeat is not restored by desglycinamide-vasopressin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmers, L.G.J.E.; Hoekstra, K.; Burbach, J.P.H.; Ree, van J.M.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    Repeated social defeat followed by individual housing caused a long-term impairment of social memory in male rats. Social memory, as assessed in the social discrimination test using an intertrial interval of 3 min, was impaired for at least 8 weeks after the social defeat experience. Since social

  16. Ethological Evaluation of the Effects of Social Defeat Stress in Mice: Beyond the Social Interaction Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques-Alves, Aron M; Queiroz, Claudio M

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min) sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (>150 s) and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress.

  17. Ethological Evaluation of the Effects of Social Defeat Stress in Mice: Beyond the Social Interaction Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques-Alves, Aron M.; Queiroz, Claudio M.

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min) sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (>150 s) and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress. PMID:26869895

  18. Ethological evaluation of the effects of social defeat stress in mice: beyond the social interaction ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron Miranda Henriques-Alves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (> 150 s and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress.

  19. Effect of social defeat in a territorial bird (Parus major) selected for different coping styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carere, C.; Welink, D.; Drent, P.J.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2001-01-01

    We addressed the questions (i) whether a social defeat triggers similar autonomic and behavioral responses in birds as is known from mammals and (ii) whether individuals that differ in coping style differ in their reaction to a social defeat. Adult captive male great tits (Parus major) from either

  20. Effect of social defeat in a territorial bird (Parus major) selected for different coping styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carere, C; Welink, D; Drent, Piet J.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    We addressed the questions (i) whether a social defeat triggers similar autonomic and behavioral responses in birds as is known from mammals and (ii) whether individuals that differ in coping style differ in their reaction to a social defeat. Adult captive male great tits (Parus major) from either

  1. Effects of Social Defeat Stress on Sleep in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Fiona; Vialou, Vincent; El Mestikawy, Salah; Fabre, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Stress plays a key role in the development of psychiatric disorders and has a negative impact on sleep integrity. In mice, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) is an ethologically valid model of stress-related disorders but little is known about its effects on sleep regulation. Here, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of 10 consecutive days of social defeat (SD) on vigilance states in C57Bl/6J male mice. Social behavior was assessed to identify susceptible mice, i.e., mice that develop long-lasting social avoidance, and unsusceptible mice. Sleep-wake stages in mice of both groups were analyzed by means of polysomnographic recordings at baseline, after the first, third, and tenth stress sessions and on the 5th recovery day (R5) following the 10-day CSDS. In susceptible mice, each SD session produced biphasic changes in sleep-wake states that were preserved all along 10-day CSDS. These sessions elicited a short-term enhancement of wake time while rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep was strongly inhibited. Concomitantly, delta power was increased during non REM (NREM) sleep. During the following dark period, an increase in total sleep time, as well as wake fragmentation, were observed after each analyzed SD session. Similar changes were observed in unsusceptible mice. At R5, elevated high-frequency EEG activity, as observed in insomniacs, emerged during NREM sleep in both susceptible and unsusceptible groups suggesting that CSDS impaired sleep quality. Furthermore, susceptible but not unsusceptible mice displayed stress-anticipatory arousal during recovery, a common feature of anxiety disorders. Altogether, our findings show that CSDS has profound impacts on vigilance states and further support that sleep is tightly regulated by exposure to stressful events. They also revealed that susceptibility to chronic psychological stress is associated with heightened arousal, a physiological feature of stress vulnerability.

  2. Effects of Social Defeat Stress on Sleep in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Henderson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress plays a key role in the development of psychiatric disorders and has a negative impact on sleep integrity. In mice, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS is an ethologically valid model of stress-related disorders but little is known about its effects on sleep regulation. Here, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of 10 consecutive days of social defeat (SD on vigilance states in C57Bl/6J male mice. Social behavior was assessed to identify susceptible mice, i.e., mice that develop long-lasting social avoidance, and unsusceptible mice. Sleep-wake stages in mice of both groups were analyzed by means of polysomnographic recordings at baseline, after the first, third, and tenth stress sessions and on the 5th recovery day (R5 following the 10-day CSDS. In susceptible mice, each SD session produced biphasic changes in sleep-wake states that were preserved all along 10-day CSDS. These sessions elicited a short-term enhancement of wake time while rapid eye-movement (REM sleep was strongly inhibited. Concomitantly, delta power was increased during non REM (NREM sleep. During the following dark period, an increase in total sleep time, as well as wake fragmentation, were observed after each analyzed SD session. Similar changes were observed in unsusceptible mice. At R5, elevated high-frequency EEG activity, as observed in insomniacs, emerged during NREM sleep in both susceptible and unsusceptible groups suggesting that CSDS impaired sleep quality. Furthermore, susceptible but not unsusceptible mice displayed stress-anticipatory arousal during recovery, a common feature of anxiety disorders. Altogether, our findings show that CSDS has profound impacts on vigilance states and further support that sleep is tightly regulated by exposure to stressful events. They also revealed that susceptibility to chronic psychological stress is associated with heightened arousal, a physiological feature of stress vulnerability.

  3. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-Independent Antidepressant Actions of (R)-Ketamine in a Chronic Social Defeat Stress Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Dong, Chao; Fujita, Yuko; Fujita, Atsuhiro; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2018-02-01

    Previous reports suggest that 5-hydroxytryptamine might play a role in the antidepressant actions of (R,S)-ketamine. However, its role in the antidepressant actions of (R)-ketamine, which is more potent than (S)-ketamine, is unknown. This study was conducted to examine whether 5-hydroxytryptamine depletion affects the antidepressant actions of (R)-ketamine in a chronic social defeat stress model. An inhibitor of 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis, para-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (300 mg/kg, twice daily for 3 consecutive days), or vehicle was administered to control and chronic social defeat stress-susceptible mice. Levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, in mouse brain regions were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, antidepressant effects of (R)-ketamine (10 mg/kg) in the vehicle- and para-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride-treated susceptible mice were assessed using tail suspension test and 1% sucrose preference test. para-Chlorophenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride treatment caused marked reductions of 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the brain regions of control and chronic social defeat stress susceptible mice. In the tail suspension test, (R)-ketamine significantly attenuated the increased immobility time in the chronic social defeat stress-susceptible mice with or without 5-hydroxytryptamine depletion. In the sucrose preference test (2 and 5 days after a single dose), (R)-ketamine significantly enhanced reduced sucrose consumption in the chronic social defeat stress-susceptible mice with or without 5-hydroxytryptamine depletion. These findings show that 5-hydroxytryptamine depletion did not affect the antidepressant effects of (R)-ketamine in a chronic social defeat stress model. Therefore, it is unlikely that 5-hydroxytryptamine plays a major role in the antidepressant actions of (R)-ketamine. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford

  4. Temporal and spatial dynamics of corticosteroid receptor down-regulation in rat brain following social defeat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, B; Felszeghy, K; Horváth, K M; Nyakas, C; de Boer, S.F.; Bohus, B; Koolhaas, J M

    The experiments explored the nature and time course of changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) binding in homogenates of various brain regions and pituitary of male Wistar rats following social defeat stress. One week after defeat, the binding capacity of GRs was

  5. Juvenile social defeat stress exposure persistently impairs social behaviors and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Akihiro; Ukai, Mayu; Uchida, Mizuki; Hasegawa, Sho; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Ito, Takahiro; Hida, Hirotake; Yoshimi, Akira; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Kunimoto, Shohko; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2018-05-01

    Adverse juvenile experiences, including physical abuse, often have negative health consequences later in life. We investigated the influence of social defeat stress exposure as juveniles on neuropsychological behaviors, and the causal role of glucocorticoids in abnormal behaviors and impairment of neurogenesis in mice exposed to the stress. The juvenile (24-day-old) and adult (70-day-old) male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to social defeat stress induced by an aggressive ICR mouse. Social defeat stress exposure as juveniles, even for 1 day, induced persistent social avoidance to the unfamiliar ICR mouse in the social interaction test, but that was not observed in mice exposed to the stress as adults. Social avoidance by the stress exposure as juveniles for 10 consecutive days was observed, when the target mouse was not only unfamiliar ICR but also another C57BL/J mouse, but not an absent or an anesthetized ICR mouse. The stress exposure did not induce anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in spontaneous locomotor activity, elevated plus-maze test, marble-burying test, forced swimming test, or sucrose preference test. Serum corticosterone levels increased immediately after the stress exposure. The hippocampal neurogenesis was suppressed 1 day and 4 weeks after the stress exposure. Administration of mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, prior to each stress exposure, blocked the persistent social avoidance and suppression of neurogenesis. In conclusion, social avoidance induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles are more persistent than that as adults. These social avoidances are associated with suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis via glucocorticoid receptors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of social defeat in a territorial bird (Parus major) selected for different coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carere, C; Welink, D; Drent, P J; Koolhaas, J M; Groothuis, T G

    2001-06-01

    We addressed the questions (i) whether a social defeat triggers similar autonomic and behavioral responses in birds as is known from mammals and (ii) whether individuals that differ in coping style differ in their reaction to a social defeat. Adult captive male great tits (Parus major) from either of two different selection lines for coping style were used to test the effect of social defeat by an aggressive resident male conspecific on subsequent social and nonsocial behaviour, body temperature, breath rate and body mass. These parameters were measured 1 day before (baseline), immediately after and at Days 1 to 3 and 6 after the social interaction took place (Day 0). Social defeat decreased social exploration and increased body temperature substantially for at least 1 day in all birds. Breath rate and body mass were not affected. Birds belonging to the more aggressive and bolder line showed impairment in activity immediately after the social defeat. This is to our knowledge the first report showing that psychosocial stress in birds can have a similar impact as in rodents, but with a shorter recovery time. This might be due to species-specific differences in sensitivity to social stress, or to differences in the way social stress was induced.

  7. Social preference and maternal defeat-induced social avoidance in virgin female rats: sex differences in involvement of brain oxytocin and vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Michael; Neumann, Inga D

    2014-08-30

    Research concerning non-reproductive sociability in rodents is mainly restricted to assessing the effects of oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) in male rats and mice. Comparable studies on natural social preference and social avoidance in females are substantially lacking. Here, we adapted a behavioral paradigm for monitoring social preference of female rats consisting of two consecutive exposures to either non-social or social stimuli. Further, to induce stimulus-specific social avoidance, female rats were exposed to a single 10-min maternal defeat by a lactating dam. Social preference towards same-sex conspecifics in female rats was shown to be independent of the estrous cycle and even more pronounced than in male rats. Intracerebroventricular (icv) application of OXT, AVP, or their selective receptor antagonists or agonists, did not alter naturally-occurring social preference in female rats. Stimulus-specific social avoidance could be induced by prior exposure to a lactating rat: an effect that could not be reversed/overcome by icv OXT. The female social preference paradigm for rats established in this study detected subtle sex differences in social preference behavior of rats. Further, stimulus-specific social deficits could be induced in female rats using an acute exposure to social defeat - as previously observed in male rodents. Female rats show strong social preference behavior, which can be prevented by social defeat, but does not seem to be regulated by the OXT or AVP systems. Accordingly, icv application of synthetic OXT does not reverse maternal defeat-induced social avoidance in female rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of social defeat on behavior and dopaminergic markers in mice.

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    Jin, H-M; Shrestha Muna, S; Bagalkot, T R; Cui, Y; Yadav, B K; Chung, Y-C

    2015-03-12

    The present study investigated the effects of chronic social defeat stress on several behavioral parameters, and the expression of dopaminergic markers, i.e., dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs), dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs), and dopamine and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein-32 (DARPP-32), in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala (AMY), and hippocampus (HIP) of mouse brains. After 10days of social defeat stress, the defeated mice were divided into two groups: one group underwent a series of behavioral tests. The other group was sacrificed on the 11th day and tissue samples were collected for Western blotting. The behavioral tests comprised tests of locomotion, light/dark preference, social interaction, as well as the novel object recognition test (NORT), Morris water maze, and forced swimming test (FST). We measured the expression of D1Rs, D2Rs, total DARPP-32, phospho-Thr34 or Thr75-DARPP-32 using Western blotting. The defeated mice showed increased anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and impaired cognition. No significant differences in D1Rs and D2Rs expression were shown between defeated and control mice in any area studied. A significantly increased expression in total DARPP-32, and phospho-DARPP-32 was observed in the PFC or AMY of defeated mice. These data suggest that alterations in dopaminergic markers may be involved in anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and cognitive impairment induced by social defeat stress. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex Differences in Social Interaction Behavior Following Social Defeat Stress in the Monogamous California Mouse (Peromyscus californicus)

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    Trainor, Brian C.; Pride, Michael C.; Villalon Landeros, Rosalina; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y.; Silva, Andrea L.; Crean, Katie K.

    2011-01-01

    Stressful life experiences are known to be a precipitating factor for many mental disorders. The social defeat model induces behavioral responses in rodents (e.g. reduced social interaction) that are similar to behavioral patterns associated with mood disorders. The model has contributed to the discovery of novel mechanisms regulating behavioral responses to stress, but its utility has been largely limited to males. This is disadvantageous because most mood disorders have a higher incidence in women versus men. Male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus) aggressively defend territories, which allowed us to observe the effects of social defeat in both sexes. In two experiments, mice were exposed to three social defeat or control episodes. Mice were then behaviorally phenotyped, and indirect markers of brain activity and corticosterone responses to a novel social stimulus were assessed. Sex differences in behavioral responses to social stress were long lasting (4 wks). Social defeat reduced social interaction responses in females but not males. In females, social defeat induced an increase in the number of phosphorylated CREB positive cells in the nucleus accumbens shell after exposure to a novel social stimulus. This effect of defeat was not observed in males. The effects of defeat in females were limited to social contexts, as there were no differences in exploratory behavior in the open field or light-dark box test. These data suggest that California mice could be a useful model for studying sex differences in behavioral responses to stress, particularly in neurobiological mechanisms that are involved with the regulation of social behavior. PMID:21364768

  10. Sex differences in social interaction behavior following social defeat stress in the monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Trainor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Stressful life experiences are known to be a precipitating factor for many mental disorders. The social defeat model induces behavioral responses in rodents (e.g. reduced social interaction that are similar to behavioral patterns associated with mood disorders. The model has contributed to the discovery of novel mechanisms regulating behavioral responses to stress, but its utility has been largely limited to males. This is disadvantageous because most mood disorders have a higher incidence in women versus men. Male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus aggressively defend territories, which allowed us to observe the effects of social defeat in both sexes. In two experiments, mice were exposed to three social defeat or control episodes. Mice were then behaviorally phenotyped, and indirect markers of brain activity and corticosterone responses to a novel social stimulus were assessed. Sex differences in behavioral responses to social stress were long lasting (4 wks. Social defeat reduced social interaction responses in females but not males. In females, social defeat induced an increase in the number of phosphorylated CREB positive cells in the nucleus accumbens shell after exposure to a novel social stimulus. This effect of defeat was not observed in males. The effects of defeat in females were limited to social contexts, as there were no differences in exploratory behavior in the open field or light-dark box test. These data suggest that California mice could be a useful model for studying sex differences in behavioral responses to stress, particularly in neurobiological mechanisms that are involved with the regulation of social behavior.

  11. Strain-specific outcomes of repeated social defeat and chronic fluoxetine treatment in the mouse.

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    Razzoli, Maria; Carboni, Lucia; Andreoli, Michela; Michielin, Francesca; Ballottari, Alice; Arban, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Social stress is a risk factor for affective disorders in vulnerable individuals. Although the biological nature of stress susceptibility/resilience remains to be elucidated, genetic variation is considered amongst the principal contributors to brain disorders. Furthermore, genetic predisposition may be determinant for the therapeutic outcome, as proposed for antidepressant treatments. In the present studies we compared the inherently diverse genetic backgrounds of 2 mouse strains by assessing the efficacy of a chronic antidepressant treatment in a repeated social stress procedure. C57BL/6J and BalbC mice underwent 10-day social defeats followed by 28-day fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg/mL, p.o.). In C57BL/6J, most of the social defeat-induced changes were of metabolic nature including persistently altered feed efficiency and decreased abdominal fat stores that were ameliorated by fluoxetine. BalbC mouse behavior was persistently affected by social defeat both in the social avoidance and the forced swim tests, and in either procedure it was restored by chronic fluoxetine, whereas their endocrine parameters were mostly unaffected. The highlighted strain-specific responsivity to the metabolic and behavioral consequences of social defeat and to the chronic antidepressant treatment offers a promising research tool to further explore the underlying neural mechanisms and genetic basis of stress susceptibility and treatment response. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Social defeat during adolescence and adulthood differentially induce BDNF-regulated immediate early genes

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    Caroline M. Coppens

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Stressful life events generally enhance the vulnerability for the development of human psychopathologies such as anxiety disorders and depression. The incidence rates of adult mental disorders steeply rises during adolescence in parallel with a structural and functional reorganization of the neural circuitry underlying stress reactivity. However, the mechanisms underlying susceptibility to stress and manifestation of mental disorders during adolescence are little understood. We hypothesized that heightened sensitivity to stress during adolescence reflects age-dependent differences in the expression of activity-dependent genes involved in synaptic plasticity. Therefore, we compared the effect of social stress during adolescence with social stress in adulthood on the expression of a panel of genes linked to induction of long-term potentiation (LTP and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling. We show that social defeat during adolescence and adulthood differentially regulates expression of the immediate early genes BDNF, Arc, Carp, and Tieg1, as measured by qPCR in tissue lysates from prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. In the hippocampus, mRNA levels for all four genes were robustly elevated following social defeat in adolescence, whereas none were induced by defeat in adulthood. The relationship to coping style was also examined using adult reactive and proactive coping rats. Gene expression levels of reactive and proactive animals were similar in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. However, a trend toward a differential expression of BDNF and Arc mRNA in the nucleus accumbens was detected. BDNF mRNA was increased in the nucleus accumbens of proactive defeated animals, whereas the expression level in reactive defeated animals was comparable to control animals. The results demonstrate striking differences in immediate early gene expression in response to social defeat in adolescent and adult rats.

  13. Sympathetic Release of Splenic Monocytes Promotes Recurring Anxiety Following Repeated Social Defeat.

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    McKim, Daniel B; Patterson, Jenna M; Wohleb, Eric S; Jarrett, Brant L; Reader, Brenda F; Godbout, Jonathan P; Sheridan, John F

    2016-05-15

    Neuroinflammatory signaling may contribute to the pathophysiology of chronic anxiety disorders. Previous work showed that repeated social defeat (RSD) in mice promoted stress-sensitization that was characterized by the recurrence of anxiety following subthreshold stress 24 days after RSD. Furthermore, splenectomy following RSD prevented the recurrence of anxiety in stress-sensitized mice. We hypothesize that the spleen of RSD-exposed mice became a reservoir of primed monocytes that were released following neuroendocrine activation by subthreshold stress. Mice were subjected to subthreshold stress (i.e., single cycle of social defeat) 24 days after RSD, and immune and behavioral measures were taken. Subthreshold stress 24 days after RSD re-established anxiety-like behavior that was associated with egress of Ly6C(hi) monocytes from the spleen. Moreover, splenectomy before RSD blocked monocyte trafficking to the brain and prevented anxiety-like behavior following subthreshold stress. Splenectomy, however, had no effect on monocyte accumulation or anxiety when determined 14 hours after RSD. In addition, splenocytes cultured 24 days after RSD exhibited a primed inflammatory phenotype. Peripheral sympathetic inhibition before subthreshold stress blocked monocyte trafficking from the spleen to the brain and prevented the re-establishment of anxiety in RSD-sensitized mice. Last, β-adrenergic antagonism also prevented splenic monocyte egress after acute stress. The spleen served as a unique reservoir of primed monocytes that were readily released following sympathetic activation by subthreshold stress that promoted the re-establishment of anxiety. Collectively, the long-term storage of primed monocytes in the spleen may have a profound influence on recurring anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Microglial Over-Activation by Social Defeat Stress Contributes to Anxiety- and Depressive-Like Behaviors

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    Dirson J. Stein

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyper activation of the neuroimmune system is strongly related to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Psychosocial stress has been postulated to play an important role in triggering anxiety and major depression. In preclinical models, there is mounting evidence that social defeat stress activates microglial cells in the central nervous system. This type of stress could be one of the major factors in the development of these psychopathologies. Here, we reviewed the most recent literature on social defeat and the associated immunological reactions. We focused our attention on microglial cells and kept the effect of social defeat over microglia separate from the effect of this stressor on other immune cells and the influence of peripheral immune components in priming central immune reactions. Furthermore, we considered how social defeat stress affects microglial cells and the consequent development of anxiety- and depressive-like states in preclinical studies. We highlighted evidence for the negative impact of the over-activation of the neuroimmune system, especially by the overproduction of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytotoxins. Overproduction of these molecules may cause cellular damage and loss or decreased function of neuronal activity by excessively pruning synaptic connections that ultimately contribute to the development of anxiety- and depressive-like states.

  15. Social defeat stress induces a depression-like phenotype in adolescent male c57BL/6 mice.

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    Iñiguez, Sergio D; Riggs, Lace M; Nieto, Steven J; Dayrit, Genesis; Zamora, Norma N; Shawhan, Kristi L; Cruz, Bryan; Warren, Brandon L

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Exposure to stress is highly correlated with the emergence of mood-related illnesses. Because major depressive disorder often emerges in adolescence, we assessed the effects of social defeat stress on responses to depressive-like behaviors in juvenile mice. To do this, postnatal day (PD) 35 male c57BL/6 mice were exposed to 10 days of social defeat stress (PD35-44), while control mice were handled daily. Twenty-four hours after the last episode of defeat (PD45), separate groups of mice were tested in the social interaction, forced swimming, sucrose preference, and elevated plus-maze behavioral assays (n = 7-12 per group). Also, we examined body weight gain across days of social defeat and levels of blood serum corticosterone 40 min after the last episode of defeat stress. Our data indicates that defeated mice exhibited a depressive-like phenotype as inferred from increased social avoidance, increased immobility in the forced swim test, and reduced sucrose preference (a measure of anhedonia), when compared to non-defeated controls. Defeated mice also displayed an anxiogenic-like phenotype when tested on the elevated plus-maze. Lastly, stressed mice displayed lower body weight gain, along with increased blood serum corticosterone levels, when compared to non-stressed controls. Overall, we show that in adolescent male c57BL/6 mice, social defeat stress induces a depression- and anxiety-like phenotype 24 h after the last episode of stress. These data suggest that the social defeat paradigm may be used to examine the etiology of stress-induced mood-related disorders during adolescence.

  16. The effects of chronic social defeat stress on mouse self-grooming behavior and its patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Ashley; Tien, David; Wong, Keith; Chung, Amanda; Cachat, Jonathan; Goodspeed, Jason; Grimes, Chelsea; Elegante, Marco; Suciu, Christopher; Elkhayat, Salem; Bartels, Brett; Jackson, Andrew; Rosenberg, Michael; Chung, Kyung Min; Badani, Hussain; Kadri, Ferdous; Roy, Sudipta; Tan, Julia; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Stewart, Adam; Zapolsky, Ivan; Gilder, Thomas; Kalueff, Allan V

    2010-04-02

    Stress induced by social defeat is a strong modifier of animal anxiety and depression-like phenotypes. Self-grooming is a common rodent behavior, and has an ordered cephalo-caudal progression from licking of the paws to head, body, genitals and tail. Acute stress is known to alter grooming activity levels and disrupt its patterning. Following 15-17 days of chronic social defeat stress, grooming behavior was analyzed in adult male C57BL/6J mice exhibiting either dominant or subordinate behavior. Our study showed that subordinate mice experience higher levels of anxiety and display disorganized patterning of their grooming behaviors, which emerges as a behavioral marker of chronic social stress. These findings indicate that chronic social stress modulates grooming behavior in mice, thus illustrating the importance of grooming phenotypes for neurobehavioral stress research. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of chronic social defeat on social behaviors in adult female mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus): Involvement of the oxytocin system in the nucleus accumbens.

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    Wang, Limin; Hou, Wenjuan; He, Zhixiong; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Jinfeng; Yang, Yang; Jia, Rui; Zhu, Zhenxiang; Zhou, Yue; Tai, Fadao

    2018-03-02

    Chronic social defeat affects many aspects of behavior. Most previous studies have focused on effects on males and defeat during adolescence. The extents to which chronic social defeat can impact female social behavior in adulthood and the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. Using highly social and aggressive female mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus), the present study found that chronic social defeat reduced social preference in adult females, and that the defeated voles exhibited a high level of freeze, self-grooming and defensive behavior, as well as reduced exploration, intimacy and aggression during social interactions. Furthermore, chronic social defeat reduced levels of oxytocin (OT) and OT receptors (OTR) in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (NACC). Intra-NACC shell OT microinjections reversed alterations in social behavior induced by chronic social defeat, whereas injections of an OTR antagonist (OTR-A) blocked the effects of OT. Taken together, our data demonstrate that chronic social defeat suppresses measures of sociability, and that these effects are mediated by the action of OT on the OTR in the NACC. NACC OT may be a promising target to treat socio-emotional disorders induced by chronic social stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Social defeat models in animal science: What we have learned from rodent models.

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    Toyoda, Atsushi

    2017-07-01

    Studies on stress and its impacts on animals are very important in many fields of science, including animal science, because various stresses influence animal production and animal welfare. In particular, the social stresses within animal groups have profound impact on animals, with the potential to induce abnormal behaviors and health problems. In humans, social stress induces several health problems, including psychiatric disorders. In animal stress models, social defeat models are well characterized and used in various research fields, particularly in studies concerning mental disorders. Recently, we have focused on behavior, nutrition and metabolism in rodent models of social defeat to elucidate how social stresses affect animals. In this review, recent significant progress in studies related to animal social defeat models are described. In the field of animal science, these stress models may contribute to advances in the development of functional foods and in the management of animal welfare. © 2017 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Vicarious social defeat stress: Bridging the gap between physical and emotional stress.

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    Sial, Omar K; Warren, Brandon L; Alcantara, Lyonna F; Parise, Eric M; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A

    2016-01-30

    Animal models capable of differentiating the neurobiological intricacies between physical and emotional stress are scarce. Current models rely primarily on physical stressors (e.g., chronic unpredictable or mild stress, social defeat, learned helplessness), and neglect the impact of psychological stress alone. This is surprising given extensive evidence that a traumatic event needs not be directly experienced to produce enduring perturbations on an individual's health and psychological well-being. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a highly debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by intense fear of trauma-related stimuli, often occurs in individuals that have only witnessed a traumatic event. By modifying the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) paradigm to include a witness component (witnessing the social defeat of another mouse), we demonstrate a novel behavioral paradigm capable of inducing a robust behavioral syndrome reminiscent of PTSD in emotionally stressed adult mice. We describe the vicarious social defeat stress (VSDS) model that is capable of inducing a host of behavioral deficits that include social avoidance and other depressive- and anxiety-like phenotypes in adult male mice. VSDS exposure induces weight loss and spike in serum corticosterone (CORT) levels. A month after stress, these mice retain the social avoidant phenotype and have an increased CORT response when exposed to subsequent stress. The VSDS is a novel paradigm capable of inducing emotional stress by isolating physical stress/confrontation in mice. The VSDS model can be used to study the short- and long-term neurobiological consequences of exposure to emotional stress in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. β-Adrenergic receptor antagonism prevents anxiety-like behavior and microglial reactivity induced by repeated social defeat.

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    Wohleb, Eric S; Hanke, Mark L; Corona, Angela W; Powell, Nicole D; Stiner, La'Tonia M; Bailey, Michael T; Nelson, Randy J; Godbout, Jonathan P; Sheridan, John F

    2011-04-27

    Psychosocial stress is associated with altered immune function and development of psychological disorders including anxiety and depression. Here we show that repeated social defeat in mice increased c-Fos staining in brain regions associated with fear and threat appraisal and promoted anxiety-like behavior in a β-adrenergic receptor-dependent manner. Repeated social defeat also significantly increased the number of CD11b(+)/CD45(high)/Ly6C(high) macrophages that trafficked to the brain. In addition, several inflammatory markers were increased on the surface of microglia (CD14, CD86, and TLR4) and macrophages (CD14 and CD86) after social defeat. Repeated social defeat also increased the presence of deramified microglia in the medial amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus. Moreover, mRNA analysis of microglia indicated that repeated social defeat increased levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and reduced levels of glucocorticoid responsive genes [glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) and FK506 binding protein-51 (FKBP51)]. The stress-dependent changes in microglia and macrophages were prevented by propranolol, a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Microglia isolated from socially defeated mice and cultured ex vivo produced markedly higher levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide compared with microglia from control mice. Last, repeated social defeat increased c-Fos activation in IL-1 receptor type-1-deficient mice, but did not promote anxiety-like behavior or microglia activation in the absence of functional IL-1 receptor type-1. These findings indicate that repeated social defeat-induced anxiety-like behavior and enhanced reactivity of microglia was dependent on activation of β-adrenergic and IL-1 receptors.

  1. Behavioural and physiological consequences of acute social defeat in growing gilts : effects of the social environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, Marko A W; de Groot, Johanna; Brake, JHAT; Ekkel, ED; van de Burgwal, JA; Erkens, JHF; Engel, B; Buist, WG; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2001-01-01

    Endocrine, behavioural and immunologic processes, together with body growth, were evaluated in gilts that were defeated at 10 weeks of age in resident-intruder tests. Immediately after defeat, gilts were either separated from or reunited with a familiar conspecific (litter-mate; always a barrow).

  2. Effects of diet quality on vulnerability to mild subchronic social defeat stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tatsuhiko; Kubota, Yoshifumi; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    The chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) mouse model is a potentially useful system for understanding stress responses to social environments. We previously developed a mouse model of subchronic and mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) that exhibits increased body weight gain and food intake following polydipsia-like features. sCSDS mice also show avoidance behavior in a social interaction test. In this study, we examined the effects of diet quality on susceptibility to sCSDS by feeding these mice semi- and non-purified diets. Male C57BL/6J (B6; n = 82) mice were exposed to sCSDS using male ICR mice. The B6 mice were divided into four test groups: semi-purified pellet diet + sCSDS, non-purified pellet diet + sCSDS, semi-purified diet + control (no sCSDS), and non-purified diet + control. Although increased body weight, and food and water intake following sCSDS exposure were consistently observed in the groups that were fed semi- and non-purified diets, social avoidance behavior was influenced by food type (i.e., sCSDS mice fed semi-purified diet showed the greatest social avoidance behavior). In addition, the rates of stress susceptibility were estimated at 73.9 and 34.8% in sCSDS mice fed semi-purified and non-purified diets, respectively (P healthy control mice fed semi-purified and non-purified diets, respectively. These results suggest that diet quality affects the vulnerability of mice to social defeat stress.

  3. Molecular Adaptations to Social Defeat Stress and Induced Depression in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar, Natalya; Bryzgalov, Leonid; Ershov, Nikita; Gusev, Fedor; Reshetnikov, Vasiliy; Avgustinovich, Damira; Tenditnik, Mikhail; Rogaev, Evgeny; Merkulova, Tatiana

    2018-04-01

    Chronic stress is a risk factor for major depression. Social defeat stress is a well-validated murine model of depression. However, little is known about the gene activity dynamics during the development of a depression-like state. We analyzed the effects of social defeat stress of varying duration (10 and 30 days) on the behavioral patterns and prefrontal-cortex transcriptome of C57BL/6 mice. The 10-day exposure to social defeat stress resulted in a high level of social avoidance with no signs of depression-associated behavior. Most animals exposed to 30 days of social defeat stress demonstrated clear hallmarks of depression, including a higher level of social avoidance, increased immobility in the forced swimming test, and anhedonic behavior. The monitoring of transcriptome changes revealed widespread alterations in gene expression on the 10th day. Surprisingly, the expression of only a few genes were affected by the 30th day of stress, apparently due to a reversal of the majority of the early stress-induced changes to the original basal state. Moreover, we have found that glucocorticoid-sensitive genes are clearly stimulated targets on the 10th day of stress, but these genes stop responding to the elevated corticosterone level by the 30th day of stress. The majority of genes altered by the 30-day stress were downregulated, with the most relevant ones participating in chromatin modifications and neuroplasticity (e.g., guanine nucleotide exchange factors of the Rho-family of GTPases). Very different molecular responses occur during short-term and long-term social stress in mice. The early-stress response is associated with social avoidance and with upregulation and downregulation of many genes, including those related to signal transduction and cell adhesion pathways. Downregulation of a few genes, in particular, genes for histone-modifying methyltransferases, is a signature response to prolonged stress that induces symptoms of depression. Altogether, our data

  4. Social defeat stress causes depression-like behavior with metabolite changes in the prefrontal cortex of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Yun; Zhou, Xin-Yu; Yang, Li-Ning; Wang, Hai-Yang; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Pu, Jun-Cai; Liu, Lan-Xiang; Gui, Si-Wen; Zeng, Li; Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Chan-Juan; Xie, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is a serious mental disorder with high morbidity and mortality. The role of social stress in the development of depression remains unclear. Here, we used the social defeat stress paradigm to induce depression-like behavior in rats, then evaluated the behavior of the rats and measured metabolic changes in the prefrontal cortex using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Within the first week after the social defeat procedure, the sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST) were conducted to examine the depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors. For our metabolite analysis, multivariate statistics were applied to observe the distribution of all samples and to differentiate the socially defeated group from the control group. Ingenuity pathway analysis was used to find the potential relationships among the differential metabolites. In the OFT and EPM, there were no significant differences between the two experimental groups. In the SPT and FST, socially defeated rats showed less sucrose intake and longer immobility time compared with control rats. Metabolic profiling identified 25 significant variables with good predictability. Ingenuity pathways analysis revealed that "Hereditary Disorder, Neurological Disease, Lipid Metabolism" was the most significantly altered network. Stress-induced alterations of low molecular weight metabolites were observed in the prefrontal cortex of rats. Particularly, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and energy metabolism were significantly perturbed. The results of this study suggest that repeated social defeat can lead to metabolic changes and depression-like behavior in rats.

  5. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters

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    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or “social threats” across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not “social threats”) significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and “social threat” groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the “social threat” group. Collectively, our

  6. Adolescent but not adult-born neurons are critical for susceptibility to chronic social defeat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greer S Kirshenbaum

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence implicates adult hippocampal neurogenesis in regulating behavioral and physiologic responses to stress. Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs across the lifespan, however the rate of cell birth is up to 300% higher in adolescent mice compared to adults. Adolescence is a sensitive period in development where emotional circuitry and stress reactivity undergo plasticity establishing life-long set points. Therefore neurogenesis occurring during adolescence may be particularly important for emotional behavior. However, little is known about the function of hippocampal neurons born during adolescence. In order to assess the contribution of neurons born in adolescence to the adult stress response and depression-related behavior, we transiently reduced cell proliferation either during adolescence, or during adulthood in GFAP-Tk mice. We found that the intervention in adolescence did not change baseline behavioral responses in the forced swim test, sucrose preference test or social affiliation test, and did not change corticosterone responses to an acute stressor. However following chronic social defeat, adult mice with reduced adolescent neurogenesis showed a resilient phenotype. A similar transient reduction in adult neurogenesis did not affect depression-like behaviors or stress induced corticosterone. Our study demonstrates that hippocampal neurons born during adolescence, but not in adulthood are important to confer susceptibility to chronic social defeat.

  7. Peripheral innate immune challenge exaggerated microglia activation, increased the number of inflammatory CNS macrophages, and prolonged social withdrawal in socially defeated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohleb, Eric S; Fenn, Ashley M; Pacenta, Ann M; Powell, Nicole D; Sheridan, John F; Godbout, Jonathan P

    2012-09-01

    Repeated social defeat (RSD) activates neuroendocrine pathways that have a significant influence on immunity and behavior. Previous studies from our lab indicate that RSD enhances the inflammatory capacity of CD11b⁺ cells in the brain and promotes anxiety-like behavior in an interleukin (IL)-1 and β-adrenergic receptor-dependent manner. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which mice subjected to RSD were more responsive to a secondary immune challenge. Therefore, RSD or control (HCC) mice were injected with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and activation of brain CD11b⁺ cells and behavioral responses were determined. Peripheral LPS (0.5 mg/kg) injection caused an extended sickness response with exaggerated weight loss and prolonged social withdrawal in socially defeated mice. LPS injection also amplified mRNA expression of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and CD14 in enriched CD11b⁺ cells isolated from socially defeated mice. In addition, IL-1β mRNA levels in enriched CD11b⁺ cells remained elevated in socially defeated mice 24 h and 72 h after LPS. Moreover, microglia and CNS macrophages isolated from socially defeated mice had the highest CD14 expression after LPS injection. Both social defeat and LPS injection increased the percentage of CD11b⁺/CD45(high) macrophages in the brain and the number of inflammatory macrophages (CD11b⁺/CD45(high)/CCR2⁺) was highest in RSD-LPS mice. Anxiety-like behavior was increased by social defeat, but was not exacerbated by the LPS challenge. Nonetheless, reduced locomotor activity and increased social withdrawal were still present in socially defeated mice 72 h after LPS. Last, LPS-induced microglia activation was most evident in the hippocampus of socially defeated mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that repeated social defeat enhanced the neuroinflammatory response and caused prolonged sickness following innate immune challenge

  8. Social defeat-induced anhedonia: effects on operant sucrose-seeking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danai eRiga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reduced capacity to experience pleasure, also known as anhedonia, is a key feature of the depressive state and is associated with poor disease prognosis and treatment outcome. Various behavioral readouts (e.g. reduced sucrose intake have been employed in animal models of depression as a measure of anhedonia. However, several aspects of anhedonia are poorly represented within the repertoire of current preclinical assessments. We recently adopted the social defeat-induced persistent stress (SDPS paradigm that models a maintained depressive-like state in the rat, including social withdrawal and deficits in short-term spatial memory. Here we investigated whether SDPS elicited persistent deficits in natural reward evaluation, as part of anhedonia. We examined cue-paired operant sucrose self-administration, enabling us to study acquisition, motivation, extinction and relapse to sucrose seeking following SDPS. Furthermore, we addressed whether guanfacine, an α2-adrenergic agonist that reduces stress-triggered maladaptive behavioral responses to drugs of abuse, could relief from SDPS-induced anhedonia. SDPS, consisting of 5 social defeat episodes followed by prolonged (≥8 weeks social isolation, did not affect sucrose consumption during acquisition of self-administration. However, it strongly enhanced the motivational drive to acquire a sucrose reward in progressive ratio training. Moreover, SDPS induced initial resilience to extinction and rendered animals more sensitive to cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose-seeking. Guanfacine treatment attenuated SDPS-induced motivational overdrive and limited reinstatement of sucrose seeking, normalizing behavior to control levels. Together, our data indicate that long after the termination of stress exposure, SDPS induces guanfacine-reversible deficits in evaluation of a natural reward. Importantly, the SDPS-triggered anhedonia reflects many aspects of the human phenotype, including impaired motivation and

  9. Sex differences in sleep, anhedonia, and HPA axis activity in a rat model of chronic social defeat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle G. Page

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Repeated bouts of a major stressor such as social defeat are well known to induce a depression phenotype in male rats. Despite strong evidence and acknowledgement that women have a two-fold lifetime greater risk of developing major depression compared to men, the inclusion of female rats in studies employing social defeat are very rare; their absence is attributed to less aggressive interactions. This study sought to compare in male and female rats the impact of repeated social defeat, three times per week for four weeks, on the development of changes in sleep architecture and continuity, sucrose preference as a measure of anhedonia, changes in body weight, and basal plasma corticosterone levels. We found significant reductions in rapid eye movement sleep (REMS during the light phase in both females and males, and significant increases in numbers of vigilance state transitions during the early dark phase in females but not in males. Additionally, females exhibited significantly greater reductions in sucrose intake than males. On the other hand, no sex differences in significantly elevated basal corticosterone levels were evident, and only the males exhibited changes in body weight. Taken together these findings suggest that the inclusion of female rats in studies of social defeat may offer greater insights in studies of stress and depression.

  10. Social defeat stress causes depression-like behavior with metabolite changes in the prefrontal cortex of rats.

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    Yi-Yun Liu

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder is a serious mental disorder with high morbidity and mortality. The role of social stress in the development of depression remains unclear. Here, we used the social defeat stress paradigm to induce depression-like behavior in rats, then evaluated the behavior of the rats and measured metabolic changes in the prefrontal cortex using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Within the first week after the social defeat procedure, the sucrose preference test (SPT, open field test (OFT, elevated plus maze (EPM and forced swim test (FST were conducted to examine the depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors. For our metabolite analysis, multivariate statistics were applied to observe the distribution of all samples and to differentiate the socially defeated group from the control group. Ingenuity pathway analysis was used to find the potential relationships among the differential metabolites. In the OFT and EPM, there were no significant differences between the two experimental groups. In the SPT and FST, socially defeated rats showed less sucrose intake and longer immobility time compared with control rats. Metabolic profiling identified 25 significant variables with good predictability. Ingenuity pathways analysis revealed that "Hereditary Disorder, Neurological Disease, Lipid Metabolism" was the most significantly altered network. Stress-induced alterations of low molecular weight metabolites were observed in the prefrontal cortex of rats. Particularly, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and energy metabolism were significantly perturbed. The results of this study suggest that repeated social defeat can lead to metabolic changes and depression-like behavior in rats.

  11. Proteolytic Cleavage of ProBDNF into Mature BDNF in the Basolateral Amygdala Is Necessary for Defeat-Induced Social Avoidance

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    Dulka, Brooke N.; Ford, Ellen C.; Lee, Melissa A.; Donnell, Nathaniel J.; Goode, Travis D.; Prosser, Rebecca; Cooper, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for memory processes. The present study tested whether proteolytic cleavage of proBDNF into mature BDNF (mBDNF) within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) regulates the consolidation of defeat-related memories. We found that acute social defeat increases the expression of mBDNF, but not proBDNF, in…

  12. Differential GR Expression and Translocation in the Hippocampus Mediates Susceptibility vs. Resilience to Chronic Social Defeat Stress

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    Qiu-Qin Han

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While social stress exposure is a common risk factor for affective disorders, most individuals exposed to it can maintain normal physical and psychological functioning. However, factors that determine susceptibility vs. resilience to social stress remain unclear. Here, the resident-intruder model of social defeat was used as a social stressor in male C57BL/6J mice to investigate the difference between susceptibility and resilience. As depression is often characterized by hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, we conducted the present study to further investigate the individual differences in the HPA axis response and glucocorticoid receptor (GR protein expression and translocation between susceptible mice and resilient mice. We found that hypercortisolemia, induced by social defeat stress occurred in susceptible mice, but not in resilient mice. Moreover, susceptible mice exhibited significantly less GR protein expression and nuclear translocation in the hippocampus than resilient mice. Treatment with escitalopram could decrease the serum corticosterone (CORT, increase GR protein expression as well as nuclear translocation in the hippocampus and ultimately reverse social withdrawal behaviors in susceptible mice. These results indicate that the up-regulation of GR and the enhancement of GR nuclear translocation in the hippocampus play an important role in resilience to chronic social defeat stress.

  13. Cognitive and neural correlates of depression-like behaviour in socially defeated mice: an animal model of depression with cognitive dysfunction.

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    Yu, Tao; Guo, Ming; Garza, Jacob; Rendon, Samantha; Sun, Xue-Li; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Xin-Yun

    2011-04-01

    Human depression is associated with cognitive deficits. It is critical to have valid animal models in order to investigate mechanisms and treatment strategies for these associated conditions. The goal of this study was to determine the association of cognitive dysfunction with depression-like behaviour in an animal model of depression and investigate the neural circuits underlying the behaviour. Mice that were exposed to social defeat for 14 d developed depression-like behaviour, i.e. anhedonia and social avoidance as indicated by reduced sucrose preference and decreased social interaction. The assessment of cognitive performance of defeated mice demonstrated impaired working memory in the T-maze continuous alternation task and enhanced fear memory in the contextual and cued fear-conditioning tests. In contrast, reference learning and memory in the Morris water maze test were intact in defeated mice. Neuronal activation following chronic social defeat was investigated by c-fosin-situ hybridization. Defeated mice exhibited preferential neural activity in the prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, hippocampal formation, septum, amygdala, and hypothalamic nuclei. Taken together, our results suggest that the chronic social defeat mouse model could serve as a valid animal model to study depression with cognitive impairments. The patterns of neuronal activation provide a neural basis for social defeat-induced changes in behaviour.

  14. Dysfunction of serotoninergic and dopaminergic neuronal systems in the antidepressant-resistant impairment of social behaviors induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles.

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    Hasegawa, Sho; Miyake, Yuriko; Yoshimi, Akira; Mouri, Akihiro; Hida, Hirotake; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2018-03-29

    Extensive studies have been performed on the role of monoaminergic neuronal systems in rodents exposed to social defeat stress as adults. In the present study, we investigated the role of monoaminergic neuronal systems in the impairment of social behaviors induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles. Juvenile, male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to social defeat stress for 10 consecutive days. From 1 day after the last stress exposure, desipramine, sertraline, and aripiprazole, were administered for 15 days. Social behaviors were assessed at 1 and 15 days after the last stress exposure. Monoamine turnover was determined in specific regions of the brain in the mice exposed to the stress. Stress exposure as juveniles induced the impairment of social behaviors in adolescent mice. In mice that showed the impairment of social behaviors, turnover of the serotonin and dopamine, but not noradrenaline was decreased in specific brain regions. Acute and repeated administration of desipramine, sertraline, and aripiprazole failed to attenuate the impairment of social behaviors, whereas repeated administration of a combination of sertraline and aripiprazole showed additive attenuating effects. These findings suggest that social defeat stress exposure as juveniles induces the treatment-resistant impairment of social behaviors in adolescents through dysfunction in the serotoninergic and dopaminergic neuronal systems. The combination of sertraline and aripiprazole may be used as a new treatment strategy for treatment-resistant stress-related psychiatric disorders in adolescents with adverse juvenile experiences.

  15. Social defeat alters the acquisition of cocaine self-administration in rats: role of individual differences in cocaine-taking behavior.

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    Kabbaj, M; Norton, C S; Kollack-Walker, S; Watson, S J; Robinson, T E; Akil, H

    2001-12-01

    It is known that social defeat can modulate cocaine self-administration. However, it is unclear whether this psychosocial stressor affects drug-taking behavior to the same extent across all individual animals, particularly those with differing propensities to self-administer psychostimulants. This study examined the effect of social defeat on cocaine self-administration in animals that differ in novelty-seeking behavior that predicts differences in drug self-administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were first classified into high-responder (HR) and low-responder (LR) groups. HR and LR rats were categorized based on their locomotor activity in a novel environment, with HR rats exhibiting higher locomotor activity than LR rats. Then, male rats were exposed on four occasions to an aggressive Long Evans male rat over the course of 4 days. Control rats were not exposed to the social defeat. All rats were subsequently implanted with jugular catheters and 3 days later placed into the self-administration box to study the acquisition of cocaine self-administration (0.25 mg per infusion). HR non-defeated animals self-administered more cocaine than the LR non-defeated animals. Following social defeat, the acquisition of cocaine self-administration is significantly delayed in HR rats and enhanced in LR rats. CONCLUSION The unique patterns of responsiveness in the HR and LR animals suggest that social defeat plays a role of equalizer of individual differences in drug-taking behavior.

  16. Social defeat stress induces depression-like behavior and alters spine morphology in the hippocampus of adolescent male C57BL/6 mice

    OpenAIRE

    I?iguez, Sergio D.; Aubry, Antonio; Riggs, Lace M.; Alipio, Jason B.; Zanca, Roseanna M.; Flores-Ramirez, Francisco J.; Hernandez, Mirella A.; Nieto, Steven J.; Musheyev, David; Serrano, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Social stress, including bullying during adolescence, is a risk factor for common psychopathologies such as depression. To investigate the neural mechanisms associated with juvenile social stress-induced mood-related endophenotypes, we examined the behavioral, morphological, and biochemical effects of the social defeat stress model of depression on hippocampal dendritic spines within the CA1 stratum radiatum. Adolescent (postnatal day 35) male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to defeat episodes fo...

  17. Peripheral and central effects of repeated social defeat stress: monocyte trafficking, microglial activation, and anxiety.

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    Reader, B F; Jarrett, B L; McKim, D B; Wohleb, E S; Godbout, J P; Sheridan, J F

    2015-03-19

    The development and exacerbation of depression and anxiety are associated with exposure to repeated psychosocial stress. Stress is known to affect the bidirectional communication between the nervous and immune systems leading to elevated levels of stress mediators including glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines and increased trafficking of proinflammatory immune cells. Animal models, like the repeated social defeat (RSD) paradigm, were developed to explore this connection between stress and affective disorders. RSD induces activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, increases bone marrow production and egress of primed, GC-insensitive monocytes, and stimulates the trafficking of these cells to tissues including the spleen, lung, and brain. Recently, the observation that these monocytes have the ability to traffic to the brain perivascular spaces and parenchyma have provided mechanisms by which these peripheral cells may contribute to the prolonged anxiety-like behavior associated with RSD. The data that have been amassed from the RSD paradigm and others recapitulate many of the behavioral and immunological phenotypes associated with human anxiety disorders and may serve to elucidate potential avenues of treatment for these disorders. Here, we will discuss novel and key data that will present an overview of the neuroendocrine, immunological and behavioral responses to social stressors. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Icaritin opposes the development of social aversion after defeat stress via increases of GR mRNA and BDNF mRNA in mice.

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    Wu, Xiao; Wu, Jinfeng; Xia, Shijin; Li, Bei; Dong, Jingcheng

    2013-11-01

    Icariin is a major constituent of flavonoids isolated from Herba Epimedii. Several previous studies have demonstrated the antidepressant-like effects of icariin. After oral administration of icariin, 19 metabolites of icariin were detected in rat plasma. Icaritin is one such of metabolite of icariin. In this study, a chronic social defeat protocol is used as a mouse model for depression, and the effects of icaritin administration on social avoidance are investigated. The data indicates that icaritin (5mg/kg and 10mg/kg) oral administration opposes the development of social aversion after defeat stress. In vitro corticosterone sensitivity assay demonstrated that icaritin partially restored social defeat-induced impairment of glucocorticoid sensitivity. The expressions of GR mRNA and BDNFmRNA in the hippocampus were increased after icaritin treatment. Meanwhile, the social defeat-induced increases in CRH mRNA in hypothalamus were restored by icaritin administration. Our data also suggests that icaritin administration remarkably attenuated the increases in serum IL-6 and TNF-α level that occur following exposure to social defeat. In conclusion, icaritin is a novel antidepressant. It partially restored social defeat-induced impairment of glucocorticoid sensitivity, HPA axis hyperactivity. These effects are at least partially attributed to normalization of the GR function and increases in BDNF expression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hierarchical Status Predicts Behavioral Vulnerability and Nucleus Accumbens Metabolic Profile Following Chronic Social Defeat Stress.

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    Larrieu, Thomas; Cherix, Antoine; Duque, Aranzazu; Rodrigues, João; Lei, Hongxia; Gruetter, Rolf; Sandi, Carmen

    2017-07-24

    Extensive data highlight the existence of major differences in individuals' susceptibility to stress [1-4]. While genetic factors [5, 6] and exposure to early life stress [7, 8] are key components for such neurobehavioral diversity, intriguing observations revealed individual differences in response to stress in inbred mice [9-12]. This raised the possibility that other factors might be critical in stress vulnerability. A key challenge in the field is to identify non-invasively risk factors for vulnerability to stress. Here, we investigated whether behavioral factors, emerging from preexisting dominance hierarchies, could predict vulnerability to chronic stress [9, 13-16]. We applied a chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model of depression in C57BL/6J mice to investigate the predictive power of hierarchical status to pinpoint which individuals will exhibit susceptibility to CSDS. Given that the high social status of dominant mice would be the one particularly challenged by CSDS, we predicted and found that dominant individuals were the ones showing a strong susceptibility profile as indicated by strong social avoidance following CSDS, while subordinate mice were not affected. Data from 1 H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the metabolic profile in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) relates to social status and vulnerability to stress. Under basal conditions, subordinates show lower levels of energy-related metabolites compared to dominants. In subordinates, but not dominants, levels of these metabolites were increased after exposure to CSDS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that identifies non-invasively the origin of behavioral risk factors predictive of stress-induced depression-like behaviors associated with metabolic changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Decreased hepatic contents of coenzyme A molecular species in mice after subchronic mild social defeat stress.

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    Kubota, Yoshifumi; Goto, Tatsuhiko; Hagiya, Yuki; Chohnan, Shigeru; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Social stress may precipitate psychiatric disorders such as depression, which is related to the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. We have evaluated the effects of social stress on central and peripheral metabolism using a model of depression in mice. In the present study, we focused on coenzyme A (CoA) molecular species [i.e. non-esterified CoA (CoASH), acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA] which play important roles in numerous metabolic pathways, and we analyzed changes in expression of these molecules in the hypothalamus and liver of adult male mice (C57BL/6J) subjected to 10 days of subchronic mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) with ICR mice as aggressors. Mice (n = 12) exposed to showed hyperphagia- and polydipsia-like symptoms and increased body weight gain compared with control mice which were not affected by exposure to ICR mice (n = 12). To elucidate the underlying metabolic features in the sCSDS model, acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and CoASH tissue levels were analyzed using the acyl-CoA cycling method. The levels of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA, which decreases feeding behavior, were not influenced by sCSDS. However, sCSDS reduced levels of acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and total CoA (sum of the three CoA molecular species) in the liver. Hence, hyperphagia-like symptoms in sCSDS mice evidently occurred independently of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA, but might consequently lead to down-regulation of hepatic CoA via altered expression of nudix hydrolase 7. Future studies should investigate the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the down-regulation of liver CoA pools in sCSDS mice.

  1. Resiliency to social defeat stress relates to the inter-strain social interaction and is influenced by season variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiuqin; Yang, Liu; Liu, Yan; Lv, Ning; Yu, Jin; Wu, Gencheng; Zhang, Yuqiu

    2014-02-21

    Exposure to social defeat (SD) stress exerts social avoidance and depressive disorders. Little is known about the relationship between resiliency to stressors and the inter-strain social interaction (SI) level. We hypothesized that SD resiliency is correlated with a high SI between the same strain. C57BL/6J mice experienced a 10-day period of SD stress by repeated CD-1 mice offensive. The susceptible mice exhibited significant social-avoidance behaviors with less time in interaction-zone (IZ) and lower social interaction ratio (SIR) toward the Target (CD-1 mice), while resilient ones exhibited similar social interaction to control mice. When the Target was C57BL/6J mouse, either susceptible or resilient mice spent more time in IZ and the inter-strain SI in the resilient group was significantly higher than the susceptible. Correlation analysis revealed a significantly non-zero slope of the linear relationship between SIRs toward two strains. But different groups had a similar baseline of the inter-strain SI before stress, indicating a SD-induced defect in both types of SI. In addition, in four different seasons, animals exhibited a significant resiliency to the stress in summer. These data suggest that SD resiliency is related to a higher SI toward the same-strain, and may be regulated by seasonal variations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Social defeat protocol and relevant biomarkers, implications for stress response physiology, drug abuse, mood disorders and individual stress vulnerability: a systematic review of the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Mailton; Stein, Dirson João; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M

    2015-01-01

    Social defeat (SD) in rats, which results from male intraspecific confrontations, is ethologically relevant and useful to understand stress effects on physiology and behavior. A systematic review of studies about biomarkers induced by the SD protocol and published from 2002 to 2013 was carried out in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and ScienceDirect. The search terms were: social defeat, rat, neurotrophins, neuroinflammatory markers, and transcriptional factors. Classical and recently discovered biomarkers were found to be relevant in stress-induced states. Findings were summarized in accordance to the length of exposure to stress: single, repeated, intermittent and continuous SD. This review found that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a distinct marker of stress adaptation. Along with glucocorticoids and catecholamines, BDNF seems to be important in understanding stress physiology. The SD model provides a relevant tool to study stress response features, development of addictive behaviors, clinic depression and anxiety, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resilience to stress.

  3. Social defeat protocol and relevant biomarkers, implications for stress response physiology, drug abuse, mood disorders and individual stress vulnerability: a systematic review of the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailton Vasconcelos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social defeat (SD in rats, which results from male intraspecific confrontations, is ethologically relevant and useful to understand stress effects on physiology and behavior.Methods: A systematic review of studies about biomarkers induced by the SD protocol and published from 2002 to 2013 was carried out in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and ScienceDirect. The search terms were: social defeat, rat, neurotrophins, neuroinflammatory markers, and transcriptional factors.Results: Classical and recently discovered biomarkers were found to be relevant in stress-induced states. Findings were summarized in accordance to the length of exposure to stress: single, repeated, intermittent and continuous SD. This review found that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a distinct marker of stress adaptation. Along with glucocorticoids and catecholamines, BDNF seems to be important in understanding stress physiology.Conclusion: The SD model provides a relevant tool to study stress response features, development of addictive behaviors, clinic depression and anxiety, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resilience to stress.

  4. Stress-dependent changes in neuroinflammatory markers observed after common laboratory stressors are not seen following acute social defeat of the Sprague Dawley rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueston, Cara M; Barnum, Christopher J; Eberle, Jaime A; Ferraioli, Frank J; Buck, Hollin M; Deak, Terrence

    2011-08-03

    Exposure to acute stress has been shown to increase the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in brain, blood and peripheral organs. However, the nature of the inflammatory response evoked by acute stress varies depending on the stressor used and species examined. The goal of the following series of studies was to characterize the consequences of social defeat in the Sprague Dawley (SD) rat using three different social defeat paradigms. In Experiments 1 and 2, adult male SD rats were exposed to a typical acute resident-intruder paradigm of social defeat (60 min) by placement into the home cage of a larger, aggressive Long Evans rat and brain tissue was collected at multiple time points for analysis of IL-1β protein and gene expression changes in the PVN, BNST and adrenal glands. In subsequent experiments, rats were exposed to once daily social defeat for 7 or 21 days (Experiment 3) or housed continuously with an aggressive partner (separated by a partition) for 7 days (Experiment 4) to assess the impact of chronic social stress on inflammatory measures. Despite the fact that social defeat produced a comparable corticosterone response as other stressors (restraint, forced swim and footshock; Experiment 5), acute social defeat did not affect inflammatory measures. A small but reliable increase in IL-1 gene expression was observed immediately after the 7th exposure to social defeat, while other inflammatory measures were unaffected. In contrast, restraint, forced swim and footshock all significantly increased IL-1 gene expression in the PVN; other inflammatory factors (IL-6, cox-2) were unaffected in this structure. These findings provide a comprehensive evaluation of stress-dependent inflammatory changes in the SD rat, raising intriguing questions regarding the features of the stress challenge that may be predictive of stress-dependent neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Persistent escalation of alcohol consumption by mice exposed to brief episodes of social defeat stress: suppression by CRF-R1 antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Emily L; Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Andrew, Peter M; Auld, John G; Burk, Kelly C; Hwa, Lara S; Zhang, Eric Y; DeBold, Joseph F; Miczek, Klaus A

    2018-06-01

    Episodic bouts of social stress can precede the initiation, escalation, or relapse to disordered alcohol intake. Social stress may engender neuroadaptations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and in extrahypothalamic stress circuitry to promote the escalation of alcohol intake. We aimed to (1) confirm a pattern of escalated drinking in socially defeated mice and to (2) test drugs that target distinct aspects of the HPA axis and extrahypothalamic neural substrates for their effectiveness in reducing murine, stress-escalated drinking. Male C57BL/6J (B6) mice were socially defeated by resident Swiss-derived males for ten consecutive days receiving 30 bites/day. Ten days after the final defeat, cohorts of B6 mice received continuous or intermittent access to 20% EtOH (w/v) and water. After 4 weeks of drinking, mice were injected with weekly, systemic doses of the CRF-R1 antagonist, CP376395; the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, mifepristone; the 11-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor, metyrapone; or the 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. Prior to drug treatments, defeated mice reliably consumed more EtOH than non-defeated controls, and mice given alcohol intermittently consumed more EtOH than those with continuous access. CP376395 (17-30 mg/kg) reduced continuous, but not intermittent EtOH intake (g/kg) in socially defeated mice. Mifepristone (100 mg/kg), however, increased drinking by defeated mice with intermittent access to alcohol while reducing drinking during continuous access. When administered finasteride (100 mg/kg) or metyrapone (50 mg/kg), all mice reduced their EtOH intake while increasing their water consumption. Mice with a history of episodic social defeat stress were selectively sensitive to the effects of CRF-R1 antagonism, suggesting that CRF-R1 may be a potential target for treating alcohol use disorders in individuals who escalate their drinking after exposure to repeated bouts of psychosocial stress. Future studies will clarify

  6. Ropivacaine and Bupivacaine prevent increased pain sensitivity without altering neuroimmune activation following repeated social defeat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Caroline M; Kim, January K; Weber, Michael D; Jarrett, Brant L; Godbout, Jonathan P; Sheridan, John F; Humeidan, Michelle

    2018-03-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that stress influences the experience of pain. Exposure to psychosocial stress disrupts bi-directional communication pathways between the central nervous system and peripheral immune system, and can exacerbate the frequency and severity of pain experienced by stressed subjects. Repeated social defeat (RSD) is a murine model of psychosocial stress that recapitulates the immune and behavioral responses to stress observed in humans, including activation of stress-reactive neurocircuitry and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production. It is unclear, however, how these stress-induced neuroimmune responses contribute to increased pain sensitivity in mice exposed to RSD. Here we used a technique of regional analgesia with local anesthetics in mice to block the development of mechanical allodynia during RSD. We next investigated the degree to which pain blockade altered stress-induced neuroimmune activation and depressive-like behavior. Following development of a mouse model of regional analgesia with discrete sensory blockade over the dorsal-caudal aspect of the spine, C57BL/6 mice were divided into experimental groups and treated with Ropivacaine (0.08%), Liposomal Bupivacaine (0.08%), or Vehicle (0.9% NaCl) prior to exposure to stress. This specific region was selected for analgesia because it is the most frequent location for aggression-associated pain due to biting during RSD. Mechanical allodynia was assessed 12 h after the first, third, and sixth day of RSD after resolution of the sensory blockade. In a separate experiment, social avoidance behavior was determined after the sixth day of RSD. Blood, bone marrow, brain, and spinal cord were collected for immunological analyses after the last day of RSD in both experiments following behavioral assessments. RSD increased mechanical allodynia in an exposure-dependent manner that persisted for at least one week following cessation of the stressor. Mice treated with either Ropivacaine or

  7. Activation of protein kinase A in the amygdala modulates anxiety-like behaviors in social defeat exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Shi, Li-Jun; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Yu-Qiu

    2016-01-08

    Social defeat (SD) stress induces social avoidance and anxiety-like phenotypes. Amygdala is recognized as an emotion-related brain region such as fear, aversion and anxiety. It is conceivable to hypothesize that activation of amygdala is involved in SD-dependent behavioral defects. SD model was established using C57BL/6J mice that were physically defeated by different CD-1 mice for 10 days. Stressed mice exhibited decreased social interaction level in social interaction test and significant anxiety-like behaviors in elevated plus maze and open field tests. Meanwhile, a higher phosphorylation of PKA and CREB with a mutually linear correlation, and increased Fos labeled cells in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) were observed. Activation of PKA in the BLA by 8-Br-cAMP, a PKA activitor, significantly upregulated pCREB and Fos expression. To address the role of PKA activation on SD stress-induced social avoidance and anxiety-like behaviors, 8-Br-cAMP or H-89, a PKA inhibitor, was continuously administered into the bilateral BLA by a micro-osmotic pump system during the 10-day SD period. Neither H-89 nor 8-Br-cAMP affected the social behavior. Differently, 8-Br-cAMP significantly relieved anxiety-like behaviors in both general and moderate SD protocols. H-89 per se did not have anxiogenic effect in naïve mice, but aggravated moderate SD stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors. The antidepressant clomipramine reduced SD-induced anxiety and up-regulated pPKA level in the BLA. These results suggest that SD-driven PKA activation in the basolateral amygdala is actually a compensatory rather than pathogenic response in the homeostasis, and modulating amygdaloid PKA may exhibit potency in the therapy of social derived disorders.

  8. Effects of striatal ΔFosB overexpression and ketamine on social defeat stress-induced anhedonia in mice.

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    Donahue, Rachel J; Muschamp, John W; Russo, Scott J; Nestler, Eric J; Carlezon, William A

    2014-10-01

    Chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) produces persistent behavioral adaptations in mice. In many behavioral assays, it can be difficult to determine if these adaptations reflect core signs of depression. We designed studies to characterize the effects of CSDS on sensitivity to reward because anhedonia (reduced sensitivity to reward) is a defining characteristic of depressive disorders in humans. We also examined the effects of striatal ΔFosB overexpression and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine, both of which promote resilience, on CSDS-induced alterations in reward function and social interaction. Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) was used to quantify CSDS-induced changes in reward function. Mice were implanted with lateral hypothalamic electrodes, and ICSS thresholds were measured after each of 10 daily CSDS sessions and during a 5-day recovery period. We also examined if acute intraperitoneal administration of ketamine (2.5-20 mg/kg) reverses CSDS-induced effects on reward or, in separate mice, social interaction. ICSS thresholds were increased by CSDS, indicating decreases in the rewarding impact of lateral hypothalamic stimulation (anhedonia). This effect was attenuated in mice overexpressing ∆FosB in striatum, consistent with pro-resilient actions of this transcription factor. High, but not low, doses of ketamine administered after completion of the CSDS regimen attenuated social avoidance in defeated mice, although this effect was transient. Ketamine did not block CSDS-induced anhedonia in the ICSS test. This study found that CSDS triggers persistent anhedonia and confirms that ΔFosB overexpression produces stress resilience. The findings of this study also indicate that acute administration of ketamine fails to attenuate CSDS-induced anhedonia despite reducing other depression-related behavioral abnormalities. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased release of dopamine in the striata of young adults with hearing impairment and its relevance for the social defeat hypothesis of schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevonden, Martin; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim; Heijtel, Dennis; van Os, Jim; Selten, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    An increased risk for psychosis is observed in people with hearing impairment. According to the social defeat hypothesis, the long-term experience of exclusion leads to enhanced baseline activity and/or sensitization of the dopamine system and puts the individual at increased risk for psychosis. To

  10. The Non-Peptide Vasopressin V1b Receptor Antagonist, SSR149415, Ameliorates Spermatogenesis Function in a Mouse Model of Chronic Social Defeat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhou, Jian; Zhuang, Yan-Yan; Wang, Liang-Liang; Pu, Jin-Xian; Huang, Yu-Hua; Xia, Fei; Lv, Jin-Xing

    2017-11-01

    To determine the effects of SSR149415 on testis and spermatogenesis in male mice subjected to chronic social defeat stress, C57BL/6 male mice were divided into two groups: Control and Stress. Then Stress group was subdivided into four subgroups administered water, SSR149415 (1 mg/kg/day), SSR149415 (10 mg/kg/day), SSR149415 (30 mg/kg/day), respectively. The behavioral alterations revealed by social interaction test and open field test were measured. The physical indices, including body weight and gonad weight (testis and epididymis) as well as testis/body weight and cauda epididymis/body weight were detected. Serum hormones, including testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were determined. Sperm count and abnormality as well as testicular histology structure were assessed. The germ cells apoptosis were also evaluated. Chronic social defeat stress-induced behavioral abnormality, as well as gonad atrophy (testis and epididymis) was significantly alleviated in stressed male mice exposed to SSR149415. Regressed serum testosterone levels and elevated serum FSH and LH levels exhibited by stressed male mice were observably reversed following SSR149415 administration. Chronic social defeat stress-induced damage in testicular histology structure and semen quality were also improved after SSR149415 administration. In addition, SSR149415 significantly reversed chronic social defeat stress-induced germ cells apoptosis. Overall, we provide clear evidence indicating the amelioration of chronic social defeat stress-induced behavioral abnormality and testicular dysfunction via SSR149415, promoting the development of drug-directed therapy against this disease. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3891-3898, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effects of Chronic Social Defeat Stress on Sleep and Circadian Rhythms Are Mitigated by Kappa-Opioid Receptor Antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Audrey M; Ridener, Elysia; Bourbonais, Clinton A; Kim, Woori; Pantazopoulos, Harry; Carroll, F Ivy; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Cohen, Bruce M; Carlezon, William A

    2017-08-09

    Stress plays a critical role in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Sleep and circadian rhythms are affected in many of these conditions. Here we examined the effects of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), an ethological form of stress, on sleep and circadian rhythms. We exposed male mice implanted with wireless telemetry transmitters to a 10 day CSDS regimen known to produce anhedonia (a depressive-like effect) and social avoidance (an anxiety-like effect). EEG, EMG, body temperature, and locomotor activity data were collected continuously during the CSDS regimen and a 5 day recovery period. CSDS affected numerous endpoints, including paradoxical sleep (PS) and slow-wave sleep (SWS), as well as the circadian rhythmicity of body temperature and locomotor activity. The magnitude of the effects increased with repeated stress, and some changes (PS bouts, SWS time, body temperature, locomotor activity) persisted after the CSDS regimen had ended. CSDS also altered mRNA levels of the circadian rhythm-related gene mPer2 within brain areas that regulate motivation and emotion. Administration of the κ-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist JDTic (30 mg/kg, i.p.) before CSDS reduced stress effects on both sleep and circadian rhythms, or hastened their recovery, and attenuated changes in mPer2 Our findings show that CSDS produces persistent disruptions in sleep and circadian rhythmicity, mimicking attributes of stress-related conditions as they appear in humans. The ability of KOR antagonists to mitigate these disruptions is consistent with previously reported antistress effects. Studying homologous endpoints across species may facilitate the development of improved treatments for psychiatric illness. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Stress plays a critical role in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders. We show that chronic social defeat stress in mice produces progressive alterations in sleep and circadian rhythms that resemble features of depression as it appears in

  12. Optogenetic modulation of descending prefrontocortical inputs to the dorsal raphe bidirectionally bias socioaffective choices after social defeat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin eChallis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been well established that modulating serotonin (5-HT levels in humans and animals affects perception and response to social threats, however the circuit mechanisms that control 5-HT output during social interaction are not well understood. A better understanding of these systems could provide groundwork for more precise and efficient therapeutic interventions. Here we examined the organization and plasticity of microcircuits implicated in top-down control of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN by excitatory inputs from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC and their role in social approach-avoidance decisions. We did this in the context of a social defeat model that induces a long lasting form of social aversion that is reversible by antidepressants. We first used viral tracing and Cre-dependent genetic identification of vmPFC glutamatergic synapses in the DRN to determine their topographic distribution in relation to 5-HT and GABAergic subregions and found that excitatory vmPFC projections primarily localized to GABA-rich areas of the DRN. We then used optogenetics in combination with cFos mapping and slice electrophysiology to establish the functional effects of repeatedly driving vmPFC inputs in DRN. We provide the first direct evidence that vmPFC axons drive synaptic activity and immediate early gene expression in genetically identified DRN GABA neurons through an AMPA receptor-dependent mechanism. In contrast, we did not detect vmPFC-driven synaptic activity in 5-HT neurons and cFos induction in 5-HT neurons was limited. Finally we show that optogenetically increasing or decreasing excitatory vmPFC input to the DRN during sensory exposure to an aggressor’s cues enhances or diminishes avoidance bias, respectively. These results clarify the functional organization of vmPFC-DRN pathways and identify GABAergic neurons as a key cellular element filtering top-down vmPFC influences on affect-regulating 5-HT output.

  13. Submitting to defeat: social anxiety, dominance threat, and decrements in testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maner, Jon K; Miller, Saul L; Schmidt, Norman B; Eckel, Lisa A

    2008-08-01

    Although theory suggests a link between social anxiety and social dominance, direct empirical evidence for this link is limited. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that socially anxious individuals, particularly men, would respond to a social-dominance threat by exhibiting decrements in their testosterone levels, an endocrinological change that typically reflects pronounced social submission in humans and other animals. Participants were randomly assigned to either win or lose a rigged face-to-face competition with a confederate. Although no zero-order relationship between social anxiety and level of testosterone was observed, testosterone levels showed a pronounced drop among socially anxious men who lost the competition. No significant changes were observed in nonanxious men or in women. This research provides novel insight into the nature and consequences of social anxiety, and also illustrates the utility of integrating social psychological theory with endocrinological approaches to psychological science.

  14. Indomethacin counteracts the effects of chronic social defeat stress on emotional but not recognition memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Aránzazu; Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Monleón, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    We have previously observed the impairing effects of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) on emotional memory in mice. Given the relation between stress and inflammatory processes, we sought to study the effectiveness of the anti-inflammatory indomethacin in reversing the detrimental effects of CSDS on emotional memory in mice. The effects of CSDS and indomethacin on recognition memory were also evaluated. Male CD1 mice were randomly divided into four groups: non-stressed + saline (NS+SAL); non-stressed + indomethacin (NS+IND); stressed + saline (S+SAL); and stressed + indomethacin (S+IND). Stressed animals were exposed to a daily 10 min agonistic confrontation (CSDS) for 20 days. All subjects were treated daily with saline or indomethacin (10 mg/kg, i.p.). 24 h after the CSDS period, all the mice were evaluated in a social interaction test to distinguish between those that were resilient or susceptible to social stress. All subjects (n = 10-12 per group) were then evaluated in inhibitory avoidance (IA), novel object recognition (NOR), elevated plus maze and hot plate tests. As in control animals (NS+SAL group), IA learning was observed in the resilient groups, as well as in the susceptible mice treated with indomethacin (S+IND group). Recognition memory was observed in the non-stressed and the resilient mice, but not in the susceptible animals. Also, stressed mice exhibited higher anxiety levels. No significant differences were observed in locomotor activity or analgesia. In conclusion, CSDS induces anxiety in post-pubertal mice and impairs emotional and recognition memory in the susceptible subjects. The effects of CSDS on emotional memory, but not on recognition memory and anxiety, are reversed by indomethacin. Moreover, memory impairment is not secondary to the effects of CSDS on locomotor activity, emotionality or pain sensitivity.

  15. Indomethacin counteracts the effects of chronic social defeat stress on emotional but not recognition memory in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aránzazu Duque

    Full Text Available We have previously observed the impairing effects of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS on emotional memory in mice. Given the relation between stress and inflammatory processes, we sought to study the effectiveness of the anti-inflammatory indomethacin in reversing the detrimental effects of CSDS on emotional memory in mice. The effects of CSDS and indomethacin on recognition memory were also evaluated. Male CD1 mice were randomly divided into four groups: non-stressed + saline (NS+SAL; non-stressed + indomethacin (NS+IND; stressed + saline (S+SAL; and stressed + indomethacin (S+IND. Stressed animals were exposed to a daily 10 min agonistic confrontation (CSDS for 20 days. All subjects were treated daily with saline or indomethacin (10 mg/kg, i.p.. 24 h after the CSDS period, all the mice were evaluated in a social interaction test to distinguish between those that were resilient or susceptible to social stress. All subjects (n = 10-12 per group were then evaluated in inhibitory avoidance (IA, novel object recognition (NOR, elevated plus maze and hot plate tests. As in control animals (NS+SAL group, IA learning was observed in the resilient groups, as well as in the susceptible mice treated with indomethacin (S+IND group. Recognition memory was observed in the non-stressed and the resilient mice, but not in the susceptible animals. Also, stressed mice exhibited higher anxiety levels. No significant differences were observed in locomotor activity or analgesia. In conclusion, CSDS induces anxiety in post-pubertal mice and impairs emotional and recognition memory in the susceptible subjects. The effects of CSDS on emotional memory, but not on recognition memory and anxiety, are reversed by indomethacin. Moreover, memory impairment is not secondary to the effects of CSDS on locomotor activity, emotionality or pain sensitivity.

  16. Extended effect of chronic social defeat stress in childhood on behaviors in adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina L Kovalenko

    Full Text Available Individuals exposed to social stress in childhood are more predisposed to developing psychoemotional disorders in adulthood. Here we use an animal model to determine the influence of hostile social environment in adolescence on behavior during adult life. One-month-old adolescent male mice were placed for 2 weeks in a common cage with an adult aggressive male. Animals were separated by a transparent perforated partition, but the adolescent male was exposed daily to short attacks from the adult male. After exposure to social stress, some of the adolescent mice were placed for 3 weeks in comfortable conditions. Following this rest period, stressed young males and adult males were studied in a range of behavioral tests to evaluate the levels of anxiety, depressiveness, and communicativeness with an unfamiliar partner. In addition, adult mice exposed to social stress in adolescence were engaged in agonistic interactions. We found that 2 weeks of social stress result in a decrease of communicativeness in the home cage and diminished social interactions on the novel territory. Stressed adolescents demonstrated a high level of anxiety in the elevated plus-maze test and helplessness in the Porsolt test. Furthermore, the number of dividing (BrdU-positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus was significantly lower in stressed adolescents. After 3 weeks of rest, most behavioral characteristics in different tests, as well as the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampus, did not differ from those of the respective control mice. However, the level of anxiety remained high in adult males exposed to chronic social stress in childhood. Furthermore, these males were more aggressive in the agonistic interactions. Thus, hostile social environment in adolescence disturbs psychoemotional state and social behaviors of animals in adult life.

  17. Extended Effect of Chronic Social Defeat Stress in Childhood on Behaviors in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Irina L.; Galyamina, Anna G.; Smagin, Dmitry A.; Michurina, Tatyana V.; Kudryavtseva, Natalia N.; Enikolopov, Grigori

    2014-01-01

    Individuals exposed to social stress in childhood are more predisposed to developing psychoemotional disorders in adulthood. Here we use an animal model to determine the influence of hostile social environment in adolescence on behavior during adult life. One-month-old adolescent male mice were placed for 2 weeks in a common cage with an adult aggressive male. Animals were separated by a transparent perforated partition, but the adolescent male was exposed daily to short attacks from the adult male. After exposure to social stress, some of the adolescent mice were placed for 3 weeks in comfortable conditions. Following this rest period, stressed young males and adult males were studied in a range of behavioral tests to evaluate the levels of anxiety, depressiveness, and communicativeness with an unfamiliar partner. In addition, adult mice exposed to social stress in adolescence were engaged in agonistic interactions. We found that 2 weeks of social stress result in a decrease of communicativeness in the home cage and diminished social interactions on the novel territory. Stressed adolescents demonstrated a high level of anxiety in the elevated plus-maze test and helplessness in the Porsolt test. Furthermore, the number of dividing (BrdU-positive) cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus was significantly lower in stressed adolescents. After 3 weeks of rest, most behavioral characteristics in different tests, as well as the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampus, did not differ from those of the respective control mice. However, the level of anxiety remained high in adult males exposed to chronic social stress in childhood. Furthermore, these males were more aggressive in the agonistic interactions. Thus, hostile social environment in adolescence disturbs psychoemotional state and social behaviors of animals in adult life. PMID:24667609

  18. Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin-Independent Antidepressant Effects of (R)-Ketamine in a Social Defeat Stress Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Ren, Qian; Qu, Youge; Zhang, Ji-Chun; Ma, Min; Dong, Chao; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    The role of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the antidepressant effects of ketamine is controversial. In addition to mTOR, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is a key signaling molecule in prominent pathways that regulate protein synthesis. (R)-Ketamine has a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effects than (S)-ketamine. Here we investigated whether mTOR signaling and ERK signaling play a role in the antidepressant effects of two enantiomers. The effects of mTOR inhibitors (rapamycin and AZD8055) and an ERK inhibitor (SL327) on the antidepressant effects of ketamine enantiomers in the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model (n = 7 or 8) and on those of ketamine enantiomers in these signaling pathways in mouse brain regions were examined. The intracerebroventricular infusion of rapamycin or AZD8055 blocked the antidepressant effects of (S)-ketamine, but not (R)-ketamine, in the CSDS model. Furthermore, (S)-ketamine, but not (R)-ketamine, significantly attenuated the decreased phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream effector, ribosomal protein S6 kinase, in the prefrontal cortex of susceptible mice after CSDS. Pretreatment with SL327 blocked the antidepressant effects of (R)-ketamine but not (S)-ketamine. Moreover, (R)-ketamine, but not (S)-ketamine, significantly attenuated the decreased phosphorylation of ERK and its upstream effector, mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase, in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampal dentate gyrus of susceptible mice after CSDS. This study suggests that mTOR plays a role in the antidepressant effects of (S)-ketamine, but not (R)-ketamine, and that ERK plays a role in (R)-ketamine's antidepressant effects. Thus, it is unlikely that the activation of mTOR signaling is necessary for antidepressant actions of (R)-ketamine. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Social defeat stress induces depression-like behavior and alters spine morphology in the hippocampus of adolescent male C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Sergio D; Aubry, Antonio; Riggs, Lace M; Alipio, Jason B; Zanca, Roseanna M; Flores-Ramirez, Francisco J; Hernandez, Mirella A; Nieto, Steven J; Musheyev, David; Serrano, Peter A

    2016-12-01

    Social stress, including bullying during adolescence, is a risk factor for common psychopathologies such as depression. To investigate the neural mechanisms associated with juvenile social stress-induced mood-related endophenotypes, we examined the behavioral, morphological, and biochemical effects of the social defeat stress model of depression on hippocampal dendritic spines within the CA1 stratum radiatum. Adolescent (postnatal day 35) male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to defeat episodes for 10 consecutive days. Twenty-four h later, separate groups of mice were tested on the social interaction and tail suspension tests. Hippocampi were then dissected and Western blots were conducted to quantify protein levels for various markers important for synaptic plasticity including protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ), protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ), the dopamine-1 (D1) receptor, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and the dopamine transporter (DAT). Furthermore, we examined the presence of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-receptor subunit GluA2 as well as colocalization with the post-synaptic density 95 (PSD95) protein, within different spine subtypes (filopodia, stubby, long-thin, mushroom) using an immunohistochemistry and Golgi-Cox staining technique. The results revealed that social defeat induced a depression-like behavioral profile, as inferred from decreased social interaction levels, increased immobility on the tail suspension test, and decreases in body weight. Whole hippocampal immunoblots revealed decreases in GluA2, with a concomitant increase in DAT and TH levels in the stressed group. Spine morphology analyses further showed that defeated mice displayed a significant decrease in stubby spines, and an increase in long-thin spines within the CA1 stratum radiatum. Further evaluation of GluA2/PSD95 containing-spines demonstrated a decrease of these markers within long-thin and mushroom spine types. Together, these results indicate that juvenile

  20. Acute social defeat does not alter cerebral 5-HT2A receptor binding in male Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anniek K D; Meerlo, Peter; Ettrup, Anders

    2014-01-01

    suppressed growth, but did not affect anxiety-like behavior in an open field test. A positron emission tomography scan with the 5-HT2A R tracer [11C]MDL 100907 1 day and 3 weeks after defeat did not show significant changes in receptor binding. To verify these results, [3H]MDL 100907 binding assays were...

  1. Corticotropin Releasing Factor in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Socially Defeated and Non-stressed Mice with a History of Chronic Alcohol Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Viola, Thiago W; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Miczek, Klaus A; de Almeida, Rosa M M

    2017-01-01

    Stress exposure has been identified as one risk factor for alcohol abuse that may facilitate the transition from social or regulated use to the development of alcohol dependence. Preclinical studies have shown that dysregulation of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) neurotransmission has been implicated in stress-related psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety, and may affect alcohol consumption. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) contains CRF-producing neurons which seem to be sensitive to stress. In this study, adult male C57BL/6 mice previously defeated in resident-intruder confrontations were evaluated in the elevated plus-maze and tail suspension test. Mice were also tested for sweet solution intake before and after social stress. After having had continuous access to ethanol (20% weight/volume) for 4 weeks, control and stressed mice had CRF type 1 (CRFR1) or type 2 (CRFR2) receptor antagonists infused into the BNST and then had access to ethanol for 24 h. In separate cohorts of control and stressed mice, we assessed mRNA levels of BNST CRF, CRFR1 and CRFR2 . Stressed mice increased their intake of sweet solution after ten sessions of social defeat and showed reduced activity in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. When tested for ethanol consumption, stressed mice persistently drank significantly more than controls during the 4 weeks of access. Also, social stress induced higher BNST CRF mRNA levels. The selective blockade of BNST CRFR1 with CP376,395 effectively reduced alcohol drinking in non-stressed mice, whereas the selective CRFR2 antagonist astressin2B produced a dose-dependent increase in ethanol consumption in both non-stressed controls and stressed mice. The 10-day episodic defeat stress used here elicited anxiety- but not depressive-like behaviors, and promoted an increase in ethanol drinking. CRF-CRFR1 signaling in the BNST seems to underlie ethanol intake in non-stressed mice, whereas CRFR2 modulates alcohol

  2. Corticotropin Releasing Factor in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Socially Defeated and Non-stressed Mice with a History of Chronic Alcohol Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Albrechet-Souza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress exposure has been identified as one risk factor for alcohol abuse that may facilitate the transition from social or regulated use to the development of alcohol dependence. Preclinical studies have shown that dysregulation of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF neurotransmission has been implicated in stress-related psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety, and may affect alcohol consumption. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST contains CRF-producing neurons which seem to be sensitive to stress. In this study, adult male C57BL/6 mice previously defeated in resident-intruder confrontations were evaluated in the elevated plus-maze and tail suspension test. Mice were also tested for sweet solution intake before and after social stress. After having had continuous access to ethanol (20% weight/volume for 4 weeks, control and stressed mice had CRF type 1 (CRFR1 or type 2 (CRFR2 receptor antagonists infused into the BNST and then had access to ethanol for 24 h. In separate cohorts of control and stressed mice, we assessed mRNA levels of BNST CRF, CRFR1 and CRFR2. Stressed mice increased their intake of sweet solution after ten sessions of social defeat and showed reduced activity in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. When tested for ethanol consumption, stressed mice persistently drank significantly more than controls during the 4 weeks of access. Also, social stress induced higher BNST CRF mRNA levels. The selective blockade of BNST CRFR1 with CP376,395 effectively reduced alcohol drinking in non-stressed mice, whereas the selective CRFR2 antagonist astressin2B produced a dose-dependent increase in ethanol consumption in both non-stressed controls and stressed mice. The 10-day episodic defeat stress used here elicited anxiety- but not depressive-like behaviors, and promoted an increase in ethanol drinking. CRF-CRFR1 signaling in the BNST seems to underlie ethanol intake in non-stressed mice, whereas CRFR2 modulates

  3. Social defeat stress induces depression-like behavior and alters spine morphology in the hippocampus of adolescent male C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio D. Iñiguez

    2016-12-01

    Hippocampi were then dissected and Western blots were conducted to quantify protein levels for various markers important for synaptic plasticity including protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ, protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ, the dopamine-1 (D1 receptor, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, and the dopamine transporter (DAT. Furthermore, we examined the presence of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA-receptor subunit GluA2 as well as colocalization with the post-synaptic density 95 (PSD95 protein, within different spine subtypes (filopodia, stubby, long-thin, mushroom using an immunohistochemistry and Golgi-Cox staining technique. The results revealed that social defeat induced a depression-like behavioral profile, as inferred from decreased social interaction levels, increased immobility on the tail suspension test, and decreases in body weight. Whole hippocampal immunoblots revealed decreases in GluA2, with a concomitant increase in DAT and TH levels in the stressed group. Spine morphology analyses further showed that defeated mice displayed a significant decrease in stubby spines, and an increase in long-thin spines within the CA1 stratum radiatum. Further evaluation of GluA2/PSD95 containing-spines demonstrated a decrease of these markers within long-thin and mushroom spine types. Together, these results indicate that juvenile social stress induces GluA2- and dopamine-associated dysregulation in the hippocampus – a neurobiological mechanism potentially underlying the development of mood-related syndromes as a consequence of adolescent bullying.

  4. Defeating Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    our actions. Using these global datasets will help to make the model as uniform as possible. The model must be built by scientists in the affected countries with GEM's support, augmented by their insights and data. The model will launch in 2014; to succeed it must be open, international, independent, and continuously tested. But the mission of GEM is not just the likelihood of ground shaking, but also gaging the economic and social consequences of earthquakes, which greatly amplify the losses. For example, should the municipality of Istanbul retrofit schools, or increase its insurance reserves and recovery capacity? Should a homeowner in a high-risk area move or strengthen her building? This is why GEM is a public-private partnership. GEM's fourteen public sponsors and eight non-governmental organization members are standing for the developing world. To extend GEM into the financial world, we draw upon the expertise of companies. GEM's ten private sponsors have endorsed the acquisition of public knowledge over private gain. In a competitive world, this is a courageous act. GEM is but one link in a chain of preparedness: from earth science and engineering research, through groups like GEM, to mitigation, retrofit or relocate decisions, building codes and insurance, and finally to prepared hospitals, schools, and homes. But it is a link that our community can make strong.

  5. Repeated social defeat and the rewarding effects of cocaine in adult and adolescent mice: dopamine transcription factors, proBDNF signaling pathways, and the TrkB receptor in the mesolimbic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Nuñez, Cristina; Blanco-Gandia, M Carmen; Martínez-Laorden, Elena; Aguilar, María A; Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Almela, Pilar; Milanés, Maria-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2017-07-01

    Repeated social defeat (RSD) increases the rewarding effects of cocaine in adolescent and adult rodents. The aim of the present study was to compare the long-term effects of RSD on the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine and levels of the transcription factors Pitx3 and Nurr1 in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the dopamine transporter (DAT), the D2 dopamine receptor (D2DR) and precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) signaling pathways, and the tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in adult and adolescent mice. Male adolescent and young adult OF1 mice were exposed to four episodes of social defeat and were conditioned 3 weeks later with 1 mg/kg of cocaine. In a second set of mice, the expressions of the abovementioned dopaminergic and proBDNF and TrkB receptor were measured in VTA and NAc, respectively. Adolescent mice experienced social defeats less intensely than their adult counterparts and produced lower levels of corticosterone. However, both adult and adolescent defeated mice developed conditioned place preference for the compartment associated with this low dose of cocaine. Furthermore, only adolescent defeated mice displayed diminished levels of the transcription factors Pitx3 in the VTA, without changes in the expression of DAT and D2DR in the NAc. In addition, stressed adult mice showed a decreased expression of proBDNF and the TrkB receptor, while stressed adolescent mice exhibited increased expression of latter without changes in the former. Our findings suggest that dopaminergic pathways and proBDNF signaling and TrkB receptors play different roles in social defeat-stressed mice exposed to cocaine.

  6. m-Trifluoromethyl-diphenyl diselenide promotes resilience to social avoidance induced by social defeat stress in mice: Contribution of opioid receptors and MAPKs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Suzan Gonçalves; Pesarico, Ana Paula; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2018-03-02

    Depressive symptoms precipitated by stress are prevalent in population. In experimental models of social stress, endogenous opioids mediate different aspects of defensive and submissive behaviors. The present study investigated the opioid receptors, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and protein kinase B (Akt) contribution to m-trifluoromethyl-diphenyl diselenide [(m-CF 3 -PhSe) 2 ] effects on social avoidance induced by social defeat stress (SDS). Adult Swiss mice were subjected to SDS and treated with (m-CF 3 -PhSe) 2 (5 to 25mg/kg) for 7days. After that, the mice performed locomotor and social avoidance tests. The opioid receptors, MAPKs and Akt protein contents were determined in the prefrontal cortical samples of mice. Firstly, the mice were segregated in susceptible or resilient subpopulation based on their social avoidance induced by stress. (m-CF 3 -PhSe) 2 (25mg/kg) was effective against the stress-induced social avoidance and improved social interaction behavior in mice. SDS increased the μ and κ protein contents but reduced those of δ opioid receptors in susceptible mice. Resilient and (m-CF 3 -PhSe) 2 -treated mice had no alteration in the levels of opioid receptors. Moreover, (m-CF 3 -PhSe) 2 was effective against the increase of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the decrease of Akt phosphorylation protein contents induced by SDS in susceptible mice. The protein content of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation was reduced in both susceptible and resilient mice, whereas p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) phosphorylation was increased only in resilient mice. (m-CF 3 -PhSe) 2 was partially effective against the pERK decrease and ineffective against the increase in p38 MAPK phosphorylation in mice subjected to SDS. These results suggest that the modulation of protein contents of opioid receptors, JNK and Akt phosphorylation is associated with resilience to SDS promoted by (m-CF 3 -PhSe) 2 in mice. Copyright

  7. Knockdown of ventral tegmental area mu-opioid receptors in rats prevents effects of social defeat stress: Implications for amphetamine cross-sensitization, social avoidance, weight regulation and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Caitlin E.; Herschel, Daniel; Lasek, Amy W.; Hammer, Ronald P.; Nikulina, Ella M.

    2014-01-01

    Social defeat stress causes social avoidance and long-lasting cross-sensitization to psychostimulants, both of which are associated with increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Moreover, social stress upregulates VTA mu-opioid receptor (MOR) mRNA. In the VTA, MOR activation inhibits GABA neurons to disinhibit VTA dopamine neurons, thus providing a role for VTA MORs in the regulation of psychostimulant sensitization. The present study determined the effect of lentivirus-mediated MOR knockdown in the VTA on the consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, a salient and profound stressor in humans and rodents. Social stress exposure induced social avoidance and attenuated weight gain in animals with non-manipulated VTA MORs, but both these effects were prevented by VTA MOR knockdown. Rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression exhibited cross-sensitization to amphetamine challenge (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), evidenced by a significant augmentation of locomotion. By contrast, knockdown of VTA MORs prevented stress-induced cross-sensitization without blunting the locomotor-activating effects of amphetamine. At the time point corresponding to amphetamine challenge, immunohistochemical analysis was performed to examine the effect of stress on VTA BDNF expression. Prior stress exposure increased VTA BDNF expression in rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression, while VTA MOR knockdown prevented stress-induced expression of VTA BDNF. Taken together, these results suggest that upregulation of VTA MOR is necessary for the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by social defeat stress. Elucidating VTA MOR regulation of stress effects on the mesolimbic system may provide new therapeutic targets for treating stress-induced vulnerability to substance abuse. PMID:25446676

  8. Social defeat promotes a reactive endothelium in a brain region-dependent manner with increased expression of key adhesion molecules, selectins and chemokines associated with the recruitment of myeloid cells to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, C M; McKim, D B; Wohleb, E S; Jarrett, B L; Reader, B F; Norden, D M; Godbout, J P; Sheridan, J F

    2015-08-27

    Repeated social defeat (RSD) in mice causes myeloid cell trafficking to the brain that contributes to the development of prolonged anxiety-like behavior. Myeloid cell recruitment following RSD occurs in regions where neuronal and microglia activation is observed. Thus, we hypothesized that crosstalk between neurons, microglia, and endothelial cells contributes to brain myeloid cell trafficking via chemokine signaling and vascular adhesion molecules. Here we show that social defeat caused an exposure- and brain region-dependent increase in several key adhesion molecules and chemokines involved in the recruitment of myeloid cells. For example, RSD induced distinct patterns of adhesion molecule expression that may explain brain region-dependent myeloid cell trafficking. VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 mRNA expression were increased in an exposure-dependent manner. Furthermore, RSD-induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression were localized to the vasculature of brain regions implicated in fear and anxiety responses, which spatially corresponded to previously reported patterns of myeloid cell trafficking. Next, mRNA expression of additional adhesion molecules (E- and P-selectin, PECAM-1) and chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL12, CCL2) were determined in the brain. Social defeat induced an exposure-dependent increase in mRNA levels of E-selectin, CXCL1, and CXCL2 that increased with additional days of social defeat. While CXCL12 was unaffected by RSD, CCL2 expression was increased by six days of social defeat. Last, comparison between enriched CD11b(+) cells (microglia/macrophages) and enriched GLAST-1(+)/CD11b(-) cells (astrocytes) revealed RSD increased mRNA expression of IL-1β, CCL2, and CXCL2 in microglia/macrophages but not in astrocytes. Collectively, these data indicate that key mediators of leukocyte recruitment were increased in the brain vasculature following RSD in an exposure- and brain region-dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Housing familiar male wildtype rats together reduces the long-term adverse behavioural and physiological effects of social defeat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, M.A.W.; Brake, te J.H.A.; Buwalda, B.; Boer, de S.F.; Meerlo, P.; Korte, S.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Koolhaas, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Social stress in rats is known to induce long-lasting, adverse changes in behaviour and physiology, which seem to resemble certain human psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety. The present experiment was designed to assess the influence of individual or group housing on the vulnerability

  10. Exposure to social defeat stress in adolescence improves the working memory and anxiety-like behavior of adult female rats with intrauterine growth restriction, independently of hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Miyako; Ninomiya-Baba, Midori; Chiba, Shuichi; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for memory impairment and emotional disturbance during growth and adulthood. However, this risk might be modulated by environmental factors during development. Here we examined whether exposing adolescent male and female rats with thromboxane A2-induced IUGR to social defeat stress (SDS) affected their working memory and anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. We also used BrdU staining to investigate hippocampal cellular proliferation and BrdU and NeuN double staining to investigate neural differentiation in female IUGR rats. In the absence of adolescent stress, IUGR female rats, but not male rats, scored significantly lower in the T-maze test of working memory and exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test compared with controls. Adolescent exposure to SDS abolished these behavioral impairments in IUGR females. In the absence of adolescent stress, hippocampal cellular proliferation was significantly higher in IUGR females than in non-IUGR female controls and was not influenced by adolescent exposure to SDS. Hippocampal neural differentiation was equivalent in non-stressed control and IUGR females. Neural differentiation was significantly increased by adolescent exposure to SDS in controls but not in IUGR females. There was no significant difference in the serum corticosterone concentrations between non-stressed control and IUGR females; however, adolescent exposure to SDS significantly increased serum corticosterone concentration in control females but not in IUGR females. These results demonstrate that adolescent exposure to SDS improves behavioral impairment independent of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats with IUGR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Submitting to Defeat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maner, Jon K.; Miller, Saul L.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Eckel, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Although theory suggests a link between social anxiety and social dominance, direct empirical evidence for this link is limited. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that socially anxious individuals, particularly men, would respond to a social-dominance threat by exhibiting decrements in their testosterone levels, an endocrinological change that typically reflects pronounced social submission in humans and other animals. Participants were randomly assigned to either win or lose a rigged face-to-face competition with a confederate. Although no zero-order relationship between social anxiety and level of testosterone was observed, testosterone levels showed a pronounced drop among socially anxious men who lost the competition. No significant changes were observed in nonanxious men or in women. This research provides novel insight into the nature and consequences of social anxiety, and also illustrates the utility of integrating social psychological theory with endocrinological approaches to psychological science. PMID:18816282

  12. Social stress induces high intensity sleep in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; Pragt, Bertrand J.; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effect of social stress on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in rats. Animals were subjected to a single social defeat by introducing them in the cage of an aggressive male conspecific for 1 h. The animals responded to the social conflict by a sharp increase in EEG slow-wave activity

  13. 20 CFR 410.561c - Defeat the purpose of title IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defeat the purpose of title IV. 410.561c Section 410.561c Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY..., accident, and health insurance including premiums for supplementary medical insurance benefits under title...

  14. 20 CFR 404.508 - Defeat the purpose of Title II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defeat the purpose of Title II. 404.508 Section 404.508 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... and necessary expenses include: (1) Fixed living expenses, such as food and clothing, rent, mortgage...

  15. Book Review: Defeating communist insurgency | van Heerden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Defeating communist insurgency (1966). Book Author: Robert Thompson. Palgrave Macmillan, 166 pp. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/12-4-607 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  16. Social recognition is context dependent in single male prairie voles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Da-Jiang; Foley, Lauren; Rehman, Asad; Ophir, Alexander G.

    2013-01-01

    Single males might benefit from knowing the identity of neighbouring males when establishing and defending boundaries. Similarly, males should discriminate between individual females if this leads to more reproductive opportunities. Contextual social cues may alter the value of learning identity. Knowing the identity of competitors that intrude into an animal’s territory may be more salient than knowing the identity of individuals on whose territory an animal is trespassing. Hence, social and environmental context could affect social recognition in many ways. Here we test social recognition of socially monogamous single male prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster. In experiment 1 we tested recognition of male or female conspecifics and found that males discriminated between different males but not between different females. In experiment 2 we asked whether recognition of males is influenced when males are tested in their own cage (familiar), in a clean cage (neutral) or in the home cage of another male (unfamiliar). Although focal males discriminated between male conspecifics in all three contexts, individual variation in recognition was lower when males were tested in their home cage (in the presence of familiar social cues) compared to when the context lacked social cues (neutral). Experiment 1 indicates that selective pressures may have operated to enhance male territorial behaviour and indiscriminate mate selection. Experiment 2 suggests that the presence of a conspecific cue heightens social recognition and that home-field advantages might extend to social cognition. Taken together, our results indicate social recognition depends on the social and possibly territorial context. PMID:24273328

  17. Correlations between self-handicapping and self-defeating personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, T; Morales, J; Beyler, J; Tatter, T; Swigert, L

    1991-10-01

    In this study scores on Strube's self-handicapping scale were correlated with scores on Schill's self-defeating personality scale. Berglas believes there are subtypes of self-defeating personality and that his concept of self-handicapping should be correlated with the three criteria which represent a self-protective component of self-defeating personality. Some support for Berglas' proposition was found, particularly for men. However, correlations with other components of self-defeating personality suggest the criteria thought to be self-protective may need to be reconsidered.

  18. Gene expression in aminergic and peptidergic cells during aggression and defeat: relevance to violence, depression and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miczek, Klaus A; Nikulina, Ella M; Takahashi, Aki; Covington, Herbert E; Yap, Jasmine J; Boyson, Christopher O; Shimamoto, Akiko; de Almeida, Rosa M M

    2011-11-01

    In this review, we examine how experiences in social confrontations alter gene expression in mesocorticolimbic cells. The focus is on the target of attack and threat due to the prominent role of social defeat stress in the study of coping mechanisms and victimization. The initial operational definition of the socially defeated mouse by Ginsburg and Allee (1942) enabled the characterization of key endocrine, cardiovascular, and metabolic events during the initial response to an aggressive opponent and during the ensuing adaptations. Brief episodes of social defeat stress induce an augmented response to stimulant challenge as reflected by increased locomotion and increased extracellular dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAC). Cells in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) that project to the NAC were more active as indicated by increased expression of c-fos and Fos-immunoreactivity and BDNF. Intermittent episodes of social defeat stress result in increased mRNA for MOR in brainstem and limbic structures. These behavioral and neurobiological indices of sensitization persist for several months after the stress experience. The episodically defeated rats also self-administered intravenous cocaine during continuous access for 24 h ("binge"). By contrast, continuous social stress, particularly in the form of social subordination stress, leads to reduced appetite, compromised endocrine activities, and cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities, and prefer sweets less as index of anhedonia. Cocaine challenges in subordinate rats result in a blunted psychomotor stimulant response and a reduced DA release in NAC. Subordinate rats self-administer cocaine less during continuous access conditions. These contrasting patterns of social stress result from continuous vs. intermittent exposure to social stress, suggesting divergent neuroadaptations for increased vulnerability to cocaine self-administration vs. deteriorated reward mechanisms characteristic of depressive-like profiles.

  19. Overlapping neurobiology of learned helplessness and conditioned defeat: implications for PTSD and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Sayamwong E; Cooper, Matthew A; Lezak, Kimberly R

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to traumatic events can increase the risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and pharmacological treatments for these disorders often involve the modulation of serotonergic (5-HT) systems. Several behavioral paradigms in rodents produce changes in behavior that resemble symptoms of MDD and these behavioral changes are sensitive to antidepressant treatments. Here we review two animal models in which MDD-like behavioral changes are elicited by exposure to an acute traumatic event during adulthood, learned helplessness (LH) and conditioned defeat. In LH, exposure of rats to inescapable, but not escapable, tailshock produces a constellation of behavioral changes that include deficits in fight/flight responding and enhanced anxiety-like behavior. In conditioned defeat, exposure of Syrian hamsters to a social defeat by a more aggressive animal leads to a loss of territorial aggression and an increase in submissive and defensive behaviors in subsequent encounters with non-aggressive conspecifics. Investigations into the neural substrates that control LH and conditioned defeat revealed that increased 5-HT activity in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is critical for both models. Other key brain regions that regulate the acquisition and/or expression of behavior in these two paradigms include the basolateral amygdala (BLA), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). In this review, we compare and contrast the role of each of these neural structures in mediating LH and conditioned defeat, and discuss the relevance of these data in developing a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying trauma-related depression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Piles of defeat. Napoleon at Waterloo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, D R; Wolff, B G; Dozois, R R

    1988-04-01

    Major events of history have frequently turned on seemingly trivial matters. One such situation involves Napoleon Bonaparte at Waterloo. Napoleon was not feeling well on the day of the battle of Waterloo, despite fighting well at Ligny, a few days before the last, dramatic June 18 battle. There is considerable indication that Napoleon was bothered by very painful thrombosed hemorrhoids. Did this affect his generalship that day? What is the evidence that Napoleon was afflicted with thrombosed hemorrhoids? What contribution could this factor have made to the French defeat at Waterloo?

  1. Cultural Values in Intergroup and Single-Group Social Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst; Carnevale; Triandis

    1999-03-01

    Do cultural values influence the manner in which people cooperate with one another? This study assessed cultural characteristics of individuals and then related these characteristics to cooperative behavior in social dilemmas. Participants were assessed for their degree of vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism, cultural values identified by Triandis (1995). They made choices in either a single-group or an intergroup social dilemma. The single-group dilemma entailed a three-person dilemma; the intergroup dilemma was identical but added subgroup competition, i.e., an opposing three-person group. The results indicated an interaction between cultural characteristics and type of dilemma for cooperation. The single-group versus intergroup effect reported by Bornstein and Ben-Yossef (1994) was replicated, but only for vertical individualists. The vertical individualists were least cooperative in the single-group dilemma but were more cooperative in the intergroup dilemma-where cooperation with the group maximized personal outcomes. The vertical collectivists were most cooperative in the single-group dilemma but were less cooperative in the intergroup dilemma- where group defection resulted in maximum group outcomes. The horizontal individualists and collectivists exhibited an intermediate level of cooperation, with no differences in cooperation between the single-group and intergroup dilemmas. Taken together, the results suggest that the relationship between cultural values and cooperation, in particular with reference to vertical and horizontal components of individualism and collectivism, is more complex than has been suggested in past research. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  2. Single Mothers' Experiences with Pregnancy and Child Rearing in Korea: Discrepancy between Social Services/Policies and Single Mothers' Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Eun; Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Sang Hyung

    2018-05-10

    This study aims to explore single mothers’ experiences with social services/policies for their independent living and to identify gaps between these experiences and the needs of single mothers. A focus group discussion was performed to collect data. Seven single mothers discussed their experiences in significant periods of their lives: pregnancy, childbirth, and parenting. Findings from the qualitative thematic analysis show discrepancies between the direction of social services/policies and single mothers’ needs, in terms of difficulties in healthcare, childcare, housing, employment, and income security. To the single mothers in this study, the social safety net is not inclusive, compared to that which is available to two-parent families or adoptive families. It is necessary to intervene in current blind spots of services/policies for single mothers, and to provide a social safety net to strengthen single mothers’ self-reliance and their children’s social security in the long term.

  3. The Battle for Okinawa: A Direct Approach for Direct Defeat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robling, Terry

    1995-01-01

    Throughout the fall of 1944 and early spring of 1945, the Japanese defenders of Okinawa prepared a defensive battle strategy that resulted in Japanese defeat and the most casualties for both forces...

  4. Battle of Kasserine Pass: Defeat is a Matter of Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    a ga inst Germany in World War II ; some historians even go so far as to anticipate defeat in the first battles of all major Ameri can wars. Martin ...the battle of Kasserine Pass prove the conventional wisdom that America is doomed to defeat in its first battles? Martin Blumenson, a prominent...Much study of the battle of Kasserine Pass has been done since Martin Blumenson wrote the original history in 1966. The ULTRA and MAGIC intercepts

  5. Are ethics promulgations self-defeating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Derrick

    2015-07-01

    Alan Wertheimer argues that promulgating some ethical standards of international clinical research may be self-defeating: the intended purpose of these standards is to promote the interests of subjects and communities in LMICs, while the outcome of promulgation could be to undermine these very same interests. If enforced, such standards would increase the costs of performing beneficial research in LMICs, potentially diverting opportunities to participate in this research away from those who have no other access to the care participation allows. I argue that these standards are really intended as deontological constraints protecting subjects from being exploited by research sponsors. First, I show that Wertheimer begs the question against this deontological interpretation of ethics promulgations, rejecting it on non-deontological grounds. I go on to show that non-exploitation is an important goal on its own, sometimes independent from-and sometimes even outweighing-the goal of promoting the interests of subjects and communities in LMICs. I conclude by suggesting that those who criticize the promulgation of non-exploitation on the grounds that exploitative practices help those badly off might do best to reconsider the background assumption that sponsors in wealthier countries have no pre-existing obligation to promote the interests of the world's poor.

  6. Can biowarfare agents be defeated with light?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Fatma; Ferraresi, Cleber; de Sousa, Marcelo Victor Pires; Yin, Rui; Rineh, Ardeshir; Sharma, Sulbha K; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Biological warfare and bioterrorism is an unpleasant fact of 21st century life. Highly infectious and profoundly virulent diseases may be caused in combat personnel or in civilian populations by the appropriate dissemination of viruses, bacteria, spores, fungi, or toxins. Dissemination may be airborne, waterborne, or by contamination of food or surfaces. Countermeasures may be directed toward destroying or neutralizing the agents outside the body before infection has taken place, by destroying the agents once they have entered the body before the disease has fully developed, or by immunizing susceptible populations against the effects. A range of light-based technologies may have a role to play in biodefense countermeasures. Germicidal UV (UVC) is exceptionally active in destroying a wide range of viruses and microbial cells, and recent data suggests that UVC has high selectivity over host mammalian cells and tissues. Two UVA mediated approaches may also have roles to play; one where UVA is combined with titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a process called photocatalysis, and a second where UVA is combined with psoralens (PUVA) to produce “killed but metabolically active” microbial cells that may be particularly suitable for vaccines. Many microbial cells are surprisingly sensitive to blue light alone, and blue light can effectively destroy bacteria, fungi, and Bacillus spores and can treat wound infections. The combination of photosensitizing dyes such as porphyrins or phenothiaziniums and red light is called photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photoinactivation, and this approach cannot only kill bacteria, spores, and fungi, but also inactivate viruses and toxins. Many reports have highlighted the ability of PDT to treat infections and stimulate the host immune system. Finally pulsed (femtosecond) high power lasers have been used to inactivate pathogens with some degree of selectivity. We have pointed to some of the ways light-based technology may be used to defeat

  7. California's Proposition 15: the what and why of its defeat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This analysis of the June 8, 1976 California Nuclear Initiative was prepared by the Pacific Gas and Electric Co. The defeat of Proposition 15 in the California election was successful for several reasons. A record 70 percent of the voters in California went to the polls and 97 percent of those voted on the nuclear issue with the results showing defeat by two-to-one. Apparently, the voters perceived the Nuclear Initiative as being too drastic. The campaign for defeat of the initiative stressed the consequences of closing down existing plants and closing off the nuclear option in California, namely: higher costs, job losses, and less-desirable alternatives. The campaign waged for the Initiative seems to have suffered from weak management and lack of consistent messages

  8. Testing a Conceptual Model of Working through Self-Defeating Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Ku, Tsun-Yao

    2007-01-01

    The present study developed and examined a conceptual model of working through self-defeating patterns. Participants were 390 college students at a large midwestern university. Results indicated that self-defeating patterns mediated the relations between attachment and distress. Also, self-esteem mediated the link between self-defeating patterns…

  9. Coming down to Earth Linking up computers to defeat malaria

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Donating spare computer cycles to worthly causes is a cheap way of helping those who cannot afford huge piles of hardware to achieve their goals. Africa@home aims to use that spare capacity for no less a taks than the defeat of malaria, a disease that kills more than 1m people a year (1/2 page)

  10. Diagnostics of defeats of venous collectors of brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, T.V.; Polunina, I.S.; Shcherbakova, E.Ya.; Kuldakova, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Comparative data of transcranial ultrasonic dopplerography (170 patients) and radionuclidous antroscintigraphy (124), received during diagnostics of defects of venous collectors of brain are analyzed. Five variants of defeats of venous collectors (cross, sigmoid, internal of jugular of jugular vein), but also unpaired sine (direct, confluent) are described. Received results permit to reveal interrelation of infringements of venous outflow and increase of intracranial pressure

  11. Single Mothers, Social Capital, and Work--Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabattari, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine work-family conflict among low-income, unmarried mothers. Analyzing the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national sample of nonmarital births, I examine how social capital affects work-family conflict and how both social capital and work-family conflict affect employment. Results show that…

  12. The Effect of Social Class on Tolerance of Defeat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Rebecca F.; Allen, Donald E.

    1975-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that middle-class subjects will spend more time on a difficult task than will working class subjects, 40 adult white married females were randomly selected from two small towns in north-central Oklahoma and given independently and in random order a logico-manipulative task and a motor-manipulative task. (Author/JM)

  13. Iraq: The Social Context of IEDs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McFate, Montgomery

    2005-01-01

    .... However, IEDs are a product of human ingenuity and human social organization. If we understand the social context in which they are invented, built, and used we will have an additional avenue for defeating them. As U.S...

  14. Defeating David: Looking Beyond a Matched Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    its territory in 1840.47 More importantly, French citizenship was not extended to the local Arabs and Berbers of Algeria, and instead they were...population. “Failure to obey rebel directives often brought mutilation or execution of uncooperative Algerians; on the other hand, when Arabs and Berbers ...statute. However, Algerian Muslims were discriminated in all facets of life—politically, economically, and socially. Berber and Arab pride suffered

  15. Defeating the Islamic State at Three Levels of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defeating the Islamic State at Three Levels of War 5a...ABSTRACT The Islamic State (IS) continues to be weakened at the operational level in Syria and Iraq. To remain legitimate, the insurgency is shifting...paper concludes with recommendations to aid planners in developing a concept to achieve the President’s desired end state. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Islamic

  16. N,N-Dihaloamine Explosives as Harmful Agent Defeat Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    19 Table 6. The Chapman–Jouguet Condition for HNFX (50% TMD) Predicted by Cheetah ..........20 Table 7. Viability of Bacillus spores following...candidate for a specific application such as hydrogen fluoride generation in an agent defeat weapon, it is still attractive. Cheetah code calculations...by Cheetah code calculations on HNFX, which show the following predominant final products of detonation (moles per mole of HNFX at 50% of

  17. Authoritative knowledge and single women's unintentional pregnancies, abortions, adoption, and single motherhood: social stigma and structural violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Marcia A

    2003-09-01

    This article explores the sources of authoritative knowledge that shaped single, white, middle-class women's unintentional pregnancies and child-bearing decisions throughout five reproductive eras. Women who terminated a pregnancy were most influenced by their own personal needs and circumstances. birth mothers' decisions were based on external sources of knowledge, such as their mothers, social workers, and social pressures. In contrast, single mothers based their decision on instincts and their religious or moral beliefs. Reproductive policies further constrained and significantly shaped women's experiences. The social stigma associated with these forms of stratified maternity suggests that categorizing pregnant women by their marital status, or births as out-of-wedlock, reproduces the structural violence implicit to normative models of female sexuality and maternity. This mixed-method study included focus groups to determine the kinds of knowledge women considered authoritative, a mailed survey to quantify these identified sources, and one-on-one interviews to explore outcomes in depth.

  18. 3 keys to defeating unconscious bias watch, think, act

    CERN Document Server

    Thiederman, Sondra

    2015-01-01

    Have you ever had a biased thought? If the answer is “yes,” join the club. Everybody has biases and, although that doesn’t make us bad people, it does mean we compromise our ability to get along with people who are different from us. The good news is, there’s a lot we can do to defeat bias. Calling on Dr. Sondra Thiederman’s twenty-five years of experience in the diversity/inclusion field, the book lays out an innovative WATCH, THINK, ACT strategy that each of us can immediately apply to the task. Easy-to-read and filled with anecdotes and activities, 3 Keys shows the reader: • How to WATCH their thoughts, experiences, and actions to identify unconscious biases and target them for extinction. • How to THINK in such a way as to weaken and control our biases. • How to ACT to defeat our biases and cultivate the kind of common ground that we know to be inhospitable to the survival of bias. Designed to motivate real change, the answer to defeating our biases is in these pages. The rest is up to you...

  19. Exogenous testosterone in women enhances and inhibits competitive decision-making depending on victory-defeat experience and trait dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pranjal H; van Son, Veerle; Welker, Keith M; Prasad, Smrithi; Sanfey, Alan G; Smidts, Ale; Roelofs, Karin

    2015-10-01

    The present experiment tested the causal impact of testosterone on human competitive decision-making. According to prevailing theories about testosterone's role in social behavior, testosterone should directly boost competitive decisions. But recent correlational evidence suggests that testosterone's behavioral effects may depend on specific aspects of the context and person relevant to social status (win-lose context and trait dominance). We tested the causal influence of testosterone on competitive decisions by combining hormone administration with measures of trait dominance and a newly developed social competition task in which the victory-defeat context was experimentally manipulated, in a sample of 54 female participants. Consistent with the hypothesis that testosterone has context- and person-dependent effects on competitive behavior, testosterone increased competitive decisions after victory only among high-dominant individuals but testosterone decreased competitive decisions after defeat across all participants. These results suggest that testosterone flexibly modulates competitive decision-making depending on prior social experience and dominance motivation in the service of enhancing social status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An Investigation of Loneliness and Perceived Social Support Among Single and Partnered Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczyk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the possible differences between single individuals and individuals in nonmarital romantic relationships in the domains of emotional (romantic and family) and social loneliness, and of perceived social support from family, friends and significant others. Based on a Polish university-student sample of 315 participants (167 women and 148 men) aged 19 to 25?years (M?=?21.90, SD?=?2.15), single relationship status was related to greater romantic and family loneliness, and ...

  1. From defamiliarization to foregrounding and defeated expectancy: Linguo-stylistic and cognitive sketch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupchyshyna Yuliya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on revealing the nature of defamiliarization, foregrounding, and defeated expectancy from a linguo-stylistic and cognitive perspective. It has been stated that defamiliarization, composed by different types of foregrounding and defeated expectancy as deviation, generated with a certain stylistic purpose are complex phenomena. The article highlights cognitive factors which ensure the creation of defamiliarization and defeated expectancy in the literary texts.

  2. Work Socialization and Adolescents' Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…

  3. Impact of the Volkswagen emissions control defeat device on US public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Steven R. H.; Speth, Raymond L.; Eastham, Sebastian D.; Dedoussi, Irene C.; Ashok, Akshay; Malina, Robert; Keith, David W.

    2015-11-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has alleged that Volkswagen Group of America (VW) violated the Clean Air Act (CAA) by developing and installing emissions control system ‘defeat devices’ (software) in model year 2009-2015 vehicles with 2.0 litre diesel engines. VW has admitted the inclusion of defeat devices. On-road emissions testing suggests that in-use NOx emissions for these vehicles are a factor of 10 to 40 above the EPA standard. In this paper we quantify the human health impacts and associated costs of the excess emissions. We propagate uncertainties throughout the analysis. A distribution function for excess emissions is estimated based on available in-use NOx emissions measurements. We then use vehicle sales data and the STEP vehicle fleet model to estimate vehicle distance traveled per year for the fleet. The excess NOx emissions are allocated on a 50 km grid using an EPA estimate of the light duty diesel vehicle NOx emissions distribution. We apply a GEOS-Chem adjoint-based rapid air pollution exposure model to produce estimates of particulate matter and ozone exposure due to the spatially resolved excess NOx emissions. A set of concentration-response functions is applied to estimate mortality and morbidity outcomes. Integrated over the sales period (2008-2015) we estimate that the excess emissions will cause 59 (95% CI: 10 to 150) early deaths in the US. When monetizing premature mortality using EPA-recommended data, we find a social cost of ˜450m over the sales period. For the current fleet, we estimate that a return to compliance for all affected vehicles by the end of 2016 will avert ˜130 early deaths and avoid ˜840m in social costs compared to a counterfactual case without recall.

  4. Impact of the Volkswagen emissions control defeat device on US public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Steven R H; Speth, Raymond L; Dedoussi, Irene C; Ashok, Akshay; Malina, Robert; Eastham, Sebastian D; Keith, David W

    2015-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has alleged that Volkswagen Group of America (VW) violated the Clean Air Act (CAA) by developing and installing emissions control system ‘defeat devices’ (software) in model year 2009–2015 vehicles with 2.0 litre diesel engines. VW has admitted the inclusion of defeat devices. On-road emissions testing suggests that in-use NO x emissions for these vehicles are a factor of 10 to 40 above the EPA standard. In this paper we quantify the human health impacts and associated costs of the excess emissions. We propagate uncertainties throughout the analysis. A distribution function for excess emissions is estimated based on available in-use NO x emissions measurements. We then use vehicle sales data and the STEP vehicle fleet model to estimate vehicle distance traveled per year for the fleet. The excess NO x emissions are allocated on a 50 km grid using an EPA estimate of the light duty diesel vehicle NO x emissions distribution. We apply a GEOS-Chem adjoint-based rapid air pollution exposure model to produce estimates of particulate matter and ozone exposure due to the spatially resolved excess NO x emissions. A set of concentration-response functions is applied to estimate mortality and morbidity outcomes. Integrated over the sales period (2008–2015) we estimate that the excess emissions will cause 59 (95% CI: 10 to 150) early deaths in the US. When monetizing premature mortality using EPA-recommended data, we find a social cost of ∼$450m over the sales period. For the current fleet, we estimate that a return to compliance for all affected vehicles by the end of 2016 will avert ∼130 early deaths and avoid ∼$840m in social costs compared to a counterfactual case without recall. (letter)

  5. Social issues around advanced unwanted pregnancies in rural single women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, S; Palaparthy, S; Mishra, S

    2009-05-01

    This study covers issues on advanced unwanted pregnancies in rural single women in South-east Asia, with reference to age, education, occupation, person responsible (i.e. baby's father) and reasons for delay in seeking assistance. It describes single women with pregnancy beyond the time for abortion, as set by the Indian abortion law. The study involved 314 girls/women and was set in the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, India. The girls/women were admitted, provided with free facilities and had their babies looked after by hospital staff until given up for adoption, or otherwise. The outcomes of the study showed that most individuals (71.01%) were rural, less-literate, working girls. In 94.26% of cases, the baby's father was known; 24 (7.64%) reported rape (13 by a known person). A total of 66 individuals (21.02%) did not inform their parents about the pregnancy for up to 5 months. Five (1.59%) went to unqualified medical practitioners and 16.56% to private practitioners who did not give their services. A total of 47 (14.96%) had waited for the person responsible for their pregnancy before seeking assistance. There was a total of 315 babies born to 310 mothers (five twins); four absconded undelivered; 13 absconded after delivery (two with their babies, 11 leaving babies). The study found that pregnancies were often caused by rape and girls/women with no knowledge of abortion laws, shyness, fear, lack of desired privacy, lack of resources, misleading management at periphery all went beyond 20 weeks. Mostly, the babies were not accepted--the girls married the babies' fathers, but left their babies. Emergency contraception for unprotected sexual intercourse is essential.

  6. Defeating Mechanisms of Armours for Main Battle Tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manfred Held

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental protection principles of the new armours for main battle tanks against kinetic energy projectiles (KE) and chemical energy weapons (CE)--shaped charges are shortly described and their efficiency against both threats discussed. The armour topics can be split into: "perpendicular or zero-degree armours", such as rolled homogeneous armour (RHA), also with extremely high strength, ceramics, glass, liquid filled columns and explosive filled cells,"inclined armours", as spaced RHA plates with their corner effects, bulging armour, additive and integrated explosive reactive armours (ERA) and "hard kill active defence possibilities" in different defeating distances.

  7. A single dose of oxytocin nasal spray improves higher-order social cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastella, Adam J; Ward, Philip B; Hickie, Ian B; Shahrestani, Sara; Hodge, Marie Antoinette Redoblado; Scott, Elizabeth M; Langdon, Robyn

    2015-11-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in both higher and lower order social cognitive performance and these impairments contribute to poor social functioning. People with schizophrenia report poor social functioning to be one of their greatest unmet treatment needs. Recent studies have suggested the potential of oxytocin as such a treatment, but mixed results render it uncertain what aspects of social cognition are improved by oxytocin and, subsequently, how oxytocin might best be applied as a therapeutic. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of oxytocin improved higher-order and lower-order social cognition performance for patients with schizophrenia across a well-established battery of social cognition tests. Twenty-one male patients received both a single dose of oxytocin nasal spray (24IU) and a placebo, two weeks apart in a randomized within-subjects placebo controlled design. Following each administration, participants completed the social cognition tasks, as well as a test of general neurocognition. Results revealed that oxytocin particularly enhanced performance on higher order social cognition tasks, with no effects on general neurocognition. Results for individual tasks showed most improvement on tests measuring appreciation of indirect hints and recognition of social faux pas. These results suggest that oxytocin, if combined to enhance social cognition learning, may be beneficial when targeted at higher order social cognition domains. This study also suggests that these higher order tasks, which assess social cognitive processing in a social communication context, may provide useful markers of response to oxytocin in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Social Stress Induced Pressure Breathing and Consequent Blood Pressure Oscillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Dirk S.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Meulen, Jan van der; Schoemaker, Regien

    1986-01-01

    A large amplitude blood pressure oscillation occurs during social defeat in a territorial fight between male rats, and during the application of a psychosocial stimulus associated with this defeat. Synchronous recording of blood pressure, intrathoracic pressure and diaphragm activity shows that the

  9. The Role of Defeat and Entrapment in Depression, Anxiety, and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter James; Gooding, Patricia; Wood, Alex M.; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Defeat and entrapment are psychological constructs that have played a central role in evolutionary accounts of depression. These concepts have since been implicated in theoretical accounts of anxiety disorders and suicidality. The current article reports on a systematic review of the existing research investigating the links among defeat,…

  10. Role of social workers to support single mothers: A case study of welfare receivers in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The women who lose their partners normally face tremendous challenges among their parents and in society. Women may lose their husbands for different reasons such as divorce, drug addiction, violence and migration. They may often look to build a new life very quickly but will find out that society does not treat them, properly. It is more difficult to find job and even a job opportunity does not provide sufficient pay. In this paper, we study the impact of different affecting parameters on empowering single mothers such as audacity, social responsibility, trouble shooting, flexibility, stress tolerance, etc. We choose 200 single mothers who receive welfare from the government of Iran and distribute a questionnaire among them based on four different questions associated with social, economical, feeling and empowering. The results indicate that audacity and social responsibility are the most important items while being optimistic, independent and flexibility are counted as having the least impact on empowering single mothers.

  11. Rumination, Suicidal Ideation, and the Mediating Effect of Self-Defeating Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond P. Tucker

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that a self-defeating humor style is related to indicators of psychopathology and interpersonal dysfunction, including depression, anxiety, loneliness, thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness. The current study continued this investigation by examining how self-defeating humor is related to suicidal ideation and a ruminative response style. Analyses indicated that a self-defeating humor style was positively associated to rumination, brooding, reflection, and suicidal ideation. Results of bootstrapping analyses indicated that self-defeating humor mediated the relationship between rumination and suicidal ideation. This same effect was seen for both brooding and reflection individually. Results indicate that self-defeating humor may serve as an interpersonal means of ruminating as this humor style involves consistent focus on perceived flaws and weaknesses. The assessment of this humor style may provide additional information about the maintenance of suicidal thinking.

  12. Social validity in single-case research: A systematic literature review of prevalence and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Melinda R; Chung, Moon Y; Meadan, Hedda; Halle, James W

    2018-03-01

    Single-case research (SCR) has been a valuable methodology in special education research. Montrose Wolf (1978), an early pioneer in single-case methodology, coined the term "social validity" to refer to the social importance of the goals selected, the acceptability of procedures employed, and the effectiveness of the outcomes produced in applied investigations. Since 1978, many contributors to SCR have included social validity as a feature of their articles and several authors have examined the prevalence and role of social validity in SCR. We systematically reviewed all SCR published in six highly-ranked special education journals from 2005 to 2016 to establish the prevalence of social validity assessments and to evaluate their scientific rigor. We found relatively low, but stable prevalence with only 28 publications addressing all three factors of the social validity construct (i.e., goals, procedures, outcomes). We conducted an in-depth analysis of the scientific rigor of these 28 publications. Social validity remains an understudied construct in SCR, and the scientific rigor of social validity assessments is often lacking. Implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Allostatic Load: Single Parents, Stress-Related Health Issues, and Social Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, Randy L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible relationships between allostatic load (AL) and stress-related health issues in the low-income single-parent population, using both a population health perspective (PHP) and a biological framework. A PHP identifies associations among such factors as gender, income, employment, and social support and their…

  14. Does cognitive behavioral therapy alter mental defeat and cognitive flexibility in patients with panic disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Shinobu; Seki, Yoichi; Shibuya, Takayuki; Yokoo, Mizue; Murata, Tomokazu; Hiramatsu, Yoichi; Yamada, Fuminori; Ibuki, Hanae; Minamitani, Noriko; Yoshinaga, Naoki; Kusunoki, Muga; Inada, Yasushi; Kawasoe, Nobuko; Adachi, Soichiro; Oshiro, Keiko; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yoshimura, Kensuke; Nakazato, Michiko; Iyo, Masaomi; Nakagawa, Akiko; Shimizu, Eiji

    2018-01-12

    Mental defeat and cognitive flexibility have been studied as explanatory factors for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. This study examined mental defeat and cognitive flexibility scores in patients with panic disorder (PD) before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and compared them to those of a gender- and age-matched healthy control group. Patients with PD (n = 15) received 16 weekly individual CBT sessions, and the control group (n = 35) received no treatment. Patients completed the Mental Defeat Scale and the Cognitive Flexibility Scale before the intervention, following eight CBT sessions, and following 16 CBT sessions, while the control group did so only prior to receiving CBT (baseline). The patients' pre-CBT Mental Defeat and Cognitive Flexibility Scale scores were significantly higher on the Mental Defeat Scale and lower on the Cognitive Flexibility Scale than those of the control group participants were. In addition, the average Mental Defeat Scale scores of the patients decreased significantly, from 22.2 to 12.4, while their average Cognitive Flexibility Scale scores increased significantly, from 42.8 to 49.5. These results suggest that CBT can reduce mental defeat and increase cognitive flexibility in patients with PD Trial registration The study was registered retrospectively in the national UMIN Clinical Trials Registry on June 10, 2016 (registration ID: UMIN000022693).

  15. Bacterial population solitary waves can defeat rings of funnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Ryan J; Phan, Trung V; Austin, Robert H; Black, Matthew; Bos, Julia A; Lin, Ke-Chih; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G

    2017-01-01

    We have constructed a microfabricated circular corral for bacteria made of rings of concentric funnels which channel motile bacteria outwards via non-hydrodynamic interactions with the funnel walls. Initially bacteria do move rapidly outwards to the periphery of the corral. At the edge, nano-slits allow for the transport of nutrients into the device while keeping the bacteria from escaping. After a period of time in which the bacteria increase their cell density in this perimeter region, they are then able to defeat the physical constrains of the funnels by launching back-propagating collective waves. We present the basic data and some nonlinear modeling which can explain how bacterial population waves propagate through a physical funnel, and discuss possible biological implications. (paper)

  16. Single prolonged stress impairs social and object novelty recognition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Andrew L; Fitzpatrick, Chris J; Perrine, Shane A

    2013-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) results from exposure to a traumatic event and manifests as re-experiencing, arousal, avoidance, and negative cognition/mood symptoms. Avoidant symptoms, as well as the newly defined negative cognitions/mood, are a serious complication leading to diminished interest in once important or positive activities, such as social interaction; however, the basis of these symptoms remains poorly understood. PTSD patients also exhibit impaired object and social recognition, which may underlie the avoidance and symptoms of negative cognition, such as social estrangement or diminished interest in activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that single prolonged stress (SPS), models PTSD phenotypes, including impairments in learning and memory. Therefore, it was hypothesized that SPS would impair social and object recognition memory. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to SPS then tested in the social choice test (SCT) or novel object recognition test (NOR). These tests measure recognition of novelty over familiarity, a natural preference of rodents. Results show that SPS impaired preference for both social and object novelty. In addition, SPS impairment in social recognition may be caused by impaired behavioral flexibility, or an inability to shift behavior during the SCT. These results demonstrate that traumatic stress can impair social and object recognition memory, which may underlie certain avoidant symptoms or negative cognition in PTSD and be related to impaired behavioral flexibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Potential Impact of Social Science Research on Legal Issues Surrounding Single-Sex Classrooms and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Suzanne Elizabeth; McCall, Stephanie D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines the role social science has played in litigation involving public single-sex educational programs. It also explores a body of social science research related to gender and education that we believe could assist the courts and school leaders in better examining the possibilities and the limitations of single-sex…

  18. The infertility trap: how defeat and entrapment affect depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardo, A; Moura-Ramos, M; Cunha, M; Pinto-Gouveia, J

    2016-02-01

    Does the perception of failure without a solution or way forward of infertile couples have a mediator role between the importance couples attribute to parenthood and depressive symptoms? The perception of failure without a solution or way forward, assessed by feelings of entrapment and defeat, mediates the effect of the importance of parenthood on depressive symptoms of infertile men and women. Research has documented that the heightened importance of parenthood affects infertile couples' adjustment to infertility and medical treatments. However, it remains unclear which psychological mechanisms and perceptions may underlie the association between having parenthood as a nuclear aspect of life and presenting depressive symptoms related to difficulties in accomplishing that important life goal. Although these links have been scantly addressed in infertility, previous studies have pointed to the role that perceptions of defeat and entrapment have in several psychopathological conditions. The study was cross-sectional. Couples pursuing medical treatment for their fertility problems were invited to participate by their doctors in several public and private clinics. Data collection took place between July 2009 and 2011. One hundred forty-seven infertile couples consented to participate in the study. Both couple members (147 women and 147 men) completed a set of self-report instruments for the assessment of depressive symptoms, perceptions of defeat and entrapment, importance of parenthood and rejection of a childfree lifestyle. Analyses were conducted through Structural Equation Modeling and followed a dyadic analysis strategy, allowing for controlling the interdependence of the data. The hypothesized tested model showed a very good fit to the data [(χ(2) = 68.45, P = 0.014, comparative fit index = 0.98, standardized root-mean-square residual = 0.06 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.06] and explained 67 and 58% of the variability in depressive symptoms in

  19. Social perceptions of single-use plastic consumption of the Balinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Murcia Martin, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The island of Bali has suffered from an increasing amount of single-use plastics being littered into the environment during the past few years. This research aims to determine the social perceptions of plastic bags and bottles in particular, through consumption habits, the degree of awareness of environmental impacts and the willingness to reduce their consumption. The methodology is based on a survey approach and literature review contrasting the characteristics of plastic bottles and bags, ...

  20. Social stress models in depression research: what do they tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouloff, Francis

    2013-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the use of social stress models, especially social defeat. Such an interest lies both on the recognition that stressors of social origin play a major role in human psychopathologies and on the acknowledgement that natural and hence ethologically-based stress models bear important translational value. The use of the most recent technology has allowed the recognition of the mechanisms through which social defeat may have enduring psychoneuroendocrine effects, especially social avoidance and anhedonia, two behaviours relevant to human depression. Taken with the sensitivity of these behavioural outcomes to repeated antidepressant treatments, it has been proposed that the social defeat model might be an animal model of depression. The present survey is aimed at examining the limits of such an interpretation, focusing on methodological aspects and on the relevance of social defeat to the study of anxiety-related pathologies. PMID:23532563

  1. Notes on (un-defeated revolution. Remarks in the margin of Rosa Luxemburg’s works from 1905-1906.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Piskała

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to present some reflections about Rosa Luxemburg’sworks from the first Russian revolution (1905-1906. I consider Luxemburg’sview on the historical meaning of this revolution and discuss her analyses of classstruggle in 1905-1906. The description of class struggle’s forms and its dynamicsis the most important and interesting excerpt of Luxemburg’s works from this time.She emphasized the meaning of a revolutionary sense of freedom and the changingworkers consciousness that happens during the revolution. She presents an inspiringdialectic relation between defeated rebellion or revolution and the final victory ofsocialist movement. I think that Luxemburg’s perspective may be useful for researchon contemporary social struggles (e.g. “Arab Spring”, “Occupy!” and helpful insearching for new forms of organization for radical liberation movements.

  2. Telemetric assessment of social and single housing: Evaluation of electrocardiographic intervals in jacketed cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Robert A; Tichenor, Stephen D; Regalia, Douglas E; York, Kristina; Holzgrefe, Henry H

    2015-01-01

    Proactive efforts to socially house laboratory animals are a contemporary, important focus for enhancing animal welfare. Jacketing cynomolgus monkeys has been traditionally considered an exclusionary criterion for social housing based on unsubstantiated concerns that study conduct or telemetry equipment might be compromised. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of jacketing naïve, adolescent cynomolgus monkeys in different single and social housing types based on parallel comparisons of heart rate. Eight naive cynomolgus monkeys were randomized into pairs and ECG data were collected for 24h from each animal in each housing condition using a crossover design. Caging paradigms consisted of standard individual, standard pair, quaternary pair (4 linked cages), and European-style pair housing in non-sequential order varied by pair to control for possible time bias. Dosing and blood collection procedures were performed to characterize any effects of housing on ECG data during study conduct. There was no increase in the incidence of equipment damage in pair vs. individually housed animals. Further, animals in all 4 housing paradigms showed similar acclimation assessed as heart rate (mean 139-154 beats per minute), and maintained similar diurnal rhythms, with an expected slowing of the heart rate at night (aggregate lights out HR 110±4bpm compared to daytime 146±7bpm). This study demonstrates the effects of different social access and housing types on the study-naïve cynomolgus monkeys during jacketed cardiovascular telemetry data collection in a repeat-dose toxicology study design. There were no discernible effects of social housing on baseline ECG parameters collected via jacketed telemetry, and all animals maintained expected diurnal rhythms in all housing settings tested. These data demonstrate that cynomolgus monkeys can be socially housed during data collection as a standard practice, consistent with global efforts to improve study animal welfare. Copyright

  3. Increased intake of energy-dense diet and negative energy balance in a mouse model of chronic psychosocial defeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccurello, Roberto; Romano, Adele; Giacovazzo, Giacomo; Tempesta, Bianca; Fiore, Marco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Marrocco, Ilaria; Altieri, Fabio; Moles, Anna; Gaetani, Silvana

    2018-06-01

    Chronic exposure to stress may represent a risk factor for developing metabolic and eating disorders, mostly driven by the overconsumption of easily accessible energy-dense palatable food, although the mechanisms involved remain still unclear. In this study, we used an ethologically oriented murine model of chronic stress caused by chronic psychosocial defeat (CPD) to investigate the effects of unrestricted access to a palatable high fat diet (HFD) on food intake, body weight, energy homeostasis, and expression of different brain neuropeptides. Our aim was to shed light on the mechanisms responsible for body weight and body composition changes due to chronic social stress. In our model of subordinate (defeated), mice (CPD) cohabitated in constant sensory contact with dominants, being forced to interact on daily basis, and were offered ad libitum access either to an HFD or to a control diet (CD). Control mice (of the same strain as CPD mice) were housed in pairs and left unstressed in their home cage (UN). In all these mice, we evaluated body weight, different adipose depots, energy metabolism, caloric intake, and neuropeptide expression. CPD mice increased the intake of HFD and reduced body weight in the presence of enhanced lipid oxidation. Resting energy expenditure and interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) were increased in CPD mice, whereas epididymal adipose tissue increased only in HFD-fed unstressed mice. Propiomelanocortin mRNA levels in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus increased only in HFD-fed unstressed mice. Oxytocin mRNA levels in the paraventricular nucleus and neuropeptide Y mRNA levels within the arcuate were increased only in CD-fed CPD mice. In the arcuate, CART was increased in HFD-fed UN mice and in CD-fed CPD mice, while HFD intake suppressed CART increase in defeated animals. In the basolateral amygdala, CART expression was increased only in CPD animals on HFD. CPD appears to uncouple the intake of HFD from energy homeostasis causing higher

  4. Interventions to Support Social Interaction in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review of Single Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuna, Jennifer; Mavridis, Alexis; Hott, Brittany L.

    2015-01-01

    Social interaction is a core deficit in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, parents and teachers need effective interventions to support students with ASD. This synthesis provides a quantitative analysis of single-subject studies that examine interventions to support social interactions in children with ASD. Results suggest…

  5. The Masculinities with Which They Enter: A Phenomenological Study of Precollege Gender Socialization in Single-Sex High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folan, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    This research contributes to a body of literature that looks for effective responses to the gendered performance gap, the research into the effects of single-sex education, and the social construction of masculinities. This qualitative inquiry focuses on a bounded group of male students who graduated from New England single-sex high schools and…

  6. Government Should Subsidize, Not Tax, Marriage: Social Policies Have Influenced the Rate of Growth in Single-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Based upon reflections from the Moynihan report of 1965, this author notes that the root causes of the growth in single-parent families have yet to be well identified, making it difficult to figure out where to go next. However, from 1965 onward, social policies have influenced the rate of growth in single-parent families. What is needed is a…

  7. Kids and adults now! Defeat Obesity (KAN-DO): rationale, design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostbye, Truls; Zucker, Nancy L; Krause, Katrina M; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Evenson, Kelly R; Peterson, Bercedis L; Bastian, Lori A; Swamy, Geeta K; West, Deborah G; Brouwer, Rebecca J N

    2011-05-01

    Prevention of childhood obesity is a public health priority. Parents influence a child's weight by modeling healthy behaviors, controlling food availability and activity opportunities, and appropriate feeding practices. Thus interventions should target education and behavioral change in the parent, and positive, mutually reinforcing behaviors within the family. This paper presents the design, rationale and baseline characteristics of Kids and Adults Now! - Defeat Obesity (KAN-DO), a randomized controlled behavioral intervention trial targeting weight maintenance in children of healthy weight, and weight reduction in overweight children. 400 children aged 2-5 and their overweight or obese mothers in the Triangle and Triad regions of North Carolina are randomized equally to control or the KAN-DO intervention, consisting of mailed family kits encouraging healthy lifestyle change. Eight (monthly) kits are supported by motivational counseling calls and a single group session. Mothers are targeted during a hypothesized "teachable moment" for health behavior change (the birth of a new baby), and intervention content addresses: parenting skills ((e.g., emotional regulation, authoritative parenting), healthy eating, and physical activity. The 400 mother-child dyads randomized to trial are 75% white and 22% black; 19% have a household income of $30,000 or below. At baseline, 15% of children are overweight (85th-95th percentile for body mass index) and 9% are obese (≥ 95th percentile). This intervention addresses childhood obesity prevention by using a family-based, synergistic approach, targeting at-risk children and their mothers during key transitional periods, and enhancing maternal self-regulation and responsive parenting as a foundation for health behavior change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sex differences in effects of dopamine D1 receptors on social withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campi, Katharine L; Greenberg, Gian D; Kapoor, Amita; Ziegler, Toni E; Trainor, Brian C

    2014-02-01

    Dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a critical role in the regulation of motivational states. Recent studies in male rodents show that social defeat stress increases the activity of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons projecting to the NAc, and that this increased activity is necessary for stress-induced social withdrawal. Domestic female mice are not similarly aggressive, which has hindered complementary studies in females. Using the monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), we found that social defeat increased total dopamine, DOPAC, and HVA content in the NAc in both males and females. These results are generally consistent with previous studies in Mus, and suggest defeat stress also increases NAc dopamine signaling in females. However, these results do not explain our previous observations that defeat stress induces social withdrawal in female but not male California mice. Pharmacological manipulations provided more insights. When 500 ng of the D1 agonist SKF38393 was infused in the NAc shell of females that were naïve to defeat, social interaction behavior was reduced. This same dose of SKF38393 had no effect in males, suggesting that D1 receptor activation is sufficient to induce social withdrawal in females but not males. Intra-accumbens infusion of the D1 antagonist SCH23390 increased social approach behavior in females exposed to defeat but not in females naïve to defeat. This result suggests that D1 receptors are necessary for defeat-induced social withdrawal. Overall, our results suggest that sex differences in molecular pathways that are regulated by D1 receptors contribute to sex differences in social withdrawal behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Defeat and entrapment as predictors of depression and suicidal ideation versus hopelessness and helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2012-10-01

    In a sample of 140 undergraduate students, measures of defeat and entrapment and of haplessness, helplessness, and hopelessness were similar in their ability to predict depression and suicidality. It was concluded that the two sets of measures may tap the same cognitive mind set.

  10. How do incumbents act when certain about their victory or defeat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Welling

    This paper empirically tests Alesina and Tabellini’s (1990) argument that fiscal policy is affected by an incumbent’s probability of electoral defeat – on a case where the outcomes of local elections are known with certainty. Using data from public registers on Danish municipalities over a period...

  11. Self-defeating behaviors in organizations : The relationship between thwarted belonging and interpersonal work behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thau, Stefan; Aquino, Karl; Poortvliet, P. Marijn

    This multisource field study applied belongingness theory to examine whether thwarted belonging, defined as the perceived discrepancy between one's desired and actual levels of belonging with respect to one's coworkers, predicts interpersonal work behaviors that are self-defeating. Controlling for

  12. How groups contest depends on group power and the likelihood that power determines victory and defeat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamans, Elanor; Otten, Sabine; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Spears, Russell

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to show that the type of conflict behavior (constructive vs. unconstructive) groups use in conflicts depends on their power position as well as the likelihood that power determines victory and defeat. In an alleged online debate, we created a conflict between two

  13. Prospective Predictors of Suicidality: Defeat and Entrapment Lead to Changes in Suicidal Ideation over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter James; Gooding, Patricia A.; Wood, Alex M.; Johnson, Judith; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical perspectives into suicidality have suggested that heightened perceptions of defeat and entrapment lead to suicidality. However, all previous empirical work has been cross-sectional. We provide the first longitudinal test of the theoretical predictions, in a sample of 79 students who reported suicidality. Participants completed…

  14. Single dose testosterone administration alleviates gaze avoidance in women with Social Anxiety Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enter, Dorien; Terburg, David|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32304087X; Harrewijn, Anita; Spinhoven, Philip; Roelofs, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Gaze avoidance is one of the most characteristic and persistent social features in people with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). It signals social submissiveness and hampers adequate social interactions. Patients with SAD typically show reduced testosterone levels, a hormone that facilitates socially

  15. The model of children's social adjustment under the gender-roles absence in single-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Jun; Zhang, Hailun; Wei, Bingsi; Guo, Zeyao

    2018-01-14

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the gender-role types and child-rearing gender-role attitude of the single-parents, as well as their children's gender role traits and family socio-economic status, on social adjustment. We recruited 458 pairs of single parents and their children aged 8-18 by purposive sampling. The research tools included the Family Socio-economic Status Questionnaire, Sex Role Scales, Parental Child-rearing Gender-role Attitude Scale and Social Adjustment Scale. The results indicated: (a) single mothers' and their daughters' feminine traits were both higher than their masculine traits, and sons' masculine traits were higher than their feminine traits; the majority gender-role type of single parents and their children was androgyny; significant differences were found between children's gender-role types depending on different raiser, the proportion of girls' masculine traits raised by single fathers was significantly higher than those who were raised by single mothers; (b) family socio-economic status and single parents' gender-role types positively influenced parental child-rearing gender-role attitude, which in turn, influenced the children's gender traits, and further affected children's social adjustment. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. A meta-analysis of perceptions of defeat and entrapment in depression, anxiety problems, posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddaway, Andy P; Taylor, Peter J; Wood, Alex M; Schulz, Joerg

    2015-09-15

    There is a burgeoning literature examining perceptions of being defeated or trapped in different psychiatric disorders. The disorders most frequently examined to date are depression, anxiety problems, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidality. To quantify the size and consistency of perceptions of defeat and entrapment in depression, anxiety problems, PTSD and suicidality, test for differences across psychiatric disorders, and examine potential moderators and publication bias. Random-effects meta-analyses based on Pearson's correlation coefficient r. Forty studies were included in the meta-analysis (n = 10,072). Perceptions of defeat and entrapment were strong (around r = 0.60) and similar in size across all four psychiatric disorders. Perceptions of defeat were particularly strong in depression (r = 0.73). There was no between-study heterogeneity; therefore moderator analyses were conducted in an exploratory fashion. There was no evidence of publication bias. Analyses were cross-sectional, which precludes establishing temporal precedence or causality. Some of the meta-analyses were based on relatively small numbers of effect sizes, which may limit their generalisability. Perceptions of defeat and entrapment are clinically important in depression, anxiety problems, PTSD, and suicidality. Similar-sized, strong relationships across four different psychiatric disorders could suggest that perceptions of defeat and entrapment are transdiagnostic constructs. The results suggest that clinicians and researchers need to become more aware of perceptions of defeat and entrapment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Repeated social stress leads to contrasting patterns of structural plasticity in the amygdala and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, D; Anilkumar, S; Chattarji, S; Buwalda, B

    2018-03-23

    Previous studies have demonstrated that repeated immobilization and restraint stress cause contrasting patterns of dendritic reorganization as well as alterations in spine density in amygdalar and hippocampal neurons. Whether social and ethologically relevant stressors can induce similar patterns of morphological plasticity remains largely unexplored. Hence, we assessed the effects of repeated social defeat stress on neuronal morphology in basolateral amygdala (BLA), hippocampal CA1 and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Male Wistar rats experienced social defeat stress on 5 consecutive days during confrontation in the resident-intruder paradigm with larger and aggressive Wild-type Groningen rats. This resulted in clear social avoidance behavior one day after the last confrontation. To assess the morphological consequences of repeated social defeat, 2 weeks after the last defeat, animals were sacrificed and brains were stained using a Golgi-Cox procedure. Morphometric analyses revealed that, compared to controls, defeated Wistar rats showed apical dendritic decrease in spine density on CA1 but not BLA. Sholl analysis demonstrated a significant dendritic atrophy of CA1 basal dendrites in defeated animals. In contrast, basal dendrites of BLA pyramidal neurons exhibited enhanced dendritic arborization in defeated animals. Social stress failed to induce lasting structural changes in mPFC neurons. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that social defeat stress elicits divergent patterns of structural plasticity in the hippocampus versus amygdala, similar to what has previously been reported with repeated physical stressors. Therefore, brain region specific variations may be a universal feature of stress-induced plasticity that is shared by both physical and social stressors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Depression, anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment are associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation in a rat model of social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gaurav; Solanki, Naimesh; Atrooz, Fatin; Allam, Farida; Salim, Samina

    2013-11-20

    In the present study, we have examined the behavioral and biochemical effect of induction of psychological stress using a modified version of the resident-intruder model for social stress (social defeat). At the end of the social defeat protocol, body weights, food and water intake were recorded, depression and anxiety-like behaviors as well as memory function was examined. Biochemical analysis including oxidative stress measurement, inflammatory markers and other molecular parameters, critical to behavioral effects were examined. We observed a significant decrease in the body weight in the socially defeated rats as compared to the controls. Furthermore, social defeat increased anxiety-like behavior and caused memory impairment in rats (PSocially defeated rats made significantly more errors in long term memory tests (Psocially defeated rats, when compared to control rats. We suggest that social defeat stress alters ERK1/2, IL-6, GLO1, GSR1, CAMKIV, CREB, and BDNF levels in specific brain areas, leading to oxidative stress-induced anxiety-depression-like behaviors and as well as memory impairment in rats. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Social stress in rats and mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; de Boer, S.F.; de Ruiter, A.J.H.; Meerlo, P; Sgoifo, A

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the highlights of our current social stress research in rodents as it was inspired by the work of Jim Henry. First, it is argued that social defeat can be considered as one of the most severe stressors among a number of laboratory stressful stimuli in terms of

  20. Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: independence from adult gonadal hormones and inhibition of female phenotype by corncob bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Brian C; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y; Campi, Katharine L; Florez, Stefani A; Greenberg, Gian D; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Laredo, Sarah A; Orr, Veronica N; Silva, Andrea L; Steinman, Michael Q

    2013-03-01

    There is compelling evidence for important sex differences in behavioral and hormonal responses to psychosocial stress. Here we examined the effects of gonadal hormones on behavioral responses to social defeat stress in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus). Three episodes of social defeat induced social withdrawal in intact females but not males. Gonadectomy blocked corticosterone responses to defeat in females and sensitized male corticosterone responses. However, gonadectomy had no effects on social interaction behavior, suggesting that social withdrawal is not dependent on gonadal hormones in the adult California mouse. In contrast, defeat reduced exploratory behavior in the open field test for intact but not castrated males. We also examined the effects of social defeat on social interaction behavior when California mice were raised on corncob bedding, which has estrogenic properties. In this dataset of over 300 mice, we observed that social defeat did not induce social withdrawal when females were raised on corncob bedding. This finding suggests that the use of corncob in rodent studies could mask important sex differences in the effects of stress on brain and behavior. Although gonadal hormones do not affect social withdrawal behavior in adults, our data suggest that hormones may act earlier in development to induce a more resilient social phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Single Motherhood, Employment, or Social Assistance: Why are U.S. Women Poorer than Women in Other Affluent Nations?

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, Karen

    2001-01-01

    U.S. women have higher poverty rates than women in other affluent nations. In this paper I attempt to explain this disparity by examining the effect of single motherhood, employment, and social assistance on women's poverty. With cross-national comparisons of quantitative data, I find that the relatively high rate of single motherhood among U.S. women is not a main cause of their high poverty rates. Compared to their counterparts in other Western nations, U.S. women, mothers and single mother...

  2. Quality Indicators for Single-Case Research on Social Skill Interventions for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shin-Yi; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a quality checklist that parents, teachers, clinicians, and policy-makers with basic research skills can use to systematically evaluate the methodological quality of single-case studies on social skill training of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). We provide a rationale for included quality indicators, and…

  3. Observing Al Qaeda Through the Lens of Complexity Theory: Recommendations for the National Strategy to Defeat Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beech, Michael

    2004-01-01

    .... To defeat al Qaeda or other complex global terrorist networks traditional military strategies reliant on nation state frameworks and determination of centers of gravity and decisive points may not be...

  4. Hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment in posttraumatic stress disorder: their association with suicidal behavior and severity of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagioti, Maria; Gooding, Patricia A; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2012-08-01

    Research has shown an increased frequency of suicidal behaviors in those with PTSD, but few studies have investigated the factors that underlie the emergence of suicidal behavior in PTSD. Two theories of suicide, the Cry of Pain and the Schematic Appraisal Model of Suicide, propose that feelings of hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment are core components of suicidality. This study aimed to examine the association between suicidal behavior and hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment in trauma victims with and without a PTSD diagnosis. The results demonstrated that hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment were significantly positively associated with suicidal behavior in those with PTSD. Hopelessness and defeat were also significantly positively associated with suicidal behavior in trauma victims without PTSD. In those with PTSD, the relationship between suicidal behavior and hopelessness and entrapment remained significant after controlling for comorbid depression. The findings provide support for the contemporary theories of suicidality and have important clinical implications.

  5. Social support and education groups for single mothers: a randomized controlled trial of a community-based program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Ellen L; Boyle, Michael H

    2005-12-06

    Members of families headed by single mothers are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage and mental health problems. We assessed the effect of a community-based program of social support and education groups for single mothers of young children on maternal well-being and parenting. We recruited 116 single mothers of children 3 to 9 years old through community advertisements. Eligible mothers were randomly assigned either to participate in a 10-week program of group sessions (1.5 hours per week) offering social support and education, with a parallel children's activity group, or to receive a standard list of community resources and the option to participate in group sessions at the end of the follow-up period. Interviewers blinded to the randomization collected assessment data from all mothers at baseline and at 3 follow-up visits (immediately after the intervention and at 3 and 6 months after the intervention). Outcome measures were self-reported mood, self-esteem, social support and parenting. Between February 2000 and April 2003, the program was offered to 9 groups of single mothers. Most of the mothers in the trial reported high levels of financial and mental health problems. In the short term (after the intervention), mothers in the intervention group had improved scores for mood (p effect = 0.55) and self-esteem (p effect = 0.29) compared with mothers in the control group; scores for the other 2 measures did not differ between the groups. Growth curve analysis of program effects over the follow-up period showed improvement in all 4 outcomes, with no significant difference between the intervention and control groups. This community-based program of group sessions offering social support and education to low-income single mothers had positive short-term effects on mood and self-esteem but not on social support and parenting. Longer follow-up showed attenuation of these effects.

  6. What's Wrong with a Little Social Darwinism (in Our Historiography)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versen, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    The simplest and most widely held definition of Social Darwinism is the application of concepts of biological evolution to social and moral development. More specifically, it is social evolution through "survival of the fittest" in a "struggle for existence" in which the strong prevail and the weak are defeated and disappear.…

  7. Self-defeating behaviors in organizations: the relationship between thwarted belonging and interpersonal work behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thau, Stefan; Aquino, Karl; Poortvliet, P Marijn

    2007-05-01

    This multisource field study applied belongingness theory to examine whether thwarted belonging, defined as the perceived discrepancy between one's desired and actual levels of belonging with respect to one's coworkers, predicts interpersonal work behaviors that are self-defeating. Controlling for demographic variables, job type, justice constructs, and trust in organization in a multilevel regression analysis using data from 130 employees of a clinical chemical laboratory and their supervisors, the authors found that employees who perceive greater levels of desired coworker belonging than actual levels of coworker belonging were more likely to engage in interpersonally harmful and less likely to engage in interpersonally helpful behaviors. Implications for the application of belongingness theory to explain self-defeating behaviors in organizations are discussed. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Defeat and entrapment: more than meets the eye? Applying network analysis to estimate dimensions of highly correlated constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkmann, Thomas; Teismann, Tobias; Stenzel, Jana-Sophie; Glaesmer, Heide; de Beurs, Derek

    2018-01-25

    Defeat and entrapment have been shown to be of central relevance to the development of different disorders. However, it remains unclear whether they represent two distinct constructs or one overall latent variable. One reason for the unclarity is that traditional factor analytic techniques have trouble estimating the right number of clusters in highly correlated data. In this study, we applied a novel approach based on network analysis that can deal with correlated data to establish whether defeat and entrapment are best thought of as one or multiple constructs. Explanatory graph analysis was used to estimate the number of dimensions within the 32 items that make up the defeat and entrapment scales in two samples: an online community sample of 480 participants, and a clinical sample of 147 inpatients admitted to a psychiatric hospital after a suicidal attempt or severe suicidal crisis. Confirmatory Factor analysis (CFA) was used to test whether the proposed structure fits the data. In both samples, bootstrapped exploratory graph analysis suggested that the defeat and entrapment items belonged to different dimensions. Within the entrapment items, two separate dimensions were detected, labelled internal and external entrapment. Defeat appeared to be multifaceted only in the online sample. When comparing the CFA outcomes of the one, two, three and four factor models, the one factor model was preferred. Defeat and entrapment can be viewed as distinct, yet, highly associated constructs. Thus, although replication is needed, results are in line with theories differentiating between these two constructs.

  9. Making Sense of Misfortune: Deservingness, Self-Esteem, and Patterns of Self-Defeat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on theorizing and research suggesting that people are motivated to view their world as an orderly and predictable place in which people get what they deserve, the authors proposed that (a) random and uncontrollable bad outcomes will lower self-esteem and (b) this, in turn, will lead to the adoption of self-defeating beliefs and behaviors. Four experiments demonstrated that participants who experienced or recalled bad (vs. good) breaks devalued their self-esteem (Studies 1a and 1b), and that decrements in self-esteem (whether arrived at through misfortune or failure experience) increase beliefs about deserving bad outcomes (Studies 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b). Five studies (Studies 3–7) extended these findings by showing that this, in turn, can engender a wide array of self-defeating beliefs and behaviors, including claimed self-handicapping ahead of an ability test (Study 3), the preference for others to view the self less favorably (Studies 4–5), chronic self-handicapping and thoughts of physical self-harm (Study 6), and choosing to receive negative feedback during an ability test (Study 7). The current findings highlight the important role that concerns about deservingness play in the link between lower self-esteem and patterns of self-defeating beliefs and behaviors. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24956317

  10. Making sense of misfortune: deservingness, self-esteem, and patterns of self-defeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Mitchell J; Kay, Aaron C; Dawtry, Rael J

    2014-07-01

    Drawing on theorizing and research suggesting that people are motivated to view their world as an orderly and predictable place in which people get what they deserve, the authors proposed that (a) random and uncontrollable bad outcomes will lower self-esteem and (b) this, in turn, will lead to the adoption of self-defeating beliefs and behaviors. Four experiments demonstrated that participants who experienced or recalled bad (vs. good) breaks devalued their self-esteem (Studies 1a and 1b), and that decrements in self-esteem (whether arrived at through misfortune or failure experience) increase beliefs about deserving bad outcomes (Studies 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b). Five studies (Studies 3-7) extended these findings by showing that this, in turn, can engender a wide array of self-defeating beliefs and behaviors, including claimed self-handicapping ahead of an ability test (Study 3), the preference for others to view the self less favorably (Studies 4-5), chronic self-handicapping and thoughts of physical self-harm (Study 6), and choosing to receive negative feedback during an ability test (Study 7). The current findings highlight the important role that concerns about deservingness play in the link between lower self-esteem and patterns of self-defeating beliefs and behaviors. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. O imaginário da derrota no esporte contemporâneo The competition and defeat experience in contemporary sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Rubio

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Diante das necessidades impostas aos atletas de alto rendimento na atualidade, a superação se tornou um princípio e um termo recorrente entre aqueles que conseguiram chegar entre os mais destacados, os vencedores. Na estrutura do esporte contemporâneo observa-se a reprodução do modelo liberal que privilegia a vitória, embora sejam premiados os três primeiros colocados em disputas olímpicas. Isso leva muitas vezes o ganhador da medalha de prata e de bronze a se sentir derrotado, negando um feito digno de registro histórico. Os desdobramentos da derrota não são suficientemente estudados, o que contribui para uma atitude de negação em relação a essa situação tanto por parte de atletas como de profissionais que atuam no universo esportivo. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma discussão sobre o imaginário da derrota no esporte contemporâneo e como esse evento se dá entre atletas brasileiros ganhadores de medalhas olímpicas, bem como as suas várias representações no contexto social contemporâneo.Considering the needs for high performance imposed to athletes nowadays, overcoming limits has become a principle and a recurrent term among those who achieve prominence: winners. In the structure of contemporary sports we observe a reproduction of the liberal model which privileges victory, although the first three prizes are awarded in Olympic disputes. This situation very often makes silver and bronze medallists feel defeated, denying their achievement, which is worth a historical record. The unfolding of defeat has not been properly studied, which contributes to denial of that situation by both athletes and professionals who work within the sports universe. The aim of this paper is to present a debate on the image of defeat in contemporary sports as well as how it takes place among Olympic medallists, together with its several representations in the contemporary social context.

  12. The Secret of Future Defeat: The Evolution of US Joint and Army Doctrine 1993-2006 and the Flawed Conception of Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-24

    The Secret of Future Defeat: the Evolution of US Joint and Army Doctrine 1993-2006 and the Flawed Conception of Stability Operations A...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Secret of Future Defeat: the Evolution of US Joint and 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Army Doctrine 1993-2006 and the Flawed... The Secret of Future Defeat: the Evolution of US Joint and Army Doctrine 1993-2006 and the Flawed Conception of Stability Operations Approved by

  13. Not Just Another Single Issue: Teen Pregnancy Prevention's Link to Other Critical Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses critical social issues linked to teen pregnancy, explaining that teen pregnancy prevention should be viewed as working to improve these social issues. After providing general background on teen pregnancy, the report offers five fact sheets: (1) "Teen Pregnancy, Welfare Dependency, and Poverty" (continuing to reduce…

  14. Dominance relationships in Syrian hamsters modulate neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulka, Brooke N; Koul-Tiwari, Richa; Grizzell, J Alex; Harvey, Marquinta L; Datta, Subimal; Cooper, Matthew A

    2018-06-22

    Stress is a well-known risk factor for psychopathology and rodent models of social defeat have strong face, etiological, construct and predictive validity for these conditions. Syrian hamsters are highly aggressive and territorial, but after an acute social defeat experience they become submissive and no longer defend their home territory, even from a smaller, non-aggressive intruder. This defeat-induced change in social behavior is called conditioned defeat (CD). We have shown that dominant hamsters show increased neural activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) following social defeat stress and exhibit a reduced CD response at social interaction testing compared to subordinates. Although the vmPFC can inhibit the neuroendocrine stress response, it is unknown whether dominants and subordinates differ in stress-induced activity of the extended hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Here, we show that, following acute social defeat, dominants exhibit decreased submissive and defensive behavior compared to subordinates but do not differ from subordinates or social status controls (SSCs) in defeat-induced cortisol concentrations. Furthermore, both dominants and SSCs show greater corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression in the basolateral/central amygdala compared to subordinates, while there was no effect of social status on CRH mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus or bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Overall, status-dependent differences in the CD response do not appear linked to changes in stress-induced cortisol concentrations or CRH gene expression, which is consistent with the view that stress resilience is not a lack of a physiological stress response but the addition of stress coping mechanisms. Lay summary Dominant hamsters show resistance to the behavioral effects of acute social defeat compared to subordinates, but it is unclear whether social status modulates the neuroendocrine stress response

  15. Impact of tobacco industry and other corporations in the defeat of the 1994 Clinton health care plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givel, Michael

    2017-06-21

    The primary reason cited by many scholars for the defeat of the Clinton Administration's 1994 health care reform bill has long been identified as Health Insurance Association of America and National Federation of Independent Businesses opposition to the bill. Given this predominant consensus combined with sizeable proposed funding for the bill by a large tobacco product tax, this manuscript examined what the tobacco industry's role was in whole or part in defeating the Clinton health care bill. This research occurred through crosschecking internal tobacco industry documents and Clinton White House documents. Prior to the passage of the bill, the tobacco industry accepted a compromise of 45 cents per pack increase phased in over five years. Due to this compromise, the industry or third party allies had no role in the ultimate defeat in the bill. The primary reason for the bill's ultimate defeat was general business (but not tobacco industry and third party ally) opposition, the bill running out of time, and conflicting bills. Secondary reasons for the bill's defeat included issues with: employer mandates, high taxes on insurance plans, impacts on medical research and education, Congressional attention to other issues, election year politics, and possible future excise tax possibilities.

  16. Reversal of Stress-Induced Social Interaction Deficits by Buprenorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Caroline A; Falcon, Edgardo; Robinson, Shivon A; Berton, Olivier; Lucki, Irwin

    2018-02-01

    Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder frequently report persistent problems with social interactions, emerging after a traumatic experience. Chronic social defeat stress is a widely used rodent model of stress that produces robust and sustained social avoidance behavior. The avoidance of other rodents can be reversed by 28 days of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, the only pharmaceutical class approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating post-traumatic stress disorder. In this study, the sensitivity of social interaction deficits evoked by 10 days of chronic social defeat stress to prospective treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder was examined. The effects of acute and repeated treatment with a low dose of buprenorphine (0.25 mg/kg/d) on social interaction deficits in male C57BL/6 mice by chronic social defeat stress were studied. Another cohort of mice was used to determine the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/d), the NMDA antagonist ketamine (10 mg/kg/d), and the selective kappa opioid receptor antagonist CERC-501 (1 mg/kg/d). Changes in mRNA expression of Oprm1 and Oprk1 were assessed in a separate cohort. Buprenorphine significantly reversed social interaction deficits produced by chronic social defeat stress following 7 days of administration, but not after acute injection. Treatment with fluoxetine for 7 days, but not 24 hours, also reinstated social interaction behavior in mice that were susceptible to chronic social defeat. In contrast, CERC-501 and ketamine failed to reverse social avoidance. Gene expression analysis found: (1) Oprm1 mRNA expression was reduced in the hippocampus and increased in the frontal cortex of susceptible mice and (2) Oprk1 mRNA expression was reduced in the amygdala and increased in the frontal cortex of susceptible mice compared to non-stressed controls and stress-resilient mice. Short-term treatment with buprenorphine and fluoxetine

  17. The icon of defeat: the 7x1 construction by visual plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnos Cassiano Casagrande

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the 7x1 defeat of the Brazilian team in the football World Cup 2014 by the plasticity of the image. Plastic forces acting on the image analyzed by Villafañe (2000, Arnheim (1988 and Kandinsky (1997 reconstructed the fact itself. The analysis becomes more evident the strategic collaboration of the images used in newspaper front pages, in the formation of the general directions that newspaper text intends and shows the flexibility of the iconic to represent the real through visual elements such as color, point, textures and dimension.

  18. The icon of defeat: the 7x1 construction by visual plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Magnos Cassiano Casagrande; Fabiano Maggioni

    2016-01-01

    The study investigates the 7x1 defeat of the Brazilian team in the football World Cup 2014 by the plasticity of the image. Plastic forces acting on the image analyzed by Villafañe (2000), Arnheim (1988) and Kandinsky (1997) reconstructed the fact itself. The analysis becomes more evident the strategic collaboration of the images used in newspaper front pages, in the formation of the general directions that newspaper text intends and shows the flexibility of the iconic to represent the real th...

  19. DIFERENCE EFFICACY BETWEEN WINNER AND DEFEAT TIM ON WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP IN SOCCER GAME 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Kapidžić

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyse thirty games of world championship in soccer 2006 with am to determine variables which contribute signifi cant distinction and differences between winner and defeat tim. Fortifi cation differences in aplayed variables we will apply multivariant analisis of variance. For this examination we will use variable of tehnich elements, and some of tactics calculation and estimate quality of tehnics elements according to the judges. This problem is very interesting for exploration, and it’s leading to modern tendency’s so these are the elementary reasons why we chose this kind of exploration.

  20. Depression, social support, and clinical outcomes following lung transplantation: a single-center cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick J; Snyder, Laurie D; Palmer, Scott M; Hoffman, Benson M; Stonerock, Gregory L; Ingle, Krista K; Saulino, Caroline K; Blumenthal, James A

    2018-05-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among lung transplant candidates and have been associated with poorer clinical outcomes in some studies. Previous studies have been plagued by methodologic problems, including small sample sizes, few clinical events, and uncontrolled confounders, particularly perioperative complications. In addition, few studies have examined social support as a potential protective factor. We therefore examined the association between pretransplant depressive symptoms, social support, and mortality in a large sample of lung transplant recipients. As a secondary aim, we also examined the associations between psychosocial factors, perioperative outcomes [indexed by hospital length of stay (LOS)], and mortality. We hypothesized that depression would be associated with longer LOS and that the association between depression, social support, and mortality would be moderated by LOS. Participants included lung transplant recipients, transplanted at Duke University Medical Center from January 2009 to December 2014. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and social support using the Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS). Medical risk factors included forced vital capacity (FVC), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO 2 ), donor age, acute rejection, and transplant type. Functional status was assessed using six-minute walk distance (6MWD). We also controlled for demographic factors, including age, gender, and native disease. Transplant hospitalization LOS was examined as a marker of perioperative clinical outcomes. Participants included 273 lung recipients (174 restrictive, 67 obstructive, 26 cystic fibrosis, and six "other"). Pretransplant depressive symptoms were common, with 56 participants (21%) exhibiting clinically elevated levels (BDI-II ≥ 14). Greater depressive symptoms were associated with longer LOS [adjusted b = 0.20 (2 days per 7-point higher BDI-II score), P social support (P social support were

  1. Social defeat-induced anhedonia: effects on operant sucrose-seeking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riga, D.; Theijs, J.T.; de Vries, T.J.; Smit, A.B.; Spijker, S.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced capacity to experience pleasure, also known as anhedonia, is a key feature of the depressive state and is associated with poor disease prognosis and treatment outcome. Various behavioral readouts (e.g., reduced sucrose intake) have been employed in animal models of depression as a measure of

  2. Core Modular Blood and Brain Biomarkers in Social Defeat Mouse Model for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    been used to induce anxiety, depression-like and avoidance symptoms, which are the most prominent psychiatric features of PTSD and common co...consideration. We then imputed missing values using the k-nearest neighbor imputation method. To avoid incurring a bias in favor of genes represented by a...Horvath S, Geschwind DH: Divergence of human and mouse brain transcriptome highlights Alzheimer disease pathways. PNAS 2010, 107(28):12698– 12703. 30

  3. Social Explanation and Political Accountability: Two Related Problems with a Single Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Andrew; And Others

    Governing bodies that are quasi-rational, representative, and democratic are accountable to those they govern in much the same way that social scientists are accountable to the academic community. Since they both appeal to rationality as the basis of their actions, governments and scientists must use epistemologically adequate procedures to…

  4. Asynchronous social search as a single point of access to information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, M.P.; Spruit, M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present asynchronous social search as a novel and intuitive approach to search for information in which people collaborate to find the information they are looking for. Design/methodology/approach A prototype was built to test the feasibility in a business

  5. Surrendering to the Big Picture: Historical and Legal Perspectives on Accountability in the Democratic Republic of Congo Following the Defeat of the March 23 Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet McKnight

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It remains to be seen whether the past few months will mark a genuine turning point in the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, as the rebel faction March 23 Movement (M23 announced the end of its 20-month insurgency against the government on 5 November 2013. News of the rebel group’s surrender following its political and military defeat signals an important moment of hope and renewed prospects of peace and stability in a region prone to protracted armed conflict. However, long-term stability in the country and in the region will require a multi-faceted process consisting of comprehensive accountability for human rights violations that have been committed by all parties to the conflict. In this article, I will first lay out the historical context of the fighting and the root causes of conflict present long before M23’s entrance onto the scene as a splintered rebel faction so as to understand M23’s place within the country’s history of protracted violence. Next, I will explain the violations of international humanitarian and human rights law committed by all possible parties, including rebel and government groups, as well as individual criminal responsibility and corporate liability. Lastly, I will chart the pathways of criminal and social accountability at various levels of international and domestic justice systems to see how the DRC may continue to build long-term local stability in the eastern parts of the country by addressing the question of accountability for international crimes. This brief analysis aims to provide a broader understanding of a complex conflict beyond the defeat and disarmament of M23, albeit a key group in a region of contentious cross-border conflict.

  6. Social influences on physical activity in Anglo-Australian and Vietnamese-Australian adolescent females in a single sex school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew N; Dollman, James

    2009-01-01

    Social support is a consistent correlate of youth physical activity (PA) but few studies have examined this in cultural sub-groups. Female adolescents (n=113; 13.9+/-0.6years) from a metropolitan single sex private school participated in this study. PA was estimated using the 3 Day Physical Activity Recall (3dPAR), and aspects of social support using a specifically designed questionnaire. Anglo-Australians (n=74), whose parents were both born in Australia, were compared with Vietnamese-Australians (n=39), whose parents were both born in Vietnam. There were non-significant trends towards higher engagement in all measures of PA among Anglo-Australians. Anglo-Australians perceived higher levels of social support to be physically active. In the whole sample and in cultural sub-groups, support by mothers was a consistent predictor of PA. Among Vietnamese-Australians, activities shared with the mother predicted moderate to vigorous PA. Interventions targeting PA among adolescent females should consider interactions of social support and cultural background.

  7. Social housing and social isolation: Impact on stress indices and energy balance in male and female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy P; Norvelle, Alisa; Choi, Dennis C; Walton, James C; Albers, H Elliott; Huhman, Kim L

    2017-08-01

    Although Syrian hamsters are thought to be naturally solitary, recent evidence from our laboratory demonstrates that hamsters may actually prefer social contact. Hamsters increase their preference for a location associated with an agonistic encounter regardless of whether they have "won" or "lost". It has also been reported that social housing as well as exposure to intermittent social defeat or to a brief footshock stressor increase food intake and body mass in hamsters. By contrast, it has also been suggested that housing hamsters in social isolation causes anxiety-induced anorexia and reductions in body mass selectively in females. The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological consequences of housing hamsters in social isolation versus in social groups. Male and female hamsters were housed singly or in stable groups of 5 for 4weeks after which they were weighed and trunk blood was collected. In addition, fat pads and thymus and adrenal glands were extracted and weighed. Serum and fecal cortisol were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Housing condition had no effect on serum or fecal cortisol, but socially housed hamsters displayed modest thymus gland involution. Socially housed females weighed more than did any other group, and socially housed females and males had more fat than did socially isolated hamsters. No wounding or tissue damage occurred in grouped hamsters. Overall, these data suggest that Syrian hamsters tolerate both stable social housing and social isolation in the laboratory although social housing is associated with some alteration in stress-related and bioenergetic measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Advanced dexterous manipulation for IED defeat : report on the feasibility of using the ShadowHand for remote operations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Improvised Explosive Device (IED) defeat (IEDD) operations can involve intricate operations that exceed the current capabilities of the grippers on board current bombsquad robots. The Shadow Dexterous Hand from the Shadow Robot Company or 'ShadowHand' for short (www.shadowrobot.com) is the first commercially available robot hand that realistically replicates the motion, degrees-of-freedom and dimensions of a human hand (Figure 1). In this study we evaluate the potential for the ShadowHand to perform potential IED defeat tasks on a mobile platform.

  9. Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Agency Needs to Improve Assessment and Documentation of Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Initiatives (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-09

    E XC E L L E N C E Joint Improvised ‑Threat Defeat Agency Needs to Improve Assessment and Documentation of Counter‑ Improvised Explosive Device...USE ONLY DODIG-2016-120 (Project No. D2015-D000AE-0222.000) │ i Results in Brief Joint Improvised ‑Threat Defeat Agency Needs to Improve Assessment and...Documentation of Counter‑ Improvised Explosive Device Initiatives Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective Our audit objective was to determine whether

  10. Influence of confining prestress on the transition from interface defeat to penetration in ceramic targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Lundberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Replica scaled impact experiments with unconfined ceramic targets have shown that the transition velocity, i.e., the impact velocity at which interface defeat ceases and ceramic penetration occurs, decreased as the length scale increased. A possible explanation of how this scale effect is related to the formation of a cone crack in the ceramic has been presented by the authors in an earlier paper. Here, the influence of confinement and prestress on cone cracking and transition velocity is investigated. The hypothesis is that prestress will suppress the formation and growth of the cone crack by lowering the driving stress. A set of impact experiments has been performed in which the transition velocity for four different levels of prestress has been determined. The transition velocities as a function of the level of confining prestress is compared to an analytical model for the influence of prestress on the formation and extension of the cone crack in the ceramic material. Both experiments and model indicate that prestress has a strong influence on the transition from interface defeat to penetration, although the model underestimates the influence of prestress.

  11. Integrating Language, Pragmatics, and Social Intervention in a Single-Subject Case Study of a Child With a Developmental Social Communication Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny

    2015-10-01

    This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of individualized therapy activities and in close liaison with families. The study used an enhanced AB single-subject design in which an 8-year-old child with an SCD participated in 20 therapy sessions with a specialist speech-language pathologist. A procedure of matching assessment findings to intervention choices was followed to construct an individualized treatment program. Examples of intervention content and the embedded structure of SCIP are illustrated. Observational and formal measurements of receptive and expressive language, conversation, and parent-teacher ratings of social communication were completed before therapy, after therapy, and at a 6-month follow-up session. Outcomes revealed change in total and receptive language scores but not in expressive language. Conversation showed marked improvement in responsiveness, appreciation of listener knowledge, turn taking, and adaptation of discourse style. Teacher-reported outcomes included improved classroom behavior and enhanced literacy skills. Parent-reported outcomes included improved verbal interactions with family members and personal narratives. This clinical focus article demonstrates the complexity of needs in a child with an SCD and how these can be addressed in individualized intervention. Findings are discussed in relation to the essential nature of language support including pragmatic therapy for children with SCDs. Discussion of the role of formal and functional outcome measurement as well as the proximity of chosen outcomes to the intervention is included.

  12. Persistence of the single lineage of transmissible 'social cancer' in an asexual ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobata, S; Sasaki, T; Mori, H; Hasegawa, E; Shimada, M; Tsuji, K

    2011-02-01

    How cooperation can arise and persist, given the threat of cheating phenotypes, is a central problem in evolutionary biology, but the actual significance of cheating in natural populations is still poorly understood. Theories of social evolution predict that cheater lineages are evolutionarily short-lived. However, an exception comes from obligate socially parasitic species, some of which thought to have arisen as cheaters within cooperator colonies and then diverged through sympatric speciation. This process requires the cheater lineage to persist by avoiding rapid extinction that would result from the fact that the cheaters inflict fitness cost on their host. We examined whether this prerequisite is fulfilled, by estimating the persistence time of cheaters in a field population of the parthenogenetic ant Pristomyrmex punctatus. Population genetic analysis found that the cheaters belong to one monophyletic lineage which we infer has persisted for 200-9200 generations. We show that the cheaters migrate and are thus horizontally transmitted between colonies, a trait allowing the lineage to avoid rapid extinction with its host colony. Although horizontal transmission of disruptive cheaters has the potential to induce extinction of the entire population, such collapse is likely averted when there is spatially restricted migration in a structured population, a scenario that matches the observed isolation by distance pattern that we found. We compare our result with other examples of disruptive and horizontally transmissible cheater lineages in nature. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Quantitative historical analysis uncovers a single dimension of complexity that structures global variation in human social organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, Peter; Currie, Thomas E.; Whitehouse, Harvey; François, Pieter; Feeney, Kevin; Mullins, Daniel; Hoyer, Daniel; Collins, Christina; Grohmann, Stephanie; Mendel-Gleason, Gavin; Turner, Edward; Dupeyron, Agathe; Cioni, Enrico; Reddish, Jenny; Levine, Jill; Jordan, Greine; Brandl, Eva; Williams, Alice; Cesaretti, Rudolf; Krueger, Marta; Ceccarelli, Alessandro; Figliulo-Rosswurm, Joe; Tuan, Po-Ju; Peregrine, Peter; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes; Kradin, Nikolay; Korotayev, Andrey; Palmisano, Alessio; Baker, David; Bidmead, Julye; Bol, Peter; Christian, David; Cook, Connie; Covey, Alan; Feinman, Gary; Júlíusson, Árni Daníel; Kristinsson, Axel; Miksic, John; Mostern, Ruth; Petrie, Cameron; Rudiak-Gould, Peter; ter Haar, Barend; Wallace, Vesna; Mair, Victor; Xie, Liye; Baines, John; Bridges, Elizabeth; Manning, Joseph; Lockhart, Bruce; Bogaard, Amy; Spencer, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Do human societies from around the world exhibit similarities in the way that they are structured, and show commonalities in the ways that they have evolved? These are long-standing questions that have proven difficult to answer. To test between competing hypotheses, we constructed a massive repository of historical and archaeological information known as “Seshat: Global History Databank.” We systematically coded data on 414 societies from 30 regions around the world spanning the last 10,000 years. We were able to capture information on 51 variables reflecting nine characteristics of human societies, such as social scale, economy, features of governance, and information systems. Our analyses revealed that these different characteristics show strong relationships with each other and that a single principal component captures around three-quarters of the observed variation. Furthermore, we found that different characteristics of social complexity are highly predictable across different world regions. These results suggest that key aspects of social organization are functionally related and do indeed coevolve in predictable ways. Our findings highlight the power of the sciences and humanities working together to rigorously test hypotheses about general rules that may have shaped human history. PMID:29269395

  14. Temporal-pattern recognition by single neurons in a sensory pathway devoted to social communication behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Bruce A

    2009-07-29

    Sensory systems often encode stimulus information into the temporal pattern of action potential activity. However, little is known about how the information contained within these patterns is extracted by postsynaptic neurons. Similar to temporal coding by sensory neurons, social information in mormyrid fish is encoded into the temporal patterning of an electric organ discharge. In the current study, sensitivity to temporal patterns of electrosensory stimuli was found to arise within the midbrain posterior exterolateral nucleus (ELp). Whole-cell patch recordings from ELp neurons in vivo revealed three patterns of interpulse interval (IPI) tuning: low-pass neurons tuned to long intervals, high-pass neurons tuned to short intervals, and bandpass neurons tuned to intermediate intervals. Many neurons within each class also responded preferentially to either increasing or decreasing IPIs. Playback of electric signaling patterns recorded from freely behaving fish revealed that the IPI and direction tuning of ELp neurons resulted in selective responses to particular social communication displays characterized by distinct IPI patterns. The postsynaptic potential responses of many neurons indicated a combination of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input, and the IPI tuning of ELp neurons was directly related to rate-dependent changes in the direction and amplitude of postsynaptic potentials. These results suggest that differences in the dynamics of short-term synaptic plasticity in excitatory and inhibitory pathways may tune central sensory neurons to particular temporal patterns of presynaptic activity. This may represent a general mechanism for the processing of behaviorally relevant stimulus information encoded into temporal patterns of activity by sensory neurons.

  15. The future in the past: Victory, defeat, and grand strategy in the US, UK, France and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooft, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    This book argues that victory and defeat in war shape the post-war grand strategies of states, specifically their use of military force and diplomacy. It focuses on the experiences of the belligerent states of the Second World War, and in particular on those of the United States, the United Kingdom,

  16. Defeat and entrapment: more than meets the eye? Applying network analysis to estimate dimensions of highly correlated constructs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forkmann, T.; Teismann, T.; Stenzel, J.S.; Glaesmer, H.; Beurs, D. de

    2018-01-01

    Background: Defeat and entrapment have been shown to be of central relevance to the development of different disorders. However, it remains unclear whether they represent two distinct constructs or one overall latent variable. One reason for the unclarity is that traditional factor analytic

  17. Social influences on physical activity in Anglo- and Vietnamese-Australian adolescent males in a single sex school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew N; Dollman, James

    2007-06-01

    Understanding factors that influence physical activity levels of adolescents can assist the design of more effective interventions. Social support is a consistent correlate of youth physical activity but few studies have examined this in different cultural settings. Male adolescents (n=180, age=13.58+/-0.97 years) from a metropolitan single sex private school participated in this study. Habitual physical activity was estimated using the 3-day physical activity recall (3dPAR), and aspects of social support to be physically active using a specifically designed questionnaire. Comparisons were made between Anglo-Australians (n=118), whose parents were both born in Australia, and Vietnamese-Australians (n=62), whose parents were both born in Vietnam. There was a trend towards higher physical activity among Anglo-Australians, particularly on weekends. Anglo-Australians reported significantly more parental and peer support across most items pertaining to these constructs. Among the whole sample, social support variables explained 5-12% of the total explained variance in physical activity, with items pertaining to father and best friend support emerging as the strongest and most consistent predictors in multiple regression models. Among Anglo-Australians, the prediction models were relatively weak, explaining 0-9% of the total explained variance in physical activity. Prediction models for physical activity among Vietnamese-Australians were much stronger, explaining 11-32% of the total explained variance, with father's support variables contributing consistently to these models. The strong paternal influence on physical activity among Vietnamese-Australians needs to be confirmed in more diverse population groups, but results from this study suggest that interventions promoting physical activity among adolescent boys need to take into account cultural background as a moderator of widely reported social influences.

  18. Civilian health during WWI and the causes of German defeat: a reexamination of the winter hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voth, H J

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a reexamination of the Winter hypothesis, which holds that there was a marked difference in the development of civilian health during the First World War between the central powers and the Western allies. Ultimate success on the battlefield, according to Winter, required balancing the needs of the military with civilian demands; Germany lost because it failed to achieve such a balance. The resulting decline in health standards undermined the war effort and eventually led to defeat. This article proceeds in two steps. First, it demonstrates that Winter's data does not allow him to make a proper comparison between the two camps. Second, I argue that his hypothesis can be refuted once a truly comparable source is used--infant mortality rated. There is as yet no convincing evidence to suggest that the outcome of the First world War was determined by public health policy.

  19. Privilege as a Social Determinant of Health in Medical Education: A Single Class Session Can Change Privilege Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Nash A K; Maskarinec, Gregory G

    2015-09-01

    Accredited medical schools are required to prepare students to recognize the social determinants of health, such as privilege, yet privilege education has been overlooked in medical school curricula. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a single class session on privilege, within a social justice elective offered to first and second year medical students, is sufficient to change the perspective of medical students concerning their own personal privilege. A pre-class survey, followed by a class session on privilege, and post-class survey were conducted. Thirteen of the 18 students enrolled in the elective completed the pre-class survey. Ten students completed the post-class survey, although only 9 completed both the pre- and post-class surveys. The demographic profile of the participants was 93% Asian and 7% White ethnicity, with 57% identifying as being culturally American. There was no significant difference between average male and female or between age groups' self-assessed privilege amounts. For all characteristics tested, except hair color, participants had an increased self-assessed privilege perspective following the class. Three participants had an overall positive difference in privilege perspective, three participants had an overall negative difference in privilege perspective, and three participants had only a minimal change in privilege perspective. The absolute total difference in privilege perspective was 25 units of change. The single class session on privilege was sufficient to change significantly the perspective of medical students on their own personal privilege; however, future studies with larger groups of medical students are needed to elucidate other findings suggested by this study.

  20. Risky choice and brain CRF after adolescent ethanol vapor exposure and social stress in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutros, Nathalie; Der-Avakian, Andre; Semenova, Svetlana; Lee, Soon; Markou, Athina

    2016-09-15

    Adolescent ethanol exposure increases risky choice and alters corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) systems in adulthood. The impact of stress on risky choice after adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure is not known. We investigated time-specific effects of AIE vapor exposure during early adolescence on risky choice after stress or no stress in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were exposed to air or AIE vapor on postnatal days 28-42 (adolescence) and were exposed to 10days of social defeat or no stress on postnatal days 172-181 (adulthood). Risky choice was assessed in the probability discounting task under baseline conditions and after days 1 and 10 of social defeat. CRF and CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) mRNA levels were assessed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) 24h post-stress to evaluate persistent effects of stress on the brain. AIE exposure had no effect on risky choice either at baseline or after social defeat. Additionally, neither acute nor chronic social defeat affected risky choice in air-exposed rats. In the PFC, chronic social defeat selectively decreased CRF mRNA levels in air-exposed rats and increased CRFR1 mRNA levels in all rats. AIE exposure increased CRF mRNA levels in the CeA with no effect of social stress. Our results indicate no effect of ethanol exposure via vapor during early adolescence on risky choice, while our previous findings indicated that AIE exposure via gavage affected risky choice. Both AIE exposure and social defeat altered CRF and CRFR1 mRNA levels in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaction of basolateral amygdala, ventral hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex regulates the consolidation and extinction of social fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chu-Chu; Wang, Qing-Jun; Ma, Xue-Zhu; Chen, Hai-Chao; Gao, Li-Ping; Yin, Jie; Jing, Yu-Hong

    2018-03-19

    Following a social defeat, the balanced establishment and extinction of aversive information is a beneficial strategy for individual survival. Abnormal establishment or extinction is implicated in the development of mental disorders. This study investigated the time course of the establishment and extinction of aversive information from acute social defeat and the temporal responsiveness of the basolateral amygdala (BLA), ventral hippocampus (vHIP) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in this process. Mouse models of acute social defeat were established by using the resident-intruder paradigm. To evaluate the engram of social defeat, the intruder mice were placed into the novel context at designated time to test the social behavior. Furthermore, responses of BLA, vHIP and mPFC were investigated by analyzing the expression of immediate early genes, such as zif268, arc, and c-fos. The results showed after an aggressive attack, aversive memory was maintained for approximately 7 days before gradually diminishing. The establishment and maintenance of aversive stimulation were consistently accompanied by BLA activity. By contrast, vHIP and mPFC response was inhibited from this process. Additionally, injecting muscimol (Mus), a GABA receptor agonist, into the BLA alleviated the freezing behavior and social fear and avoidance. Simultaneously, Mus treatment decreased the zif268 and arc expression in BLA, but it increased their expression in vHIP. Our data support and extend earlier findings that implicate BLA, vHIP and mPFC in social defeat. The time courses of the establishment and extinction of social defeat are particularly consistent with the contrasting BLA and vHIP responses involved in this process.

  2. Good Versus Evil in Austen’s Mansfield Park and Iris Murdoch’s A Fairly Honourable Defeat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Mary Dooley

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The character of Tallis Browne in Iris Murdoch's novel 'A Fairly Honourable Defeat' is characterised by her as a figure of good, taking the place of Christ in a post-Christian allegory. This article compares Murdoch's exploration of theological themes with the ethical world created in Jane Austen's 'Mansfield Park'. Various possibilities for theological schemes in 'Mansfield Park' are discussed, and the characters analysed and compared to Murdoch's characters in 'A Fairly Honourable Defeat'. It is established, by examining point of view and voice in both novels, that, while Tallis is the moral centre of Murdoch's novel, Fanny is far from embodying the implied morality of the author of Mansfield Park, whose world view is more worldly and sophisticated than Fanny Price's.

  3. Integrating Language, Pragmatics, and Social Intervention in a Single-Subject Case Study of a Child with a Developmental Social Communication Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of…

  4. Mental Defeat and Cumulative Trauma Experiences Predict Trauma-Related Psychopathology : Evidence From a Postconflict Population in Northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Wilker, Sarah; Kleim, Birgit; Geiling, Angelika; Pfeiffer, Anett; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    The peritraumatic cognitive process of mental defeat, the complete loss of inner resistance, has been identified as a key predictor of PTSD. Yet, most evidence on cognitive risk factors stems from industrialized countries where survivors typically report few traumata. Research from postconflict settings indicates that individual differences decrease with accumulating traumatic experiences, as almost everybody develops PTSD at extreme levels of trauma load. Would this leave less room for the i...

  5. A Single Case Design Evaluation of a Software and Tutor Intervention Addressing Emotion Recognition and Social Interaction in Four Boys with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacava, Paul G.; Rankin, Ana; Mahlios, Emily; Cook, Katie; Simpson, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Many students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have delays learning to recognize emotions. Social behavior is also challenging, including initiating interactions, responding to others, developing peer relationships, and so forth. In this single case design study we investigated the relationship between use of computer software ("Mind Reading:…

  6. A method of assessment of sustainability of social and labor relations of a city-forming enterprise and a single-industry town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshina Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we consider one of the tools for managing a single-industry town – a method of assessment of its social and labor relations sustainability. We describe a mathematical model of calculating the integrated index and give instant assessment examples.

  7. Missed connections: A case study of the social networks of physics doctoral students in a single department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaub, Alexis Victoria

    Gender disparity is an issue among the many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Although many previous studies examine gender issues in STEM as an aggregate discipline, there are unique issues to each of the fields that are considered STEM fields. Some fields, such as physics, have fewer women graduating with degrees than other fields. This suggests that women's experiences vary by STEM field. The majority of previous research also examines gender and other disparities at either the nationwide or individual level. This project entailed social network analysis through survey and interview data to examine a single physics department's doctoral students in order to provide a comprehensive look at student social experiences. In addition to examining gender, other demographic variables were studied to see if the results are truly associated with gender; these variables include race/ethnicity, year in program, student type, relationship status, research type, undergraduate institute, and subfield. Data were examined to determine if there are relationships to social connections and outcome variables such as persistence in completing the degree and the time to degree. Data collected on faculty were used to rank faculty members; data such as h-indices and number of students graduate over the past 5 years were collected. Fifty-five (55) of 110 possible participants completed the survey; forty-three are male, and twelve are female. Twenty-eight of the fifty-five survey participants were interview; twenty-three are male, and five are female. Findings for peer networks include that peer networks are established during the first year and do not change drastically as one progresses in the program. Geographic location within the campus affects socializing with peers. Connections to fellow students are not necessarily reciprocated; the maximum percentage of reciprocated connections is 60%. The number of connections one has varies by network purpose

  8. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed.

  9. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social ecological model including single and two-parent families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single and two parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children’s functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  10. Divine Methodology: A Lawful Deflection of Kantian and Kantian-esque Defeaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNabb Tyler Dalton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Immanuel Kant argues that though Divine revelation is ontologically possible, given phenomenal level constraints on our cognitive faculties, it isn’t epistemically possible for us to know or to recognize Divine revelation on the noumenal level of reality. We call this Kant’s Epistemological Objection Against Divine Revelation (EOADR. Contra Kant, in this paper, we argue that the EOADR doesn’t undermine the Reformed tradition’s view of Divine revelation because it has resources that make knowledge of Divine revelation intelligible. The primary way of establishing our argument is by articulating and furthering Alvin Plantinga’s religious epistemology. After doing this, we tackle two objections to our approach that are in the family of Kant‘s objection, namely Stephen Law‘s X-Argument Against Religious Belief and Erik Baldwin‘s Multiple Viable Extensions Objection. Similar to Kant‘s argument, these arguments attempt to show, that the Reformed epistemologist is in danger of acquiring an undercutting defeater for trusting her religious belief. We respond to each in turn.

  11. Face-body integration of intense emotional expressions of victory and defeat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    Full Text Available Human facial expressions can be recognized rapidly and effortlessly. However, for intense emotions from real life, positive and negative facial expressions are difficult to discriminate and the judgment of facial expressions is biased towards simultaneously perceived body expressions. This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs to investigate the neural dynamics involved in the integration of emotional signals from facial and body expressions of victory and defeat. Emotional expressions of professional players were used to create pictures of face-body compounds, with either matched or mismatched emotional expressions in faces and bodies. Behavioral results showed that congruent emotional information of face and body facilitated the recognition of facial expressions. ERP data revealed larger P1 amplitudes for incongruent compared to congruent stimuli. Also, a main effect of body valence on the P1 was observed, with enhanced amplitudes for the stimuli with losing compared to winning bodies. The main effect of body expression was also observed in N170 and N2, with winning bodies producing larger N170/N2 amplitudes. In the later stage, a significant interaction of congruence by body valence was found on the P3 component. Winning bodies elicited lager P3 amplitudes than losing bodies did when face and body conveyed congruent emotional signals. Beyond the knowledge based on prototypical facial and body expressions, the results of this study facilitate us to understand the complexity of emotion evaluation and categorization out of laboratory.

  12. Prosocial effects of prolactin in male rats: Social recognition, social approach and social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donhoffner, Mary E; Al Saleh, Samar; Schink, Olivia; Wood, Ruth I

    2017-11-01

    Prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OT) are pituitary hormones essential for lactation, but also promote sexual behavior. OT stimulates social behaviors, such as recognition, approach, and learning, but less is known about PRL in these behaviors. Since PRL and OT have complementary functions in reproduction, we hypothesized that PRL increases social recognition, approach, and learning. Male Long-Evans rats received ovine PRL (oPRL; 0.5, 2.0 or 5.0mg/kg), the PRL antagonist bromocriptine (0.1, 3.0 or 5.0mg/kg) or saline 20 mins before testing for recognition of familiar vs. unfamiliar stimulus males. Saline controls preferred the unfamiliar male (psocial approach, we determined if PRL restores approach 2h after defeat by an aggressive male. Defeated rats avoided the aggressive male. 2mg/kg oPRL, before or after defeat, restored approach towards the aggressive male (psocial learning, we tested social transmission of food preference. Rats choose between two unfamiliar flavors, one of which they have previously been exposed to through interaction with a demonstrator rat. Vehicle controls preferred chow with the demonstrated flavor over the novel flavor. oPRL-treated rats were similar. Bromocriptine-treated rats failed to show a preference. When tested one week later, only oPRL-treated rats preferred the demonstrated flavor. The results suggest that PRL is required for social recognition and learning, and that increasing PRL enhances social memory and approach, similar to OT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  14. Activities of daily living (ADL) of single elderly individuals using social assistive programs in a rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokawa, Yoshiharu; Miyoshi, Kei; Kai, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The proportion of elderly individuals living alone is increasing in Japan. Matsumoto city office provides social assistive programs such as home help, lunch delivery, life advice, and safety check telephone calls. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of ADL between the elderly using social assistive programs (the use group) and those who did not (the non-use group).Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at Shiga district of Matsumoto city in September 2014. A total of 128 elderly individuals participated in this study. Health volunteers asked these subjects to complete a questionnaire without assistance. Measurement items included lifestyle variables and social support networks. With respect to the frequency of use, we used questions that inquired about the use of the social assistive program. We included a set of instruments commonly used in the health assessment of elderly populations: functional capacity (Instrumental ADL, Intellectual Activity, Social Role), social support, nutrition (Mini Nutrition Assessment [MNA]) and depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS]).Results The use group consisted of 24 elderly individuals participating in the social support program. The non-use group consisted of 89 elderly individuals living alone without programs. The mean age of those who completed the survey was 83.9±4.2 years for the use group and 82.3±4.3 years for the non-use group. Comparisons between the two groups did not show significant difference in terms of their intellectual activity, social role, emotional social support, and MNA or GDS scores. The use group was more likely to use the public transfer service and receive instrumental social support from children and relatives.Conclusions By means of utilizing the public transfer service, and receiving family support, the elderly living alone who used social assistive programs could live independently. These findings suggest a need for improvement in the public

  15. Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: role of brain derived neurotrophic factor in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Gian D; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Campi, Katharine L; Voigt, Heather; Orr, Veronica N; Schaal, Leslie; Trainor, Brian C

    2013-01-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders are more common in women than men, and little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to this disparity. Recent data suggest that stress-induced changes in neurotrophins have opposing effects on behavior by acting in different brain networks. Social defeat has been an important approach for understanding neurotrophin action, but low female aggression levels in rats and mice have limited the application of these methods primarily to males. We examined the effects of social defeat in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus), a species in which both males and females defend territories. We demonstrate that defeat stress increases mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein but not mRNA in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in females but not males. Changes in BDNF protein were limited to anterior subregions of the BNST, and there were no changes in the adjacent nucleus accumbens (NAc). The effects of defeat on social withdrawal behavior and BDNF were reversed by chronic, low doses of the antidepressant sertraline. However, higher doses of sertraline restored social withdrawal and elevated BDNF levels. Acute treatment with a low dose of sertraline failed to reverse the effects of defeat. Infusions of the selective tyrosine-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) antagonist ANA-12 into the anterior BNST specifically increased social interaction in stressed females but had no effect on behavior in females naïve to defeat. These results suggest that stress-induced increases in BDNF in the anterior BNST contribute to the exaggerated social withdrawal phenotype observed in females.

  16. Title: Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: role of brain derived neurotrophic factor in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian David Greenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety disorders are more common in women than men, and little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to this disparity. Recent data suggest that stress-induced changes in neurotrophins have opposing effects on behavior by acting in different brain networks. Social defeat has been an important approach for understanding neurotrophin action, but low female aggression levels in rats and mice have limited the application of these methods primarily to males. We examined the effects of social defeat in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus, a species in which both males and females defend territories. We demonstrate that defeat stress increases mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF protein but not mRNA in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST in females but not males. Changes in BDNF protein were limited to anterior subregions of the BNST, and there were no changes in the adjacent nucleus accumbens (NAc. The effects of defeat on social withdrawal behavior and BDNF were reversed by chronic, low doses of the antidepressant sertraline. However, higher doses of sertraline restored social withdrawal and elevated BDNF levels. Acute treatment with a low dose of sertraline failed to reverse the effects of defeat. Infusions of the selective tyrosine-related kinase B receptor (TrkB antagonist ANA-12 into the anterior BNST specifically increased social interaction in stressed females but had no effect on behavior in females naïve to defeat. These results suggest that stress-induced increases in BDNF in the anterior BNST contribute to the exaggerated social withdrawal phenotype observed in females.

  17. Listening to children: gaining a perspective of the experiences of poverty and social exclusion from children and young people of single-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Janet; Crawford, Karin; Taylor, Francesca

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports on the experiences and views of children and young people of single-parent families, as findings from a European Union-funded research project undertaken in England, Greece and Cyprus. The objectives of the research project were to investigate how children and young people of single-parent families understand and experience their worlds as members of these families: whether and to what extent they experience poverty and social exclusion and how they cope with the challenges that this confronts them with. Methodology was replicated in each of the countries; however, this paper draws on the English experiences. Semistructured interviews (40) and focus groups (four) were undertaken with children of single parents. In addition, focus groups were undertaken with children of two-parent families (four), focus groups with single parents, focus groups with two-parent families (four) and individual interviews with key professionals. Detailed discussion guides were followed, with open-ended questions to allow participants to express their feelings and ideas in their own words. The research sample included children from single-parent and two-parent families, aged 6 years to 16 years, balanced in terms of age, gender and geographical location. Findings demonstrate the children's and young people's understanding of the impact of poverty and social exclusion on their family life and their everyday experiences. The positive benefits of being in a single-parent family are highlighted, with 'time poverty' raised as a significant issue. Children and young people are aware of their poverty and how it influences exclusion from friendships, play, leisure and community activities. Policy needs to take account of the systematic reality of children's experiences; alliances with adults that support meaningful involvement and participation by children and young people will make a significant contribution to this.

  18. Social recovery therapy in combination with early intervention services for enhancement of social recovery in patients with first-episode psychosis (SUPEREDEN3): a single-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, David; Hodgekins, Jo; French, Paul; Marshall, Max; Freemantle, Nick; McCrone, Paul; Everard, Linda; Lavis, Anna; Jones, Peter B; Amos, Tim; Singh, Swaran; Sharma, Vimal; Birchwood, Max

    2018-01-01

    Provision of early intervention services has increased the rate of social recovery in patients with first-episode psychosis; however, many individuals have continuing severe and persistent problems with social functioning. We aimed to assess the efficacy of early intervention services augmented with social recovery therapy in patients with first-episode psychosis. The primary hypothesis was that social recovery therapy plus early intervention services would lead to improvements in social recovery. We did this single-blind, phase 2, randomised controlled trial (SUPEREDEN3) at four specialist early intervention services in the UK. We included participants who were aged 16-35 years, had non-affective psychosis, had been clients of early intervention services for 12-30 months, and had persistent and severe social disability, defined as engagement in less than 30 h per week of structured activity. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), via computer-generated randomisation with permuted blocks (sizes of four to six), to receive social recovery therapy plus early intervention services or early intervention services alone. Randomisation was stratified by sex and recruitment centre (Norfolk, Birmingham, Lancashire, and Sussex). By necessity, participants were not masked to group allocation, but allocation was concealed from outcome assessors. The primary outcome was time spent in structured activity at 9 months, as measured by the Time Use Survey. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN61621571. Between Oct 1, 2012, and June 20, 2014, we randomly assigned 155 participants to receive social recovery therapy plus early intervention services (n=76) or early intervention services alone (n=79); the intention-to-treat population comprised 154 patients. At 9 months, 143 (93%) participants had data for the primary outcome. Social recovery therapy plus early intervention services was associated with an increase in structured

  19. The effect of a motor-based, social skills intervention for adolescents with high-functioning autism: two single-subject design cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Sharon A; Raphael, Emily I; Ceder, Leila M; Khan, Arshi; Timp, Katherine M; Salvant, Sabrina

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a motor-based, social skills intervention for two adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA) using single-subject design. A description of the intervention is provided as a first step in the manualization process. The intervention was provided as a 7-week after-school program, once weekly to the paired participants. Intervention consisted of role-play methods in which motor behaviours were linked with their cognitive and emotional meanings. Baseline, intervention and 3-month probe data collection periods were carried out and then compared using visual inspection of graphed data, paired t-tests and a three-standard-deviation-band approach. Both participants displayed a statistically significant increase in targeted social skills behaviours from baseline to intervention and maintained this level at a 3-month post-intervention probe. These single-subject design cases illustrate that motor-based, social skills interventions may be effective for adolescents with HFA and warrant further testing. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The Danger of a Single Theory: Understanding Students' Voices and Social Justice in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Joseph A. S.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Working towards social justice in education requires students' voices to be heard and understood (Mansfield, 2014). This is especially the case for students from marginalized populations. Prior research has shown the value and importance of students' voices for school retention, academic success, school inclusivity, and student…

  1. Social cues are unlikely to be the single cause for early reproduction in urban European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominoni, Davide M; Van't Hof, Thomas J; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-04-01

    Despite urban ecology being an established field of research, there is still surprisingly little information about the relative contribution of specific environmental factors driving the observed changes in the behavior and physiology of city dwellers. One of the most reported effects of urbanization is the advanced phenology observed in birds. Many factors have been suggested to underline such effect, including warmer microclimate, anthropogenic food supply and light pollution. Since social stimuli are known to affect reproductive timing and breeding density is usually higher in urban populations compared to rural ones, we experimentally tested whether social interactions could advance the onset of reproduction in European blackbirds (Turdus merula). We housed male blackbirds of rural and urban origins with or without a conspecific female, and recorded their seasonal variation in gonadal size and production of luteinizing hormone (LH). Paired and unpaired males of both urban and rural origins did not significantly differ in their timing of gonadal growth. Moreover, rural and urban birds did not differ in their response to the social stimuli, rather they became reproductively active at the same time, a result that confirms previous studies that attributed the difference in reproductive timing observed in the field to phenotypic plasticity. We conclude that social stimuli do not contribute substantially to the observed early onset of reproductive physiology in urban bird species, rather other factors such as light pollution are likely to be stronger drivers of these physiological changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Linking Social Environments with the Well-Being of Adolescents in Dual-Earner and Single Working Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdale, Sandee; Pitt-Catsuphes, Marcie

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationships between middle school-aged children's perceptions of their social environments (home, school, neighborhood, and parental work) with self-reports of well-being. In the present study, well-being was defined by measures of physical health and psychological happiness. Data from the Nurturing Families Study…

  3. A Bilingual Child Learns Social Communication Skills through Video Modeling--A Single Case Study in a Norwegian School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özerk, Meral; Özerk, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    "Video modeling" is one of the recognized methods used in the training and teaching of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The model's theoretical base stems from Albert Bandura's (1977; 1986) social learning theory in which he asserts that children can learn many skills and behaviors observationally through modeling. One can…

  4. The moderating effects of coping and self-esteem on the relationship between defeat, entrapment and suicidality in a sample of prisoners at high risk of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, P; Tarrier, N; Dunn, G; Shaw, J; Awenat, Y; Ulph, F; Pratt, D

    2015-11-01

    Research is sparse which examines pathways to suicide, and resilience to suicide, in people who are particularly vulnerable to suicide, for example, prison inmates. The purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which perceptions of self-esteem and coping ability interacted with defeat and entrapment to both amplify suicidal thoughts and feelings, and to act as a buffer against suicidal thoughts and feelings. Participants were 65 male prisoners at high risk of suicide. A cross-sectional questionnaire design was used. Questionnaire measures of depression, defeat, entrapment, self-esteem, coping ability and suicidal probability were administered. For the hopelessness component of the suicide probability measure, high levels of coping ability together with low levels of defeat resulted in the lowest levels of suicidality indicative of a resilience factor. In contrast, low levels of coping skills together with high levels of entrapment were a high risk factor for this hopelessness component of suicide. This pattern of results pertained when controlling for depression levels. This is the first study to examine interactions between defeat, entrapment and appraisals of self-esteem and coping ability. Therapeutic interventions would benefit from boosting perceptions and appraisals of coping ability, in particular, in people who are at high risk for suicide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The Relationship between Correlates of Effective Schools and Social Emotional Learning within Single Gender Schools Serving Boys of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Curt R.

    2013-01-01

    Urban school districts throughout the United States are creating single gender classrooms or schools to improve student achievements for their lowest performing subgroups (Noguera, 2009). It is hoped that separating the sexes will improve domains such as discipline, attendance and academic performance, while decreasing the dropout rate. If single…

  6. A bilingual child learns social communication skills through video modeling-a single case study in a norwegian school setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Özerk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Video modeling is one of the recognized methods used in the training and teaching of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. The model’s theoretical base stems from Albert Bandura's (1977; 1986 social learning theory in which he asserts that children can learn many skills and behaviors observationally through modeling. One can assume that by observing others, a child with ASD can construct an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this mentally and visually constructed information will serve as a guide for his/her way of behaving. There are two types of methods for model learning: 1 In Vivo Modeling and 2 Video Modeling. These can be used a to teach children with ASD skills that are not yet in their behavioral repertoire and / or b to improve the children's emerging behaviors or skills. In the case of linguistic minority children at any stage of their bilingual development, it has been presumed that some of their behaviors that can be interpreted as attitude or culture-related actions. This approach, however, can sometimes delay referral, diagnosis, and intervention. In our project, we used Video Modeling and achieved positive results with regard to teaching social communication skills and target behavior to an eleven year-old bilingual boy with ASD. Our study also reveals that through Video Modeling, children with ASD can learn desirable behavioral skills as by-products. Video Modeling can also contribute positively to the social inclusion of bilingual children with ASD in school settings. In other words, bilingual children with ASD can transfer the social communication skills and targeted behaviors they learn through second-language at school to a first-language milieu.

  7. Synchronization as a biological, psychological and social mechanism to create common time: A theoretical frame and a single case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan; Pöppel, Ernst; Wang, Lingyan; Lin, Xiaoxiong; Yang, Taoxi; Avram, Mihai; Blautzik, Janusch; Paolini, Marco; Silveira, Sarita; Vedder, Aline; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Zhou, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Synchronizing neural processes, mental activities, and social interactions is considered to be fundamental for the creation of temporal order on the personal and interpersonal level. Several different types of synchronization are distinguished, and for each of them examples are given: self-organized synchronizations on the neural level giving rise to pre-semantically defined time windows of some tens of milliseconds and of approximately 3 s; time windows that are created by synchronizing different neural representations, as for instance in aesthetic appreciations or moral judgments; and synchronization of biological rhythms with geophysical cycles, like the circadian clock with the 24-hr rhythm of day and night. For the latter type of synchronization, an experiment is described that shows the importance of social interactions for sharing or avoiding common time. In a group study with four subjects being completely isolated together for 3 weeks from the external world, social interactions resulted both in intra- and interindividual circadian synchronization and desynchronization. A unique phenomenon in circadian regulation is described, the "beat phenomenon," which has been made visible by the interaction of two circadian rhythms with different frequencies in one body. The separation of the two physiological rhythms was the consequence of social interactions, that is, by the desire of a subject to share and to escape common time during different phases of the long-term experiment. The theoretical arguments on synchronization are summarized with the general statement: "Nothing in cognitive science makes sense except in the light of time windows." The hypothesis is forwarded that time windows that express discrete timing mechanisms in behavioral control and on the level of conscious experiences are the necessary bases to create cognitive order, and it is suggested that time windows are implemented by neural oscillations in different frequency domains. © 2015 The

  8. Social anthropological and interdisciplinary research on the conversion of electrically heated single family houses to heating by combined pellet-solar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Annette

    2004-01-01

    The social anthropological research presented here is part of the interdisciplinary research project PESTO, which focuses on the (partial or complete) conversion of single family houses from electric heating to heating by combined pellet-solar heating systems. Basic to this research is the assumption that it is more likely that energy conversions are carried through, and that they are successful on a long-term basis, if the new products are designed to fit as well as possible into the everyday lives of people. The anthropological interest in the project can be divided into two parts; motives for or against a conversion among men and women in Swedish households, and product design and placement in (previously) electrically heated single-family houses. Literature studies and semi-structured qualitative interviews are the main methods used in the anthropological part of the project. During the next 3-year project period, these investigations will be used to support information and marketing, and to formulate recommendations for conversion practice of electrically heated single-family houses to combined pellet-solar heating. (Author)

  9. The influence of the residency application process on the online social networking behavior of medical students: a single institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausburg, Matthew B; Djuricich, Alexander M; Carlos, W Graham; Bosslet, Gabriel T

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate medical students' behavior regarding online social networks (OSNs) in preparation for the residency matching process. The specific aims were to quantify the use of OSNs by students to determine whether and how these students were changing OSN profiles in preparation for the residency application process, and to determine attitudes toward residency directors using OSNs as a screening method to evaluate potential candidates. An e-mail survey was sent to 618 third- and fourth-year medical students at Indiana University School of Medicine over a three-week period in 2012. Statistical analysis was completed using nonparametric statistical tests. Of the 30.1% (183/608) who responded to the survey, 98.9% (181/183) of students reported using OSNs. More than half, or 60.1% (110/183), reported that they would (or did) alter their OSN profile before residency matching. Respondents' opinions regarding the appropriateness of OSN screening by residency directors were mixed; however, most respondents did not feel that their online OSN profiles should be used in the residency application process. The majority of respondents planned to (or did) alter their OSN profile in preparation for the residency match process. The majority believed that residency directors are screening OSN profiles during the matching process, although most did not believe their OSN profiles should be used in the residency application process. This study implies that the more medical students perceive that residency directors use social media in application screening processes, the more they will alter their online profiles to adapt to protect their professional persona.

  10. Prevention and reversal of social stress-escalated cocaine self-administration in mice by intra-VTA CRFR1 antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; DeBold, Joseph F; Miczek, Klaus A

    2017-09-01

    A history of brief intermittent social defeat stress can escalate cocaine self-administration and induce long-term adaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine system. Extra-hypothalamic corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) has been shown to be closely associated with stress-induced escalation of drug use. How repeated stress modulates CRF release in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the roles of CRF receptors during different phases of stress-induced cocaine self-administration remain to be defined. The current study examines the roles of CRF and CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) in escalated intravenous cocaine self-administration after exposure to social defeat stress in mice. First, CRFR1 antagonist (CP 376,395, 15 mg/kg, i.p.) given 30 min prior to each social defeat episode prevented later escalated cocaine self-administration. When CP 376,395 (5 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 10 days after the last episode of social stress, the escalation of cocaine intake was dose-dependently reversed. Moreover, socially defeated mice showed increased CRF release in the VTA compared to controls. To further explore the role of CRFR1, CP 376,395 (0.5 and 1 μg/0.2 μl) was infused directly into the VTA before the cocaine self-administration session. Intra-VTA antagonism of CRFR1 was sufficient to reverse social defeat stress-escalated cocaine self-administration. These findings suggest that CRF and CRFR1 exert multiple roles in the response to social stress that are relevant to escalated cocaine self-administration.

  11. An eHealth Intervention to Promote Physical Activity and Social Network of Single, Chronically Impaired Older Adults: Adaptation of an Existing Intervention Using Intervention Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhout, Janet M; Peels, Denise A; Berendsen, Brenda Aj; Bolman, Catherine Aw; Lechner, Lilian

    2017-11-23

    Especially for single older adults with chronic diseases, physical inactivity and a poor social network are regarded as serious threats to their health and independence. The Active Plus intervention is an automated computer-tailored eHealth intervention that has been proven effective to promote physical activity (PA) in the general population of adults older than 50 years. The aim of this study was to report on the methods and results of the systematic adaptation of Active Plus to the wishes and needs of the subgroup of single people older than 65 years who have one or more chronic diseases, as this specific target population may encounter specific challenges regarding PA and social network. The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol was used to systematically adapt the existing intervention to optimally suit this specific target population. A literature study was performed, and quantitative as well as qualitative data were derived from health care professionals (by questionnaires, n=10) and the target population (by focus group interviews, n=14), which were then systematically integrated into the adapted intervention. As the health problems and the targeted behavior are largely the same in the original and adapted intervention, the outcome of the needs assessment was that the performance objectives remained the same. As found in the literature study and in data derived from health professionals and focus groups, the relative importance and operationalization of the relevant psychosocial determinants related to these objectives are different from the original intervention, resulting in a refinement of the change objectives to optimally fit the specific target population. This refinement also resulted in changes in the practical applications, program components, intervention materials, and the evaluation and implementation strategy for the subgroup of single, chronically impaired older adults. This study demonstrates that the adaptation of an existing intervention is an

  12. Deep sleep after social stress : NREM sleep slow-wave activity is enhanced in both winners and losers of a conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Jeanine; Lancel, Marike; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Meerlo, Peter

    Sleep is considered to be a recovery process of prior wakefulness. Not only duration of the waking period affects sleep architecture and sleep EEG, the quality of wakefulness is also highly important. Studies in rats have shown that social defeat stress, in which experimental animals are attacked

  13. Descriptive Analysis and Strategic Options to Defeat Commodity-Based Threat Financing Methodologies Related to Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    auditing firms. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Counter threat finance, commodity-based money laundering , terrorist financing, social network analysis, bright...51 2. Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering ................................52 3. Caribbean Financial Action Task Force...53 4. Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism

  14. Social and Demographic Factors Influencing Inferior Vena Cava Filter Retrieval at a Single Institution in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S. Christian, E-mail: csmith@aemrc.arizona.edu; Shanks, Candace, E-mail: Candace.Shanks@osumc.edu; Guy, Gregory, E-mail: Gregory.Guy@osumc.edu; Yang, Xiangyu, E-mail: Xiangyu.Yang@osumc.edu; Dowell, Joshua D., E-mail: Joshua.Dowell@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeRetrievable inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) are associated with long-term adverse events that have increased interest in improving filter retrieval rates. Determining the influential patient social and demographic factors affecting IVCF retrieval is important to personalize patient management strategies and attain optimal patient care.Materials and MethodsSeven-hundred and sixty-two patients were retrospectively studied who had a filter placed at our institution between January 2011 and November 2013. Age, gender, race, cancer history, distance to residence from retrieval institution, and insurance status were identified for each patient, and those receiving retrievable IVCFs were further evaluated for retrieval rate and time to retrieval.ResultsOf the 762 filters placed, 133 were permanent filters. Of the 629 retrievable filters placed, 406 met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for retrieval. Results revealed patients with Medicare were less likely to have their filters retrieved (p = 0.031). Older age was also associated with a lower likelihood of retrieval (p < 0.001) as was living further from the medical center (p = 0.027). Patients who were white and had Medicare were more likely than similarly insured black patients to have their filters retrieved (p = 0.024).ConclusionsThe retrieval rate of IVCFs was most influenced by insurance status, distance from the medical center, and age. Race was statistically significant only when combined with insurance status. The results of this study suggest that these patient groups may need closer follow-up in order to obtain optimal IVCF retrieval rates.

  15. Social and Demographic Factors Influencing Inferior Vena Cava Filter Retrieval at a Single Institution in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S. Christian; Shanks, Candace; Guy, Gregory; Yang, Xiangyu; Dowell, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeRetrievable inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) are associated with long-term adverse events that have increased interest in improving filter retrieval rates. Determining the influential patient social and demographic factors affecting IVCF retrieval is important to personalize patient management strategies and attain optimal patient care.Materials and MethodsSeven-hundred and sixty-two patients were retrospectively studied who had a filter placed at our institution between January 2011 and November 2013. Age, gender, race, cancer history, distance to residence from retrieval institution, and insurance status were identified for each patient, and those receiving retrievable IVCFs were further evaluated for retrieval rate and time to retrieval.ResultsOf the 762 filters placed, 133 were permanent filters. Of the 629 retrievable filters placed, 406 met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for retrieval. Results revealed patients with Medicare were less likely to have their filters retrieved (p = 0.031). Older age was also associated with a lower likelihood of retrieval (p < 0.001) as was living further from the medical center (p = 0.027). Patients who were white and had Medicare were more likely than similarly insured black patients to have their filters retrieved (p = 0.024).ConclusionsThe retrieval rate of IVCFs was most influenced by insurance status, distance from the medical center, and age. Race was statistically significant only when combined with insurance status. The results of this study suggest that these patient groups may need closer follow-up in order to obtain optimal IVCF retrieval rates

  16. The moderating effects of coping and self-esteem on the relationship between defeat, entrapment and suicidality in a sample of prisoners at high risk of suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Gooding, P.; Tarrier, N.; Dunn, G.; Shaw, J.; Awenat, Y.; Ulph, F.; Pratt, D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research is sparse which examines pathways to suicide, and resilience to suicide, in people who are particularly vulnerable to suicide, for example, prison inmates. The purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which perceptions of self-esteem and coping ability interacted with defeat and entrapment to both amplify suicidal thoughts and feelings, and to act as a buffer against suicidal thoughts and feelings. METHODS: Participants were 65 male prisoners at high risk of suici...

  17. ‘Flash-forwards’ and suicidal ideation: A prospective investigation of mental imagery, entrapment and defeat in a cohort from the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Roger M.K.; Di Simplicio, Martina; McManus, Freda; Kennerley, Helen; Holmes, Emily A.

    2016-01-01

    ‘Flash-forwards’ - mental images of suicide - have been reported in selected Caucasian samples. Perceptions of defeat and entrapment are considered to be associated with suicidal ideation. We aimed to investigate (1) the presence of suicidalflash-forwards in people with recent suicidal ideation versus those without such ideation in an Asian sample, and (2) associations between suicidal flash-forwards, and perceptions of entrapment accounting for suicidal ideation. Eighty two suicidal a...

  18. Biological Mechanisms Whereby Social Exclusion May Contribute to the Etiology of Psychosis: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selten, Jean-Paul; Booij, Jan; Buwalda, Bauke; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2017-01-03

    The purpose of this review is to examine whether a contribution of social exclusion to the pathogenesis of psychosis is compatible with the dopamine hypothesis and/or the neurodevelopmental hypothesis. Humans experience social exclusion as defeating. An animal model for defeat is the resident-intruder paradigm. The defeated animal shows evidence of an increased sensitivity to amphetamine, increased dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex, and increased firing of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area. As for humans, one study showed that amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release was significantly greater among nonpsychotic young adults with severe hearing impairment than among normal hearing controls. Two other studies reported an association between childhood trauma and increased dopamine function in striatal subregions. Several studies have suggested that the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) may play a role in the processing of social stress. Importantly, the pgACC regulates the activity of the ventral striatum through bidirectional interconnections. We are not aware of studies in humans that examined whether (proxies for) social exclusion contributes to the structural brain changes present at psychosis onset. Animal studies, however, reported that long-term isolation may lead to reductions in volume of the total brain, hippocampus, or medial prefrontal cortex. Other animal studies reported that social defeat can reduce neurogenesis. In conclusion, the answer to the question as to whether there are plausible mechanisms whereby social exclusion can contribute to the pathogenesis of psychosis is cautiously affirmative. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Reduced Orexin System Function Contributes to Resilience to Repeated Social Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafe, Laura A; Eacret, Darrell; Dobkin, Jane; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to stress increases the risk of developing affective disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, these disorders occur in only a subset of individuals, those that are more vulnerable to the effects of stress, whereas others remain resilient. The coping style adopted to deal with the stressor, either passive or active coping, is related to vulnerability or resilience, respectively. Important neural substrates that mediate responses to a stressor are the orexins. These neuropeptides are altered in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with stress-related illnesses such as depression and PTSD. The present experiments used a rodent social defeat model that generates actively coping rats and passively coping rats, which we have previously shown exhibit resilient and vulnerable profiles, respectively, to examine if orexins play a role in these stress-induced phenotypes. In situ radiolabeling and qPCR revealed that actively coping rats expressed significantly lower prepro-orexin mRNA compared with passively coping rats. This led to the hypothesis that lower levels of orexins contribute to resilience to repeated social stress. To test this hypothesis, rats first underwent 5 d of social defeat to establish active and passive coping phenotypes. Then, orexin neurons were inhibited before each social defeat for three additional days using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). Inhibition of orexins increased social interaction behavior and decreased depressive-like behavior in the vulnerable population of rats. Indeed, these data suggest that lowering orexins promoted resilience to social defeat and may be an important target for treatment of stress-related disorders.

  20. 'Flash-forwards' and suicidal ideation: A prospective investigation of mental imagery, entrapment and defeat in a cohort from the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Roger M K; Di Simplicio, Martina; McManus, Freda; Kennerley, Helen; Holmes, Emily A

    2016-12-30

    'Flash-forwards' - mental images of suicide - have been reported in selected Caucasian samples. Perceptions of defeat and entrapment are considered to be associated with suicidal ideation. We aimed to investigate (1) the presence of suicidal flash-forwards in people with recent suicidal ideation versus those without such ideation in an Asian sample, and (2) associations between suicidal flash-forwards, and perceptions of entrapment accounting for suicidal ideation. Eighty two suicidal and 80 non-suicidal participants from the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity Survey completed questionnaires including suicidal ideation, presence of suicidal flash-forward images, defeat and entrapment, at baseline and seven weeks later. Suicidal 'flash-forwards' were present only in suicidal cases. People with recent suicidal ideation and suicidal flash-forwards had more severe suicidal ideation than those without flash-forwards. Compared to those without suicidal ideation, people with recent suicidal ideation reported higher entrapment and defeat levels. Resolution of suicidal ideation over time was associated with fewer suicidal flash-forwards and reduced entrapment perceptions. At baseline and seven weeks, suicidal ideation was predicted by an interaction between suicidal flash-forwards presence and perceptions of entrapment. Mental imagery of suicide appears to be associated with suicidal ideation, and may represent a novel target in suicidal risk assessment and prevention. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimating PM2.5-associated mortality increase in California due to the Volkswagen emission control defeat device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyang; Jerrett, Michael; Sinsheimer, Peter; Zhu, Yifang

    2016-11-01

    The Volkswagen Group of America (VW) was found by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to have installed "defeat devices" and emit more oxides of nitrogen (NOx) than permitted under current EPA standards. In this paper, we quantify the hidden NOx emissions from this so-called VW scandal and the resulting public health impacts in California. The NOx emissions are calculated based on VW road test data and the CARB Emission Factors (EMFAC) model. Cumulative hidden NOx emissions from 2009 to 2015 were estimated to be over 3500 tons. Adult mortality changes were estimated based on ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) change due to secondary nitrate formation and the related concentration-response functions. We estimated that hidden NOx emissions from 2009 to 2015 have resulted in a total of 12 PM2.5-associated adult mortality increases in California. Most of the mortality increase happened in metropolitan areas, due to their high population and vehicle density.

  2. Cognitive and behavioural effects induced by social stress plus MDMA administration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pardo, M P; Roger-Sánchez, C; Rodríguez-Arias, M; Miñarro, J; Aguilar, M A

    2017-02-15

    Adverse life experiences such as social stress may make an individual more vulnerable to drug addiction and mental disorders associated with drug consumption. The present work aimed to evaluate the effects of stress induced by acute social defeat combined with the administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on depression-like behaviour, memory function and motor response to drug in late adolescent male mice. Two groups of mice were exposed to social defeat (SD) during four encounters with an aggressive co-specific, which took place on alternate days. Immediately after defeat, animals were treated with saline or MDMA 10mg/kg (SD+SAL and SD+MDMA). In control groups, mice were placed in a neutral cage without an opponent (Control+SAL, Control+MDMA). Corticosterone levels and temperature were measured on the last day of this phase. During the following days, the behaviour of the animals was evaluated in the tail suspension test (an animal model of depression), memory tasks (passive avoidance and object recognition) and, after administration of 5mg/kg of MDMA, in the open-field test. Exposure of adult mice to acute social defeat plus MDMA increased immobility in the tail suspension test (depression-like behaviour), produced cognitive impairment, and reduced the motor response to MDMA. An increase in corticosterone levels and a decrease of temperature were also observed. As hypothesised, a combination of social stress and consumption of MDMA increases the risk of developing mental and cognitive disorders. Our results support the idea that stress is a common contributing factor to the high rate of comorbidity between substance abuse and mental disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Keeping Order: Motor-Car Regulation and the Defeat of Victoria's 1905 Motor-Car Bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Clapton

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the twentieth century some upper-class Victorians became motorists; consequently, for the first time ever, regulation and policing intersected with this class of society. By 1905 so many concerns had been raised about compromised public order and safety that the Victorian State Government attempted to implement a Motor Car Bill based on its English predecessor (1903. Wealthy motorists possessed power and influence, however, which contributed to the postponement of legislation until 1910. Additionally, parliamentarians were drawn from the same social class as motorists, and, in creating regulation, they were potentially regulating their peers, colleagues and friends. The private motor-car also brought with it new issues of civil liberty and responsibility. Finding a balance between the two continued to be a problem, as private transport gradually became affordable for middle- and working-class people, and both the number of regulations and the power of the motoring lobby increased.

  4. New Generation Agent Defeat Weapons: Energetic N,N'-Ethylene-Bridged Polyiodoazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Kumar, Dheeraj; He, Chunlin; Hooper, Joseph P; Imler, Gregory H; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2017-11-27

    Sodium salts of iodine-rich pyrazole and imidazole with 1-(2-bromoethyl)-5-aminotetrazole are useful precursors for energetic N,N'-ethylene-bridged polyiodoazoles. Compounds 1-3 were characterized with IR, and 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy as well as elemental analyses. The molecular structures of 1 and 2 were confirmed by using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Heats of formation were calculated using Gaussian 03 and detonation properties and biocidal efficiency were calculated with CHEETAH 7. The decomposition products of 1-3 destroy microbes more effectively than some previously reported biocides since the thermal decomposition occurs at below 400 °C without addition of oxidizer or combustion adjuvant. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A multidisciplinary approach to the identification and evaluation of novel concepts for deeply buried hardened target defeat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscome, Ewell Caleb

    During the Cold War, Deeply Buried Hardened Targets (DBHTs) and the assets they protected were of great strategic and tactical concern to the Department of Defense. Megaton-class nuclear warheads were the only viable means of attacking many of these facilities, and even so, a small subset of DBHTs was anticipated to be robust even in the face of such an attack. Post Cold War, the threat posed by DBHTs has not disappeared. Rather, the conventional warfare advantages of the United States have led to an increasing emphasis by potential adversaries on the construction and use of hardened facilities such as DBHTs for protection of both conventional and unconventional assets. Further, the shift in perceived relative risk to the United States' national security from large scale all-out nuclear attack towards very limited attack by Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) has led some to hypothesize that "self-deterrence" may diminish the strategic value of current inventory nuclear weapons. The objective of the work described was to identify and explore a paradigm shifting solution that could offer leap-ahead capabilities to counter current and future DBHT threats while mitigating or eliminating the "self-deterrence" issue. Systematic evaluation of DHBT defeat alternatives lead to the selection of a thermal subterrene as a hypothetical means of providing such a capability. A number of possible implementation alternatives for a thermal subterrene were investigated, resulting in the identification of the RadioIsotope Powered Thermal Penetrator (RIPTP) concept for providing an effectively unlimited hard rock penetration capability using near-term technologies. However, the proposed approach was novel and thus required formulation and application of a physics based multidisciplinary analysis code to enable evaluation of lv design alternatives and analysis of performance. Technical considerations identified as important to the feasibility of a RIPTP for DBHT defeat included: packing

  6. Social stress contagion in rats: Behavioural, autonomic and neuroendocrine correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevali, Luca; Montano, Nicola; Statello, Rosario; Coudé, Gino; Vacondio, Federica; Rivara, Silvia; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    The negative emotional consequences associated with life stress exposure in an individual can affect the emotional state of social partners. In this study, we describe an experimental rat model of social stress contagion and its effects on social behaviour and cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. Adult male Wistar rats were pair-housed and one animal (designated as "demonstrator" (DEM)) was submitted to either social defeat stress (STR) by an aggressive male Wild-type rat in a separate room or just exposed to an unfamiliar empty cage (control condition, CTR), once a day for 4 consecutive days. We evaluated the influence of cohabitation with a STR DEM on behavioural, cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine outcomes in the cagemate (defined "observer" (OBS)). After repeated social stress, STR DEM rats showed clear signs of social avoidance when tested in a new social context compared to CTR DEM rats. Interestingly, also their cagemate STR OBSs showed higher levels of social avoidance compared to CTR OBSs. Moreover, STR OBS rats exhibited a higher heart rate and a larger shift of cardiac autonomic balance toward sympathetic prevalence (as indexed by heart rate variability analysis) immediately after the first reunification with their STR DEMs, compared to the control condition. This heightened cardiac autonomic responsiveness habituated over time. Finally, STR OBSs showed elevated plasma corticosterone levels at the end of the experimental protocol compared to CTR OBSs. These findings demonstrate that cohabitation with a DEM rat, which has experienced repeated social defeat stress, substantially disrupts social behaviour and induces short-lasting cardiac autonomic activation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity in the OBS rat, thus suggesting emotional state-matching between the OBS and the DEM rats. We conclude that this rodent model may be further exploited for investigating the neurobiological bases of negative affective sharing between

  7. When "Separate" May Be Better: Exploring Single-Sex Learning as a Remedy for Social Anxieties in Female Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Research on the overall effectiveness of single-sex education remains inconclusive; however, some research does indicate that benefits other than academic achievement may be possible with a single-sex format. Advocates argue that when single-sex environments are structured by not only separating boys and girls but also by leveraging…

  8. Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In social entrepreneurship, social innovation and human economy coexist with democratic governance and volunteerism in the development of new initiatives and responses to wicked welfare problems. Volunteerism in social entrepreneurship takes up a prominent position, leading to the birth of new...... organisational hybrid formats: social enterprises. Drawing upon a single case study of ‘the Bridge’, a typical Danish work integration social enterprise (WISE), it is shown how social enterprises act as ‘strong learning arenas’, opting for a number of high-profile and ‘popular’ objectives: to train and empower...... marginal citizens, to create sustainable enterprises in a new economy, to strengthen the local community, to renew welfare services and labour strategies, and to develop social enterprise and business models. Adding to these objectives we can include democracy and participation, and positioning...

  9. More Than the Win: The Relation between Appetitive Competition Motivation, Socialization, and Gender Role Orientation in Women's Football

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Siefert, Sabrina; Weierstall, Roland

    2017-01-01

    The ability to produce peak performance plays a decisive role in the success of athletes in competitive contest situations. Levels of appetitive competition motivation (ACM), i.e., the desire to defeat an opponent independent of secondary reinforcing factors, were assessed in professional female football/soccer players in the premier and regional leagues, using club level as the measurement of sport success. Furthermore, the influence of social environments predominantly encouraging masculine...

  10. Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing Pathways in a Social-Ecological Model Including Single- and Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including…

  11. 'Gatekeeper' unit defeats legionella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Jo

    2007-03-01

    Legionella presents an ongoing cause for concern in any sector where duty of care responsibilities prevail. Jo Wolters, microbiologist and sector head of TA-Aqua+ at Tour & Andersson, describes a recently developed method of legionella prevention and control.

  12. Defeating Saddam Hussein's Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millen, Raymond A

    2003-01-01

    Should war break out between Iraq and the United States, Saddam Hussein will likely adopt a strategy designed to undermine the prestige of the United States and turn the Arab World against the West...

  13. Voluntary exercise and increased food intake after mild chronic stress improve social avoidance behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Airi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    It is well-established that exercise can influence psychological conditions, cognitive function, and energy metabolism in peripheral tissues including the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether exercise can influence social interaction with others and alleviate defeat stress. This study investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on impaired social interaction induced by chronic social defeat stress (SDS) using the resident-intruder social defeat model. Mice were divided into three groups: control, stress alone, and stress+exercise. SDS was performed by exposing C57BL/6 mice to retired ICR mice for 2.5 min. The C57BL/6 mice were continuously defeated by these resident (aggressor) mice and, following 5 days of SDS, experienced 2 days of rest with no SDS. Mice in the stress+exercise group were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 2h after every SDS exposure. Two weeks later, compared to the control group, the stress group showed a higher ratio of time spent in the corner zone of a social interaction paradigm even though SDS did not elicit depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. We also observed that voluntary exercise, which did not affect muscle weight and gene expression, decreased social avoidance behavior of stressed mice without clear changes in brain monoamine levels. Interestingly, food intake in the stress+exercise group was the greatest among the three groups. To test the effect of the exercise-induced increase in food intake on social behavior, we set up a pair-fed group where food intake was restricted. We then compared these mice to mice in the stress alone group. We found that the ratio of time spent in the corner zone of the social interaction test was not different between ad libitum- and pair-fed groups, although pair-fed mice spent more time in the corner zone when an aggressor mouse was present than when it was absent. In addition, pair-feeding did not show exercise-induced reductions of adrenal gland weight and enhanced the

  14. Rats socially-reared and full fed learned an autoshaping task, showing less levels of fear-like behaviour than fasted or singly-reared rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia

    2004-07-01

    During the learning of instrumental tasks, rats are usually fasted to increase reinforced learning. However, fasting produces several undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that control rats, i.e. full-fed and group-reared rats, will learn an autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. The interaction between fasting and single-rearing of rats was also tested. Results showed that control rats and fasted rats acquired the autoshaping task similarly, independently of rearing condition or gender. However, fasted or singly-reared rats produced fear-like behaviour, since male rats group-reared and fasted (85% body/wt, P autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. However, fasting or single-rearing produced fear-like behaviour. Thus, the training of control rats in autoshaping tasks may be an option that improves animal welfare.

  15. Single and Cumulative Relations of Social Risk Factors with Children's Dental Health and Care-Utilization Within Regions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Alyssa J; Gromoske, Andrea N; Olson, Melissa A; Chaffin, Jeffrey G

    2016-03-01

    The purpose is to examine the relation of social risk factors, and the cumulative burden of social risk factors, on parent-reported dental health and dental care-seeking behavior. National Survey of Children's Health data (2011-2012) were analyzed for US children by Title V Block Grant regions. Multivariate logistic regressions were estimated for ten social risk factors, as well as a cumulative risk index, to find any associations with poor condition of teeth, presence of dental caries, and no dental care visits. Almost all of the risk factors were significantly associated with poor condition of teeth and presence of dental caries for the US. Models associating no dental care visits suggested that low family income (OR 1.58), poor maternal mental health (OR 1.54), high school education or less (OR 1.34), and multi-racial/other race (OR 1.18) were significant factors for the US. Regional variation existed for those risk factors and their association with the outcomes, but income, education, and poor maternal mental health consistently played a significant role in adverse outcomes. The cumulative risk index was strongly related to poor oral health outcomes, with a weaker relationship to dental care utilization. US children experiencing certain social risk factors, such as low family income, high school education or less, and poor maternal mental health, are likely to be at greater risk for poor dental health and low levels of dental-care seeking behavior. Children experiencing multiple social risks are at greater risk for poor oral outcomes than children who experience fewer social risks. An approach that involves the social determinants of health is needed to address these issues.

  16. Social interaction with non-averse group-mates modifies a learned food aversion in single- and mixed-species groups of tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis and S. labiatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, M J; Buchanan-Smith, H M; Smith, A C

    2005-04-01

    For social species, being a member of a cohesive group and performing activities as a coordinated unit appear to provide a mechanism for the efficient transmission of information about food. Social learning about food palatability was investigated in two captive primates, Saguinus fuscicollis and S. labiatus, which form stable and cohesive mixed-species groups in the wild. We explored whether an induced food aversion toward a preferred food is modified during and after social interaction with non-averse conspecifics or congeners. Sets of intra- and interspecific pairs were presented with two foods, one of which was considered distasteful by one of the pairs (the other was palatable), and their behavior was compared pre-interaction, during interaction, and post-interaction. For the aversely-conditioned individuals of both species, the change in social context corresponded to a change in their preference for the food that they considered unpalatable, regardless of whether they had interacted with a conspecific or congeneric pair, and the change in food preference was maintained post-interaction. In a control condition, in which averse individuals did not have the opportunity to interact with non-averse animals, S. fuscicollis sampled the preferred food, but not as quickly as when given the opportunity to interact. We conclude that the social learning demonstrated here may allow individual tamarins to track environmental change, such as fruit ripening, more efficiently than asocial learning alone, because social learners can more quickly and safely focus on appropriate behavior by sharing up-to-date foraging information. Furthermore, since the behavior of congeners, as well as conspecifics, acts to influence food choice in a more adaptive direction, social learning about food palatability may be an advantage of mixed-species group formation to tamarins of both species. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  17. Kids Identifying and Defeating Stroke (KIDS): development and implementation of a multiethnic health education intervention to increase stroke awareness among middle school students and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen Conley, Kathleen; Juhl Majersik, Jennifer; Gonzales, Nicole R; Maddox, Katherine E; Pary, Jennifer K; Brown, Devin L; Moyé, Lemuel A; Espinosa, Nina; Grotta, James C; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2010-01-01

    The Kids Identifying and Defeating Stroke (KIDS) project is a 3-year prospective, randomized, controlled, multiethnic school-based intervention study. Project goals include increasing knowledge of stroke signs and treatment and intention to immediately call 911 among Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) middle school students and their parents. This article describes the design, implementation, and interim evaluation of this theory-based intervention. Intervention students received a culturally appropriate stroke education program divided into four 50-minute classes each year during the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Each class session also included a homework assignment that involved the students' parents or other adult partners. Interim-test results indicate that this educational intervention was successful in improving students' stroke symptom and treatment knowledge and intent to call 911 upon witnessing a stroke compared with controls. The authors conclude that this school-based educational intervention to reduce delay time to hospital arrival for stroke shows early promise.

  18. Direct and Collateral Effects of Peer Tutoring on Social and Behavioral Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Burke, Mack D.; Zhang, Nan; Zaini, Samar

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the direct (primary) and collateral (secondary) effects of peer tutoring on social and behavioral outcomes for 128 participants in prekindergarten through grade 12 across 20 studies using SCR designs. The overall TauU weighted effect size across studies was 0.62 (95% CI [0.58, 0.66]), indicating that a small to moderate…

  19. "I Love These Girls--I Was These Girls": Women Leading for Social Justice in a Single-Sex Public School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Katherine Cumings

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share the findings from a 2-year ethnography that examined female practitioners' experiences in the field. The article describes the intentions, discourses, actions, and repercussions of female administrators and teachers working to accomplish social justice for racial/ethnic minority girls from challenging…

  20. The Influence of Financial, Human and Social Capital on Japanese Men's and Women's Health in Single- and Two-Parent Family Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Cherylynn

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale demographic changes have been occurring in Japan over the last few decades. During this time, the proportion of two-parent (nuclear) and single-parent families have doubled. Despite this rapid increase, the health of individuals in these family structures have received limited attention, as the focus has been directed towards the…

  1. "I'm a Loser, I'm Not Married, Let's Just All Look at Me": Ever-Single Women's Perceptions of Their Social Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Elizabeth A.; Ganong, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing numbers of singles, the idealization of marriage and child rearing remains strong, pervasive, and largely unquestioned. Guided by life course perspective, the purpose of this article was to examine familial and societal messages women receive when not married by their late 20s to mid-30s. Using descriptive phenomenological method,…

  2. Social smerte i det moderne arbejdsliv ud fra et arbejdspsykologisk perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldursson, Einar Baldvin

    2012-01-01

    It is often argued, that modern work and living in globalized knowledge society involve new demands and social stressors. This paper argues that it is meaningful to assume the existence of a psychological immune system that has emerged through the evolution of social mammals and humans. Accord...... to the theory, this system is activated in the case of social threats, loss or damage. When activated it causes psychological pain and depressive reaction. Similar to the innate immune system, the psychological immune system involves (social) behavior with the goal to limit damage and improve the odds...... for recovery. In the paper it is argued that modern work involves increased focus on social relations and cooperation. The experience of permanent changes at work, increased pressure and emotional demands lead to increasing risk for social loss and defeat at work. According to this theory such experiences...

  3. Chronic stress triggers social aversion via glucocorticoid receptor in dopaminoceptive neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Jacques; Marti, Fabio; Morel, Carole; Fernandez, Sebastian P; Lanteri, Christophe; Godeheu, Gérard; Tassin, Jean-Pol; Mombereau, Cédric; Faure, Philippe; Tronche, François

    2013-01-18

    Repeated traumatic events induce long-lasting behavioral changes that are key to organism adaptation and that affect cognitive, emotional, and social behaviors. Rodents subjected to repeated instances of aggression develop enduring social aversion and increased anxiety. Such repeated aggressions trigger a stress response, resulting in glucocorticoid release and activation of the ascending dopamine (DA) system. We bred mice with selective inactivation of the gene encoding the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) along the DA pathway, and exposed them to repeated aggressions. GR in dopaminoceptive but not DA-releasing neurons specifically promoted social aversion as well as dopaminergic neurochemical and electrophysiological neuroadaptations. Anxiety and fear memories remained unaffected. Acute inhibition of the activity of DA-releasing neurons fully restored social interaction in socially defeated wild-type mice. Our data suggest a GR-dependent neuronal dichotomy for the regulation of emotional and social behaviors, and clearly implicate GR as a link between stress resiliency and dopaminergic tone.

  4. Intermittent Exposure to Social Defeat and Open-field Test in Rats : Acute and Long-term Effects on ECG, Body Temperature and Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgoifo, Andrea; Pozzato, Chiara; Meerlo, Peter; Costoli, Tania; Manghi, Massimo; Stilli, Donatella; Olivetti, Giorgio; Musso, Ezio

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to an intermittent homotypic stressor on: (i) habituation of acute autonomic responsivity (i.e. cardiac sympathovagal balance and susceptibility to arrhythmias), and (ii) circadian rhythmicity of heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity.

  5. Effects of Different Social and Environmental Conditions on Established Dominance Relationships in Crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Jens; Swierzbinski, Matthew E; Birke, Juliane M

    2016-04-01

    Like most social animals, crayfish readily form dominance relationships and linear social hierarchies when competing for limited resources. Competition often entails dyadic aggressive interactions, from which one animal emerges as the dominant and one as the subordinate. Once dominance relationships are formed, they typically remain stable for extended periods of time; thus, access to future resources is divided unequally among conspecifics. We previously showed that firmly established dominance relationships in juvenile crayfish can be disrupted by briefly adding a larger conspecific to the original pair. This finding suggested that the stability of social relationships in crayfish was highly context-dependent and more transient than previously assumed. We now report results that further identify the mechanisms underlying the destabilization of crayfish dominance relationships. We found that rank orders remained stable when conspecifics of smaller or equal size were added to the original pair, suggesting that both dominant and subordinate must be defeated by a larger crayfish in order to destabilize dominance relationships. We also found that dominance relationships remained stable when both members of the original pair were defeated by larger conspecifics in the absence of their original opponent. This showed that dominance relationships are not destabilized unless both animals experience defeat together. Lastly, we found that dominance relationships of pairs were successfully disrupted by larger intruders, although with reduced magnitude, after all chemical cues associated with earlier agonistic experiences were eliminated. These findings provide important new insights into the contextual features that regulate the stability of social dominance relationships in crayfish and probably in other species as well. © 2016 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  6. Long-term effects of repeated social stress on the conditioned place preference induced by MDMA in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pardo, M P; Blanco-Gandía, M C; Valiente-Lluch, M; Rodríguez-Arias, M; Miñarro, J; Aguilar, M A

    2015-12-03

    Previous studies have demonstrated that social defeat stress increases the rewarding effects of psychostimulant drugs such as cocaine and amphetamine. In the present study we evaluated the long-term effects of repeated social defeat (RSD) on the rewarding effects of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) hydrochloride in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Adolescent and young adult mice were exposed to four episodes of social defeat (on PND 29-40 and PND 47-56, respectively) and were conditioned three weeks later with 1.25 or 10mg/kg i.p. of MDMA (experiment 1). The long-term effects of RSD on anxiety, social behavior and cognitive processes were also evaluated in adult mice (experiment 2). RSD during adolescence enhanced vulnerability to priming-induced reinstatement in animals conditioned with 1.25mg/kg of MDMA and increased the duration of the CPP induced by the 10mg/kg of MDMA. The latter effect was also observed after RSD in young adult mice, as well as an increase in anxiety-like behavior, an alteration in social interaction (reduction in attack and increase in avoidance/flee and defensive/submissive behaviors) and an impairment of maze learning. These results support the idea that RSD stress increases the rewarding effects of MDMA and induces long-term alterations in anxiety, learning and social behavior in adult mice. Thus, exposure to stress may increase the vulnerability of individuals to developing MDMA dependence, which is a factor to be taken into account in relation to the prevention and treatment of this disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The 2010 World Cup High-Frequency Data Economics: Effects on International Awareness and (Self-Defeating) Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Stan Du Plessis; Wolfgang Maennig

    2010-01-01

    Without a doubt, the 2010 World Cup of soccer in South Africa was a great experience for both soccer fans, who enjoyed a safe and efficiently-run tournament, and their South African hosts. The sporting and social spectacle was broadcast around the world and focused unprecedented media attention on South Africa. Despite the manifest success of the tournament, its short-term effects on international tourism, which are the nucleus of all other short-term positive effects on economic variables su...

  8. The moderating effect of conformism values on the relations between other personal values, social norms, moral obligation, and single altruistic behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Walkowitz, Gari; Wichardt, Philipp; Lindeman, Marjaana; Verkasalo, Markku

    2009-09-01

    Three studies predicted and found that the individual's conformism values are one determinant of whether behaviour is guided by other personal values or by social norms. In Study 1 (N=50), pro-gay law reform participants were told they were either in a minority or a majority in terms of their attitude towards the law reform. Only participants who were high in conformism values conformed to the group norm on public behaviour intentions. In studies 2 (N=42) and 3 (N=734), participants played multiple choice prisoner's dilemma games with monetary incentives. Only participants who considered conformism values to be relatively unimportant showed the expected connections between universalism values and altruistic behaviour. Study 3 also established that the moderating effect of conformism values on the relation between universalism values and altruistic behaviour was mediated through experienced sense of moral obligation.

  9. Housing as a Social Determinant of Health: Exploring the Relationship between Rent Burden and Risk Behaviors for Single Room Occupancy Building Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Elizabeth A; Mitchell, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of health determinants research recognizes that housing and health are intimately linked. This study explores the relationship between rent burden (the ratio of rent to income) and health risk behaviors among a sample of single room occupancy (SRO) building residents. Cross-sectional data were gathered from a sample of 162 residents living in privately owned, for-profit SROs in Chicago. Findings indicated that participants who had full rental subsidies and thus were designated in a no-rent-burden category were more likely to engage in risk behaviors including illicit drug use, having multiple sexual partners, and having sex without a condom, in comparison to participants with moderate or high-rent burdens. These findings suggest that interventions to increase housing stability and affordability and bolster reliable income sources (in addition to rental subsidies) may be key in reducing risk behaviors and improving health for vulnerably housed populations such as SRO residents.

  10. Mefloquine in the nucleus accumbens promotes social avoidance and anxiety-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati, Mitra; Golden, Sam A; Pfau, Madeline L; Christoffel, Daniel J; Seeley, Elena L; Cahill, Michael E; Khibnik, Lena A; Russo, Scott J

    2016-02-01

    Mefloquine continues to be a key drug used for malaria chemoprophylaxis and treatment, despite reports of adverse events like depression and anxiety. It is unknown how mefloquine acts within the central nervous system to cause depression and anxiety or why some individuals are more vulnerable. We show that intraperitoneal injection of mefloquine in mice, when coupled to subthreshold social defeat stress, is sufficient to produce depression-like social avoidance behavior. Direct infusion of mefloquine into the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key brain reward region, increased stress-induced social avoidance and anxiety behavior. In contrast, infusion into the ventral hippocampus had no effect. Whole cell recordings from NAc medium spiny neurons indicated that mefloquine application increases the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents, a synaptic adaptation that we have previously shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to social defeat stress. Together, these data demonstrate a role for the NAc in mefloquine-induced depression and anxiety-like behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Unsolvable Problems of Biology: It Is Impossible to Create Two Identical Organisms, to Defeat Cancer, or to Map Organisms onto Their Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdlov, E D

    2018-04-01

    The review is devoted to unsolvable problems of biology. 1) Problems unsolvable due to stochastic mutations occurring during DNA replication that make it impossible to create two identical organisms or even two identical complex cells (Sverdlov, E. D. (2009) Biochemistry (Moscow), 74, 939-944) and to "defeat" cancer. 2) Problems unsolvable due to multiple interactions in complex systems leading to the appearance of unpredictable emergent properties that prevent establishment of unambiguous relationships between the genetic architecture and phenotypic manifestation of the genome and make impossible to predict with certainty responses of the organism, its parts, or pathological processes to external factors. 3) Problems unsolvable because of the uncertainty principle and observer effect in biology, due to which it is impossible to obtain adequate information about cells in their tissue microenvironment by isolating and analyzing individual cells. In particular, we cannot draw conclusions on the properties of stem cells in their niches based on the properties of stem cell cultures. A strategy is proposed for constructing the pattern most closely approximated to the relationship of genotypes with their phenotypes by designing networks of intermediate phenotypes (endophenotypes).

  12. Kids Identifying and Defeating Stroke (KIDS): Development and Implementation of a Multi-Ethnic Health Education Intervention to Increase Stroke Awareness Among Middle School Students and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Kathleen M; Majersik, Jennifer; Gonzales, Nicole R; Maddox, Katherine E; Pary, Jennifer K; Brown, Devin L; Moyé, Lemuel A; Espinosa, Nina; Grotta, James C; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2009-01-01

    The KIDS (Kids Identifying and Defeating Stroke) Program is a three-year prospective, randomized, controlled, multiethnic school-based intervention study. Program goals include increasing knowledge of stroke signs and treatment and intention to immediately call 911 among Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) middle school students and their parents. This article describes the design, implementation and interim evaluation of this theory-based intervention. Intervention students received a culturally appropriate stroke education program divided into four 50-minute classes each year during the 6th, 7th, and 8th grades. Each class session also included a homework assignment that involved the students’ parents or other adult partners. Interim-test results indicate that this educational intervention was successful in improving students’ stroke symptom and treatment knowledge and intent to call 911 upon witnessing a stroke compared with controls (p<0.001). We conclude that this school-based educational intervention to reduce delay time to hospital arrival for stroke shows early promise. PMID:18332150

  13. The thrill of victory and the agony of defeat: spontaneous expressions of medal winners of the 2004 Athens Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Willingham, Bob

    2006-09-01

    Facial behaviors of medal winners of the judo competition at the 2004 Athens Olympic Games were coded with P. Ekman and W. V. Friesen's (1978) Facial Affect Coding System (FACS) and interpreted using their Emotion FACS dictionary. Winners' spontaneous expressions were captured immediately when they completed medal matches, when they received their medal from a dignitary, and when they posed on the podium. The 84 athletes who contributed expressions came from 35 countries. The findings strongly supported the notion that expressions occur in relation to emotionally evocative contexts in people of all cultures, that these expressions correspond to the facial expressions of emotion considered to be universal, that expressions provide information that can reliably differentiate the antecedent situations that produced them, and that expressions that occur without inhibition are different than those that occur in social and interactive settings. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. From sex strangler to model citizen: Mexico's most famous murderer and the defeat of the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Everard

    2010-01-01

    Gregorio Cárdenas Hernández was Mexico's most infamous serial killer. After he confessed to killing four young women and burying them behind his home, he became the darling of the crime pages and criminological experts alike, and his case provoked a lively debate over the reinstatement of the death penalty in congress. The following essay uses his story, the policy debates it provoked, and his broader institutional odyssey in La Castañeda mental asylum (1943–1947) and Lecumberri prison (1948–1976) to explore how issues that affected Mexicans across the social spectrum were discussed and settled in a political system that was neither a dictatorship nor a democracy.

  15. Recovery of stress-impaired social behavior by an antagonist of the CRF binding protein, CRF6-33, in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Mailton; Stein, Dirson J; Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Miczek, Klaus A; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M

    2018-01-09

    Social stress is recognized to promote the development of neuropsychiatric and mood disorders. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is an important neuropeptide activated by social stress, and it contributes to neural and behavioral adaptations, as indicated by impaired social interactions and anhedonic effects. Few studies have focused on the role of the CRF binding protein (CRFBP), a component of the CRF system, and its activity in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), a limbic structure connecting amygdala and hypothalamus. In this study, animals' preference for sweet solutions was examined as an index of stress-induced anhedonic responses in Wistar rats subjected to four brief intermittent episodes of social defeat. Next, social approach was assessed after local infusions of the CRFBP antagonist, CRF fragment 6-33 (CRF 6-33 ) into the BNST. The experience of brief episodes of social defeat impaired social approach behaviors in male rats. However, intra-BNST CRF 6-33 infusions restored social approach in stressed animals to the levels of non-stressed rats. CRF 6-33 acted selectively on social interaction and did not alter general exploration in nether stressed nor non-stressed rats. These findings suggest that BNST CRFBP is involved in the modulation of anxiety-like responses induced by social stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Deep sleep after social stress: NREM sleep slow-wave activity is enhanced in both winners and losers of a conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Jeanine; Lancel, Marike; Koolhaas, Jaap M; Meerlo, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Sleep is considered to be a recovery process of prior wakefulness. Not only duration of the waking period affects sleep architecture and sleep EEG, the quality of wakefulness is also highly important. Studies in rats have shown that social defeat stress, in which experimental animals are attacked and defeated by a dominant conspecific, is followed by an acute increase in NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA). However, it is not known whether this effect is specific for the stress of social defeat or a result of the conflict per se. In the present experiment, we examined how sleep is affected in both the winners and losers of a social conflict. Sleep-wake patterns and sleep EEG were recorded in male wild-type Groningen rats that were subjected to 1h of social conflict in the middle of the light phase. All animals were confronted with a conspecific of similar aggression level and the conflict took place in a neutral arena where both individuals had an equal chance to either win or lose the conflict. NREM sleep SWA was significantly increased after the social conflict compared to baseline values and a gentle stimulation control condition. REM sleep was significantly suppressed in the first hours after the conflict. Winners and losers did not differ significantly in NREM sleep time, NREM sleep SWA and REM sleep time immediately after the conflict. Losers tended to have slightly more NREM sleep later in the recovery period. This study shows that in rats a social conflict with an unpredictable outcome has quantitatively and qualitatively largely similar acute effects on subsequent sleep in winners and losers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Social Phobia KidsHealth / For Teens / Social Phobia What's in ... an anxiety condition called social phobia. What Is Social Phobia? Social phobia (also called social anxiety ) is ...

  18. Implementation of the Enhanced Moderated Online Social Therapy (MOST+) Model Within a National Youth E-Mental Health Service (eheadspace): Protocol for a Single Group Pilot Study for Help-Seeking Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Simon; Gleeson, John; Leicester, Steven; Bendall, Sarah; D'Alfonso, Simon; Gilbertson, Tamsyn; Killackey, Eoin; Parker, Alexandra; Lederman, Reeva; Wadley, Greg; Santesteban-Echarri, Olga; Pryor, Ingrid; Mawren, Daveena; Ratheesh, Aswin; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario

    2018-02-22

    There is a substantial need for youth electronic mental health (e-mental health) services. In addressing this need, our team has developed a novel moderated online social therapy intervention called enhanced moderated online social therapy (MOST+). MOST+ integrates real-time, clinician-delivered Web chat counseling, interactive user-directed online therapy, expert and peer moderation, and private and secure peer-to-peer social networking. MOST+ has been designed to give young people immediate, 24-hour access to anonymous, evidence-based, and short-term mental health care. The primary aims of this pilot study were to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and safety of the intervention. Secondary aims were to assess prepost changes in key psychosocial outcomes and collect qualitative data for future intervention refinement. MOST+ will be embedded within eheadspace, an Australian youth e-mental health service, and will be evaluated via an uncontrolled single-group study. Approximately 250 help-seeking young people (16-25 years) will be progressively recruited to the intervention from the eheadspace home page over the first 4 weeks of an 8-week intervention period. All participants will have access to evidence-based therapeutic content and integrated Web chat counseling. Additional access to moderated peer-to-peer social networking will be granted to individuals for whom it is deemed safe and appropriate, through a three-tiered screening process. Participants will be enrolled in the MOST+ intervention for 1 week, with the option to renew their enrollment across the duration of the pilot. Participants will complete a survey at enrollment to assess psychological well-being and other mental health outcomes. Additional assessment will occur following account deactivation (ie, after participant has opted not to renew their enrollment, or at trial conclusion) and will include an online survey and telephone interview assessing psychological well-being and experience of

  19. Autopsia social de un subtierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrándiz, Francisco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a conceptualization of the mass graves of defeat, mostly derived from the Spanish Civil War (1936- 1939 and the early Postwar years, understanding them as a radical form of a below ground internal exile. Once the bodies in the mass graves and the violence inscribed in them have been characterized, the paper engages in a social autopsy of how this memory has evolved in contemporary Spain since the year 2000, when the first exhumation of the most recent cycle of Civil War graves took place. The analysis follows the political, judicial, scientific, media and associative impact of these exhumed bodies.

    Este artículo propone una conceptualización de las fosas comunes de la derrota derivadas de la Guerra Civil española (1936- 1939 y la posguerra utilizando la noción del subtierro —asimilable a una forma extrema de exilio interior bajo tierra—, cuyo origen histórico sería el mismo que el de los exiliados, desterrados o transterrados que tuvieron que abandonar España, pero cuyas condiciones de producción y cuya historia social, política, simbólica y judicial desde la guerra hasta el presente tiene características específicas. A partir de ahí, una vez definidos los cuerpos que se encuentran en estas fosas y el tipo de violencia que se inscribió sobre ellos, se realiza una autopsia social de su evolución histórica y del recorrido que su apertura desde el año 2000 está teniendo en la sociedad española contemporánea desde el punto de vista político, judicial, científico, mediático y asociativo.

  20. single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Abstract. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid (4-NBA) single crystals were studied for their linear and nonlinear optical ... studies on the proper growth, linear and nonlinear optical ..... between the optic axes and optic sign of the biaxial crystal.

  1. Emotional valence and context of social influences on drug abuse-related behavior in animal models of social stress and prosocial interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neisewander, J L; Peartree, N A; Pentkowski, N S

    2012-11-01

    Social factors are important determinants of drug dependence and relapse. We reviewed pre-clinical literature examining the role of social experiences from early life through the development of drug dependence and relapse, emphasizing two aspects of these experiences: (1) whether the social interaction is appetitive or aversive and (2) whether the social interaction occurs within or outside of the drug-taking context. The models reviewed include neonatal care, isolation, social defeat, chronic subordination, and prosocial interactions. We review results from these models in regard to effects on self-administration and conditioned place preference established with alcohol, psychostimulants, and opiates. We suggest that in general, when the interactions occur outside of the drug-taking context, prosocial interactions are protective against drug abuse-related behaviors, whereas social stressors facilitate these behaviors. By contrast, positive or negative social interactions occurring within the drug-taking context may interact with other risk factors to enhance or inhibit these behaviors. Despite differences in the nature and complexity of human social behavior compared to other species, the evolving animal literature provides useful models for understanding social influences on drug abuse-related behavior that will allow for research on the behavioral and biological mechanisms involved. The models have contributed to understanding social influences on initiation and maintenance of drug use, but more research is needed to understand social influences on drug relapse.

  2. Multilayer Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickison, Mark; Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    social network systems, the evolution of interconnected social networks, and dynamic processes such as information spreading. A single real dataset is used to illustrate the concepts presented throughout the book, demonstrating both the practical utility and the potential shortcomings of the various...

  3. Individual differences in the peripheral immune system promote resilience versus susceptibility to social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, Georgia E; Pfau, Madeline L; Leboeuf, Marylene; Golden, Sam A; Christoffel, Daniel J; Bregman, Dana; Rebusi, Nicole; Heshmati, Mitra; Aleyasin, Hossein; Warren, Brandon L; Lebonté, Benoit; Horn, Sarah; Lapidus, Kyle A; Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Wong, Erik H F; Bahn, Sabine; Krishnan, Vaishnav; Bolaños-Guzman, Carlos A; Murrough, James W; Merad, Miriam; Russo, Scott J

    2014-11-11

    Depression and anxiety disorders are associated with increased release of peripheral cytokines; however, their functional relevance remains unknown. Using a social stress model in mice, we find preexisting individual differences in the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system that predict and promote vulnerability to social stress. Cytokine profiles were obtained 20 min after the first social stress exposure. Of the cytokines regulated by stress, IL-6 was most highly up-regulated only in mice that ultimately developed a susceptible behavioral phenotype following a subsequent chronic stress, and levels remained elevated for at least 1 mo. We confirmed a similar elevation of serum IL-6 in two separate cohorts of patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. Before any physical contact in mice, we observed individual differences in IL-6 levels from ex vivo stimulated leukocytes that predict susceptibility versus resilience to a subsequent stressor. To shift the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system to a pro- or antidepressant state, bone marrow (BM) chimeras were generated by transplanting hematopoietic progenitor cells from stress-susceptible mice releasing high IL-6 or from IL-6 knockout (IL-6(-/-)) mice. Stress-susceptible BM chimeras exhibited increased social avoidance behavior after exposure to either subthreshold repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) or a purely emotional stressor termed witness defeat. IL-6(-/-) BM chimeric and IL-6(-/-) mice, as well as those treated with a systemic IL-6 monoclonal antibody, were resilient to social stress. These data establish that preexisting differences in stress-responsive IL-6 release from BM-derived leukocytes functionally contribute to social stress-induced behavioral abnormalities.

  4. Social distance decreases responders' sensitivity to fairness in the ultimatum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunji Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies using the Ultimatum Game have shown that participants reject unfair offers extended by another person although this incurs a financial cost. Previous research suggests that one possible explanation for this apparently self-defeating response is that unfair offers involve strong negative responses that decrease the chances of responders accepting offers that would objectively constitute a net profit. We tested the hypothesis that one way of reducing responders' rejections of unfair offers is through increased psychological distance, so that participants move away from the concrete feeling of being unfairly treated. Social distance was manipulated by having participants play the Ultimatum Game either for themselves, or for another person. Compared to deciding for one's self or a close social contact, participants showed less sensitivity to fairness when deciding for a stranger, as indicated by fewer rejected unfair offers. We suggest that social distance helps people move beyond immediate fairness concerns in the Ultimatum Game.

  5. Impact of adolescent social experiences on behavior and neural circuits implicated in mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Andrew R; McCormick, Cheryl M; Pellis, Sergio M; Lukkes, Jodi L

    2017-05-01

    Negative social experiences during adolescence are central features for several stress-related mental illnesses. Social play fighting behavior in rats peaks during early adolescence and is essential for the final maturation of brain and behavior. Manipulation of the rat adolescent social experience alters many neurobehavioral measurements implicated in anxiety, depression, and substance abuse. In this review, we will highlight the importance of social play and the use of three separate social stress models (isolation-rearing, social defeat, and social instability stress) to disrupt the acquisition of this adaptive behavior. Social stress during adolescence leads to the development of anxiety and depressive behavior as well as escalated drug use in adulthood. Furthermore, sex- and age-dependent effects on the hormonal stress response following adolescent social stress are also observed. Finally, manipulation of the social experience during adolescence alters stress-related neural circuits and monoaminergic systems. Overall, positive social experiences among age-matched conspecifics during rat adolescence are critical for healthy neurobehavioral maturation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical versus psychological social stress in male rats reveals distinct cardiovascular, inflammatory and behavioral consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padi, Akhila R.; Moffitt, Casey M.; Wilson, L. Britt; Wood, Christopher S.; Wood, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Repeated exposure to social stress can precipitate the development of psychosocial disorders including depression and comorbid cardiovascular disease. While a major component of social stress often encompasses physical interactions, purely psychological stressors (i.e. witnessing a traumatic event) also fall under the scope of social stress. The current study determined whether the acute stress response and susceptibility to stress-related consequences differed based on whether the stressor consisted of physical versus purely psychological social stress. Using a modified resident-intruder paradigm, male rats were either directly exposed to repeated social defeat stress (intruder) or witnessed a male rat being defeated. Cardiovascular parameters, behavioral anhedonia, and inflammatory cytokines in plasma and the stress-sensitive locus coeruleus were compared between intruder, witness, and control rats. Surprisingly intruders and witnesses exhibited nearly identical increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate during acute and repeated stress exposures, yet only intruders exhibited stress-induced arrhythmias. Furthermore, re-exposure to the stress environment in the absence of the resident produced robust pressor and tachycardic responses in both stress conditions indicating the robust and enduring nature of social stress. In contrast, the long-term consequences of these stressors were distinct. Intruders were characterized by enhanced inflammatory sensitivity in plasma, while witnesses were characterized by the emergence of depressive-like anhedonia, transient increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. The current study highlights that while the acute cardiovascular responses to stress were identical between intruders and witnesses, these stressors produced distinct differences in the enduring consequences to stress, suggesting that witness stress may be more likely to produce long-term cardiovascular

  7. Singled out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Frank

    2004-03-01

    The increasing use of single use medical devices is being driven by a growing awareness of iatrogenic (from the Greek; caused by the doctor) and nosocomial infections. Public health perceptions relating to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, specifically variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B are high on the political agenda and a matter of concern to healthcare professionals.

  8. Social opdrift - social arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Morten; Gabrielsen, G.; Nørrung, Per

    "Social opdrift - social arv" stiller på flere måder spørgsmål ved begrebet social arv. Bogen konkluderer blandt andet, at langt de fleste børn, der opvokser i en socialt belastet familie, bliver velfungerende voksne. Professionelle, der møder socialt belastede familier, har derfor et stort ansvar....... Naturligvis skal der tages hånd om udsatte børn, men det kræver samtidig stor opmærksomhed at sørge for, at fokuseringen på den sociale arv ikke tager overhånd, så det bliver en selvopfyldende profeti."Social opdrift - social" arv viser, hvordan forskningsresultater er blevet fremlagt på en måde, som har...... medvirket til at skabe en skæv opfattelse af, at forældrenes problemer er hovedårsag til børns sociale problemer. I selvstændige analyser vises, hvordan data, der normalt bruges som "bevis" for den sociale arvs betydning, tydeligt illustrerer, at det er en undtagelse, at børn får sociale problemer af samme...

  9. Single-parenthood by choice: Children’s socialization processes into a non-conventional family model Monoparentalidad por elección: procesos de socialización de los hijos/as en un modelo familiar no convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Poveda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present part of our findings from a research project focused on single-parent families by choice. The study collected data in three autonomous communities in Spain and includes interviews with mothers involved in single parent-projects (through adoption, foster parenting, assisted reproductive technologies or sexual fertilization through a known donor and their children about their family experiences, observations in different formative, associative and virtual spaces in which these families participate and a compilation of different documents on parenthood by choice. We focus on the way in which the children we have studied build their own non-conventional family model. We understand the construction of this model as a process of co-construction of the child's subjectivity in which mothers and other socializing agents play an active role.En este artículo presentamos parte de los resultados de un proyecto de investigación centrado en familias monoparentales por elección. El estudio recoge datos en tres comunidades autónomas del Estado Español e incluye entrevistas a madres embarcadas en proyectos familiares en solitario (a través de adopción internacional, acogimiento permanente, técnicas de reproducción asistida y fecundación sexual con donante conocido y a sus hijos/as sobre sus experiencias familiares, observación de diferentes espacios virtuales, formativos y asociativos en los que estas familias participan y recopilación de diferentes documentos en torno a la monoparentalidad por elección. Nos centraremos en examinar el modo en que los niños y las niñas de la muestra estudiada construyen su propio modelo de familia no convencional. Entendemos que la construcción del modelo familiar es, en realidad, un proceso de co-construcción de la subjetividad del hijo/a, en que las madres y otros agentes socializadores juegan un papel activo.

     

  10. Demographic Consequences of Defeating Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2010-01-01

    A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion o...

  11. Defeating cancer with early detection

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    A meeting of scientists and industry experts will hold an open review of the Three Dimension Complete Body Screening System (3D-CBS) on the 1st of July 2003. This new imaging technlogy is potentially powerful and safe enough to offer routine screening of healthy patients for early signs of cancer (1 page).

  12. Defeating the Modern Asymmetric Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The warrior caste, for instance, played a role in keeping royalty in check. The highest caste to which Sinhalese could belong was the cultivator...1500s the Tamil kingdom defended the island from Indian encroachment. However, the Tamils would not stop two invasions by a Malaysian 14 Buddhist...king hell bent on capturing the Buddha’s tooth from the Sinhalese. The Malaysians did not succeed, but the Tamil indifference angered the Chinese Ming

  13. Defeating Terrorism: Strategic Issue Analyses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, John

    2002-01-01

    .... This collection of essays represents the initial contributions made by the Institute. They were designed to provide senior Army leadership with context, information, and policy options as they made strategic decisions in the earliest days of the war...

  14. Defeating the dragon.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical disorder, best treated via a medical intervention model.1 .... as a safe and effective treatment for opioid dependence. ... children. The maximum effect that buprenorphine can produce is lower than that of a full agonist, and ... only limited treatment spaces. ... Learning from the French experience, they delayed the roll-.

  15. The CRF system and social behavior: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Caroline M; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2013-01-01

    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system plays a key role in a diversity of behaviors accompanying stress, anxiety and depression. There is also substantial research on relationships between social behaviors and the CRF system in a variety of taxa including fish, birds, rodents, and primates. Some of these relationships are due to the broad role of CRF and urocortins in stress and anxiety, but these peptides also modulate social behavior specifically. For example, the social interaction (SI) test is often used to measure anxiety-like behavior. Many components of the CRF system including CRF, urocortin1, and the R1 receptor have been implicated in SI, via general effects on anxiety as well as specific effects depending on the brain region. The CRF system is also highly responsive to chronic social stressors such as social defeat and isolation. Animals exposed to these stressors display a number of anxiety- and stress-related behaviors, accompanied by changes in specific components the CRF system. Although the primary focus of CRF research on social behavior has been on the deleterious effects of social stress, there are also insights on a role for CRF and urocortins in prosocial and affiliative behaviors. The CRF system has been implicated in parental care, maternal defense, sexual behavior, and pair bonding. Species differences in the ligands and CRF receptors have been observed in vole and bird species differing in social behavior. Exogenous administration of CRF facilitates partner preference formation in monogamous male prairie voles, and these effects are dependent on both the CRF R1 and R2 receptors. These findings are particularly interesting as studies have also implicated the CRF and urocortins in social memory. With the rapid progress of social neuroscience and in understanding the complex structure of the CRF system, the next challenge is in parsing the exact contribution of individual components of this system to specific social behaviors.

  16. The CRF System and Social Behavior: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Hostetler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF system plays a key role in a diversity of behaviors accompanying stress, anxiety and depression. There is also substantial research on relationships between social behaviors and the CRF system in a variety of taxa including fish, birds, rodents, and primates. Some of these relationships are due to the broad role of CRF and urocortins in stress and anxiety, but these peptides also modulate social behavior specifically. For example, the social interaction (SI test is often used to measure anxiety-like behavior. Many components of the CRF system including CRF, urocortin1, and the R1 receptor have been implicated in SI, via general effects on anxiety as well as specific effects depending on the brain region. The CRF system is also highly responsive to chronic social stressors such as social defeat and isolation. Animals exposed to these stressors display a number of anxiety- and stress-related behaviors, accompanied by changes in specific components the CRF system. Although the primary focus of CRF research on social behavior has been on the deleterious effects of social stress, there are also insights on a role for CRF and urocortins in prosocial and affiliative behaviors. The CRF system has been implicated in parental care, maternal defense, sexual behavior, and pair bonding. Species differences in the ligands and CRF receptors have been observed in vole and bird species differing in social behavior. Exogenous administration of CRF facilitates partner preference formation in monogamous male prairie voles, and these effects are dependent on both the CRF R1 and R2 receptors. These findings are particularly interesting as studies have also implicated the CRF and urocortins in social memory. With the rapid progress of social neuroscience and in understanding the complex structure of the CRF system, the next challenge is in parsing the exact contribution of individual components of this system to specific social

  17. The race for Muslim hearts and minds : a social movement analysis of the U.S. war on terror and popular support in the Muslim world

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, James M.

    2010-01-01

    According to conventional wisdom winning hearts and minds is one of the most important goals for defeating terrorism. However, despite repeated claims about U.S. efforts to build popular support as part of the war on terror during the first seven years after 9/11, a steady stream of polls and surveys delivered troubling news. Using a counterinsurgency and social movement informed approach, I explain why the United States performed poorly in the race for Muslim hearts and minds, with a specifi...

  18. The influence of social, individual and linguistic factors on children's performance in tasks of reading single words aloud / A Influência de fatores sociais, individuais e lingüísticos no desempenho de crianças na leitura em voz alta de palavras isoladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Silva Lúcio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates social, individual and linguistic factors in the performance of a single- word reading aloud task. A group of 1st to 4th grade school children from Belo Horizonte-MG (N = 333 read aloud 323 single words presented in a computer screen. Measures of reaction time (RT and error scores were collected. The Generalized Estimating Equations method exhibited the grapheme-phoneme and phoneme-grapheme regularity effect in reading and also showed an impact on the number of categories of regularity in this effect. No social factor was important to explain the results, but their mothers' education was correlated to the error scores (in opposite direction. There was no gender effect. Other factors rather than the traditional ones were also relevant, such as the age of reading acquisition and the verbal comprehension. The work brings important theoretical issues to cognitive reading assessment in Brazil.

  19. Virtual-reality-based cognitive behavioural therapy versus waiting list control for paranoid ideation and social avoidance in patients with psychotic disorders : A single-blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot-Kolder, Roos M C A; Geraets, Chris N W; Veling, Wim; van Beilen, Marije; Staring, Anton B P; Gijsman, Harm J; Delespaul, Philippe A E G; van der Gaag, Mark

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients with psychotic disorders have persistent paranoid ideation and avoid social situations because of suspiciousness and anxiety. We investigated the effects of virtual-reality-based cognitive behavioural therapy (VR-CBT) on paranoid thoughts and social participation. METHODS:

  20. La 6e compagnie : les interprétations d’une défaite russe en Tchétchénie [The 6th Company: debates around a Russian military defeat in Chechnya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Regamey

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In February 2000, a company of Russian paratroopers from Pskov was defeated in the Argun Valley in Chechnya: 84 out of the 90 men were killed in combat against outnumbering Chechen fighters. Several questions arise as to the reason why they were not sent any support, but three films or serials have nevertheless been dedicated to their last fight since 2004. This article compares the official discourse, the film plots and the reactions that were stirred by these deaths among Russian veterans and analyses how the paratroopers are made to look like heroes, who fell in the name of Motherland, anti-terrorism and soldier brotherhood. Films to be discussed include Chest’ Imeiu (The honour is mine, Grozovye Vorota (The Storm Gate, Proryv (Breakthrough. [Editor’s note: Please note that countries, places and nouns (for example “Chechnya” in the text are transliterated according to the French media transliteration, whereas endnotes follow the Library of Congress’ transliteration table.

  1. A new research trend in social neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Tao; Pelowski, Matthew John

    2014-01-01

    The ability to flexibly modulate our behaviors in social contexts and to successfully interact with other persons is a fundamental, but pivotal, requirement for human survival. Although previous social neuroscience research with single individuals has contributed greatly to our understanding...

  2. Adult vitamin D deficiency exacerbates impairments caused by social stress in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Natalie J; Zhou, Mei; Jhaveri, Dhanisha J; McGrath, John J; Burne, Thomas H J

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in adults throughout the world. Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of various neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer's disease and cognitive impairment. However, studies based on observational epidemiology cannot address questions of causality; they cannot determine if vitamin D deficiency is a causal factor leading to the adverse health outcome. The main aim of this study was to determine if AVD deficiency would exacerbate the effects of a secondary exposure, in this case social stress, in BALB/c mice and in the more resilient C57BL/6 mice. Ten-week old male BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 10 weeks, and the mice were further separated into one of two groups for social treatment, either Separated (SEP) or Social Defeat (DEF). SEP mice were placed two per cage with a perforated Plexiglas divider, whereas the DEF mice underwent 10days of social defeat prior to behavioural testing. We found that AVD-deficient mice were more vulnerable to the effects of social stress using a social avoidance test, and this was dependent on strain. These results support the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency may exacerbate behavioural outcomes in mice vulnerable to stress, a finding that can help guide future studies. Importantly, these discoveries support the epidemiological link between vitamin D deficiency and neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders; and has provided clues that can guide future studies related to unravelling the mechanisms of action linking adult vitamin D deficiency and adverse brain related outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modern Social Support Structures: Online Social Networks and their Implications for Social Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kala Chakradhar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mapping and assessing social networks and the quality of their social support is a valuable intervention strategy for social workers. These networks have now spread onto the digital realm in the form of Online Social Networks (OSNs. This study investigated the nature of social support provided by such networks to their users in a rural mid-South University (USA and explored parallels with the current understanding of social support in conventional social networks. A web-based survey administered to college students revealed that users of these online networks were predominantly undergraduate first year students, female, single, unemployed and from a variety of academic disciplines. The examination of the components of OSNs appears to mirror those of offline networks. They also seem to complement the effects of each other while contributing to an individual's support system. The paper concludes with critical implications of such online social networking for University students and social workers in practice and education.

  4. Social traits, social networks and evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D N; McAdam, A G

    2017-12-01

    The social environment is both an important agent of selection for most organisms, and an emergent property of their interactions. As an aggregation of interactions among members of a population, the social environment is a product of many sets of relationships and so can be represented as a network or matrix. Social network analysis in animals has focused on why these networks possess the structure they do, and whether individuals' network traits, representing some aspect of their social phenotype, relate to their fitness. Meanwhile, quantitative geneticists have demonstrated that traits expressed in a social context can depend on the phenotypes and genotypes of interacting partners, leading to influences of the social environment on the traits and fitness of individuals and the evolutionary trajectories of populations. Therefore, both fields are investigating similar topics, yet have arrived at these points relatively independently. We review how these approaches are diverged, and yet how they retain clear parallelism and so strong potential for complementarity. This demonstrates that, despite separate bodies of theory, advances in one might inform the other. Techniques in network analysis for quantifying social phenotypes, and for identifying community structure, should be useful for those studying the relationship between individual behaviour and group-level phenotypes. Entering social association matrices into quantitative genetic models may also reduce bias in heritability estimates, and allow the estimation of the influence of social connectedness on trait expression. Current methods for measuring natural selection in a social context explicitly account for the fact that a trait is not necessarily the property of a single individual, something the network approaches have not yet considered when relating network metrics to individual fitness. Harnessing evolutionary models that consider traits affected by genes in other individuals (i.e. indirect genetic

  5. The imposition of, but not the propensity for, social subordination impairs exploratory behaviors and general cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas-Zelin, Danielle; Light, Kenneth R; Kolata, Stefan; Wass, Christopher; Denman-Brice, Alexander; Rios, Christopher; Szalk, Kris; Matzel, Louis D

    2012-06-15

    Imposed social subordination, such as that which accompanies physical defeat or alienation, has been associated with impaired cognitive function in both human and non-human animals. Here we examined whether domain-specific and/or domain-general learning abilities (c.f. general intelligence) are differentially influenced by the imposition of social subordination. Furthermore, we assessed whether the impact of subordination on cognitive abilities was the result of imposed subordination per se, or if it reflected deficits intrinsically expressed in subjects that are predisposed to subordination. Subordinate and dominant behaviors were assessed in two groups of CD-1 male mice. In one group (Imposed Stratification), social stratification was imposed (through persistent physical defeat in a colonized setting) prior to the determination of cognitive abilities, while in the second group (Innate Stratification), an assessment of social stratification was made after cognitive abilities had been quantified. Domain-specific learning abilities were measured as performance on individual learning tasks (odor discrimination, fear conditioning, spatial maze learning, passive avoidance, and egocentric navigation) while domain-general learning abilities were determined by subjects' aggregate performance across the battery of learning tasks. We observed that the imposition of subordination prior to cognitive testing decreased exploratory tendencies, moderately impaired performance on individual learning tasks, and severely impaired general cognitive performance. However, similar impairments were not observed in subjects with a predisposition toward a subordinate phenotype (but which had not experienced physical defeat at the time of cognitive testing). Mere colonization, regardless of outcome (i.e., stratification), was associated with an increase in stress-induced serum corticosterone (CORT) levels, and thus CORT elevations were not themselves adequate to explain the effects of

  6. Neurotrophins in the ventral tegmental area: Role in social stress, mood disorders and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, E M; Johnston, C E; Wang, J; Hammer, R P

    2014-12-12

    This review discusses the impact of neurotrophins and other trophic factors, including fibroblast growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, on mood disorders, weight regulation and drug abuse, with an emphasis on stress- and drug-induced changes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Neurotrophins, comprising nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophins 3 and 4/5 play important roles in neuronal plasticity and the development of different psychopathologies. In the VTA, most research has focused on the role of BDNF, because other neurotrophins are not found there in significant quantities. BDNF originating in the VTA provides trophic support to dopamine neurons. The diverse intracellular signaling pathways activated by BDNF may underlie precise physiological functions specific to the VTA. In general, VTA BDNF expression increases after psychostimulant exposures, and enhanced BDNF level in the VTA facilitates psychostimulant effects. The impact of VTA BDNF on the behavioral effects of psychostimulants relies primarily on its action within the mesocorticolimbic circuit. In the case of opiates, VTA BDNF expression and effects seem to be dependent on whether an animal is drug-naïve or has a history of drug use, only the latter of which is related to dopamine mechanisms. Social defeat stress that is continuous in mice or intermittent in rats increases VTA BDNF expression, and is associated with depressive and social avoidance behaviors. Intermittent social defeat stress induces persistent VTA BDNF expression that triggers psychostimulant cross-sensitization. Understanding the cellular and molecular substrates of neurotrophin effects may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of substance use and mood disorders. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuropeptide S and BDNF gene expression in the amygdala are influenced by social decision-making under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin P. Smith

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In a newly developed conceptual model of stressful social decision making, the Stress-Alternatives Model (SAM; used for the 1st time in mice elicits two types of response: escape or remain submissively. Daily (4d aggressive social interaction in a neutral arena between a C57BL6/N test mouse and a larger, novel aggressive CD1 mouse, begin after an audible tone (conditioned stimulus; CS. Although escape holes (only large enough for smaller test animals are available, and the aggressor is unremittingly antagonistic, only half of the mice tested utilize the possibility of escape. During training, for mice that choose to leave the arena and social interaction, latency to escape dramatically decreases over time; this is also true for control C57BL6/N mice which experienced no aggression. Therefore, the open field of the SAM apparatus is intrinsically anxiogenic. It also means that submission to the aggressor is chosen despite this anxiety and the high intensity of the aggressive attacks and defeat. While both groups that received aggression displayed stress responsiveness, corticosterone levels were significantly higher in animals that chose submissive coexistence. Although both escaping and non-escaping groups of animals experienced aggression and defeat, submissive animals also exhibited classic fear conditioning, freezing in response to the CS alone, while escaping animals did not. In the basolateral amygdala, gene expression of BDNF was diminished, but NPS expression was significantly elevated, but only in submissive animals. This increase in submission-evoked NPS mRNA expression was greatest in the central amygdala, which coincided with decreased BDNF expression. Reduced expression of BDNF is only in submissive animals that also exhibit elevated NPS expression, despite elevated corticosterone in all socially interacting animals. The results suggest an interwoven relationship, linked by social context, between amygdalar BDNF, NPS and plasma

  8. Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enjoyment of life. Social anxiety disorder can cause: Low self-esteem Trouble being assertive Negative self-talk Hypersensitivity to criticism Poor social skills Isolation and difficult social relationships Low academic and employment achievement Substance abuse, such as ...

  9. Ação profissional dos assistentes sociais no sistema único de assistência social: problematizações resultantes de uma pesquisa empírica no RS = Professional activity of social assistants in the single social assistance system: questionings resulting from empiric research in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Vini Rabassa da

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho realiza uma reflexão sobre a ação profissional realizada no Sistema Único de Assistência Social (SUAS a partir de três eixos: os espaços sócio-ocupacionais, os procedimentos usados e o desenvolvimento da autonomia dos usuários. Inicia com uma apresentação da pesquisa sobre seus participantes. Usa dados empíricos obtidos com a aplicação de questionários, realização de entrevistas e discussão realizada em um workshop com alguns assistentes sociais que participaram nos momentos anteriores da pesquisa. Evidencia um período de transição da política, o qual produz novas possibilidades para a ação profissional, porém sem romper com os limites concretos de sua inserção em um modelo neoliberal. Problematiza o CRAS como lócus contraditório que pode favorecer o desenvolvimento de uma autonomia conservadora ou a descoberta de uma consciência de classe direcionada para a busca de uma sociedade justa, democrática e igualitária

  10. Social support for schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanauskiene V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is a wider concept than poverty and includes not only material conditions but also inability to participate in economic, social, political and cultural life. The essence of social exclusion is social relationships (more exactly breaking off relationships, which may mean not only pushing away some members of the society, but also breaking off relationships with the society from the side of a person himself/herself. The reasons of origin of social exclusion may be legal, political, economical, social and cultural. Nowadays social exclusion is predetermined by social-economic factors. According to Poviliūnas (2001, the problems of children’s social exclusion may be solved ensuring proper education, care of public health, safety and minimal life standard. Growing aggression and violence of schoolchildren and their social exclusion are nowadays an important issue of political debate and media reports. Often schoolchildren face the risk of social exclusion at school during the period of adolescence. The risk also depends on the social status of their family in the society and the relationship of the family members. The aim of the article is to identify characteristic features of schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion and analyze social support provided for them. A quantitative research was carried out to achieve the aim. The method of data collection is a questionnaire. 105 teachers working in 3 secondary schools in Lithuania participated in the research. The research results revealed that most often schoolchildren face the risk of social exclusion at school during adolescence period. They are characterized as incommunicative, unsociable, passive, and shy, do not trust others, are vulnerable, have learning problems and avoid collaborative activities. These schoolchildren usually come from families of social risk or single parent families. The support provided at school by teachers to schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion

  11. Proyectos sociales

    OpenAIRE

    Orellana Zambrano, Waldo E.

    2011-01-01

    Explica qué es un Proyecto social, su formulación , y la importancia de los indicadores de desarrollo humano en la formulación de proyectos sociales. Explain what a social project, its formulation, and the importance of human development indicators in the formulation of social projects.

  12. SOCIAL MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    RESPONSIBILITY CENTCOM COALITION MEDIA SOCIAL MEDIA NEWS ARTICLES PRESS RELEASES IMAGERY VIDEOS TRANSCRIPTS VISITORS AND PERSONNEL FAMILY CENTER FAMILY READINESS CENTCOM WEBMAIL SOCIAL MEDIA SECURITY ACCOUNTABILITY HomeMEDIASOCIAL MEDIA Social Media CENTCOM'S ENGLISH SOCIAL MEDIA ACCOUNTS There are many U.S. military commands

  13. Social Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slover-Linett, Cheryl; Stoner, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, CASE formed a social media task force to explore what educational institutions are trying to achieve with social media presence and learn about social media engagements at member institutions. CASE, in partnership with mStoner and Slover Linett Strategies, in June launched a benchmarking survey on social media in advancement by…

  14. Social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, R

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......, social anchorage and relational strain. We use this conceptual framework to describe social relations in the Danish population, with questionnaire data from the Danish Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study including a random sample of each of the age groups 25-, 50-, 60-and 70-year olds, N = 2......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...

  15. Family Structure and Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Dawn R.

    Regardless of family form, there is a universal belief that one's family is the most powerful agent of socialization. A sample of 38 junior high school students from single parent and nuclear families completed a questionnaire in order to examine the relative effects of peer influence and family influence in single parent and nuclear families.…

  16. WWC Review of the Report "Closing the Social-Class Achievement Gap: A Difference-Education Intervention Improves First-Generation Students' Academic Performance and All Students' College Transition." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For the 2014 study, "Closing the Social-Class Achievement Gap: A Difference-Education Intervention Improves First-Generation Students' Academic Performance and All Students' College Transition," researchers investigated the impact of attending a moderated panel on incoming freshmen's adjustment to college. The panel featured…

  17. Social Work Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social work research has gathered a greater transparency and clarity of identity in North American and parts of Europe. Furthermore, the rapid emergence of social work research in other European countries, China, India, Japan and elsewhere in Asia and Pacific Rim countries, and gradually in South...... America, has created a need for a collection that can contribute to both shaping and making accessible key and sometimes hard-to-access sources. This four-volume collection answers this need, bringing together key literature in a single resource and structuring it into thematic volumes to enable clear...... understanding of the different aspects involved in the research. Volume One: Historical Trajectories, Purposes and Key Concepts Volume Two: Key Decisions about Research Strategy Volume Three: The Practice of Social Work Research Volume Four: The Contexts of Social Work Research...

  18. Social mechanisms and social causation

    OpenAIRE

    Friedel Weinert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the notion of social mechanisms by comparison with the notions of evolutionary and physical mechanisms. It is argued that social mechanisms are based on trends, and not lawlike regularities, so that social mechanisms are different from mechanisms in the natural sciences. Taking as an example of social causation the abolition of the slave trade, this paper argues that social mechanisms should be incorporated in Weber’s wider ...

  19. Social entrepreneurship and social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dufays, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation, we argue that the sociology of social networks may provide interesting insights with regard to the emergence of social entrepreneurship both at micro and macro levels. There have already been several calls for research on social networks in the context of social entrepreneurship (Certo & Miller 2008; Gedajlovic, et al. 2013; Haugh 2007; Mair & Marti 2006; Short, et al. 2009). These calls often address the differences in structure and effects of social networks in a socia...

  20. Work life and mental wellbeing of single and non-single working mothers in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Torill; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2009-08-01

    This study examined levels and predictors of mental wellbeing in Scandinavian working single and non-single mothers, with a special focus on financial stress, job characteristics and work-family conflict. The European Social Survey Round 2 (2005) provided questionnaire data from 73 single and 432 non-single working mothers in Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Respondents answered questions about the outcome variables life satisfaction, happiness, and positive affect, and predictor variables financial stress, job characteristics, work-family conflict, and social support. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to assess the relationships between predictor variables and mental wellbeing outcomes. Single working mothers scored significantly lower on life satisfaction and happiness, but not on positive affect, than did non-single mothers. Financial stress was higher in the single mother group. There were no significant differences in levels of enriching or stressful job characteristics, or in levels of social support. While financial stress and work-family conflict were important predictors in both groups, the relationship between financial stress and wellbeing was far stronger in the single mother group. Confidant support was a significant predictor only in the single mother group, and social participation only in the non-single mothers group. This study suggests that the Scandinavian welfare democracies have not yet been successful in relieving the financial pressure experienced by single working mothers. Development of efficient financial support systems should be prioritized. Ways to reduce work-family conflict in both single and non-single mothers in Scandinavia should also be given increased attention.

  1. Virtual-reality-based cognitive behavioural therapy versus waiting list control for paranoid ideation and social avoidance in patients with psychotic disorders: a single-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot-Kolder, Roos M C A; Geraets, Chris N W; Veling, Wim; van Beilen, Marije; Staring, Anton B P; Gijsman, Harm J; Delespaul, Philippe A E G; van der Gaag, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Many patients with psychotic disorders have persistent paranoid ideation and avoid social situations because of suspiciousness and anxiety. We investigated the effects of virtual-reality-based cognitive behavioural therapy (VR-CBT) on paranoid thoughts and social participation. In this randomised controlled trial at seven Dutch mental health centres, outpatients aged 18-65 years with a DSM-IV-diagnosed psychotic disorder and paranoid ideation in the past month were randomly assigned (1:1) via block randomisation to VR-CBT (in addition to treatment as usual) or the waiting list control group (treatment as usual). VR-CBT consisted of 16 individual therapy sessions (each 1 h long). Assessments were done at baseline, after treatment (ie, 3 months from baseline), and at a 6 month follow-up visit. The primary outcome was social participation, which we operationalised as the amount of time spent with other people, momentary paranoia, perceived social threat, and momentary anxiety. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial was retrospectively registered with ISRCTN, number 12929657. Between April 1, 2014, and Dec 31, 2015, 116 patients with a psychotic disorder were randomly assigned, 58 to the VR-CBT group and 58 to the waiting list control group. Compared with the control, VR-CBT did not significantly increase the amount of time spent with other people at the post-treatment assessment. Momentary paranoid ideation (b=-0·331 [95% CI -0·432 to -0·230], pproblems were mediators of change in paranoid ideation. No adverse events were reported relating to the therapy or assessments. Our results suggest that the addition of VR-CBT to standard treatment can reduce paranoid ideation and momentary anxiety in patients with a psychotic disorder. Fonds NutsOhra, Stichting tot Steun VCVGZ. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Triple representation of language, working memory, social and emotion processing in the cerebellum: convergent evidence from task and seed-based resting-state fMRI analyses in a single large cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guell, Xavier; Gabrieli, John D E; Schmahmann, Jeremy D

    2018-05-15

    Delineation of functional topography is critical to the evolving understanding of the cerebellum's role in a wide range of nervous system functions. We used data from the Human Connectome Project (n = 787) to analyze cerebellar fMRI task activation (motor, working memory, language, social and emotion processing) and resting-state functional connectivity calculated from cerebral cortical seeds corresponding to the peak Cohen's d of each task contrast. The combination of exceptional statistical power, activation from both motor and multiple non-motor tasks in the same participants, and convergent resting-state networks in the same participants revealed novel aspects of the functional topography of the human cerebellum. Consistent with prior studies there were two distinct representations of motor activation. Newly revealed were three distinct representations each for working memory, language, social, and emotional task processing that were largely separate for these four cognitive and affective domains. In most cases, the task-based activations and the corresponding resting-network correlations were congruent in identifying the two motor representations and the three non-motor representations that were unique to working memory, language, social cognition, and emotion. The definitive localization and characterization of distinct triple representations for cognition and emotion task processing in the cerebellum opens up new basic science questions as to why there are triple representations (what different functions are enabled by the different representations?) and new clinical questions (what are the differing consequences of lesions to the different representations?). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of Hotline Allegation of a Questionable Intelligence Activity Concerning the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO), Counter-IED Operations/Intelligence Integration Center (COIC) (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-04

    Secretary of Defense for lntelligenre Oversight ATSD (10) m::~ intain that DoDD 2000.1 9E granted JIED DO thP authority to conduct intelligence...arrival, receive annual refresher training in 10 and are formally tested on their knowledge tailored to specifi c unit miss ions. Formal testing developed...one or more of thP natural or social sclencPs, engineering, or milltary science, but do not demand, as a primary qualifica tion requirement, f ull

  4. Features of social modernization of Kazakhstan society

    OpenAIRE

    Southbaeva S.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of social modernization of the Kazakhstan society is carried out. The article provides information on sociological analysis, analysis of normative legal acts aimed at improving the social modernization of Kazakhstan society. The level of legal culture and spiritual and moral values of the Kazakh society are singled out. Further development prospects for improving social modernization are given.

  5. Social economy and social enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    2011-01-01

    practice will be put under increasing pressure. There is a difference between a social economy approach to the third sector and an approach based upon the notion of a non-profit constraint. Social economy is well positioned as a third sector to play a core role in meeting this urgency. But how does...... the social economy fit with current strategies in the areas of welfare policies and social service? Is it as a certain type of social entrepreneurship an integral part of a social innovation of the mainstream market economy or is it part of an emerging counter discourse in the sense of a participatory non...

  6. Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelweit, Hilde T.

    1983-01-01

    Described are two longitudinal studies, one British, the other American, which examined the influences of varied socializing agents--e.g., family, school, peer groups--on voting behavior. The studies emphasized the hitherto unappreciated importance of the political, social, and economic climate of society and its changes on socialization. (CS)

  7. Psicologia social

    OpenAIRE

    José Marques

    2000-01-01

    El treball comença explicant què és la psicologia social, condició indispensable per poder veure, a continuació, la relació que hi ha entre la sociolingüística i la psicologia social. Limitem a sis els factors analitzats: els factors socials que influeixen en l'aprenentatge de llengües; la identitat social i l'acomodació, amb una consideració de la teoria de la identitat social formulada per Tajfel; la vitalitat etnolingüística, que té un ventall de correlacions amb aspectes socio...

  8. Sociale problemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove; Bundesen, Peter Verner

    Sociale problemer kan betragtes som selve udgangspunktet for socialt arbejde, hvor ambitionen er at råde bod på problemerne og sikre, at udsatte borgere får en bedre tilværelse. Det betyder også, at diskussionen af sociale problemer er afgørende for den sociale grundfaglighed. I denne bog sætter en...... række fagfolk på tværs af det danske socialfaglige felt fokus på sociale problemer. Det diskuteres, hvad vi overhovedet forstår ved sociale problemer, hvordan de opstår, hvilke konsekvenser de har, og ikke mindst hvordan man som fagprofessionel håndterer sociale problemer i det daglige arbejde. Bogen er...... skrevet som lærebog til professionsuddannelser, hvor sociale problemer udgør en dimension, bl.a. socialrådgiver-, pædagog- og sygeplejerskeuddannelserne....

  9. Social Bricks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Can social sustainability be built? In this paper the potentialities and challenges of the concept of social sustainability are explored based on a collaboration project between the Danish Building Research Institute, a Danish social housing association and the Green Building Council Denmark......, aiming to better integrate standards of social sustainability in the application of certification systems like DGNB. The paper relates theory on social sustainability to the ways it is used in practice, and discusses whether and how social sustainability can be measured and certified in renewal...... and construction of housing and neighbourhoods. It is put forward that a certification has to take into account the housing complex’ or neighbourhood’s relation to the surrounding city, its development over time, its flexibility towards future needs and its social organisation and operation. Further, the interplay...

  10. 'The Great Fiasco' of the 1948 presidential election polls: status recognition and norms conflict in social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusinchi, Dominic

    2018-05-14

    All three 'scientific' pollsters (Crossley, Gallup and Roper) wrongly predicted incumbent President Harry Truman's defeat in the 1948 presidential election, and thus faced a potentially serious legitimacy crisis. This 'fiasco' occurred at a most inopportune time. Social science was embroiled in a policy debate taking place in the halls of Congress. It was fighting a losing battle to be included, along with the natural sciences, in the National Science Foundation, for which legislation was being drafted. Faced with the failure of the polls, the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) intervened quickly to prevent social science's adversaries from using this event to degrade further its status. After all, many social scientists considered the sample survey as the paramount tool of social research, and sampling as one of social science's greatest innovation. Concurrently, there was an ongoing conflict among polling practitioners themselves-between advocates of probability sampling and users of quotas, like the pollsters. The SSRC committee appointed to evaluate the polling debacle managed to keep this contentious issue of sampling from becoming the centre of attention. Given the inauspicious environment in which this event happened, the SSRC did not wish to advertise the fact that the house of social science was in turmoil.

  11. A biological melange and a peculiar led light could be a thaumaturgic approach to defeat manifold types of folliculitis in man and woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Martini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays PTD (photodynamic therapy together with methyl aminolevulinate (MAL pomades seem to be the goal and merit of all the vanguard dermatologists and aesthetic surgeons, who are determined to struggle radically the problems of folliculitis, malaise that disturbs men and women, even by the social point of view. In this study We attempt to treat 12 different cases of folliculitis caused by symptoms of different etiologies in men, women and in a transvestite, but not operate (idest a pre-op trans, using a cosmetic formula made of a particular fermented rice starch and particular irradiation for different quantities of time, depending on the gravity of the disease to treat. Results are utterly satisfying.

  12. Social Entrepreneurship and Social Entreprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migrant women stepping into ethnic catering; homeless men employed to take care of bees producing honey for sale; young people on the edge getting microcredit funding to start social businesses; or former criminals joining forces to create social and economic structures for an honest lifestyle....... These initiatives capture the transformative power of social enterprise and might indicate how social enterprises have the potential to make a difference for people and societies. The Nordic countries represent an interesting case. Social enterprises and co-operatives played a significant part in paving the way...

  13. Social entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social entrepreneurship has experienced a renaissance in the world over the last decade. The business sector, pressed by the economic crisis and social responsibility imperatives, started to turn towards some of the more sustainable organisational models, which combine profit and responsible orientation. Social entrepreneurship, as a whole, is characterised by the support and assistance rendered to the community and the vulnerable social groups. Social entrepreneurs are a proof that financial success does not exclude responsible behaviour towards the social community and the environment, and that the socially beneficial target may also serve as a successful business driver. At the same time, social enterprises may be a very useful source of entrepreneurial ideas in the economies which are passing through transition, with the high unemployment rates. Filling in the gaps in offering certain social services, with simultaneous profit making and offering option for engagement of entire families, are only some of the features characteristic for the social enterprises, which could become one of the leading models of business conducted in the Serbian economy.

  14. Social Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina ENACHE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of social business is growing rapidly and attracting increased attention from many sectors. The term itself shows up frequently in the media, is referenced by public officials, have become common on universities. The reasons behind the popularity of social entrepreneurship are many. On the most basic level, there’s something inherently interesting and appealing about entrepreneurs and the stories of why and how they do what they do. The interest in social entrepreneurship transcends the phenomenon of popularity and fascination with people. Social entrepreneurship signals the imperative to drive social change, and it is that potential payoff, with its lasting, transformational benefit to society, that sets the field and its practitioners apart. Although the potential benefits offered by social entrepreneurship are clear to many of those promoting and funding these activities, the actual definition of what social entrepreneurs do to produce this order of magnitude return is less clear. In fact, we would argue that the definition of social entrepreneurship today is anything but clear. As a result, social entrepreneurship has become so inclusive that it now has an immense tent into which all manner of socially beneficial activities fit. In some respects this inclusiveness could be a good thing. If we can achieve a rigorous definition, then those who support social entrepreneurship can focus their resources on building and strengthening a concrete and identifiable field. Absent that discipline, proponents of social entrepreneurship run the risk of giving the skeptics an ever-expanding target to shoot at, and the cynics even more reason to discount social innovation and those who drive it.

  15. Social preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is social divisions among preschool children in daycare centers. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in three daycare centers in Denmark, the analysis concerns young children’s social preferences. The ethnographic material shows that despite an explicit political ambition...... of daycares as means for social and cultural integration, lines of division do exist amongst the children. Such divisions are established in the daily interactions of the daycare, but they also reflect those of the broader society. With a focus on children’s interactions and social preferences, the material...... indicates that children’s choices of playmates run along lines of ethnic and class divisions. The article will address this pattern and analyze its causes in order to understand why such lines of divisions are to be found in an institutional context designed to overcome social inequality and prevent social...

  16. Social Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Linda Lundgaard; Hulgård, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The most striking slogans that characterize the ‘new’ discourse of social entrepreneurship have come to Denmark from the international scene, but we can nevertheless trace a significant historical equivalent in Denmark connecting the tradition for social economy to the co-operative movement...... and to decades of welfare modernisation incorporating people’s participation through cultural, political and economic objectives. In this chapter, we first give a brief introduction to social entrepreneurship and position it in relation to social enterprise. We then demonstrate its present relevance in Denmark...... through five current platforms for social entrepreneurship, showing how these are influenced both by international trends and the roots of the Danish experimental tradition. We conclude with a discussion of how social entrepreneurship appeals to fundamentally different strategies for the future of modern...

  17. Phenomenology & Sociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gahrn-Andersen, Rasmus; Cowley, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Although cognitive science has recently asked how human sociality is constituted, there is no clear and consistent account of the emergence of human style social agency. Previously, we have critiqued views based on 'participatory sense-making' by arguing that agency requires a distinctive kind...... of phenomenology that enables a diachronic social experience. In advancing the positive argument, we link developmental psychology to phenomenological insights by focusing on child-caregiver dynamics around the middle of the second year. Having developed very basic social skills, an infant comes to feel normative....... Developmental events thus transform the child's experience and drive the emergence of social agency. Once the child has successfully dealt with the environment’s normative perturbations she is able to develop the skills of a fully-fledged human social agent....

  18. Social Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    RTA HFM-201/RSM PAPER 3 - 1 © 2012 The MITRE Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Social Radar Barry Costa and John Boiney MITRE Corporation...defenders require an integrated set of capabilities that we refer to as a “ social radar.” Such a system would support strategic- to operational-level...situation awareness, alerting, course of action analysis, and measures of effectiveness for each action undertaken. Success of a social radar

  19. Social memories in rodents: Methods, mechanisms and modulation by stress

    OpenAIRE

    van der Kooij MA; Sandi C.

    2011-01-01

    Intact social memory forms the basis of meaningful interactions between individuals. Many factors can modulate the quality of social memory, and these have been studied in detail in rodents. Social memory, however, cannot be considered a single entity. The term social memory reflects different processes, such as social recognition of a novel conspecific individual and social learning (or 'learning from others'). This review summarizes the findings obtained with behavioral paradigms that were ...

  20. Individual Differences and Social Influences on the Neurobehavioral Pharmacology of Abused Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neisewander, J. L.; Kelly, T. H.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of drugs with biologic targets is a critical area of research, particularly for the development of medications to treat substance use disorders. In addition to understanding these drug-target interactions, however, there is a need to understand more fully the psychosocial influences that moderate these interactions. The first section of this review introduces some examples from human behavioral pharmacology that illustrate the clinical importance of this research. The second section covers preclinical evidence to characterize some of the key individual differences that alter drug sensitivity and abuse vulnerability, related primarily to differences in response to novelty and impulsivity. Evidence is presented to indicate that critical neuropharmacological mechanisms associated with these individual differences involve integrated neurocircuits underlying stress, reward, and behavioral inhibitory processes. The third section covers social influences on drug abuse vulnerability, including effects experienced during infancy, adolescence, and young adulthood, such as maternal separation, housing conditions, and social interactions (defeat, play, and social rank). Some of the same neurocircuits involved in individual differences also are altered by social influences, although the precise neurochemical and cellular mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated fully. Finally, some speculation is offered about the implications of this research for the prevention and treatment of substance abuse. PMID:23343975

  1. Long-Term Changes in Pain Sensitivity in an Animal Model of Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Berry

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Animal models with an eco-ethological relevance can help in identifying novel and reliable stress-related markers. To this end, 3-month-old C57BL/6J male mice were exposed to social defeat (SD stress for 10 days as this stressor shows good face and predictive validity for several models of human affective disorders including depression, social phobia and post-traumatic stress disorder. Social avoidance and pain threshold were assessed 24 h and 4 weeks after the end of SD stress, while corticosterone was assayed at the beginning and at the end of the stressful procedure (days 1 and 10. SD subjects were characterized by increased corticosterone levels (30 min following stress exposure, increased latency to approach the social target in the short-term as well as increased emotionality in the long-term. Moreover, an increase in nociceptive threshold (stress-induced analgesia was found both in the short-term and 4 weeks after the end of stress. These data indicate that the SD paradigm is able to induce emotional changes associated with a stressful/traumatic event. In addition, they indicate that variations in the nociceptive threshold might represent a physiological marker of both short- and long-term effects of stress.

  2. The Utility of Single Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle D.

    2016-01-01

    Single subject design (SSD) research is a quantitative approach used to investigate basic and applied research questions. It has been used for decades to examine issues of social importance such as those related to general and special education strategies, therapeutic approaches in mental health, community health practices, safety, and business…

  3. Theorising Practice in Single-Sex Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tett, Lyn

    1996-01-01

    The practice of adult educators in single-sex settings is directed by "theories-in-use" about the social construction of gender, such as gender is culturally constructed but people internalize gender stereotypes; gender stereotypes can be challenged and changed; and power to define gender roles lies in patriarchy, but it can be contested…

  4. Social forgivingness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Social forgivingness is a new principle in the updated Sustainable Safety vision. In contrast with the three original principles, social forgiveness focuses on the role played by the road users themselves in preventing crashes and/or minimizing injury. No matter how well-developed the traffic

  5. Social konstruktionisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    I bidraget formidles grundtanker og grundbegreber i social konstruktionismen på en let tilgængelig og underholdende måde til gymnasieelever og universitetsstuderende.......I bidraget formidles grundtanker og grundbegreber i social konstruktionismen på en let tilgængelig og underholdende måde til gymnasieelever og universitetsstuderende....

  6. Social dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    bidrag til, at OK-2010 "landes" fredeligt, fordi aftalen giver fagforeningerne en væsentlig indrømmelse i indsatsen mod social dumping. Aftalen har rigtignok til formål at imødekomme et af fagbevægelsens centrale overenskomstkrav om nye redskaber i indsatsen mod "social dumping". Men hvad er det aftalen...

  7. Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  8. [Social phobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, B; Wedekind, D

    2014-05-01

    With a lifetime prevalence of 13% social phobia (social anxiety disorder) is a common and serious condition that should not be played down because of the burden associated with the disorder, an increased suicide rate and the frequent comorbidity with substance abuse disorders. Social phobia is characterized by the excessive and unrealistic fear of being scrutinized or criticized by others. The disorder often begins in adolescence.Symptoms of social phobia can be effectively treated with evidence-based treatment, including cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and psychopharmacological medications. In the present paper, treatment recommendations are given, which are based on a systematic review of all available randomized trials for the treatment of social phobia. Among psychological therapies, variants of CBT have been proven to be effective in controlled studies. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) venlafaxine are among the drugs of first choice.

  9. Social arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Niels

    Formålet med forskningsprogrammet om social arv har været at bidrage med ny viden om forhold, der har afgørende betydning for de sociale forskelle i Danmark. Denne sammenfatning giver et overblik over de væsentligste resultater fra undersøgelserne af den sociale arv set i et livsløbsperspektiv og...... på den sociale arv i forbindelse med daginstitutioner, skole og uddannelse samt sundhed. Det ser ud til, at de kulturelle forhold – forstået som den påvirkning der finder sted mellem mennesker i deres løbende omgang med hinanden – spiller en betydelig rolle i forklaringen af sociale forskelle...

  10. Sociale Interventioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    først bliver social, når de mennesker, der berøres af indgrebet, også bliver inddraget i processen. »Interventioner virker! Men kun hvis de er meningsfulde. Det er helt afgørende for sociale interventioner, at de opleves som meningsfulde af de mennesker, som interventionerne omfatter«, fremhæver Jo...... Krøjer, lektor og leder af Sociale Interventionsstudier på RUC, og Katia Dupret, lektor i socialpsykologi på RUC. Hermed udvider bogens forfattere den videnskabelige forståelse af sammenhængen mellem de væsentligste aspekter i social intervention: velfærdsstat, viden og deltagelse. Forfatterne viser...... rettet mod marginaliserede eller udsatte mennesker. Bogens kapitler rummer med deres empiriske eksempler flere forskellige versioner og forståelser af social intervention, og de dykker bl.a. ned i emner som tidlig indsats og Barnets Reform....

  11. Single Audit: Single Audit Act Effectiveness Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Sally

    2002-01-01

    As discussed in the report we are releasing today, our work to review agency actions to ensure that recipients take timely and appropriate corrective actions to fix audit findings contained in single...

  12. Marital Biography, Social Security Receipt, and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L; Hammersmith, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social Security and they enjoy relatively high Social Security benefits and very low poverty levels. Among singles, economic well-being varies by marital biography and gender. Gray divorced and never-married women face considerable economic insecurity. Their Social Security benefits are relatively low, and their poverty rates are quite high (over 25%), indicating Social Security alone is not sufficient to prevent these women from falling into poverty. By comparison, gray widoweds are the most advantaged singles.

  13. ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg BOGOMOLOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Market reforms in the post-socialist countries have brought into sharp focus the problem of interconnection and interaction between the economy and the social environment. The economy is inseparable from politics and the operation of the political system, from the state of the social consciousness, the moral and cultural level of the population and from many other aspects of human life and behavior, in short, from everything that can be described by the concept of social environment. Society in every country is a single organism with closely interconnected and interacting parts and systems. Their conjugation and mutual influence are not always apparent and are often overlooked. It is quite easy to see how changes in policy affect the economy and then trace the feedback effect of the economy on policy. It is more difficult to discern the direct and feedback relationship of the economy with administrative relations, with the state of culture, science, morals and public opinion. Meanwhile, an underestimation of these mutual influences is a frequent cause of failures in socio-economic transformation. It is to be regretted that the reforms in Russia were accompanied by a dangerous disruption not only of the economy, but also of the entire system of social relations. What was primary here and what was secondary? In order to answer this question the paper takes a theoretical look at the problem of interaction between the economy and the social environment.

  14. Ant parasite queens revert to mating singly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Seirian; Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2004-01-01

    quantified and they tend to be similar in related species. Here we compare the mating strategies of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior and its recently derived social parasite Acromyrmex insinuator, which is also its closest relative 2 (see Fig. 1 ). We find that although the host queens mate with up......A parasitic ant has abandoned the multiple mating habit of the queens of its related host. Multiple mating (polyandry) is widespread among animal groups, particularly insects 1 . But the factors that maintain it and underlie its evolution are hard to verify because benefits and costs are not easily...... to a dozen different males, the social parasite mates only singly. This rapid and surprising reversion to single mating in a socially parasitic ant indicates that the costs of polyandry are probably specific to a free-living lifestyle....

  15. [Social medicine and social engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvarsell, R

    1995-01-01

    In a rather complicated process starting at the middle of the 19th century and ending hundred years later social medicine was established as a science. Different theories on the social origin of the diseases and even different perspectives on the role of medicine in society did influence and shape the new discipline. The tradition from Rudolf Virchow and Alfred Grotjahn emphasizing the importance of the social causes of the diseases and the tradition from social hygiene with its stress on the hereditarian background of many diseases was mixed together in the early history of social medicine. Many of those trying to establish the new discipline thought that it could be used in order to prevent the spreading of diseases in society and also hinder the development of social maladjustments of different kinds, as for instance criminality and vagrancy. The political framework of social medicine was very much related to what in the Swedish debate later on was to be called social engineering. Both within the tradition of social liberalism and the social democratic party the ideals of a rational society governed by experts was very influential in the period between the two world wars. Some of the advocates for social medicine did even try to formulate a political programme with the new science as a base. The most influential of those was the forensic pspychiatrist Olof Kinberg (1873-1960). In a series of books and articles during the first half of the 19th century Kinberg developed a theory of a society governed by doctors educated within this new branch of science. He thought that almost every kind of social problem could be handled by these experts. Social maladjustment, criminality and even car accidents could be reduced to a minimum if only the new knowledge of the biological and medical causes of human behavior was allowed to influence the social and political organization of the society. Especially during the 1930s some politicians and also social scientists thought

  16. Aggression, Social Stress, and the Immune System in Humans and Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Takahashi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Social stress can lead to the development of psychological problems ranging from exaggerated anxiety and depression to antisocial and violence-related behaviors. Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system is involved in responses to social stress in adulthood. For example, human studies show that individuals with high aggression traits display heightened inflammatory cytokine levels and dysregulated immune responses such as slower wound healing. Similar findings have been observed in patients with depression, and comorbidity of depression and aggression was correlated with stronger immune dysregulation. Therefore, dysregulation of the immune system may be one of the mediators of social stress that produces aggression and/or depression. Similar to humans, aggressive animals also show increased levels of several proinflammatory cytokines, however, unlike humans these animals are more protected from infectious organisms and have faster wound healing than animals with low aggression. On the other hand, subordinate animals that receive repeated social defeat stress have been shown to develop escalated and dysregulated immune responses such as glucocorticoid insensitivity in monocytes. In this review we synthesize the current evidence in humans, non-human primates, and rodents to show a role for the immune system in responses to social stress leading to psychiatric problems such as aggression or depression. We argue that while depression and aggression represent two fundamentally different behavioral and physiological responses to social stress, it is possible that some overlapped, as well as distinct, pattern of immune signaling may underlie both of them. We also argue the necessity of studying animal models of maladaptive aggression induced by social stress (i.e., social isolation for understanding neuro-immune mechanism of aggression, which may be relevant to human aggression.

  17. Aggression, Social Stress, and the Immune System in Humans and Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Flanigan, Meghan E; McEwen, Bruce S; Russo, Scott J

    2018-01-01

    Social stress can lead to the development of psychological problems ranging from exaggerated anxiety and depression to antisocial and violence-related behaviors. Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system is involved in responses to social stress in adulthood. For example, human studies show that individuals with high aggression traits display heightened inflammatory cytokine levels and dysregulated immune responses such as slower wound healing. Similar findings have been observed in patients with depression, and comorbidity of depression and aggression was correlated with stronger immune dysregulation. Therefore, dysregulation of the immune system may be one of the mediators of social stress that produces aggression and/or depression. Similar to humans, aggressive animals also show increased levels of several proinflammatory cytokines, however, unlike humans these animals are more protected from infectious organisms and have faster wound healing than animals with low aggression. On the other hand, subordinate animals that receive repeated social defeat stress have been shown to develop escalated and dysregulated immune responses such as glucocorticoid insensitivity in monocytes. In this review we synthesize the current evidence in humans, non-human primates, and rodents to show a role for the immune system in responses to social stress leading to psychiatric problems such as aggression or depression. We argue that while depression and aggression represent two fundamentally different behavioral and physiological responses to social stress, it is possible that some overlapped, as well as distinct, pattern of immune signaling may underlie both of them. We also argue the necessity of studying animal models of maladaptive aggression induced by social stress (i.e., social isolation) for understanding neuro-immune mechanism of aggression, which may be relevant to human aggression.

  18. Social contract and social integration in adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilles, W S; Kahle, L R

    1985-10-01

    Eighty-nine subjects from two high schools were tested during the spring of their sophomore and senior years, when their mean ages were 16 years, 1 month, and 18 years, 1 month, respectively. Composites measured social contract with: (a) independence, (b) implicit social contract, societal norms and expectations, and (c) explicit social contracts, rules. Composites and single items measured social integration with: (d) role commitment, (e) social-American Dream, accepting the belief in the American Dream that hard work would lead to social success, (f) self-American Dream, belief that hard work will produce personal satisfaction and success, (g) raw deal, perceptions of being treated unfairly, (h) self-blame, and (i) feelings of hopelessness. The results of the cross-lagged panel correlations generally support the hypothesis that students respond to implicit social contracts through role commitment, which is further expressed by a belief in the American Dream for social fulfillment, while responding to the perception of explicit social contracts by not believing in the benefits of the American Dream for personal fulfillment. These results were interpreted as supporting Dienstbier's theory of moral development.

  19. Single-Sex Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Although single-sex education was once the norm in the U.S., the practice has largely been confined to private schools for more than a century. However, with the introduction of the final version of the U.S. Department of Education's so-called single-sex regulations in 2006, public schools were allowed greater flexibility to offer single-sex…

  20. Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and

  1. Single frequency intracavity SRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. A single resonance optical parametric oscillator (SRO) is inserted intracavity to a CW high power, single frequency, and ring Nd:YVO4 laser. We obtain a stable single frequency CW SRO with output at 1.7-1.9 μm (idler) and a resonating signal at 2.3-2.6 μm. The behavior...

  2. Social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Etaner-Uyar, A Sima

    2014-01-01

    The present volume provides a comprehensive resource for practitioners and researchers alike-both those new to the field as well as those who already have some experience. The work covers Social Network Analysis theory and methods with a focus on current applications and case studies applied in various domains such as mobile networks, security, machine learning and health. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0, social media has become a widely used communication platform. Parallel to this development, Social Network Analysis gained in importance as a research field, while opening up many

  3. Single atom oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiorkowski, P.; Walther, H.

    1990-01-01

    Modern methods of laser spectroscopy allow the study of single atoms or ions in an unperturbed environment. This has opened up interesting new experiments, among them the detailed study of radiation-atom coupling. In this paper, the following two experiments dealing with this problem are reviewed: the single-atom maser and the study of the resonance fluorescence of a single stored ion. The simplest and most fundamental system for studying radiation-matter coupling is a single two-level atom interacting with a single mode of an electromagnetic field in a cavity. This problem received a great deal of attention shortly after the maser was invented

  4. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  5. Social Computing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a momentous transformation in the way people interact with each other. Content is now co-produced, shared, classified, and rated by millions of people, while attention has become the ephemeral and valuable resource that everyone seeks to acquire. This talk will describe how social attention determines the production and consumption of content within both the scientific community and social media, how its dynamics can be used to predict the future and the role that social media plays in setting the public agenda. About the speaker Bernardo Huberman is a Senior HP Fellow and Director of the Social Computing Lab at Hewlett Packard Laboratories. He received his Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Pennsylvania, and is currently a Consulting Professor in the Department of Applied Physics at Stanford University. He originally worked in condensed matter physics, ranging from superionic conductors to two-dimensional superfluids, and made contributions to the theory of critical p...

  6. Social arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    Denne publikation er det første arbejdspapir/rapport i serien om forskningsprojektet "Handlekompetence i pædagogisk arbejde med socialt udsatte børn og unge - indsats og effekt (HPA-projektet). Social arv og det deraf afledte begreb om 'udsatte børn', som er det samfundsproblem, der danner rammen...... om HPA-projektets intervenstionsdel og -analyser er ikke et entydigt begreb. Formålet med papiret er derfor at indkredse diskussionen om social arv set som reproduktion af ulighed og på den baggrund belyse relevante indikatorer som kan tjene som baggrundvariable i studiet af effekter i relation til...... samfundets institutionelle mulighder for at skabe fornyelse på det sociale område gennem social intervention...

  7. Social Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tikkanen, Tarja; Hansen, Leif Emil; Guðmundsson, Bernharður

    2012-01-01

    based on a survey carried out in the Nordic countries in the regie of Nordic Council of Ministries the article deals with the role of social partners in senior and older workers policies and practises......based on a survey carried out in the Nordic countries in the regie of Nordic Council of Ministries the article deals with the role of social partners in senior and older workers policies and practises...

  8. Social manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Hamalainen, Markko; Karjalainen, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    New business models harnessing the power of individuals have already revolutionized service industries and digital content production. In this study, we investigate whether a similar phenomenon is taking place in manufacturing industries. We start by conceptually defining two distinct forms of firm-individual collaboration in manufacturing industries: (1) social cloud manufacturing, in which firms outsource manufacturing to individuals, and (2) social platform manufacturing, in which firms pr...

  9. Beta adrenergic blockade decreases the immunomodulatory effects of social disruption stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, M L; Powell, N D; Stiner, L M; Bailey, M T; Sheridan, J F

    2012-10-01

    During physiological or psychological stress, catecholamines produced by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulate the immune system. Previous studies report that the activation of β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) mediates the actions of catecholamines and increases pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a number of different cell types. The impact of the SNS on the immune modulation of social defeat has not been examined. The following studies were designed to determine whether SNS activation during social disruption stress (SDR) influences anxiety-like behavior as well as the activation, priming, and glucocorticoid resistance of splenocytes after social stress. CD-1 mice were exposed to one, three, or six cycles of SDR and HPLC analysis of the plasma and spleen revealed an increase in catecholamines. After six cycles of SDR the open field test was used to measure behaviors characteristic of anxiety and indicated that the social defeat induced increase in anxiety-like behavior was blocked by pre-treatment with the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol. Pre-treatment with the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol did not significantly alter corticosterone levels indicating no difference in activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In addition to anxiety-like behavior the SDR induced splenomegaly and increase in plasma IL-6, TNFα, and MCP-1 were each reversed by pre-treatment with propranolol. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis of cells from propranolol pretreated mice reduced the SDR-induced increase in the percentage of CD11b(+) splenic macrophages and significantly decreased the expression of TLR2, TLR4, and CD86 on the surface of these cells. In addition, supernatants from 18h LPS-stimulated ex vivo cultures of splenocytes from propranolol-treated SDR mice contained less IL-6. Likewise propranolol pre-treatment abrogated the glucocorticoid insensitivity of CD11b(+) cells ex vivo when compared to splenocytes from SDR vehicle-treated mice

  10. Beta adrenergic blockade decreases the immunomodulatory effects of social disruption stress☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, M.L.; Powell, N.D.; Stiner, L.M.; Bailey, M.T.; Sheridan, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    During physiological or psychological stress, catecholamines produced by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulate the immune system. Previous studies report that the activation of β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) mediates the actions of catecholamines and increases pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a number of different cell types. The impact of the SNS on the immune modulation of social defeat has not been examined. The following studies were designed to determine whether SNS activation during social disruption stress (SDR) influences anxiety-like behavior as well as the activation, priming, and glucocorticoid resistance of splenocytes after social stress. CD-1 mice were exposed to one, three, or six cycles of SDR and HPLC analysis of the plasma and spleen revealed an increase in catecholamines. After six cycles of SDR the open field test was used to measure behaviors characteristic of anxiety and indicated that the social defeat induced increase in anxiety-like behavior was blocked by pre-treatment with the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol. Pre-treatment with the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol did not significantly alter corticosterone levels indicating no difference in activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. In addition to anxiety-like behavior the SDR induced splenomegaly and increase in plasma IL-6, TNFα, and MCP-1 were each reversed by pre-treatment with propranolol. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis of cells from propranolol pretreated mice reduced the SDR-induced increase in the percentage of CD11b+ splenic macrophages and significantly decreased the expression of TLR2, TLR4, and CD86 on the surface of these cells. In addition, supernatants from 18 h LPS-stimulated ex vivo cultures of splenocytes from propranolol-treated SDR mice contained less IL-6. Likewise propranolol pre-treatment abrogated the glucocorticoid insensitivity of CD11b+ cells ex vivo when compared to splenocytes from SDR vehicle-treated mice

  11. Social Boycott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno de Paula Andrade Cruz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Based on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR aspects, Social Boycott is presented in this paper as an amplification of the Labor Boycott concept. Design/methodology/approach – A statistical experiment with 240 individuals has been carried out, so that it could verify if consumers’ perceptions related to the Management Context of Corporate Social Responsibility (MCCSR of the fictitious Alpha company has considerable impact on the variable Boycott Efficacy (BE, and on the Boycott Intention (BI. The ANOVA has been used to show causeeffect variable relationship. Findings – MCCSR impacts on BE (H1 and BI (H2. Thus, the Social Consumer’s boycott motivation is driven by the perception of the level of CSR management orientation a company has (anti-corruption internal measures, organizational climate, labor conditions and waste management during production process. While Labor Boycott restricts its analysis to labor conditions, the concept of Social Boycott incorporates all CSR aspects. Originality/value – This study presents Social Boycott definition and its insertion on consumer boycott literature - types of boycott and boycott motivations (ideological dimension. Thus, tangential analysis such as experiential dimension and a theoretical political boycott gap are discussed.

  12. Social Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    The present understanding of LCM as a product management system supported by a number of tools and methods does not pay attention to the importance of social practices that the employees develop in relation to the systematic approach. A new conceptual model of LCM including the social practices i...... company serves as case for the empirical analyses of the formalized structures and their interaction with the social practices developed by the employees over time.......The present understanding of LCM as a product management system supported by a number of tools and methods does not pay attention to the importance of social practices that the employees develop in relation to the systematic approach. A new conceptual model of LCM including the social practices...... is presented and discussed from theoretical and empirical perspectives. Theoretically, the analyses cover the formalized structures related to the division of labor and the coordination of the tasks on the one hand, and the social practices as meanings, values and priorities on the other hand. A larger Danish...

  13. SOCIAL EFFECTIVENESS OF BUSINESS ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Perevozova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at investigation of social effectiveness of business entities. Social aspect of business is becoming a necessary component of success, increase of profitability and competitiveness as well as minimization of risks. Social effectiveness is referred to as correspondence between economic activity and main social needs and aims of society, interests of the staff and interests of a certain person. Investigation of social effectiveness of business entities is suggested to analyze with the help of social factors. Social factors are characterized by variability of expectations, relations and interests of society, staff and individuals. We suggest generalized classification of factors which have an impact on social effectiveness of business, we single out external and internal factors. To external factors belong: income of the population, differentiation of population according to income, migration, level of salaries, level of legality of income of population, family status of  population, employment rate, age structure of population etc. As for internal factors we single out the following: low level of basic professional training, use of unskilled workers, absence of conditions for creativity, imperfection of system of motivation of professional growth, absence of specialized centers for certification training etc. Quantity and quality analysis of the above mentioned factors will enable to determine the level of social effectiveness of business entities. For analyses of degree of influence of factors on effectiveness we worked out a questionnaire of expert assessment which is represented in the form of assessment scale. We conducted a questionnaire and analyzed expert results and determined degree of influence of factors on social effectiveness of business. Assessment of level of social effectiveness of business entities was carried out by expert method of certain factor and was represented by a formula. The scale of assessment of

  14. Social phobia: epidemiology and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wancata, Johannes; Fridl, Marion; Friedrich, Fabian

    2009-12-01

    This paper gives an overview on the epidemiology of social phobia. About 4.5% of the adult general populations suffer from social phobia, i.e. it is the most frequent of all anxiety disorders. Social phobia is clearly more frequent among women than among men. About the half of all individuals with social phobia suffer from any comorbid mental disorders. Reviews show a large variability between single studies, probably due to methodological differences. Several population surveys indicate that a marked proportion of those with social phobia do not receive adequate treatment.

  15. Statistical Models for Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Tom A. B.; Cook, KS; Massey, DS

    2011-01-01

    Statistical models for social networks as dependent variables must represent the typical network dependencies between tie variables such as reciprocity, homophily, transitivity, etc. This review first treats models for single (cross-sectionally observed) networks and then for network dynamics. For

  16. Cooperation, psychological game theory, and limitations of rationality in social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Andrew M

    2003-04-01

    Rational choice theory enjoys unprecedented popularity and influence in the behavioral and social sciences, but it generates intractable problems when applied to socially interactive decisions. In individual decisions, instrumental rationality is defined in terms of expected utility maximization. This becomes problematic in interactive decisions, when individuals have only partial control over the outcomes, because expected utility maximization is undefined in the absence of assumptions about how the other participants will behave. Game theory therefore incorporates not only rationality but also common knowledge assumptions, enabling players to anticipate their co-players' strategies. Under these assumptions, disparate anomalies emerge. Instrumental rationality, conventionally interpreted, fails to explain intuitively obvious features of human interaction, yields predictions starkly at variance with experimental findings, and breaks down completely in certain cases. In particular, focal point selection in pure coordination games is inexplicable, though it is easily achieved in practice; the intuitively compelling payoff-dominance principle lacks rational justification; rationality in social dilemmas is self-defeating; a key solution concept for cooperative coalition games is frequently inapplicable; and rational choice in certain sequential games generates contradictions. In experiments, human players behave more cooperatively and receive higher payoffs than strict rationality would permit. Orthodox conceptions of rationality are evidently internally deficient and inadequate for explaining human interaction. Psychological game theory, based on nonstandard assumptions, is required to solve these problems, and some suggestions along these lines have already been put forward.

  17. [Social pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Naohito; Shimoyama, Megumi

    2011-09-01

    This chapter focuses on what social pain is and how it should be managed. In order to understand social pain in a cancer patient, it is necessary to recognize the change in the patient's daily life after the diagnosis of cancer. Because the degree of suffering and the relationships with family members and the people he or she worked with differ from patient to patient, it is important to note that the context of social pain is different in each patient. Five points shown below are essential in managing social pain. 1. Economical suffering may be alleviated by utilization of the social security system while taking into account each patient's standard of living. 2. Burdens on family members should be lessened, such as by not having them stay at the patient's bedside every day and letting them go home occasionally. 3. The normal patterns of communication, support, and conflict in the family should be identified, and the extent to which they have been disrupted by the illness should be assessed. 4. It is important to understand the ethnic, cultural, and religious background of the patient and the potential impact of their influence on the individual and the illness. 5. Practical or emotional unfinished business that the patient has needs to be identified, and efforts should be made to support fulfillment.

  18. SOCIAL PHOBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabu Supramaniam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Social Phobia is a condition characterized by a marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur. Exposure to the social or performance situation almost invariably provokes an immediate anxiety response. Although adolescents and adults with this disorder recognize that their fear is excessive or unreasonable, this may not be the case in children. Most often, the social or performance situation is avoided, although it is sometimes endured with dread. In individuals younger than 18, symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months before is disorder is diagnosed. This diagnosis should not be given if the fear is reasonable given the context of the stimuli (e.g., fear of being called on in class when unprepared. The disturbance must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. This disorder is not due to a medical condition, medication, or abused substance. It is not better accounted for by another mental disorder.    

  19. Single Parenthood Impact on Street Children in Ibadan Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal , Ethiopia. Vol. 4 (2) April ... free and compulsory education to children without family support and help the less ... Key words: Single Parenthood, Street Children, Anti-Social Behaviour,. Aggression ... foregoing, this study therefore sought to look at the impact of single parenthood on ...

  20. Reaching Out to Single Parent Children through Filial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivandi Vafa, Marziyeh; Khaidzir Hj. Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Single parenthood as a common psychosocial phenomenon seems to be regarded as one of the most significant issues in the psychological domain and needs to be taken into serious consideration due to emotional, psychological, and social problems created by it. With regard to the rapidly growing population of single parents and their children…

  1. Single-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) are popular for the synchronization and control of single-phase gridconnected converters. They are also widely used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes in the power and energy areas. In recent years, a large number of single-phase PLLs with different stru......-PLLs). The members of each category are then described and their pros and cons are discussed. This work provides a deep insight into characteristics of different single-phase PLLs and, therefore, can be considered as a reference for researchers and engineers....

  2. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, B.; Turkmen, N.; Fedakar, R.; Cetin, V.

    2010-01-01

    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  3. Single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this lecture is to present the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging technique. Content: 1 - Introduction: anatomic, functional and molecular imaging; Principle and role of functional or molecular imaging; 2 - Radiotracers: chemical and physical constraints, main emitters, radioisotopes production, emitters type and imaging techniques; 3 - Single photon emission computed tomography: gamma cameras and their components, gamma camera specifications, planar single photon imaging characteristics, gamma camera and tomography; 4 - Quantification in single photon emission tomography: attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution, partial volume effect, movements, others; 5 - Synthesis and conclusion

  4. Social Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Miguel A.; Nguyen, HoangKim T.; Oberholzer, Michael; Hill, Kent L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Protozoan parasites cause tremendous human suffering worldwide, but strategies for therapeutic intervention are limited. Recent studies illustrate that the paradigm of microbes as social organisms can be brought to bear on questions about parasite biology, transmission and pathogenesis. This review discusses recent work demonstrating adaptation of social behaviors by parasitic protozoa that cause African sleeping sickness and malaria. The recognition of social behavior and cell-cell communication as a ubiquitous property of bacteria has transformed our view of microbiology, but protozoan parasites have not generally been considered in this context. Works discussed illustrate the potential for concepts of sociomicrobiology to provide insight into parasite biology and should stimulate new approaches for thinking about parasites and parasite-host interactions. PMID:22020108

  5. Social Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social robotics is a cutting edge research area gathering researchers and stakeholders from various disciplines and organizations. The transformational potential that these machines, in the form of, for example, caregiving, entertainment or partner robots, pose to our societies and to us as indiv......Social robotics is a cutting edge research area gathering researchers and stakeholders from various disciplines and organizations. The transformational potential that these machines, in the form of, for example, caregiving, entertainment or partner robots, pose to our societies and to us...... as individuals seems to be limited by our technical limitations and phantasy alone. This collection contributes to the field of social robotics by exploring its boundaries from a philosophically informed standpoint. It constructively outlines central potentials and challenges and thereby also provides a stable...

  6. Social carry-over effects on non-social behavioral variation: mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Toivo Niemelä

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of animal personality is interested in decomposing behaviors into different levels of variation, with its present focus on the ecological and evolutionary causes and consequences of expressed variation. Recently the role of the social environment, i.e. social partners, has been suggested to affect behavioral variation and induce selection on animal personality. Social partner effects exist because characters of social partners (e.g. size, behavior, affect the behavioral expression of a focal individual. Here, we 1 first review the proximate mechanisms underlying the social partner effects on behavioral expression and the timescales at which such effects might take place. We then 2 discuss how within- and among-individual variation in single behaviors and covariation between multiple behaviors, caused by social partners, can carry-over to non-social behaviors expressed outside the social context. Finally, we 3 highlight evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects to non-social behaviors and 4 suggest study designs and statistical approaches which can be applied to study the nature and evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects on non-social behaviors. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underpinning the social partner effects is important since it opens a door for deeper understanding of how social environments can affect behavioral variation and covariation at multiple levels, and the evolution of non-social behaviors (i.e. exploration, activity, boldness that are affected by social interactions.

  7. Social Constructionism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.

    In this paper a case is made for using social constructionist approaches in entrepreneurship studies. It is argued that this may result in some very important new insights that might not have been generated using traditional analytic and functionalistic approaches. Firstly, summaries of some...... of the different social constructionisms are given with a view to how they might be suitable for entrepreneurship studies. Special attention will be given to discourse analysis and deconstruction. Secondly, two preliminary studies using discourse analysis and deconstruction are presented....

  8. Social Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    . Although this social structure was ideal in nature and not equally confirmed in other genres of ancient and medieval literature, it has nevertheless had an immense impact on Indian society. The chapter presents an overview of the system with its three privileged classes, the Brahmins, the Kṣatriyas......The notions of class (varṇa) and caste (jāti) run through the dharmaśāstra literature (i.e. Hindu Law Books) on all levels. They regulate marriage, economic transactions, work, punishment, penance, entitlement to rituals, identity markers like the sacred thread, and social interaction in general...

  9. Singled Out for Success: A Narrative Inquiry of Single Mothers in the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober, Delia A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and understand single-mother community college students' perceptions of their ability to succeed. The theoretical framework that guided this research was Bandura's (1977) social cognitive theory concept of self-efficacy, defined as a person's belief in his or her ability to succeed. Given…

  10. Sensing single electrons with single molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plakhotnik, Taras

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new methodology for probing transport of just one electron, a process of great importance both in nature and in artificial devices. Our idea for locating a single electron is analogues to the conventional GPS where signals from several satellites are used to locate a macro object. Using fluorescent molecules as tiny sensors, it is possible to determine 3D displacement vector of an electron

  11. Thinking Socially: Teaching Social Knowledge to Foster Social Behavioral Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooke, Pamela J.; Winner, Michelle Garcia; Olswang, Lesley B.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the complexity of what it means to "be social" from the perspective of social thinking. This perspective recognizes social cognitive processing abilities as the foundation for social knowledge and, in turn, social behaviors. The article further describes variables that influence how one understands how to do what…

  12. Single-sided NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Federico; Blümich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Single-Sided NMR describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications. One of the key advantages to this method is the speed at which the images are obtained.

  13. Understanding Single Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Peter J.

    The life styles and life chances of the unmarried include elements of choices. Singles may be grouped and characterized according to whether their status may be considered stable or temporary. A life cycle, or continuum model of singlehood is reviewed, including its different factors, or phases. A new model for singles is proposed--a life spiral…

  14. Single gaze gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Lilholm, Martin; Gail, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines gaze gestures and their applicability as a generic selection method for gaze-only controlled interfaces. The method explored here is the Single Gaze Gesture (SGG), i.e. gestures consisting of a single point-to-point eye movement. Horizontal and vertical, long and short SGGs were...

  15. Social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobia - social; Anxiety disorder - social; Social phobia; SAD - social anxiety disorder ... People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in ...

  16. Climate policy to defeat the green paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fölster, Stefan; Nyström, Johan

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions have accelerated since the signing of the Kyoto Protocol. This discouraging development may partly be blamed on accelerating world growth and on lags in policy instruments. However, it also raises serious question concerning whether policies to reduce CO2 emissions are as effective as generally assumed. In recent years, a considerable number of studies have identified various feedback mechanisms of climate policies that often erode, and occasionally reinforce, their effectiveness. These studies generally focus on a few feedback mechanisms at a time, without capturing the entire effect. Partial accounting of policy feedbacks is common in many climate scenarios. The IPCC, for example, only accounts for direct leakage and rebound effects. This article attempts to map the aggregate effects of different types of climate policy feedback mechanisms in a cohesive framework. Controlling feedback effects is essential if the policy measures are to make any difference on a global level. A general conclusion is that aggregate policy feedback mechanisms tend to make current climate policies much less effective than is generally assumed. In fact, various policy measures involve a definite risk of 'backfiring' and actually increasing CO2 emissions. This risk is particularly pronounced once effects of climate policies on the pace of innovation in climate technology are considered. To stand any chance of controlling carbon emissions, it is imperative that feedback mechanisms are integrated into emission scenarios, targets for emission reduction and implementation of climate policy. In many cases, this will reduce the scope for subsidies to renewable energy sources, but increase the scope for other measures such as schemes to return carbon dioxide to the ground and to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases from wetlands and oceans. A framework that incorporates policy feedback effects necessitates rethinking the design of the national and regional emission targets. This leads us to a new way of formulating emission targets that include feedback effects, the global impact target. Once the full climate policy feedback mechanisms are accounted for, there are probably only three main routes in climate policy that stand a chance of mitigating global warming: (a) returning carbon to the ground, (b) technological leaps in zero-emission energy technology that make it profitable to leave much carbon in the ground even in Annex II countries and (c) international agreements that make it more profitable to leave carbon in the ground or in forests.

  17. Ombud’s Corner: defeating unconscious bias

    CERN Document Server

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2016-01-01

    Do you have a tendency to switch off at meetings every time a particular colleague starts to speak? Is it obvious to you that your colleagues will never accept a peer as a project leader? And doesn’t that candidate from your own alma mater clearly have a definite edge over the others?   How do we come to these conclusions and what can we do to ensure that our decisions are based on objective criteria alone? Can we always be sure that we are not influenced by pre-conceived notions or prejudices that may unconsciously bias our thinking? Unconscious bias is a part of everyday life – it refers to the insidious influences that our backgrounds, cultural environments or personal experiences exert on the way in which we judge or assess people or situations. In the workplace, it has a negative impact on our goals and interactions when it causes us to make decisions based on generalisations or mental associations that we are not even aware of, and that have little or no bearing on the o...

  18. Can the United States Defeat Radical Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    It strongly disapproves of idolatry, the popular cult of saints and tomb visitation. 11...twentieth century, Sayyid Qutb (1906-1966), an Egyptian Islamic radical, referencing al-Wahhab, developed a modified concept of jahiliyya. In Qutb’s...It strongly disapproves of idolatry, the popular cult of saints and tomb visitation. When ibn Taymiyya was asked if the murderous. Mongols, who

  19. Defeating diplostomoid dangers in USA catfish aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Robin M; Curran, Stephen S

    2004-06-01

    Diplostomoid digenean metacercariae have caused widescale mortalities of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), at aquaculture farms in Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas, USA. Originally, based on a tentative diagnosis, the industry considered the primary harmful agent to be an introduced species from Europe, Bolbophorus confusus (Krause, 1914), frequently reported from the American white pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin. Our group has now shown, using ITS 1-2 plus three more-conservative gene fragments, that two sympatric species of Bolbophorus exist in the American white pelican. One, B. damnificus Overstreet et Curran, 2002, infects the musculature of catfish, and the other, probably not B. confusus, does not infect catfish. However, at least four other pathogenic diplostomoids and a clinostomoid infect the catfish, and they use at least four different snail hosts, including the planorbids Planorbella trivolvis (Say) and Gyraulus parvus (Say), the physid Physella gyrina (Say) and a lymnaeid. Two metacercariae, B. damnificus and Bursacetabulus pelecanus Dronen, Tehrany et Wardle, 1999, infect the catfish and mature in the pelican; two others, Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) and Hysteromorpha cf. triloba (Rudolphi, 1819), mature in cormorants; one, Diplostomum sp., matures in seagulls and at least one, Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), matures in herons, egrets and other wading birds. Consequently, management of catfish ponds relative to digenean infections requires considerable biological information on the fish, bird, and snail hosts as well as the parasites.

  20. Honor Killing: Where Pride Defeats Reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Tandon, Abhishek; Krishan, Kewal

    2016-12-01

    Honor killings are graceless and ferocious murders by chauvinists with an antediluvian mind. These are categorized separately because these killings are committed for the prime reason of satisfying the ego of the people whom the victim trusts and always looks up to for support and protection. It is for this sole reason that honor killings demand strict and stern punishment, not only for the person who committed the murder but also for any person who contributed or was party to the act. A positive change can occur with stricter legislation and changes in the ethos of the society we live in today.

  1. Victories and defeats in general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, C.

    1977-01-01

    Only within the last 20 years has it been possible to conduct far-reaching experimental tests of the validity of Einstein's General Relativity Theory. Experimental confirmation in some fields is embarrassed by considerable difficulties in applying the theory to cosmic systems, which indicate that such major systems lie at the limit of the theory's applicability. The lecture here reproduced discusses both the successes and the limitations of the theory, starting with its replacement of the absolute space-time theory of Newton and its historical replacement by the relativistic gravitational postulates of Einstein which, in spite of its more complicated postulates, nevertheless introduced a great simplicity and comprehensiveness into the overall conception of nature. This theoretical 'beauty', however, can only be trusted if vindicated experimentally, which has to a considerable extent proved to be the case. For weak fields Newtonian and Einsteinian concepts coincide, while for stronger fields, and velocities not far from that of light, Einstein's theory is superior, giving,for example, an excellent correspondence with the precession of the perehelion of Mercury. On a larger scale, however, the theory appears to lead to conclusions which would invalidate the very concepts of space and time, even within a finite time-interval. A more generalized theory seems to be required. (A.D.N.)

  2. Defeat: A Motivation for Organizational Change?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlson, Scott M

    2007-01-01

    .... Still structured and resourced for conventional war, the Department of Defense (DoD) must change the course of its current transformation strategy or continue its poor record of dealing with terrorism and counterinsurgency...

  3. Halogenated Explosives to Defeat Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    for example. However, in testing this nitrating reagent, it was decided to use a purer and less valuable substrate as a model reactant: the...secondary nitramine but possibly containing both N-nitro derivatives. Figure 9. “Nonacidic” nitration of a model reactant, 2-(trifluoromethyl... economics of possible alternative technical approaches that might produce it—led to its abandonment, in this project, in favor of TFM-RDX. TFM-RDX was a

  4. Holism and Emergence: Dynamical Complexity Defeats Laplace's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ideal for scientific theories whose cogency is often not questioned. Laplace's demon is an idealization of mechanistic scientific method. Its principles together imply reducibility, and rule out holism and emergence. I will argue that Laplacean determinism fails even in the realm of planetary dynamics, and that it does not give ...

  5. Single molecules and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Horst

    2007-01-01

    This book focuses on recent advances in the rapidly evolving field of single molecule research. These advances are of importance for the investigation of biopolymers and cellular biochemical reactions, and are essential to the development of quantitative biology. Written by leading experts in the field, the articles cover a broad range of topics, including: quantum photonics of organic dyes and inorganic nanoparticles their use in detecting properties of single molecules the monitoring of single molecule (enzymatic) reactions single protein (un)folding in nanometer-sized confined volumes the dynamics of molecular interactions in biological cells The book is written for advanced students and scientists who wish to survey the concepts, techniques and results of single molecule research and assess them for their own scientific activities.

  6. Single-photon imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Seitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...

  7. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  8. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory....

  9. The impact of the web and social networks on vaccination. New challenges and opportunities offered to fight against vaccine hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, J-P; Cohen, R; Denis, F; Gaudelus, J; Martinot, A; Lery, T; Lepetit, H

    2016-05-01

    Vaccine hesitancy is a growing and threatening trend, increasing the risk of disease outbreaks and potentially defeating health authorities' strategies. We aimed to describe the significant role of social networks and the Internet on vaccine hesitancy, and more generally on vaccine attitudes and behaviors. Presentation and discussion of lessons learnt from: (i) the monitoring and analysis of web and social network contents on vaccination; (ii) the tracking of Google search terms used by web users; (iii) the analysis of Google search suggestions related to vaccination; (iv) results from the Vaccinoscopie(©) study, online annual surveys of representative samples of 6500 to 10,000 French mothers, monitoring vaccine behaviors and attitude of French parents as well as vaccination coverage of their children, since 2008; and (v) various studies published in the scientific literature. Social networks and the web play a major role in disseminating information about vaccination. They have modified the vaccination decision-making process and, more generally, the doctor/patient relationship. The Internet may fuel controversial issues related to vaccination and durably impact public opinion, but it may also provide new tools to fight against vaccine hesitancy. Vaccine hesitancy should be fought on the Internet battlefield, and for this purpose, communication strategies should take into account new threats and opportunities offered by the web and social networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Social Kapital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    Den første danske introduktion til et begreb, der i disse år får stadig mere international opmærksomhed inden for både økonomisk teori og samfundsvidenskaberne generelt. Bogen gennemgår de forskellige teoretiske tilgange til feltet og argumenterer for, at social kapital skal betragtes som en...

  11. Social Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Emil

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present findings from a new Nordic survey on social partners’ policy and practice in regards older workers. The goal of the survey was to find out to what extent the social partners have developed policies and outlined strategies, which explicitly address the demogr...... lifelong learning and career development to their senior members during their last 15-20 years in working life. In this issue the social partners can and should play an active role – indeed, a leading role if needed – among the other key actors in society....... the demographic change and promote opportunities for lifelong learning and career development among their senior members (45+). Workforce in the Nordic countries tend to be highly organised – especially the older workers. The social partners’ involvement in the discussion of sustainable society...... and the contribution of lifelong learning to the needs and potential of older workers is crucial, as the demographic situation already today, and in particular the one to be expected within the next about 40 years, is historically without a precedent. The idea of continuous learning and the need for a meaningful work...

  12. Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Digital Marketing and Ecommerce Professionals. 29 January 2010. 20 May 2010. <http://econsultancy.com/blog/5324-20+-mind-blowing-social- media...Statistics Revisited.” Econsultancy | Community of Digital Marketing and Ecommerce Professionals. 29 Jan. 2010. 20 May 2010. <http://econsultancy.com/blog

  13. The impact of personality disorders on behavioral treatment outcome for social phobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, C.J.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Scholing, A.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of personality disorders (PDs) on exposure in pipe treatment for social phobia was investigated in three groups of social phobics: social phobia without any PD (n = 30), social phobia with a single diagnosis of avoidant PD (n = 18) and social phobia with multiple PDs (n = 13). We

  14. Social architects in social systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie; Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Sommerlund, Charlotte

    -based knowledge and on building knowledge on equal terms (Härnsten, 1994). The idea is that research circles support knowledge creation as a joint venture where joint venture focuses on both the development of theory and the development of practice (Mørck & Huniche, 2006). Purpose and Design The overall purpose......, conclusions and implications for practice/ future research The findings suggest two major foci of change in future guidance practices. Firstly, future guidance practitioners should be seen more like social architects who are capable of instigating social practices in which young people can exchange...... their experiences, get proper and relevant advice rather than being looked at as expert professionals who provide information in 1-to-1 relationships with the young people. Secondly, the guidance practitioner should be given more credit for and responsibility as a kind of organizational catalyst in social systems...

  15. Social Engineering hits Social Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Werner; Wiele, Johannes

    Looking at social commerce, a bunch of bewildering phenomena attracts the attention of social psychologists. The way customers participate today shows attitudes and ethical behavior which cannot be explained from the inherent conditions of Web 2.0 environments alone. Fraud often succeeds, when you do not expect it, and honesty can be found under circumstances that do not support honesty at all. The current situation seems to result from customers assigning experience and ethics from real world business to virtual business environments. But there are indications that this situation may change. Social commerce could suffer as soon as customers would use its inherent weaknesses to their own advantage. The following article outlines first approaches to research into this topic.

  16. The measurement of social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalonga-Olives, Ester; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Social capital has been defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. The definition is consistent with either an individualistic approach, i.e. resources (such as information or instrumental assistance) that are accessed by individuals through their network connections; or a collective approach, e.g. the benefits accruing to members of a group - such as the ability of a community to engage in collective action - as a consequence of the existence of cohesive relationships. While research often restricts itself to a single level of analysis, the benefits (and downsides) of social capital accrue to both the individual as well as to the network to which he belongs. In the Dictionary of Epidemiology both the individual and collective levels of analysis were recognized in the definition of social capital. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. The measurement of social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Villalonga-Olives

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Social capital has been defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. The definition is consistent with either an individualistic approach, i.e. resources (such as information or instrumental assistance that are accessed by individuals through their network connections; or a collective approach, e.g. the benefits accruing to members of a group – such as the ability of a community to engage in collective action – as a consequence of the existence of cohesive relationships. While research often restricts itself to a single level of analysis, the benefits (and downsides of social capital accrue to both the individual as well as to the network to which he belongs. In the Dictionary of Epidemiology both the individual and collective levels of analysis were recognized in the definition of social capital.

  18. Bibliometric studies on single journals: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Wan , Utap Anyi; Anuar , N.B.; Zainab, A.N

    2009-01-01

    This paper covers a total of 82 bibliometric studies on single journals (62 studies cover unique titles) published between 1998 and 2008 grouped into the following fields; Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (12 items); Medical and Health Sciences (19 items); Sciences and Technology (30 items) and Library and Information Sciences (21 items). Under each field the studies are described in accordance to their geographical location in the following order, United Kingdom, United States and Americ...

  19. Single-Arc IMRT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortfeld, Thomas; Webb, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The idea of delivering intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multileaf collimator in a continuous dynamic mode during a single rotation of the gantry has recently gained momentum both in research and industry. In this note we investigate the potential of this Single-Arc IMRT technique at a conceptual level. We consider the original theoretical example case from Brahme et al that got the field of IMRT started. Using analytical methods, we derive deliverable intensity 'landscapes' for Single-Arc as well as standard IMRT and Tomotherapy. We find that Tomotherapy provides the greatest flexibility in shaping intensity landscapes and that it allows one to deliver IMRT in a way that comes close to the ideal case in the transverse plane. Single-Arc and standard IMRT make compromises in different areas. Only in relatively simple cases that do not require substantial intensity modulation will Single-Arc be dosimetrically comparable to Tomotherapy. Compared with standard IMRT, Single-Arc could be dosimetrically superior in certain cases if one is willing to accept the spreading of low dose values over large volumes of normal tissue. In terms of treatment planning, Single-Arc poses a more challenging optimization problem than Tomotherapy or standard IMRT. We conclude that Single-Arc holds potential as an efficient IMRT technique especially for relatively simple cases. In very complex cases, Single-Arc may unduly compromise the quality of the dose distribution, if one tries to keep the treatment time below 2 min or so. As with all IMRT techniques, it is important to explore the tradeoff between plan quality and the efficiency of its delivery carefully for each individual case. (note)

  20. Single neuron computation

    CERN Document Server

    McKenna, Thomas M; Zornetzer, Steven F

    1992-01-01

    This book contains twenty-two original contributions that provide a comprehensive overview of computational approaches to understanding a single neuron structure. The focus on cellular-level processes is twofold. From a computational neuroscience perspective, a thorough understanding of the information processing performed by single neurons leads to an understanding of circuit- and systems-level activity. From the standpoint of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a single real neuron is as complex an operational unit as an entire ANN, and formalizing the complex computations performed by real n

  1. Single photon ECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Toshio; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tada, Akira; Bunko, Hisashi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    1982-01-01

    The detectability of lesions located deep in a body or overlapped with a physiologically increased activity improve with the help of single photon ECT. In some cases, the ECT is superior to the conventional gamma camera images and X-ray CT scans in the evaluation of the location and size of lesion. The single photon ECT of the brain compares favorably with the contrast enhansed X-ray CT scans. The most important adaptation of the single photon ECT are the detection of recurrent brain tumors after craniotomy and the evaluation of ischemic heart diseases. (author)

  2. Single Electron Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  3. Social media and social companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs. Frans van den Reep

    2010-01-01

    In this article, van der Reep argues the need for a new architectural priciple when desgining software systems. The Internet and its capacity to provide social media technology is creating a new P2P networked economy. An economy based around people working together and which will have a major impact

  4. Data Storage for Social Networks A Socially Aware Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, Duc A

    2012-01-01

    Evidenced by the success of Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn, online social networks (OSNs) have become ubiquitous, offering novel ways for people to access information and communicate with each other. As the increasing popularity of social networking is undeniable, scalability is an important issue for any OSN that wants to serve a large number of users. Storing user data for the entire network on a single server can quickly lead to a bottleneck, and, consequently, more servers are needed to expand storage capacity and lower data request traffic per server. Adding more servers is just one step

  5. Esquizofrenia, habilidades sociales y funcionamiento social

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas Yust, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Estudio acerca de las influencia que las habilidades sociales ejercen en el funcionamiento social del paciente. Se confirmó que las habilidades sociales ejercen en una forma derteminante el funcionamiento social. Las habilidades sociales definidas en térm

  6. Suburban socialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldrup, Helene Hjorth

    2009-01-01

    Suburban and residential areas have often been associated with everyday, routine and family relations, and this article explores how everyday life and sociality are changing in suburban areas in the context of what is variously called the post-industrial and borderless city. The article suggests...... that such areas can be seen as under-appreciated in our evaluation of what constitutes the quality of city life. The article develops a social practice perspective drawing on Goffman, and is based on empirical work carried out in two newly-built suburban areas in greater Copenhagen. Approximately twenty residents...... from young families were interviewed and asked to take photos. These residents all had middleclass, but different educational backgrounds. The analysis shows that residents want to maintain a sense of the city, seeking different ways of doing so, and hence continuing to being cosmopolitan. At the same...

  7. Social resiliens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berliner, Peter; Bang Bourup, Ellen; Christensen, Jeppe Kiel

    2017-01-01

    Vi starter ud med at give en oversigt over aktuel teori om resiliens og viser, at disse teorier peger på, at resiliens handler om netværk og forbindelser i komplekse systemer. Derefter beskriver vi fortællinger om social resiliens i to byer i Grønland, Nanortalik og Tasiilaq. Ud fra de beskrivelser...... diskuterer vi, hvad der kendetegner social resiliens i Grønland og hvordan det kan fremmes gennem konkrete projekter båret af lokale kræfter som et bidrag til den stærke og innovative kultur, der i disse år udvikler sig i Grønland som en del af den globale verden....

  8. Social information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Barros Campos

    Full Text Available Based on Erving Goffman's work, the article aims to discuss a definition of information centered on the type conveyed by individuals in a multimodal way, encompassing language and body in situations of co-presence, where face-to-face interaction occurs, and influencing inter-subjective formation of the self. Six types of information are highlighted: material information, expressive information, ritualized information, meta-information, strategic information, and information displays. It is argued that the construction of this empirical object tends to dissolve the tension among material, cognitive and pragmatic aspects, constituting an example of the necessary integration among them. Some vulnerable characteristics of the theory are critically mentioned and it is suggested that the concept of information displays could provide a platform to approach the question of the interaction order in its relations with the institutional and social orders, and consequently, to reassess the scope of the notion of social information analyzed.

  9. Multiple Social Networks, Data Models and Measures for

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Multiple Social Network Analysis is a discipline defining models, measures, methodologies, and algorithms to study multiple social networks together as a single social system. It is particularly valuable when the networks are interconnected, e.g., the same actors are present in more than one...

  10. A Single Atom Antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinter, Florian; Williams, Joshua B; Weller, Miriam; Waitz, Markus; Pitzer, Martin; Voigtsberger, Jörg; Schober, Carl; Kastirke, Gregor; Müller, Christian; Goihl, Christoph; Burzynski, Phillip; Wiegandt, Florian; Wallauer, Robert; Kalinin, Anton; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Schöffler, Markus S; Jahnke, Till; Dörner, Reinhard; Chiang, Ying-Chih; Gokhberg, Kirill

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the smallest possible implementation of an antenna-receiver complex which consists of a single (helium) atom acting as the antenna and a second (neon) atom acting as a receiver. (paper)

  11. Single Beam Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan; Ruterbusch, Paul H.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how holography can be used as part of undergraduate physics laboratories. The authors propose a single beam technique of holography, which will reduce the recording scheme as well as relax the isolation requirements. (HM)

  12. Social Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2012-01-01

    Anmeldelsen af Peter Herrmanns bog om global socialpolitik omtaler både forståelsen af, hvad social kvalitet er, og hvordan dette begreb er udviklet. PÅ denne baggrund er det muligt at forholde sig kritisk til fx. EUs måde at samtænke økonomi, beskæftigelse og socialpolitik på. Alternativt kan der...

  13. Social Water

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Franz; Salverda, Tijo; Hollington , Andrea; Tappe, Oliver; Kloß, Sinah; Schneider, Nina

    2017-01-01

    We encounter water every day. It is a vital substance biologically as much as socially. We may notice this in art exhibitions and university courses communicating submersed and subversive facts about water; the rhythms of floods and tides resonating with fishing techniques and conflict patterns; inundations carrying moral and political weight as much as water and pollution; and particular mixtures of water and land generating wealth, anxieties and memories. In short, wherever people deal with...

  14. Social kompetence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    2002-01-01

    er disse kompetencer der beskrives nærmere i bogen ud fra forkseres bidrag på de valgte områder. Nøglekompetencen 'social kompetence' som er der er givet forlag til at definere nærmere som oplæg til indikatorudvikling opfattes som en blandt flere, der kab betrages som forudsætninger for at anvende...

  15. The Effects of Single versus Mixed Gender Treatment for Adolescent Girls with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Dara E.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Ross, J. Megan; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the social behavior of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in single and mixed gender treatment settings. We collected ratings of social behavior (i.e., prosocial peer interactions, assertiveness, self-management, compliance, physical aggression, relational aggression) during single and mixed…

  16. Single-photon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lounis, Brahim; Orrit, Michel

    2005-01-01

    The concept of the photon, central to Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect, is exactly 100 years old. Yet, while photons have been detected individually for more than 50 years, devices producing individual photons on demand have only appeared in the last few years. New concepts for single-photon sources, or 'photon guns', have originated from recent progress in the optical detection, characterization and manipulation of single quantum objects. Single emitters usually deliver photons one at a time. This so-called antibunching of emitted photons can arise from various mechanisms, but ensures that the probability of obtaining two or more photons at the same time remains negligible. We briefly recall basic concepts in quantum optics and discuss potential applications of single-photon states to optical processing of quantum information: cryptography, computing and communication. A photon gun's properties are significantly improved by coupling it to a resonant cavity mode, either in the Purcell or strong-coupling regimes. We briefly recall early production of single photons with atomic beams, and the operation principles of macroscopic parametric sources, which are used in an overwhelming majority of quantum-optical experiments. We then review the photophysical and spectroscopic properties and compare the advantages and weaknesses of various single nanometre-scale objects used as single-photon sources: atoms or ions in the gas phase and, in condensed matter, organic molecules, defect centres, semiconductor nanocrystals and heterostructures. As new generations of sources are developed, coupling to cavities and nano-fabrication techniques lead to improved characteristics, delivery rates and spectral ranges. Judging from the brisk pace of recent progress, we expect single photons to soon proceed from demonstrations to applications and to bring with them the first practical uses of quantum information

  17. Single particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, P.J.; Jensen, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the opening of the 3-quasiparticle continuum at 3Δ sets the energy scale for the enhancement of the effective mass near the Fermi surface of nuclei. The authors argue that the spreading width of single-particle states due to coupling with low-lying collective modes is qualitatively different from the two-body collision mechanism, and contributes little to the single-particle lifetime in the sense of the optical model. (orig.)

  18. Predicción, reflexividad y transparencia: La ciencia social como autoanálisis colectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIO LAMO DE ESPINOSA

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Si las definiciones de la situación son parte de la situación, también los modelos que elaboran los científicos sociales han pasado a ser parte de la situación modelada. El autor analiza la reflexividad de las teorías y modelos sobre la realidad que tratan de captar a través del estudio de las predicciones reflexivas, de las que las self-fullfilling y self-defeating prophecies son sólo casos extremos. Los tipos de reflexividad, los tipos de predicción reflexiva y la incidencia que sobre ellos tienen los diversos contextos de acción son también especificados. Tras criticar el argumento de Herbert Simon sobre los efectos adhesión y rechazo en contextos electorales, el autor analiza las consecuencias éticas y epistemológicas de la reflexividad para la ciencia social.

  19. Brand Marketing Model on Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Jezukevičiūtė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the brand and its marketing solutions onsocial networks. This analysis led to the creation of improvedbrand marketing model on social networks, which will contributeto the rapid and cheap organization brand recognition, increasecompetitive advantage and enhance consumer loyalty. Therefore,the brand and a variety of social networks are becoming a hotresearch area for brand marketing model on social networks.The world‘s most successful brand marketing models exploratoryanalysis of a single case study revealed a brand marketingsocial networking tools that affect consumers the most. Basedon information analysis and methodological studies, develop abrand marketing model on social networks.

  20. Increasing Social Behaviors in Young Children with Social-Communication Delays in a Group Arrangement in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Justin D.; Gast, David L.; Ledford, Jennifer R.; Shepley, Collin

    2017-01-01

    Young children with disabilities are less likely to display age-appropriate social behaviors than same-age peers with typical social development, especially children who display social-communication delays. In this study, two concurrently operating single case designs were used to evaluate the use of progressive time delay (PTD) to teach children…

  1. Single-Mode VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  2. Single-photon imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, Peter; Theuwissen, Albert J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist's view from different domains to the forthcoming ''single-photon imaging'' revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internationally renowned, leading scientists and technologists who have all pioneered their respective fields. (orig.)

  3. Entrepreneuriat social

    OpenAIRE

    Le Velly, Ronan

    2014-01-01

    International audience; L’entrepreneuriat social est une expression actuellement en vogue, dans les universités et les écoles de management qui lui consacrent un nombre croissant de recherches et de formations, dans les livres ou les journaux qui relatent les exploits d’hommes et de femmes capables de « changer le monde », dans les fondations telles que Ashoka, qui soutiennent l’action de ces entrepreneurs, mais aussi auprès des acteurs publics qui développent des partenariats avec les « entr...

  4. Announced reward counteracts the effects of chronic social stress on anticipatory behavior and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Amer; Van der Harst, Johanneke E; Kapteijn, Chantal M; Baars, Annemarie J M; Spruijt, Berry M; Ramakers, Geert M J

    2010-04-01

    Chronic stress causes insensitivity to rewards (anhedonia) in rats, reflected by the absence of anticipatory behavior for a sucrose-reward, which can be reversed by antidepressant treatment or repeated announced transfer to an enriched cage. It was, however, not clear whether the highly rewarding properties of the enriched cage alone caused this reversal or whether the anticipation of this reward as such had an additional effect. Therefore, the present study compared the consequences of the announcement of a reward to the mere effect of a reward alone with respect to their efficacy to counteract the consequences of chronic stress. Two forms of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation and long-term depression were investigated in area CA1 of the hippocampus. This was done in socially stressed rats (induced by defeat and subsequent long-term individual housing), socially stressed rats that received a reward (short-term enriched housing) and socially stressed rats to which this reward was announced by means of a stimulus that was repeatedly paired to the reward. The results were compared to corresponding control rats. We show that announcement of enriched housing appeared to have had an additional effect compared to the enriched housing per se as indicated by a significant higher amount of LTP. In conclusion, announced short-term enriched housing has a high and long-lasting counteracting efficacy on stress-induced alterations of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. This information is important for counteracting the consequences of chronic stress in both human and captive rats.

  5. Enterprise Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Till J.; Trier, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Enterprise Social Networks (ESNs), d. h. Informationssysteme, die die Vernetzung von Mitarbeitern in Unternehmen fördern sollen, sind in verschiedenen Varianten und unter verschiedenen Bezeichnungen (etwa Enterprise Social Media, Corporate Social Software, Social Business oder Enterprise 2...

  6. Single port laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Henrik; Istre, Olav

    2012-01-01

    LESS, or laparo-endoscopic single site surgery, is a promising new method in minimally invasive surgery. An increasing number of surgical procedures are being performed using this technique, however, its large-scale adoption awaits results of prospective randomized controlled studies confirming...... potential benefits. Theoretically, cosmetic outcomes, postoperative pain and complication rates could be improved with use of single site surgery. This study describes introduction of the method in a private hospital in Denmark, in which 40 patients have been treated for benign gynecologic conditions....... Although the operations described are the first of their kind reported in Denmark, favorable operating times and very low complication rates are seen. It is the authors' opinion that in addition to being feasible for hysterectomy, single port laparoscopy may become the preferred method for many simple...

  7. Single Cell Oncogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin

    It is believed that cancer originates from a single cell that has gone through generations of evolution of genetic and epigenetic changes that associate with the hallmarks of cancer. In some cancers such as various types of leukemia, cancer is clonal. Yet in other cancers like glioblastoma (GBM), there is tremendous tumor heterogeneity that is likely to be caused by simultaneous evolution of multiple subclones within the same tissue. It is obvious that understanding how a single cell develops into a clonal tumor upon genetic alterations, at molecular and cellular levels, holds the key to the real appreciation of tumor etiology and ultimate solution for therapeutics. Surprisingly very little is known about the process of spontaneous tumorigenesis from single cells in human or vertebrate animal models. The main reason is the lack of technology to track the natural process of single cell changes from a homeostatic state to a progressively cancerous state. Recently, we developed a patented compound, photoactivatable (''caged'') tamoxifen analogue 4-OHC and associated technique called optochemogenetic switch (OCG switch), which we believe opens the opportunity to address this urgent biological as well as clinical question about cancer. We propose to combine OCG switch with genetically engineered mouse models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and high grade astrocytoma (including GBM) to study how single cells, when transformed through acute loss of tumor suppressor genes PTEN and TP53 and gain of oncogenic KRAS, can develop into tumor colonies with cellular and molecular heterogeneity in these tissues. The abstract is for my invited talk in session ``Beyond Darwin: Evolution in Single Cells'' 3/18/2016 11:15 AM.

  8. Social Insecurity

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    No, this is not the title of the latest horror film to appear on our screens, only a reflection of the very tense situation in which we find our two social mainstays: the health insurance scheme and pension fund. If both are in deficit today, this is not due to a lack of timely warning. For several years, the Member States have been asked to make decisions. However, with the exception of a few small measures, they continually delay the moment when they will truly have to face up to their obligations. We remind you that CERN is not only our employer, but also our State. When we join the Organization, we leave our national systems. CERN Council has supreme power to decide on the level of our salaries and of our social security. As far as the latter is concerned, the fact that the share of contributions is fixed at 1/3 for the staff and 2/3 for the Organization has often been the reason for much procrastination by Council. This waiting game could soon be over though, as this year will see the conclusions of t...

  9. Single well techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.

    1983-01-01

    The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

  10. Closing the gap : measuring the social identity of terrorists

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwick, Keith W.

    2008-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Studies of terrorism today focus on psychological and behavioral aspects of individuals. Most research shows that using a single model in an attempt to profile terrorists psychologically is problematic, if not impossible. However, using two well established theories from social psychology, Social Identity Theory and Social Distance Theory, allows the development of a practical model to develop a social profile of a terrorist group. From that, it is further possible to...

  11. Social Media Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Media Sites Site Registration Contact Us Search AF.mil: Home > AF Sites > Social Media Sites Social Media Welcome to the Air Force social media directory! The directory is a one-stop shop of official Air Force social media pages across various social media sites. Social media is all about

  12. Social structure of Facebook networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traud, Amanda L.; Mucha, Peter J.; Porter, Mason A.

    2012-08-01

    We study the social structure of Facebook “friendship” networks at one hundred American colleges and universities at a single point in time, and we examine the roles of user attributes-gender, class year, major, high school, and residence-at these institutions. We investigate the influence of common attributes at the dyad level in terms of assortativity coefficients and regression models. We then examine larger-scale groupings by detecting communities algorithmically and comparing them to network partitions based on user characteristics. We thereby examine the relative importance of different characteristics at different institutions, finding for example that common high school is more important to the social organization of large institutions and that the importance of common major varies significantly between institutions. Our calculations illustrate how microscopic and macroscopic perspectives give complementary insights on the social organization at universities and suggest future studies to investigate such phenomena further.

  13. Understanding Social Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Social business” refers to the utilization of online social channels to conduct business. This chapter situates the notion of social business in the relevant macro trends in technology, business, and society and discusses the three critical aspects of social business: social business engagement......, social media analytics, and social media management. Social media engagement concerns the organization’s strategic use of social media channels to interact with its internal and external stakeholders for purposes ranging from knowledge management to corporate social responsibility and marketing. Social...... media analytics refers to the collection, storage, analysis, and reporting of social data emanating from the social media engagement of and social media conversations about the organization. Social media management focusses on the operational issues, managerial challenges, and comparative advantages...

  14. Beware the single hit!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The first time that single particle effects from cosmic rays on electronics were observed was in 1991, when one of the instruments aboard an ESA satellite broke down after only five days in space. On 5 July, the TS-LEA group will have completed the installation of monitors that will help to reduce similar dangerous effects on LHC electronics.

  15. Single bubble sonoluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, Michael P.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef

    2002-01-01

    Single-bubble sonoluminescence occurs when an acoustically trapped and periodically driven gas bubble collapses so strongly that the energy focusing at collapse leads to light emission. Detailed experiments have demonstrated the unique properties of this system: the spectrum of the emitted light

  16. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 151-164. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Single cell metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Matthias; Zenobi, Renato

    Recent discoveries suggest that cells of a clonal population often display multiple metabolic phenotypes at the same time. Motivated by the success of mass spectrometry (MS) in the investigation of population-level metabolomics, the analytical community has initiated efforts towards MS-based single

  18. Beyond the Single Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Yekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Teachers of world literature have the opportunity to help students explore the more complex reality behind the stereotypes that they often see in the media. If we don't encourage students to challenge one-dimensional "single stories" that characterize an entire people--whether Muslims, Russians, Mexicans, African Americans, Chinese,…

  19. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Reidsma, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to the information and communication quality by fo- cussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a

  20. Market Sociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian; Lange, Ann-Christina

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a critical systematic discussion of Shiller’s writings from the late 1970s to the present, as well as an examination of the social-psychological assumptions on which his work is built. We argue that Shiller’s work displays a tension between mimetic and anti-mimetic tendencies......, i.e. between understanding financial markets as captured by fads and fashions (mimesis), and at the same time understanding such markets on the basis of a notion of homo economicus (an essentially anti-mimetic figure). Identifying that tension not only sheds novel light on Shiller’s work, but also...... allows us to critically discuss Mirowski’s negative appraisal of Shiller’s behavioural finance programme. Further, we argue that the mimetic/anti-mimetic tension in Shiller’s work can equally be identified in a broader range of theories about financial markets, and that attending to it therefore opens up...

  1. Effects of Single-Sex Secondary Schools on Student Achievement and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Valerie E.; Bryk, Anthony S.

    1986-01-01

    This study compares the effects of single-sex and coeducational secondary schooling. Results indicate that single-sex schools deliver specific advantages to their students, especially female students. Single-sex schools may facilitate adolescent academic development by providing an environment where social and academic concerns are separated.…

  2. Social memory, social stress, and economic behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Taiki Takahashi

    2005-01-01

    Social memory plays a pivotal role in social behaviors, from mating behaviors to cooperative behaviors based on reciprocal altruism. More specifically, social/person recognition memory is supposed, by behavioral-economic and game-theoretic analysis, to be required for tit- for-tat like cooperative behaviors to evolve under the N-person iterated prisoner fs dilemma game condition. Meanwhile, humans are known to show a social stress response during face-to-face social interactions, which might ...

  3. Emergent patterns of social affiliation in primates, a model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Puga-Gonzalez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Many patterns of affiliative behaviour have been described for primates, for instance: reciprocation and exchange of grooming, grooming others of similar rank, reconciliation of fights, and preferential reconciliation with more valuable partners. For these patterns several functions and underlying cognitive processes have been suggested. It is, however, difficult to imagine how animals may combine these diverse considerations in their mind. Although the co-variation hypothesis, by limiting the social possibilities an individual has, constrains the number of cognitive considerations an individual has to take, it does not present an integrated theory of affiliative patterns either. In the present paper, after surveying patterns of affiliation in egalitarian and despotic macaques, we use an individual-based model with a high potential for self-organisation as a starting point for such an integrative approach. In our model, called GrooFiWorld, individuals group and, upon meeting each other, may perform a dominance interaction of which the outcomes of winning and losing are self-reinforcing. Besides, if individuals think they will be defeated, they consider grooming others. Here, the greater their anxiety is, the greater their "motivation" to groom others. Our model generates patterns similar to many affiliative patterns of empirical data. By merely increasing the intensity of aggression, affiliative patterns in the model change from those resembling egalitarian macaques to those resembling despotic ones. Our model produces such patterns without assuming in the mind of the individual the specific cognitive processes that are usually thought to underlie these patterns (such as recordkeeping of the acts given and received, a tendency to exchange, memory of the former fight, selective attraction to the former opponent, and estimation of the value of a relationship. Our model can be used as a null model to increase our understanding of affiliative

  4. Single user systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willers, I.

    1985-01-01

    The first part of the talk is devoted to establishing concepts and trends in interactive computing technology and is intended to provide a framework. I then discuss personal computing architectures of today and planned architectures of the 1990s. I present current personal computer environments for the programmer and for the user. Scenarios for future computing environments are developed. Finally, I open a discussion on the social implications of personal computers. (orig./HSI)

  5. Social influence and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ross A

    2010-10-01

    To review a selection of research published in the last 12 months on the role of social influence in the obesity epidemic. Recent papers add evidence to previous work linking social network structures and obesity. Social norms, both eating norms and body image norms, are identified as one major source of social influence through networks. Social capital and social stress are additional types of social influence. There is increasing evidence that social influence and social network structures are significant factors in obesity. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms of action and dynamics of social influence, and its link with other factors involved in the obesity epidemic, is an important goal for further research.

  6. Recognition in ants: social origin matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Meunier

    Full Text Available The ability of group members to discriminate against foreigners is a keystone in the evolution of sociality. In social insects, colony social structure (number of queens is generally thought to influence abilities of resident workers to discriminate between nestmates and non-nestmates. However, whether social origin of introduced individuals has an effect on their acceptance in conspecific colonies remains poorly explored. Using egg-acceptance bioassays, we tested the influence of social origin of queen-laid eggs on their acceptance by foreign workers in the ant Formica selysi. We showed that workers from both single- and multiple-queen colonies discriminated against foreign eggs from single-queen colonies, whereas they surprisingly accepted foreign eggs from multiple-queen colonies. Chemical analyses then demonstrated that social origins of eggs and workers could be discriminated on the basis of their chemical profiles, a signal generally involved in nestmate discrimination. These findings provide the first evidence in social insects that social origins of eggs interfere with nestmate discrimination and are encoded by chemical signatures.

  7. Testing social acoustic memory in rats: effects of stimulus configuration and long-term memory on the induction of social approach behavior by appetitive 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhr, Markus; Schwarting, Rainer K W

    2012-09-01

    Rats emit distinct types of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which serve as situation-dependent affective signals. In appetitive situations, such as rough-and-tumble-play, high-frequency 50-kHz USVs occur, whereas low-frequency 22-kHz USVs can be observed in aversive situations, such as social defeat. USVs serve distinct communicative functions and induce call-specific behavioral responses in the receiver. While aversive 22-kHz USVs serve as alarm calls and induce behavioral inhibition, appetitive 50-kHz USVs have a pro-social communicative function and elicit social approach behavior, supporting the notion that they serve as social contact calls to (re)establish or maintain contact among conspecifics. The aim of the present study was to use the rat's ability to communicate in the ultrasonic range via high-frequency 50-kHz USVs in order to develop a test for social acoustic memory in rats with relevance for human verbal memory. Verbal learning and memory is among the seven cognitive domains identified as commonly deficient in human schizophrenia patients, but particularly difficult to model. We therefore tested whether the induction of social approach behavior by playback of appetitive 50-kHz USVs is dependent on (1) acoustic stimulus configuration and (2) social long-term memory, and whether (3) social long-term memory effects can be blocked by the administration of scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine antagonist producing amnesia. Results show that social approach behavior in response to playback of natural 50-kHz USVs depends on acoustic stimulus configuration and occurs only when sound energy is concentrated to a critical frequency band in the ultrasonic range. Social approach behavior was detected during the first exposure to playback of 50-kHz USVs, whereas no such response was observed during the second exposure 1week later, indicating a stable memory trace. In contrast, when memory formation was blocked by i.p. administration of scopolamine (0.5mg/kg or

  8. Perbedaan Kecerdasan sosial Siswa Single Sex Schools dan Coeducational Schools di Kota Padang

    OpenAIRE

    Delwis, Nadya Putri

    2014-01-01

    Social intelligence is an ability to understand other peoples and how to react in any situations. Social intelligence is a few skills to help us to better interact with other people (Goleman, 2006). Social intelligence is important in education field. The students who feels connected with study environment will get better academic achievement (Goleman, 2006). Social development according to Gerungan (2004) affected by family and schools. There is type of schools, single sex schools and coeduc...

  9. The Social Commerce System

    OpenAIRE

    Dubovyk Tetiana V.; Ortynska Valentyna V.

    2017-01-01

    The social commerce is a relatively new phenomenon, found in the little researched direction of trade. Research results by the authors have provided to systematize the views on the concept of «social commerce», characterize the social commerce system, propose measures to develop a social commerce strategy. The authors have defined the social commerce as expansion of e-commerce in the social networks on the Internet, in which social factors are significant, and consumers use the right to creat...

  10. Colony social structure in native and invasive populations of the social wasp Vespula pensylvanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Cause; Cook, Erin D.; Thompson, Ariel R.; Dare, Lyndzey E.; Palaski, Amanda L.; Foote, David; Goodisman, Michael A. D.

    2014-01-01

    Social insects rank among the most invasive of terrestrial species. The success of invasive social insects stems, in part, from the flexibility derived from their social behaviors. We used genetic markers to investigate if the social system of the invasive wasp, Vespula pensylvanica, differed in its introduced and native habitats in order to better understand variation in social phenotype in invasive social species. We found that (1) nestmate workers showed lower levels of relatedness in introduced populations than native populations, (2) introduced colonies contained workers produced by multiple queens whereas native colonies contained workers produced by only a single queen, (3) queen mate number did not differ significantly between introduced and native colonies, and (4) workers from introduced colonies were frequently produced by queens that originated from foreign nests. Thus, overall, native and introduced colonies differed substantially in social phenotype because introduced colonies more frequently contained workers produced by multiple, foreign queens. In addition, the similarity in levels of genetic variation in introduced and native habitats, as well as observed variation in colony social phenotype in native populations, suggest that colony structure in invasive populations may be partially associated with social plasticity. Overall, the differences in social structure observed in invasive V. pensylvanica parallel those in other, distantly related invasive social insects, suggesting that insect societies often develop similar social phenotypes upon introduction into new habitats.

  11. Social phenotype extended to communities: expanded multilevel social selection analysis reveals fitness consequences of interspecific interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campobello, Daniela; Hare, James F; Sarà, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    In social species, fitness consequences are associated with both individual and social phenotypes. Social selection analysis has quantified the contribution of conspecific social traits to individual fitness. There has been no attempt, however, to apply a social selection approach to quantify the fitness implications of heterospecific social phenotypes. Here, we propose a novel social selection based approach integrating the role of all social interactions at the community level. We extended multilevel selection analysis by including a term accounting for the group phenotype of heterospecifics. We analyzed nest activity as a model social trait common to two species, the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and jackdaw (Corvus monedula), nesting in either single- or mixed-species colonies. By recording reproductive outcome as a measure of relative fitness, our results reveal an asymmetric system wherein only jackdaw breeding performance was affected by the activity phenotypes of both conspecific and heterospecific neighbors. Our model incorporating heterospecific social phenotypes is applicable to animal communities where interacting species share a common social trait, thus allowing an assessment of the selection pressure imposed by interspecific interactions in nature. Finally, we discuss the potential role of ecological limitations accounting for random or preferential assortments among interspecific social phenotypes, and the implications of such processes to community evolution. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  13. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...... of SNPs. This will allow acquisition of more information from the sample materials and open up for new possibilities as well as new challenges....

  14. Single sector supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John

    1999-01-01

    We review recent work on realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single sector. These models have a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents, and the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation sfermion masses

  15. Uniform Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Broumi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new concept named the uniform single valued neutrosophic graph. An illustrative example and some properties are examined. Next, we develop an algorithmic approach for computing the complement of the single valued neutrosophic graph. A numerical example is demonstrated for computing the complement of single valued neutrosophic graphs and uniform single valued neutrosophic graph.

  16. Religious Education and Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This article considers Religious Education (RE) from the perspective of socialization theory. After clarifying the concept of socialization, an understanding of socialization processes, requiring the simultaneous development of both a personal and a social identity, is linked with RE. The development of both a personal and a social identity calls…

  17. Understanding Social Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The importance of social entrepreneurship in social, cultural and economic terms is increasingly acknowledged. Drawing on data from the second Social Entrepreneurship Monitor report published by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) UK project, this article focuses on the social entrepreneurs who may grow the social enterprises of the future.…

  18. Not Only Single Mating in Stingless Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Robert J.; Weißschuh, Nicole; Engels, Wolf; Hartfelder, Klaus; Quezada-Euan, J. Javier G.

    Queens of the large, pantropical and fully eusocial taxon Meliponinae (stingless bees) are generally considered to be singly mated. We indirectly estimated queen mating frequency in two meliponids, Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona postica, by examining genotypes of workers at microsatellite DNA loci. Microsatellites were highly variable, providing suitable markers with which to assign patrilinial origin of workers within colonies headed by single queens. Queen mating frequency varied between 1 and 3 (M. beecheii) and 1 and 6 (S. postica), representing the first clear documentation of polyandry in the Meliponinae. Effective paternity frequency, me, was lower, although above 2 for S. postica. Stingless bees may provide suitable subjects for the testing of recent inclusive fitness arguments describing intracolony kin conflict in social Hymenoptera.

  19. Fiscal space for domestic funding of health and other social services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meheus, Filip; McIntyre, Di

    2017-04-01

    To progress toward universal health coverage and promote inclusive social and economic development, it will be necessary to strengthen domestic resource mobilization for health. In this paper, we examine options for increasing domestic government revenue in low- and middle-income countries. We analyze the relationship between level of economic development and levels of government revenue and expenditure, and show that a country's level of economic development does not predetermine its spending levels. Government revenue can be increased through improved tax compliance and efficiency in revenue collection, maximizing revenue from mineral and other natural resources, and increasing tax rates where appropriate. The emphasis should be on increasing revenue through the most progressive means possible; the purpose of raising government spending on health would be defeated if that spending were funded by increasing the relative tax burden of those who are meant to benefit. Increasing government revenue through taxation or other sources is first and foremost a fiscal policy choice or political decision and should be supported through concerted global action.

  20. Evolutionary game theory meets social science: is there a unifying rule for human cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Alejandro

    2010-05-21

    Evolutionary game theory has shown that human cooperation thrives in different types of social interactions with a PD structure. Models treat the cooperative strategies within the different frameworks as discrete entities and sometimes even as contenders. Whereas strong reciprocity was acclaimed as superior to classic reciprocity for its ability to defeat defectors in public goods games, recent experiments and simulations show that costly punishment fails to promote cooperation in the IR and DR games, where classic reciprocity succeeds. My aim is to show that cooperative strategies across frameworks are capable of a unified treatment, for they are governed by a common underlying rule or norm. An analysis of the reputation and action rules that govern some representative cooperative strategies both in models and in economic experiments confirms that the different frameworks share a conditional action rule and several reputation rules. The common conditional rule contains an option between costly punishment and withholding benefits that provides alternative enforcement methods against defectors. Depending on the framework, individuals can switch to the appropriate strategy and method of enforcement. The stability of human cooperation looks more promising if one mechanism controls successful strategies across frameworks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Social media as a social virtual laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Granchak, Tetiana

    2015-01-01

    Deals with the potential of social networks for civil society, including its economic foundation, grounded social networking opportunities for a political pressure, realization and protection of individual and group interests.

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility in Online Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Christian; Brem, Alexander; Wölfl, S.

    2014-01-01

    Considering growing public awareness of social, ethical and ecological responsibility, companies have constantly been increasing their efforts in CSR communications. Social Media as tools of brand communication receive increasing attention and it is expected that the marketing sector...

  3. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Stephanie; Young, Elizabeth; Bowns, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders is coming to fruition in its clinical utility. The presence of cell-free DNA in maternal plasma has been recognized for many years, and a number of applications have developed from this. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders has lagged behind due to complexities of technology development, lack of investment and the need for validation samples for rare disorders. Publications are emerging demonstrating a variety of technical approaches and feasibility of clinical application. Techniques for analysis of cell-free DNA including digital PCR, next-generation sequencing and relative haplotype dosage have been used most often for assay development. Analysis of circulating fetal cells in the maternal blood is still being investigated as a viable alternative and more recently transcervical trophoblast cells. Studies exploring ethical and social issues are generally positive but raise concerns around the routinization of prenatal testing. Further work is necessary to make testing available to all patients with a pregnancy at risk of a single gene disorder, and it remains to be seen if the development of more powerful technologies such as isolation and analysis of single cells will shift the emphasis of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. As testing becomes possible for a wider range of conditions, more ethical questions will become relevant.

  4. Single Electrode Heat Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Broers, G. H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The heat evolution at a single irreversibly working electrode is treated onthe basis of the Brønsted heat principle. The resulting equation is analogous to the expression for the total heat evolution in a galvanic cellwith the exception that –DeltaS is substituted by the Peltier entropy, Delta......SP, of theelectrode reaction. eta is the overvoltage at the electrode. This equation is appliedto a high temperature carbonate fuel cell. It is shown that the Peltier entropyterm by far exceeds the heat production due to the irreversible losses, and thatthe main part of heat evolved at the cathode is reabsorbed...

  5. Social activism: Engaging millennials in social causes

    OpenAIRE

    Seelig, Michelle I.

    2018-01-01

    Given that young adults consume and interact with digital technologies not only a daily basis, but extensively throughout the day, it stands to reason they are more actively involved in advocating social change particularly through social media. However, national surveys of civic engagement indicate civic and community engagement drops-off after high school and while millennials attend college. While past research has compiled evidence about young adults’ social media use and some social medi...

  6. Social initiative management: building social leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Varejão Marinho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Some programs of Social Initiative Management are designed to prepare managers to take over a new administrative challenge – the social manager. Such programs help companies to change their administrative policies in which managers are more concerned with ethics and social issues. The objective of this article is to present the basic principles for a new model of manager integrated into social programs, environment preservation and decision-making processes in the organization.

  7. Modern Social Media and Social Revolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    another part of the world is equally presented on the event domain and observable by the social revolution domain. Engagements work as the linkage...MODERN SOCIAL MEDIA AND SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in...MM-YYYY) 16-12-2011 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) FEB 2011 – DEC 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Modern Social

  8. Inclusion/exclusion and Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    Observations I Danish upper secondary schools show social media as either an attention distracting factor or as a factor drawing attention back to teaching again. The cursing point is if the teacher can manage to use social media in a constructive way, or if (s)he tries to prohibit or ignores...... the media use. At the same time social media has extensive scoop for improving both the organization and the quality of the teaching. In this paper we will put forward and analyze empirical findings showing that the community of the class also are challenged by informal networks, based on social media......, in the class, sometimes excluding the teacher form the class-interaction, sometimes excluding single students or groups from social interactions during school time....

  9. Social Security Bulletin

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Social Security Bulletin (ISSN 1937-4666) is published quarterly by the Social Security Administration. The Bulletin is prepared in the Office of Retirement and...

  10. Nurses and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Rory

    Nurses' use of social media and other electronic communications has increased significantly with growing numbers of social media opportunities, platforms and applications including blogs, social networking sites, video sites and online chat rooms and forums.

  11. Socialization of Social Anxiety in Adolescent Crowds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zalk, Nejra; Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we looked at whether social anxiety is socialized, or influenced by peers' social anxiety, more in some peer crowds than others. Adolescents in crowds with eye-catching appearances such as Goths and Punks (here termed "Radical"), were compared with three comparison groups. Using data from 796 adolescents (353 girls and 443 boys; M…

  12. Sociale media: nieuwe wegen naar sociale innovatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, I.E.; Jagt, van der P.D.; Willemse, R.; Onwezen, M.C.; Top, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Hoewel de rol en impact van internet en de sociale media in de samenleving algemeen worden aangenomen, is het nog niet duidelijk of en hoe het communiceren en delen van informatie via internet en de sociale media bijdragen aan het ontstaan van sociale innovatie. Hoofdvragen van deze verkenning zijn

  13. Socialism in High School Social Studies Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns textbook analysis regarding the presentation of socialism in four leading high school social studies books, one in each of the following subjects: United States history, world history, United States government, and economics. Findings indicate that students relying on these texts to gain understanding of socialism and…

  14. Single-borehole techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Moser, H.; Trimborn, P.

    1978-01-01

    Proceeding on the theoretical considerations and on the experience and practice derived from laboratory and field testing, a system consisting of tracer injection units, detector units, measuring probe units and packers is presented, from which the different borehole probes required can be combined. A couple of examples of recent applications shows the position of the Single-Borehole Techniques with respect to the traditional methods used for the measurement of the ground-water flow. A confrontation of the permeabilities of different aquifers consents, both on the basis of the Single-Borehole Techniques as by pumping experiments, the determination of the reliability of the Point-Dilution-Method. The Point-Dilution-Method is giving information about the vertical and horizontal distribution of the permeabilities in an aquifer. By measuring the vertical current in two karst wells, the tributary horizons of a well have been determined, which gave valuable information for the subsequent well construction. Local leakages could be detected by measuring the vertical flow rate through observation wells arranged along a grout curtain erected on both sides of the retaining barrage of the Keban dam. (orig.) [de

  15. Single photons on demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grangier, P.; Abram, I.

    2004-01-01

    Quantum cryptography and information processing are set to benefit from developments in novel light sources that can emit photons one by one. Quantum mechanics has gained a reputation for making counter-intuitive predictions. But we rarely get the chance to witness these effects directly because, being humans, we are simply too big. Take light, for example. The light sources that are familiar to us, such as those used in lighting and imaging or in CD and DVD players, are so huge that they emit billions and billions of photons. But what if there was a light source that emitted just one photon at a time? Over the past few years, new types of light source that are able to emit photons one by one have been emerging from laboratories around the world. Pulses of light composed of a single photon correspond to power flows in the femtowatt range - a million billion times less than that of a table lamp. The driving force behind the development of these single-photon sources is a range of novel applications that take advantage of the quantum nature of light. Quantum states of superposed and entangled photons could lead the way to guaranteed-secure communication, to information processing with unprecedented speed and efficiency, and to new schemes for quantum teleportation. (U.K.)

  16. Single snapshot DOA estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häcker, P.; Yang, B.

    2010-10-01

    In array signal processing, direction of arrival (DOA) estimation has been studied for decades. Many algorithms have been proposed and their performance has been studied thoroughly. Yet, most of these works are focused on the asymptotic case of a large number of snapshots. In automotive radar applications like driver assistance systems, however, only a small number of snapshots of the radar sensor array or, in the worst case, a single snapshot is available for DOA estimation. In this paper, we investigate and compare different DOA estimators with respect to their single snapshot performance. The main focus is on the estimation accuracy and the angular resolution in multi-target scenarios including difficult situations like correlated targets and large target power differences. We will show that some algorithms lose their ability to resolve targets or do not work properly at all. Other sophisticated algorithms do not show a superior performance as expected. It turns out that the deterministic maximum likelihood estimator is a good choice under these hard conditions.

  17. Understanding Social Media Logic

    OpenAIRE

    José van Dijck; Thomas Poell

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media log...

  18. YANG Bong-keun as a Health Reformer and a Pioneer of Social Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIN Young-Jeon

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available YANG Bong-keun (1897-1982 had lived as a medical doctor and a social and public health reformer during the turbulent period of the opening of the port to the western society occupation by and liberation from Japan and the partition of the Korean Peninsular He actively participated in the March First Movement Shinganhoe and other activities for Korea’s liberation from Japan He also founded Bogunwoondongsa an organization for public health movement for Korean people and published Bogeunwoondong a magazine for introducing and educating new ideas and knowledge of health for Korean people After the defeat of Japan in the World War II he worked for the protection and repatriation of Korean residents in the Manjoo area as a head of policy division of the Northeastern office of the Korean Provisional Government He also participated in the foundation of Yanbian Hospital and medical school for Korean-Chinese in China His holistic approach of health and public health movement accentuation of preventive medicine and a body under his/her own will public health movement as a part of everyday life movement and minjoong oriented humanism were closely linked with the idea of social medicine that originated from the European society in the 19th century Those are also valuable ideas to be considered and implemented in this time Moreover his effort of health for Korean people on the way of modernization and liberation of Korea provides an example of being a respectable health reformer and pioneer of social medicine

  19. Developmental changes of neuronal networks associated with strategic social decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Elisabeth; Schmalor, Antonia; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Wolff, Stephan; Galka, Andreas; Möhring, Jan; Gerber, Wolf-Dieter; Petermann, Franz; Stephani, Ulrich; Siniatchkin, Michael

    2014-04-01

    One of the important prerequisites for successful social interaction is the willingness of each individual to cooperate socially. Using the ultimatum game, several studies have demonstrated that the process of decision-making to cooperate or to defeat in interaction with a partner is associated with activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula (AI), and inferior frontal cortex (IFC). This study investigates developmental changes in this neuronal network. 15 healthy children (8-12 years), 15 adolescents (13-18 years) and 15 young adults (19-28 years) were investigated using the ultimatum game. Neuronal networks representing decision-making based on strategic thinking were characterized using functional MRI. In all age groups, the process of decision-making in reaction to unfair offers was associated with hemodynamic changes in similar regions. Compared with children, however, healthy adults and adolescents revealed greater activation in the IFC and the fusiform gyrus, as well as the nucleus accumbens. In contrast, healthy children displayed more activation in the AI, the dorsal part of the ACC, and the DLPFC. There were no differences in brain activations between adults and adolescents. The neuronal mechanisms underlying strategic social decision making are already developed by the age of eight. Decision-making based on strategic thinking is associated with age-dependent involvement of different brain regions. Neuronal networks underlying theory of mind and reward anticipation are more activated in adults and adolescents with regard to the increasing perspective taking with age. In relation to emotional reactivity and respective compensatory coping in younger ages, children have higher activations in a neuronal network associated with emotional processing and executive control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Local Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapuppo, Antonio; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks have become essential for many users in their daily communication. Through a combination of the online social networks with opportunistic networks, a new concept arises: Local Social Networks. The target of local social networks is to promote social networking benefits...... in physical environment in order to leverage personal affinities in the users' surroundings. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the concept of local social networks as a new social communication system. Particularly, the preliminary architecture and the prototype of local social networks...