Sample records for single sliding valve

  1. Slide Valves for Single-Screw Expanders Working Under Varied Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Wu


    Full Text Available This paper fully describes the working principle of slide valves in single-screw expanders (SSEs. A geometric analysis of suction and volume ratio slide valves is presented to determine the relations between volume ratio, suction closure volume, discharge opening volume and slide valves displacement. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC thermodynamic model with SSE integrated with slide valves is developed to analyze the power output of SSE and the net power output of ORC system and variation law of slide valves displacement. Analysis of a typical ORC system under changing operating conditions shows that the power output of the expander and the net output power of the ORC system with slide valves are much better than those without slide valves. When the condensing temperature is 40 °C and the waste availability is 80 kW, the increase in output power and net output power are approximately 3.4 kW and 5 kW, respectively. The presented geometric analysis of slide valves and the thermodynamic model integrated with slide valves can be used to provide a theoretical and technical basis for designing the slide valves of SSEs and the control strategies of slide valves under varied operating conditions.

  2. Study on the Regulating Performance of Sliding Regulation-Valve (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Peng, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Yuan; Zheng, Yulan; Zhu, Fangyao


    Using a proven reliable method of CFD to study the regulating performance of a sliding regulation valve with a conical spool and rugby body. The numerical simulation results indicate that no matter where the spool is located, the flow field always has a vortex at the center of the valve body; When the spool is at the origin, the vortex and resistance coefficient of the valve are the minimum; When the spool moves from the origin to the right (the opening of the valve becomes smaller) to reach a certain position later, vortex currents also begin to appear around the tube wall behind the orifice. In addition, the vortex increases as the throttling port decreases whereas the resistance coefficient of the valve ascends slowly with the increase of the deviation of the spool and the rise in series; This type of regulating valve has S type (slow at both ends, sensitive at the center) flow characteristics at the stroke, and is not affected by the size of Re.

  3. Former of Turn Trajectory of Sliding Valve Shaft of Gas Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementyev Vladislav. Yu.


    Full Text Available Former of turn trajectory of sliding valve shaft of gas line, that allows to provide desired motion trajectory of sliding valve and its full closing, is considered in that paper. Imitation model of that former, research results, which allow to detect influence of gain factor and time constant of position controller on value of speed error, that has impact on delay of output coordinate from setting, and that results to delay of sliding valve motion process to setting position point, are shown.

  4. Reduced-impact sliding pressure control valve for pneumatic hammer drill (United States)

    Polsky, Yarom [Oak Ridge, TN; Grubelich, Mark C [Albuquerque, NM; Vaughn, Mark R [Albuquerque, NM


    A method and means of minimizing the effect of elastic valve recoil in impact applications, such as percussive drilling, where sliding spool valves used inside the percussive device are subject to poor positioning control due to elastic recoil effects experienced when the valve impacts a stroke limiting surface. The improved valve design reduces the reflected velocity of the valve by using either an energy damping material, or a valve assembly with internal damping built-in, to dissipate the compression stress wave produced during impact.

  5. The Right Ventricular Myxoma Which Attached to the Tricuspid Valve: Sliding Tricuspid Valvuloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Ho Cho


    Full Text Available We report a rare case of an extremely large right ventricular myxoma involving the ventricular side of the tricuspid valve. The tumor was excised along with the entire posterior leaflet and part of the anterior leaflet. The tricuspid valve was repaired by sliding valvuloplasty combined with ring annuloplasty.

  6. Sliding pressure control valve for pneumatic hammer drill (United States)

    Polsky, Yarom [Albuquerque, NM


    A pneumatic device control apparatus and method comprising a ported valve slidably fitted over a feed tube of the pneumatic device, and using a compliant biasing device to constrain motion of the valve to provide asymmetric timing for extended pressurization of a power chamber and reduced pressurization of a return chamber of the pneumatic device. The pneumatic device can be a pneumatic hammer drill.

  7. Single molecule study of a processivity clamp sliding on DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, T A; Kwon, Y; Johnson, A; Hollars, C; O?Donnell, M; Camarero, J A; Barsky, D


    Using solution based single molecule spectroscopy, we study the motion of the polIII {beta}-subunit DNA sliding clamp ('{beta}-clamp') on DNA. Present in all cellular (and some viral) forms of life, DNA sliding clamps attach to polymerases and allow rapid, processive replication of DNA. In the absence of other proteins, the DNA sliding clamps are thought to 'freely slide' along the DNA; however, the abundance of positively charged residues along the inner surface may create favorable electrostatic contact with the highly negatively charged DNA. We have performed single-molecule measurements on a fluorescently labeled {beta}-clamp loaded onto freely diffusing plasmids annealed with fluorescently labeled primers of up to 90 bases. We find that the diffusion constant for 1D diffusion of the {beta}-clamp on DNA satisfies D {le} 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}/s, much slower than the frictionless limit of D = 10{sup -10} cm{sup 2}/s. We find that the {beta} clamp remains at the 3-foot end in the presence of E. coli single-stranded binding protein (SSB), which would allow for a sliding clamp to wait for binding of the DNA polymerase. Replacement of SSB with Human RP-A eliminates this interaction; free movement of sliding clamp and poor binding of clamp loader to the junction allows sliding clamp to accumulate on DNA. This result implies that the clamp not only acts as a tether, but also a placeholder.

  8. A Simple and Robust Sliding Mode Velocity Observer for Moving Coil Actuators in Digital Hydraulic Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Schmidt, Lasse; Bech, Michael Møller


    This paper focuses on estimating the velocity and position of fast switching digital hydraulic valves actuated by electromagnetic moving coil actuators, based on measurements of the coil current and voltage. The velocity is estimated by a simple first-order sliding mode observer architecture...... and the position is estimated by integrating the estimated velocity. The binary operation of digi-valves enables limiting and resetting the position estimate since the moving member is switched between the mechanical end-stops of the valve. This enables accurate tracking since drifting effects due to measurement...... noise and integration of errors in the velocity estimate may be circumvented. The proposed observer architecture is presented along with stability proofs and initial experimental results. To reveal the optimal observer performance, an optimization of the observer parameters is carried out. Subsequently...

  9. Modeling of constraints and micro-slidings generated between the frictional parts of a valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachon, L.; Sudreau, F.; Denape, J.; Lelait, L.


    The aim of this modeling is to optimize the use of deposited coatings on the frictional parts of valves (lid/seat). This study is part of a tribological study and uses the CASTEM 2000 finite-elements code developed by the CEA/DMT. The numerical calculations allow to verify that the structural constraints at the contact are lower than the admissible limits of the coatings. The structural constraints field under a static load is calculated and leads to the determination of an adhesion coefficient. This coefficient allows to understand how the sliding initiates. (J.S.). 9 figs

  10. Turbulent Motion of Liquids in Hydraulic Resistances with a Linear Cylindrical Slide-Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Velescu


    Full Text Available We analyze the motion of viscous and incompressible liquids in the annular space of controllable hydraulic resistances with a cylindrical linear slide-valve. This theoretical study focuses on the turbulent and steady-state motion regimes. The hydraulic resistances mentioned above are the most frequent type of hydraulic resistances used in hydraulic actuators and automation systems. To study the liquids’ motion in the controllable hydraulic resistances with a linear cylindrical slide-valve, the report proposes an original analytic method. This study can similarly be applied to any other type of hydraulic resistance. Another purpose of this study is to determine certain mathematical relationships useful to approach the theoretical functionality of hydraulic resistances with magnetic controllable fluids as incompressible fluids in the presence of a controllable magnetic field. In this report, we established general analytic equations to calculate (i velocity and pressure distributions, (ii average velocity, (iii volume flow rate of the liquid, (iv pressures difference, and (v radial clearance.

  11. Sliding spool design for reducing the actuation forces in direct operated proportional directional valves: Experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirante, Riccardo; Distaso, Elia; Tamburrano, Paolo


    Highlights: • An innovative procedure to design a commercial proportional directional valve is shown. • Experimental tests are performed to demonstrate the flow force reduction. • The design is improved by means of a previously made optimization procedure. • Great reduction in the flow forces without reducing the flow rate is demonstrated. - Abstract: This paper presents the experimental validation of a new methodology for the design of the spool surfaces of four way three position direct operated proportional directional valves. The proposed methodology is based on the re-design of both the compensation profile (the central conical surface of the spool) and the lateral surfaces of the spool, in order to reduce the flow forces acting on the spool and hence the actuation forces. The aim of this work is to extend the application range of these valves to higher values of pressure and flow rate, thus avoiding the employment of more expensive two stage configurations in the case of high-pressure conditions and/or flow rate. The paper first presents a theoretical approach and a general strategy for the sliding spool design to be applied to any four way three position direct operated proportional directional valve. Then, the proposed approach is experimentally validated on a commercially available valve using a hydraulic circuit capable of measuring the flow rate as well as the actuation force over the entire spool stroke. The experimental results, performed using both the electronic driver provided by the manufacturer and a manual actuation system, show that the novel spool surface requires remarkably lower actuation forces compared to the commercial configuration, while maintaining the same flow rate trend as a function of the spool position.

  12. Application of second order sliding mode algorithms for output feedback control in hydraulic cylinder drives with profound valve dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben O.


    The application of second order sliding mode algorithms for output feedback control in hydraulic valve-cylinder drives appear attractive due to their simple realization and parametrization, and strong robustness toward bounded parameter variations and uncertainties. However, intrinsic nonlinear...... consideration are applied for position tracking control of a hydraulic valve-cylinder drive exhibiting strong variations in inertia- and gravitational loads, and furthermore suffer from profound valve dynamics. Results demonstrate that both the twisting- and super twisting algorithms may be successfully applied...... dynamic effects of hydraulic valves such as slew rate limitations and time delays arising in the electrical and mechanical amplification stages limits the applicability of such methods, and may lead to partial losses of robustness and limit cycles/oscillations in the outputs, internal states and the valve...

  13. A microfluidic control system with re-usable micropump/valve actuator and injection moulded disposable polymer lab-on-a-slide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Yi, Sun


    A microfluidic control system consisting of micropump/valves with a re-usable pneumatic actuator and a disposable polymer lab-on-a-slide is presented. The lab-on-a-slide was fabricated using low cost methods, such as injection moulding of TOPAS® cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) slide, lamination...

  14. Concomitant mitral valve surgery with aortic valve replacement: a 21-year experience with a single mechanical prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidhu Pushpinder


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term survival for combined aortic and mitral valve replacement appears to be determined by the mitral valve prosthesis from our previous studies. This 21-year retrospective study assess long-term outcome and durability of aortic valve replacement (AVR with either concomitant mitral valve replacement (MVR or mitral valve repair (MVrep. We consider only a single mechanical prosthesis. Methods Three hundred and sixteen patients underwent double valve replacement (DVR (n = 273 or AVR+MVrep (n = 43, in the period 1977 to 1997. Follow up of 100% was achieved via telephone questionnaire and review of patients' medical records. Actuarial analysis of long-term survival was determined by Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox regression model was used to evaluate potential predictors of mortality. Results There were seventeen cases (5.4% of early mortality and ninety-six cases of late mortality. Fifteen-year survival was similar in both groups at 44% and 57% for DVR and AVR+MVrep respectively. There were no significant differences in valve related deaths, anticoagulation related complications, or prosthetic valve endocarditis between the groups. There were 6 cases of periprosthetic leak in the DVR group. Sex, pre-operative mitral and aortic valve pathology or previous cardiac surgery did not significantly affect outcome. Conclusion The mitral valve appears to be the determinant of survival following double valve surgery and survival is not significantly influenced by mitral valve repair.

  15. Clinical Utility of an Automated Instrument for Gram Staining Single Slides (United States)

    Baron, Ellen Jo; Mix, Samantha; Moradi, Wais


    Gram stains of 87 different clinical samples were prepared by the laboratory's conventional methods (automated or manual) and by a new single-slide-type automated staining instrument, GG&B AGS-1000. Gram stains from either heat- or methanol-fixed slides stained with the new instrument were easy to interpret, and results were essentially the same as those from the methanol-fixed slides prepared as a part of the routine workflow. This instrument is well suited to a rapid-response laboratory where Gram stain requests are commonly received on a stat basis. PMID:20410348

  16. Clinical utility of an automated instrument for gram staining single slides. (United States)

    Baron, Ellen Jo; Mix, Samantha; Moradi, Wais


    Gram stains of 87 different clinical samples were prepared by the laboratory's conventional methods (automated or manual) and by a new single-slide-type automated staining instrument, GG&B AGS-1000. Gram stains from either heat- or methanol-fixed slides stained with the new instrument were easy to interpret, and results were essentially the same as those from the methanol-fixed slides prepared as a part of the routine workflow. This instrument is well suited to a rapid-response laboratory where Gram stain requests are commonly received on a stat basis.

  17. Spin valve effect in single-atom contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, M; Neel, N; Berndt, R; Lazo, C; Ferriani, P; Heinze, S; Kroeger, J


    Magnetic single-atom contacts have been controllably fabricated with a scanning tunnelling microscope. A voltage-dependent spin valve effect with conductance variations of ∼40% is reproducibly observed from contacts comprising a Cr-covered tip and Co and Cr atoms on ferromagnetic nanoscale islands on W(110) with opposite magnetization. The spin-dependent conductances are interpreted from first-principles calculations in terms of the orbital character of the relevant electronic states of the junction.

  18. Adaptive fuzzy sliding control of single-phase PV grid-connected inverter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Fei

    Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller is proposed to control a two-stage single-phase photovoltaic (PV grid-connected inverter. Two key technologies are discussed in the presented PV system. An incremental conductance method with adaptive step is adopted to track the maximum power point (MPP by controlling the duty cycle of the controllable power switch of the boost DC-DC converter. An adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller with an integral sliding surface is developed for the grid-connected inverter where a fuzzy system is used to approach the upper bound of the system nonlinearities. The proposed strategy has strong robustness for the sliding mode control can be designed independently and disturbances can be adaptively compensated. Simulation results of a PV grid-connected system verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, demonstrating the satisfactory robustness and performance.

  19. Adaptive fuzzy sliding control of single-phase PV grid-connected inverter. (United States)

    Fei, Juntao; Zhu, Yunkai


    In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller is proposed to control a two-stage single-phase photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected inverter. Two key technologies are discussed in the presented PV system. An incremental conductance method with adaptive step is adopted to track the maximum power point (MPP) by controlling the duty cycle of the controllable power switch of the boost DC-DC converter. An adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller with an integral sliding surface is developed for the grid-connected inverter where a fuzzy system is used to approach the upper bound of the system nonlinearities. The proposed strategy has strong robustness for the sliding mode control can be designed independently and disturbances can be adaptively compensated. Simulation results of a PV grid-connected system verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, demonstrating the satisfactory robustness and performance.

  20. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Slide 1 · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17.

  1. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Click here to start. Table of contents. Slide 1 · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17.

  2. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Slide 1 · Slide 2 · Membrane Phospholipids · Slide 4 · NAE and NAPE · Biological and Pharmacological properties · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24 · Slide 25.

  3. On-slide detection of enzymatic activities in selected single cells. (United States)

    Keller, Josephine Geertsen; Tesauro, Cinzia; Coletta, Andrea; Graversen, Astrid Damgaard; Ho, Yi-Ping; Kristensen, Peter; Stougaard, Magnus; Knudsen, Birgitta Ruth


    With increasing recognition of the importance in addressing cell-to-cell heterogeneity for the understanding of complex biological systems, there is a growing need for assays capable of single cell analyses. In the current study, we describe the measurement of human topoisomerase I activity in single CD44 positive Caco2 cells specifically captured from a mixed population on glass slides, which were dual functionalized with anti-CD44-antibodies and specific DNA primers. On-slide lysis of captured CD44 positive cells, resulted in the release of human topoisomerase I, allowing the enzyme to circularize a specific linear DNA substrate added to the slides. The generated circles hybridized to the anchored DNA primers and acted as templates for a solid support rolling circle amplification reaction leading to the generation of long tandem repeat products that were detected at the single molecule level in a fluorescent microscope upon hybridization of fluorescent labelled probes. The on-slide detection system was demonstrated to be directly quantitative and specific towards CD44 positive cells. Moreover, it allowed reproducible detection of human topoisomerase I activity in single cells.

  4. Near field flow characteristics of the Bjork-Shiley Monostrut valve in a modified single shot valve chamber. (United States)

    Manning, Keefe B; Przybysz, T Michael; Fontaine, Arnold A; Tarbell, John M; Deutsch, Steven


    In certain mechanical heart valves, cavitation has been shown to develop during closure and rebound, leading to valve damage, blood damage, and strokes. Whereas it is uncertain what causes mechanical heart valve related strokes, some evidence suggests that stable bubbles may be the culprits. Previous work has indicated that vortex cavitation may contribute to stable bubble growth. Therefore, in an effort to understand the vortex cavitation, laser Doppler velocimetry data are collected in a plane parallel to and 3 mm away from the major orifice during closure and rebound of a Bjork-Shiley Monostrut mechanical heart valve. A modified single shot chamber is used that incorporates a more realistic near valve geometry than those used in previous studies. The results show the formation of a vortex during closure, which intensifies during rebound and dissipates during the final closing cycle. A regurgitant jet with mean velocities up to 3 m/s through the clearance gap of the valve provides energy to the vortex. During the final closing cycle, the vortex breaks up into asymmetrical, small scale flow patterns. This study provides further evidence that stable bubble formation may stem from the intense vortex cavitation occurring during valve closure and rebound.

  5. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Slide 1 · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Immunology of VL · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Strategies To Design Drugs · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24 · Slide 25 · Slide 26 · Slide 27 · Slide 28.

  6. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Second Question How Did this Shift in ToT Come About? Slide 8 · Second Question How Did this Shift in ToT Come About? Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 17 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24 · Slide 25 · Slide 26 · Slide 27 · Slide 30 · India's Globalization.

  7. Discharge characteristics of a double injection-valve single-pump injection system (United States)

    Lee, Dana W; Marsh, E T


    The discharge characteristics of two similar injection valves operated by a single-cylinder fuel-injection pump were determined with an apparatus that measured the quantity of fuel discharged from each valve during every 0.5 degrees of pump rotation. It was found that similar discharges took place from the two valves at all pump speeds when the valve-opening pressures, the nozzle-orifice diameters, and the injection-tube lengths were the same for both valves. Under these conditions, the effects of changing the pump speed, the pump throttle setting, or the nozzle orifice diameter were very similar to those occurring with a single-injection valve. By a proper selection of discharge-orifice areas and valve-opening pressures it was possible to obtain a great many combinations of discharge quantities, discharge rates, and injection timings for the two valves. A series of tests using injection tubes of unequal lengths for the two valves showed that under these conditions the injection timing and the fuel quantity discharged from each valve varies widely and erratically with changes in the pump speed.

  8. Scanning electron microscope study of polytetrafluoroethylene sliding on aluminum single crystals (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.; Buckley, D. H.


    Friction experiments were conducted in air with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sliding on aluminum single crystals. Mechanical scoring of the crystals with (110) and (100) orientations was observed with a single pass of the PTFE slider. No scoring was observed on the (111). The degree of scoring of the crystals is related to the hardness, with the hardest surface (111) showing no damage and the softest surface (110) showing the most severe scoring. Scoring is caused by work-hardened pieces of aluminum which, as a consequence of the adhesion between PTFE and aluminum, were pulled out of the bulk and became embedded in the PTFE polymer.

  9. Coefficients of sliding friction of single crystals of high explosives under different rubbing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y Q; Chaudhri, M Munawar


    The coefficients of sliding friction of single crystals of commonly used high explosives pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) and beta-cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (β-HMX) under several rubbing configurations and at a relative sliding speed of 0.22 mm s -1 were measured. The sliding configurations were (1) crystal-polished steel pairs, (2) like-crystal pairs and (3) unlike-crystal pairs. For every rubbing configuration the friction force showed oscillations, which are thought to be caused by the formation and shearing of the adhesive junctions formed at the surface of the rubbing crystals. This shearing of the adhesive junctions led to the formation of microscopic and sub-microscopic particles, which were confirmed by an environmental scanning electron microscope study. For every rubbing configuration and for relatively high normal loads pressing the rubbing crystals together, the coefficient of friction was generally in the range 0.2-0.25 and it has been concluded that the coefficient of friction is controlled by the adhesion with almost negligible contribution from the ploughing component. From a knowledge of the coefficient of friction and the uniaxial yield stress values of single crystals of RDX and β-HMX, the shear strength of these crystals were determined to be ∼13.4 MPa and ∼16.8 MPa, respectively.

  10. Single-Dose Lignocaine-Based Blood Cardioplegia in Single Valve Replacement Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydip Ramani

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE: Myocardial protection is the most important in cardiac surgery. We compared our modified single-dose long-acting lignocaine-based blood cardioplegia with short-acting St Thomas 1 blood cardioplegia in patients undergoing single valve replacement. METHODS: A total of 110 patients who underwent single (aortic or mitral valve replacement surgery were enrolled. Patients were divided in two groups based on the cardioplegia solution used. In group 1 (56 patients, long-acting lignocaine based-blood cardioplegia solution was administered as a single dose while in group 2 (54 patients, standard St Thomas IB (short-acting blood-based cardioplegia solution was administered and repeated every 20 minutes. All the patients were compared for preoperative baseline parameters, intraoperative and all the postoperative parameters. RESULTS: We did not find any statistically significant difference in preoperative baseline parameters. Cardiopulmonary bypass time were 73.8±16.5 and 76.4±16.9 minutes (P=0.43 and cross clamp time were 58.9±10.3 and 66.3±11.2 minutes (P=0.23 in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Mean of maximum inotrope score was 6.3±2.52 and 6.1±2.13 (P=0.65 in group 1 and group 2, respectively. We also did not find any statistically significant difference in creatine-phosphokinase-MB (CPK-MB, Troponin-I levels, lactate level and cardiac functions postoperatively. CONCLUSION: This study proves the safety and efficacy of long-acting lignocaine-based single-dose blood cardioplegia compared to the standard short-acting multi-dose blood cardioplegia in patients requiring the single valve replacement. Further studies need to be undertaken to establish this non-inferiority in situations of complex cardiac procedures especially in compromised patients.

  11. Deformation relief evolution during sliding friction of Hadfield steel single crystal (United States)

    Lychagin, D. V.; Filippov, A. V.; Novitskaya, O. S.; Kolubaev, A. V.; Sizova, O. V.


    The paper deals with the evolution of the deformation relief formed on lateral faces of single crystals of Hadfield steel during dry sliding friction. The use of single crystals with the predetermined orientation enables to analyze the development of shear systems subject to the duration of tribological tests. As the test duration increases, slip bands are curved and thicken in the near-surface region. After 24 hours of friction, single crystals of Hadfield steel demonstrate the maximum hardening. Afterwards, the wear process begins, which is followed by the repeated strain hardening of the specimens. After 48 hours of friction, the height of the deformation relief nearly halves on all of the three faces, as compared to that observed after 24 hours of friction. Differences in the propagation height of slip bands on the faces occur due to the uneven running-in as well as the complex involvement pattern of shear systems into the deformation process.

  12. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Slide 1 · Matsyagandhya A case of genetic disorder · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Active Site with Molybdopterin Ligation · Disadvantage of a Chemist to Model the Cofactor · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Active Site Investigation · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19.

  13. Performance evaluation of a piezoactuator-based single-stage valve system subjected to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Han, Chulhee; Ung Chung, Jye; Choi, Seung-Bok


    In this paper, a novel single-stage valve system activated by a piezostack actuator is proposed and experimentally evaluated at both room temperature (20 °C) and high temperature (100 °C) conditions. A hinge-lever displacement amplifier is adopted in the valve system to magnify the displacement generated from the piezostack actuator. After explaining the operating principle of the proposed piezostack-driven single-stage valve system, the geometric dimensions and mechanical properties of the valve components are discussed in details. An experimental apparatus is then manufactured to evaluate the performances of the valve system such as flow rate. The experimental apparatus consists of a heat chamber, which can regulate the temperature of the valve system and oil, pneumatic-hydraulic cylinders, a hydraulic circuit, a pneumatic circuit, electronic devices, an interface card, and a high voltage amplifier. The pneumatic-hydraulic cylinder transforms the pneumatic pressure into hydraulic pressure. The performances of the valve system regarding spool response, pressure drop, and flow rate are evaluated and presented. In addition, the performance of the valve system under high temperature condition is compared with that under room temperature condition. The experimental results are plotted in both frequency and time domains. (paper)

  14. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Slide 25 · Life course epidemiology and chronic diseases · Models · Slide 28 · Slide 29 · Slide 30 · New Delhi Birth Cohort · New Delhi Birth Cohort (NDBC) · Slide 33 · Slide 34 · Slide 35 · Slide 36 · Slide 37 · Slide 38 · Slide 39 · CONCLUSIONS Urban Children and Adolescents · CONCLUSIONS New Delhi Birth Cohort.

  15. Tribology. Mechanisms of antiwear tribofilm growth revealed in situ by single-asperity sliding contacts. (United States)

    Gosvami, N N; Bares, J A; Mangolini, F; Konicek, A R; Yablon, D G; Carpick, R W


    Zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDPs) form antiwear tribofilms at sliding interfaces and are widely used as additives in automotive lubricants. The mechanisms governing the tribofilm growth are not well understood, which limits the development of replacements that offer better performance and are less likely to degrade automobile catalytic converters over time. Using atomic force microscopy in ZDDP-containing lubricant base stock at elevated temperatures, we monitored the growth and properties of the tribofilms in situ in well-defined single-asperity sliding nanocontacts. Surface-based nucleation, growth, and thickness saturation of patchy tribofilms were observed. The growth rate increased exponentially with either applied compressive stress or temperature, consistent with a thermally activated, stress-assisted reaction rate model. Although some models rely on the presence of iron to catalyze tribofilm growth, the films grew regardless of the presence of iron on either the tip or substrate, highlighting the critical role of stress and thermal activation. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Switching VO2 Single Crystals and Related Phenomena: Sliding Domains and Crack Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertina Fisher


    Full Text Available VO2 is the prototype material for insulator–metal transition (IMT. Its transition at TIMT = 340 K is fast and consists of a large resistance jump (up to approximately five orders of magnitude, a large change in its optical properties in the visible range, and symmetry change from monoclinic to tetragonal (expansion by 1% along the tetragonal c-axis and 0.5% contraction in the perpendicular direction. It is a candidate for potential applications such as smart windows, fast optoelectronic switches, and field-effect transistors. The change in optical properties at the IMT allows distinguishing between the insulating and the metallic phases in the mixed state. Static or dynamic domain patterns in the mixed-state of self-heated single crystals during electric-field induced switching are in strong contrast with the percolative nature of the mixed state in switching VO2 films. The most impressive effect—so far unique to VO2—is the sliding of narrow semiconducting domains within a metallic background in the positive sense of the electric current. Here we show images from videos obtained using optical microscopy for sliding domains along VO2 needles and confirm a relation suggested in the past for their velocity. We also show images for the disturbing damage induced by the structural changes in switching VO2 crystals obtained for only a few current–voltage cycles.

  17. Single-molecule observation of helix staggering, sliding, and coiled coil misfolding (United States)

    Xi, Zhiqun; Gao, Ying; Sirinakis, George; Guo, Honglian; Zhang, Yongli


    The biological functions of coiled coils generally depend on efficient folding and perfect pairing of their α-helices. Dynamic changes in the helical registry that lead to staggered helices have only been proposed for a few special systems and not found in generic coiled coils. Here, we report our observations of multiple staggered helical structures of two canonical coiled coils. The partially folded structures are formed predominantly by coiled coil misfolding and occasionally by helix sliding. Using high-resolution optical tweezers, we characterized their energies and transition kinetics at a single-molecule level. The staggered states occur less than 2% of the time and about 0.1% of the time at zero force. We conclude that dynamic changes in helical registry may be a general property of coiled coils. Our findings should have broad and unique implications in functions and dysfunctions of proteins containing coiled coils. PMID:22451899

  18. Single-chip mass flow controller with integrated Coriolis flow sensor and proportional control valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenesteijn, Jarno; Alveringh, Dennis; Groen, Maarten; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad


    We have designed, fabricated and tested the, to our knowledge, first ever single-chip mass flow controller with an integrated Coriolis mass flow sensor and a proportional control valve. A minimum internal volume is obtained, because the complete fluid path is integrated in a single chip. We

  19. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patterned Surfaces: DEVICES: Opto-electronics, OLEDs, MEMS, Solar cells, micro-fluidics, sensors, biological platforms · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Faster & finer Dewetting under water-organic Mix · Enhanced dewetting: Pattern Length scales · Controlling ...

  20. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Slide 1 · Potency of Stem Cells · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · World Wide Clinical trials using MSCs · Slide 7 · Bone Marrow derived Human MSCs (hMSC) in culture · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Fetal MSCs · Morphology of murine fetal heart derived stem cells (fHSCs) · Growth Kinetics of ...

  1. Sliding dynamics on ultrafine grained Al-6 wt % Mg made by equal channel single pressing (United States)

    Filippov, A. V.; Tarasov, S. Yu.; Podgornykh, O. A.; Chazov, P. A.; Shamarin, N. N.; Filippova, E. O.


    The effect of ECAP pass number on wear, microhardness and tribological dynamic behavior of UFG Al- 6 wt % Mg alloy has been studied. The UFG Al-6 wt % Mg samples demonstrated higher wear resistance after 4 and 8 ECAP passes as compared to as-received alloys state. The dynamics of sliding and loudness level generated in sliding showed moderate increase of vibrations and noise on ECAP UFG samples.

  2. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Potency of Stem Cells · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · World Wide Clinical trials using MSCs · Slide 7 · Bone Marrow derived Human MSCs (hMSC) in culture · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Fetal MSCs · Morphology of murine fetal heart derived stem cells (fHSCs) · Growth Kinetics of fHSCs · Phenotype of ...

  3. Single-Tube Reaction Using Perfluorocarbons: A Prerequisite Step Leading to the Whole-Slide In Situ Technique on Histopathological Slides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chang Chen

    Full Text Available Developing a robust, novel method for performing multiple reactions in a single tube is not only time- and cost-saving but also critical for future high-throughput whole-slide in situ techniques on diseased tissues. In this study, we introduce the use of perfluorocarbons and compound-coated magnetic particles to create pseudochambers in a single tube, allowing different reactions to be performed in different phases. Perfluorocarbons also serve as cell lysis buffer and polymerase chain reaction (PCR buffer owing to their highly penetrating, repellent and emulsifiable properties. Using this method, nucleic acids can be isolated and purified from various sample types and sizes, followed by PCR, real-time PCR, or multiplex PCR in the same tube. No incubation or enzyme digesting time is needed and the risk of cross-contamination is reduced. Tests can be performed in microemulsions (water-in-oil droplets containing sequence-specific captures and probes for further high-throughput detection. We present a simple, quick, and robust procedure as a prerequisite step to future high-throughput in situ techniques.

  4. Transcatheter aortic-valve implantation with one single minimal contrast media injection. (United States)

    Arrigo, Mattia; Maisano, Francesco; Haueis, Sabine; Binder, Ronald K; Taramasso, Maurizio; Nietlispach, Fabian


    Performing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the use of minimal contrast in patients at high-risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a major cause of AKI following TAVI and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The amount of contrast media used increases the risk for CIN. Computed tomography was omitted during the screening process. For the procedure transfemoral access was default. The self-expanding CoreValve prosthesis was chosen in all patients to minimize the risk of annular rupture in case of oversizing. Valve sizing was based on echocardiography, aortography, calcification on fluoroscopy, as well as weight and height of the patient. A single contrast injection was performed to confirm correct position of the pigtail catheter at the level of the annulus. The pigtail then served as the marker for the device landing zone. Intraprocedural assessment of the implantation result relied on echocardiography and hemodynamics. Five patients with severe aortic stenosis and at high risk for developing CIN were included. Device success was achieved in all patients and no major complications occurred. The median dose of injected contrast media was 8 ml (4-9). All but one patient had improved renal function after the intervention compared to baseline. Our study shows feasibility of performing TAVI with a single minimal contrast media injection, using a self-expandable valve. This technique has the potential to reduce the incidence of CIN. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Numerical simulation on flow field of nuclear safety grade 2 single-seat pneumatic diaphragm control valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Yun; Zhang Jige; Wang Dezhong; Shi Jianzhong


    The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method is employed to simulate numerically the steady flow and transient flow under variable openings of the nuclear safety grade 2 single-seat pneumatic diaphragm control valve, which is a sleeve valve. The steady simulations under rated condition tells that there is a large amount of vortex in the valve seat necking and around the valve cone, which leads to a much greater flow impact on the head of the valve cone and uneven pressure distribution on spool face. More consideration should be taken on the characteristics of the valve cone accordingly, when designing a valve of this kind. Then the transient flow under 100% and 40% openings is simulated numerically on the basis of steady simulations. The pulsation of the pressure magnitude at the points with large vorticity, in the valve seat necking and around the valve cone, is monitored. The main pulsation frequencies differ from the low natural frequencies of the model, which means that it is safe from leading to structural resonance. (authors)

  6. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · We began transforming rice with HSP100 gene; first we constructed new binary vectors for rice transformation · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Triage model of the working of HSPs in chaperoning role · Genomic complexity of sHsps in rice · Summary of our work · Students/ PDFs.

  7. Study by X ray topography of dislocation rise and sliding in zinc and cadmium single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G'Sell, Christian


    After having recalled that dislocation rise with a Burgers vector component located off the base plane has already been observed in zinc and cadmium by transmission electron microscopy and by X-ray topography on very thin crystals (5 microns), and that the Burgers vectors and characteristics of the rising configuration could not be precisely determined, this research thesis addresses the study of this phenomenon of dislocation rise by observing displacements in thicker (100 microns) zinc and cadmium crystals, by using X-ray topography. Rise is firstly observed during temperature variation, and the evolution of the initial configuration of dislocations is determined. The influences of atmosphere nature and of crystal surface condition resulting from different chemical treatments are studied. Dislocation sliding in the base plane is studied by determining different characteristics of sliding induced micro-deformation

  8. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Problem 1: Direct Materials Procurement at GM · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Game Theory · Strategic Form Games (Normal Form Games) · Example : Prisoner's Dilemma · Dominant Strategy Equilibrium · Nash Equilibrium · Nash's Theorem · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Example 1: Mechanism Design Fair Division of a Cake.

  9. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Comparison of median weight: Boys · Comparison of median weight: Girls · Prevalence of IFG, IGT and DM · Slide 17 · Dyslipidemia · Lipid centiles: normal BMI Indian children · Comparison of lipids with other studies · Slide 21 · So far….. Slide 23 · Slide 24 · Slide 25 · Life course epidemiology and chronic diseases · Models.



    Murtaza A; Ajay; Gaurav; Premraj; Varun; Aashish; Deepesh; Ramanand D.


    AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness and results of repair of Organic Tricuspid Valve disease. INTRODUCTION : since tricuspid valve disease most often found in association with other valve disease. Isolated tricuspid valve disease is ra re. Pattern of involvement of tricuspid valve disease shows functional (75%) and primary (organic) in (25%). Surgical repair of organic tricuspid valve disease oft...

  11. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Archaeological Context · Slide 4 · The History of Rock Art Research · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · The Chronology of Rock Art · The Rock Art · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Rock art sites in Andhra pradesh · Rock art Sites in Kerala · Rock Art sites in Tamilnadu · Mesolithic Art 1.A huge Rabbit in red ochre,Chintakunta,AP. 2.A huge ...

  12. Transfemoral Aortic Valve Implantation with the New Edwards Sapien 3 Valve for Treatment of Severe Aortic Stenosis-Impact of Valve Size in a Single Center Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Wöhrle

    Full Text Available The third generation Edwards Sapien 3 (Edwards Lifesciences Inc., Irvine, California system was optimized to reduce residual aortic regurgitation and vascular complications.235 patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis were prospectively enrolled. Transcatheter aortic valve implantations (TAVI were performed without general anesthesia by transfemoral approach. Patients were followed for 30 days. Patients received 23mm (N = 77, 26mm (N = 91 or 29mm (N = 67 valve based on pre-procedural 256 multislice computer tomography. Mean oversizing did not differ between the 3 valves. There was no residual moderate or severe aortic regurgitation. Rate of mild aortic regurgitation and regurgitation index did not differ between groups. There was no switch to general anesthesia or conversion to surgery. Rate of major vascular complication was 3.0% with no difference between valve and delivery sheath sizes. Within 30 days rates of all cause mortality (2.6% and stroke (2.1% were low.In patients with severe aortic stenosis transfemoral TAVI with the Edwards Sapien 3 valve without general anesthesia was associated with a high rate of device success, no moderate or severe residual aortic regurgitation, low rates of major vascular complication, mortality and stroke within 30 days with no difference between the 3 valve NCT02162069.

  13. Single-stage electrohydraulic servosystem for actuating on airflow valve with frequencies to 500 hertz (United States)

    Webb, J. A., Jr.; Mehmed, O.; Lorenzo, C. F.


    An airflow valve and its electrohydraulic actuation servosystem are described. The servosystem uses a high-power, single-stage servovalve to obtain a dynamic response beyond that of systems designed with conventional two-stage servovalves. The electrohydraulic servosystem is analyzed and the limitations imposed on system performance by such nonlinearities as signal saturations and power limitations are discussed. Descriptions of the mechanical design concepts and developmental considerations are included. Dynamic data, in the form of sweep-frequency test results, are presented and comparison with analytical results obtained with an analog computer model is made.

  14. Position Control of the Single Spherical Wheel Mobile Robot by Using the Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Navabi


    Full Text Available A spherical wheel robot or Ballbot—a robot that balances on an actuated spherical ball—is a new and recent type of robot in the popular area of mobile robotics. This paper focuses on the modeling and control of such a robot. We apply the Lagrangian method to derive the governing dynamic equations of the system. We also describe a novel Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller (FSMC implemented to control a spherical wheel mobile robot. The nonlinear nature of the equations makes the controller nontrivial. We compare the performance of four different fuzzy controllers: (a regulation with one signal, (b regulation and position control with one signal, (c regulation and position control with two signals, and (d FSMC for regulation and position control with two signals. The system is evaluated in a realistic simulation and the robot parameters are chosen based on a LEGO platform, so the designed controllers have the ability to be implemented on real hardware.

  15. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Slide 39 · Slide 40 · Slide 41 · Slide 42 · Confocal images of HLE3B Cells transfected with various pEGFP-recombinant constructs · LIMBAL STEM CELL CULTURE TO RESTORE VISION Clinical Trials - 500 cases · Limbal stem cell cultures · Limbal Stem Cell Cultures · Why use HAM? Limbal Stem Cell Transplantation.

  16. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The History of Rock Art Research · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · The Chronology of Rock Art · The Rock Art · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Rock art sites in Andhra pradesh · Rock art Sites in Kerala · Rock Art sites in Tamilnadu · Mesolithic Art 1.A huge Rabbit in red ochre,Chintakunta,AP. 2.A huge deer figure in Red ochre, ...

  17. Single camera volumetric velocimetry in aortic sinus with a percutaneous valve (United States)

    Clifford, Chris; Thurow, Brian; Midha, Prem; Okafor, Ikechukwu; Raghav, Vrishank; Yoganathan, Ajit


    Cardiac flows have long been understood to be highly three dimensional, yet traditional in vitro techniques used to capture these complexities are costly and cumbersome. Thus, two dimensional techniques are primarily used for heart valve flow diagnostics. The recent introduction of plenoptic camera technology allows for traditional cameras to capture both spatial and angular information from a light field through the addition of a microlens array in front of the image sensor. When combined with traditional particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques, volumetric velocity data may be acquired with a single camera using off-the-shelf optics. Particle volume pairs are reconstructed from raw plenoptic images using a filtered refocusing scheme, followed by three-dimensional cross-correlation. This technique was applied to the sinus region (known for having highly three-dimensional flow structures) of an in vitro aortic model with a percutaneous valve. Phase-locked plenoptic PIV data was acquired at two cardiac outputs (2 and 5 L/min) and 7 phases of the cardiac cycle. The volumetric PIV data was compared to standard 2D-2C PIV. Flow features such as recirculation and stagnation were observed in the sinus region in both cases.

  18. Supercharged two-cycle engines employing novel single element reciprocating shuttle inlet valve mechanisms and with a variable compression ratio (United States)

    Wiesen, Bernard (Inventor)


    This invention relates to novel reciprocating shuttle inlet valves, effective with every type of two-cycle engine, from small high-speed single cylinder model engines, to large low-speed multiple cylinder engines, employing spark or compression ignition. Also permitting the elimination of out-of-phase piston arrangements to control scavenging and supercharging of opposed-piston engines. The reciprocating shuttle inlet valve (32) and its operating mechanism (34) is constructed as a single and simple uncomplicated member, in combination with the lost-motion abutments, (46) and (48), formed in a piston skirt, obviating the need for any complex mechanisms or auxiliary drives, unaffected by heat, friction, wear or inertial forces. The reciprocating shuttle inlet valve retains the simplicity and advantages of two-cycle engines, while permitting an increase in volumetric efficiency and performance, thereby increasing the range of usefulness of two-cycle engines into many areas that are now dominated by the four-cycle engine.

  19. On-slide detection of enzymatic activities in selected single cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Josephine Geertsen; Tesauro, Cinzia; Coletta, Andrea


    With increasing recognition of the importance in addressing cell-to-cell heterogeneity for the understanding of complex biological systems, there is a growing need for assays capable of single cell analyses. In the current study, we describe the measurement of human topoisomerase I activity in si...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtaza A


    Full Text Available AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness and results of repair of Organic Tricuspid Valve disease. INTRODUCTION : since tricuspid valve disease most often found in association with other valve disease. Isolated tricuspid valve disease is ra re. Pattern of involvement of tricuspid valve disease shows functional (75% and primary (organic in (25%. Surgical repair of organic tricuspid valve disease often fails because of abnormal valve. This usually leads to limited options. This study examine s our experience of tricuspid valve repair with autologous pericardium for organic tricuspid valve disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS : From Jan 2014 to May 2015, 22 patients underwent repairs for organic tricuspid valve disease. The patient aged 15 to 65 years and all were in New York Heart Association (NYHA class of III or IV. All patients presented with severe tricuspid disease coexisting with other cardiac pathology, usually left - sided heart valve disease. Repair techniques included Commisurotomy, division o f secondary chordae, Glutaraldehyde treated autologous pericardial patch augmentation of tricuspid valve leaflets, anterior papillary muscle advancement etc with or without ring/suture annuloplasty. Follow - up duration was 3 to 18 months. RESULTS : No deaths or late reoperations occurred. All patients demonstrated clinical improvements on follow up. Echocardiographic studies before hospital discharge showed less than mild tricuspid regurgitation in all patients except one. CONCLUSIONS : Large majorit y of organic tricuspid valve regurgitation is repairable with acceptable early results. Tricuspid stenosis and mixed tricuspid valve disease are more challenging. In the latter group, it is a judgment call whether to accept a suboptimal result or replace t he valve

  1. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Projected Rainfall (Weighted Mean CDF; A1B scenario) · Slide 18 · Imprecise Probability · Bounds for Probability of Drought · Slide 21 · Possibility Distribution of GCMs and Scenarios · Mahanadi River Basin - Streamflow · Projections for future monsoon inflows to Hirakud Reservoir · Slide 25 · Rule curve for adaptive policies.

  2. A comparative study between a simplified Kalman filter and Sliding Window Averaging for single trial dynamical estimation of event-related potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Fuglø, Jacob; Channir, Fouad


    , are variable and depend on cognitive function. This study compares the performance of a simplified Kalman filter with Sliding Window Averaging in tracking dynamical changes in single trial P300. The comparison is performed on simulated P300 data with added background noise consisting of both simulated and real...

  3. Acoustic emission evolution during sliding friction of Hadfield steel single crystal (United States)

    Lychagin, D. V.; Novitskaya, O. S.; Kolubaev, A. V.; Sizova, O. V.


    Friction is a complex dynamic process. Direct observation of processes occurring in the friction zone is impossible due to a small size of a real contact area and, as a consequence, requires various additional methods applicable to monitor a tribological contact state. One of such methods consists in the analysis of acoustic emission data of a tribological contact. The use of acoustic emission entails the problem of interpreting physical sources of signals. In this paper, we analyze the evolution of acoustic emission signal frames in friction of Hadfield steel single crystals. The chosen crystallographic orientation of single crystals enables to identify four stages related to friction development as well as acoustic emission signals inherent in these stages. Acoustic emission signal parameters are studied in more detail by the short-time Fourier transform used to determine the time variation of the median frequency and its power spectrum. The results obtained will facilitate the development of a more precise method to monitor the tribological contact based on the acoustic emission method.

  4. Calculation of the water hammer effect of the emergency closure of ball slide valves in a high-pressure hydroelectric power plant; Druckstossberechnungen fuer Kugelschiebernotschluss-Faelle in einer Hochdruckanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michler, W.


    The aim was to determine the influence of the time elapsed between the opening and subsequent emergency closure of ball slide valves on the maximum pressure peaks in the pipe. As demonstrated by the measurements taken at the plant, pressure variations over time at the plant can be accurately predicted, notwithstanding necessary simplifications. Consequently, the number of measurements can be minimized. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Ziel war es, den Einluss der Zeitspanne zwischen dem Oeffnen und einem darauffolgendem stoerungsbedingten Schliessen der Kugelschieber auf die maximalen Druckspitzen in der Rohrleitung zu bestimmen. Der Vergleich mit den in der Anlage durchgefuehrten Messungen zeigt, dass trotz der notwendigen Vereinfachungen eine genaue Voraussage der zeitlichen Druckschwankungen in der Anlage moeglich ist. Dadurch kann die Anzahl der Messungen in der Anlage minimiert werden. (orig./AKF)

  5. Shuttle valves and system for fluid control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caralli, M. J.; Friedline, G. W.


    An apparatus system for drying gases to provide a reverse flow to and from a pair of absorbent beds is automatically solely controlled by a unitary inlet logic shuttle valve unit and by a unitary outlet logic shuttle valve unit. Each valve unit employs positive acting slide valve elements that operate in a smooth and effective manner.

  6. Shuttle valves and system for fluid control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caralli, M. J.; Friedline, G. W.


    An apparatus system for drying gases to provide a reverse flow to and from a pair of absorbent beds is automatically solely controlled by a unitary inlet logic shuttle valve unit and by a unitary outlet logic shuttle valve unit. Each valve unit employs positive acting slide valve elements that operate in a smooth and effective manner

  7. A comparative study between a simplified Kalman filter and Sliding Window Averaging for single trial dynamical estimation of event-related potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Fuglø, Jacob; Channir, Fouad


    , are variable and depend on cognitive function. This study compares the performance of a simplified Kalman filter with Sliding Window Averaging in tracking dynamical changes in single trial P300. The comparison is performed on simulated P300 data with added background noise consisting of both simulated and real...... background EEG in various input signal to noise ratios. While both methods can be applied to track dynamical changes, the simplified Kalman filter has an advantage over the Sliding Window Averaging, most notable in a better noise suppression when both are optimized for faster changing latency and amplitude...

  8. Single-site ventricular pacing via the coronary sinus in patients with tricuspid valve disease. (United States)

    Noheria, Amit; van Zyl, Martin; Scott, Luis R; Srivathsan, Komandoor; Madhavan, Malini; Asirvatham, Samuel J; McLeod, Christopher J


    To evaluate coronary sinus single-site (CSSS) left ventricular pacing in adult patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) when traditional right ventricular lead implantation is not feasible or is contraindicated. We performed a retrospective analysis of 23 patients with tricuspid valve surgery/disease who received a CSSS ventricular pacing lead to avoid crossing the tricuspid valve. Two matched control populations were obtained from patients receiving (i) conventional right ventricular single-site (RVSS) leads and (ii) coronary sinus leads for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CSCRT). Main outcomes of interest were lead stability, electrical lead parameters and change in LVEF during long-term follow-up. Successful CSSS pacing was accomplished in all 23 patients without any procedural complications. During the 5.3 ± 2.8-year follow-up 22/23 (95.7%) leads were functional with stable pacing and sensing parameters, and 1/23 (4.3%) was extracted for unrelated reasons. Compared to CSSS leads, the lead revision/abandonment was similar with RVSS leads (Hazard ratio (HR) 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03, 22.0), but was higher with CSCRT leads (HR 7.41, 95% CI 1.30, 139.0). There was no difference in change in LVEF between CSSS and RVSS groups (-2.4 ± 11.0 vs. 1.5 ± 12.8, P = 0.76), but LVEF improved in CSCRT group (11.2 ± 16.5%, P = 0.002). Fluoroscopy times were longer during implantation of CSSS compared to RVSS leads (25.6 ± 24.6 min vs. 12.3 ± 18.6 min, P = 0.049). In patients with normal LVEF, single-site ventricular pacing via the coronary sinus is a feasible, safe and reliable alternative to right ventricular pacing. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email:

  9. Abrasive wear under multiscratching of polystyrene + single-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites. Effect of sliding direction and modification by ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, M.D., E-mail: [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales y Fabricacion, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Campus de la Muralla del Mar. C/Doctor Fleming, s/n. 30202 Cartagena (Spain); Carrion, F.J.; Espejo, C.; Martinez-Lopez, E.; Sanes, J. [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales y Fabricacion, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Campus de la Muralla del Mar. C/Doctor Fleming, s/n. 30202 Cartagena (Spain)


    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (NTs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes modified (NTms) by the room-temperature ionic liquid (IL) 1-octyl, 3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([OMIM]BF{sub 4}) were added in a 1 wt.% to polystyrene (PS) and processed by compression or injection moulding to obtain PS + NT and PS + NTm, respectively. Friction coefficients and abrasive wear from penetration depth, residual depth and viscoelastic recovery were determined under multiple scratching. The effect of the moulding process, the additives and the sliding direction was studied. Compression moulded PS shows a transition to more severe damage after a critical number of successive passes. Addition of NTs or NTms to compression moulded PS induces a strain hardening effect and reduces friction, residual depth and viscoelastic recovery. Strain hardening is also observed in injection moulded PS with sliding in the longitudinal and random directions, but not in the transverse direction. The scratch resistance of PS + NTm depends on sliding direction. The lowest friction coefficient and residual depth values, and the highest viscoelastic recovery were found for injection moulded PS + NTm, in the sliding direction parallel to injection flow. Mechanisms of surface damage are discussed upon scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam-field emission scanning electron microscopy (FIB-FESEM), 3D surface topography, surface roughness and profilometry observations.

  10. Twenty years' single-center experience with mechanical heart valves: a critical review of anticoagulation policy. (United States)

    Van Nooten, Guido J; Caes, Frank; François, Katrien; Van Bellleghem, Yves; Bové, Thierry; Vandenplas, Guy; Taeymans, Yves


    Since January 1990, a variety of mechanical valves (St. Jude Medical, CarboMedics, ATS Medical) have been implanted routinely at the authors' institution. The study aim was to analyze, retrospectively, the 20-year clinical results of those mechanical valves, and to challenge the anticoagulation policy employed over the years. Between January 1990 and December 2008, a total of 2,108 mechanical valves was inserted into 1,887 consecutive patients (1,346 aortic, 725 mitral, 27 tricuspid, 10 pulmonary). The mean age of the patients was 63 +/- 13.2 years, and the majority (61%) were males. Preoperatively, 71% the patients were in NYHA class > or = III (average 3.01). The most frequent comorbidities included: atrial fibrillation (n = 594), coronary disease (n = 567) and diabetes (n = 398). The follow up (99% complete) totaled 13,721 patient-years (pt-yr), and ranged from 12 to 241 months (average 84 months). In-hospital mortality was 5.2% (n = 98, 14 valve-related). Of the 629 late deaths, the majority were cardiac (n = 276). Survival (Kaplan-Meier estimation) was significantly better for aortic valve patients compared to mitral or multiple valve replacement (Mantel-Cox, p valve thrombosis 0.31, thromboembolism 1.08, and bleeding 0.91. However, as repeated events occurred in several patients, the hazard function was not constant. Multivariate analysis (Cox regression model) showed age > 70 years (p or = III (p II as significant risk factors for thromboembolism, while long-acting coumadin and NYHA class > II were significant risk factors for bleeding. This 20-year experience demonstrated excellent clinical outcomes for patients with mechanical prostheses, with no valve structural failure and an acceptable incidence of adverse events. INR values between 2-2.5 for aortic valve patients, and 3-3.5 for mitral valve patients, yielded the fewest major adverse events.

  11. Ventricular outflow tract reconstructions with cryopreserved cardiac valve homografts. A single surgeon's 10-year experience. (United States)

    Hopkins, R A; Reyes, A; Imperato, D A; Carpenter, G A; Myers, J L; Murphy, K A


    OBJECTIVE: From January 1, 1985 through December 31, 1994, one surgeon implanted cryopreserved valved homografts into 149 patients--65 since December 1988. This latter series (II) was accomplished in a single hospital, facilitating patient follow-up with biannual echocardiograms. Analysis of these 65 patients is the primary focus of this report; the indications and early surgical results for the two parts of the series (I and II) are compared to assess the evolution of a single surgeon's use of homografts in a mixed pediatric and adult practice. METHODS: Fifty-one variables for each patient (series II) were entered into a computerized database and analyzed (multivariate and univariate) using SPSS 6.1 software (Statistical Products and Service Solutions, Chicago, IL). Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify the independent contribution of each variable for patient mortality and homograft failure. Cumulative survival estimates were made using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Homograft failure was defined as requirement for replacement or death. In series I, there were 41 left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) reconstructions (31 adult) and 43 right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstructions (42 pediatric). In series II, there were 55 RVOT reconstructions (52 pediatric) and 10 LVOT reconstructions (7 adult). RESULTS: There were no technical surgical failures. Total surgical mortality rate was 6% (5/84) in series I (3 LVOT, 2 RVOT) and 15% (10/65) in series II (2 LVOT, 8 RVOT) (I vs. II NS; p = 0.11, two-tailed Fisher exact test). By the Cox analysis, only age 120 minutes (p < 0.05) were significant predictors for death. Age-based survival curves were compared in a sequential bivariate analyses (log rank test) and age < 2 years again was a significant predictor of decreased patient survival (p < 0.006). Actuarial freedom from patient death or reoperation for homograft failure was 82% +/- 7% at 1000 days and 77% +/- 10% at 2000 days. Three patients required re

  12. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Game Theory · Strategic Form Games (Normal Form Games) · Example : Prisoner's Dilemma · Dominant Strategy Equilibrium · Nash Equilibrium · Nash's Theorem · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Example 1: Mechanism Design Fair Division of a Cake · Example 2: Mechanism Design Truth Elicitation through an Indirect Mechanism.

  13. Slide 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tuberculosis · Slide 26 · Slide 27 · Sequencing results of pncA gene at JALMA · Detection of mutations in rpoB gene region of M.tuberculosis with indigenously designed probes · Asymmetric PCR ( Real-Time PCR ) Biprobe System (Probe-C for 526 ...

  14. Optically addressable single-use microfluidic valves by laser printer lithography. (United States)

    Garcia-Cordero, Jose L; Kurzbuch, Dirk; Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Diamond, Dermot; Lee, Luke P; Ricco, Antonio J


    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of practical microfluidic valves fabricated using laser printer lithography. These optofluidic valves are opened by directing optical energy from a solid-state laser, with similar power characteristics to those used in CD/DVD drives, to a spot of printed toner where localized heating melts an orifice in the polymer layer in as little as 500 ms, connecting previously isolated fluidic components or compartments. Valve functionality, response time, and laser input energy dependence of orifice size are reported for cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. Implementation of these optofluidic valves is demonstrated on pressure-driven and centrifugal microfluidic platforms. In addition, these "one-shot" valves comprise a continuous polymer film that hermetically isolates on-chip fluid volumes within fluidic devices using low-vapor-permeability materials; we confirmed this for a period of one month. The fabrication and integration of optofluidic valves are compatible with a range of polymer microfabrication technologies and should facilitate the development of fully integrated, reconfigurable, and automated lab-on-a-chip systems, particularly when reagents must be stored on chip for extended periods, e.g. for medical diagnostic devices, lab-on-a-chip synthetic systems, or hazardous biochemical analysis platforms.

  15. Controle automático de registros de descarga com acionamento pneumático em unidades de armazenagem agrícola Automatic control of slide gate valves with pneumatic drive in agricultural storage facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luís Andrighetto


    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados dos testes de um sistema de posicionamento pneumático usado no controle automático da abertura da gaveta dos registros de descarga. Esses registros são empregados para controlar o carregamento dos grãos por gravidade nos equipamentos de transporte nas unidades de beneficiamento e armazenagem de grãos, tais como os elevadores de caçamba e as correias transportadoras. Os experimentos permitiram avaliar o desempenho do posicionamento da gaveta de um protótipo de registro de descarga, acionada por um cilindro pneumático cuja posição é controlada por um controlador eletrônico do tipo ON-OFF. Nos testes mediu-se a resposta transitória da posição da gaveta a uma mudança em degrau no sinal de referência e foram avaliados o erro de posição, o sobrepassado e a velocidade. Os resultados mostraram a viabilidade do sistema no desempenho do controle da posição, na simplicidade do acionamento e no baixo custo, sendo uma alternativa para automação de instalações agroindustriais.This paper shows the results obtained from tests of a pneumatic positioning system used in the automatic control of the drawer opening in slide gate valves. They are used to control the grain loading by gravity in transport equipments as bucket elevators and belt conveyors in agricultural storage facilities. Experimental tests were carried out to evaluate the performance of drawer positioning in a prototype of slide gate valve that is driven by a pneumatic cylinder with position control carried out by an ON-OFF electronic controller. In the experiments was measured the step response of drawer position, allowing the evaluation of the position error, the overshoot and the velocity. The results show the viability of this solution considering its performance in position control, drive simplicity and low cost. It represents an alternative to automation of agricultural storage facilities.

  16. Measurement of sliding velocity and induction time of a single micro-bubble under an inclined collector surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, A.S.; Xu, Z.; Masliyah, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering


    Flotation is a major process by which bitumens are recovered from oil sands slurries, and air bubble-bitumen attachment is necessary for the effective separation of aerated bitumen. This study investigated the interactions between a gas bubble and a solid, flat surface. Various physical and chemical conditions were studied in order to determine their impact on the sliding velocity and induction times of the micro-bubble as it slid underneath an inclined solid surface. The bubble's trajectory was monitored by a high-speed video imaging system. Tests were conducted using de-aerated process water in order to study the effect of dissolved gases on bubble sliding velocity. Simulated process water was also used to study the role of the natural surfactants contained in recycle process water. The study showed that terminal and sliding velocities of the bubbles were functions of temperature. Sliding velocities increased with increases in liquid temperature. Increases in liquid temperature also reduced the induction time used to quantify bubble-solid attachment. Induction times were also reduced with increases in surface hydrophobicity. Induction times measured for CO{sub 2} bubbles were shorter than those observed with air, oxygen, and hydrogen bubbles. It was concluded that the use of natural surface active agents in process water reduced bubble terminal rising velocity and increased the induction times of bubble-solid attachment. 36 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  17. Outcome of double vs. single valve replacement for rheumatic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, R.P.; Abid, A.R.


    To compare the follow-up results of double valve replacement (DVR) i.e. mitral valve replacement (MVR) and aortic valve replacement (AVR) vs. isolated MVR or AVR for rheumatic heart disease. Study Design: An interventional qausi-experimental study. Prospective follow-up of 493 patients with mechanical heart valves was carried out using clinical assessment, international normalized ratio and echocardiography. Patients were divided into three groups: group I having MVR, group II having AVR and group III having DVR. Survival, time and causes of mortality, and frequency of valve thrombosis, haemorrhage and cerebrovascular haemorrhage was noted in the three groups and described as proportions. Actuarial survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. There were 493 with 287 (58.3%) in group I, 87 (17.6%) in group II and 119 (24.1%) in group III. Total follow-up was 2429.2 patient (pt)-years. Of 77 (15.6%) deaths, 19 (3.8%) were in-hospital and 58 (11.8%) were late. In-hospital mortality was highest 4 (4.6%) in group II followed by 5 (4.2%) group III and 10 (3.5%) group I. Late deaths were 39 (13.4%) in group I, 9 (10.2%) in group II and 10 (8.3%) in group III. The total actuarial survival was 84.4% with survival of 83%, 85.1%, 87.4% in groups I, II and III respectively. On follow-up valve thrombosis occurred in 12 (0.49%/pt-years) patients; 9 (0.67%/pt-years) group I, 1 (0.22%/pt-years) in group II and 2 (0.31%/pt-years) in group III. Severe haemorrhage occurred in 19 (0.78%/pt-years); 14 in (1.04%/pt-years) in group I, 3 (0.66%/pt-years) group II and 2 (0.31%/pt-years) in group III. Cerebrovascular accidents occurred in 34 (1.3%/pt-years); 26 (1.95%/pt-years) in group I and 4 in groups II (0.89%/pt-years) and III (0.62%/pt-years) each. In patients with rheumatic heart disease having combined mitral and aortic valve disease DVR should be performed whenever indicated as it has similar in-hospital mortality and better late survival as compared to isolated aortic or mitral

  18. Experimental and Potential Analysis of a Single-Valve Expander for Waste Heat Recovery of a Gasoline Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Gao


    Full Text Available In this paper, a Rankine cycle test system is established to recover exhaust energy from a 2.0 L gasoline engine. Experiments on the system’s performance are carried out under various working conditions. The experimental results indicate that the recovery power of the expander is strongly related to the load and speed of the gasoline engine. It is found that when the output power of the gasoline engine is 39.8–76.6 kW, the net power of the expander is 1.8–2.97 kW, which is equivalent to 3.9%–4.9% of the engine power. The performance simulation shows that the mass flow rate, power output, and isentropic efficiency of the piston expander are directly determined by the intake valve timing. Selecting a suitable intake valve timing can optimize the performance of the expander. The simulation results show that a 1 kW increment in power can be obtained only by selecting an optimum intake open timing. The experimental results further verify that the single-valve piston expander, because of its small dimensions, simple structure, and high speed, is appropriate, and has great potential for energy recovery of gasoline engine exhaust and has good prospects for engineering applications.

  19. Role of different vascular approaches on transcatheter aortic valve implantation outcome: a single-center study. (United States)

    Adamo, Marianna; Fiorina, Claudia; Curello, Salvatore; Maffeo, Diego; Chizzola, Giuliano; Di Matteo, Gerardo; Mastropierro, Rosa; Nardi, Matilde; Cervi, Edoardo; De Cicco, Giuseppe; Chiari, Ermanna; Curnis, Antonio; Bonardelli, Stefano; Coletti, Giuseppe; Manzato, Aldo; Metra, Marco; Ettori, Federica


    To compare different vascular approaches on clinical outcome of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with self-expandable bioprosthesis. We included all the patients undergoing CoreValve implantation at our institute between September 2007 and March 2014. They were divided into four groups based on the vascular approach: percutaneous transfemoral (pTF), cut-down transfemoral (cTF), transaxillary (TAx) and transaortic (TAo). Clinical outcomes were evaluated according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 recommendations. Out of 322 consecutive patients, 170 (53%) underwent pTF, 76 (23%) cTF, 32 (10%) TAx and 44 (14%) TAo approach. Although the TAx and TAo patients had a higher risk profile, they had a similar outcome compared with the pTF and cTF groups; in particular, there were no differences regarding cardiovascular and all-cause mortality at 30 days, 1 and 2 years, as well as stroke, myocardial infarction, bleeding, major vascular complications, permanent pacemaker implantation and acute kidney injury rates. The observed device success rate was higher in the TAo than in the other approaches (88.6 versus 65.9, 68.7 and 76.3% in the pTF, cTF and TAx groups, respectively; P = 0.019). No differences occurred regarding 30-day early safety and 1-year clinical efficacy across the four groups. Fluoroscopy time, amount of contrast medium used and minor vascular complications were significantly higher in pTF patients, as well as in-hospital stay in the TAo group. Atrial fibrillation and prosthetic valve regurgitation, but not the vascular approach, were independent predictors of all-cause mortality. A more invasive vascular approach, for CoreValve implantation, even in higher risk patients, does not affect early-term, mid-term and long-term outcomes.

  20. The External Nasal Valve. (United States)

    Hamilton, Grant S


    The external nasal valve is a complex entity comprised of multiple structures and tissue types. As such, there is no single operation that can address all problems of the external valve. This article reviews the relevant anatomy, pathologic conditions, and treatments for external nasal valve dysfunction, including a detailed review of the nasal muscles and their contribution to external nasal valve patency. Surgical and nonsurgical options for treatment and the evidence supporting the importance of proper external nasal valve function on quality-of-life measures are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel approach to percutaneous removal of large tricuspid valve vegetations using suction filtration and veno-venous bypass: A single center experience. (United States)

    George, Bennet; Voelkel, Anthony; Kotter, John; Leventhal, Andrew; Gurley, John


    Tricuspid valve surgery has been the de facto standard treatment for tricuspid valve endocarditis (TVE) refractory to medical therapy. It is now possible to remove right-sided vegetations percutaneously using a venous drainage cannula with an extracorporeal bypass circuit. The purpose of our study is to describe our single-center experience of percutaneous tricuspid valve vegetation removal. We reviewed the perioperative course of 33 consecutive patients with large tricuspid valve vegetations who carried high surgical risk. The cohort included 12 males and 21 females over a 40-month period with an average age of 37 years. A preponderance of patients carried an admitted or confirmed diagnosis of injection drug use (72.7%). Average vegetation size was 2.1 +/- 0.7 cm prior to the procedure with a 61% reduction in size after the procedure. All patients survived the procedure and 90.9% survived the index hospitalization. Three patients proceeded to elective tricuspid valve replacement due to worsening severity of tricuspid regurgitation. Percutaneous removal of large tricuspid valve vegetations is a safe and effective alternative for patients with TVE who carry high-surgical risk. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. [New conduction disturbances and pacemaker indications after CoreValve® transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Incidence and follow up in a single center experience]. (United States)

    Aversa, Eliana; Muratore, Claudio A; Nemesio, M Laura; Tentori, Maria Cristina; Payaslian, Miguel


    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is currently reserved for patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis and high surgical risk. One major limiting factor related to TAVI procedural complications is conduction abnormalities and the need for permanent pacemaker implantation. Evaluate the incidence of new conduction disturbances and pacemaker indications in patients with TAVI CoreValve® prosthesis (Medtronic Inc. Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States). We included 28 patients, mean age 80 years. ECG parameters were evaluated previous and after implantation. All patients were monitorized during TAVI. Follow up Holter monitoring was performed at one, 6 and 12 months after the procedure and we also evaluated telemetry of implanted pacemaker. In previous ECG we found 7 patients had right bundle branch block and 7 patients had left bundle brunch block (LBBB). The post implant ECG showed 7 new LBBB: 3 during valvuloplasty and 4 on the end of it. Six patients required pacemaker implantation for permanent or paroxysmal complete AV block (CAVB). At one year follow up, 3 patients with LBBB during valvuloplasty had a normal ECG, one still had LBBB and one an asymptomatic CAVB found in Holter monitoring. Conduction abnormalities are frequent after CoreValve® aortic valve prosthesis implantation. The incidence of new LBBB was 25%. CAVB during or post TAVI require PM implantation. New LBBB may need a closer follow up because in a 3% of the cases it may progress to CAVB. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Aortic Valve Regurgitation (United States)

    ... correct direction. These valves include the mitral valve, tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve and aortic valve. Each valve has ... Causes of aortic valve regurgitation include: Congenital heart valve disease. You may have been born with an aortic ...

  4. Bistable (latching) solenoid actuated propellant isolation valve (United States)

    Wichmann, H.; Deboi, H. H.


    The design, fabrication, assembly and test of a development configuration bistable (latching) solenoid actuated propellant isolation valve suitable for the control hydrazine and liquid fluorine to an 800 pound thrust rocket engine is described. The valve features a balanced poppet, utilizing metal bellows, a hard poppet/seat interface and a flexure support system for the internal moving components. This support system eliminates sliding surfaces, thereby rendering the valve free of self generated particles.

  5. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with a mitral prosthesis; single center experience and review of literature. (United States)

    Asil, Serkan; Şahiner, Levent; Özer, Necla; Kaya, E Barış; Evranos, Banu; Canpolat, Uğur; Yorgun, Hikmet; Karagöz, Heves; Aytemir, Kudret


    Following the encouraging results of several registries and trials, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been recognized as a valid option in patients with severe aortic stenosis deemed at high or prohibitive risk for surgical treatment. Good procedural success and good clinical outcomes have been showed and very limited data exist on TAVI in the setting of a preexisting mitral prosthesis regarding the technique, potential complications, and outcomes. Here, we report six cases of transfemoral TAVI with a self-expanding bioprosthesis (CoreValve; Medtronic, Inc) in patients who had previously undergone mitral valve replacement. Preprocedural, intraprocedural ve postprocedural outcome and data were analyzed and a brief literature review is also presented. Our experiences show that transfemoral CoreValve implantation can be performed successfully in patients with mechanical and bioprosthetic mitral valves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of patient-prosthesis mismatch following aortic valve replacement on short-term survival: a retrospective single center analysis of 632 consecutive patients with isolated stented biological aortic valve replacement. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Grischa; Ogbamicael, Selam Abraham; Jochens, Arne; Frank, Derk; Lutter, Georg; Cremer, Jochen; Petzina, Rainer


    The impact of patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) after aortic valve replacement (AVR) on short-term and long-term mortality remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and severity of PPM and its impact on short-term survival in a large cohort of patients treated with isolated stented biological AVR in a single institution. We analyzed retrospectively data of 632 consecutive patients with aortic stenosis undergoing isolated stented biological AVR between January 2007 and February 2012 at our institution. PPM was defined as an indexed effective orifice area ≤ 0.85 cm(2)/m(2). Statistical analyses were performed to identify influencing variables on valve size implanted. Of the 632 patients investigated, 46% were females and mean age was 71.9 ± 10.4 years. PPM was observed in 93.8% (593 of 632 patients). In 71% of the patients, moderate (0.65-0.85 cm(2)/m(2)) PPM was present and in 22.8% severe (body mass index, and body surface area as simultaneous predictors of the valve size implanted (R(2)= 0.39). PPM had no discernable impact on short-term survival, although it was present in 93.8% of our patients following isolated stented biological AVR. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Slide 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Medical Physics- Hadron Therapy –Single p-pulse dose in real time, Radial distribution - BARC. Space Dosimetry – Human and Electronics - PRL. Archeology –Early Man – Human Dispersal-PRL (BARC). Meteoritics – Exposure ages, classifications, thermal and radiation history – PRL –Rabiul Biswas ...

  8. Slide 30

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Save backbone bandwidth by packing traffic efficiently at network edges; Reduce capital costs by replacing dozens of conventional SDH ADMs and cross-connects by a single box at central locations; Further reduce capex using mesh restoration and reduce operating expenses by enabling automated provisioning across ...

  9. SAT-TAVI (single antiplatelet therapy for TAVI) study: a pilot randomized study comparing double to single antiplatelet therapy for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. (United States)

    Stabile, Eugenio; Pucciarelli, Armando; Cota, Linda; Sorropago, Giovanni; Tesorio, Tullio; Salemme, Luigi; Popusoi, Grigore; Ambrosini, Vittorio; Cioppa, Angelo; Agrusta, Marco; Catapano, Donato; Moscariello, Cesare; Trimarco, Bruno; Esposito, Giovanni; Rubino, Paolo


    Common clinical practice recommends dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The aim of the study was to evaluate, in a double blind randomized study, the safety of TAVI, with adjunctive pharmacotherapy consisting of single antiplatelet therapy. From April 2010 to April 2011, 120 consecutive patients, undergoing TAVI, have been enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to DAPT group (aspirin and clopidogrel 75 mg/qd or ticlopidine 500 mg/bid) or ASA group (aspirin only). TAVI device was the Sapien XT-Novaflex Delivery System (Edwards Lifesciences, Inc.). All patients were followed up to 6 months. Device success was achieved in 100% of patients. No difference in the VARC combined 30 day safety endpoint, all cause and cardiovascular mortality was observed. At 30 days vascular complications were reduced in the ASA group (p<0.05). No differences in the clinical status were detected between the groups up to 6 months. This study suggests that TAVI procedures can be performed without DAPT without increasing the morbidity and mortality. These findings, if confirmed in a larger multicenter randomized trial, will no longer support the use of DAPT for TAVI. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Sliding Control with Chattering Elimination for Hydraulic Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.


    This paper presents the development of a sliding mode control scheme with chattering elimination, generally applicable for position tracking control of electro-hydraulic valve-cylinder drives. The proposed control scheme requires only common data sheet information, no knowledge on load characteri......This paper presents the development of a sliding mode control scheme with chattering elimination, generally applicable for position tracking control of electro-hydraulic valve-cylinder drives. The proposed control scheme requires only common data sheet information, no knowledge on load...... characteristics, and employs piston- and valve spool positions- and load- and supply pressure feedback. The main target is to overcome problems with linear controllers deteriorating performance due to the inherent nonlinear nature of such systems. In order to accomplish this task, an integral sliding mode...

  11. Sliding vane geometry turbines (United States)

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R


    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  12. Valve Disease (United States)

    ... phen and Redux, which were removed from the market after being linked to heart valve disease. An ... have a prosthetic valve made of synthetic material. Beta-blockers control your heart rate and lower your ...

  13. Control Valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Wayne R.


    A control valve includes a first conduit having a first inlet and a first outlet and defining a first passage; a second conduit having a second inlet and a second outlet and defining a second passage, the second conduit extending into the first passage such that the second inlet is located within the first passage; and a valve plate disposed pivotably within the first passage, the valve plate defining a valve plate surface. Pivoting of the valve plate within the first passage varies flow from the first inlet to the first outlet and the valve plate is pivotal between a first position and a second position such that in the first position the valve plate substantially prevents fluid communication between the first passage and the second passage and such that in the second position the valve plate permits fluid communication between the first passage and the second passage.

  14. SlideJ: An ImageJ plugin for automated processing of whole slide images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Della Mea

    Full Text Available The digital slide, or Whole Slide Image, is a digital image, acquired with specific scanners, that represents a complete tissue sample or cytological specimen at microscopic level. While Whole Slide image analysis is recognized among the most interesting opportunities, the typical size of such images-up to Gpixels- can be very demanding in terms of memory requirements. Thus, while algorithms and tools for processing and analysis of single microscopic field images are available, Whole Slide images size makes the direct use of such tools prohibitive or impossible. In this work a plugin for ImageJ, named SlideJ, is proposed with the objective to seamlessly extend the application of image analysis algorithms implemented in ImageJ for single microscopic field images to a whole digital slide analysis. The plugin has been complemented by examples of macro in the ImageJ scripting language to demonstrate its use in concrete situations.

  15. Valve assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandling, M.


    An improved valve assembly, used for controlling the flow of radioactive slurry, is described. Radioactive contamination of the air during removal or replacement of the valve is prevented by sucking air from the atmosphere through a portion of the structure above the valve housing. (U.K.)

  16. Problem: Heart Valve Stenosis (United States)

    ... Understanding Problems and Causes Heart Murmurs and Valve Disease "Innocent" Heart Murmur Problem: Valve Stenosis - Problem: Aortic Valve Stenosis - Problem: Mitral Valve Stenosis - Problem: Tricuspid Valve Stenosis - Problem: Pulmonary Valve Stenosis Problem: Mitral ...

  17. Mitral Valve Prolapse (United States)

    ... Aortic Valve Regurgitation - Problem: Mitral Valve Regurgitation - Problem: Tricuspid Valve Regurgitation - Problem: Pulmonary ... Heart Valve Disease Symptoms Dr. Robert Bonow describes the symptoms that ...

  18. Is tricuspid annuloplasty increasing surgical mortality and morbidity during mitral valve replacement? A single-centre experience. (United States)

    Verdonk, Constance; Darmon, Arthur; Cimadevilla, Claire; Lepage, Laurent; Raffoul, Richard; Nataf, Patrick; Vahanian, Alec; Messika-Zeitoun, David


    Performance of tricuspid annuloplasty (TA) in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery is recommended based on the degree of tricuspid regurgitation and tricuspid annulus size, but is often underused. To evaluate the impact of combined TA on in-hospital outcome in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement (MVR). We selected all consecutive patients who underwent MVR for native valve disease. Clinical, echocardiographic and in-hospital complications were obtained from chart review. We identified 287 patients (mean age 62±17 years; 44% men). Combined TA was performed in 165 patients (57%), who had more rheumatic disease (71% vs. 24%; P<0.0001) and mitral stenosis (55% vs. 22%; P<0.0001), but less endocarditis (4% vs. 31%; P<0.0001), were more often in atrial fibrillation (54% vs. 22%; P<0.0001), were more severely symptomatic (80% vs. 57%; P<0.0001), presented with a higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) (53±16 vs. 45±15mmHg; P=0.0002) and were less likely to have required emergency surgery (17% vs. 38%; P<0.0001). Despite this higher risk profile, in-hospital mortality was slightly lower (5% vs. 13%; P=0.02) and complication rates were similar (redo surgery 22% vs. 16% [P=0.18] and tamponade 20% vs. 15% [P=0.15]). After adjustment for age, sex, functional class, SPAP, emergency surgery and concomitant coronary artery bypass graft or aortic valve replacement surgery, combined TA was not associated with an increased rate of in-hospital death (P=0.08) or major complications (P=0.89). In a consecutive series of patients who underwent MVR, TA did not seem to have a negative impact on immediate outcome. Hence, additional performance of TA at the time of MVR should not be declined on the basis of an increased surgical risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Adaptive super-twisting sliding mode control for a three-phase single-stage grid-connected differential boost inverter based photovoltaic system. (United States)

    Pati, Akshaya K; Sahoo, N C


    This paper presents an adaptive super-twisting sliding mode control (STC) along with double-loop control for voltage tracking performance of three-phase differential boost inverter and DC-link capacitor voltage regulation in grid-connected PV system. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategies are demonstrated under realistic scenarios such as variations in solar insolation, load power demand, grid voltage, and transition from grid-connected to standalone mode etc. Additional supplementary power quality control functions such as harmonic compensation, and reactive power management are also investigated with the proposed control strategy. The results are compared with conventional proportional-integral controller, and PWM sliding mode controller. The system performance is evaluated in simulation and in real-time. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [How to make slides]. (United States)

    Herranz González-Botas, J; Gavilán Bouzas, J


    Quality of oral presentation slides is based on content and design. The most common fault is presentation of slides with too much writing, or with type to small to be seen by the audience. With a few design rules and a minimum of photographic equipment, high quality slides are to be obtain. Slides are projected to be read and communicate an idea, make them nice, simple and readable; there is no need for fancy art works. Format and color are important but not the main point, and they will depend on available material, time and money.

  1. Ross Versus Non-Ross Aortic Valve Replacement in Children: A 22-Year Single Institution Comparison of Outcomes. (United States)

    Brown, John W; Patel, Parth M; Ivy Lin, Jiuann-Huey; Habib, Asma S; Rodefeld, Mark D; Turrentine, Mark W


    The Ross aortic valve replacement (AVR) has been the AVR of choice for children at our center since 1993. Absence or inadequate quality of the pulmonary valve or, less commonly, family or surgeon preference caused us to select an alternative AVR prosthesis for some children. This review compares the outcomes of 42 children who received a non-Ross AVR with 115 children undergoing Ross root replacement at our institution during the most recent 22 years. A retrospective chart review of the 42 pediatric non-Ross AVRs was compared with 115 Ross AVRs. The mean age at AVR was 11.0 ± 6.5 years (range, 1 month to 18 years) for the non-Ross and 11.4 ± 5.5 years (range, 6 weeks to 18 years) for the Ross groups. Follow-up was 7.8 ± 6.2 years for the Ross group and 8.7 ± 6.5 years for the non-Ross group. The Ross AVR technique was modified in 2000; these modifications were applied to 72 patients (63%) of the total Ross AVR group. All-cause early and late mortality of the non-Ross AVR group was 17% compared with 4% for the Ross cohort (p = 0.017). The actuarial survival rate at 20 years for the non-Ross AVR group was 81% compared with 94% for the Ross group (p = 0.018). Reintervention rate was 29% (12/38) in the non-Ross group and 28% (32/115) in the entire Ross group (60% [26/43] before 2000, and 8% [6/72] after 2000). Thromboemboli, bleeding, and endocarditis occurred in 2.4%, 1.4%, and 10% in the non-Ross group compared with 0.9%, 2.6%, and 1.7% in the Ross AVR group (p = 0.46, 0.01, and 0.02), respectively. Patients in the non-Ross group had a significantly higher recurrent or persistent aortic valve gradient (>20 mm Hg) than did patients in the Ross group at most recent follow-up (p Ross AVR than with other types of AVR prostheses. The Ross AVR remains the treatment of choice for children who have an adequate pulmonary valve. Reoperation for Ross root dilatation, regurgitation, or both (only 6% since our modifications in 2000) has markedly reduced the main drawbacks

  2. Comparison between the SAPIEN S3 and the SAPIEN XT transcatheter heart valves: A single-center experience. (United States)

    Sawaya, Fadi J; Spaziano, Marco; Lefèvre, Thierry; Roy, Andrew; Garot, Phillippe; Hovasse, Thomas; Neylon, Antoinette; Benamer, Hakim; Romano, Mauro; Unterseeh, Thierry; Morice, Marie-Claude; Chevalier, Bernard


    To investigate the clinical outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the SAPIEN 3 transcatheter heart valve (S3-THV) vs the SAPIEN XT valve (XT-THV). We retrospectively analyzed 507 patients that underwent TAVI with the XT-THV and 283 patients that received the S3-THV at our institution between March 2010 and December 2015. Thirty-day mortality (3.5% vs 8.7%; OR = 0.44, P = 0.21) and 1-year mortality (25.7% vs 20.1%, P = 0.55) were similar in the S3-THV and the XT-THV groups. The rates of both major vascular complication and paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) > 1 were almost 4 times lower in the S3-THV group than the XT-THV group (major vascular complication: 2.8% vs 9.9%, P 1: 2.4% vs 9.7%, P < 0.0001). However, the rate of new pacemaker implantation was almost twice as high in the S3-THV group (17.3% vs 9.8%, P = 0.03). In the S3 group, independent predictors of new permanent pacemaker were pre-procedural RBBB (OR = 4.9; P = 0.001), pre-procedural PR duration (OR = 1.14, P = 0.05) and device lack of coaxiality (OR = 1.13; P = 0.05) during deployment. The S3-THV is associated to lower rates of major vascular complications and PVR but higher rates of new pacemaker compared to the XT-THV. Sub-optimal visualization of the S3-THV in relation to the aortic valvular complex during deployment is a predictor of new permanent pacemaker.

  3. Valve Repair or Replacement (United States)

    ... Replacement Menu Topics Topics FAQs Valve Repair or Replacement Heart valves play a key role in this ... leaflets with a tissue patch. What is valve replacement? Severe valve damage means the valve must be ...

  4. Mailing microscope slides (United States)

    Many insects feed agriculturally important crops, trees, and ornamental plants and cause millions of dollars of damage annually. Identification for some of these require the preparation of a microscope slide for examination. There are times when a microscope slide may need to be sent away to a speci...

  5. Robotic mitral valve replacement: A single center, medium-long term follow-up of 43 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-peng LIU


    Full Text Available Objective To summarize the surgical experience gained from robotic mitral valve replacement (MVR, and demonstrate the long-term clinical follow-up results. Methods From Jan. 2007 to Jan. 2015, more than 700 patients underwent various types of robotic cardiac surgery in the Department the authors served in, and of them 43 patients underwent robotic MVR with da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, USA. Among the 43 patients, the average age was 47±11 years (ranged 19-65 years, and sex ratio (female to male was 0.8:1. Six patients were with heart function of NYHA class Ⅰ, 30 patients were of NYHA class Ⅱ and 7 patients were of NYHA class Ⅲ. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF were 54%-78% (64.0%±7.1%, and 20 patients had atrial fibrillation on admission, and 35 patients were with rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS. Atrial septal defect (0.7cm in size co-existed in 1 case and 1 patient had mild aortic regurgitation. Mechanical or bioprosthetic mitral valve was replaced via left atriotomy by using da Vinci robotic surgical system after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB set-up. Radiopaque titan clips was employed by Cor-Knot knot-tying device (LSI Solutions, Inc, Victor, NY to anchor the prosthetic valve. Trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE was performed before and after surgery. The operative data were collected and patients were followed up at outpatient clinic regularly up to 6 years. Results All cases were performed successfully with the same surgery. No conversion to median sternotomy or operative mortality occurred. The average operation time was 292±62 minutes (ranged 140-450 minutes with CPB time of 124±26 minutes and aortic occlusion time of 88±21 minutes. The postoperative mechanical ventilation support time was continued for 15±6 hours, and the average staying length in critical care unit was 4±1 days. No myocardial infarction, ventricular tachycardia or excessive bleeding was complicated. All patients were successfully

  6. The outcome after aortic valve-sparing (David) operation in 179 patients: a single-centre experience. (United States)

    Leontyev, Sergey; Trommer, Constanze; Subramanian, Sreekumar; Lehmann, Sven; Dmitrieva, Yaroslava; Misfeld, Martin; Mohr, Friedrich W; Borger, Michael A


    The David aortic valve-sparing reimplantation (AVr-D) operation is increasingly being used in patients with aortic root aneurysmal disease and pliable aortic cusps. The objective of this study was to assess our early and medium-term outcomes with the AVr-D operation. Between 2003 and 2011, a total of 179 patients underwent AVr-D procedures. The mean patient age was 49.7 ± 15.1 years, and 23.5% (n = 42) were females. Marfan syndrome was present in 17.3% of patients (n = 31), and acute Type A aortic dissection in 15.6% (n = 28). Clinical follow-up was 100% complete and was 1.8 ± 1.6 years (0 days to 7.5 years) long. Echocardiographic follow-up was performed 2.2 ± 1.5 years (0 days to 7.5 years) postoperatively and was 77% complete. Early mortality was 1.1% (n = 2), with both deaths occurring in patients with Type A dissection. Pre-discharge echocardiography revealed no patients with >2+ aortic insufficiency (AI), 19.6% of patients (n = 34) with 1+ or 2+ AI and 80.4% of patients (n = 145) with trace or no AI. Left ventricular end-diastolic diameters decreased significantly from 5.6 ± 0.9 to 5.1 ± 0.8 cm early postoperatively (P valve re-replacement during follow-up, two due to early endocarditis and two due to non-coronary leaflet prolapse in Marfan patients. Five-year freedom from aortic valve reoperation was 95.9 ± 2.0%. AVr-D is associated with a low mortality and morbidity rate, even in patients with Type A aortic dissection. Although a slightly higher rate of recurrent AI may be present in patients with Marfan syndrome, freedom from recurrent AI and reoperation remains excellent during medium-term follow-up. The David operation should be considered the gold standard for patients with proximal aortic root pathology (aneurysm or dissection) and pliable aortic cusps.

  7. Nuclear radiation actuated valve (United States)

    Christiansen, David W.; Schively, Dixon P.


    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  8. Mechanics of slide dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.A.


    Studies which promote the use of nuclear energy for peaceful projects in engineering are sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission under the Plowshare program. Specific projects being considered include the construction of harbors, canals, and dams. Of these projects, perhaps the most difficult to accomplish will be the latter. This paper which is in two parts considers the problems which are associated with the construction of slide dams with nuclear explosives. It examines first the characteristics of conventional earth and rock-fill dams which are based upon proven techniques developed after many years of experience. The characteristics of natural landslide dams are also briefly considered to identify potential problems that must be overcome by slide dam construction techniques. Second, the mechanics of slide dams as determined from small-scale laboratory studies are presented. It is concluded that slide dams can be constructed and that small-scale field tests and additional laboratory studies are justified. (author)

  9. Sliding Friction of Copper

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Tung


    .... With less clean surfaces, the coefficient of friction obtained was about 0.4. Since the degree of cleanliness cannot be controlled quantitatively, the friction - load curve of sliding copper pairs in air exhibits a bifurcation characteristic...

  10. Sliding mode control and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Shtessel, Yuri; Fridman, Leonid; Levant, Arie


    The sliding mode control methodology has proven effective in dealing with complex dynamical systems affected by disturbances, uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics. Robust control technology based on this methodology has been applied to many real-world problems, especially in the areas of aerospace control, electric power systems, electromechanical systems, and robotics. Sliding Mode Control and Observation represents the first textbook that starts with classical sliding mode control techniques and progresses toward newly developed higher-order sliding mode control and observation algorithms and their applications. The present volume addresses a range of sliding mode control issues, including: *Conventional sliding mode controller and observer design *Second-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Frequency domain analysis of conventional and second-order sliding mode controllers *Higher-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Higher-order sliding mode observers *Sliding mode disturbanc...

  11. Sliding Mode Control of a Thermal Mixing Process (United States)

    Richter, Hanz; Figueroa, Fernando


    In this paper we consider the robust control of a thermal mixer using multivariable Sliding Mode Control (SMC). The mixer consists of a mixing chamber, hot and cold fluid valves, and an exit valve. The commanded positions of the three valves are the available control inputs, while the controlled variables are total mass flow rate, chamber pressure and the density of the mixture inside the chamber. Unsteady thermodynamics and linear valve models are used in deriving a 5th order nonlinear system with three inputs and three outputs, An SMC controller is designed to achieve robust output tracking in the presence of unknown energy losses between the chamber and the environment. The usefulness of the technique is illustrated with a simulation.

  12. Analysis of Effect of Inlet Swirl In Four Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine With Different Inlet Valve Geometries Using CFD (United States)

    Gobinath, R.; Mathiselvan, G.; Kumarasubramanian, R.


    Flow patterns are essential to ensure that the engine can produce high performance with the presence of swirl and tumble effect inside the engine cylinder. This paper provides the simulation of air is simulated in the software to predict the flow pattern. The flow pattern is simulated by using the steady state pressure based solver. The domain used for the simulations predicated on the particular engine parameters. Mistreatment the CFD problem solver ANSYS FLUENT, the CFD simulation is earned for four totally different geometries of the valve. The geometries consist of Horizontal, Vertical, curve and arc springs. In this simulation, only the intake strokes are simulated. From this results show that the velocity of the air flow is high during the sweeps the intake stroke takes place. This situation is produced more swirls and tumble effect during the compression, hence enhancing the combustion rate in a whole region of the clearance volume of the engine cylinder. This will initiate to the production of tumble and swirl in the engine cylinder.

  13. Robust Control of a Hydraulically Actuated Manipulator Using Sliding Mode Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen


    This paper presents an approach to robust control called sliding mode control (SMC) applied to the a hydraulic servo system (HSS), consisting of a servo valve controlled symmetrical cylinder. The motivation for applying sliding mode control to hydraulically actuated systems is its robustness...... towards structured (parametric) and unstructured (unmodeled dynamics) uncertainties. A third-order model of the actuated system is used to develop a sliding mode control which is implemented and tested on a simulation model. To avoid measurement of velocity and acceleration a simple first-order model...... is furthermore used to develop a simple sliding mode control (SSMC). The performance of the two controllers are compared and discussed....

  14. Incidence, feasibility and outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with a self-expanding prosthesis. Results from a single center experience. (United States)

    Allali, Abdelhakim; El-Mawardy, Mohamed; Schwarz, Bettina; Sato, Takao; Geist, Volker; Toelg, Ralph; Richardt, Gert; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed


    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) can become technically challenging after implantation of the self-expanding Medtronic CoreValve (MCV) device, which completely covers the aortic root. The aim of this study was to report on the incidence, feasibility and outcome of PCI after TAVI with the MCV device. Between 2007 and 2014, all patients subjected to PCI after MCV implantation in a single-center institutional TAVI database were retrospectively identified. Clinical, angiographic and procedural characteristics were reviewed and analyzed. We identified a total of 17 patients (5.7%) treated with 24 PCI procedures for 29 lesions at a median of 17.7months (range 1-72) after MCV implantation. The mean age was 79.7±6.8years and the mean logistic EuroSCORE was 30.3%±18.9%. Nine procedures were performed for patients with acute coronary syndrome. 89.6% of the treated lesions were of type B2/C and 79.3% were de novo ones. A median of one guiding catheter was necessary to intubate the target coronary ostium (range 1-10) and 95% of the lesions on the left coronary artery were treated through a Judkins catheter. In one primary PCI for STEMI the intubation of the right coronary ostium was not successful. Final procedural success was obtained in 95.8%, and peri-procedural death occurred in one patient. The need for PCI after MCV is not uncommon and is mostly related to coronary artery disease progression. PCI after MCV is usually feasible and safe, but coronary intubation in an emergency setting can be challenging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Single calibration multiplane stereo-PIV: the effect of mitral valve orientation on three-dimensional flow in a left ventricle model (United States)

    Saaid, Hicham; Segers, Patrick; Novara, Matteo; Claessens, Tom; Verdonck, Pascal


    The characterization of flow patterns in the left ventricle may help the development and interpretation of flow-based parameters of cardiac function and (patho-)physiology. Yet, in vivo visualization of highly dynamic three-dimensional flow patterns in an opaque and moving chamber is a challenging task. This has been shown in several recent multidisciplinary studies where in vivo imaging methods are often complemented by in silico solutions, or by in vitro methods. Because of its distinctive features, particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been extensively used to investigate flow dynamics in the cardiovascular field. However, full volumetric PIV data in a dynamically changing geometry such as the left ventricle remain extremely scarce, which justifies the present study. An investigation of the left ventricle flow making use of a customized cardiovascular simulator is presented; a multiplane scanning-stereoscopic PIV setup is used, which allows for the measurement of independent planes across the measurement volume. Due to the accuracy in traversing the illumination and imaging systems, the present setup allows to reconstruct the flow in a 3D volume performing only one single calibration. The effects of the orientation of a prosthetic mitral valve in anatomical and anti-anatomical configurations have been investigated during the diastolic filling time. The measurement is performed in a phase-locked manner; the mean velocity components are presented together with the vorticity and turbulent kinetic energy maps. The reconstructed 3D flow structures downstream the bileaflet mitral valve are shown, which provides additional insight of the highly three-dimensional flow.

  16. Corrosion of amalgams under sliding wear. (United States)

    Lian, K; Meletis, E I


    During mastication, dental amalgams are simultaneously subjected to corrosion by the oral environment and to a sliding-wear process by biting forces. In the present study, the effect of sliding wear on the corrosion behavior of two high-copper dental amalgams was investigated. An experimental apparatus was utilized that allows electrochemical testing under sliding-wear conditions. Corrosion potential measurements and anodic polarization scans were conducted in 0.1 M NaCl solution under sliding wear to characterize the behavior of two commercial, high-copper, single composition dental amalgams. In addition, long duration tests were conducted to assess possible corrosion and wear synergistic effects. The results showed that sliding wear caused a sharp reduction in the corrosion potential, a significant increase in the corrosion rate and a decrease in the repassivation rate of both amalgams. These effects are due to the mechanical removal by the wear process of the surface protective film formed on dental amalgams. The simultaneous action of sliding wear and corrosion can also induce embrittlement that leads to cracking. The present evidence suggests that this cracking may be one of the major contributors to marginal failures of dental amalgam restorations.

  17. The role of the heart team in complicated transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a 7-year single-centre experience. (United States)

    Kiefer, Philipp; Seeburger, Jörg; Noack, Thilo; Schröter, Thomas; Linke, Axel; Schuler, Gerhard; Haensig, Martin; Vollroth, Marcel; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Holzhey, David Michael


    European guidelines recommend to perform transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) within a multidisciplinary heart team. However, there is a strong drive--despite existing guidelines--to perform TAVI outside of specialized centres. The aim of this study was to clarify the necessity of on-site cardiac surgery by providing a clear insight into the complications during/after TAVI that needed surgical management. A total of 2287 (1523 transfemoral, 752 transapical and 12 transaortic) patients, with a mean age of 84.5 ± 5.3 years, and a mean log EuroSCORE of 21.7 ± 16.3, of which 205 were female (84%), underwent TAVI since February 2006 at our institution. All procedure-related complications that required surgical interventions, whether immediate or delayed but within the initial hospital stay, were recorded and retrospectively analysed. Out of this cohort, 245 (10.7%) patients required surgical treatment due to major complications. A total of 42 patients (1.8%) underwent conversion to full sternotomy and 27 (1.2%) were dependent on the short-term use of the heart-lung machine. Vascular complications with surgical intervention were seen in 85 patients (3.7%), 54 patients (2.4%) had to have a rethoracotomy within their initial stay and 15 (0.7%) required a cardiac reoperation. Severe complications during TAVI that can only be resolved surgically will continue to occur. Therefore, each TAVI procedure should be conducted or accompanied by a cardiac surgeon and an experienced team within a specialized centre. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  18. Prosthetic valve endocarditis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Thue; De Backer, Ole; Thyregod, Hans G H


    or worse postprocedural paravalvular regurgitation (hazard ratio, 4.0 [1.5-11]), implantation of >1 prosthesis (hazard ratio, 5.2 [1.5-18]), and any vascular complication (hazard ratio, 3.8 [1.5-9.8]). CONCLUSIONS: TAVI-PVE occurred at a slightly higher rate than reported for surgically implanted valves...... risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Observational single-center study of 509 consecutive patients treated with a transcatheter implanted self-expandable aortic valve prosthesis (Medtronic CoreValve). We identified 18 patients diagnosed with TAVI-PVE during a median follow-up period of 1.4 years...

  19. The Freedom SOLO bovine pericardial stentless valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanger O


    Full Text Available Olaf Stanger, Hendrik Tevaearai, Thierry Carrel Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Berne, Switzerland Abstract: The third-generation bovine pericardium Freedom SOLO (FS stentless valve emerged in 2004 as a modified version of the Pericarbon Freedom stentless valve and as a very attractive alternative to stented bioprostheses. The design, choice of tissue, and anticalcification treatment fulfill most, if not all, requirements for an ideal valve substitute. The FS combines the single-suture, subcoronary implantation technique with the latest-generation bovine pericardial tissue and novel anticalcification treatment. The design allows imitation of the native healthy valve through unrestricted adaption to the patient's anatomy, reproducing a normal valve/root complex. However, despite hemodynamic performance superior to stented valves, we are approaching a critical observation period as superior durability, freedom from structural valve deterioration, and nonstructural failure has not been proven as expected. However, optimal performance and freedom from structural valve deterioration depend on correct sizing and perfect symmetric implantation, to ensure low leaflet stress. Any malpositioning can lead to tissue fatigue over time. Furthermore, the potential for better outcomes depends on optimal patient selection and observance of the limitations for the use of stentless valves, particularly for the FS. Clearly, stentless valve implantation techniques are less reproducible and standardized, and require surgeon-dependent experience and skill. Regardless of whether or not stentless valve durability surpasses third-generation stented bioprostheses, they will continue to play a role in the surgical repertoire. This review intends to help practitioners avoid pitfalls, observe limitations, and improve patient selection for optimal long-term outcome with the attractive FS stentless valve. Keywords: aortic valve, bioprosthesis, cardiac

  20. Concomitant anterior and posterior urethral valves in pediatrics: A single center experience over 12 years and long-term follow up after endoscopic treatment. (United States)

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Hosseini Sharifi, Seyed Hossein; Keihani, Sorena; Soltani, Mohammad Hossein; Tajali, Afshin; Salavati, Alborz; Payabvash, Seyedmehdi; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad


    To report our 12-year experience with endoscopic management of patients with concomitant anterior and posterior urethral valves. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients referred to us for management of urethral valves from 2000 to 2012 to find cases with concomitant anterior and posterior valves. The diagnosis of valves was first suspected on voiding cystourethrography and confirmed by urethrocystoscopy. We collected available data on patients' age at diagnosis, clinical presentations, ultrasound and urodynamic findings, and surgical treatments. The final outcome at last follow up was also recorded. From 38 cases with anterior urethral valve, six (15.8%) presented concomitant anterior and posterior valves. The age at diagnosis in these patients ranged from antenatal diagnosis to 13 years. Initial presenting symptoms were recurrent urinary tract infection, incontinence, urosepsis and poor urinary stream. All valves were ablated by transurethral fulguration/resection using small-sized urethrocystoscopes. Among those with concomitant anterior and posterior valves, four patients had vesicoureteral reflux at presentation that resolved in two patients after valve ablation. One patient progressed to renal failure and required dialysis. Bladder hypercontractility and detrusor overactivity were the main urodynamic patterns in these patients. Concomitant anterior and posterior valves seem to be more prevalent than previously assumed, and might be missed on initial assessment. Oblique view voiding cystourethrography with full-length delineation of the urethra is of paramount diagnostic importance when obstruction is suspected. A meticulous urethrocystoscopy should follow for confirming the diagnosis and endoscopic ablation/resection of the valves. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  1. Expected sliding distance of vertical slit caisson breakwater (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyawn


    Evaluating the expected sliding distance of a vertical slit caisson breakwater is proposed. Time history for the wave load to a vertical slit caisson is made. It consists of two impulsive wave pressures followed by a smooth sinusoidal pressure. In the numerical analysis, the sliding distance for an attack of single wave was shown and the expected sliding distance during 50 years was also presented. Those results were compared with a vertical front caisson breakwater without slit. It was concluded that the sliding distance of a vertical slit caisson may be over-estimated if the wave pressure on the caisson is evaluated without considering vertical slit.

  2. Diseases of the Tricuspid Valve (United States)

    ... Valve Menu Topics Topics FAQs Diseases of the Tricuspid Valve Diseases of the heart valves are grouped according to ... heart valves , tricuspid incompetence , tricuspid insufficiency , tricuspid regurgitation , tricuspid ... Links MedlinePlus | Tricuspid Regurgitation Valve Disease Valve ...

  3. Variable Valve Actuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Gutterman; A. J. Lasley


    the mechanism it was determined that the single cam design did not have enough flexibility to satisfy three critical OEM requirements simultaneously, (maximum valve lift variation, intake valve opening timing and valve closing duration), and a new approach would be necessary. After numerous internal design reviews including several with the OEM a dual cam design was developed that had the flexibility to meet all motion requirements. The second cam added complexity to the mechanism however the cost was offset by the deletion of the electric motor required in the previous design. New patent applications including detailed drawings and potential valve motion profiles were generated and alternate two cam designs were proposed and evaluated for function, cost, reliability and durability. Hardware was designed and built and testing of sample hardware was successfully completed on an engine test stand. The mechanism developed during the course of this investigation can be applied by Original Equipment Manufacturers, (OEM), to their advanced diesel engines with the ultimate goal of reducing emissions and improving fuel economy. The objectives are: (1) Develop an optimal, cost effective, variable valve actuation (VVA) system for advanced low temperature diesel combustion processes. (2) Design and model alternative mechanical approaches and down-select for optimum design. (3) Build and demonstrate a mechanism capable of application on running engines.

  4. Valve's Way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Dobrajska, Magdalena


    Puranam and Håkonsson (2015) challenge us to ponder what we as organization design theorists make of Valve’s way (see also Jeppesen, 2008). We believe that Valve, in spite of its radical vision, does not represent a challenge to fundamental organization design theory and that it is questionable...

  5. Vacuum Valve

    CERN Multimedia


    This valve was used in the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) to protect against the shock waves that would be caused if air were to enter the vacuum tube. Some of the ISR chambers were very fragile, with very thin walls - a design required by physicists on the lookout for new particles.

  6. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Keating

    Full Text Available We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics.

  7. NEMD simulations for ductile metal sliding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerberg, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ravelo, Ramon J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holian, Brad L [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We have studied the sliding behavior for a 19 M Al(110)/Al(110) defective crystal at 15 GPa as a function of relative sliding velocity. The general features are qualitatively similar to smaller scale (1.4 M) atom simulations for Al(111)/Al(110) nondefective single crystal sliding. The critical velocity, v{sub c}, is approximately the same for the defective crystal as the size scaled v{sub c}. The lower velocity tangential force is depressed relative to the perfect crystal. The critical temperature, T*, is depressed relative to the perfect crystal. These conclusions are consistent with a lower value for f{sub c} for the defective crystal. The detailed features of structural transformation and the high velocity regime remain to be mapped.

  8. Haemodynamic consequences of targeted single- and dual-site right ventricular pacing in adults with congenital heart disease undergoing surgical pulmonary valve replacement (United States)

    Plymen, Carla M.; Finlay, Malcolm; Tsang, Victor; O'leary, Justin; Picaut, Nathalie; Cullen, Shay; Walker, Fiona; Deanfield, John E; Hsia, T.Y.; Bolger, Aidan P.; Lambiase, Pier D.


    Aims The purpose of this study was to create an epicardial electroanatomic map of the right ventricle (RV) and then apply post-operative-targeted single- and dual-site RV temporary pacing with measurement of haemodynamic parameters. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is an established treatment for symptomatic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. In congenital heart disease, RV dysfunction is a common cause of morbidity—little is known regarding the potential benefits of CRT in this setting. Methods and results Sixteen adults (age = 32 ± 8 years; 6 M, 10 F) with right bundle branch block (RBBB) and repaired tetralogy of Fallot (n = 8) or corrected congenital pulmonary stenosis (n = 8) undergoing surgical pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) for pulmonary regurgitation underwent epicardial RV mapping and haemodynamic assessment of random pacing configurations including the site of latest RV activation. The pre-operative pulmonary regurgitant fraction was 49 ± 10%; mean LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) 85 ± 19 mL/min/m2 and RVEDV 183 ± 89 mL/min/m2 on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The mean pre-operative QRS duration is 136 ± 26 ms. The commonest site of latest activation was the RV free wall and DDD pacing here alone or combined with RV apical pacing resulted in significant increases in cardiac output (CO) vs. AAI pacing (P < 0.01 all measures). DDDRV alternative site pacing significantly improved CO by 16% vs. AAI (P = 0.018), and 8.5% vs. DDDRV apical pacing (P = 0.02). Conclusion Single-site RV pacing targeted to the region of latest activation in patients with RBBB undergoing PVR induces acute improvements in haemodynamics and supports the concept of ‘RV CRT’. Targeted pacing in such patients has therapeutic potential both post-operatively and in the long term. PMID:25371427

  9. Wheel slip control of ABS using ER valve pressure modulator (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Cho, Myung-Soo; Kim, Yong-Il; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M.


    This paper presents a wheel slip control via sliding mode controller for a new anti-lock brake system (ABS) of a passenger vehicle using electrorheological (ER) valve pressure modulator. The principal design parameters of the ER valves and hydraulic booster are appropriately determined by considering braking pressure variation during ABS operation. An electrically controllable pressure modulator using the ER valves is then constructed and its governing equations are derived. Subsequently, the pressure control performance of the new pressure modulator is experimentally evaluated. The governing equations of motion for a quarter car wheel model are derived and the sliding mode controller is formulated for wheel slip control. Hardware in the loop simulation (HILS) for braking performance evaluation is undertaken in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ABS associated with the ER valve pressure modulator.

  10. Preparing Slide Presentations on Computers. (United States)

    Elberfeld, John K.


    Suggest use of well-organized slide presentation as effective way to introduce computers to large audiences and discusses how to get started--state objective, analyze audience, outline presentation, prepare slides--and equipment needed to obtain slides from television screens, miniature components, and book illustrations. References and sources…

  11. Second Order Sliding Mode Control with Prescribed Convergence Law for Electro-Hydraulic Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.


    This paper discusses the application of second order sliding modes for position tracking control of electro-hydraulic valve-cylinder drives (VCD’s). The target is to introduce increased tracking- and transient performance compared to conventional linear approaches, without extending the number...... of tuning parameters. The proposed controller utilizes basic component knowledge commonly available from data sheets, as well as pressure-, valve position-, piston position- and velocity measurements. Results demonstrate improved position tracking- and transient performance, compared to a linear control...

  12. Presentation = Speech + Slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derik Badman


    Full Text Available Back in October, Aaron Schmidt posted “HOWTO give a good presentation” to his blog walking paper. His second bullet point of “thoughts” on good presentations is: Please don’t fill your slides with words. Find some relevant and pretty pictures to support what you’re saying. You can use the pictures to remind yourself what you’re going [...

  13. Aortic valve bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens T; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Arendrup, Henrik


    In aortic valve bypass (AVB) a valve-containing conduit is connecting the apex of the left ventricle to the descending aorta. Candidates are patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis rejected for conventional aortic valve replacement (AVR) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). ...

  14. Slide system for machine tools (United States)

    Douglass, S.S.; Green, W.L.


    The present invention relates to a machine tool which permits the machining of nonaxisymmetric surfaces on a workpiece while rotating the workpiece about a central axis of rotation. The machine tool comprises a conventional two-slide system (X-Y) with one of these slides being provided with a relatively short travel high-speed auxiliary slide which carries the material-removing tool. The auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle speed and the position of the other two slides and provides a high-speed reciprocating motion required for the displacement of the cutting tool for generating a nonaxisymmetric surface at a selected location on the workpiece.

  15. Pump arrangement Comprising a Savety Valve


    Richter, M.; Kruckow, J.


    A pump arrangement comprises a pump (20) having a pump inlet (22) and a pump outlet (24), which are designed to pump a fluid from the pump inlet to the pump outlet, and it further comprises a safety valve (40), which is disposed between the pump outlet (24) and an outlet (48) of the pump arrangement and comprises a valve set (42) and a valve cover (44). The valve seat, the pump outlet, and the pump inlet are structured in a first surface of a first single-piece part (14) of the pump arrangeme...

  16. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007684.htm Transcatheter aortic valve replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is surgery to replace the aortic valve. ...

  17. Aortic Valve Disease (United States)

    ... It is then replaced with an artificial valve (prosthesis). There are two valve options for aortic valve ... place, the catheter will be withdrawn from your body through the original access point. Because not all ...

  18. Particle Impact Ignition Test Data on a Stainless Steel Hand Valve (United States)

    Peralta, Stephen


    This slide presentation reviews the particle impact ignition test of a stainless steel hand valve. The impact of particles is a real fire hazard with stainless steel hand valves, however 100 mg of particulate can be tolerated. Since it is unlikely that 100 mg of stainless steel contaminant particles can be simultaneously released into this type of valve in the WSTF configuration, this is acceptable and within statistical confidence as demonstrated by testing.

  19. What Is Heart Valve Disease? (United States)

    ... Heart Valves Sometimes heart valves can’t be repaired and must be replaced. This surgery involves removing the faulty valve and replacing it with a man-made or biological valve. Biological valves are made ...

  20. SLIDES: a program to draw slides and posters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, R.; Schofield, J.


    SLIDES is a program which takes text and commands as input and prepares lettered slides and posters. When run on the time-sharing computer, the program can display its output on an interactive graphics terminal; in batch, it can direct its graphical output to a variety of plotters. The program uses DISSPLA graphical subroutines and standard ANL plotter subroutines. This report contains material written for the beginning user, who should be able to produce useful slides or posters by following the examples. This report also serves as a complete reference for the SLIDES program. 4 figures.

  1. Influence of the single EGR valve usability on development of the charge directed to individual cylinders of an internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krakowian Konrad


    Full Text Available Exhaust gas recirculation systems (EGR, aside to a catalytic converters, are nowadays widely used in piston internal combustion engines to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx in the exhaust gas. They are characterized in that a portion of exhaust gases from the exhaust manifold is recirculated (via a condenser, and directed to a particular valve. The valve, depending on the current engine load and speed, doses the appropriate amount of exhaust gas into the exhaust manifold. Moreover, its location has a significant impact on the diverse formation of nitrogen oxides and fumes smokiness from the individual cylinders of the engine, which is a result of uneven propagation of exhaust gas into the channels of the intake manifold. This article contains the results of numerical characterized charges formed in symmetrical intake manifold with a centrally–placed EGR valve. Simulations were performed for the original intake system derived from the two-liter, turbocharged VW diesel engine.

  2. Influence of the single EGR valve usability on development of the charge directed to individual cylinders of an internal combustion engine (United States)

    Krakowian, Konrad; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Górniak, Aleksander; Wróbel, Radosław


    Exhaust gas recirculation systems (EGR), aside to a catalytic converters, are nowadays widely used in piston internal combustion engines to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the exhaust gas. They are characterized in that a portion of exhaust gases from the exhaust manifold is recirculated (via a condenser), and directed to a particular valve. The valve, depending on the current engine load and speed, doses the appropriate amount of exhaust gas into the exhaust manifold. Moreover, its location has a significant impact on the diverse formation of nitrogen oxides and fumes smokiness from the individual cylinders of the engine, which is a result of uneven propagation of exhaust gas into the channels of the intake manifold. This article contains the results of numerical characterized charges formed in symmetrical intake manifold with a centrally-placed EGR valve. Simulations were performed for the original intake system derived from the two-liter, turbocharged VW diesel engine.

  3. Investigations on pneumatically forced-actuated compressor valves (United States)

    Stöckel, Christian; Thomas, Christiane; Nickl, Jörg; Hesse, Ullrich


    In the present paper the performance of a novel designed valve for reciprocating piston machines is investigated, which makes existing compressors utilizable for operating as expander. Three design parameters were identified as critical for the valves performance particularly in forced actuated mode. Within a numerical simulation a study on the crucial geometrical parameters, the influence could be observed. Afterwards the experimental setup for the integral test of the valve design is presented and also additional tests for single valve components.

  4. Selective patient experience with the Blom-Singer Dual Valve voice prosthesis. (United States)

    Brownlee, Ben; Ahmad, Saniya; Grammer, Tracy; Krempl, Greg


    This study compares the overall durability, phonation effort, and speech quality achieved by the Blom-Singer Dual Valve prosthesis to the same characteristics achieved by the single-valve prosthesis used in a select population of total laryngectomy patients who have demonstrated single-valve prosthesis failure within 3 months of placement. Prospective phase IV study. Fourteen patients who had previously experienced early valve failure using a single-valve prosthesis had a Dual Valve placed by a speech language pathologist. A total of seventeen Dual Valves were inserted during routine clinical visits for valve replacement. Time intervals from insertion to replacement of the Dual Valve, as well as the average lifespan of patients' three previous single valves were collected. Subjective, categorical responses to speech quality and phonation effort for the Dual Valve compared to the single valve were collected on a questionnaire upon failure of the device. The mean duration of the single valve was 60 days, with a median of 51 days, whereas the mean duration of the Dual Valve was 164 days, with a median duration of 84 days. Both sets of data were statistically significant, with a P value of .0131. Valve life was increased in 86% of patients, with 43% experiencing greater than 150 days improvement in valve duration when using the Dual Valve. Phonation effort was increased in 14% of patients, and speech quality was not significantly affected in any patients. In this select population, the Dual Valve offers improved durability over the single valve without sacrificing speech quality, making it a preferred prosthesis option for patients experiencing single-valve failure in less than 3 months. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:422-426, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Gravity Slides With Magnetic Braking (United States)

    Goodrick, Thomas F.


    Slides with magnetic braking enable safe emergency descent from tall buildings, fire-truck ladders, towers, and like. According to concept, slide includes sled that moves along stationary aluminum track tilted against top of building. Sled holds set of permanent magnets at preset small distance from surface of track. Passenger stands on, sits on, or strapped to platform on sled. Release device at top of slide holds sled in place until passenger prepared for descent.

  6. Super Twisting Second Order Sliding Mode Control for Position Tracking Control of Hydraulic Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.


    In this paper a control strategy based on second order sliding modes, generally applicable for position tracking control of electro-hydraulic valve-cylinder drives (VCD), is proposed. The main target is to overcome problems with linear controllers deteriorating performance due to the strong...

  7. Microfluidic sieve valves (United States)

    Quake, Stephen R; Marcus, Joshua S; Hansen, Carl L


    Sieve valves for use in microfluidic device are provided. The valves are useful for impeding the flow of particles, such as chromatography beads or cells, in a microfluidic channel while allowing liquid solution to pass through the valve. The valves find particular use in making microfluidic chromatography modules.

  8. Remote actuated valve implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Timothy E.; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Kenneth J.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S.; Wilgen, John B.; Evans, Boyd Mccutchen


    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  9. Remote actuated valve implant (United States)

    McKnight, Timothy E; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Jr., Kenneth J; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S; Wilgen, John B; Evans, III, Boyd McCutchen


    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  10. Tissue engineered aortic valve


    Dohmen, P M


    Several prostheses are available to replace degenerative diseased aortic valves with unique advantages and disadvantages. Bioprotheses show excellent hemodynamic behavior and low risk of thromboembolic complications, but are limited by tissue deterioration. Mechanical heart valves have extended durability, but permanent anticoagulation is mandatory. Tissue engineering created a new generation heart valve, which overcome limitations of biological and mechanical heart valves due to remodelling,...

  11. No sliding in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtengel, Kirill; Nayak, Chetan; Bishara, Waheb; Chamon, Claudio


    In this letter, we analyse the following apparent paradox: as has been recently proved by Hastings (2004 Phys. Rev. 69 104431), under a general set of conditions, if a local Hamiltonian has a spectral gap above its (unique) ground state (GS), all connected equal-time correlation functions of local operators decay exponentially with distance. On the other hand, statistical mechanics provides us with examples of 3D models displaying so-called sliding phases (O'Hern et al 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 2745) which are characterized by the algebraic decay of correlations within 2D layers and exponential decay in the third direction. Interpreting this third direction as time would imply a gap in the corresponding (2+1)D quantum Hamiltonian which would seemingly contradict Hastings' theorem. The resolution of this paradox lies in the non-locality of such a quantum Hamiltonian. (letter to the editor)

  12. Robust Non-Chattering Observer Based Sliding Control Concept for Electro-Hydraulic Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.


    This paper presents an observer-based sliding mode control concept with chattering reduction, generally applicable for position tracking control of electro-hydraulic valve-cylinder drives (VCD's). The proposed control concept requires only common data sheet information and no knowledge on load...... characteristics. Furthermore the proposed scheme only employ pistonand valve spool positions- and pressure feedback, commonly available in industry. The main target is to overcome problems with linear controllers deteriorating performance due to the inherent nonlinear nature of such systems, without requiring...... extensive knowledge on system parameters nor advanced control theory. In order to accomplish this task, an integral sliding mode controller designed for the control derivative employing state observation is proposed, based on a generalized reduced order model structure of a VCD with unmatched valve ow...

  13. Slide Buyers Guide. 1974 Edition. (United States)

    DeLaurier, Nancy

    Designed for studio art instructors, museum education programs, public libraries, high school teachers, and those who buy slides for teaching art history at the college level, this guide lists sources of slides in the United States and over 20 foreign countries. All U.S. sources are listed first, commercial sources are alphabetical by name and…

  14. Second Order Sliding Mode Controller Design for Pneumatic Artificial Muscle


    Ammar Al-Jodah; Laith Khames


    In this paper, first and second order sliding mode controllers are designed for a single link robotic arm actuated by two Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAMs). A new mathematical model for the arm has been developed based on the model of large scale pneumatic muscle actuator model. Uncertainty in parameters has been presented and tested for the two controllers. The simulation results of the second-order sliding mode controller proves to have a low tracking error and chattering effect as compar...

  15. Hydraulic High Pressure Valve Controller Using the In-Situ Pressure Difference (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Hall, Jeffery L. (Inventor)


    A hydraulic valve controller that uses an existing pressure differential as some or all of the power source for valve operation. In a high pressure environment, such as downhole in an oil or gas well, the pressure differential between the inside of a pipe and the outside of the pipe may be adequately large to drive a linear slide valve. The valve is operated hydraulically by a piston in a bore. When a higher pressure is applied to one end of the bore and a lower pressure to the other end, the piston moves in response to the pressure differential and drives a valve attached to it. If the pressure differential is too small to drive the piston at a sufficiently high speed, a pump is provided to generate a larger pressure differential to be applied. The apparatus is conveniently constructed using multiport valves, which can be rotary valves.

  16. Simulations of atomic-scale sliding friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Stoltze, Per


    Simulation studies of atomic-scale sliding friction have been performed for a number of tip-surface and surface-surface contacts consisting of copper atoms. Both geometrically very simple tip-surface structures and more realistic interface necks formed by simulated annealing have been studied....... Kinetic friction is observed to be caused by atomic-scale Stick and slip which occurs by nucleation and subsequent motion of dislocations preferably between close-packed {111} planes. Stick and slip seems ro occur in different situations. For single crystalline contacts without grain boundaries...... at the interface the stick and slip process is clearly observed for a large number of contact areas, normal loads, and sliding velocities. If the tip and substrate crystal orientations are different so that a mismatch exists in the interface, the stick and slip process is more fragile. It is then caused by local...

  17. T-Slide Linear Actuators (United States)

    Vranish, John


    T-slide linear actuators use gear bearing differential epicyclical transmissions (GBDETs) to directly drive a linear rack, which, in turn, performs the actuation. Conventional systems use a rotary power source in conjunction with a nut and screw to provide linear motion. Non-back-drive properties of GBDETs make the new actuator more direct and simpler. Versions of this approach will serve as a long-stroke, ultra-precision, position actuator for NASA science instruments, and as a rugged, linear actuator for NASA deployment duties. The T slide can operate effectively in the presence of side forces and torques. Versions of the actuator can perform ultra-precision positioning. A basic T-slide actuator is a long-stroke, rack-and-pinion linear actuator that, typically, consists of a T-slide, several idlers, a transmission to drive the slide (powered by an electric motor) and a housing that holds the entire assembly. The actuator is driven by gear action on its top surface, and is guided and constrained by gear-bearing idlers on its other two parallel surfaces. The geometry, implemented with gear-bearing technology, is particularly effective. An electronic motor operating through a GBDET can directly drive the T slide against large loads, as a rack and pinion linear actuator, with no break and no danger of back driving. The actuator drives the slide into position and stops. The slide holes position with power off and no brake, regardless of load. With the T slide configuration, this GBDET has an entire T-gear surface on which to operate. The GB idlers coupling the other two T slide parallel surfaces to their housing counterpart surfaces provide constraints in five degrees-of-freedom and rolling friction in the direction of actuation. Multiple GB idlers provide roller bearing strength sufficient to support efficient, rolling friction movement, even in the presence of large, resisting forces. T-slide actuators can be controlled using the combination of an off

  18. The management of vesicoureteral reflux in the setting of posterior urethral valve with emphasis on bladder function and renal outcome: a single center cohort study. (United States)

    Tourchi, Ali; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Aryan, Zahra; Ebadi, Maryam


    To represent our experience in the management of posterior urethral valves and concomitant vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). A total of 326 children with posterior urethral valve who had underwent valve ablation/bladder neck incision were studied, and those who had persistent VUR and were categorized under 3 main groups were followed up. Group 1 (n = 71) received prophylactic antibiotic, group 2 (n = 50) underwent Deflux injection (2a) (n = 28): Deflux injection alone, group 2b (n = 22) Deflux with concomitant autologous blood injection (HABIT), and group 3 (n = 19) underwent ureteroneocystostomy before referral and was followed up conservatively. VUR resolution, incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI), and bladder function were assessed. Mean duration of follow-up was 3.8 years; VUR resolution occurred in 66.1%, 86.0%, and 94.0% of groups 1-3, respectively (P = .013). Resolution rate in group 2b was significantly higher than group 2a (90.9% vs 78.5%). Patients in group 2 experienced a longer UTI-free period compared with others (P <.05). Urodynamic studies demonstrated significant decrease in maximum voiding detrusor pressure and detrusor overactivity in all groups (P <.001). Children in group 3 ended up with lower compliance compared with others (P <.001). After toilet training, only 2.8%, 21.4%, 13.6%, and 27% children were diagnosed with lower urinary tract dysfunction in groups 1-3, respectively (P = .027). Myogenic failure developed only in 3 boys in group 3. Ablation/bladder neck incision leads to significant improvement in VUR status in part because of improvement in bladder function. After successful valve removal, conservative therapy can be regarded as the mainstay of reflux treatment, whereas HABIT is recommended for high grade VUR associated with febrile UTI or deterioration in renal function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Which valve is which?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Saxena


    Full Text Available A 25-year-old man presented with a history of breathlessness for the past 2 years. He had a history of operation for Tetralogy of Fallot at the age of 5 years and history suggestive of Rheumatic fever at the age of 7 years. On echocardiographic examination, all his heart valves were severely regurgitating. Morphologically, all the valves were irreparable. The ejection fraction was 35%. He underwent quadruple valve replacement. The aortic and mitral valves were replaced by metallic valve and the tricuspid and pulmonary by tissue valve.

  20. SurfaceSlide: a multitouch digital pathology platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinhai Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Digital pathology provides a digital environment for the management and interpretation of pathological images and associated data. It is becoming increasing popular to use modern computer based tools and applications in pathological education, tissue based research and clinical diagnosis. Uptake of this new technology is stymied by its single user orientation and its prerequisite and cumbersome combination of mouse and keyboard for navigation and annotation. METHODOLOGY: In this study we developed SurfaceSlide, a dedicated viewing platform which enables the navigation and annotation of gigapixel digitised pathological images using fingertip touch. SurfaceSlide was developed using the Microsoft Surface, a 30 inch multitouch tabletop computing platform. SurfaceSlide users can perform direct panning and zooming operations on digitised slide images. These images are downloaded onto the Microsoft Surface platform from a remote server on-demand. Users can also draw annotations and key in texts using an on-screen virtual keyboard. We also developed a smart caching protocol which caches the surrounding regions of a field of view in multi-resolutions thus providing a smooth and vivid user experience and reducing the delay for image downloading from the internet. We compared the usability of SurfaceSlide against Aperio ImageScope and PathXL online viewer. CONCLUSION: SurfaceSlide is intuitive, fast and easy to use. SurfaceSlide represents the most direct, effective and intimate human-digital slide interaction experience. It is expected that SurfaceSlide will significantly enhance digital pathology tools and applications in education and clinical practice.

  1. What Is Heart Valve Surgery? (United States)

    ... working correctly. Most valve replacements involve the aortic Tricuspid valve and mitral valves. The aortic valve separates the ... in life and cause problems. •Aging can make valves weaken or harden. • Certain diseases can scar or destroy a valve. What can ...

  2. Sliding hiatal hernia in dogs




    Introduction Sliding hiatal hernia is a disorder resulting from a displacement of the abdominal part of the oesophagus and/or a part of the stomach into the thoracic cavity through the oesophageal hiatus of the diaphragm. The disorder may be congenital or acquired. Congenital hernia follows disturbances in the embryonic development. In the literature the predisposition to congenital sliding hiatal hernia is observed in the dogs of shar-pei and chow-chow breeds. Pathogenesis of acquired slidin...

  3. Corrosion of valve metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draley, J.E.


    A general survey related to the corrosion of valve metals or film-forming metals. The way these metals corrode with some general examples is described. Valve metals form relatively perfect oxide films with little breakdown or leakage when anodized

  4. A case of SAPIEN XT valve fallen into left ventricle during valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve implantation. (United States)

    Koizumi, Shigeki; Ehara, Natsuhiko; Nishiya, Kenta; Koyama, Tadaaki


    Late transcatheter heart valve embolization is a rare but life-threatening complication of transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Surgical intervention is performed for most cases, but some cases were treated by valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve implantation. We describe a patient in whom a 29-mm Edwards SAPIEN XT valve migrated into the left ventricular outflow tract 41 days after the initial implantation. We tried to perform valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve implantation using a transfemoral approach. As soon as the second transcatheter heart valve touched the first implanted valve, it fell into the left ventricle. Immediate surgical intervention was required. The first valve was removed, and surgical aortic valve replacement was successfully performed. In conclusion, we should choose surgical aortic valve replacement for late transcatheter heart valve embolization. Even if we need to treat by catheter intervention, transapical approach may be better.

  5. Aortic valve surgery - open (United States)

    ... while you are connected to this machine. This machine does the work of your heart while your heart is stopped. If your aortic valve is too damaged, you will need a new valve. This is called replacement surgery. Your surgeon will remove your aortic valve ...

  6. Bicuspid Aortic Valve (United States)


    with tricuspid aortic valves matched for age, gender and grade of valvular disease . These studies suggest that the predisposition for aortic...enlargement in healthy patients with normally functioning BAV when compared to healthy subjects with normally functioning tricuspid aortic valves ...ascending aorta but also in the pulmonary arteries of patients with BAV, compared to that of patients with tricuspid aortic valves . These studies

  7. Heart Valve Diseases (United States)

    Your heart has four valves. Normally, these valves open to let blood flow through or out of your heart, and then shut to keep it from flowing ... close tightly. It's one of the most common heart valve conditions. Sometimes it causes regurgitation. Stenosis - when ...

  8. When a Heart Murmur Signals Valve Disease (United States)

    ... Understanding Problems and Causes Heart Murmurs and Valve Disease "Innocent" Heart Murmur Problem: Valve Stenosis - Problem: Aortic Valve Stenosis - Problem: Mitral Valve Stenosis - Problem: Tricuspid Valve Stenosis - Problem: Pulmonary Valve Stenosis Problem: Mitral ...

  9. Double MgO-based Perpendicular Magnetic-Tunnel-Junction Spin-valve Structure with a Top Co2Fe6B2Free Layer using a Single SyAF [Co/Pt]nLayer. (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Dong-Gi; Baek, Jong-Ung; Park, Jea-Gun


    A new perpendicular spin-transfer-torque magnetic-tunnel-junction (p-MTJ) spin-valve was developed to achieve a high tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio. It had a double MgO-based spin-valve structure with a top Co 2 Fe 6 B 2 free layer and incorporated a single SyAF [Co(0.4 nm)/Pt(0.3 nm)] 3 layer and a new buffer layer of Co(0.6)/Pt(0.3)/Co(0.4). It had a TMR ratio of 180% and anisotropy exchange field (H ex ) of 3.44 kOe after ex-situ annealing of 350 °C for 30 min under a vacuum below 10 -6 torr and a perpendicular magnetic field of 3 tesla, thereby ensuring a memory margin and avoiding read disturbance failures. Its high level of performance was due to the face-center-cubic crystallinity of the MgO tunneling barrier being significantly improved by decreasing its surface roughness (i.e., peak-to-valley length of 1.4 nm).

  10. PID Controller of Sprayer Chassis by Sliding Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang


    Full Text Available In order to solve the straight line drive coordinated control problem of the four-wheel independent drive sprayer chassis, the dynamic model of sprayer chassis and electromagnetic proportional valve controlled hydraulic motor model are established. The additional yaw moment is designed to rectify the deviation with sliding mode variable structure control. PID control strategy is used to calculate the control voltage adjustment of the electromagnetic proportional valve. The simulation results show that the accumulative deviation of the chassis is 0.2 m out of 100 m when the coordinated control strategy is adopted on different adhesive coefficient pavement, which is much smaller than the value without control. The test results of test prototype show that the yaw acceleration of the chassis can be as low as −0.0132 m/s2 on different adhesive coefficient pavement with coordinated control, which is smaller than the value without control, and the straight line drive requirements are met. It is feasible to combine sliding mode variable structure with PID control and use the electromagnetic proportional control technology in the straight line drive coordinated control of sprayer chassis by adding the yaw moment to rectify the deviation of chassis based on the yaw acceleration detection.

  11. Exuberant accessory mitral valve tissue with possible true parachute mitral valve: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolic Aleksandra


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A parachute mitral valve is defined as a unifocal attachment of mitral valve chordae tendineae independent of the number of papillary muscles. Data from the literature suggests that the valve can be distinguished on the basis of morphological features as either a parachute-like asymmetrical mitral valve or a true parachute mitral valve. A parachute-like asymmetrical mitral valve has two papillary muscles; one is elongated and located higher in the left ventricle. A true parachute mitral valve has a single papillary muscle that receives all chordae, as was present in our patient. Patients with parachute mitral valves during childhood have multilevel left-side heart obstructions, with poor outcomes without operative treatment. The finding of a parachute mitral valve in an adult patient is extremely rare, especially as an isolated lesion. In adults, the unifocal attachment of the chordae results in a slightly restricted valve opening and, more frequently, valvular regurgitation. Case presentation A 40-year-old Caucasian female patient was admitted to a primary care physician due to her recent symptoms of heart palpitation and chest discomfort on effort. Transthoracic echocardiography showed chordae tendineae which were elongated and formed an unusual net shape penetrating into left ventricle cavity. The parasternal short axis view of her left ventricle showed a single papillary muscle positioned on one side in the posteromedial commissure receiving all chordae. Her mitral valve orifice was slightly eccentric and the chordae were converting into a single papillary muscle. Mitral regurgitation was present and it was graded as moderate to severe. Her left atrium was enlarged. There were no signs of mitral stenosis or a subvalvular ring. She did not have a bicuspid aortic valve or coarctation of the ascending aorta. The dimensions and systolic function of her left ventricle were normal. Our patient had a normal body habitus

  12. Door valve having a drain receiver for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Hiroshi; Iwabuchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Kenji.


    Conventional door valves mounted at the inlet and outlet ports of a reactor container for a device which inserts and removes the fuel of a liquid metal cooled reactor are of the slide or rotary type, etc., but neither type is equipped with a mechanism for collecting a coolant trickle which occurs during the insertion or removal of a fuel assembly, or for returning the same back to the reactor. Since the trickle adheres to the sliding surface of a valve and solidifies, the atmospheres internal and external to the reactor are not completely partitioned. Moreover, fuels are difficult to insert and remove. In order to eliminate the above mentioned defects, according to this invention, valves are provided on their upper surfaces with a concavity for drain receiver use, and are mounted pivotally below the inlet and outlet of a fuel assembly of a reator utilizing a liquid metal as a coolant. Push means are attached to the valves, whereby the inlet and outlet is opened and closed by the valves pushed and released at their back surfaces by the pusher. (Okuo, M.)

  13. Mapping stain distribution in pathology slides using whole slide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Cheng Yeh


    Full Text Available Background: Whole slide imaging (WSI offers a novel approach to digitize and review pathology slides, but the voluminous data generated by this technology demand new computational methods for image analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report a method that recognizes stains in WSI data and uses kernel density estimator to calculate the stain density across the digitized pathology slides. The validation study was conducted using a rat model of acute cardiac allograft rejection and another rat model of heart ischemia/reperfusion injury. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was conducted to label ED1 + macrophages in the tissue sections and the stained slides were digitized by a whole slide scanner. The whole slide images were tessellated to enable parallel processing. Pixel-wise stain classification was conducted to classify the IHC stains from those of the background and the density distribution of the identified IHC stains was then calculated by the kernel density estimator. Results: The regression analysis showed a correlation coefficient of 0.8961 between the number of IHC stains counted by our stain recognition algorithm and that by the manual counting, suggesting that our stain recognition algorithm was in good agreement with the manual counting. The density distribution of the IHC stains showed a consistent pattern with those of the cellular magnetic resonance (MR images that detected macrophages labeled by ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron-oxide or micron-sized iron-oxide particles. Conclusions: Our method provides a new imaging modality to facilitate clinical diagnosis. It also provides a way to validate/correlate cellular MRI data used for tracking immune-cell infiltration in cardiac transplant rejection and cardiac ischemic injury.

  14. Finite-time convergent continuous control design based on sliding mode algorithms with application to a hydraulic drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.


    -time convergence properties known from sliding control while at the same time avoiding control chattering, however, on the cost of robustness. Experimental results confirm the announced properties when applied to a hydraulic valve-cylinder drive, and demonstrates superior performance over conventional linear...

  15. Aortic or Mitral Valve Replacement With the Biocor and Biocor Supra (United States)


    Aortic Valve Insufficiency; Aortic Valve Regurgitation; Aortic Valve Stenosis; Aortic Valve Incompetence; Mitral Valve Insufficiency; Mitral Valve Regurgitation; Mitral Valve Stenosis; Mitral Valve Incompetence

  16. Slide-based ergometer rowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anders; Alkjær, T; Kanstrup, I-L


    Force production profile and neuromuscular activity during slide-based and stationary ergometer rowing at standardized submaximal power output were compared in 14 male and 8 female National Team rowers. Surface electromyography (EMG) was obtained in selected thoracic and leg muscles along with sy...

  17. SlideDog / Siim Sein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sein, Siim


    SlideDog on multimeediumi esitluse tööriist, mis võimaldab ühendada PowerPointi esitlused, PDF-failid, Prezi esitlused, videoklipid, helifailid, veebilehed ja palju muud üheks sujuvaks esitluskogemuseks konverentsil, seminaril või muul üritusel

  18. Design and Simulation of Sliding Mode Fuzzy Controller for Nonlinear System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khalaf Hamoudi


    Full Text Available Sliding Mode Controller (SMC is a simple method and powerful technique to design a robust controller for nonlinear systems. It is an effective tool with acceptable performance. The major drawback is a classical Sliding Mode controller suffers from the chattering phenomenon which causes undesirable zigzag motion along the sliding surface. To overcome the snag of this classical approach, many methods were proposed and implemented. In this work, a Fuzzy controller was added to classical Sliding Mode controller in order to reduce the impact chattering problem. The new structure is called Sliding Mode Fuzzy controller (SMFC which will also improve the properties and performance of the classical Sliding Mode controller. A single inverted pendulum has been utilized for testing the design of the proposed controller. Programming and Simulink by Matlab have been used for the simulation results.

  19. Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve-in-Valve Intervention for Degenerative Bioprosthetic Tricuspid Valve Disease. (United States)

    Praz, Fabien; George, Isaac; Kodali, Susheel; Koulogiannis, Konstantinos P; Gillam, Linda D; Bechis, Mary Z; Rubenson, David; Li, Wei; Duncan, Alison


    Isolated reoperative tricuspid valve replacement is one of the highest risk operations classified in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons registry, particularly in the setting of preexisting right ventricular dysfunction. Transcatheter tricuspid valve-in-valve implantation represents an attractive alternative to redo surgery in patients with tricuspid bioprosthetic valve degeneration who are considered high-risk or unsuitable surgical candidates. In this review article, the authors discuss the emergence of transcatheter tricuspid valve-in-valve therapy, preprocedural echocardiographic assessment of tricuspid bioprosthetic valve dysfunction, periprocedural imaging required for tricuspid valve-in-valve implantation, and postprocedural assessment of tricuspid transcatheter device function. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Echocardiography. All rights reserved.

  20. Intelligent Flow Control Valve (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R (Inventor)


    The present invention is an intelligent flow control valve which may be inserted into the flow coming out of a pipe and activated to provide a method to stop, measure, and meter flow coming from the open or possibly broken pipe. The intelligent flow control valve may be used to stop the flow while repairs are made. Once repairs have been made, the valve may be removed or used as a control valve to meter the amount of flow from inside the pipe. With the addition of instrumentation, the valve may also be used as a variable area flow meter and flow controller programmed based upon flowing conditions. With robotic additions, the valve may be configured to crawl into a desired pipe location, anchor itself, and activate flow control or metering remotely.

  1. Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Replacement. (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Amar; Navia, Jose; Kapadia, Samir R


    Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a common entity, most commonly functional in nature due to right-sided dysfunction in the setting of concomitant cardiac disease or pulmonary hypertension. Patients living with TR often experience numerous limitations as a result of right-sided heart failure symptoms, including functional decline, frequent hospitalizations, liver failure, and kidney failure. Furthermore, patients with significant TR demonstrate worse survival, although a cause-and-effect relationship has not been proven. For patients with a degenerated surgical bioprosthesis or valve ring, placement of a transcatheter aortic valve prosthesis in a valve-in-valve or valve-in-ring fashion may provide symptomatic benefit. For patients with native valve regurgitation, novel devices for treatment are currently under development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Low noise control valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, R.S.


    Noise is one of the problems associated with the use of any type of control valve in systems involving the flow of fluids. The advent of OSHA standards has prompted control valve manufacturers to design valves with special trim to lower the sound pressure level to meet these standards. However, these levels are in some cases too high, particularly when a valve must be located in or near an area where people are working at tasks requiring a high degree of concentration. Such locations are found around and near research devices and in laboratory-office areas. This paper describes a type of fluid control device presently being used at PPL as a bypass control valve in deionized water systems and designed to reduce sound pressure levels considerably below OSHA standards. Details of the design and construction of this constant pressure drop variable flow control valve are contained in the text and are shown in photographs and drawings. Test data taken are included

  3. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants using sliding isolation bearings (United States)

    Kumar, Manish

    Nuclear power plants (NPP) are designed for earthquake shaking with very long return periods. Seismic isolation is a viable strategy to protect NPPs from extreme earthquake shaking because it filters a significant fraction of earthquake input energy. This study addresses the seismic isolation of NPPs using sliding bearings, with a focus on the single concave Friction Pendulum(TM) (FP) bearing. Friction at the sliding surface of an FP bearing changes continuously during an earthquake as a function of sliding velocity, axial pressure and temperature at the sliding surface. The temperature at the sliding surface, in turn, is a function of the histories of coefficient of friction, sliding velocity and axial pressure, and the travel path of the slider. A simple model to describe the complex interdependence of the coefficient of friction, axial pressure, sliding velocity and temperature at the sliding surface is proposed, and then verified and validated. Seismic hazard for a seismically isolated nuclear power plant is defined in the United States using a uniform hazard response spectrum (UHRS) at mean annual frequencies of exceedance (MAFE) of 10-4 and 10 -5. A key design parameter is the clearance to the hard stop (CHS), which is influenced substantially by the definition of the seismic hazard. Four alternate representations of seismic hazard are studied, which incorporate different variabilities and uncertainties. Response-history analyses performed on single FP-bearing isolation systems using ground motions consistent with the four representations at the two shaking levels indicate that the CHS is influenced primarily by whether the observed difference between the two horizontal components of ground motions in a given set is accounted for. The UHRS at the MAFE of 10-4 is increased by a design factor (≥ 1) for conventional (fixed base) nuclear structure to achieve a target annual frequency of unacceptable performance. Risk oriented calculations are performed for

  4. Second Order Sliding Mode Controller Design for Pneumatic Artificial Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Al-Jodah


    Full Text Available In this paper, first and second order sliding mode controllers are designed for a single link robotic arm actuated by two Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAMs. A new mathematical model for the arm has been developed based on the model of large scale pneumatic muscle actuator model. Uncertainty in parameters has been presented and tested for the two controllers. The simulation results of the second-order sliding mode controller proves to have a low tracking error and chattering effect as compared to the first order one. The verification has been done by using MATLAB and Simulink software.

  5. Test Rig for Valves of Digital Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Christensen, Jeppe Haals; Bech, Michael Møller


    A test rig for the valves of digital displacement machines has been developed at Aalborg University. It is composed of a commercial radial piston machine, which has been modified to facilitate Digital Displacement operation for a single piston. Prototype valves have been optimized, designed...

  6. Modeling the Mitral Valve (United States)

    Kaiser, Alexander


    The mitral valve is one of four valves in the human heart. The valve opens to allow oxygenated blood from the lungs to fill the left ventricle, and closes when the ventricle contracts to prevent backflow. The valve is composed of two fibrous leaflets which hang from a ring. These leaflets are supported like a parachute by a system of strings called chordae tendineae. In this talk, I will describe a new computational model of the mitral valve. To generate geometry, general information comes from classical anatomy texts and the author's dissection of porcine hearts. An MRI image of a human heart is used to locate the tips of the papillary muscles, which anchor the chordae tendineae, in relation to the mitral ring. The initial configurations of the valve leaflets and chordae tendineae are found by solving solving an equilibrium elasticity problem. The valve is then simulated in fluid (blood) using the immersed boundary method over multiple heart cycles in a model valve tester. We aim to identify features and mechanisms that influence or control valve function. Support from National Science Foundation, Graduate Research Fellowship Program, Grant DGE 1342536.

  7. Prosthetic heart valves. (United States)

    Chambers, J


    Heart valve replacements improve symptoms and life expectancy but may have potential problems. Biological replacements have limited durability but do not require anticoagulation and are usually used for the relatively elderly. Mechanical valves have a virtually zero primary failure rate but require anticoagulation and are usually used for the relatively younger patient. Transcatheter valves are used for patients in whom conventional surgery is not technically feasible or who have significant comorbidities. This article discusses the management of patients after valve replacement and discusses future developments. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Biological heart valves. (United States)

    Ciubotaru, Anatol; Cebotari, Serghei; Tudorache, Igor; Beckmann, Erik; Hilfiker, Andres; Haverich, Axel


    Cardiac valvular pathologies are often caused by rheumatic fever in young adults, atherosclerosis in elderly patients, or by congenital malformation of the heart in children, in effect affecting almost all population ages. Almost 300,000 heart valve operations are performed worldwide annually. Tissue valve prostheses have certain advantages over mechanical valves such as biocompatibility, more physiological hemodynamics, and no need for life-long systemic anticoagulation. However, the major disadvantage of biological valves is related to their durability. Nevertheless, during the last decade, the number of patients undergoing biological, rather than mechanical, valve replacement has increased from half to more than three-quarters for biological implants. Continuous improvement in valve fabrication includes development of new models and shapes, novel methods of tissue treatment, and preservation and implantation techniques. These efforts are focused not only on the improvement of morbidity and mortality of the patients but also on the improvement of their quality of life. Heart valve tissue engineering aims to provide durable, "autologous" valve prostheses. These valves demonstrate adaptive growth, which may avoid the need of repeated operations in growing patients.

  9. Options for Heart Valve Replacement (United States)

    ... are the most commonly replaced valves. Pulmonary and tricuspid valve replacements are fairly uncommon in adults. Replacing a ... Problems and Causes • Risks, Signs and Symptoms • Accurate Diagnosis • Treatment Options ... Repair Valve Replacement - Ross Procedure - Newer Surgery Options - ...

  10. Adjustable valves in normal-pressure hydrocephalus: a retrospective study of 218 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zemack, G.; Rommer, Bertil Roland


    OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the value of adjusting shunt valve opening pressure, complications, and outcomes with the use of an adjustable shunt valve in the treatment of patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). METHODS: In a single-center retrospective study, 231 adjustable valves (...

  11. Retrieval analysis of mechanical heart valves: impact on design and clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cromheecke, M. E.; Overkamp, P. J.; de Mol, B. A.; van Gaalen, G. L.; Becker, A. E.


    Explanted mechanical heart valves were examined nondestructively, and the findings were related to guidelines, technical reports, and other information to judge the risk of failure and its possible impact on valve design and clinical practice. Diagnoses for single valves could be made, but risks and

  12. Crystalline misfit-angle implications for solid sliding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manini, Nicola; Braun, O.M.


    For the contact of two finite portions of interacting rigid crystalline surfaces, we compute the pinning energy barrier dependency on the misfit angle and contact area. This simple model allows us to investigate a broad contact-size and angular range, thus obtaining the statistical properties of the energy barriers opposing sliding for a single asperity. These data are used to generate the distribution of static frictional thresholds for the contact of polycrystals, as in dry or even lubricated friction. This distribution is used as the input of a master equation to predict the sliding properties of macroscopic contacts. -- Highlights: → The pinning energy barrier depends on the misfit angle and contact area. → We compute this dependence for a idealized rigid model. → We obtain a distribution of static frictional thresholds. → It is used as input of a master-equation model for macroscopic surfaces in contact. → Overall we predict a transition from stick-slip to smooth sliding.

  13. A Frequency Response Approach to Sliding Control Design for Hydraulic Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben Ole


    . However, when considering hydraulic cylinder drives, such full state feedback may not be available, and alternative approaches to conventional methods may be considered. This issue is addressed in this paper in regard to tracking control design for valve controlled hydraulic cylinder drives, and a design......, the application of so-called boundary layers are commonly applied, guaranteeing sliding precision in some well-defined vicinity of the control target. Commonly the control target, or sliding manifold, is designed as some desired closed loop dynamics of the controlled plant, utilizing multiple states as feedback...... method taking its offset in linear analysis is proposed. The sliding manifold is designed based on a PI controller design, and the resulting controller provides for robustness outside a predefined boundary layer, and performance equivalent to the PI controller within the boundary layer. Results...

  14. Modification and performance evaluation of a mono-valve engine (United States)

    Behrens, Justin W.

    A four-stroke engine utilizing one tappet valve for both the intake and exhaust gas exchange processes has been built and evaluated. The engine operates under its own power, but has a reduced power capacity than the conventional 2-valve engine. The reduction in power is traced to higher than expected amounts of exhaust gases flowing back into the intake system. Design changes to the cylinder head will fix the back flow problems, but the future capacity of mono-valve engine technology cannot be estimated. The back flow of exhaust gases increases the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and deteriorates combustion. Intake pressure data shows the mono-valve engine requires an advanced intake valve closing (IVC) time to prevent back flow of charge air. A single actuation camshaft with advanced IVC was tested in the mono-valve engine, and was found to improve exhaust scavenging at TDC and nearly eliminated all charge air back flow at IVC. The optimum IVC timing is shown to be approximately 30 crank angle degrees after BDC. The mono-valve cylinder head utilizes a rotary valve positioned above the tappet valve. The open spaces inside the rotary valveand between the rotary valve and tappet valve represent a common volume that needs to be reduced in order to reduce the base EGR rate. Multiple rotary valve configurations were tested, and the size of the common volume was found to have no effect on back flow but a direct effect on the EGR rate and engine performance. The position of the rotary valve with respect to crank angle has a direct effect on the scavenging process. Optimum scavenging occurs when the intake port is opened just after TDC.

  15. The safety relief valve handbook design and use of process safety valves to ASME and International codes and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Hellemans, Marc


    The Safety Valve Handbook is a professional reference for design, process, instrumentation, plant and maintenance engineers who work with fluid flow and transportation systems in the process industries, which covers the chemical, oil and gas, water, paper and pulp, food and bio products and energy sectors. It meets the need of engineers who have responsibilities for specifying, installing, inspecting or maintaining safety valves and flow control systems. It will also be an important reference for process safety and loss prevention engineers, environmental engineers, and plant and process designers who need to understand the operation of safety valves in a wider equipment or plant design context. . No other publication is dedicated to safety valves or to the extensive codes and standards that govern their installation and use. A single source means users save time in searching for specific information about safety valves. . The Safety Valve Handbook contains all of the vital technical and standards informat...

  16. Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script. (United States)

    Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…

  17. Diseases of Landscape Ornamentals. Slide Script. (United States)

    Powell, Charles C.; Sydnor, T. Davis

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with recognizing and controlling diseases found on ornamental landscape plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 80 slides illustrating various foliar diseases (anthracnose, black spot, hawthorn leaf blight,…

  18. Sliding wear of cemented carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engqvist, H.; Ederyd, S.; Uhrenius, B.; Hogmark, S.


    Cemented carbides are known to be very hard and wear resistant and are therefor often used in applications involving surface damage and wear. The wear rate of cemented carbides is often measured in abrasion. In such tests it has been shown that the wear rate is inversely dependent on the material hardness. The sliding wear is even more of a surface phenomenon than a abrasion, making it difficult to predict friction and wear from bulk properties. This paper concentrates on the sliding wear of cemented carbides and elucidates some wear mechanisms. It is especially shown that a fragmenting wear mechanism of WC is very important for the description of wear of cemented carbides. (author)

  19. Josephson magnetic rotary valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soloviev, I.I.; Klenov, N.V.; Bakurskiy, S.V.; Bol’ginov, V.V.; Ryazanov, V.V.; Kupriyanov, M..Y.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch


    We propose a control element for a Josephson spin valve. It is a complex Josephson device containing ferromagnetic (F) layer in the weak-link area consisting of two regions, representing 0 and π Josephson junctions, respectively. The valve's state is defined by mutual orientations of the F-layer

  20. Mitral Valve Disease (United States)

    ... clots, but they also are less durable than mechanical valves and may need to be replaced in the future. Like mitral valve repair, replacement can be done minimally invasively or with traditional open heart surgery. Your medical team will discuss the advantages ...

  1. Computer-generated slide technology. (United States)

    Palmer, D S


    Presentation technology is available, and it does not have to be expensive. This article describes computer hardware and software concepts for graphics use, and recommends principles for making cost-effective buying decisions. Also included is a previously published technique for making custom computer graphic 35-mm slides at minimal expense. This information is vital to anyone lecturing without the support of a custom graphics laboratory.

  2. Clinical Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Thrombosis After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Incidence, Characteristics, and Treatment Outcomes. (United States)

    Jose, John; Sulimov, Dmitriy S; El-Mawardy, Mohamed; Sato, Takao; Allali, Abdelhakim; Holy, Erik W; Becker, Björn; Landt, Martin; Kebernik, Julia; Schwarz, Bettina; Richardt, Gert; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed


    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, characteristics, and treatment outcomes of patients diagnosed with clinical transcatheter heart valve thrombosis. Limited data exists on clinical or manifest transcatheter heart valve thrombosis. Prior studies have focused on subclinical thrombosis. A retrospective analysis was conducted of prospectively collected data from a single-center registry that included 642 consecutive patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement between 2007 and 2015 (305 patients had self-expanding valves; balloon-expandable, n = 281; mechanically expanding, n = 56). Long-term oral anticoagulation (OAC) was indicated in 261 patients, while 377 patients received dual-antiplatelet therapy post-procedure. All patients underwent scheduled clinical and echocardiographic follow-up. The overall incidence of clinical valve thrombosis was 2.8% (n = 18). No patient on OAC developed thrombosis. Of the detected thrombosis cases, 13 patients had balloon-expandable, 3 had self-expanding, and 2 had mechanically expanding valves. Thrombosis occurred significantly more often with balloon-expandable valves (odds ratio: 3.45; 95% confidence interval: 1.22 to 9.81; p = 0.01) and following valve-in-valve procedures (odds ratio: 5.93; 95% confidence interval: 2.01 to 17.51; p = 0.005). Median time to diagnosis of valve thrombosis was 181 days. The median N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level was 1,318 pg/ml (interquartile range: 606 to 1,676 pg/ml). The mean transvalvular gradient and valve area were 34 ± 14 mm Hg and 1.0 ± 0.46 cm 2 , respectively. Computed tomography showed hypoattenuating areas with reduced leaflet motion. Initiation of OAC resulted in significant reduction of transvalvular gradient and clinical improvement. No deaths were related to valve thrombosis. Clinical transcatheter heart valve thrombosis is more common than previously considered, characterized by imaging abnormalities and increased gradients

  3. ULTRA HIGH VACUUM VALVE (United States)

    Fry, W.A.


    A valve for high vacuum applications such as the CStellarator where chamber pressures as low as 2 x 10/sup -10/ mm Hg are necessary is designed with a line-of-sight path through the valve for visual inspection of the contents of reactants in such chambers. The valve comprises a turnable resilient metal ball having an aperture therethrough, means for selectively turning the ball to rotate the axis of its line-of-sight path, and soft, deformable opposing orifices that are movable relatively toward said ball to seal with opposite ball surfaces upon said movement of said axis of said line-of-sight path. The valve also includes a bellows seal connected between said orifices and internal actuating means that eliminates the requirement for gasketed turnable valve closing stems. (AEC)

  4. Multiple-port valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doody, T.J.


    A multiple-port valve assembly is designed to direct flow from a primary conduit into any one of a plurality of secondary conduits as well as to direct a reverse flow. The valve includes two mating hemispherical sockets that rotatably receive a spherical valve plug. The valve plug is attached to the primary conduit and includes diverging passageways from that conduit to a plurality of ports. Each of the ports is alignable with one or more of a plurality of secondary conduits fitting into one of the hemispherical sockets. The other hemispherical socket includes a slot for the primary conduit such that the conduit's motion along that slot with rotation of the spherical plug about various axes will position the valve-plug ports in respect to the secondary conduits

  5. Sliding Controller of Switched Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Ghani AISSAOUI


    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of sliding mode control for switched reluctance motor (SRM speed. The sliding mode technique finds its stronger justification in the utilization of a robust control law to model uncertainties. A sliding mode controller of the motor speed is then designed and simulated. Digital simulation results shows that the designed sliding speed controller realises a good dynamic behaviour of the motor, a perfect speed tracking with no overshoot and a good rejection of impact loads disturbance. The results of applying the sliding mode controller to a SRM give best performances and high robustness than those obtained by the application of a conventional controller (PI.

  6. Adaptive Fuzzy Integral Sliding-Mode Regulator for Induction Motor Using Nonlinear Sliding Surface


    Yong-Kun Lu


    An adaptive fuzzy integral sliding-mode controller using nonlinear sliding surface is designed for the speed regulator of a field-oriented induction motor drive in this paper. Combining the conventional integral sliding surface with fractional-order integral, a nonlinear sliding surface is proposed for the integral sliding-mode speed control, which can overcome the windup problem and the convergence speed problem. An adaptive fuzzy control term is utilized to approximate the uncertainty. The ...

  7. Pressure vessel sliding support unit and system using the sliding support unit (United States)

    Breach, Michael R.; Keck, David J.; Deaver, Gerald A.


    Provided is a sliding support and a system using the sliding support unit. The sliding support unit may include a fulcrum capture configured to attach to a support flange, a fulcrum support configured to attach to the fulcrum capture, and a baseplate block configured to support the fulcrum support. The system using the sliding support unit may include a pressure vessel, a pedestal bracket, and a plurality of sliding support units.

  8. Instability of the sliding Luttinger liquid (United States)

    Fleurov, V.; Kagalovsky, V.; Lerner, I. V.; Yurkevich, I. V.


    We revise a phase diagram for the sliding Luttinger liquid (SLL) of coupled one-dimensional quantum wires packed in two- or three-dimensional arrays in the absence of a magnetic field. We analyse whether physically justifiable (reasonable) inter-wire interactions, i.e. either the screened Coulomb or ‘Coulomb-blockade’ type interactions, stabilise the SLL phase. Calculating the scaling dimensions of the most relevant perturbations (the inter-wire single-particle hybridisation, charge-density wave, and superconducting inter-wire couplings), we find that their combination always destroys the SLL phase for the repulsive intra-wire interaction. However, suppressing the inter-wire tunnelling of repulsive fermions (when the charge-density wave is the only remaining perturbation), one can observe a stability region emerging due to the inter-wire forward scattering interaction.

  9. The Microseismicity of Glacier Sliding (United States)

    Walter, Fabian; Röösli, Claudia; Kissling, Edi


    Our understanding of glacier and ice sheet basal motion remains incomplete. The past decades have witnessed a shift away from initially proposed hard bed theories towards soft, till-laden beds, which deform and thus participate in basal motion. The theoretical treatment of deformable beds is subject to debate, yet our capability to predict ice sheet flow and ultimately sea level rise is contingent upon correct parameterization of basal motion (Ritz et al., 2015). Both hard and soft bed theories neglect frictional sliding across distinct basal fault planes and elastic deformation in response to sudden dislocation. Over recent years, this view has been repeatedly challenged as more and more studies report seismogenic faulting associated with basal sliding. For instance, large parts of the Whillans Ice Stream at Antarctica's Siple Coast move nearly exclusively during sudden sliding episodes (Wiens et al., 2008). This "stick-slip motion" is difficult to explain with traditional glacier sliding theories but more analogous to earthquake dislocation on tectonic faults. Although the Whillans Ice Stream motion may be an extreme example, there exists evidence for much smaller microseismic stick-slip events beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet and non-polar glaciers (Podolskiy and Walter, 2016). This raises the question how relevant and widespread the stick-slip phenomenon is and if it is necessary to include it into ice sheet models. Here we discuss recent seismic deployments, which focused on detection of stick-slip events beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet and European Alpine Glaciers. For all deployments, a considerable challenge lies in detection of stick-slip seismograms in the presence of a dominant background seismicity associated with surface crevassing. Nevertheless, automatic search algorithms and waveform characteristics provide important insights into temporal variation of stick-slip activity as well as information about fault plane geometry and co-seismic sliding

  10. Attractors near grazing–sliding bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendinning, P; Kowalczyk, P; Nordmark, A B


    In this paper we prove, for the first time, that multistability can occur in three-dimensional Fillipov type flows due to grazing–sliding bifurcations. We do this by reducing the study of the dynamics of Filippov type flows around a grazing–sliding bifurcation to the study of appropriately defined one-dimensional maps. In particular, we prove the presence of three qualitatively different types of multiple attractors born in grazing–sliding bifurcations. Namely, a period-two orbit with a sliding segment may coexist with a chaotic attractor, two stable, period-two and period-three orbits with a segment of sliding each may coexist, or a non-sliding and period-three orbit with two sliding segments may coexist

  11. One hundred patients' experience with the Jyros valve. (United States)

    Walesby, R K; Di Salvo, C; Black, M M


    The ideal mechanical valve abolishes all potential areas for blood stagnation and hence the potential for micro-emboli and clot formation. This problem has been addressed by the innovative design of the Jyros valve which has evolved from the technology available from Russian space research. The valve comprises two pyrolytic carbon leaflets which can rotate within the solid carbon housing to either align themselves to the optimum haemodynamic configuration, or to respond by rotation either continuous or intermittent, according to the degree of swirl on the inflow profile. This Jyros mechanical heart valve has been assessed in vivo at the London Chest Hospital since August 1992 where the series of unselected patients constitutes the largest single user experience available. 107 valves were implanted in 100 patients of age range 33 to 80 years. 23 patients were re-replacement for failed xenograft and 26 underwent concomitant revascularisation. 92 patients left hospital and 4 died later all from non-valve related causes. Two valves were explanted for endocarditis (one pre-existing) but successfully re-replaced. There have been no late thrombo-embolic events. Two patients with AVR & CABG had strokes at 8 months. There is no excessive haemolysis in excess of that detected for any mechanical valve nor any mechanical valve-related failure. Rotation of the valve is variable and can be visualised by 2D and M mode echo and by X-ray screening as the leaflets are impregnated with Boron carbide. Half of the valves rotate constantly and a quarter intermittently. There appears to be no disadvantage to patients in whom no valve rotation could be demonstrated. We have found that the theoretical potential of performance have been achieved.

  12. Gate valve performance prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D.H.; Damerell, P.S.; Wang, J.K.; Kalsi, M.S.; Wolfe, K.J.


    The Electric Power Research Institute is carrying out a program to improve the performance prediction methods for motor-operated valves. As part of this program, an analytical method to predict the stem thrust required to stroke a gate valve has been developed and has been assessed against data from gate valve tests. The method accounts for the loads applied to the disc by fluid flow and for the detailed mechanical interaction of the stem, disc, guides, and seats. To support development of the method, two separate-effects test programs were carried out. One test program determined friction coefficients for contacts between gate valve parts by using material specimens in controlled environments. The other test program investigated the interaction of the stem, disc, guides, and seat using a special fixture with full-sized gate valve parts. The method has been assessed against flow-loop and in-plant test data. These tests include valve sizes from 3 to 18 in. and cover a considerable range of flow, temperature, and differential pressure. Stem thrust predictions for the method bound measured results. In some cases, the bounding predictions are substantially higher than the stem loads required for valve operation, as a result of the bounding nature of the friction coefficients in the method


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Kumar


    Full Text Available Mechanical prosthetic valves are predisposed to bleeding, thrombosis & thromboembolic complications. Overall incidence of thromboembolic complications is 1% per year who are on oral anticoagulants, whereas bleeding complications incidence is 0.5% to 6.6% per year. 1, 2 Minimization of Scylla of thromboembolic & Charybdis of bleeding complication needs a balancing act of optimal antithrombotic therapy. We are reporting a case of middle aged male patient with prosthetic mitral valve presenting in heart failure. Patient had discontinued anticoagulants, as he had subdural hematoma in the past. He presented to our institute with a giant prosthetic valve thrombus.



    Dasi, Lakshmi P; Simon, Helene A; Sucosky, Philippe; Yoganathan, Ajit P


    1. Artificial heart valves have been in use for over five decades to replace diseased heart valves. Since the first heart valve replacement performed with a caged-ball valve, more than 50 valve designs have been developed, differing principally in valve geometry, number of leaflets and material. To date, all artificial heart valves are plagued with complications associated with haemolysis, coagulation for mechanical heart valves and leaflet tearing for tissue-based valve prosthesis. For mecha...

  15. Valve monitoring ITI-MOVATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moureau, S.


    ITI-MOVATS provides a wide range of test devices to monitor the performance of valves: motor operated gate or globe valve, butterfly valve, air operated valve, and check valve. The ITI-MOVATS testing equipment is used in the following three areas: actuator setup/baseline testing, periodic/post-maintenance testing, and differential pressure testing. The parameters typically measured with the MOVATS diagnostic system as well as the devices used to measure them are described. (Z.S.)

  16. Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation for failed bioprosthetic heart valves. (United States)

    Webb, John G; Wood, David A; Ye, Jian; Gurvitch, Ronen; Masson, Jean-Bernard; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Osten, Mark; Horlick, Eric; Wendler, O; Dumont, Eric; Carere, Ronald G; Wijesinghe, Namal; Nietlispach, Fabian; Johnson, Mark; Thompson, Chrisopher R; Moss, Robert; Leipsic, Jonathon; Munt, Brad; Lichtenstein, Samuel V; Cheung, Anson


    The majority of prosthetic heart valves currently implanted are tissue valves that can be expected to degenerate with time and eventually fail. Repeat cardiac surgery to replace these valves is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Transcatheter heart valve implantation within a failed bioprosthesis, a "valve-in-valve" procedure, may offer a less invasive alternative. Valve-in-valve implantations were performed in 24 high-risk patients. Failed valves were aortic (n=10), mitral (n=7), pulmonary (n=6), or tricuspid (n=1) bioprostheses. Implantation was successful with immediate restoration of satisfactory valve function in all but 1 patient. No patient had more than mild regurgitation after implantation. No patients died during the procedure. Thirty-day mortality was 4.2%. Mortality was related primarily to learning-curve issues early in this high-risk experience. At baseline, 88% of patients were in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV; at the last follow-up, 88% of patients were in class I or II. At a median follow-up of 135 days (interquartile range, 46 to 254 days) and a maximum follow-up of 1045 days, 91.7% of patients remained alive with satisfactory valve function. Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation is a reproducible option for the management of bioprosthetic valve failure. Aortic, pulmonary, mitral, and tricuspid tissue valves were amenable to this approach. This finding may have important implications with regard to valve replacement in high-risk patients.

  17. Applications of sliding mode control

    CERN Document Server

    Ghommam, Jawhar; Zhu, Quanmin


    This book presents essential studies and applications in the context of sliding mode control, highlighting the latest findings from interdisciplinary theoretical studies, ranging from computational algorithm development to representative applications. Readers will learn how to easily tailor the techniques to accommodate their ad hoc applications. To make the content as accessible as possible, the book employs a clear route in each paper, moving from background to motivation, to quantitative development (equations), and lastly to case studies/illustrations/tutorials (simulations, experiences, curves, tables, etc.). Though primarily intended for graduate students, professors and researchers from related fields, the book will also benefit engineers and scientists from industry. .

  18. Loading dynamics of a sliding DNA clamp.

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Won-Ki


    Sliding DNA clamps are loaded at a ss/dsDNA junction by a clamp loader that depends on ATP binding for clamp opening. Sequential ATP hydrolysis results in closure of the clamp so that it completely encircles and diffuses on dsDNA. We followed events during loading of an E. coli β clamp in real time by using single-molecule FRET (smFRET). Three successive FRET states were retained for 0.3 s, 0.7 s, and 9 min: Hydrolysis of the first ATP molecule by the γ clamp loader resulted in closure of the clamp in 0.3 s, and after 0.7 s in the closed conformation, the clamp was released to diffuse on the dsDNA for at least 9 min. An additional single-molecule polarization study revealed that the interfacial domain of the clamp rotated in plane by approximately 8° during clamp closure. The single-molecule polarization and FRET studies thus revealed the real-time dynamics of the ATP-hydrolysis-dependent 3D conformational change of the β clamp during loading at a ss/dsDNA junction.

  19. Development of a teledermatopathology consultation system using virtual slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Ikunori


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An online consultation system using virtual slides (whole slide images; WSI has been developed for pathological diagnosis, and could help compensate for the shortage of pathologists, especially in the field of dermatopathology and in other fields dealing with difficult cases. This study focused on the performance and future potential of the system. Method In our system, histological specimens on slide glasses are digitalized by a virtual slide instrument, converted into web data, and up-loaded to an open server. Using our own purpose-built online system, we then input patient details such as age, gender, affected region, clinical data, past history and other related items. We next select up to ten consultants. Finally we send an e-mail to all consultants simultaneously through a single command. The consultant receives an e-mail containing an ID and password which is used to access the open server and inspect the images and other data associated with the case. The consultant makes a diagnosis, which is sent to us along with comments. Because this was a pilot study, we also conducted several questionnaires with consultants concerning the quality of images, operability, usability, and other issues. Results We solicited consultations for 36 cases, including cases of tumor, and involving one to eight consultants in the field of dermatopathology. No problems were noted concerning the images or the functioning of the system on the sender or receiver sides. The quickest diagnosis was received only 18 minutes after sending our data. This is much faster than in conventional consultation using glass slides. There were no major problems relating to the diagnosis, although there were some minor differences of opinion between consultants. The results of questionnaires answered by many consultants confirmed the usability of this system for pathological consultation. (16 out of 23 consultants. Conclusion We have developed a novel

  20. Blocked Urethral Valves (United States)

    ... the penis. Rarely, small membranes form across the urethra in boys early in pregnancy, and they can block the flow of urine out of the bladder. These membranes are called posterior urethral valves and can have life-threatening consequences ...

  1. Dry product valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, James D.


    This invention provides a system for delivering particulate radioactive or other toxic wastes to a container in which they can be solidified. The system includes a set of valves that prevent the escape of dusty materials to the atmosphere

  2. Ball check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.


    A pressurized nuclear reactor having an instrument assembly sheathed in a metallic tube which is extended vertically upward into the reactor core by traversing a metallic guide tube which is welded to the wall of the vessel is described. Sensors in each instrument assembly are connected to instruments outside the vessel to manifest the conditions within the core. Each instrument assembly probe is moved into position within a metallic guide channel. The guide channel penetrates the wall of the vessel and forms part of the barrier to the environment within the pressure vessel. Each channel includes a ball check valve which is opened by the instrument assembly probe when the probe passes through the valve. A ball valve element is moved from its seat by the probe to a position lateral of the bore of the channel and is guided to its seat along a sloped path within the valve body when the probe is removed. 5 claims, 3 figures

  3. Steel surface modifications in magnetised sliding contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulmier, D. [CNRS, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France). Lab. de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux; Zaidi, H. [CNRS, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France). Lab. de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux; Bedri, R. [CNRS, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France). Lab. de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux; Kadiri, E.K. [CNRS, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France). Lab. de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux; Pan, L. [Beijing Metall. Management Inst. (China); Jiang, Q. [Beijing Metall. Management Inst. (China)


    Modifications in the mechanical properties of a ferromagnetic steel surface in sliding contact under the influence of a d.c. magnetic field were investigated. A magnetic field was applied to the steel pin, remaining constant during each test. Experiments were conducted at ambient temperature under different applied normal loads, sliding velocities and magnetic field ensities. Experimental results show that at ambient temperature the application of a magnetic field decreases the fluctuations in the friction coefficient and wear rate and increases the microhardness of the sliding surfaces. The dislocation density increases in the thin coating of the magnetised sliding contact erface. A simple model for the agglomeration of dislocations on the sliding contact is proposed. The results were erpreted by observation and analysis of the surface. Optical microscopy shows that when a magnetic field was applied the sliding surface was covered with thin black particles. The magnetic field promoted the oxidation of the surface. (orig.)

  4. Aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; Athanasiou, Thanos; Mestres, Carlos A


    BACKGROUND AND AIMS OF THE STUDY: Prompted by anecdotal evidence and observations by surgeons, an investigation was undertaken into the potential differences in implanted aortic valve prosthesis sizes, during aortic valve replacement (AVR) procedures, between northern and southern European...... assigned to the 'small' aortic size subset. Effective orifice area indices were calculated for all patients to assess the geographic distribution of patient-prosthesis mismatch. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusting for possible confounding variables were performed. RESULTS...

  5. Coanda effect in valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruba Václav


    Full Text Available Coanda effect takes place in flow within valves diffuser for certain conditions. The valve plug in half-closed position forms wall-jet, which could be stable or instable, depending on geometry and other conditions. This phenomenon was subject of experimental study using time-resolved PIV technique. For the acquired data analysis the special spatio-temporal methods have been used.

  6. Edwards valve-in-valve implantation in tricuspid position. (United States)

    Álvarez-Fuente, Maria; Haas, Nikolaus A; Del Cerro, Maria Jesus


    We present two cases of percutaneous Sapien XT valve-in-valve implantation in the tricuspid position: a 20-year-old man with severe congenital pulmonary stenosis and percutaneous valvuloplasty, who required surgical implantation of two protheses, pulmonary and tricuspid, and a 12-year-old boy with CHD and a degenerated tricuspid prosthesis. We implanted three Sapien XT valve-in-valves, two in the tricuspid position and one in the pulmonic position. Sapien XT valve-in-valve implantation in the tricuspid position is feasible and can decrease the number of surgeries in CHD patients.

  7. Effect of single intraoperative dose of amiodarone in patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease and atrial fibrillation undergoing valve replacement surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Thiruvenkadam


    Full Text Available Maintenance of sinus rhythm (SR is superior to rate control in atrial fibrillation (AF. In order to achieve SR, we administered single-dose intravenous amiodarone intraoperatively and evaluated its effect on conversion of rheumatic AF to SR in patients undergoing valvular heart surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to amiodarone ( n = 42 or control ( n = 40 group in a double blind manner. The amiodarone group received amiodarone (3 mg/kg intravenously prior to the institution of cardiopulmonary bypass and the control group received the same volume of normal saline. In the amiodarone group, the initial rhythm after the release of aortic cross clamp was noted to be AF in 14.3% ( n = 6 and remained so in 9.5% ( n = 4 of patients till the end of surgery. In the control group, the rhythm soon after the release of aortic cross clamp was AF in 37.5% ( n = 15 ( p = 0.035 and remained so in 32.5% ( n = 13 of patients till the end of surgery ( p = 0.01. At the end of first post-operative day 21.4% ( n = 9 of patients in amiodarone group and 55% ( n = 22 of patients in control group were in AF ( p = 0.002. The requirement of cardioversion/defibrillation was 1.5 (±0.54 in amiodarone group and 2.26 (±0.73 in the control group ( p = 0.014, and the energy needed was 22.5 (±8.86 joules in the amiodarone group and 40.53 (±16.5 in the control group ( p = 0.008. A single intraoperative dose of intravenous amiodarone increased the conversion rate of AF to normal sinus rhythm, reduced the need and energy required for cardioversion/defibrillation and reduced the recurrence of AF within one day.

  8. Transcatheter tissue engineered heart valves. (United States)

    Emmert, Maximilian Y; Weber, Benedikt; Falk, Volkmar; Hoerstrup, Simon P


    Valvular heart disease represents a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Transcatheter heart valve replacement techniques have been recently introduced into the clinical routine expanding the treatment options for affected patients. However, despite this technical progress toward minimally invasive, transcatheter strategies, the available heart valve prostheses for these techniques are bioprosthetic and associated with progressive degeneration. To overcome such limitations, the concept of heart valve tissue engineering has been repeatedly suggested for future therapy concepts. Ideally, a clinically relevant heart valve tissue engineering concept would combine minimally invasive strategies for both, living autologous valve generation as well as valve implantation. Therefore, merging transcatheter techniques with living tissue engineered heart valves into a trascatheter tissue engineered heart valve concept could significantly improve current treatment options for patients suffering from valvular heart disease. This report provides an overview on transcatheter tissue engineered heart valves and summarizes available pre-clinical data.

  9. Self-adapted sliding scale spectroscopy ADC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qichun; Wang Jingjin


    The traditional sliding scale technique causes a disabled range that is equal to the sliding length, thus reduces the analysis range of a MCA. A method for reduce ADC's DNL, which is called self-adapted sliding scale method, has been designed and tested. With this method, the disabled range caused by a traditional sliding scale method can be eliminated by a random trial scale and there is no need of an additional amplitude discriminator with swing threshold. A special trial-and-correct logic is presented. The tested DNL of the spectroscopy ADC described here is less than 0.5%

  10. The patient inflating valve in anaesthesia and resuscitation breathing systems. (United States)

    Fenton, P M; Bell, G


    Patient inflating valves combined with self-inflating bags are known to all anaesthetists as resuscitation devices and are familiar as components of draw-over anaesthesia systems. Their variants are also commonplace in transfer and home ventilators. However, the many variations in structure and function have led to difficulties in their optimal use, definition and classification. After reviewing the relevant literature, we defined a patient inflating valve as a one-way valve that closes an exit port to enable lung inflation, also permitting exhalation and spontaneous breathing, the actions being automatic. We present a new classification based on the mechanism of valve opening/closure; namely elastic recoil of a flexible flap/diaphragm, sliding spindle opened by a spring/magnet or a hollow balloon collapsed by external pressure. The evolution of these valves has been driven by the difficulties documented in critical incidents, which we have used along with information from modern International Organization for Standardization standards to identify 13 ideal properties, the top six of which are non-jamming, automatic, no bypass effect, no rebreathing or air entry at patient end, low resistance, robust and easy to service. The Ambu and the Laerdal valves have remained popular due to their simplicity and reliability. Two new alternatives, the Fenton and Diamedica valves, offer the benefits of location away from the patient while retaining a small functional dead space. They also offer the potential for greater use of hybrid continuous flow/draw-over systems that can operate close to atmospheric pressure. The reliable application of positive end-expiratory pressure/continuous positive airway pressure remains a challenge.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Yaryta


    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the ways to control an actuator of the automated clutch control system. The aim is to design control of the electropneumatic actuator, to control its coupling with the acceleration valve on the basis of experimental research as well as to provide rational parameters of the automated clutch control system for the robotic transmission. The feature of the system is an acceleration valve in the design of the electropneumatic actuator to control the clutch. New links demand to adjust the way to control the actuator. The connection of Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM with single power supply pulses to control electropneumatic valves is substantiated. The quantitative characteristics of single control pulses and PWM ones are determined. The error of operation accuracy for various ways of the control of the electropneumatic actuator to control the clutch of the robotic transmission is determined. Obtained separate PWM area is designed to suppress the initial hysteresis when the rod of the clutch actuator is moved. An algorithm for the operation of a clutch control system is proposed, taking into account the use of two modes of operation of solenoid valves. A graphical interpretation of the clutch control algorithm is presented, which gives an idea of the location of the constant signal feeding zones to the solenoid valve, as well as the operation areas of the solenoid valve in PWM mode. The control algorithm of the clutch booster provides a mode of guaranteed absence of excess pressure in the pneumatic cylinder after releasing the clutch pedal, provided that two normally closed solenoid valves are used. This configuration of the electro-pneumatic clutch control system allows the use of an emergency clutch release system in case of voltage absence. The reference algorithm for filtering the array of data coming from the feedback sensor, as well as the numerical values of the delay caused by the presence of a filter, are given.

  12. Classification of heart valve condition using acoustic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    Prosthetic heart valves and the many great strides in valve design have been responsible for extending the life spans of many people with serious heart conditions. Even though the prosthetic valves are extremely reliable, they are eventually susceptible to long-term fatigue and structural failure effects expected from mechanical devices operating over long periods of time. The purpose of our work is to classify the condition of in vivo Bjork-Shiley Convexo-Concave (BSCC) heart valves by processing acoustic measurements of heart valve sounds. The structural failures of interest for Bscc valves is called single leg separation (SLS). SLS can occur if the outlet strut cracks and separates from the main structure of the valve. We measure acoustic opening and closing sounds (waveforms) using high sensitivity contact microphones on the patient`s thorax. For our analysis, we focus our processing and classification efforts on the opening sounds because they yield direct information about outlet strut condition with minimal distortion caused by energy radiated from the valve disc.

  13. Eurosafe-2011 - Papers and slides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This document gathers some slides, papers and posters that were presented at the 2011 annual EUROSAFE forum. This forum focuses in its plenary part on 'Nuclear safety: new challenges, gained experience and public expectations' in the light of the Fukushima nuclear power station (NPS) accident. The topic will be considered from the point of view of Japanese safety authorities, of a regulator, of an international organisation, of a utility and of a Technical Safety Organisation (TSO). The first part of the second day will be devoted to presentations of the Fukushima NPS accident. The second part of this day will present the latest work carried out by ETSON (European Technical Safety Organizations Network) and EUROSAFE members and their partners worldwide through three seminars (nuclear safety research and safety assessment, radiation protection and environment, nuclear material and nuclear facilities security) and a workshop on operating experience feedback on nuclear fuel cycle facilities

  14. Modelling of piezoresistance sliding coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, M.; Rakowski, W.


    Polymer composites based on PEI filling metal powders and lubricating additions: graphite and MoS 2 have strong sensor properties appearing as resistance change with external load and temperature. These materials have also good tribological properties and can be applied as slide bearings material or coatings on steel substrate, which in the same time are diagnostic elements - sensors. Electrical conductance of these coatings is strongly correlated with thermomechanical model of composites. The mean distance between conducting particles of filler has decisive influence on resistivity of coatings. modelling of semi-conducting polymer composites allows for designating of materials, whose mechanical properties and sensor characteristics will assure high reliability of bearings and gives the possibility their diagnosis without additional sensors. (author)

  15. Projective synchronization of uncertain scale-free network based on modified sliding mode control technique (United States)

    Li, Chengren; Lü, Ling; Zhao, Guannan; Li, Gang; Tian, Jing; Gu, Jiajia; Wang, Zhouyang


    We modify sliding mode control technique from the synchronization of a single dynamic system to the synchronization of complex network. Projective synchronization of uncertain scale-free network is investigated based on modified sliding mode control technique. Further, the sliding surfaces, the identification laws of uncertain parameters and the control inputs are designed, and the condition of realizing projective synchronization of uncertain scale-free network is obtained. Finally, the Logistic systems with chaotic behavior are taken as nodes to constitute the scale-free network and the synchronization target. The simulation results show that the synchronization mechanism is effective.

  16. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement for Degenerative Bioprosthetic Surgical Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvir, Danny; Webb, John; Brecker, Stephen


    Transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve implantation is an emerging therapeutic alternative for patients with a failed surgical bioprosthesis and may obviate the need for reoperation. We evaluated the clinical results of this technique using a large, worldwide registry....

  17. NRC valve performance test program - check valve testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmougin, N.M.


    The Valve Performance Test Program addresses the current requirements for testing of pressure isolation valves (PIVs) in light water reactors. Leak rate monitoring is the current method used by operating commercial power plants to survey the condition of their PIVs. ETEC testing of three check valves (4-inch, 6-inch, and 12-inch nominal diameters) indicates that leak rate testing is not a reliable method for detecting impending valve failure. Acoustic emission monitoring of check valves shows promise as a method of detecting loosened internals damage. Future efforts will focus on evaluation of acoustic emission monitoring as a technique for determining check valve condition. Three gate valves also will be tested to evaluate whether the check valve results are applicable to gate type PIVs


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AKBAŞ


    Full Text Available In this study, an alternative prototype has been designed and constructed for variable valve timing systems which are used in spark ignition engines. The effects of intake valve timing and lift changing on engine performance have been investigated without changing the opening duration of the valves. A four stroke, single cylinder, spark ignition engine has been used for these experiments.

  19. Whole slide imaging of unstained tissue using lensfree microscopy (United States)

    Morel, Sophie Nhu An; Hervé, Lionel; Bordy, Thomas; Cioni, Olivier; Delon, Antoine; Fromentin, Catherine; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Allier, Cédric


    Pathologist examination of tissue slides provides insightful information about a patient's disease. Traditional analysis of tissue slides is performed under a binocular microscope, which requires staining of the sample and delays the examination. We present a simple cost-effective lensfree imaging method to record 2-4μm resolution wide-field (10 mm2 to 6 cm2) images of unstained tissue slides. The sample processing time is reduced as there is no need for staining. A wide field of view (10 mm2) lensfree hologram is recorded in a single shot and the image is reconstructed in 2s providing a very fast acquisition chain. The acquisition is multispectral, i.e. multiple holograms are recorded simultaneously at three different wavelengths, and a dedicated holographic reconstruction algorithm is used to retrieve both amplitude and phase. Whole tissue slides imaging is obtained by recording 130 holograms with X-Y translation stages and by computing the mosaic of a 25 x 25 mm2 reconstructed image. The reconstructed phase provides a phase-contrast-like image of the unstained specimen, revealing structures of healthy and diseased tissue. Slides from various organs can be reconstructed, e.g. lung, colon, ganglion, etc. To our knowledge, our method is the first technique that enables fast wide-field lensfree imaging of such unlabeled dense samples. This technique is much cheaper and compact than a conventional phase contrast microscope and could be made portable. In sum, we present a new methodology that could quickly provide useful information when a rapid diagnosis is needed, such as tumor margin identification on frozen section biopsies during surgery.

  20. Evaluating the visibility of presentation slides (United States)

    Sugawara, Genki; Umezu, Nobuyuki


    Presentations using slide software such as PowerPoint are widely performed in offices and schools. The improvement of presentation skills among ordinary people is required because these days such an opportunity of giving presentation is becoming so common. One of the key factors for making successful presentation is the visibility of the slides, as well as the contents themselves. We propose an algorithm to numerically evaluate the visibility of presentation slides. Our method receives a presentation as a set of images and eliminates the background from the slides to extract characters and figures. This algorithm then evaluates the visibility according to the number and size of characters, their colors, and figure layouts. The slide evaluation criteria are based on the series of experiments with 20 participants to parameterize typical values for visual elements in slides. The algorithm is implemented on an iMac and takes 0.5 sec. to evaluate a slide image. The evaluation score is given as a value between 0 and 100 and the users can improve their slide pages with lower scores. Our future work includes a series of experiments with various presentations and extending our method to publish as a web-based rating service for learning presentation skills.

  1. Ergometer rowing with and without slides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Holsgaard; Jensen, K


    A rowing ergometer can be placed on a slide to imitate 'on-water' rowing. The present study examines I) possible differences in biomechanical and physiological variables of ergometer rowing with and without slides and II) potential consequences on training load during exercise. 7 elite oars-women...... frequency was higher (%-difference between conditions) at each intensity level (1-11.4%, p...

  2. Discrete-time nonlinear sliding mode controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    desired trajectory. In Bandhyopadhyay and Deepak (2009), nonlinear sliding surface is created for varying the damping factor for improving the performance of the multi-input and multi-output linear systems with matched conditions. Some of the concepts and theoretical advances of continuous time sliding mode control are ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 31, 2010 ... Hence it is found to be very effective in controlling electric drives systems. Large torque chattering at steady state may be considered as the main drawback for such a control scheme [6]. One way to improve sliding mode controller performance is to combine it with Fuzzy Logic (FL) to form a Fuzzy Sliding ...

  4. Monitoring environmental change with color slides (United States)

    Arthur W. Magill


    Monitoring human impact on outdoor recreation sites and view landscapes is necessary to evaluate influences which may require corrective action and to determine if management is achieving desired goals. An inexpensive method to monitor environmental change is to establish camera points and use repeat color slides. Successful monitoring from slides requires the observer...

  5. Keep pushing! Limiting interruptions to CPR; bag-valve mask versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This has led to first responders and paramedics performing single rescuer CPR using a bag-valve-mask (BVM) device as opposed to the historical practice of intubating and ventilating via an endotracheal tube. Bag-valve-mask ventilations, especially during single rescuer CPR, are however associated with complications ...

  6. Anaesthesia for transvenous transcatheter tricuspid valve-in-valve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 27, 2011 ... Keywords: transvenous, transcatheter, tricuspid prosthesis, valve-in-valve implantation. Abstract. The authors report and discuss the anaesthetic management of a transvenous transcatheter tricuspid valve replacement. The conduct of anaesthesia, the challenges encountered and the specific risks ...

  7. Mitral Valve Aneurysm: A Rare Complication of Aortic Valve Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Moaref


    Full Text Available A 20-year-old intravenous drug abuser man, refered to our hospital with dyspnea and orthopnea. Tranesophagealechocardiography revealed severe aortic regurgitation, healed vegetation of aortic valve and an aneurysm of theanterior leaflet of the mitral valve. The patient was discharged after aortic valve replacement and mitral valverepair.

  8. What Is Heart Valve Disease? (United States)

    ... is called a valve-in-valve procedure. Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Changes to Treat Other Related Heart Conditions To ... your doctor may advise you to make heart-healthy lifestyle changes, such as: Heart-healthy eating Aiming for ...

  9. Long-term subglacial sliding patterns based on a sliding law with cavitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig, Sofie Vej; Egholm, D.L.

    In ice-sheet models and glacial landscape evolution models, subglacial sliding rates are often related to basal shear stress by a power-law. However, the power-law relationship implies that the subglacial bed can provide unlimited levels of basal drag as sliding rates increases, which is recognized......-water pressures are relatively low, whereas fast sliding spreads to the valley bottoms when melt-water pressure increases. We couple equations for glacial sliding to a model for subglacial bedrock erosion and test the implications of the sliding law for long-term glacial landscape evolution. Schoof, C. The effect...

  10. Loading dynamics of a sliding DNA clamp. (United States)

    Cho, Won-Ki; Jergic, Slobodan; Kim, Daehyung; Dixon, Nicholas E; Lee, Jong-Bong


    Sliding DNA clamps are loaded at a ss/dsDNA junction by a clamp loader that depends on ATP binding for clamp opening. Sequential ATP hydrolysis results in closure of the clamp so that it completely encircles and diffuses on dsDNA. We followed events during loading of an E. coli β clamp in real time by using single-molecule FRET (smFRET). Three successive FRET states were retained for 0.3 s, 0.7 s, and 9 min: Hydrolysis of the first ATP molecule by the γ clamp loader resulted in closure of the clamp in 0.3 s, and after 0.7 s in the closed conformation, the clamp was released to diffuse on the dsDNA for at least 9 min. An additional single-molecule polarization study revealed that the interfacial domain of the clamp rotated in plane by approximately 8° during clamp closure. The single-molecule polarization and FRET studies thus revealed the real-time dynamics of the ATP-hydrolysis-dependent 3D conformational change of the β clamp during loading at a ss/dsDNA junction. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  11. Slide-position errors degrade machined optical component quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Burleson, R.R.


    An ultraprecision lathe is being developed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to fabricate optical components for use in high-energy laser systems. The lathe has the capability to produce virtually any shape mirror which is symmetrical about an axis of revolution. Two basic types of mirrors are fabricated on the lathe, namely: (1) mirrors which are machined using a single slide motion (such as flats and cylinders), and (2) mirrors which are produced by two-coordinated slide motions (such as hyperbolic reflectors; large, true-radius reflectors, and other contoured-surface reflectors). The surface-finish quality of typical mirrors machined by a single axis of motion is better than 13 nm, peak to valley, which is an order of magnitude better than the surface finishes of mirrors produced by two axes of motion. Surface finish refers to short-wavelength-figure errors that are visibly detectable. The primary cause of the inability to produce significantly better surface finishes on contoured mirrors has been determined as positional errors which exist in the slide positioning systems. The correction of these errors must be accomplished before contoured surface finishes comparable to the flat and cylinder can be machined on the lathe

  12. Pneumococcal pulmonary valve endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Vrettos


    Full Text Available Pulmonary valve endocarditis is a rare type of infective endocarditis (IE. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogen that is uncommonly associated with IE. A 50 year-old male was referred to us after an incidental echocardiographic finding of a pulmonary valve vegetation. The patient had a recent admission for drainage of a scrotal abscess from which S. pneumoniae was isolated, complicated by hospital acquired pneumonia and pulmonary embolism. Analysis using polymerase chain reaction of the surgically resected mass revealed signs of 16S ribosomal DNA consistent with S. pneumoniae infection. This was an extremely rare case of pneumococcal pulmonary valve IE presenting entirely asymptomatically in the absence of any known risk factors.

  13. Cavitation problems in sodium valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elie, X.


    Cavitation poses few problems for sodium valves, in spite of the fact that the loops are not pressurized. This is no doubt due to the low flow velocities in the pipes. For auxiliary loop valves we are attempting to standardize performances with respect to cavitation. For economic reasons cavitation thresholds are approached with large diameter valves. (author)

  14. Optothermally actuated capillary burst valve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Johan; Bilenberg, Brian; Kristensen, Anders


    We demonstrate the optothermal actuation of individual capillary burst valves in an all-polymer microfluidic device. The capillary burst valves are realised in a planar design by introducing a fluidic constriction in a microfluidic channel of constant depth. We show that a capillary burst valve can...

  15. Telocytes in human heart valves. (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Sun, Wei; Wu, Sean M; Xiao, Junjie; Kong, Xiangqing


    Valve interstitial cells (VICs) are responsible for maintaining the structural integrity and dynamic behaviour of the valve. Telocytes (TCs), a peculiar type of interstitial cells, have been recently identified by Popescu's group in epicardium, myocardium and endocardium (visit The presence of TCs has been identified in atria, ventricles and many other tissues and organ, but not yet in heart valves. We used transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence methods (double labelling for CD34 and c-kit, or vimentin, or PDGF Receptor-β) to provide evidence for the existence of TCs in human heart valves, including mitral valve, tricuspid valve and aortic valve. TCs are found in both apex and base of heart valves, with a similar density of 27-28 cells/mm(2) in mitral valve, tricuspid valve and aortic valve. Since TCs are known for the participation in regeneration or repair biological processes, it remains to be determined how TCs contributes to the valve attempts to re-establish normal structure and function following injury, especially a complex junction was found between TCs and a putative stem (progenitor) cell. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  16. Slides with no attached paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warin, Dominique; Wallenius, Janne; Ouzounian, Gerald; Wikberg, Peter; Todd, Terry A.; Kormilitsyn, Mikhael V.; Osipenko, Alexander G.; Mayorshin, A.A.; McLachlan, Fiona; Nash, Ken L.; Nilsson, M.; Grimes, T.; Braley, J.C.; TAKESHITA, Kenji; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Spendlikova, I.; Distler, P.; John, J.; Sebesta, F.; VU, Trong-Hung; SIMONIN, Jean-Pierre; PAULENOVA, Alena; PRECEK, Martin; HARTIG, Kyle; KNAPP, Nathan; Vidick, Geoffrey; Bouslimani, Nouri; Desreux, Jean F.; Lewis, F.W.; Hudson, M.J.; Harwood, L.M.; Nunez, Ana; Nagarajan, K.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Raj, Baldev; Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Alexander; Pouchon, Manuel A.; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Allard, Stefan; Ekberg, Christian; Retegan, Teodora; Nordlund, Anders; John, Jan; Maershin, Alexander; Zakirov, R.; Panov, A.; Toropov, Andrey


    This document brings together the different presentations (slides) given at the workshop but with no attached paper. These slides refer to the following presentations: - Presentation of ITN (Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear); - Minor Actinide Partitioning (Dominique Warin); - Transmutation (Janne Wallenius); - Radioactive Waste Management, IGD-TP (Gerald Ouzounian); - Present status of the Swedish nuclear waste management programme (Peter Wikberg); - The U.S. Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program - Separations Research and Development (Terry Todd); - Strategies and national programs of closed fuel cycles - Russian Expert Vision (Mikhael Kormilitsyn) - Extraction Studies Of Potential Solvent Formulations For The GANEX Process (Fiona MacLachlan); - Investigations of The Fundamental Chemistry of the TALSPEAK Process (Ken Nash); - Extraction Separation of Trivalent Minor Actinides and Lanthanides by Hexa-dentate Nitrogen-donor Extractant, TPEN, and its Analogs (Kenji Takeshita); - Fluorinated Diluents for HLW Processing - technological point of view (Vasiliy Babain); - Extraction properties of some new pyridine molecules and search for better diluents (Irena Spendlikova); - Kinetics of extraction of Eu 3+ ion by TODGA and CyMe 4 -BTBP studied using the RMC technique (Trong Hung Vu); - Redox Chemistry of Neptunium in Solutions of Nitric Acid (Alena Paulenova); - NMR applied to actinide ions and their complexes. In search of covalency effects (Geoffrey Vidick); - Towards 'Stability Rules' for Radiolysis of bis-DGA compounds (Ana Nunez); - Pyroprocess Research Activities at IGCAR, Kalpakkam, India (K. Nagarajan); - Critical issues of nuclear energy systems employing molten salt fluorides: from ISTC No. 1606 to No. 3749 (1. year of project activity) and MARS/EVOL cooperation (Victor Ignatiev); - Conversion processes: Internal Gelation and the Sphere-pac concept (Manuel Pouchon); - A Combined Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Chemistry Master. A Unique

  17. Building valve amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Morgan


    Building Valve Amplifiers is a unique hands-on guide for anyone working with tube audio equipment--as an electronics hobbyist, audiophile or audio engineer. This 2nd Edition builds on the success of the first with technology and technique revisions throughout and, significantly, a major new self-build project, worked through step-by-step, which puts into practice the principles and techniques introduced throughout the book. Particular attention has been paid to answering questions commonly asked by newcomers to the world of the valve, whether audio enthusiasts tackling their first build or

  18. Tricuspid valve and percutaneous approach: No longer the forgotten valve! (United States)

    Bouleti, Claire; Juliard, Jean-Michel; Himbert, Dominique; Iung, Bernard; Brochet, Eric; Urena, Marina; Dilly, Marie-Pierre; Ou, Phalla; Nataf, Patrick; Vahanian, Alec


    Tricuspid valve disease is mainly represented by tricuspid regurgitation (TR), which is a predictor of poor outcome. TR is usually secondary, caused by right ventricle pressure or volume overload, the leading cause being left-sided heart valve diseases. Tricuspid surgery for severe TR is recommended during left valve surgery, and consists of either a valve replacement or, most often, a tricuspid repair with or without prosthetic annuloplasty. When TR persists or worsens after left valvular surgery, redo isolated tricuspid surgery is associated with high mortality. In addition, a sizeable proportion of patients present with tricuspid surgery deterioration over time, and need a reintervention, which is associated with high morbi-mortality rates. In this context, and given the recent major breakthrough in the percutaneous treatment of aortic and mitral valve diseases, the tricuspid valve appears an appealing challenge, although it raises specific issues. The first applications of transcatheter techniques for tricuspid valve disease were valve-in-valve and valve-in-ring implantation for degenerated bioprosthesis or ring annuloplasty. Some concerns remain regarding prosthesis sizing, rapid ventricular pacing and the best approach, but these procedures appear to be safe and effective. More recently, bicuspidization using a transcatheter approach for the treatment of native tricuspid valve has been published, in two patients. Finally, other devices are in preclinical development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. A Frequency Response Approach to Sliding Control Design for Hydraulic Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben Ole


    . However, when considering hydraulic cylinder drives, such full state feedback may not be available, and alternative approaches to conventional methods may be considered. This issue is addressed in this paper in regard to tracking control design for valve controlled hydraulic cylinder drives, and a design...... method taking its offset in linear analysis is proposed. The sliding manifold is designed based on a PI controller design, and the resulting controller provides for robustness outside a predefined boundary layer, and performance equivalent to the PI controller within the boundary layer. Results...

  20. Flexible Joints Robotic Manipulator Control By Adaptive Gain Smooth Sliding Observer-Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available An adaptive gain sliding observer for uncertain parameter nonlinear systems together with an adaptive gain sliding controller is proposed in this paper. It considered nonlinear, SISO affine systems, with uncertainties in steady-state functions and parameters. A further parameter term, adaptively updated, has been introduced in steady state space model of the controlled system, in order to obtain useful information despite fault detection and isolation. By using of the sliding observer with adaptive gain, the robustness to uncertainties is increased and the parameters adaptively updated can provide useful information in fault detection. Also, the state estimation error is bounded accordingly with bound limits of the uncertainties. The both of them, the sliding adaptive observer and sliding controller are designed to fulfill the attractiveness condition of its corresponding switching surface. An application to a single arm with flexible joint robot is presented. In order to alleviate chattering, a parameterized tangent hyperbolic has been used as switching function, instead of pure relay one, to the observer and the controller. Also, the gains of the switching functions, to the sliding observer and sliding controller are adaptively updated depending of estimation error and tracking error, respectively. By the using adaptive gains, the transient and tracking response can be improved.

  1. Virtual slide telepathology enables an innovative telehealth rapid breast care clinic. (United States)

    López, Ana Maria; Graham, Anna R; Barker, Gail P; Richter, Lynne C; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Lian, Fangru; Grasso, Lauren L; Miller, Ashley; Kreykes, Lindsay N; Henderson, Jeffrey T; Bhattacharyya, Achyut K; Weinstein, Ronald S


    An innovative telemedicine-enabled rapid breast care service is described that bundles telemammography, telepathology, and teleoncology services into a single day process. The service is called the UltraClinics Process. Because the core services are at 4 different physical locations, a challenge has been to obtain stat second opinion readouts on newly diagnosed breast cancer cases. To provide same day quality assurance rereview of breast surgical pathology cases, a DMetrix DX-40 ultrarapid virtual slide scanner (DMetrix Inc, Tucson, AZ) was installed at the participating laboratory. Glass slides of breast cancer and breast hyperplasia cases were scanned the same day the slides were produced by the University Physicians Healthcare Hospital histology laboratory. Virtual slide telepathology was used for stat quality assurance readouts at University Medical Center, 6 miles away. There was complete concurrence with the primary diagnosis in 139 (90.3%) of cases. There were 4 (2.3%) major discrepancies, which would have resulted in a different therapy and 3 (1.9%) minor discrepancies. Three cases (1.9%) were deferred for immunohistochemistry. In 2 cases (1.3%), the case was deferred for examination of the glass slides by the reviewing pathologists at University Medical Center. We conclude that the virtual slide telepathology quality assurance program found a small number of significant diagnostic discrepancies. The virtual slide telepathology program service increased the job satisfaction of subspecialty pathologists without special training in breast pathology, assigned to cover the general surgical pathology service at a small satellite university hospital.

  2. Experimental Investigation on the Characteristics of Sliding Discharge Plasma Aerodynamic Actuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Huimin; Zhang Qiaogen; Li Yinghong; Jia Min; Wu Yun


    A new electrical discharge called sliding discharge was developed to generate plasma aerodynamic actuation for flow control. A microsecond-pulse high voltage with a DC component was used to energize a three-electrode actuator to generate sliding discharge. The characteristics of plasma aerodynamic actuation by sliding discharge were experimentally investigated. Discharge morphology shows that sliding discharge is formed when energized by properly adjusting microsecond-pulse and DC voltage. Compared to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), the plasma extension of sliding discharge is quasi-diffusive and stable but longer and more intensive. Results from particle image velocimetry (PIV) test indicate that plasma aerodynamic actuation by sliding discharge can induce a ‘starting vortex’ and a quasi-steady ‘near-wall jet’. Body force induced by plasma aerodynamic actuation is about the order of mN, which is stronger than that induced by single DBD. It is inferred that microsecond-pulse sliding discharge may be more effective to generate large-scale plasma aerodynamic actuation, which is very promising for improving aircraft aerodynamic characteristics and propulsion efficiency.

  3. Experimental Investigation on the Characteristics of Sliding Discharge Plasma Aerodynamic Actuation (United States)

    Song, Huimin; Li, Yinghong; Zhang, Qiaogen; Jia, Min; Wu, Yun


    A new electrical discharge called sliding discharge was developed to generate plasma aerodynamic actuation for flow control. A microsecond-pulse high voltage with a DC component was used to energize a three-electrode actuator to generate sliding discharge. The characteristics of plasma aerodynamic actuation by sliding discharge were experimentally investigated. Discharge morphology shows that sliding discharge is formed when energized by properly adjusting microsecond-pulse and DC voltage. Compared to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), the plasma extension of sliding discharge is quasi-diffusive and stable but longer and more intensive. Results from particle image velocimetry (PIV) test indicate that plasma aerodynamic actuation by sliding discharge can induce a ‘starting vortex’ and a quasi-steady ‘near-wall jet’. Body force induced by plasma aerodynamic actuation is about the order of mN, which is stronger than that induced by single DBD. It is inferred that microsecond-pulse sliding discharge may be more effective to generate large-scale plasma aerodynamic actuation, which is very promising for improving aircraft aerodynamic characteristics and propulsion efficiency.

  4. Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control of Plate Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Sharma


    Full Text Available In this paper, fuzzy logic is meshed with sliding mode control, in order to control vibrations of a cantilevered plate. Test plate is instrumented with a piezoelectric sensor patch and a piezoelectric actuator patch. Finite element method is used to obtain mathematical model of the test plate. A design approach of a sliding mode controller for linear systems with mismatched time-varying uncertainties is used in this paper. It is found that chattering around the sliding surface in the sliding mode control can be checked by the proposed fuzzy sliding mode control approach. With presented fuzzy sliding mode approach the actuator voltage time response has a smooth decay. This is important because an abrupt decay can excite higher modes in the structure. Fuzzy rule base consisting of nine rules, is generated from the sliding mode inequality. Experimental implementation of the control approach verify the theoretical findings. For experimental implementation, size of the problem is reduced using modal truncation technique. Modal displacements as well as velocities of first two modes are observed using real-time kalman observer. Real time implementation of fuzzy logic based control has always been a challenge because a given set of rules has to be executed in every sampling interval. Results in this paper establish feasibility of experimental implementation of presented fuzzy logic based controller for active vibration control.

  5. Pressure tracking control of vehicle ABS using piezo valve modulator (United States)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Choi, Seung-Bok


    This paper presents a wheel slip control for the ABS(anti-lock brake system) of a passenger vehicle using a controllable piezo valve modulator. The ABS is designed to optimize for braking effectiveness and good steerability. As a first step, the principal design parameters of the piezo valve and pressure modulator are appropriately determined by considering the braking pressure variation during the ABS operation. The proposed piezo valve consists of a flapper, pneumatic circuit and a piezostack actuator. In order to get wide control range of the pressure, the pressure modulator is desired. The modulator consists of a dual-type cylinder filled with different substances (fluid and gas) and a piston rod moving vertical axis to transmit the force. Subsequently, a quarter car wheel slip model is formulated and integrated with the governing equation of the piezo valve modulator. A sliding mode controller to achieve the desired slip rate is then designed and implemented. Braking control performances such as brake pressure and slip rate are evaluated via computer simulations.

  6. Were the Trænadjupet and Nyk Slides multi-staged? (United States)

    Allin, Joshua; Mozzato, Alessandro; Tappin, David; Talling, Peter; Hunt, James


    Submarine landslides originating from active and extinct trough mouth fans are some of the largest single mass movements evident on Earth. These landslides are capable of damaging offshore infrastructure and can also trigger far-reaching tsunamis. For these reasons understanding the timing, dynamics, and triggering mechanisms of large submarine landslides is important for regional geohazard assessment. The Trænadjupet Slide occurred 4,000 ca. years ago and originated from the Trænadjupet paleo-ice stream on the Central Norwegian margin. The Trænadjupet Slide partially buried the deposits of a previous slide originating from the same section of the Norwegian margin; the Nyk Slide, which occurred at 16,000 ca years ago. Although the Trænadjupet Slide had an estimated volume of 900 km3 and originated from a shallow water depth, it does not appear to have triggered a tsunami. This is in contrast to the comparably-sized Storegga Slide, which produced a tsunami that devastated coastal areas as far away as Scotland. The apparent absence of a tsunami suggests that the failure dynamics for the Trænadjupet slide were different to that of other large slides along the Norwegian Margin. The deposits of both the Trænadjupet and Nyk Slides consist of several blocky lobes extending out into the Lofoten Basin. The lobate morphology of the deposits may imply that both slides occurred in a number of different and possibly temporally-disparate stages. Importantly, multi-staged failures have a much lower tsunamigenic potential due to the lower initial volume displacement. These staggered failures consisting of smaller sediment volumes might explain why no contemporaneous onshore tsunami deposits are found on nearby coastlines, particularly in the case of the post-glacial Trænadjupet Slide. Here we present a new sediment core dataset collected from the previously un-sampled lobes of the Trænadjupet and Nyk Slides. These cores will help us better characterise the deposit types

  7. Sliding mode control for synchronous electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Ryvkin, Sergey E


    This volume presents the theory of control systems with sliding mode applied to electrical motors and power converters. It demonstrates the methodology of control design and the original algorithms of control and observation. Practically all semiconductor devices are used in power converters, that feed electrical motors, as power switches. A switching mode offers myriad attractive, inherent properties from a control viewpoint, especially a sliding mode. Sliding mode control supplies high dynamics to systems, invariability of systems to changes of their parameters and of exterior loads in combi

  8. New safety valve addresses environmental concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.; Austin, R.


    This paper reports that Conoco Pipeline is using a unique relief valve to reduce costs while improving environmental protection at its facilities. Conoco Pipeline Co. Inc. began testing new relief valves in 1987 to present over-pressuring its pipelines while enhancing the safety, environmental integrity and profitability of its pipelines. Conoco worked jointly with Rupture Pin Technology Inc., Oklahoma City, to seek a solution to a series of safety, environmental, and operational risks in the transportation of crude oil and refined products through pipelines. Several of the identified problems were traced to a single equipment source: the reliability of rupture discs used at pipeline stations to relieve pressure by diverting flow to tanks during over-pressure conditions. Conoco's corporate safety and environmental policies requires solving problems that deal with exposure to hydrocarbon vapors, chemical spills or the atmospheric release of fugitive emissions, such as during rupture disc maintenance. The company had used rupture pin valves as vent relief devices in conjunction with development by Rick Austin of inert gas methods to protect the inner casing wall and outer carrier pipeline wall in pipeline road crossings. The design relies on rupture pin valves set at 5 psi to isolate vent openings from the atmosphere prior to purging the annular space between the pipeline and casing with inert gas to prevent corrosion. Speciality Pipeline Inspection and Engineering Inc., Houston, is licensed to distribute the equipment for the new cased-crossing procedure

  9. SlideToolkit: an assistive toolset for the histological quantification of whole slide images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaan G L Nelissen

    Full Text Available The demand for accurate and reproducible phenotyping of a disease trait increases with the rising number of biobanks and genome wide association studies. Detailed analysis of histology is a powerful way of phenotyping human tissues. Nonetheless, purely visual assessment of histological slides is time-consuming and liable to sampling variation and optical illusions and thereby observer variation, and external validation may be cumbersome. Therefore, within our own biobank, computerized quantification of digitized histological slides is often preferred as a more precise and reproducible, and sometimes more sensitive approach. Relatively few free toolkits are, however, available for fully digitized microscopic slides, usually known as whole slides images. In order to comply with this need, we developed the slideToolkit as a fast method to handle large quantities of low contrast whole slides images using advanced cell detecting algorithms. The slideToolkit has been developed for modern personal computers and high-performance clusters (HPCs and is available as an open-source project on We here illustrate the power of slideToolkit by a repeated measurement of 303 digital slides containing CD3 stained (DAB abdominal aortic aneurysm tissue from a tissue biobank. Our workflow consists of four consecutive steps. In the first step (acquisition, whole slide images are collected and converted to TIFF files. In the second step (preparation, files are organized. The third step (tiles, creates multiple manageable tiles to count. In the fourth step (analysis, tissue is analyzed and results are stored in a data set. Using this method, two consecutive measurements of 303 slides showed an intraclass correlation of 0.99. In conclusion, slideToolkit provides a free, powerful and versatile collection of tools for automated feature analysis of whole slide images to create reproducible and meaningful phenotypic data sets.

  10. Mitral Valve Prolapse (United States)

    ... Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Mitral Valve ... You Play? Print en español Prolapso de ...

  11. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Ansanelli, Eric [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)


    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market.

  12. Bicuspid aortic valve (United States)

    ... females. A BAV often exists in babies with coarctation of the aorta (narrowing of the aorta). BAV is also seen ... to view the blood vessels of the heart Treatment ... to the heart and into the narrow opening of the aortic valve. A balloon attached to the end of ...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    It is disclosed a shut-off valve which acts automatically and has a fully mechanical performance with respect to the loosing of the tower-shape part balance under the effect of the special acceleration Which is arisen from the quakes waves or serious vibrations, while such vibrations are mainly r...

  14. Measurement of reed valve kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenkl Michael


    Full Text Available The measurement of key kinematic parameters of a reed valve movement is necessary for the further development of the reed valve system. These parameters are dependent on the geometry and material properties of the valve. As they directly affect the quantity of air flowing around the valve, a simple and easy to implement measurement of various valve configuration based on the air flow has been devised and is described in this paper, along with its technical parameters and drawbacks when evaluating reed valves used in reciprocating air compressors. Results are presented for a specimen of a compressor under examination. All kinematic parameters, and timing of the opening and closing of the valve, obtained from the measurement are presented and discussed.

  15. Tricuspid valve endocarditis. (United States)

    Hussain, Syed T; Witten, James; Shrestha, Nabin K; Blackstone, Eugene H; Pettersson, Gösta B


    Right-sided infective endocarditis (RSIE) is less common than left-sided infective endocarditis (IE), encompassing only 5-10% of cases of IE. Ninety percent of RSIE involves the tricuspid valve (TV). Given the relatively small numbers of TVIE cases operated on at most institutions, the purpose of this review is to highlight and discuss the current understanding of IE involving the TV. RSIE and TVIE are strongly associated with intravenous drug use (IVDU), although pacemaker leads, defibrillator leads and vascular access for dialysis are also major risk factors. Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant causative organism in TVIE. Most patients with TVIE are successfully treated with antibiotics, however, 5-16% of RSIE cases eventually require surgical intervention. Indications and timing for surgery are less clear than for left-sided IE; surgery is primarily considered for failed medical therapy, large vegetations and septic pulmonary embolism, and less often for TV regurgitation and heart failure. Most patients with an infected prosthetic TV will require surgery. Concomitant left-sided IE has its own surgical indications. Earlier surgical intervention may potentially prevent further destruction of leaflet tissue and increase the likelihood of TV repair. Fortunately, TV debridement and repair can be accomplished in most cases, even those with extensive valve destruction, using a variety of techniques. Valve repair is advocated over replacement, particularly in IVDUs patients who are young, non-compliant and have a higher risk of recurrent infection and reoperation with valve replacement. Excising the valve without replacing, it is not advocated; it has been reported previously, but these patients are likely to be symptomatic, particularly in cases with septic pulmonary embolism and increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Patients with concomitant left-sided involvement have worse prognosis than those with RSIE alone, due predominantly to greater likelihood of

  16. Design and operation of a fast electromagnetic inductive massive gas injection valve for NSTX-U (United States)

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Lay, W.-S.; Plunkett, G. J.


    Results from the operation of an electromagnetic valve, that does not incorporate ferromagnetic materials, are presented. Image currents induced on a conducting disc placed near a pancake solenoid cause it to move away from the solenoid and open the vacuum seal. A new and important design feature is the use of Lip Seals for the sliding piston. The pressure rise in the test chamber is measured directly using a fast time response Baratron gauge. The valve injects over 200 Torr l of nitrogen in less than 3 ms, which remains unchanged at moderate magnetic fields.

  17. Sliding mode controller with modified sliding function for DC-DC Buck Converter. (United States)

    Naik, B B; Mehta, A J


    This article presents design of Sliding Mode Controller with proportional integral type sliding function for DC-DC Buck Converter for the controlled power supply. The converter with conventional sliding mode controller results in a steady state error in load voltage. The proposed modified sliding function improves the steady state and dynamic performance of the Convertor and facilitates better choices of controller tuning parameters. The conditions for existence of sliding modes for proposed control scheme are derived. The stability of the closed loop system with proposed sliding mode control is proved and improvement in steady state performance is exemplified. The idea of adaptive tuning for the proposed controller to compensate load variations is outlined. The comparative study of conventional and proposed control strategy is presented. The efficacy of the proposed strategy is endowed by the simulation and experimental results. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro experiment for verification of the tandem shunt valve system: a novel method for treating hydrocephalus by flexibly controlling cerebrospinal fluid flow and intracranial pressure. (United States)

    Aihara, Yasuo; Shoji, Ichiro; Okada, Yoshikazu


    The CSF shunt valve is a medical device whose main function is to regulate intracranial pressure and drain excess CSF. The authors have developed a new therapeutic method for treating hydrocephalus, namely the tandem shunt valve system, which has the potential of flexibly controlling the CSF flow rate and intracranial pressure in patients. The properties of the tandem system were verified by performing in vitro experiments. An in vitro system with a manometer was built to measure pressure and flow rates of water in open systems using the Codman Hakim Programmable Valve and the Strata adjustable pressure programmable valve. A single valve and 2 single shunt valves connected in series (the tandem shunt valve system) were connected to the manometer to check the final pressure. Conventional single shunt valve systems require valve pressures to be set higher to slow down the CSF flow rate, which inevitably results in a higher final pressure. On the other hand, the tandem shunt valve system uses the combination of 2 valves to slow the CSF flow rate without increasing the final pressure. The authors succeeded in experimentally demonstrating in vitro results of tandem systems and their effectiveness by applying a model to show that the valve with the higher pressure setting determined the final pressure of the entire system and the flow rate became slower than single shunt valve systems.

  19. Lubrication of sliding bearings for hydropower applications


    McCarthy, Donald


    The term "sliding bearing" refers to types of bearing where two conformal surfaces (usually the stationary bearing and a moving shaft) slide relative to one another with load distributed directly across the interface. A suitable lubricant may be employed to reduce the friction between these two surfaces. In "fluid film" bearings, this lubricant builds up a layer of sufficient thickness such that the two surfaces are completely separated. Examples include journal and thrust bearings and shaft ...

  20. Mechanism of opening a sliding clamp


    Douma, Lauren G.; Yu, Kevin K.; England, Jennifer K.; Levitus, Marcia; Bloom, Linda B.


    Abstract Clamp loaders load ring-shaped sliding clamps onto DNA where the clamps serve as processivity factors for DNA polymerases. In the first stage of clamp loading, clamp loaders bind and stabilize clamps in an open conformation, and in the second stage, clamp loaders place the open clamps around DNA so that the clamps encircle DNA. Here, the mechanism of the initial clamp opening stage is investigated. Mutations were introduced into the Escherichia coli β-sliding clamp that destabilize t...

  1. Preparing Scientific Papers, Posters, and Slides. (United States)

    Lefor, Alan Kawarai; Maeno, Misato


    Publications and presentations are important in academic medicine. The ability to present information in a standard fashion is critically important. Papers, posters, and slides must be prepared appropriately to maximize their chance of being accepted. The first step is to use word processing software correctly. English language usage must conform to standard scientific English usage. Abbreviations should be avoided as much as possible. Numerical data must be presented with the appropriate number of significant figures. The first step in preparing a paper is to decide the target journal. Papers should always be written in 12 point Times New Roman font, while slides and posters should be in Arial or Helvetica. The Results section must contain actual data with appropriate statistical analysis. Take great care to prepare figures and tables according to the journal's instructions. Posters must be prepared to allow easy reading at a distance of 2m. Use a white background and dark letters. The majority of the area of your poster should be Results, and there is no need to include the abstract or references on a poster. Slide presentations should be limited to about one slide for each minute of the talk. Avoid the use of animations and excessive use of color. Do not use abbreviations on slides. Following these simple guidelines will meet the requirements of most journals and allow your audience to appreciate the data on your posters and slides. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. WTP Pretreatment Facility Potential Design Deficiencies--Sliding Bed and Sliding Bed Erosion Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    This assessment is based on readily available literature and discusses both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries with respect to sliding beds and erosion due to sliding beds. This report does not quantify the size of the sliding beds or erosion rates due to sliding beds, but only assesses if they could be present. This assessment addresses process pipelines in the Pretreatment (PT) facility and the high level waste (HLW) transfer lines leaving the PT facility to the HLW vitrification facility concentrate receipt vessel.

  3. Double orifice mitral valve: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musić Ljilja


    Full Text Available Introduction. Double orifice mitrol valve (DOMV is a very rare congenital heart defect. Case report. We reported 20-year-old male referred to our center due to evaluation of his cardiologic status. He was operated on shortly after birth for a tracheoesophageal fistula. Accidentally, echocardiography examination at the age of 4 years revealed double orifice mitral valve (DOMV without the presence of mitral regurgitation, as well as mitral stenosis, with normal dimensions of all cardiac chambers. The patient was asymptomatic, even more he was a kick boxer. His physical finding was normal. Electrocardiography showed regular sinus rhythm, incomplete right bundle branch block. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE examination revealed the normal size of the left atrial, mitral leaflets were slightly more redundant. The left and right heart chambers, aorta, tricuspid valve and pulmonary artery valve were normal. During TTE examination on a short axis view two asymmetric mitral orifices were seen as a double mitral orifice through which we registered normal flow, without regurgitation and mitral stenosis. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE examination from the transgastric view at the level of mitral valve, showed 2 single asymmetric mitral orifices separated by fibrous tissue, mitral leaflet with a separate insertion of hordes for each orifice. Conclusion. The presented patient with DOMV is the only one recognized in our country. The case is interesting because during 16-year a follow-up period there were no functional changes despite the fact that he performed very demanded sport activities. This is very important because there is no information in the literature about that.

  4. Mechanical Valve Replacement: Early Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Cakir


    Full Text Available Aim: Valve diseases in developing countries like Turkey which often occur as a complication of rheumatic fever are a serious disease. Surgical treatment of valve diseases should be done before irreversible damage to the myocardium occurred. In this study, we aimed to present the early results of mechanical valve replacement operations. Method: A hundred patients with mechanical valve replacement surgery were retrospectively evaluated in Seyhan Application Center attached to our clinic between July 2007 and August 2011. Results: Fifty patients were male and 50 were women. The mean age of patients was 47.88 (18-78. Isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR was performed to 23 patients, isolated mitral valve replacement (MVR was 32, double valve replacement (AVR + MVR was 12, MVR + aortic valve valvuloplasty was 1, AVR + mitral kommissurotomi was 1, AVR + coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG was 17, MVR + CABG was 8, MVR + atrial septal defect closure was 2 and Bentall procedure.was 4 patients. In addition, ablation procedure was performed to 5 patients intraoperatively because of preoperative atrial fibrillation. Two patients (2 % died in early postoperative period. Conclusion: Mechanical prosthetic valves are used for surgical treatment of valve disease with low mortality and morbidity in a large group of patients like women that not to think to get pregnant, non advanced age group and patients have less risky for anticoagulation drug in our clinic. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(1.000: 49-54

  5. Cyclonic valve test: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Andre Sampaio; Moraes, Carlos Alberto C.; Marins, Luiz Philipe M.; Soares, Fabricio; Oliveira, Dennis; Lima, Fabio Soares de; Airao, Vinicius [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ton, Tijmen [Twister BV, Rijswijk (Netherlands)


    For many years, the petroleum industry has been developing a valve that input less shear to the flow for a given required pressure drop and this can be done using the cyclonic concept. This paper presents a comparison between the performances of a cyclonic valve (low shear) and a conventional globe valve. The aim of this work is to show the advantages of using a cyclonic low shear valve instead of the commonly used in the primary separation process by PETROBRAS. Tests were performed at PETROBRAS Experimental Center (NUEX) in Aracaju/SE varying some parameters: water cut; pressure loss (from 4 kgf/cm2 to 10 kgf/cm2); flow rates (30 m3/h and 45 m3/h). Results indicates a better performance of the cyclonic valve, if compared with a conventional one, and also that the difference of the performance, is a function of several parameters (emulsion stability, water content free, and oil properties). The cyclonic valve tested can be applied as a choke valve, as a valve between separation stages (for pressure drop), or for controlling the level of vessels. We must emphasize the importance to avoid the high shear imposed by conventional valves, because once the emulsion is created, it becomes more difficult to break it. New tests are being planned to occur in 2012, but PETROBRAS is also analyzing real cases where the applications could increase the primary process efficiency. In the same way, the future installations are also being designed considering the cyclonic valve usage. (author)

  6. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in failed bioprosthetic surgical valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvir, Danny; Webb, John G; Bleiziffer, Sabine


    IMPORTANCE: Owing to a considerable shift toward bioprosthesis implantation rather than mechanical valves, it is expected that patients will increasingly present with degenerated bioprostheses in the next few years. Transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve implantation is a less invasive approach......, stroke, and New York Heart Association functional class. RESULTS: Modes of bioprosthesis failure were stenosis (n = 181 [39.4%]), regurgitation (n = 139 [30.3%]), and combined (n = 139 [30.3%]). The stenosis group had a higher percentage of small valves (37% vs 20.9% and 26.6% in the regurgitation...... and combined groups, respectively; P = .005). Within 1 month following valve-in-valve implantation, 35 (7.6%) patients died, 8 (1.7%) had major stroke, and 313 (92.6%) of surviving patients had good functional status (New York Heart Association class I/II). The overall 1-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 83...

  7. Tricuspid Valve Replacement, Mechnical vs. Biological Valve, Which Is Better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham Akram Altaani


    Full Text Available Background: The initial trial in tricuspid surgery is repair; however, replacement is done whenever the valve is badly diseased. Tricuspid valve replacement comprises 1.7% of all tricuspid valve surgeries. Materials and Methods: The present retrospective study was performed using the medical records of 21 cases who underwent tricuspid valve replacement from January 2002 until the end of December 2010. The mean age of the participants was 52.3±8.8 years and 66.7% were females. In addition, tricuspid valve replacement was associated with mitral valve surgery, aortic valve surgery, and both in 14.3%, 4.8%, and 33.3% of the cases, respectively. Yet, isolated tricuspid valve replacement and redo surgery were performed in 10 cases (47.6% and 8 cases (38.1%, respectively. Besides, trial of repair was done in 14 cases (66.7%. Moreover, biological and mechanical valves were used in 76.2% and 23.8% of the patients, respectively. Results: According to the results, early mortality was 23.8% and one year survival was 66.7%. Moreover, early mortality was caused by right ventricular failure, multiorgan failure, medistinitis, and intracerbral bleeding in 42%, 28.6%, 14.3%, and 14.3% of the cases, respectively. In addition, 57.1% of the deaths had occurred in the cases where the biological valve was used, while 42.9% of the deaths had taken place where the mechanical one was utilized. Conclusions: The patients who require tricuspid valve replacement are usually high risk surgical candidates with early and long term mortality. The findings of the current study showed no significant hemodynamic difference between mechanical and biological valves.

  8. Patents and heart valve surgery--I: mechanical valves. (United States)

    Cheema, Faisal H; Hussain, Nasir; Kossar, Alexander P; Polvani, Gianluca


    Valvular heart disease, inherited or acquired, affects more than 5 million Americans yearly. Whereas medical treatment is beneficial in the initial stages of valvular heart disease, surgical correction provides symptomatic relief and long-term survival benefits. Surgical options include either repair or replacement using mechanical or bio-prosthetic valves. Patient age and the post-operative need for anticoagulation therapy are major determinants of the choice between use of mechanical or bio-prosthetic valves. Since the first mechanical valves were made available several decades ago, the incorporation of increasingly sophisticated materials and methodologies has led to substantial improvements in the valve design, and has catalyzed a parallel increase in the amount of patents issued for these emerging technologies. In this paper, we have chronologically reviewed such patents, briefly discussed various challenges that mechanical heart valve implementation is faced with and finally reviewed some of the strategies employed to overcome such obstacles. An ideal prosthetic heart valve would comprehensively mimic the natural hemodynamics and physiology of the native heart valve. Additionally, such a valve would be easily implantable, associated with a minimal risk of thrombosis and thus need for anti-coagulation, and with a proven long-term durability. With cutting edge technological advancements in the recent times, the ongoing innovative and collaborative efforts of physicians, scientists, and engineers will not seize until an ideal mechanical heart valve becomes a reality.

  9. Anterior Urethral Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar P. Mali


    Full Text Available We studied the clinical presentation and management of four patients with anterior urethral valves; a rare cause of urethral obstruction in male children. One patient presented antenatally with oligohydramnios, bilateral hydronephrosis and bladder thickening suggestive of an infravesical obstruction. Two other patients presented postnatally at 1 and 2 years of age, respectively, with poor stream of urine since birth. The fourth patient presented at 9 years with frequency and dysuria. Diagnosis was established on either micturating cystourethrogram (MCU (in 2 or on cystoscopy (in 2. All patients had cystoscopic ablation of the valves. One patient developed a postablation stricture that was resected with an end-to-end urethroplasty. He had an associated bilateral vesicoureteric junction (VUJ obstruction for which a bilateral ureteric reimplantation was done at the same time. On long-term follow-up, all patients demonstrated a good stream of urine. The renal function is normal. Patients are continent and free of urinary infections. Anterior urethral valves are rare obstructive lesions in male children. The degree of obstruction is variable, and so they may present with mild micturition difficulty or severe obstruction with hydroureteronephrosis and renal impairment. Hence, it is important to evaluate the anterior urethra in any male child with suspected infravesical obstruction. The diagnosis is established by MCU or cystoscopy and the treatment is always surgical, either a transurethral ablation or an open resection. The long-term prognosis is good.

  10. Posterior Urethral Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve J. Hodges


    Full Text Available The most common cause of lower urinary tract obstruction in male infants is posterior urethral valves. Although the incidence has remained stable, the neonatal mortality for this disorder has improved due to early diagnosis and intensive neonatal care, thanks in part to the widespread use of prenatal ultrasound evaluations. In fact, the most common reason for the diagnosis of posterior urethral valves presently is the evaluation of infants for prenatal hydronephrosis. Since these children are often diagnosed early, the urethral obstruction can be alleviated rapidly through catheter insertion and eventual surgery, and their metabolic derangements can be normalized without delay, avoiding preventable infant mortality. Of the children that survive, however, early diagnosis has not had much effect on their long-term prognosis, as 30% still develop renal insufficiency before adolescence. A better understanding of the exact cause of the congenital obstruction of the male posterior urethra, prevention of postnatal bladder and renal injury, and the development of safe methods to treat urethral obstruction prenatally (and thereby avoiding the bladder and renal damage due to obstructive uropathy are the goals for the care of children with posterior urethral valves[1].

  11. Early Outcomes of Sutureless Aortic Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Onur Hanedan


    Full Text Available Background: In elderly high-risk surgical patients, sutureless aortic valve replacement (AVR should be an alternative to standard AVR. The potential advantages of sutureless aortic prostheses include reducing cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB time and facilitating minimally invasive surgery and complex cardiac interventions, while maintaining satisfactory hemodynamic outcomes and low rates of paravalvular leakage. The current study reports our single-center experience regarding the early outcomes of sutureless aortic valve implantation. Methods: Between October 2012 and June 2015, 65 patients scheduled for surgical valve replacement with symptomatic aortic valve disease and New York Heart Association function of class II or higher were included to this study. Perceval S (Sorin Biomedica Cardio Srl, Sallugia, Italy and Edwards Intuity (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA valves were used. Results: The mean age of the patients was 71.15±8.60 years. Forty-four patients (67.7% were female. The average preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction was 56.9±9.93. The CPB time was 96.51±41.27 minutes and the cross-clamping time was 60.85±27.08 minutes. The intubation time was 8.95±4.19 hours, and the intensive care unit and hospital stays were 2.89±1.42 days and 7.86±1.42 days, respectively. The mean quantity of drainage from chest tubes was 407.69±149.28 mL. The hospital mortality rate was 3.1%. A total of five patients (7.69% died during follow-up. The mean follow-up time was 687.24±24.76 days. The one-year survival rate was over 90%. Conclusion: In the last few years, several models of valvular sutureless bioprostheses have been developed. The present study evaluating the single-center early outcomes of sutureless aortic valve implantation presents the results of an innovative surgical technique, finding that it resulted in appropriate hemodynamic conditions with acceptable ischemic time.

  12. Steam Turbine Control Valve Stiction Effect on Power System Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, B.


    One of the most important problems in power system dynamic stability is low frequency oscillations. This kind of oscillation has significant effects on the stability and security of the power system. In some previous papers, a fact was introduced that a steam pressure continuous fluctuation in turbine steam inlet pipeline may lead to a kind of low frequency oscillation of power systems. Generally, in a power generation plant, steam turbine system composes of some main components, i.e. a boiler or steam generator, stop valves, control valves and turbines that are connected by piping. In the conventional system, the turbine system is composed with a lot of stop and control valves. The steam is provided by a boiler or steam generator. In an abnormal case, the stop valve shuts of the steal flow to the turbine. The steam flow to the turbine is regulated by controlling the control valves. The control valves are provided to regulate the flow of steam to the turbine for starting, increasing or decreasing the power, and also maintaining speed control with the turbine governor system. Unfortunately, the control valve has inherent static friction (stiction) nonlinearity characteristics. Industrial surveys indicated that about 20-30% of all control loops oscillate due to valve problem caused by this nonlinear characteristic. In this paper, steam turbine control valve stiction effect on power system oscillation is presented. To analyze the stiction characteristic effect, firstly a model of control valve and its stiction characteristic are derived by using Newton's laws. A complete tandem steam prime mover, including a speed governing system, a four-stage steam turbine, and a shaft with up to for masses is adopted to analyze the performance of the steam turbine. The governor system consists of some important parts, i.e. a proportional controller, speed relay, control valve with its stiction characteristic, and stem lift position of control valve controller. The steam turbine has

  13. Automatic fire hydrant valve development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumheller, K.


    The development of a remotely-controlled valve to operate a fire hydrant is described. Assembled from off-the-shelf components, the prototype illustrates that a valve light enough to be handled by one man is possible. However, it does not have the ruggedness or reliability needed for actual fire-fighting operations. Preliminary testing by City of Tacoma fire department personnel indicates that the valve may indeed contribute significantly to fire-fighting efficiency

  14. Downhole water management and robotic valve manipulation on electric wireline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwanitz, Brian [Welltec, Alleroed (Denmark); Petersen, Erik; Farias, Eduardo [Welltec do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Due to high operating cost and challenging environments, the oil and gas industry is facing an increasing demand to identify areas where new intervention solutions can be applied. Down hole water management and robotic valve manipulation are some of the areas where new approaches are finding critical success. A new technology has enabled increased recovery rates by managing produced water and allowing remote mechanical manipulation of down hole valves on wireline. These services are possible when applying a robotic stroking device and a wireline key tool.This paper will examine the challenges and present case histories illustrating how advanced technological solutions were applied to overcome operational problem in order to enhance reservoir performance and well productivity. Specifically the paper will illustrate both how isolating sliding side door and setting bridge plug in high x-flow using wireline stroker and tractor technologies water cut were reduced from 85% to 5% and from 90% to 45% respectively and shifting isolation sleeve and open and close sliding sleeve replacing conventional methods with a solution that runs on electrical wireline meant a revolution within the oil and gas industry. (author)

  15. A micro control valve with integrated capacitive sensing for ambulant blood pressure waveform monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Maarten; Brookhuis, Robert Anton; van Houwelingen, M.J.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Lötters, Joost Conrad; Wiegerink, Remco J.


    We have designed and fabricated the first single-wafer proportional micro control valve with built-in capacitive dis-placement sensing. The displacement sensor can facilitate high-speed active proportional control of gas flow through the valve. This is an essential requirement for non-invasive blood

  16. Accurate Sliding-Mode Control System Modeling for Buck Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.


    This paper shows that classical sliding mode theory fails to correctly predict the output impedance of the highly useful sliding mode PID compensated buck converter. The reason for this is identified as the assumption of the sliding variable being held at zero during sliding mode, effectively...... approach also predicts the self-oscillating switching action of the sliding-mode control system correctly. Analytical findings are verified by simulation as well as experimentally in a 10-30V/3A buck converter....

  17. Mitral Valve Prolapse in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    Full Text Available Abstract Mitral valve prolapse is a benign condition. Mitral regurgitation is only complicated in patients with severe mitral valve prolapse. Women with mitral valve prolapse in the absence of other cardiovascular disorders tolerate pregnancy well and do not develop remarkable cardiac complications. Nevertheless, serious complications of mitral valve prolapse, including arrhythmia, infective endocarditis and cerebral ischemic events, can be present in pregnancy. Debates remain with regard to the use of prophylactic antibiotics and β-blockers in the pregnant women with mitral valve prolapse. The prognosis of the pregnant patients might be closely related to the pathological and (or functional changes of the mitral valve. Non-myxomatous mitral valve prolapse poses no or little obstetric risks in terms of pregnancy, labor and neonatal complications; whereas myxomatous mitral valve prolapse is a major etiology of valvular heart disease in women of childbearing age. In the pregnant patients with mitral valve prolapse progressing into major complications, surgical interventions are considered. Medicinal treatment of such patients with β-blockers should be a concern for the fetal safety.

  18. Latest design of gate valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzhofer, U.; Stolte, J.; Weyand, M.


    Babcock Sempell, one of the most important valve manufacturers in Europe, has delivered valves for the nuclear power industry since the beginning of the peaceful application of nuclear power in the 1960s. The latest innovation by Babcock Sempell is a gate valve that meets all recent technical requirements of the nuclear power technology. At the moment in the United States, Germany, Sweden, and many other countries, motor-operated gate and globe valves are judged very critically. Besides the absolute control of the so-called {open_quotes}trip failure,{close_quotes} the integrity of all valve parts submitted to operational forces must be maintained. In case of failure of the limit and torque switches, all valve designs have been tested with respect to the quality of guidance of the gate. The guidances (i.e., guides) shall avoid a tilting of the gate during the closing procedure. The gate valve newly designed by Babcock Sempell fulfills all these characteristic criteria. In addition, the valve has cobalt-free seat hardfacing, the suitability of which has been proven by friction tests as well as full-scale blowdown tests at the GAP of Siemens in Karlstein, West Germany. Babcock Sempell was to deliver more than 30 gate valves of this type for 5 Swedish nuclear power stations by autumn 1995. In the presentation, the author will report on the testing performed, qualifications, and sizing criteria which led to the new technical design.

  19. Ultrathin gate valve for high vacuum operation (United States)

    Ugiansky, R. J.


    Thin, compact, high-vacuum gate valve used to join two vacuum systems together demonstrates multiple operation reliability. Valve measurements and non-protruding handle make valve usable in confined areas.

  20. 49 CFR 192.145 - Valves. (United States)


    ... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.145 Valves. (a) Except for cast iron and plastic valves, each valve must meet the minimum requirements of API 6D...

  1. Ultrasound artifacts mimicking pleural sliding after pneumonectomy. (United States)

    Cavaliere, Franco; Zamparelli, Roberto; Soave, Maurizio P; Gargaruti, Riccardo; Scapigliati, Andrea; De Paulis, Stefano


    To determine the presence of pleural sliding on chest ultrasonography (US) in a series of patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Prospective, observational study. 16-bed SICU of a University hospital. 8 patients (7 men, 1 woman), aged 64 - 73 years (mean 67.5 yrs). Seven patients underwent pneumonectomy for pulmonary neoplasms; one patient underwent an atypical lung resection after having undergone a pneumonectomy one year before. None. Chest ultrasounds were performed during mechanical ventilation and spontaneous ventilation after endotracheal tube removal. In both examinations, pleural sliding was searched bilaterally in brightness mode (B-mode) and motion mode (M-mode) on the anterior thoracic wall in the least gravitationally dependent areas. During mechanical ventilation, pleural sliding was always absent on the side of the pneumonectomy and present on the other side. During spontaneous ventilation, some artifacts mimicking pleural sliding were noted on the side of the pneumonectomy both in B-mode and M-mode (presence of the seashore sign) in all patients, except for the one patient who had undergone a pneumonectomy one year earlier. Those artifacts became more pronounced during deep breaths. Ultrasound artifacts mimicking pleural sliding may be observed in the absence of the lung and may originate from the activity of intercostal muscles since they become more evident during deep breathing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term subglacial sliding patterns based on a sliding law with cavitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig, Sofie Vej; Egholm, D.L.

    In ice-sheet models and glacial landscape evolution models, subglacial sliding rates are often related to basal shear stress by a power-law. However, the power-law relationship implies that the subglacial bed can provide unlimited levels of basal drag as sliding rates increases, which is recognized...... as an inadequate assumption, particularly when the effects of subglacial cavities are considered (Schoof 2005). We have implemented a glacial sliding law suggested by Schoof (2005) in a depth-integrated higher-order ice-sheet model (Egholm et al. 2011) and coupled this to a model for glacial hydrology. The sliding...... law includes an upper bound to the basal drag and depends on the effects of longitudinal and transverse stress components for obtaining force balance along the glacier bed. Computational experiments indicate that high annually averaged sliding rates concentrate along valley sides when basal melt...

  3. Sliding mode control of photoelectric tracking platform based on the inverse system method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zong Chen


    Full Text Available In order to improve the photoelectric tracking platform tracking performance, an integral sliding mode control strategy based on inverse system decoupling method is proposed. The electromechanical dynamic model is established based on multi-body system theory and Newton-Euler method. The coupled multi-input multi-output (MIMO nonlinear system is transformed into two pseudo-linear single-input single-output (SISO subsystems based on the inverse system method. An integral sliding mode control scheme is designed for the decoupled pseudo-linear system. In order to eliminate system chattering phenomenon caused by traditional sign function in sliding-mode controller, the sign function is replaced by the Sigmoid function. Simulation results show that the proposed decoupling method and the control strategy can restrain the influences of internal coupling and disturbance effectively, and has better robustness and higher tracking accuracy.

  4. Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve-in-Valve Replacement with an Edwards Sapien 3 Valve (United States)

    Loyalka, Pranav; Nascimbene, Angelo; Metz, Benjamin; Gregoric, Igor D.; Raman, Ajay Sundara


    A few case reports and case series have documented the outcomes in patients with tricuspid bioprosthetic valvular degeneration who underwent transcatheter implantation of the Medtronic Melody and the Edwards Sapien XT and Sapien 3 valves. In this report, we describe the case of a 49-year-old woman with severe bioprosthetic tricuspid valvular stenosis and multiple comorbidities who underwent transcatheter tricuspid valve replacement with a Sapien 3 valve. PMID:28761403

  5. Stem thrust prediction model for W-K-M double wedge parallel expanding gate valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldiwany, B.; Alvarez, P.D.; Wolfe, K.


    An analytical model for determining the required valve stem thrust during opening and closing strokes of W-K-M parallel expanding gate valves was developed as part of the EPRI Motor-Operated Valve Performance Prediction Methodology (EPRI MOV PPM) Program. The model was validated against measured stem thrust data obtained from in-situ testing of three W-K-M valves. Model predictions show favorable, bounding agreement with the measured data for valves with Stellite 6 hardfacing on the disks and seat rings for water flow in the preferred flow direction (gate downstream). The maximum required thrust to open and to close the valve (excluding wedging and unwedging forces) occurs at a slightly open position and not at the fully closed position. In the nonpreferred flow direction, the model shows that premature wedging can occur during ΔP closure strokes even when the coefficients of friction at different sliding surfaces are within the typical range. This paper summarizes the model description and comparison against test data

  6. Stem thrust prediction model for W-K-M double wedge parallel expanding gate valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldiwany, B.; Alvarez, P.D. [Kalsi Engineering Inc., Sugar Land, TX (United States); Wolfe, K. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)


    An analytical model for determining the required valve stem thrust during opening and closing strokes of W-K-M parallel expanding gate valves was developed as part of the EPRI Motor-Operated Valve Performance Prediction Methodology (EPRI MOV PPM) Program. The model was validated against measured stem thrust data obtained from in-situ testing of three W-K-M valves. Model predictions show favorable, bounding agreement with the measured data for valves with Stellite 6 hardfacing on the disks and seat rings for water flow in the preferred flow direction (gate downstream). The maximum required thrust to open and to close the valve (excluding wedging and unwedging forces) occurs at a slightly open position and not at the fully closed position. In the nonpreferred flow direction, the model shows that premature wedging can occur during {Delta}P closure strokes even when the coefficients of friction at different sliding surfaces are within the typical range. This paper summarizes the model description and comparison against test data.

  7. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement for Perceval Sutureless Aortic Valve Failure. (United States)

    Kalra, Ankur; Reyes, Manuel; Yang, Eric Y; Little, Stephen H; Nabi, Faisal; Barker, Colin M; Ramchandani, Mahesh; Reul, Ross M; Reardon, Michael J; Kleiman, Neal S


    As experience with Perceval aortic prosthesis and valve-in-valve TAVR grows, it will be crucial to meticulously document short- and long-term follow-up for establishment of real-world safety and durability of these new technologies.

  8. Structural valve deterioration in the Mitroflow biological heart valve prosthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issa, Issa Farah; Poulsen, Steen Hvitfeldt; Waziri, Farhad


    OBJECTIVES: Concern has been raised regarding the long-term durability of the Mitroflow biological heart valve prosthesis. Our aim was to assess the incidence of structural valve degeneration (SVD) for the Mitroflow bioprosthesis in a nationwide study in Denmark including all patients alive in De...

  9. High Reliability Cryogenic Piezoelectric Valve Actuator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cryogenic fluid valves are subject to harsh exposure and actuators to drive these valves require robust performance and high reliability. DSM's piezoelectric...

  10. Spin valve sensor for biomolecular identification: Design, fabrication, and characterization (United States)

    Li, Guanxiong

    Biomolecular identification, e.g., DNA recognition, has broad applications in biology and medicine such as gene expression analysis, disease diagnosis, and DNA fingerprinting. Therefore, we have been developing a magnetic biodetection technology based on giant magnetoresistive spin valve sensors and magnetic nanoparticle (developed for the magnetic nanoparticle detection, assuming the equivalent average field of magnetic nanoparticles and the coherent rotation of spin valve free layer magnetization. Micromagnetic simulations have also been performed for the spin valve sensors. The analytical model and micromagnetic simulations are found consistent with each other and are in good agreement with experiments. The prototype spin valve sensors have been fabricated at both micron and submicron scales. We demonstrated the detection of a single 2.8-mum magnetic microbead by micron-sized spin valve sensors. Based on polymer-mediated self-assembly and fine lithography, a bilayer lift-off process was developed to deposit magnetic nanoparticles onto the sensor surface in a controlled manner. With the lift-off deposition method, we have successfully demonstrated the room temperature detection of monodisperse 16-nm Fe3O 4 nanoparticles in a quantity from a few tens to several hundreds by submicron spin valve sensors, proving the feasibility of the nanoparticle detection. As desired for quantitative biodetection, a fairly linear dependence of sensor signal on the number of nanoparticles has been confirmed. The initial detection of DNA hybridization events labeled by magnetic nanoparticles further proved the magnetic biodetection concept.

  11. Develop and Manufacture an airlock sliding tray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Cindy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The goal of this project is to continue to develop an airlock sliding tray and then partner with an industrial manufacturing company for production. The sliding tray will be easily installed into and removed from most glovebox airlocks in a few minutes. Technical Approach: A prototype of a sliding tray has been developed and tested in the LANL cold lab and 35 trays are presently being built for the plutonium facility (PF-4). The current, recently approved design works for a 14-inch diameter round airlock and has a tray length of approximately 20 inches. The grant will take the already tested and approved round technology and design for the square airlock. These two designs will be suitable for the majority of the existing airlocks in the multitude of DOE facilities. Partnering with an external manufacturer will allow for production of the airlock trays at a much lower cost and increase the availability of the product for all DOE sites. Project duration is estimated to be 12-13 months. Benefits: The purpose of the airlock sliding trays is fourfold: 1) Mitigate risk of rotator cuff injuries, 2) Improve ALARA, 3) Reduce risk of glovebox glove breaches and glove punctures, and 4) Improve worker comfort. I have had the opportunity to visit many other DOE facilities including Savannah, Y-12, ORNL, Sandia, and Livermore for assistance with ergonomic problems and/or injuries. All of these sites would benefit from the airlock sliding tray and I can assume all other DOE facilities with gloveboxes built prior to 1985 could also use the sliding trays.

  12. Control performance of an electrorheological valve based vehicle anti-lock brake system, considering the braking force distribution (United States)

    Choi, S. B.; Lee, T. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Han, M. S.


    This paper presents the braking control performance of a vehicle anti-lock brake system featuring an electrorheological (ER) fluid. As a first step, a cylindrical type of ER valve is devised and its pressure controllability is experimentally confirmed. Then, a hydraulic booster for amplifying the field-dependent pressure drop obtained from the ER valve is constructed and its pressure amplification is demonstrated by presenting the pressure tracking control performance. Subsequently, the governing equation of the rear wheel model is derived by considering the braking force distribution, and a sliding mode controller for achieving the desired slip rate is designed. The controller is then realized through the hardware-in-the-loop simulation method and controlled responses are presented in the time domain. In addition, computer animations for the braking performance under unladen and laden conditions are presented, and a comparison of the proportioning valve and the proposed ER valve pressure modulator is made.

  13. Mechanical Valve Replacement: Early Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Cakir


    Conclusion: Mechanical prosthetic valves are used for surgical treatment of valve disease with low mortality and morbidity in a large group of patients like women that not to think to get pregnant, non advanced age group and patients have less risky for anticoagulation drug in our clinic. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(1: 49-54

  14. Artificial aortic valves: an overview. (United States)

    Morsi, Y S; Birchall, I E; Rosenfeldt, F L


    This review discusses strategies that may address some of the limitations associated with replacing diseased or dysfunctional aortic valves with mechanical or tissue valves. These limitations range from structural failure and thromboembolic complications associated with mechanical valves to a limited durability and calcification with tissue valves. In pediatric patients there is an issue with the inability of substitutes to grow with the recipient. The emerging science of tissue engineering potentially provides an attractive alternative by creating viable tissue structures based on a resorbable scaffold. Morphometrically precise, biodegradable polymer scaffolds may be fabricated from data obtained from scans of natural valves by rapid prototyping technologies such as fused deposition modelling. The scaffold provides a mechanical profile until seeded cells produce their own extra cellular matrix. The microstructure of the forming tissue may be aligned into predetermined spatial orientations via fluid transduction in a bioreactor. Although there are many technical obstacles that must be overcome before tissue engineered heart valves are introduced into routine surgical practice these valves have the potential to overcome many of the shortcomings of current heart valve substitutes.

  15. Experience with valves for PHWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, K.; Mhetre, S.G.


    Material specifications and inspection and testing requirements of the valves meant for use in nuclear reactors are mentioned. In the heavy water systems (both primary and moderator) of a PHWR type reactor, the valves used are gate valves, globe valves, diaphragm valves, butterfly valves, check valves and relief valves. Their locations and functions they perform in the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Unit-1 are described. Experience with them is given. The major problems encountered with them have been : (1) leakage from the stem seals and body bonnet joint, (2) leakage due to failure of diaphragm and/or washout of the packing and (3) malfunctioning. Measures taken to solve these are discussed. Finally a mention has been made of improved versions of valves, namely, metal diaphragm valve and inverted relief valve. (M.G.B.)

  16. Piezoelectric valve actuator for flexible diesel operation (United States)

    MacLachlan, Brian J.; Elvin, Niell; Blaurock, Carl; Keegan, N. J.


    Mide Technology Corporation, under the supervision of the U.S. Army, is developing fast hydraulic valve technologies for fuel injection systems. Mide aims to address the Army's 21st Century Vehicle programs by providing the flexibility to achieve economic, environmentally friendly, and power dense diesel operation from a single platform. The technology couples a highly efficient gained piezoelectric actuator to a diesel unit injector's control valve spool. Piezoelectric actuation enables proportional authority over the injector's control valve, as opposed to traditional digital (on/off) operation. This authority allows the integrated device to provide electronically controlled fuel injection rate shaping capability. Each injection event profile may be independently shaped to govern diesel engine operation in one of three selectable modes: Lean, for fuel efficiency; Clean, for reduced emissions; Mean, for improved battlefield performance. To date, Mide has shown injection rate shaping capability in the laboratory using the industry standard "rate tube test" to measure injection profiles. Future development will focus on an engine demonstration of Lean, Clean, and Mean operating mode flexibility using rate shaping technology.

  17. Dealing with friction in a reusable 6 degrees of freedom adjustment mechanism with sliding contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkhamer, J.F.F.


    Although the possibility of a 6 degrees of freedom adjustment based on a single body pulled onto on six adjustable supports follows directly from the kinematic theory, such mechanisms are seldom used in actual products. Two major drawbacks for the use of this solution are: Due to the sliding contact

  18. [Traumatic aortic valve insufficiency]. (United States)

    Nascimento, J; Lemos, C; Marques, A M; Antunes, M J; Gonsalves, A


    The traumatic aortic valvular insufficiency (TAVI), through less frequent after a non-penetrating thoracic traumatism, is a serious entity with a very reserved prognosis. So it must be suspected in every patients with signs or symptoms of de novo heart failure post-traumatism. The transthoracic echocardiography and eventually transesophageal echocardiography have a fundamental role in the confirmation of the diagnosis. The clinical picture of traumatic aortic regurgitation is quickly evolutionary and the non efficacy of medical therapy has placed the valvular substitution surgery as the best succeeded treatment. With the advent of the aortic valve repairing surgery some TAVI cases has been submitted to this procedure. Nevertheless, the development of residual aortic regurgitation in these situations, usually requiring later valvular replacement surgery, make the aortic valvuloplasty a controversial surgical technique. The AA describe a recent clinical case of aortic regurgitation after a non-penetrant thoracic traumatism, discussing the aspects connected with physiopathology, diagnosis and therapy. The singularity of this case was based on the fact that the initial clinical diagnosis had been prejudiced by the context of a polytraumatism and there had been a time free of symptoms between the traumatism and the beginning of the symptomatology of left ventricular failure. Even though the identification of the problem allowed an intensive treatment of this serious situation that ended with the replacement of the aortic valve by mechanical aortic prosthesis, with the patient's total recovery.

  19. Patents and heart valve surgery - II: tissue valves. (United States)

    Cheema, Faisal H; Kossar, Alexander P; Rehman, Atiq; Younas, Fahad; Polvani, Gianluca


    Valvular heart disease affects millions of Americans yearly and currently requires surgical intervention to repair or replace the defective valves. Through a close-knit collaboration between physicians, scientists and biomedical engineers, a vast degree of research and development has been aimed towards the optimization of prosthetic heart valves. Although various methods have made fantastic strides in producing durable prostheses, the therapeutic efficacy of prosthetic valves is inherently limited by a dependency upon lifelong anticoagulant regimens for recipients - a difficult challenge for many in clinical setting. Thus, biological tissue valves have been developed to circumvent vascular and immunemediated complications by incorporating biological materials to mimic native valves while still maintaining a necessary level of structural integrity. Over the past decade, a multitude of patents pertaining to the refinement of designs as well as the advancement in methodologies and technologies associated with biological tissue valves have been issued. This review seeks to chronicle and characterize such patents in an effort to track the past, present, and future progress as well as project the trajectory of tissue valves in the years to come.

  20. TARG2 Workshop - Slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malka, V.; Koehler, A.; Beaurepaire, B.; Krishnan, M.; Guillaume, E.; Chowdhury, E.; Volpe, L.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Chatain, D.; Legare, F.; Wachulak, P.; Bocoum, M.; Leblanc, A.; Schreiber, J.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Zeil, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Levecq, X.; Svensson, K.; Mollica, F.; Brandi, F.; Ruiz, C.


    The topics tackled in this workshop involved: laser-plasma interaction, innovative targets from gases to solids, targetry recycling and debris management, mass fabrication of laser targets, high repetition rate capability, integrated plasma diagnostics, wakefield acceleration and radiation sources. This document is made up of the slides of the presentations


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a rare case of a forty-seven year old Nigeria male with schistosomal appendicitis in a sliding hernia. The clinical and pathological features of the case are discussed, followed by a review of the literature. It is concluded that a high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose unusual presentations of ...

  2. Boundary lubrication of glass: rubber sliding contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, E. van der; Lossie, C.M.; Bommel, K.J.C. van; Reinders, S.A.F.; Lenting, H.B.M.


    Polymer brush coatings represent a promising class of coatings for friction control [1], especially in a humid environment [2]. A study on the feasibility of a specific class of polymer brush coatings [5] was done for a sliding system that involves ‘silicon skin L7350’: a silicon rubber used by FIFA

  3. Edit Distance to Monotonicity in Sliding Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Ho-Leung; Lam, Tak-Wah; Lee, Lap Kei


    of a data stream is becoming well-understood over the past few years. Motivated by applications on network quality monitoring, we extend the study to estimating the edit distance to monotonicity of a sliding window covering the w most recent items in the stream for any w ≥ 1. We give a deterministic...

  4. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control for Hydraulic Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.


    . The main target is to overcome problems with linear controllers deteriorating performance due to the inherent nonlinear nature of such systems, without requiring extensive knowledge on system parameters nor advanced control theory. In order to accomplish this task, an integral sliding mode controller...

  5. Impact Driver With Integral Sliding Hammer (United States)

    Wallace, Bilby J.


    Tool combines impact driver with sliding dead-blow hammer. Used for any purpose for which ordinary impact driver used; tightening fasteners or driving starter holes for drill. Tool protects user from accidental injury and surrounding equipment from damage that might occur from ordinary arm-wielded hammer. Especially useful in underwater work.

  6. Experimental Investigation on Caisson Breakwater Sliding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruol, Piero; Martin, Paolo; Andersen, Thomas Lykke


    This note presents wave flume experiments, carried out at Aalborg University, measuring the horizontal sliding distance of a vertical breakwater in 1:40 scale. Horizontal and uplift wave induced pressures were accurately measured simultaneously with the caisson movements. Caissons of different...

  7. Sliding Friction on Liquid-Infused Surfaces (United States)

    Rashed, Ziad; Habibi, Mohammad; Boreyko, Jonathan


    Slippery porous liquid-infused surfaces (SLIPS) are well-known for their ability to stably minimize the hysteresis of a wide variety of liquids. However, whether SLIPS could also reduce the sliding friction of solid objects has not been given much consideration. Here, we measure the friction force associated with dragging an aluminum cube across an array of ordered silicon micropillars impregnated with silicone oil. The solid fraction of the micropillars was either 0.025 or 0.25, while the viscosity of the silicone oil was 10, 100, or 1,000 cSt. Non-intuitively, it was observed that the sliding friction decreased with increasing lubricant viscosity or increasing solid fraction. These findings suggest that the key parameter is therefore the hydraulic resistance of the alleys between the micropillars, which should be as large as possible to minimize lateral oil drainage from underneath the sliding body. This would indicate that scaling down to nano-roughness would be optimal for minimizing the sliding friction, which was confirmed by additional experiments on a disordered nanostructured substrate.

  8. Robotic mitral valve surgery. (United States)

    Kypson, Alan P; Nifong, L Wiley; Chitwood, W Randolph


    A renaissance in cardiac surgery has begun. The early clinical experience with computer-enhanced telemanipulation systems outlines the limitations of this approach despite some procedural success. Technologic advancements, such as the use of nitinol U-clips (Coalescent Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) instead of sutures requiring manual knot tying, have been shown to decrease operative times significantly. It is expected that with further refinements and development of adjunct technologies, the technique of computer-enhanced endoscopic cardiac surgery will evolve and may prove to be beneficial for many patients. Robotic technology has provided benefits to cardiac surgery. With improved optics and instrumentation, incisions are smaller. The ergometric movements and simulated three-dimensional optics project hand-eye coordination for the surgeon. The placement of the wristlike articulations at the end of the instruments moves the pivoting action to the plane of the mitral annulus. This improves dexterity in tight spaces and allows for ambidextrous suture placement. Sutures can be placed more accurately because of tremor filtration and high-resolution video magnification. Furthermore, the robotic system may have potential as an educational tool. In the near future, surgical vision and training systems might be able to model most surgical procedures through immersive technology. Thus, a "flight simulator" concept emerges where surgeons may be able to practice and perform the operation without a patient. Already, effective curricula for training teams in robotic surgery exist. Nevertheless, certain constraints continue to limit the advancement to a totally endoscopic computer-enhanced mitral valve operation. The current size of the instruments, intrathoracic instrument collisions, and extrathoracic "elbow" conflicts still can limit dexterity. When smaller instruments are developed, these restraints may be resolved. Furthermore, a working port incision is still required for

  9. Aortic Valve Leaflet Perforation after Mitral Valve Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aboelnasr


    Full Text Available  A 32-year-old patient with symptomatic severe aortic regurge, 6 weeks after mitral valve repair, was admitted for aortic valve surgery. No preoperative clinical data consistent with infective endocarditis could be detected. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiography showed aortic leaflet perforation affecting non coronary cusp. During operation, leaflet perforation was detected and closed completely with autologous pericardial patch. No vegetations or abscess could be seen during operation. Iatrogenic aetiology of leaflet perforation after mitral repair was suspected in  this case. Recognition of this complication will help in  avoiding it during mitral valve surgery and expecting it as a possible complication during intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography.

  10. Posterior urethral valves and Down syndrome | Lazarus | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The broad range of renal and urinary tract abnormalities associated with Down syndrome are not well known. We present two cases from a single institution of posterior urethral valves associated with Down syndrome. The cases illustrate the potential for delayed diagnosis and the management challenges. The literature is ...

  11. Valve arrangement for a nuclear plant residual heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidler, G.L.; Hill, R.A.; Carrera, J.P.


    Disclosed is an improved valve arrangement for a two-train Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) of a nuclear reactor plant which ensures operational integrity of the system under single failure circumstances including loss of one of two electrical power sources

  12. Antithrombotic therapy after bioprosthetic aortic valve implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafiq, Sulman; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas; Lilleør, Nikolaj Bang


    Background The optimal medical strategy for prevention of thromboembolic events after surgical bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement (BAVR) is still debated. The objective of this study was to compare warfarin therapy (target INR of 2.0 to 3.0) with aspirin 150 mg daily as antithrombotic therapy...... for the first three months after BAVR with or without concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The aim was to evaluate thromboembolic complications, major bleeding complications and death. Materials and methods Prospective, single-centre, open-label, randomized controlled trial. 370 patients were...

  13. A computational model of aging and calcification in the aortic heart valve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli J Weinberg

    Full Text Available The aortic heart valve undergoes geometric and mechanical changes over time. The cusps of a normal, healthy valve thicken and become less extensible over time. In the disease calcific aortic stenosis (CAS, calcified nodules progressively stiffen the cusps. The local mechanical changes in the cusps, due to either normal aging or pathological processes, affect overall function of the valve. In this paper, we propose a computational model for the aging aortic valve that connects local changes to overall valve function. We extend a previous model for the healthy valve to describe aging. To model normal/uncomplicated aging, leaflet thickness and extensibility are varied versus age according to experimental data. To model calcification, initial sites are defined and a simple growth law is assumed. The nodules then grow over time, so that the area of calcification increases from one model to the next model representing greater age. Overall valve function is recorded for each individual model to yield a single simulation of valve function over time. This simulation is the first theoretical tool to describe the temporal behavior of aortic valve calcification. The ability to better understand and predict disease progression will aid in design and timing of patient treatments for CAS.

  14. Developments in mechanical heart valve prosthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Most commonly used for replacement are mechanical heart valves and biological valves. This paper briefly outlines the evolution, designs employed, materials being used,. and important factors that affect the performance of mechanical heart valves. The clinical performance of mechanical heart valves is also addressed.

  15. Developments in mechanical heart valve prosthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Artificial heart valves are engineered devices used for replacing diseased or damaged natural valves of the heart. Most commonly used for replacement are mechanical heart valves and biological valves. This paper briefly outlines the evolution, designs employed, materials being used,. and important factors that affect the ...

  16. Developments in mechanical heart valve prosthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Mechanical heart valves; biological valves; valve design; valve performance. 1. Introduction. The human heart can be considered a twin positive displacement pump working in tandem for supporting the systemic and pulmonary circulation of blood. Each pump comprises of a receiving chamber called atrium and a pumping ...

  17. Performance of stented biological valves for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction. (United States)

    Buchholz, Christian; Mayr, Andreas; Purbojo, Ariawan; Glöckler, Martin; Toka, Okan; Cesnjevar, Robert A; Rüffer, André


    This retrospective single-centre review presents mid- and long-term results of stented biological valves (SBVs) in the pulmonary position. Fifty-two SBVs (17 Carpentier-Edwards Supraannular; 13 Carpentier-Edwards Perimount; 12 St. Jude Medical Trifecta; 4 Sorin Mitroflow; 4 Sorin Soprano; 2 Sorin More) were implanted between 2000 and 2015. The median valve size, patient age and weight were 23 mm (range 19-27), 22.8 years (range 5-77) and 62.0 kg (range 14-110), respectively. The main cardiac diagnosis was tetralogy of Fallot in 26 patients (50%). Forty-four patients (85%) had previous cardiac surgery; 12 patients (23%) had previous conduit or biological valve replacement. Valve degeneration was defined as a valvular peak pressure gradient >50 mmHg or pulmonary valve regurgitation more than moderate. The mean follow-up was 7.9 ± 5.5 years. Two patients died after 5.8 and 6.1 years of causes not related to SBVs. Eleven SBVs (21%) had to be replaced surgically (n = 6) or interventionally (n = 5) after 9.0 ± 4.1 years due to valve degeneration (n = 8), endocarditis (n = 2) or right ventricular dysfunction (n = 1). The rates of freedom from valve replacement were 100%, 92% [95% confidence interval (CI) 79-97], 81% (CI 64-91) and 60% (CI 40-78) after 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, respectively. Successful interventional valve-in-valve implantation resulted in 100% freedom from surgical valve replacement in all patients older than 19.1 years. Multivariate analysis identified patient age valve degeneration. SBVs in the pulmonary position showed encouraging long-term results in mature patients. The design of SBVs enables interventional valve implantation, postponing the need for reoperation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  18. The Application of Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valves in the Polish Ventricular Assist Device: Physical and Numerical Study and First Clinical Usage. (United States)

    Malota, Zbigniew; Sadowski, Wojciech; Krzyskow, Marek; Stolarzewicz, Bogdan


    The Polish ventricular assist device (Polvad) has been used successfully in clinical contexts for many years. The device contains two single-disc valves, one at the inlet and one at the outlet connector of the pneumatic pump. Unfortunately, in recent years, a problem has occurred with the availability of single-disc valves. This article presents the possibility of using bileaflet mechanical heart valve prostheses in the Polvad to avoid a discontinuity in clinical use. The study is based on experimental and numerical simulations and comparison of the distribution of flow, pressure, and stress (wall, shear, and turbulent) inside the Polvad chamber and the inlet/outlet connectors fitted with Sorin Monodisc and Sorin Bicarbon Fitline valves. The type and orientation of the inlet valve affects valve performance and flow distribution inside the chamber. Near-wall flow is observed for single-disc valves. In the case of bileaflet valves, the main jet is directed more centrally, with lower shear stress but higher turbulent stress in comparison with single-disc valves. For clinical usage, a 45° orientation of the bileaflet inlet valve was chosen, as this achieves good washing of the inlet area near the membrane paste surface. The Polvad with bileaflet valves has now been used successfully in our clinic for over a year and will continue to be used until new assist devices for heart support are developed. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Cavitation guide for control valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullis, J.P.


    This guide teaches the basic fundamentals of cavitation to provide the reader with an understanding of what causes cavitation, when it occurs, and the potential problems cavitation can cause to a valve and piping system. The document provides guidelines for understanding how to reduce the cavitation and/or select control valves for a cavitating system. The guide provides a method for predicting the cavitation intensity of control valves, and how the effect of cavitation on a system will vary with valve type, valve function, valve size, operating pressure, duration of operation and details of the piping installation. The guide defines six cavitation limits identifying cavitation intensities ranging from inception to the maximum intensity possible. The intensity of the cavitation at each limit Is described, including a brief discussion of how each level of cavitation influences the valve and system. Examples are included to demonstrate how to apply the method, including making both size and pressure scale effects corrections. Methods of controlling cavitation are discussed providing information on various techniques which can be used to design a new system or modify an existing one so it can operate at a desired level of cavitation

  20. Cavitation guide for control valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullis, J.P. [Tullis Engineering Consultants, Logan, UT (United States)


    This guide teaches the basic fundamentals of cavitation to provide the reader with an understanding of what causes cavitation, when it occurs, and the potential problems cavitation can cause to a valve and piping system. The document provides guidelines for understanding how to reduce the cavitation and/or select control valves for a cavitating system. The guide provides a method for predicting the cavitation intensity of control valves, and how the effect of cavitation on a system will vary with valve type, valve function, valve size, operating pressure, duration of operation and details of the piping installation. The guide defines six cavitation limits identifying cavitation intensities ranging from inception to the maximum intensity possible. The intensity of the cavitation at each limit Is described, including a brief discussion of how each level of cavitation influences the valve and system. Examples are included to demonstrate how to apply the method, including making both size and pressure scale effects corrections. Methods of controlling cavitation are discussed providing information on various techniques which can be used to design a new system or modify an existing one so it can operate at a desired level of cavitation.

  1. Characteristic analysis of servo valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, J. H.; Ryu, D. R.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, Y. S.; Na, J. C.; Kim, D. S.


    Electro-pneumatic servo valve is an electro-mechanical device which converts electric signals into a proper pneumatic flow rate or pressure. In order to improve the overall performance of pneumatic servo systems, electro-pneumatic servo valves are required, which have fast dynamic characteristics, no air leakage at a null point, and can be fabricated at a low-cost. The first objective of this research is to design and to fabricate a new electro-pneumatic servo valve which satisfies the above-mentioned requirements. In order to design the mechanism of the servo valve optimally, the flow inside the valve depending upon the position of spool was analyzed variously, and on the basis of such analysis results, the valve mechanism, which was formed by combination of the spool and the sleeve, was designed and manufactured. And a tester for conducting an overall performance test was designed and manufactured, and as a result of conducting the flow rate test, the pressure test and the frequency test on the developed pneumatic servo valve

  2. Innovations in tricuspid valve intervention. (United States)

    El-Eshmawi, Ahmed; Tang, Gilbert H L; Verma, Subodh; Yanagawa, Bobby; Ruel, Marc; Adams, David H


    Tricuspid valve disease has received much less attention in terms of intervention. The main reason for this is the widely held belief that treatment of left-sided valve disease leads to resolution of functional tricuspid regurgitation. Recent data show that tricuspid regurgitation is not benign and that many patients will benefit from intervention at the time of left-sided valve surgery, or in isolated tricuspid disease. This review describes the latest surgical and interventional options and strategies. Latest valve guidelines now recommend a more aggressive surgical approach to the treatment of moderate or severe tricuspid regurgitation, with annuloplasty being the preferred technique. Guidelines now also promote treatment of isolated significant tricuspid dilatation even without significant regurgitation, as a prophylactic strategy to prevent disease progression. This renewed interest in surgical repair has been accompanied by development of newer tricuspid annuloplasty rings. For patients in whom surgery would be high risk, transcatheter therapies are emerging as a promising alternative. Various repair devices have reported early experience. Recent surgical and transcatheter innovations in the treatment of tricuspid valve disease are promising and have the potential of removing the stigma of the tricuspid valve as the 'forgotten valve'.

  3. Butterfly valve torque prediction methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldiwany, B.H.; Sharma, V.; Kalsi, M.S.; Wolfe, K.


    As part of the Motor-Operated Valve (MOV) Performance Prediction Program, the Electric Power Research Institute has sponsored the development of methodologies for predicting thrust and torque requirements of gate, globe, and butterfly MOVs. This paper presents the methodology that will be used by utilities to calculate the dynamic torque requirements for butterfly valves. The total dynamic torque at any disc position is the sum of the hydrodynamic torque, bearing torque (which is induced by the hydrodynamic force), as well as other small torque components (such as packing torque). The hydrodynamic torque on the valve disc, caused by the fluid flow through the valve, depends on the disc angle, flow velocity, upstream flow disturbances, disc shape, and the disc aspect ratio. The butterfly valve model provides sets of nondimensional flow and torque coefficients that can be used to predict flow rate and hydrodynamic torque throughout the disc stroke and to calculate the required actuation torque and the maximum transmitted torque throughout the opening and closing stroke. The scope of the model includes symmetric and nonsymmetric discs of different shapes and aspects ratios in compressible and incompressible fluid applications under both choked and nonchoked flow conditions. The model features were validated against test data from a comprehensive flowloop and in situ test program. These tests were designed to systematically address the effect of the following parameters on the required torque: valve size, disc shapes and disc aspect ratios, upstream elbow orientation and its proximity, and flow conditions. The applicability of the nondimensional coefficients to valves of different sizes was validated by performing tests on 42-in. valve and a precisely scaled 6-in. model. The butterfly valve model torque predictions were found to bound test data from the flow-loop and in situ testing, as shown in the examples provided in this paper

  4. Sliding Mode Control of Induction Motor Phase Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, R.B.; Hattel, T.; Bork, J


    Sliding mode control of induction motor phase currents are investigated through development of two control concepts.......Sliding mode control of induction motor phase currents are investigated through development of two control concepts....

  5. Current Cigarette Use Among Adults (BRFSS) PDF Slides (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Download the current cigarette use among adults slides. These slides are available in PDF and PowerPoint formats. The PowerPoint version can be found at:...

  6. Current Cigarette Use Among Youth (YRBSS) PDF Slides (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Download the current cigarette use among youth slides. These slides are available in PDF and PowerPoint formats. The PowerPoint version can be found at:...

  7. Applications of sliding mode control in science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lien, Chang-Hua


    Gathering 20 chapters contributed by respected experts, this book reports on the latest advances in and applications of sliding mode control in science and engineering. The respective chapters address applications of sliding mode control in the broad areas of chaos theory, robotics, electrical engineering, physics, chemical engineering, memristors, mechanical engineering, environmental engineering, finance, and biology. Special emphasis has been given to papers that offer practical solutions, and which examine design and modeling involving new types of sliding mode control such as higher order sliding mode control, terminal sliding mode control, super-twisting sliding mode control, and integral sliding mode control. This book serves as a unique reference guide to sliding mode control and its recent applications for graduate students and researchers with a basic knowledge of electrical and control systems engineering.

  8. Excise Tax Rates On Packs Of Cigarettes PDF Slides (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Download the current excise tax rates on packs of cigarettes slides. These slides are available in PDF and PowerPoint formats. The PowerPoint version can be found...

  9. Effect of Sliding Rate on the Activity of Acoustic Emission During Stable Sliding (United States)

    Yabe, Y.; Kato, N.; Yamamoto, K.; Hirasawa, T.

    The mechanical and statistical characteristics of acoustic emission (AE) events during stable sliding are investigated through a laboratory experiment using a granite specimen with a pre-cut fault. Numerous AE events are found to be generated on the pre-cut fault, indicating that microscopically unstable fracture occurs during macroscopically stable sliding. The composite focal mechanism solution of AE events is determined from the first motion directions of P-waves. The determined mechanism is consistent with the double-couple one expected for the slip on the pre-cut fault. The source radii of large AE events are estimated to be about 10 mm from the widths of the first P-wave pulses. These indicate that the AE events are generated by shear fracture whose faulting area is a part of the pre-cut fault plane. The occurrence of AE events as a stochastic process approximately obeys the Poisson process, if the effect of mutually dependent events consti tuting clusters is corrected. The observed amplitude-frequency relation of AE events approximately follows a power law for a limited amplitude range. As the macroscopic sliding rate increases, the number of AE events per unit sliding distance decreases. This rate dependence of the AE activity is qualitatively consistent with the observation that the real area of contact between sliding surfaces decreases with an increase in the sliding rate as reported in the literature.

  10. The scalographic pattern of Morlet continuous wavelet transform can differentiate bileaflet valve function. (United States)

    Sugiki, Hiroshi; Sugiki, Kenji


    The authors have discussed the significance of the Morlet continuous wavelet transform of bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BLMHV) sound for detecting its malfunction: consecutive single patterns on the scalogram alway suggested its malfunction, whereas the tandem pattern with two steepled figures was demonstrated in both normal and malfunctioning valves. Therefore, authors have tried to distinguish this pattern between them by manually calculated multiple scalographic parameters. Although only the sum of wavelet coefficients (SWC) is supposed to be closer to valve sound property than other parameters, its calculation was not available in the original wavelet application. Therefore, the application was customized in the current study to semi-automatically calculate the SWC ratio between two figures for classifying the scalographic pattern of malfunctioning valves, and its efficacy to distinguish valve function was compared to other parameters. Among 155 BLMHVs, 6 valves with consecutive single patterns (type-I) and other 6 with two similar needle-like narrow figures (type-II) were confirmed to be a malfunction by fluoroscopic examination, whereas 14 malfunctioning valves with the tandem pattern which showed a great difference between two figure sizes (type-III) were distinguished from 129 normal valves by the cutoff point of the SWC ratio < 0.482 with the highest AUC (0.960) compared to other parameters by the ROC analysis.

  11. Ferroelectric Fluid Flow Control Valve (United States)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)


    An active valve is controlled and driven by external electrical actuation of a ferroelectric actuator to provide for improved passage of the fluid during certain time periods and to provide positive closure of the valve during other time periods. The valve provides improved passage in the direction of flow and positive closure in the direction against the flow. The actuator is a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature, said dome shaped actuator having a rim and an apex. and a dome height measured from a plane through said rim said apex that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and an outside surface of said dome shaped actuator.

  12. The Dynamics and Sliding Mode Control of Multiple Cooperative Welding Robot Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zi


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design, dynamic modelling and sliding mode control of multiple cooperative welding robot manipulators (MWRMs. The MWRMs can handle complex tasks that are difficult or even impossible for a single manipulator. The kinematics and dynamics of the MWRMs are studied on the basis of the Denavit-Hartenberg and Lagrange method. Following that, considering the MWRM system with nonlinear and unknown disturbances, a non-singular terminal sliding mode control strategy is designed. By means of the Lyapunov function, the stability of the controller is proved. Simulation results indicate that the good control performance of the MWRMs is achieved by the non-singular terminal sliding mode controller, which also illustrates the correctness of the dynamic modelling and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  13. Design and Implementation of Classical Sliding Mode Controller for Ball and Plate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Jasim Saud


    Full Text Available Ball and Plate (B&P system is a benchmark system in the control engineering field that has been used to verify many control methods. In this paper the design of a sliding mode . controller has been investigated and verified in real-time via implementation on a real ball and plate system hardware. The mathematical model has been derived and the necessary parameters have been measured. The sliding mode controller has been designed based on the obtained mathematical model. The resulting controller has been implemented using the Arduino Mega 2560 and a ball and plate system built completely from scratch. The Arduino has been programmed by the Arduino support target for Simulink. Three test signals has been used for verification purposes, namely: single point stabilizing, circular trajectory tracking, and square trajectory tracking. The results obtained have shown that sliding mode controller is able to follow the desired test signals with low error.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bryantseva


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the common mistakes that allow educators and teachers in the design of the visual component of computer slide presentations to lessons. Detail the most common technological and conceptual errors: the use of photographic images of low resolution, "distortion" of the image on the slide, abuse banal images, the image on the slide, not "correlated" with the educational context. Methodical recommendations to address the negative impact of technological and conceptual errors in the visual perception of the slide.

  15. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Ansanelli, E. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States)


    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market. In this project, the ARIES team sought to better understand the current usage of TRVs by key market players in steam and hot water heating and to conduct limited experiments on the effectiveness of new and old TRVs as a means of controlling space temperatures and reducing heating fuel consumption. The project included a survey of industry professionals, a field experiment comparing old and new TRVs, and cost-benefit modeling analysis using BEopt™ (Building Energy Optimization software).

  16. Safety Testing of Left Ventricular Vent Valves


    Gavin, Caroline; Coblentz, John; Acsell, Jeffrey R.; Shackelford, Anthony G.; Sistino, Joseph J.


    Vent vacuum relief valves (VRVs) are used to limit the negative pressure at the ventricular vent catheter tip as well as prevent reversal of blood flow and prevention of air embolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of three commercially available ventricular vent valves. The negative pressure at which the vent valve opened was measured at the valve inlet using high-fidelity pressure transducers. Also, the flow rate at which air entrainment occurred due to valve open...

  17. Sliding seal materials for low heat rejection engines (United States)

    Beaty, Kevin; Lankford, James; Vinyard, Shannon


    Sliding friction coefficients and wear rates of promising piston seal materials were measured under temperature, environmental, velocity, and loading conditions that are representative of the low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine environment. These materials included carbides, oxides, and nitrides. In addition, silicon nitride and partially stablized zirconia disks (cylinder liners) were ion-implanted with TiNi, Ni, Co, and Cr, and subsequently run against carbide pins (piston rings), with the objective of producing reduced friction via solid lubrication at elevated temperature. Friction and wear measurements were obtained using pin-on-disk laboratory experiments and a unique engine friction test rig. Unmodified ceramic sliding couples were characterized at all temperatures by friction coefficients of 0.24 and above during the pin-on-disk tests. The coefficient at 800 C in an oxidizing environment was reduced to below 0.1, for certain material combination, by the ion-implantation of TiNi or Co. This beneficial effect was found to derive from the lubricious Ti, Ni, and Co oxides. Similar results were demonstrated on the engine friction test rig at lower temperatures. The structural integrity and feasibility of engine application with the most promising material combination were demonstrated during a 30-hour single-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine test.

  18. Slides and the Foreign Language Teacher: A Bibliography. (United States)

    Galt, Alan

    This bibliography lists 275 items relating to the use of visual and audiovisual aids in the foreign language classroom. The items are entered under the following major headings: (1) Audiovisual Aids; (2) Photography; (3) Picture Composition; (4) Slides and Photographs for Teaching; and (5) Slides and Slide Shows: Production and Presentation.…

  19. Atomistic Simulation of Frictional Sliding Between Cellulose Iß Nanocrystals (United States)

    Xiawa Wu; Robert J. Moon; Ashlie Martini


    Sliding friction between cellulose Iß nanocrystals is studied using molecular dynamics simulation. The effects of sliding velocity, normal load, and relative angle between sliding surface are predicted, and the results analyzed in terms of the number of hydrogen bonds within and between the cellulose chains. We find that although the observed friction trends can be...

  20. Robust antisynchronization of chaos using sliding mode control ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper proposes a sliding mode control strategy-based scheme for achieving anti-synchronization between two coupled non-linear chaotic systems. The method works irrespective of whether the systems under consideration possess or lack inverse symmetry. Using a linear sliding surface, a sliding mode control input ...

  1. Human tissue valves in aortic position: determinants of reoperation and valve regurgitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.P. Willems (Tineke); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); V.E. Kleyburg-Linkers; E. Bos (Egbert); L.A. van Herwerden (Lex); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos); J.J.M. Takkenberg (Hanneke)


    textabstractBACKGROUND: Human tissue valves for aortic valve replacement have a limited durability that is influenced by interrelated determinants. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the relation between these determinants of durability and valve

  2. Mini-implant-supported sliding jig. (United States)

    Pattabiraman, Vinod; Kumari, Shashikala; Sood, Raghav


    Maximum anchorage situations require appropriate anchorage control from the very beginning. This includes control of anchorage in the anteroposterior as well as vertical directions. The requirement is more critical in patients with vertical growth patterns. Loss of anchorage in such situations requires recovery mechanics that will not tax the anchor teeth in any direction while maximizing efficiency. This article describes the use of a mini-implant-supported sliding jig in one such case where unilateral anchor loss in the maxillary arch was observed. A modified sliding jig was supported with Class II elastics stretched from a mini-implant placed in the mandible. With little patient compliance, the mini-implant was used to distalize the maxillary molar to regain the lost space and achieve ideal results in the most efficient way.

  3. Contact Sliding under Relatively Low Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeong Hee Kang


    Full Text Available ZnO nanowires have received much interest owing to their particular structural and piezoelectric properties. For widespread application of ZnO nanowires in various nanotechnologies, the mechanical reliability of the nanowires should be assessed. In this paper, the damage characteristics of vertically grown ZnO nanowires due to contact sliding against a 2 mm diameter steel ball under relatively low loads were investigated. Frictional behavior and wear characteristics of the specimens were assessed. Furthermore, contact sliding tests were performed inside an SEM to monitor the progression of damage of the nanowires. It was found that the friction coefficient was about 0.35 under all loads while the damage characteristics of the nanowires were quite different for each load. The large diameter nanowires tended to fracture earlier than the small diameter nanowires. Wear tests performed inside the SEM confirmed the surface damage characteristics observed during the friction tests.

  4. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K


    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy...... operations were completed as mini-sternotomies, 4 died later of noncardiac causes. The aortic cross-clamp and perfusion times were significantly different across all groups (P replacement...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  5. Aortic valve surgery - minimally invasive (United States)

    ... valve surgery. Techniques include min-thoracotomy, min-sternotomy, robot-assisted surgery, and percutaneous surgery. To perform the ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  6. Mitral Valve Prolapse (For Parents) (United States)

    ... that affect the body's connective tissues, such as Marfan syndrome . Some research has shown that kids with MVP ... EKG (Video) Your Heart & Circulatory System Heart Murmurs Marfan Syndrome Mitral Valve Prolapse EKG (Video) Arrhythmias Marfan Syndrome ...

  7. Terminal Sliding Modes In Nonlinear Control Systems (United States)

    Venkataraman, Subramanian T.; Gulati, Sandeep


    Control systems of proposed type called "terminal controllers" offers increased precision and stability of robotic operations in presence of unknown and/or changing parameters. Systems include special computer hardware and software implementing novel control laws involving terminal sliding modes of motion: closed-loop combination of robot and terminal controller converge, in finite time, to point of stable equilibrium in abstract space of velocity and/or position coordinates applicable to particular control problem.

  8. Foundational Terminal Operations HITL: Experimental Design Slides (United States)

    Rorie, Robert Conrad


    The UAS (Unmanned Aircraft Systems) in the NAS (National Airspace System) project is conducting its first investigation of UAS operations in the terminal environment. A workshop is being held to get input from key stakeholders on the experimental design and scenario development occuring for this simulation, which intends to begin data collection in September 2017. These slides cover the proposed design and methodolgy for the experiment.

  9. Tissue-engineered heart valves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filová, Elena; Straka, František; Miřejovský, T.; Mašín, J.; Bačáková, Lucie


    Roč. 58, Suppl.2 (2009), S141-S158 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500110564 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : bioarteficial heart valve * valve interstitial cells * pulse flow bioreactor Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009

  10. Kytococcus schroeteri prosthetic valve endocarditis


    Yousri, Taher; Hawari, Mohammad; Saad, Rasheed; Langley, Steve


    We report the case of a 64-year-old male patient with a prosthetic aortic valve who presented with clinical features of endocarditis confirmed by transoesophageal echocardiography. His blood cultures were positive for a very rare and newly described organism—Kytococcus schroeteri. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement and a 6-week course of intravenous antibiotics. This is the fifth reported case of endocarditis associated with this organism.

  11. Kytococcus schroeteri prosthetic valve endocarditis. (United States)

    Yousri, Taher; Hawari, Mohammad; Saad, Rasheed; Langley, Steve


    We report the case of a 64-year-old male patient with a prosthetic aortic valve who presented with clinical features of endocarditis confirmed by transoesophageal echocardiography. His blood cultures were positive for a very rare and newly described organism-Kytococcus schroeteri. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement and a 6-week course of intravenous antibiotics. This is the fifth reported case of endocarditis associated with this organism.

  12. Bifurcation of elastic solids with sliding interfaces (United States)

    Bigoni, D.; Bordignon, N.; Piccolroaz, A.; Stupkiewicz, S.


    Lubricated sliding contact between soft solids is an interesting topic in biomechanics and for the design of small-scale engineering devices. As a model of this mechanical set-up, two elastic nonlinear solids are considered jointed through a frictionless and bilateral surface, so that continuity of the normal component of the Cauchy traction holds across the surface, but the tangential component is null. Moreover, the displacement can develop only in a way that the bodies in contact do neither detach, nor overlap. Surprisingly, this finite strain problem has not been correctly formulated until now, so this formulation is the objective of the present paper. The incremental equations are shown to be non-trivial and different from previously (and erroneously) employed conditions. In particular, an exclusion condition for bifurcation is derived to show that previous formulations based on frictionless contact or `spring-type' interfacial conditions are not able to predict bifurcations in tension, while experiments-one of which, ad hoc designed, is reported-show that these bifurcations are a reality and become possible when the correct sliding interface model is used. The presented results introduce a methodology for the determination of bifurcations and instabilities occurring during lubricated sliding between soft bodies in contact.

  13. Virtual slides: application in pulmonary pathology consultations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wojciechowski


    Full Text Available The Virtual Slide (VS is an interactive microscope emulator that presents a complete digitized tissue section via the Internet. A successful implementation of VS has been observed for educational, research venues and quality control. VS acquisition for consultative pathology is not so common. The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy and usability of VS in the consultative pulmonary telepathology. 20 lung tumors entered the study. The performance was programmed for 2 medical centers specialized in pulmonary pathology (beginner and advancer in telepathology. A high-quality VSs were prepared by Coolscope (Nikon, Eclipsnet VSL, Japan, and were evaluated via the Internet. The cases were reviewed for the second time with conventional light microscope. VS diagnostic accuracy and the interobserver variability were evaluated. Also the time taken by examiners to render the diagnoses and time needed to scan the microscopic slide were analyzed. Percentage concordance between original glass-slides diagnosis and diagnosis for VSs was very high. Pathologists found the download speed of VSs adequate; experience in telepathology reduced the time of VS diagnosis. VS implementation suggests advantages for teleconsulation and education but also indicate some technical limitations. This is the first Polish trial of VS implementation in telepathology consultative service.

  14. Mechanism of opening a sliding clamp. (United States)

    Douma, Lauren G; Yu, Kevin K; England, Jennifer K; Levitus, Marcia; Bloom, Linda B


    Clamp loaders load ring-shaped sliding clamps onto DNA where the clamps serve as processivity factors for DNA polymerases. In the first stage of clamp loading, clamp loaders bind and stabilize clamps in an open conformation, and in the second stage, clamp loaders place the open clamps around DNA so that the clamps encircle DNA. Here, the mechanism of the initial clamp opening stage is investigated. Mutations were introduced into the Escherichia coli β-sliding clamp that destabilize the dimer interface to determine whether the formation of an open clamp loader-clamp complex is dependent on spontaneous clamp opening events. In other work, we showed that mutation of a positively charged Arg residue at the β-dimer interface and high NaCl concentrations destabilize the clamp, but neither facilitates the formation of an open clamp loader-clamp complex in experiments presented here. Clamp opening reactions could be fit to a minimal three-step 'bind-open-lock' model in which the clamp loader binds a closed clamp, the clamp opens, and subsequent conformational rearrangements 'lock' the clamp loader-clamp complex in a stable open conformation. Our results support a model in which the E. coli clamp loader actively opens the β-sliding clamp. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Accurate Sliding-Mode Control System Modeling for Buck Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.


    This paper shows that classical sliding mode theory fails to correctly predict the output impedance of the highly useful sliding mode PID compensated buck converter. The reason for this is identified as the assumption of the sliding variable being held at zero during sliding mode, effectively mod...... approach also predicts the self-oscillating switching action of the sliding-mode control system correctly. Analytical findings are verified by simulation as well as experimentally in a 10-30V/3A buck converter....

  16. Seismic behavior with sliding of overhead travelling crane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Akio; Ueki, Takashi; Hirata, Masami; Hoshii, Tsutomu; Kashiwazaki, Akihiro.


    In this study, the seismic behavior of an overhead travelling crane with the sliding between travelling wheels and rails is examined. First, the dynamic characteristic test of the actual crane installed in a reactor building and the sliding test of the rigid-element model to observe the basic sliding characteristic were performed. Next, to examine the dynamic response with sliding, shaking tests using the scaled model of an actual crane were conducted. From these results, useful design information about seismic behavior of an overhead travelling crane was obtained. It was also observed that numerical predictions considering sliding behavior have good agreement with the experimental results and are applicable to seismic design. (author)

  17. Application of x-ray diffraction techniques to the understanding of the dry sliding wear behaviour of aluminium and titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoheir, N.; Ahmet, T.A.; Northwood, D.O.


    Dry sliding wear tests were performed on polycrystalline f.c.c. Al and h.c.p. Ti specimens using a block-on-ring type wear machine with a rotating ring made of 52100 bearing steel. The sliding speed was 0.13 m.s sup -l and the applied normal load was 10 N. The wear tests were performed on a single specimen in ambient conditions and the texture was evaluated during wear using an X-ray diffraction inverse pole figure technique at a range of sliding distances. Pole density distributions for the [0001] and [111) poles for of Ti and Al, respectively, were then determined from the inverse pole figures. The texture evolution during sliding wear was subsequently related to the friction and wear behaviour. For the aluminum sample, a (111) texture developed parallel to the worn surface with increasing sliding distance (a 6 fold increase in the (111) pole density as the sliding distance increases from 0 to 2714 m). The titanium sample (normal section) which had a preferred orientation with the basal poles, [0001), parallel to the contact surface prior to testing, an increase in wear, i.e. sliding distance, did not change the texture. However, for the transverse section of titanium, the basal pole, [0001), density parallel to the worn surface increased with increasing sliding distance. The shape of the coefficient of friction versus sliding distance curve is strongly influenced by crystallographic texturing. A drop in the coefficient of friction with the progressive development of the [111) and [0001) texture was observed for both Al and Ti (transverse section) specimens, respectively

  18. Small sodium valve design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, R.; Elie, X.; Vercasson, M.; Nedelec, J.


    Conventionally, valves for sodium pipes smaller than 125 mm in diameter are called ''small sodium valves''. However, this limit should rather be considered as the lower limit o ''large sodium valves''. In fact, both the largest sizes of small valves and the smallest of large valves can be found in the range of 125-300 mm in diameter. Thus what is said about small valves also applies, for a few valve types, above the 125 mm limit. Sodium valves are described here in a general manner, with no manufacturing details except when necessary for understanding valve behavior. Operating experience is pointed out wherever possible. Finally, some information is given about ongoing or proposed development plans. (U.S.)

  19. Noninvasive valve monitor using alternating electromagnetic field (United States)

    Eissenberg, David M.; Haynes, Howard D.; Casada, Donald A.


    One or more electrical coils are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. An alternating current passing through the coil(s) results in an alternating electromagnetic field being transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. The electromagnetic field varies in intensity and polarity in the valve. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, the electromagnetic field throughout the valve body and its internals is altered. A passive receiver coil carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the electromagnetic field at that location as an induced electrical voltage in the coil. With the change in position of the valve internal part, there is a corresponding change in the induced voltage as a result of the alteration in the alternating electromagnetic field at that location. Changes in the voltage provide an indication of the position and motion of valve internals.

  20. Development of an effective valve packing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.A.


    Current data now shows that graphite valve packing installed within the guidance of a controlled program produces not only reliable stem sealing but predictable running loads. By utilizing recent technological developments in valve performance monitoring for both MOV`s and AOV`s, valve packing performance can be enhanced while reducing maintenance costs. Once known, values are established for acceptable valve packing loads, the measurement of actual valve running loads via the current MOV/AOV diagnostic techniques can provide indication of future valve stem sealing problems, improper valve packing installation or identify the opportunity for valve packing program improvements. At times the full benefit of these advances in material and predictive technology remain under utilized due to simple past misconceptions associated with valve packing. This paper will explore the basis for these misconceptions, provide general insight into the current understanding of valve packing and demonstrate how with this new understanding and current valve diagnostic equipment the key aspects required to develop an effective, quality valve packing program fit together. The cost and operational benefits provided by this approach can be significant impact by the: elimination of periodic valve repacking, reduction of maintenance costs, benefits of leak-free valve operation, justification for reduced Post Maintenance Test Requirements, reduced radiation exposure, improved plant appearance.

  1. Development of an effective valve packing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, K.A.


    Current data now shows that graphite valve packing installed within the guidance of a controlled program produces not only reliable stem sealing but predictable running loads. By utilizing recent technological developments in valve performance monitoring for both MOV's and AOV's, valve packing performance can be enhanced while reducing maintenance costs. Once known, values are established for acceptable valve packing loads, the measurement of actual valve running loads via the current MOV/AOV diagnostic techniques can provide indication of future valve stem sealing problems, improper valve packing installation or identify the opportunity for valve packing program improvements. At times the full benefit of these advances in material and predictive technology remain under utilized due to simple past misconceptions associated with valve packing. This paper will explore the basis for these misconceptions, provide general insight into the current understanding of valve packing and demonstrate how with this new understanding and current valve diagnostic equipment the key aspects required to develop an effective, quality valve packing program fit together. The cost and operational benefits provided by this approach can be significant impact by the: elimination of periodic valve repacking, reduction of maintenance costs, benefits of leak-free valve operation, justification for reduced Post Maintenance Test Requirements, reduced radiation exposure, improved plant appearance

  2. Sliding time of flight: sliding time of flight MR angiography using a dynamic image reconstruction method. (United States)

    Choi, Joonsung; Seo, Hyunseok; Lim, Yongwan; Han, Yeji; Park, HyunWook


    To obtain three-dimensional (3D) MR angiography having high contrast between vessel and stationary background tissue, a novel technique called sliding time of flight (TOF) is proposed. The proposed method relies on the property that flow-related enhancement (FRE) is maximized at the blood-entering slice in an imaging slab. For the proposed sliding TOF, a sliding stack-of-stars sampling and a dynamic MR image reconstruction algorithm were developed. To verify the performance of the proposed method, in vivo study was performed and the results were compared with multiple overlapping thin 3D slab acquisition (MOTSA) and sliding interleaved ky (SLINKY). In MOTSA and SLINKY, the variation of FRE resulted in severe venetian blind (MOTSA) or ghost (SLINKY) artifacts, while the vessel-contrast increased as the flip angle of radiofrequency (RF) pulses increased. On the other hand, the proposed method could provide high-contrast angiograms with reduced FRE-related artifacts. The sliding TOF can provide 3D angiography without image artifacts even if high flip angle RF pulses with thick slab excitation are used. Although remains of subsampling artifacts can be present in the reconstructed images, they can be reduced by MIP operation and resolved further by regularization techniques. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control Method Based on Nonlinear Integral Sliding Surface for Agricultural Vehicle Steering Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taochang Li


    Full Text Available Automatic steering control is the key factor and essential condition in the realization of the automatic navigation control of agricultural vehicles. In order to get satisfactory steering control performance, an adaptive sliding mode control method based on a nonlinear integral sliding surface is proposed in this paper for agricultural vehicle steering control. First, the vehicle steering system is modeled as a second-order mathematic model; the system uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics as well as the external disturbances are regarded as the equivalent disturbances satisfying a certain boundary. Second, a transient process of the desired system response is constructed in each navigation control period. Based on the transient process, a nonlinear integral sliding surface is designed. Then the corresponding sliding mode control law is proposed to guarantee the fast response characteristics with no overshoot in the closed-loop steering control system. Meanwhile, the switching gain of sliding mode control is adaptively adjusted to alleviate the control input chattering by using the fuzzy control method. Finally, the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method are verified by a series of simulation and actual steering control experiments.

  4. Computer generated slides: a need to curb our enthusiasm. (United States)

    Dalal, M D; Daver, B M


    The popular use of computer generated slides for presentations during plastic surgery scientific meetings has opened a fresh chapter in audiovisual techniques. Although the profusion of colours seen during presentations is a visual treat, the information imparted by these slides leaves much to be desired and raises the question of whether such attractive and apparently professionally made slides are visual aids during such presentations. Presentation slides are displayed for a very short time (10-15 seconds) as compared to slides displayed during a lecture and therefore these presentation slides should have the ability to impart their information very quickly. We conducted a study wherein 36 slides, each having a different colour combination, were displayed to a class of third year medical students who were asked to judge the efficacy of each slide. The attractiveness, clarity and recall of each slide was graded by every student and, with the information obtained, the most effective format and colour combinations to be used while making slides for presentations were established. We conclude that the best format for slides is a plain dark coloured background (blue, purple or green) and a separate, contrasting plain dark coloured title text background (red, green or purple), with white letters for the text and yellow letters for the title.

  5. Long-term Follow-up After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation for Severe Aortic Stenosis. (United States)

    Salinas, Pablo; Moreno, Raúl; Calvo, Luis; Sánchez-Recalde, Ángel; Jiménez-Valero, Santiago; Galeote, Guillermo; López-Fernández, Teresa; Ramírez, Ulises; Riera, Luis; Plaza, Ignacio; Moreno, Isidro; Mesa, José María; López-Sendón, José Luis


    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is used as an alternative to surgical valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis who are considered high-surgical-risk or inoperable. Two of the main areas of uncertainty in this field are valve durability and long-term survival. This prospective single-center registry study from a tertiary hospital included all consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous aortic valve implantation between 2008 and 2012. Clinical follow-up lasted a minimum of 2.5 years and a maximum of 6.5 years. Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 definitions were used. Seventy-nine patients were included, with an immediate success rate of 94.9%. The median survival was 47.6 months (95% confidence intervals, 37.4-57.9 months), ie, 4 years. One quarter of deaths occurred in the first month, and most were of cardiovascular cause. After the first month, most deaths were due to noncardiovascular causes. The mean values of valve gradients did not increase during follow-up. The cumulative rate of prosthetic valve dysfunction was 15.3%, with no cases of repeat valve replacement. Half of the patients with aortic stenosis who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation were alive 4 years after the procedure. There was a 15.3% prosthetic valve dysfunction rate in cumulative follow-up, with no cases of repeat valve replacement. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Control Performance of Vehicle Abs Featuring ER Valve Pressure Modulator (United States)

    Cho, M. S.; Choi, S. B.; Wereley, N. M.

    In this work, an electrically controllable anti-lock brake system (ABS) for passenger vehicle is developed by utilizing electrorheological (ER) fluid. A pressure modulator which consists of a cylindrical ER valve and the hydraulic booster is constructed in order to achieve sufficient brake pressure variation during ABS operation. The principal design parameters of the modulator are determined by considering ER properties as well as required braking pressure. After investigating pressure controllability of the modulator, a vehicle model which is integrated with the proposed pressure modulator is formulated to design yaw rate controller. A sliding mode controller is designed to obtain desired yaw rate, and the friction forces between roads and wheels are estimated via the estimator. Braking performances of the proposed ABS under various roads are evaluated through the hardware-in-the-loop-simulation (HILS) and the steering stability during braking operation is demonstrated by undertaking split-μ test.

  7. Validation of diagnostic accuracy using digital slides in routine histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fónyad László


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robust hardware and software tools have been developed in digital microscopy during the past years for pathologists. Reports have been advocated the reliability of digital slides in routine diagnostics. We have designed a retrospective, comparative study to evaluate the scanning properties and digital slide based diagnostic accuracy. Methods 8 pathologists reevaluated 306 randomly selected cases from our archives. The slides were scanned with a 20× Plan-Apochromat objective, using a 3-chip Hitachi camera, resulting 0.465 μm/pixel resolution. Slide management was supported with dedicated Data Base and Viewer software tools. Pathologists used their office PCs for evaluation and reached the digital slides via intranet connection. The diagnostic coherency and uncertainty related to digital slides and scanning quality were analyzed. Results Good to excellent image quality of slides was recorded in 96%. In half of the critical 61 digital slides, poor image quality was related to section folds or floatings. In 88.2% of the studied cases the digital diagnoses were in full agreement with the consensus. Out of the overall 36 incoherent cases, 7 (2.3% were graded relevant without any recorded uncertainty by the pathologist. Excluding the non-field specific cases from each pathologist's record this ratio was 1.76% of all cases. Conclusions Our results revealed that: 1 digital slide based histopathological diagnoses can be highly coherent with those using optical microscopy; 2 the competency of pathologists is a factor more important than the quality of digital slide; 3 poor digital slide quality do not endanger patient safety as these errors are recognizable by the pathologist and further actions for correction could be taken. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here:

  8. LOFT pressurizer safety: relief valve reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.S.


    The LOFT pressurizer self-actuating safety-relief valves are constructed to the present state-of-the-art and should have reliability equivalent to the valves in use on PWR plants in the U.S. There have been no NRC incident reports on valve failures to lift that would challenge the Technical Specification Safety Limit. Fourteen valves have been reported as lifting a few percentage points outside the +-1% Tech. Spec. surveillance tolerance (9 valves tested over and 5 valves tested under specification). There have been no incident reports on failures to reseat. The LOFT surveillance program for assuring reliability is equivalent to nuclear industry practice.

  9. LOFT pressurizer safety: relief valve reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, E.S.


    The LOFT pressurizer self-actuating safety-relief valves are constructed to the present state-of-the-art and should have reliability equivalent to the valves in use on PWR plants in the U.S. There have been no NRC incident reports on valve failures to lift that would challenge the Technical Specification Safety Limit. Fourteen valves have been reported as lifting a few percentage points outside the +-1% Tech. Spec. surveillance tolerance (9 valves tested over and 5 valves tested under specification). There have been no incident reports on failures to reseat. The LOFT surveillance program for assuring reliability is equivalent to nuclear industry practice

  10. Emergency Valve-in-Valve Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation for the Treatment of Acute Stentless Bioprosthetic Aortic Insufficiency and Cardiogenic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan D. Hanson


    Full Text Available Bioprosthetic aortic valve degeneration may present as acute, severe aortic regurgitation and cardiogenic shock. Such patients may be unsuitable for emergency valve replacement surgery due to excessive risk of operative mortality but could be treatable with transfemoral valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI. There is a paucity of data regarding the feasibility of valve-in-valve TAVI in patients presenting with cardiogenic shock due to acute aortic insufficiency from stentless bioprosthetic valve degeneration. We present one such case, highlighting the unique aspects of valve-in-valve TAVI for this challenging patient subset.

  11. 77 FR 5472 - Pipeline Safety: Expanding the Use of Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution Systems to... (United States)


    ...: Expanding the Use of Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution Systems to Applications Other Than Single-Family... Safety: Expanding the Use of Excess Flow Valves (EFVs) in Gas Distribution Systems to Applications Other... the use of EFVs in gas distribution systems. On January 10, 2012, PHMSA received a request to extend...

  12. Low intake valve lift in a port fuel-injected engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begg, S.M.; Hindle, M.P.; Cowell, T.; Heikal, M.R. [The Sir Harry Ricardo Laboratories, Centre for Automotive Engineering, Cockcroft Building, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton, East Sussex, BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom)


    A phenomenological study of the airflow and fuel spray interaction in a variable valve gasoline engine is presented. Experiments were performed in a steady-state flow rig fitted with a modified production cylinder head. The intake valve lift was varied manually. The mass flow rates of air and fuel through the test rig were adjusted to match typical engine operating conditions. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) measurements of the airflow showed the breakdown of a single, forward tumbling vortex-like structure into a pair of high-speed, turbulent jets at low valve lifts. Two transitional phases in the flow at the valve gap were identified for valve lifts less than 1.5 mm and greater than 3 mm. At the lower limit, a jet flapping instability was recorded. A port fuel injector (PFI) spray was characterised in a quiescent, chamber and within the test rig. High Speed Photography (HSP) and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) were used to measure the effects of varying valve lift upon the fuel droplet characteristics. The in-cylinder measurements showed a reduction in mean droplet diameter of up to 50%, close to the valve gap, for peak valve lifts of less than 3 mm. (author)

  13. Differences in performance of five types of aortic valve prostheses: haemodynamic assessment by dobutamine stress echocardiography. (United States)

    Khoo, Jeffrey P; Davies, Joan E; Ang, Keng Leong; Galiñanes, Manuel; Chin, Derek T


    In patients being considered for aortic valve replacement, there remains controversy over which design or tissue offers the best performance. We aimed to evaluate in a single study the haemodynamic performances of five different widely used aortic valve prostheses: stentless porcine xenograft (Elan), stentless bovine pericardium (Pericarbon Freedom), stented porcine xenograft (Aspire), stented bovine pericardium (More) and mechanical (Ultracor). We also compared them with normal aortic valves and stenosed valves of variable severity. Preoperative echocardiography and dobutamine stress echocardiography at 1 year postoperatively were undertaken in 106 patients (n=18-24 from each group). Stentless bioprostheses, whether porcine or bovine, displayed superior haemodynamics across nearly all echocardiographic parameters: lower gradients, larger effective orifice area, higher dimensionless severity index (DSI) and lower resistance, when compared with stented or mechanical prostheses. Comparing both stented designs, bovine tissue performed the worst at rest, but with stress, there was no difference. The stress performances of the stentless bioprostheses were similar to the mildly stenosed native aortic valve, whereas the performances of the stented and mechanical prostheses resembled that of native valves with mild-to-moderate stenoses. Haemodynamic differences, however, did not translate into differences in left ventricular mass reduction at 1 year. Stentless bioprostheses displayed haemodynamics superior to stented or mechanical prostheses and had the closest performance to a normal, native aortic valve. Stress DSI data, least reliant on variable annulus/valve sizes and flow rates, provided the best haemodynamic discrimination.

  14. Valve-less microdispenser (United States)

    Tan, Ming Kwang; Xin, Wang; Lee, Weng Kent


    We demonstrate the concept of valve-less microdispenser to control of the liquid flow through the nozzle, by incorporating Leidenfrost effect into the nozzle design. When the nozzle is heated above the Leidenfrost point, a thin vapor layer is formed between the heated substrate and the liquid above it. The vapor pressure due to the presence of the vapor layer, together with the effect of surface tension of the liquid, exerted on the liquid-vapor interface, preventing the flow of the liquid through the nozzle. The experimental results shown that nozzles of diameter 400 micrometer and below, the nozzle temperature of 150 degree Celsius is sufficient to prevent the continuous flowing of the liquid, whereas for nozzles of diameter between 400 to 500 micrometer, the nozzle temperature needs to increase to 160 degree Celsius in order to prevent the continuous flowing of the liquid. When nozzle temperature below 160 degree Celsius, intermittent ejection of microdroplets, whose size is a function of nozzle temperature, is observed.

  15. In Vitro Validation of a Numerical Simulation of Leaflet Kinematics in a Polymeric Aortic Valve Under Physiological Conditions. (United States)

    Gharaie, Saleh Hassanzadeh; Mosadegh, Bobak; Morsi, Yosry


    This paper describes a computational method to simulate the non-linear structural deformation of a polymeric aortic valve under physiological conditions. Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method is incorporated in the fluid-structure interaction simulation, and then validated by comparing the predicted kinematics of the valve's leaflets to in vitro measurements on a custom-made polymeric aortic valve. The predicted kinematics of the valve's leaflets was in good agreement with the experimental results with a maximum error of 15% in a single cardiac cycle. The fluid-structure interaction model presented in this study can simulate structural behaviour of a stented valve with flexible leaflets, providing insight into the haemodynamic performance of a polymeric aortic valve.

  16. Analysis of Complex Valve and Feed Systems (United States)

    Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Shipman, Jeremy; Cavallo, Peter; Dash, Sanford


    A numerical framework for analysis of complex valve systems supports testing of propulsive systems by simulating key valve and control system components in the test loop. In particular, it is designed to enhance the analysis capability in terms of identifying system transients and quantifying the valve response to these transients. This system has analysis capability for simulating valve motion in complex systems operating in diverse flow regimes ranging from compressible gases to cryogenic liquids. A key feature is the hybrid, unstructured framework with sub-models for grid movement and phase change including cryogenic cavitations. The multi-element unstructured framework offers improved predictions of valve performance characteristics under steady conditions for structurally complex valves such as pressure regulator valve. Unsteady simulations of valve motion using this computational approach have been carried out for various valves in operation at Stennis Space Center such as the split-body valve and the 10-in. (approx.25.4-cm) LOX (liquid oxygen) valve and the 4-in. (approx.10 cm) Y-pattern valve (liquid nitrogen). Such simulations make use of variable grid topologies, thereby permitting solution accuracy and resolving important flow physics in the seat region of the moving valve. An advantage to this software includes possible reduction in testing costs incurred due to disruptions relating to unexpected flow transients or functioning of valve/flow control systems. Prediction of the flow anomalies leading to system vibrations, flow resonance, and valve stall can help in valve scheduling and significantly reduce the need for activation tests. This framework has been evaluated for its ability to predict performance metrics like flow coefficient for cavitating venturis and valve coefficient curves, and could be a valuable tool in predicting and understanding anomalous behavior of system components at rocket propulsion testing and design sites.

  17. Mechanical heart valve cavitation in patients with bileaflet valves. (United States)

    Johansen, Peter; Andersen, Tina S; Hasenkam, J Michael; Nygaard, Hans; Paulsen, Peter K


    Today, the quality of mechanical heart valves is quite high, and implantation has become a routine clinical procedure with a low operative mortality (mechanism found to be a possible contributor to these adverse effects is cavitation. In vitro, cavitation has been directly demonstrated by visualization and indirectly in vivo by registering of high frequency pressure fluctuations (HFPF). Tilting disc valves are thought of having higher cavitation potential than bileaflet valves due to higher closing velocities. However, the thromboembolic potential seems to be the same. Further studies are therefore needed to investigate the cavitation potential of bileaflet valves in vivo. The post processing of HFPF have shown difficulties when applied on bileaflet vavles due to asynchronous closure of the two leaflets. The aim of this study was therefore to isolate the pressure signature from each leaflet closure and perform cavitation analyses on each component. Six patients were included in the study (St. Jude Medical (n=3) and CarboMedics (n=3); all aortic bileaflet mechanical heart valves). HFPFs were recorded intraoperatively through a hydrophone at the aortic root. The pressure signature relating to the first and second leaflet closure was isolated and cavitation parameters were calculated (RMS after 50 kHz highpass filtering and signal energy). Data were averaged over 30 heart cycles. For all patients both the RMS value and signal energy of the second leaflet closure were higher than for the first leaflet closure. This indicates that the second leaflet closure is most prone to cause cavitation. Therefore, quantifying cavitation based on the HFPF related to the second leaflet closure may suggest that the cavitation potential for bileaflet valves in vivo may be higher than previous studies have suggested.

  18. Development of mechanical heart valves - an inspiring tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rajashekar


    Full Text Available The historical evolution of the prosthetic heart valves from the first attempts with the Hufnagel′s valve in the treatment of the aortic insufficiency to the Starr-Edwards′ ball valve and later the tilting disc valves (Bjork-Shiley etc., and finally the bileaflet valves (St. Jude are discussed. The Indian contribution with Chitra valve is also described.

  19. Current Challenges in Translating Tissue-Engineered Heart Valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stassen, O M J A; Muylaert, D E P; Bouten, Carlijn V. C.; Hjortnaes, J; Hjortnaes, J

    OPINION STATEMENT: Heart valve disease is a major health burden, treated by either valve repair or valve replacement, depending on the affected valve. Nearly 300,000 valve replacements are performed worldwide per year. Valve replacement is lifesaving, but not without complications. The in situ

  20. Adaptive Backstepping Sliding-Mode Control of the Electronic Throttle System in Modern Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Bai


    Full Text Available In modern automobiles, electronic throttle is a DC-motor-driven valve that regulates air inflow into the vehicle’s combustion system. The electronic throttle is increasingly being used in order to improve the vehicle drivability, fuel economy, and emissions. Electronic throttle system has the nonlinear dynamical characteristics with the unknown disturbance and parameters. At first, the dynamical nonlinear model of the electronic throttle is built in this paper. Based on the model and using the backstepping design technique, a new adaptive backstepping sliding-mode controller of the electronic throttle is developed. During the backstepping design process, parameter adaptive law is designed to estimate the unknown parameter, and sliding-mode control term is applied to compensate the unknown disturbance. The proposed controller can make the actual angle of the electronic throttle track its set point with the satisfactory performance. Finally, a computer simulation is performed, and simulation results verify that the proposed control method can achieve favorable tracking performance.

  1. IWM2011, Slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankland, J.D.; Rios, A.; Toke, J.; Legouee, E.; Leifels, Y.; Bougault, R.; Russotto, P.; Colonna, M.; Singh, H.; Wigg, P.; Lombardo, I.; Galichet, E.; Gulminelli, F.; De la Mota, V.; La Commara, M.; Ono, A.; Delaume, O.; Najman, R.; Napolitani, P.; Parlog, M.; Lukasik, J.; Raduta, A.; Acosta, L.; Cardella, G.


    The aim of the International Workshops on Multifragmentation and related topics (IWM) is to bring together a wide international community from heavy-ion physics in order to debate open questions in the domain of nuclear dynamics and thermodynamics. There will be dedicated sessions on the following topics: -) thermodynamics of finite nuclei and nuclear matter, -) isospin and symmetry energy: from the laboratory to compact stars, -) physics with low-energy radioactive beams, -) dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, -) correlations, dynamics and structure, and -) instrumentation and new detection techniques. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations

  2. Meetings on Particle Physics - Abstracts and Slides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, M.; Machado, P.; Bertuzzo, E.; Villanova del Moral, A.; Wingerter, A.; Lellouch, L.; Garron, N.; Portelli, A.; Vulvert, G.; Zerwas, D.; Djouadi, A.; Drieu la Rochelle, G.; Fairbairn, M.; Le Boulc'h, Q.; Dumont, B.; Da Silva, J.; Brax, P.; Weiland, C.; Gelis, F.; Mehtar-Tani, Y.; Epelbaum, T.; Meunier, E.; Dudas, E.; Jezo, T.; Urbano, A.; Smith, C.; Machet, B.; Nezri, E.; Salam, G.; Kosnik, N.; Greynat, D.; Petrov, K.


    RPP (Meetings on Particle Physics) annual meetings are aimed at gathering the theoretical particle physicists' community, providing the participants with the opportunity not only to present their research topics, but also to make contact with the latest developments in adjacent fields. RPP-2012 will have a few review talks on topics such as flavors, Higgs bosons, astro-particle physics and cosmology, heavy ions, physics beyond the standard model, and quantum chromodynamics. This document gathers the slides of the presentations, a few presentations are accompanied by an abstract.

  3. Switching sliding mode force tracking control of piezoelectric-hydraulic pump-based friction element actuation systems for automotive transmissions (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Woo; Wang, K. W.


    In this study, a nonlinear sliding-mode controller is designed for force tracking of a piezoelectric-hydraulic pump (PHP)-based actuation system, which is developed to replace the current electro-hydraulic actuation systems for automatic transmission (AT) friction elements, such as band brakes or clutches. By utilizing the PHP, one can eliminate the various hydraulic components (oil pump, regulating valve and control valve) in current ATs and achieve a simpler configuration with more efficient operation. With the derived governing equation of motion of the PHP-based actuation system integrated with the friction element (band brake), a switching control law is synthesized based on the sliding-mode theory. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed control law, its force tracking performance for the engagement of a friction element during an AT 1\\to 2 up-shift is examined experimentally. It is shown that one can successfully track the desired force trajectory for AT shift control with small tracking error. This study demonstrates the potential of the PHP as a new controllable actuation system for AT friction elements.

  4. A retrospective analysis of mitral valve pathology in the setting of bicuspid aortic valves (United States)

    van Rensburg, Annari; Doubell, Anton


    The therapeutic implications of bicuspid aortic valve associations have come under scrutiny in the transcatheter aortic valve implantation era. We evaluate the spectrum of mitral valve disease in patients with bicuspid aortic valves to determine the need for closer echocardiographic scrutiny/follow-up of the mitral valve. A retrospective analysis of echocardiograms done at a referral hospital over five years was conducted in patients with bicuspid aortic valves with special attention to congenital abnormalities of the mitral valve. One hundred and forty patients with a bicuspid aortic valve were included. A congenital mitral valve abnormality was present in eight (5.7%, P = 0.01) with a parachute mitral valve in four (2.8%), an accessory mitral valve leaflet in one (0.7%), mitral valve prolapse in one, a cleft in one and the novel finding of a trileaflet mitral valve in one. Minor abnormalities included an elongated anterior mitral valve leaflet (P abnormal papillary muscles (P = 0.002) and an additional chord or tendon in the left ventricle cavity (P = 0.007). Mitral valve abnormalities occur more commonly in patients with bicuspid aortic valves than matched healthy individuals. The study confirms that abnormalities in these patients extend beyond the aorta. These abnormalities did not have a significant functional effect. PMID:28515127

  5. Intro to Valve Guide Reconditioning. Automotive Mechanics. Valves. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide. (United States)

    Horner, W.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on tools and techniques for repairing worn valve guides in motor vehicles, provides practical experience for students in working on cylinder heads. Covered in the module are reaming valve guides that are oversized to match a new oversized valve, reaming valve guides…

  6. Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation due to severe aortic regurgitation in a degenerated aortic homograft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lene Kjaer; Engstrøm, Thomas; Søndergaard, Lars


    a successful valve-in-valve implantation of a CoreValve aortic valve prosthesis through the right subclavian artery in a case of severe aortic regurgitation within a degenerated aortic homograft. The case exemplifies the possibilities of expanding the indications for TAVI, as well as other vascular access...

  7. The nordic aortic valve intervention (NOTION) trial comparing transcatheter versus surgical valve implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyregod, Hans Gustav; Søndergaard, Lars; Ihlemann, Nikolaj


    Degenerative aortic valve (AV) stenosis is the most prevalent heart valve disease in the western world. Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) has until recently been the standard of treatment for patients with severe AV stenosis. Whether transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) can...

  8. Early clinical outcome of aortic transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihlberg, Leo; Nissen, Henrik Hoffmann; Nielsen, Niels Erik


    Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation has emerged as an option, in addition to reoperative surgical aortic valve replacement, to treat failed biologic heart valve substitutes. However, the clinical experience with this approach is still limited. We report the comprehensive experience...

  9. Infective Endocarditis of the Aortic Valve with Anterior Mitral Valve Leaflet Aneurysm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomsic, Anton; Li, Wilson W. L.; van Paridon, Marieke; Bindraban, Navin R.; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.


    Mitral valve leaflet aneurysm is a rare and potentially devastating complication of aortic valve endocarditis. We report the case of a 48-year-old man who had endocarditis of the native aortic valve and a concomitant aneurysm of the anterior mitral valve leaflet. Severe mitral regurgitation occurred

  10. Surgical treatment of aortic valve endocarditis: a 26-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Adademir


    Full Text Available Objective: We have retrospectively analyzed the results of the operations made for aortic valve endocarditis in a single center in 26 years. Methods: From June 1985 to January 2011, 174 patients were operated for aortic valve endocarditis. One hundred and thirty-eight (79.3% patients were male and the mean age was 39.3±14.4 (9-77 years. Twenty-seven (15.5% patients had prosthetic valve endocarditis. The mean duration of follow-up was 7.3±4.2 years (0.1-18.2 adding up to a total of 1030.8 patient/years. Results: Two hundred and eighty-two procedures were performed. The most frequently performed procedure was aortic valve replacement with mechanical prosthesis (81.6%. In-hospital mortality occurred in 27 (15.5% cases. Postoperatively, 25 (14.4% patients had low cardiac output and 17 (9.8% heart block. The actuarial survival rates for 10 and 15 years were 74.6±3.7% and 61.1±10.3%, respectively. In-hospital mortality was found to be associated with female gender, emergency operation, postoperative renal failure and low cardiac output. The long term mortality was significantly associated with mitral valve involvement. Male gender was found to be a significant risk factor for recurrence in the follow-up. Conclusion: Surgery for aortic valve endocarditis has significant mortality. Emergency operation, female gender, postoperative renal failure and low cardiac output are significant risk factors. Risk for recurrence and need for reoperation is low.

  11. Bistable fluidic valve is electrically switched (United States)

    Fiet, O.; Salvinski, R. J.


    Bistable control valve is selectively switched by direct application of an electrical field to divert fluid from one output channel to another. Valve is inexpensive, has no moving parts, and operates on fluids which are relatively poor electrical conductors.

  12. 49 CFR 195.260 - Valves: Location. (United States)


    ... PIPELINE Construction § 195.260 Valves: Location. A valve must be installed at each of the following... that is more than 100 feet (30 meters) wide from high-water mark to high-water mark unless the...

  13. Passive Airbag Vent Control Valve Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosato, Nicholas


    .... The venting candidates studied consisted of two different linear spring check valve designs, a magnetostatic check valve design, along with two precision release blowout vents configured using a four...

  14. Stem clutch for motor driven valve (United States)

    Blum, D. E.; Wiltens, J. F.


    Development of mechanical device to reduce possibility of damage to motor driven needle valve is discussed. Mechanical clutch is employed to allow slippage when needle valve reaches limit of travel. Operation of system for various conditions is described.

  15. Cells for tissue engineering of cardiac valves. (United States)

    Jana, Soumen; Tranquillo, Robert T; Lerman, Amir


    Heart valve tissue engineering is a promising alternative to prostheses for the replacement of diseased or damaged heart valves, because tissue-engineered valves have the ability to remodel, regenerate and grow. To engineer heart valves, cells are harvested, seeded onto or into a three-dimensional (3D) matrix platform to generate a tissue-engineered construct in vitro, and then implanted into a patient's body. Successful engineering of heart valves requires a thorough understanding of the different types of cells that can be used to obtain the essential phenotypes that are expressed in native heart valves. This article reviews different cell types that have been used in heart valve engineering, cell sources for harvesting, phenotypic expression in constructs and suitability in heart valve tissue engineering. Natural and synthetic biomaterials that have been applied as scaffold systems or cell-delivery platforms are discussed with each cell type. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Comparative study between CardiaMed valves (freely floating valve leaflets versus St. Jude Medical (fixed valve leaflets in mitral valve replacement surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Ahmed


    Conclusions: CardiaMed freely floating leaflet prostheses showed good hemodynamic characteristics. The prosthesis adequately corrects hemodynamics and is safe and no worse than the St. Jude Medical valve in the mitral valve position.

  17. Promising results after percutaneous mitral valve repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Franzen, Olaf; Jørgensen, Erik


    Mitral valve regurgitation (MR) is the secondmost frequent valve disease in Europe. Untreated MR causes considerable morbidity and mortality. In the elderly, as many as half of these patients are denied surgery because of an estimated high surgical risk. Percutaneous mitral valve repair with the ...... with the MitraClip system resembles the Alfieristitch where a clip is used to connect the tip of the mitral valve leaflets....

  18. Infective endocarditis following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Gary; Vejlstrup, Niels; Ihlemann, Nikolaj


    Infective endocarditis (IE) following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with the Melody valve is rarely reported. Furthermore, there are challenges in this diagnosis; especially echocardiographic evidence of vegetation within the prosthesis may be difficult.......Infective endocarditis (IE) following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with the Melody valve is rarely reported. Furthermore, there are challenges in this diagnosis; especially echocardiographic evidence of vegetation within the prosthesis may be difficult....

  19. Safety Testing of Left Ventricular Vent Valves. (United States)

    Gavin, Caroline; Coblentz, John; Acsell, Jeffrey R; Shackelford, Anthony G; Sistino, Joseph J


    Vent vacuum relief valves (VRVs) are used to limit the negative pressure at the ventricular vent catheter tip as well as prevent reversal of blood flow and prevention of air embolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of three commercially available ventricular vent valves. The negative pressure at which the vent valve opened was measured at the valve inlet using high-fidelity pressure transducers. Also, the flow rate at which air entrainment occurred due to valve opening was recorded. Using a 51.5 cm column of saline, the resistance for each valve was calculated. The mean ± SD opening negative pressures were -231.3 ± 35.2 mmHg for the Quest Medical valve, -219.8 mmHg ± 17.2 for the Sorin valve, and -329.6 · 38.0 mmHg for the Terumo valve. The red Quest Medical valve opened at a lower flow (1.44 ± .03 L/min) than the dark blue Sorin valve (2.93 ± .01 L/min) and light blue LH130 Terumo valve (2.36 ± .02 L/min). The Sorin valve had the least resistance of 34.1 dyn-s/cm, followed by the Terumo LH130 valve resistance of 58.1 dyn·s/cm5, and the Quest Medical VRV-II valve with a resistance of 66.5 dyn·s/cm. We found that the valves are significantly different in the negative pressure generated. Understanding the limitations of these devices is important to reduce the occurrence of adverse events associated with venting and to select the best device for a specific clinical application.

  20. Pregnancy-induced remodeling of heart valves. (United States)

    Pierlot, Caitlin M; Moeller, Andrew D; Lee, J Michael; Wells, Sarah M


    Recent studies have demonstrated remodeling of aortic and mitral valves leaflets under the volume loading and cardiac expansion of pregnancy. Those valves' leaflets enlarge with altered collagen fiber architecture, content, and cross-linking and biphasic changes (decreases, then increases) in extensibility during gestation. This study extends our analyses to right-sided valves, with additional compositional measurements for all valves. Valve leaflets were harvested from nonpregnant heifers and pregnant cows. Leaflet structure was characterized by leaflet dimensions, and ECM composition was determined using standard biochemical assays. Histological studies assessed changes in cellular and ECM components. Leaflet mechanical properties were assessed using equibiaxial mechanical testing. Collagen thermal stability and cross-linking were assessed using denaturation and hydrothermal isometric tension tests. Pulmonary and tricuspid leaflet areas increased during pregnancy by 35 and 55%, respectively. Leaflet thickness increased by 20% only in the pulmonary valve and largely in the fibrosa (30% thickening). Collagen crimp length was reduced in both the tricuspid (61%) and pulmonary (42%) valves, with loss of crimped area in the pulmonary valve. Thermomechanics showed decreased collagen thermal stability with surprisingly maintained cross-link maturity. The pulmonary leaflet exhibited the biphasic change in extensibility seen in left side valves, whereas the tricuspid leaflet mechanics remained largely unchanged throughout pregnancy. The tricuspid valve exhibits a remodeling response during pregnancy that is significantly diminished from the other three valves. All valves of the heart remodel in pregnancy in a manner distinct from cardiac pathology, with much similarity valve to valve, but with interesting valve-specific responses in the aortic and tricuspid valves. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Statins for aortic valve stenosis. (United States)

    Thiago, Luciana; Tsuji, Selma Rumiko; Nyong, Jonathan; Puga, Maria Eduarda Dos Santos; Góis, Aécio Flávio Teixeira de; Macedo, Cristiane Rufino; Valente, Orsine; Atallah, Álvaro Nagib


    Aortic valve stenosis is the most common type of valvular heart disease in the USA and Europe. Aortic valve stenosis is considered similar to atherosclerotic disease. Some studies have evaluated statins for aortic valve stenosis. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of statins in aortic valve stenosis. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS - IBECS, Web of Science and CINAHL Plus. These databases were searched from their inception to 24 November 2015. We also searched trials in registers for ongoing trials. We used no language restrictions.Selection criteria: Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) comparing statins alone or in association with other systemic drugs to reduce cholesterol levels versus placebo or usual care. Data collection and analysis: Primary outcomes were severity of aortic valve stenosis (evaluated by echocardiographic criteria: mean pressure gradient, valve area and aortic jet velocity), freedom from valve replacement and death from cardiovascular cause. Secondary outcomes were hospitalization for any reason, overall mortality, adverse events and patient quality of life.Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The GRADE methodology was employed to assess the quality of result findings and the GRADE profiler (GRADEPRO) was used to import data from Review Manager 5.3 to create a 'Summary of findings' table. We included four RCTs with 2360 participants comparing statins (1185 participants) with placebo (1175 participants). We found low-quality evidence for our primary outcome of severity of aortic valve stenosis, evaluated by mean pressure gradient (mean difference (MD) -0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.88 to 0.80; participants = 1935; studies = 2), valve area (MD -0.07, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.14; participants = 127; studies = 2), and aortic jet velocity (MD -0.06, 95% CI -0.26 to 0

  2. Active combustion flow modulation valve (United States)

    Hensel, John Peter; Black, Nathaniel; Thorton, Jimmy Dean; Vipperman, Jeffrey Stuart; Lambeth, David N; Clark, William W


    A flow modulation valve has a slidably translating hollow armature with at least one energizable coil wound around and fixably attached to the hollow armature. The energizable coil or coils are influenced by at least one permanent magnet surrounding the hollow armature and supported by an outer casing. Lorentz forces on the energizable coils which are translated to the hollow armature, increase or decrease the flow area to provide flow throttling action. The extent of hollow armature translation depends on the value of current supplied and the direction of translation depends on the direction of current flow. The compact nature of the flow modulation valve combined with the high forces afforded by the actuator design provide a flow modulation valve which is highly responsive to high-rate input control signals.

  3. Microscopic validation of whole mouse micro-metastatic tumor imaging agents using cryo-imaging and sliding organ image registration. (United States)

    Liu, Yiqiao; Zhou, Bo; Qutaish, Mohammed; Wilson, David L


    We created a metastasis imaging, analysis platform consisting of software and multi-spectral cryo-imaging system suitable for evaluating emerging imaging agents targeting micro-metastatic tumor. We analyzed CREKA-Gd in MRI, followed by cryo-imaging which repeatedly sectioned and tiled microscope images of the tissue block face, providing anatomical bright field and molecular fluorescence, enabling 3D microscopic imaging of the entire mouse with single metastatic cell sensitivity. To register MRI volumes to the cryo bright field reference, we used our standard mutual information, non-rigid registration which proceeded: preprocess → affine → B-spline non-rigid 3D registration. In this report, we created two modified approaches: mask where we registered locally over a smaller rectangular solid, and sliding organ . Briefly, in sliding organ , we segmented the organ, registered the organ and body volumes separately and combined results. Though s liding organ required manual annotation, it provided the best result as a standard to measure other registration methods. Regularization parameters for standard and mask methods were optimized in a grid search. Evaluations consisted of DICE, and visual scoring of a checkerboard display. Standard had accuracy of 2 voxels in all regions except near the kidney, where there were 5 voxels sliding. After mask and sliding organ correction, kidneys sliding were within 2 voxels, and Dice overlap increased 4%-10% in mask compared to standard . Mask generated comparable results with sliding organ and allowed a semi-automatic process.

  4. Transcatheter tricuspid valve-in-valve in patients with transvalvular device leads. (United States)

    Eleid, Mackram F; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Cabalka, Allison K; Hagler, Donald J; Noseworthy, Peter A; Taggart, Nathaniel W; Rihal, Charanjit S


    To describe the effects of percutaneously implanted valve-in-valve in the tricuspid position for patients with pre-existing transvalvular device leads. In this case series, we describe implantation of the Melody valve and SAPIEN XT valve within dysfunctional bioprosthetic tricuspid valves in three patients with transvalvular device leads. In all cases, the valve was successfully deployed and device lead function remained unchanged. In 1/3 cases with 6-month follow-up, device lead parameters remain unchanged and transcatheter valve-in-valve function remains satisfactory. Transcatheter tricuspid valve-in-valve is feasible in patients with pre-existing transvalvular devices leads. Further study is required to determine the long-term clinical implications of this treatment approach. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of pore fluid chemistry on stable sliding of Berea sandstone (United States)

    Dunning, J. D.; Miller, M. E.


    Single-cycle and multiple-cycle frictional-sliding experiments were employed to evaluate the effects of pore fluid environments on yield strength, frictional-sliding dynamics, and gouge production and morphology. Circular right cylinders cored from Berea sandstone sawcut at 35° to the axes were saturated in water, an inorganic brine, and various anionic, cationic, and nonionic aqueous surface-active agents. Samples were deformed under an effective confining pressure of 50 MPa and an axial strain rate of 6×10-5 sec-1 until a 2% axial strain beyond yield (defined as the onset of sliding) was achieved. All samples were displaced by stable sliding. In the single-cycle tests the unsaturated and water-saturated samples displayed small stress peaks at yield. During stable sliding samples saturated with DTAB and SDS displayed slight increases in differential stress and statistically significant higher frictional coefficients than other environments (including water) but were very similar in behavior to dry, unsaturated samples. In the multiple-cycle tests, samples were loaded to 2% strain beyond yield and unloaded to a differential stress of approximately 5 10 MPa a total of four times. These results further suggest that DTAB exerts a ‘strengthening’ effect on the sandstone relative to water which, to a limiting value, increased with displacement. The DTAB and SDS environments also produced a coarser grain-size distribution in the gouge relative to gouge produced in the other environments. Investigation of the gouge by scanning electron microscope revealed that these larger ‘grains’ were composed of dense, apparently cemented aggregates of ultrafine, platy quartz particles.

  6. Associations between valve repair and reduced operative mortality in 21,056 mitral/tricuspid double valve procedures. (United States)

    Rankin, J Scott; Thourani, Vinod H; Suri, Rakesh M; He, Xia; O'Brien, Sean M; Vassileva, Christina M; Shah, Ashish S; Williams, Matthew


    Repair of either the mitral (M) or tricuspid (T) valve in single valve surgery is associated with reduced operative mortality. It is unclear, however, how valve repair influences mortality in combined MT procedures. This topic was evaluated in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database. From 1993 through 2007, 21 056 patients underwent concomitant MT valve surgery. Group I had M&T replacement (n = 1130), Group II had M repair and T replacement (n = 216), Group III had M replacement and T repair (n = 11 448) and Group IV had both M&T repair (n = 8262). Unadjusted operative mortalities (UOMs) and morbidities of Groups I-IV were assessed, and logistic regression analysis adjusted for differences in baseline patient profiles. Surgical outcomes were expressed as UOMs, and also adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for mortality. Group IV was older with more coronary artery bypass grafting and generally less comorbidity, and Group I had more endocarditis, mitral stenosis and reoperation. UOM values were: Group I = 16.8, Group II = 10.2, Group III = 10.3 and Group IV = 8.0%. In the multivariable model, factors influencing mortality included: age (per 5-year increase, OR = 1.15), renal failure with dialysis (OR = 3.22), emergency status (OR = 3.14), second or more reoperations (OR = 1.92) and later surgical date (OR = 0.63). Both M and T repair were independently associated with lower operative mortalities vs prosthetic valve replacement (OR = 0.83 and 0.60, respectively, P replacement and, when feasible, multiple valve repair should be considered the optimal treatment. Within the limitations of observational analysis, these data support continued efforts to increase M&T repair rates.

  7. Hypersonic sliding target tracking in near space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-yu Zhang


    Full Text Available To improve the tracking accuracy of hypersonic sliding target in near space, the influence of target hypersonic movement on radar detection and tracking is analyzed, and an IMM tracking algorithm is proposed based on radial velocity compensating and cancellation processing of high dynamic biases under the earth centered earth fixed (ECEF coordinate. Based on the analysis of effect of target hypersonic movement, a measurement model is constructed to reduce the filter divergence which is caused by the model mismatch. The high dynamic biases due to the target hypersonic movement are approximately compensated through radial velocity estimation to achieve the hypersonic target tracking at low systematic biases in near space. The high dynamic biases are further eliminated by the cancellation processing of different radars, in which the track association problem can be solved when the dynamic biases are low. An IMM algorithm based on constant acceleration (CA, constant turning (CT and Singer models is used to achieve the hypersonic sliding target tracking in near space. Simulation results show that the target tracking in near space can be achieved more effectively by using the proposed algorithm.

  8. Sliding-spark spectrometry of sediment samples. (United States)

    Angeyo, H; Flórían, K; Golloch, A; Vojtekovà, V


    Direct analysis of non-conducting solids and dielectric surface layers for elements at trace levels has been shown to be feasible by the new so-called sliding-spark spectroscopy, in which a discharge plasma is bound by, and propagates on, the surface of a dielectric sample matrix. By using a river sediment as a model matrix, bound in PVC to improve elemental atomization and excitation efficiency, as a result of the formation of volatile chlorides, the potential of the technique for environmental applications has been investigated by studying the characteristic UV-visible radiation emitted in the wavelength range 210-510 nm for the elements Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Co, V, Ti, and Mn. The radiation was detected by means of a CCD spectrometer and analysed for spectral line identification, selection, and the linearity of the spectral response, to determine whether this was suitable for establishing a calibration strategy for quantitative analysis using the sliding-spark source.

  9. Presentation video retrieval using automatically recovered slide and spoken text (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew


    Video is becoming a prevalent medium for e-learning. Lecture videos contain text information in both the presentation slides and lecturer's speech. This paper examines the relative utility of automatically recovered text from these sources for lecture video retrieval. To extract the visual information, we automatically detect slides within the videos and apply optical character recognition to obtain their text. Automatic speech recognition is used similarly to extract spoken text from the recorded audio. We perform controlled experiments with manually created ground truth for both the slide and spoken text from more than 60 hours of lecture video. We compare the automatically extracted slide and spoken text in terms of accuracy relative to ground truth, overlap with one another, and utility for video retrieval. Results reveal that automatically recovered slide text and spoken text contain different content with varying error profiles. Experiments demonstrate that automatically extracted slide text enables higher precision video retrieval than automatically recovered spoken text.

  10. Preparing glass slides and coverslips for in situ hybridization. (United States)

    Nagy, Andras; Gertsenstein, Marina; Vintersten, Kristina; Behringer, Richard


    INTRODUCTIONPrecleaned glass slides are of high enough quality for both in situ and immunohistochemical techniques. However, for in situ hybridization, the slides need to be treated with diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) so that any RNase attached to them is destroyed. The slides also need to be coated with 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (TESPA) or poly-L-lysine so that the sections adhere tightly and do not detach during subsequent extensive washing procedures. This protocol describes techniques for coating slides with TESPA and poly-L-lysine. There are advantages and disadvantages to each coating method. TESPA-treated slides can be stored for a long time, but the sections do not adhere tightly until after drying. Poly-L-lysine-coated slides need to be made fresh, but the sections adhere immediately on contact with the surface. This protocol also describes how to prepare coverslips for in situ hybrization by coating them in a siliconizing solution.

  11. Slide identification for lecture movies by matching characters and images (United States)

    Ozawa, Noriaki; Takebe, Hiroaki; Katsuyama, Yutaka; Naoi, Satoshi; Yokota, Haruo


    Slide identification is very important when creating e-Learning materials as it detects slides being changed during lecture movies. Simply detecting the change would not be enough for e-Learning purposes. Because, which slide is now displayed in the frame is also important for creating e-Learning materials. A matching technique combined with a presentation file containing answer information is very useful in identifying slides in a movie frame. We propose two methods for slide identification in this paper. The first is character-based, which uses the relationship between the character code and its coordinates. The other is image-based, which uses normalized correlation and dynamic programming. We used actual movies to evaluate the performance of these methods, both independently and in combination, and the experimental results revealed that they are very effective in identifying slides in lecture movies.

  12. 49 CFR 229.109 - Safety valves. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety valves. 229.109 Section 229.109..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.109 Safety valves. Every steam generator shall be equipped with at least two safety valves that have a...

  13. 49 CFR 195.420 - Valve maintenance. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve maintenance. 195.420 Section 195.420 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.420 Valve maintenance. (a) Each operator shall maintain each valve...

  14. Valve-sparing aortic root replacement†

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolbergen, David R.; Manshanden, Johan S. J.; Bouma, Berto J.; Blom, Nico A.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.; Hazekamp, Mark G.


    To evaluate our results of valve-sparing aortic root replacement and associated (multiple) valve repair. From September 2003 to September 2013, 97 patients had valve-sparing aortic root replacement procedures. Patient records and preoperative, postoperative and recent echocardiograms were reviewed.

  15. 46 CFR 64.67 - Shutoff valve. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shutoff valve. 64.67 Section 64.67 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.67 Shutoff valve. A shutoff valve...

  16. Valve Corporation: Strategy Tipping Points and Thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teppo Felin


    Full Text Available Valve Corporation represents an intriguing case study of flat structure and self organization (Puranam & Håkonsson, 2015; Valve, 2012.  The structures and practices of Valve of course are not new. But the company provides an interesting experiment and illustration that powerfully highlights how organizational design can impact individual and collective behavior, strategy and performance.

  17. Solving the problem of valve stem leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.F.


    Engineering solutions to valve stem leakage, in systems carrying expensive heavy water under pressure, have progressed from changing packing brands (failure) to leak collection (partial success) to elimination of small packed valves and an improved valve packing strategy involving stable packing materials, live Belleville spring-loading of packing, and issuance of a detailed stuffing box specification (success). (E.C.B.)

  18. 49 CFR 195.116 - Valves. (United States)


    ... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.116 Valves. Each valve installed in a pipeline system must comply with the following: (a) The valve must be of a sound engineering design. (b) Materials subject to the... at least the requirements set forth in Section 11 of API Standard 6D (incorporated by reference, see...

  19. Tricuspid valve interventions: surgical techniques and outcomes. (United States)

    Starck, Christoph T; Kempfert, Jörg; Falk, Volkmar


    The surgical treatment of isolated and concomitant tricuspid valve disease, especially functional tricuspid valve regurgitation, remains controversial. Functional tricuspid regurgitation may be classified into defined stages, and surgical treatment may be tailored to the extent of the disease. This report describes current surgical techniques for tricuspid valve surgery and their results.

  20. Valve-sparing root replacement in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluin, Jolanda; Koolbergen, David R.; Sojak, Vladimir; Hazekamp, Mark G.


    In children, words of caution have been raised about valve-sparing procedures especially regarding the valve-remodelling technique. This study reviewed our experience with the valve-sparing reimplantation technique in children. All consecutive paediatric ( <18 years) patients who underwent

  1. The Carpentier-Edwards Perimount Magna mitral valve bioprosthesis: intermediate-term efficacy and durability. (United States)

    Loor, Gabriel; Schuster, Andres; Cruz, Vincent; Rafael, Aldo; Stewart, William J; Diaz, James; McCurry, Kenneth


    The Carpentier-Edwards Perimount Magna mitral valve bioprosthesis (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) is a low-profile version of the earlier Perimount valve that uses the ThermaFix process for enhanced calcium removal. The Magna valve has been in use since 2008, yet no publication, until now, has verified its intermediate-term safety and efficacy. From 2008 through 2011 (our 4-year study period), 70 Magna valves were implanted in the mitral position at a single institution (the Cleveland Clinic). Echocardiograms were prospectively interpreted. For this study, we reviewed patients' charts; endpoints included hemodynamic measurements, in-hospital morbidity and mortality, valve-related events, resource utilization, and 5-year survival rates. The mean patient age was 68 years; 43 % of the patients had New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV disease, and 51.4 % had moderately severe, or worse, mitral regurgitation (MR). For 43 % of the patients, the Magna valve implantation was a reoperation. For 83 %, the Magna valve implantation also included a concomitant cardiac procedure. The median survival rate was 4.7 years and 90 % of patients were free from significant structural valve degeneration at 5 years. Preoperative atrial fibrillation, ischemic MR, intraaortic balloon pump placement, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, and renal failure were associated with increased mortality. Right ventricular systolic pressure decreased from 50 mmHg preoperatively to 40 mmHg postoperatively, according to our matched-pair analysis (P = 0.003). Per their final echocardiogram during our study period, 98 % of surviving patients had trivial or no MR, one patient had mild MR, and one patient had severe MR. Our 5-year experience indicates that the Magna valve offers excellent intermediate-term durability and substantial echocardiographic improvement; its low-profile design make it ideal for reoperations and for concomitant cardiac procedures, including valve replacement.

  2. Aortic valve insufficiency in the teenager and young adult: the role of prosthetic valve replacement. (United States)

    Bradley, Scott M


    The contents of this article were presented in the session "Aortic insufficiency in the teenager" at the congenital parallel symposium of the 2013 Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) annual meeting. The accompanying articles detail the approaches of aortic valve repair and the Ross procedure.(1,2) The current article focuses on prosthetic valve replacement. For many young patients requiring aortic valve surgery, either aortic valve repair or a Ross procedure provides a good option. The advantages include avoidance of anticoagulation and potential for growth. In other patients, a prosthetic valve is an appropriate alternative. This article discusses the current state of knowledge regarding mechanical and bioprosthetic valve prostheses and their specific advantages relative to valve repair or a Ross procedure. In current practice, young patients requiring aortic valve surgery frequently undergo valve replacement with a prosthetic valve. In STS adult cardiac database, among patients ≤30 years of age undergoing aortic valve surgery, 34% had placement of a mechanical valve, 51% had placement of a bioprosthetic valve, 9% had aortic valve repair, and 2% had a Ross procedure. In the STS congenital database, among patients 12 to 30 years of age undergoing aortic valve surgery, 21% had placement of a mechanical valve, 18% had placement of a bioprosthetic valve, 30% had aortic valve repair, and 24% had a Ross procedure. In the future, the balance among these options may be altered by design improvements in prosthetic valves, alternatives to warfarin, the development of new patch materials for valve repair, and techniques to avoid Ross autograft failure.

  3. Supra-annular valve strategy for an early degenerated transcatheter balloon-expandable heart valve. (United States)

    Kamioka, Norihiko; Caughron, Hope; Corrigan, Frank; Block, Peter; Babaliaros, Vasilis


    Currently, there are no recommendations regarding the selection of valve type for a transcatheter heart valve (THV)-in-THV procedure. A supra-annular valve design may be superior in that it results in a larger effective orifice area and may have a lower chance of valve thrombosis after THV-in-THV. In this report, we describe the use of a supra-annular valve strategy for an early degenerated THV. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [The Starr-Edwards heart valve: one of the oldest mechanical heart valves still functioning today]. (United States)

    Schoenaker, Michiel H; van Wetten, Herbert B; Morshuis, Wim J


    In the 1960s, the Starr-Edwards valve was the first artificial heart valve to be successfully implanted in humans. This valve has now been in use for decades with outstanding results: patients whose life expectancy had previously been short acquired a good prognosis with this development. Nowadays the Starr-Edwards valve is not used anymore, but patients are being described today in whom these valves are still functioning well after more than 40 years.

  5. Single-source dual-energy CT angiography with reduced iodine load in patients referred for aortoiliofemoral evaluation before transcatheter aortic valve implantation: impact on image quality and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubourg, Benjamin; Caudron, Jerome; Lefebvre, Valentin; Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie, INSERM U1096, Rouen (France); Lestrat, Jean-Pierre [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); Bubenheim, Michael [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Rouen (France); Godin, Matthieu; Tron, Christophe [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Rouen (France); Eltchaninoff, Helene; Bauer, Fabrice [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie, INSERM U1096, Rouen (France)


    To compare image quality and radiation dose of pre-transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) aortoiliofemoral CT angiography (AICTA) provided by standard vs. dual-energy mode with reduced iodine load protocols. One hundred and sixty-one patients underwent a two-step CTA protocol before TAVI including cardiac CTA with injection of 65 mL of iodinated contrast agent (ICA), immediately followed by AICTA. From this second acquisition, the following three different patient groups were identified: Group 1: 52 patients with standard AICTA (60 mL ICA, 100 kVp, mA automodulation); Group 2: 48 patients with dual-energy AICTA with 50 % iodine load reduction (30 mL ICA, fast kVp switching, 600 mA); Group 3: 61 patients with an identical protocol to Group 2, but exposed to 375 mA. The qualitative/subjective image quality (13-point score) and quantitative/objective image quality (contrast attenuation and image noise) were evaluated. The radiation dose was recorded. There was no significant difference in non-diagnostic images between the three protocols. Contrast attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were significantly higher, whereas noise was significantly lower in the standard protocol (all P < 0.05). The radiation dose was lower in the dual-energy protocol at 375 mA (P < 0.05). Dual-energy AICTA before TAVI results in a reduction of iodine load while maintaining sufficient diagnostic information despite increased noise. (orig.)

  6. Adaptive Sliding Mode Observer for a Class of Systems


    D.Elleuch; T.Damak


    In this paper, the performance of two adaptive observers applied to interconnected systems is studied. The nonlinearity of systems can be written in a fractional form. The first adaptive observer is an adaptive sliding mode observer for a Lipchitz nonlinear system and the second one is an adaptive sliding mode observer having a filtered error as a sliding surface. After comparing their performances throughout the inverted pendulum mounted on a car system, it was shown tha...

  7. Sensorless Sliding Mode Vector Control of Induction Motor Drives


    Gouichiche Abdelmadjid; Boucherit Mohamed Seghir; Safa Ahmed; Messlem Youcef


    In this paper we present the design of sliding mode controllers for sensorless field oriented control of induction motor. In order to improve the performance of controllers, the motor speed is controlled by sliding mode regulator with integral sliding surface. The estimated rotor speed used in speed feedback loop is calculated by an adaptive observer based on MRAS (model reference adaptive system) technique .the validity of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by experimental results.

  8. Sequential transcatheter aortic valve implantation due to valve dislodgement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campante Teles, Rui; Costa, Cátia; Almeida, Manuel


    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an important treatment in high surgical risk patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS), whose complications need to be managed promptly. The authors report the case of an 86-year-old woman presenting with severe symptomatic AS, rejected fo...

  9. Workshop on nuclear structure at moderate and high spin: Slide report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The workshop was scheduled to coincide with the beginning of operation of a number of large arrays of Compton-suppressed germanium detectors. The workshop was divided into 14 sessions containing 3 presentations each. The topics of these sessions were superdeformation, heavy rare earths, single-particle configurations, band termination, continuum properties, light rare-earths, new techniques, high temperatures, transfer reactions, transition region, shapes, lifetimes, and moments. This publication consists of the slides used in all of the presentations at the workshop

  10. Second order sliding mode control for a quadrotor UAV. (United States)

    Zheng, En-Hui; Xiong, Jing-Jing; Luo, Ji-Liang


    A method based on second order sliding mode control (2-SMC) is proposed to design controllers for a small quadrotor UAV. For the switching sliding manifold design, the selection of the coefficients of the switching sliding manifold is in general a sophisticated issue because the coefficients are nonlinear. In this work, in order to perform the position and attitude tracking control of the quadrotor perfectly, the dynamical model of the quadrotor is divided into two subsystems, i.e., a fully actuated subsystem and an underactuated subsystem. For the former, a sliding manifold is defined by combining the position and velocity tracking errors of one state variable, i.e., the sliding manifold has two coefficients. For the latter, a sliding manifold is constructed via a linear combination of position and velocity tracking errors of two state variables, i.e., the sliding manifold has four coefficients. In order to further obtain the nonlinear coefficients of the sliding manifold, Hurwitz stability analysis is used to the solving process. In addition, the flight controllers are derived by using Lyapunov theory, which guarantees that all system state trajectories reach and stay on the sliding surfaces. Extensive simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Backstepping sliding mode tracking control of a vane-type air motor X-Y table motion system. (United States)

    Lu, Chia-Hua; Hwang, Yean-Ren; Shen, Yu-Ta


    Air motors are increasingly being used in pneumatic related industries because of their advantages of low operating cost and low maintenance. The DSP controller and the backstepping sliding mode control method were utilized in this study to control an X-Y pneumatic table for tracking trajectory. Due to the effects of the compressibility of air, friction between the motor and ball screw table and the dead-zone effect caused by the proportional valve, the system will yield different responses even with the same inlet pressure and will chatter at low speed. Hence under certain conditions, this method of backstepping sliding mode control can be applied to achieve better results than with the PID controller, such as for tracking circle error and tracking error of the two axes. According to the results, a steady-state error of 0.5 μm can be achieved. The proposed method of backstepping sliding mode control can accomplish accurate tracking circle trajectory performance, offering an improvement in the tracking error of more than 50% over that of the PID controller. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multifunctional four-port directional control valve constructed from logic valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, E.; Czyżycki, W.; Rajda, J.


    Highlights: • Directional valve with standard ISO 440-08 has been constructed from logic valves. • Only one innovative valve may replace whole family of the standard valves. • CFD analysis and bench tests of the innovative valve has been carried. • Parameters of the innovative valve are equaling or surpassing the standard ones. • The innovative valve has additional possibilities of pressure and flow control. - Abstract: The paper refers to four-port solenoid pilot operated valves, which are subplate mounted in a hydraulic system in accordance with the ISO 4401 standard. Their widespread use in many machines and devices causes a continuing interest in the development of their design by both the scientific centers and the industry. This paper presents an innovative directional control valve based on the use of logic valves and a methodology followed for the design of it by using Solid Edge CAD and ANSYS/Fluent CFD software. The valve design methodology takes into account the need to seek solutions that minimize flow resistance through the valve. For this purpose, the flow paths are prepared by means of CAD software and pressure-flow curves are determined as a result of CFD analysis. The obtained curves are compared with the curves available in the catalogs of spool type directional control valves. The new solution allows to replace the whole family of spool type four-port directional control valves by one valve built of logic valves. In addition, the innovative directional control valve provides leak-proof shutting the flow paths off and also it can control flow rate and even pressure of working liquid. A prototype of the valve designed by the presented method has been made and tested on the test bench. The results quoted in the paper confirm that the developed logic type directional control valve is able to meet all designed connection configurations, and the obtained pressure-flow curves show very good conformity with the results of CFD analysis

  13. Valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; Tanner, D.E.


    A valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings is disclosed wherein a valve disc is supported within a flow duct for rotation about a pair of axially aligned bearings, one of which is carried by a spindle received within a diametral bore in the valve disc, and the other of which is carried by a bearing support block releasably mounted on the duct circumferentially of an annular collar on the valve disc coaxial with its diametrical bore. The spindle and bearing support block are adapted for remote removal to facilitate servicing or replacement of the valve disc support bearings

  14. Extending the Performance of Net Shape Molded Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Valves for Use in Internal Combustion Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buckley, Richard T


    .... Previous work has both shown structural and thermal limitations. A net-shape resin transfer molded intake valve has been developed, using a single-piece carbon fiber preform and the high temperature polymer PETI-RFI...

  15. Endothelial progenitor cells as a sole source for ex vivo seeding of tissue-engineered heart valves. (United States)

    Sales, Virna L; Mettler, Bret A; Engelmayr, George C; Aikawa, Elena; Bischoff, Joyce; Martin, David P; Exarhopoulos, Alexis; Moses, Marsha A; Schoen, Frederick J; Sacks, Michael S; Mayer, John E


    We investigated whether circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can be used as a cell source for the creation of a tissue-engineered heart valve (TEHV). Trileaflet valved conduits were fabricated using nonwoven polyglycolic acid/poly-4-hydroxybutyrate polymer. Ovine peripheral blood EPCs were dynamically seeded onto a valved conduit and incubated for 7, 14, and 21 days. Before seeding, EPCs were shown to express CD31(+), eNOS(+), and VE-Cadherin(+) but not alpha-smooth muscle actin. Histological analysis demonstrated relatively homogenous cellular ingrowth throughout the valved conduit. TEHV constructs revealed the presence of endothelial cell (EC) markers and alpha-smooth muscle actin(+) cells comparable with native valves. Protein levels were comparable with native valves and exceeded those in unseeded controls. EPC-TEHV demonstrated a temporal pattern of matrix metalloproteinases-2/9 expression and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase activities comparable to that of native valves. Mechanical properties of EPC-TEHV demonstrated significantly greater stiffness than that of the unseeded scaffolds and native valves. Circulating EPC appears to have the potential to provide both interstitial and endothelial functions and could potentially serve as a single-cell source for construction of autologous heart valves.

  16. Long-term results of mechanical and biological heart valves in dialysis and non-dialysis patients. (United States)

    Böning, A; Boedeker, R H; Rosendahl, U P; Niemann, B; Haberer, S; Roth, P; Ennker, J A C


    We wanted to answer the question whether biological heart valves are inferior compared to mechanical heart valves in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Between 01/1996 und 12/2006, 44 of 3293 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) in a single institution suffered from dialysis-dependent ESRD and underwent a follow-up investigation after 1.9 years (median). Twelve (28.9 %) of these patients received a biological, 32 (71.1 %) of these patients a mechanical aortic valve prosthesis. To evaluate a possible influence of the valve type (biological/mechanical) on survival, uni- and multivariate logistic regression was used. ESRD patients after AVR had a relatively poor short-term (30-day mortality: 22.7 %) and long-term survival (median survival time: 24.7 months; 95 % CI: 0.2-47.7 months), irrespective of the type of heart valve prosthesis (hazard ratio for mortality depending on heart valve type in dialysis patients: 1.31, P = 0.400). Dialysis-dependent patients were not reoperated due to valve-related reasons. The long-term survival of dialysis-dependent patients after AVR is low (5-year survival: 29.5 %) irrespective of the type of heart valve prosthesis. Therefore, the use of biological AVR is not contraindicated in this group of patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Echocardiography of congenital mitral valve disorders: echocardiographic-morphological comparisons. (United States)

    Silverman, Norman H


    I surveyed our echocardiographic database of the years between 1998 and 2012 for congenital abnormalities of the mitral valve in patients over 14 years. A total of 249 patients with mitral valve abnormalities were identified. Abnormalities included clefts in the mitral valve in 58 patients, double orifice of the mitral valve in 19, mitral stenosis with two papillary muscles in 72, and mitral stenosis with one papillary muscle in 51 patients. Supravalvar rings were found in 35 patients with a single papillary muscle, and mitral stenoses with two papillary muscles were found in 22 patients. Mitral prolapse occurred in 44 patients and mitral valvar straddle in five patients. The patients were evaluated by all modalities of ultrasound available over the course of time. Although some lesions were isolated, there were many lesions in which more than one mitral deformity presented in the same patient. The patients are presented showing anatomical correlation with autopsy specimens, some of which came from the patients in this series, and others matched to show correlative anatomy. These lesions remain rare as a group and continue to have high morbidity and mortality.

  18. Use of Main Loop Isolating Valves (GZZS) in WWER 440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, A.E.; Gencheva, R.V.; Groudev, P.P.


    This paper discusses the usage of Main Loop Isolation Valves in case of Steam Generator Tube Rupture accident in WWER440/V230. A double-ended single pipe break in SG-6 was chosen as representative. In the paper are investigated two cases. In the first one the operator isolates the affected loop by Main Loop Isolation Valves closing and after primary depressurization re-opens them to cooldown the damaged Steam Generator. The second case treats the situation, where Main Loop Isolation Valves fail to close with the necessary operator actions for managing plant recovery. RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code has been used to simulate the Steam Generator Tube Rupture accident in WWER440 NPP model. This model was developed and validated at Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The results of analyses presented in this report demonstrate that in the both cases (with or without Main Loop Isolation Valves usage) the operator could bring the plant to stable and safety conditions (Authors)

  19. Isolated tricuspid valve infective endocarditis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 7, 1990 ... Case 2. Initial chest radiograph showing rounded shadows with cavitation. Fig. 2. Case 2. Chest radiograph showing progression to effusion. nuc/eacum was Isolated from repeated blood cultures. Two- dimensional echocardiography revealed vegetations on the tricuspid valve (Fig. 3). The patient was now ...

  20. Isolated tricuspid valve infective endocarditis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 7, 1990 ... A report of 6 cases. D. P. NAIDOO,. I. P. NAICKER,. S. NAICKER, S. VYTHYLlNGUM,. M. A. K. OMAR, A. S. MITHA. F. HASSEN,. Summary. Six cases of isolated tricuspid valve endocarditis in young women are described. Preceding ... friction rub, became hypotensive and died. At autopsy vegetations were ...

  1. Valve device for handling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, Hugh; Webster, A.W.


    A valve device employs a flexibly deformable sleeve mounted in a support body and encircled by a ring which is rotatable about a diametral axis so that it can be turned into a position in which it pinches the sleeve at spaced positions along the length of the sleeve and thereby cuts off flow of material through the sleeve. (author)

  2. Hemodynamics driven cardiac valve morphogenesis. (United States)

    Steed, Emily; Boselli, Francesco; Vermot, Julien


    Mechanical forces are instrumental to cardiovascular development and physiology. The heart beats approximately 2.6 billion times in a human lifetime and heart valves ensure that these contractions result in an efficient, unidirectional flow of the blood. Composed of endocardial cells (EdCs) and extracellular matrix (ECM), cardiac valves are among the most mechanically challenged structures of the body both during and after their development. Understanding how hemodynamic forces modulate cardiovascular function and morphogenesis is key to unraveling the relationship between normal and pathological cardiovascular development and physiology. Most valve diseases have their origins in embryogenesis, either as signs of abnormal developmental processes or the aberrant re-expression of fetal gene programs normally quiescent in adulthood. Here we review recent discoveries in the mechanobiology of cardiac valve development and introduce the latest technologies being developed in the zebrafish, including live cell imaging and optical technologies, as well as modeling approaches that are currently transforming this field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Influence of normal loads and sliding velocities on friction properties of engineering plastics sliding against rough counterfaces (United States)

    Nuruzzaman, D. M.; Chowdhury, M. A.; Rahaman, M. L.; Oumer, A. N.


    Friction properties of plastic materials are very important under dry sliding contact conditions for bearing applications. In the present research, friction properties of engineering plastics such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and nylon are investigated under dry sliding contact conditions. In the experiments, PTFE and nylon slide against different rough counterfaces such as mild steel and stainless steel 316 (SS 316). Frictional tests are carried out at low loads 5, 7.5 and 10 N, low sliding velocities 0.5, 0.75 and 1 m/s and relative humidity 70%. The obtained results reveal that friction coefficient of PTFE increases with the increase in normal loads and sliding velocities within the observed range. On the other hand, frictional values of nylon decrease with the increase in normal loads and sliding velocities. It is observed that in general, these polymers show higher frictional values when sliding against SS 316 rather than mild steel. During running-in process, friction coefficient of PTFE and nylon steadily increases with the increase in rubbing time and after certain duration of rubbing, it remains at steady level. At identical operating conditions, the frictional values are significantly different depending on normal load, sliding velocity and material pair. It is also observed that in general, the influence of normal load on the friction properties of PTFE and nylon is greater than that of sliding velocity.

  4. A detailed fluid mechanics study of tilting disk mechanical heart valve closure and the implications to blood damage. (United States)

    Manning, Keefe B; Herbertson, Luke H; Fontaine, Arnold A; Deutsch, Steven


    Hemolysis and thrombosis are among the most detrimental effects associated with mechanical heart valves. The strength and structure of the flows generated by the closure of mechanical heart valves can be correlated with the extent of blood damage. In this in vitro study, a tilting disk mechanical heart valve has been modified to measure the flow created within the valve housing during the closing phase. This is the first study to focus on the region just upstream of the mitral valve occluder during this part of the cardiac cycle, where cavitation is known to occur and blood damage is most severe. Closure of the tilting disk valve was studied in a "single shot" chamber driven by a pneumatic pump. Laser Doppler velocimetry was used to measure all three velocity components over a 30 ms period encompassing the initial valve impact and rebound. An acrylic window placed in the housing enabled us to make flow measurements as close as 200 microm away from the closed occluder. Velocity profiles reveal the development of an atrial vortex on the major orifice side of the valve shed off the tip of the leaflet. The vortex strength makes this region susceptible to cavitation. Mean and maximum axial velocities as high as 7 ms and 20 ms were recorded, respectively. At closure, peak wall shear rates of 80,000 s(-1) were calculated close to the valve tip. The region of the flow examined here has been identified as a likely location of hemolysis and thrombosis in tilting disk valves. The results of this first comprehensive study measuring the flow within the housing of a tilting disk valve may be helpful in minimizing the extent of blood damage through the combined efforts of experimental and computational fluid dynamics to improve mechanical heart valve designs.

  5. Governmental exposure connected to possible slide scale execution for future field developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerstad, Heidi; Sunnevaag, Kjell


    In the allotment of exploitation permits the governmental and Statoil parts have in the beginning been 50 % in all. This usually is divided in 30 % to the government and 20 % to Statoil. The slide scale system gives the government the right to increase the propriety share in a development project in connection with approval of the development plans. It is also possible in some permits to use the slide scale at a later date. The slide scale system was abolished for new permits in connection with the state budget discussions in 1993. The practice of giving Statoil and SDOE a share of at least 50 % was also eased. At the allotment time the uncertainty of the resource potential and the economy in the development project was considerable. However the companies have expectations for the location potentials. On this bases they made their allotment applications for exploitation permits. The application also contained an offer for a slide scale. In connection with the allotments the companies and the authorities also negotiated for the slice scale design and level. When the final propriety composition was to be established the slide scale offers were important criterias. The background for the slide scale system is the wish of the authorities to involve a larger part of the basic interest in large findings. The slide scale is an attempt from the authorities to make the system progressive with respect to reserve size. This progressiveness is difficult to obtain by aid of the taxation system because the companies are the objects not the fields. In order to establish a portfolio of possible developments where the slide scale option is present we have used data rom Wood Mackenzie from March 1993. The fields which are used as well as the contribution to the government by the use of a slide scale for the single field in increased present value is shown. The yearly alterations in governmental income are shown for use of the slide scale system for all the fields in the portfolio as

  6. Valve for closing a steam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.; Potrykus, G.


    Instead of several control elements, the quick-closing valve, especially in the main-steam line between steam generator and turbine of a power station has the valve cone itself as the only movable part, acting with its inner surface as a piston within a second cylinder space. The valve shaft is at the same time a piston rod with a stepped piston at the upper end. This piston is loaded in a cylinder at the upspace below the valve cover on one hand by a spring, on the other hand by its own medium. Two non-return valves, one of it in a bore of the valve cone, connect the first-mentioned cylinder space with the steam-loaded inlet resp. outlet side of the valve. For controlling the valve, a magnet valve is sufficient. By automatic control of the valve cone coupled with several pistons several control lines can be omitted. There are also no pressurized control lines outside the valve which could be damaged by exterior influences. (ERA) [de

  7. Mechanical and surgical bioprosthetic valve thrombosis. (United States)

    Lim, Wei Yao; Lloyd, Guy; Bhattacharyya, Sanjeev


    Valve thrombosis can occur in mechanical prosthetic valves and is increasingly recognised in transcatheter and surgically implanted bioprosthetic valves. The risk of thrombosis of mechanical valves is higher in the mitral position compared with aortic position and in older generation valves (ball and cage valves). There is a wide spectrum of presentation from the asymptomatic patient to those with embolic complications or cardiogenic shock. A combination of transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography is required to assess the haemodynamic effect of thrombosis (valve gradients and area), leaflet motion and thrombus size. CT or cinefluoroscopy may be useful in selected cases to assess leaflet motion or help identify the aetiology of valve obstruction where echocardiography is inconclusive. Exclusion of pannus or vegetation is important. Management of non-obstructive thrombus is primarily optimisation of anti-coagulation. Treatment of obstructive thrombus requires a decision between slow, low-dose fibrinolysis or valve surgery. Factors which need to be considered include thrombus size, New York Heart Association Class, presence of concomitant coronary artery disease or other valve dysfunction, surgical risk and contraindication to fibrinolysis. This review examines the incidence, aetiology, clinical features, imaging algorithms and management of prosthetic valve thrombosis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Mechanical versus bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement. (United States)

    Head, Stuart J; Çelik, Mevlüt; Kappetein, A Pieter


    Mechanical valves used for aortic valve replacement (AVR) continue to be associated with bleeding risks because of anticoagulation therapy, while bioprosthetic valves are at risk of structural valve deterioration requiring reoperation. This risk/benefit ratio of mechanical and bioprosthetic valves has led American and European guidelines on valvular heart disease to be consistent in recommending the use of mechanical prostheses in patients younger than 60 years of age. Despite these recommendations, the use of bioprosthetic valves has significantly increased over the last decades in all age groups. A systematic review of manuscripts applying propensity-matching or multivariable analysis to compare the usage of mechanical vs. bioprosthetic valves found either similar outcomes between the two types of valves or favourable outcomes with mechanical prostheses, particularly in younger patients. The risk/benefit ratio and choice of valves will be impacted by developments in valve designs, anticoagulation therapy, reducing the required international normalized ratio, and transcatheter and minimally invasive procedures. However, there is currently no evidence to support lowering the age threshold for implanting a bioprosthesis. Physicians in the Heart Team and patients should be cautious in pursuing more bioprosthetic valve use until its benefit is clearly proven in middle-aged patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email:

  9. [Tricuspid valve regurgitation : Indications and operative techniques]. (United States)

    Lange, R; Piazza, N; Günther, T


    Functional tricuspid valve (TV) regurgitation secondary to left heart disease (e.g. mitral insufficiency and stenosis) is observed in 75% of the patients with TV regurgitation and is thus the most common etiology; therefore, the majority of patients who require TV surgery, undergo concomitant mitral and/or aortic valve surgery. Uncorrected moderate and severe TV regurgitation may persist or even worsen after mitral valve surgery, leading to progressive heart failure and death. Patients with moderate to severe TV regurgitation show a 3-year survival rate of 40%. Surgery is indicated in patients with severe TV regurgitation undergoing left-sided valve surgery and in patients with severe isolated primary regurgitation without severe right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. For patients requiring mitral valve surgery, tricuspid valve annuloplasty should be considered even in the absence of significant regurgitation, when severe annular dilatation (≥40 mm or >21 mm/m 2 ) is present. Functional TV regurgitation is primarily treated with valve reconstruction which carries a lower perioperative risk than valve replacement. Valve replacement is rarely required. Tricuspid valve repair with ring annuloplasty is associated with better survival and a lower reoperation rate than suture annuloplasty. Long-term results are not available. The severity of the heart insufficiency and comorbidities (e.g. renal failure and liver dysfunction) are the essential determinants of operative mortality and long-term survival. Tricuspid valve reoperations are rarely necessary and associated with a considerable mortality.

  10. Intraluminal valves: development, function and disease (United States)

    Geng, Xin; Cha, Boksik; Mahamud, Md. Riaj


    ABSTRACT The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, which function in parallel to provide nutrients and remove waste from the body. Vascular function depends on valves, which regulate unidirectional fluid flow against gravitational and pressure gradients. Severe valve disorders can cause mortality and some are associated with severe morbidity. Although cardiac valve defects can be treated by valve replacement surgery, no treatment is currently available for valve disorders of the veins and lymphatics. Thus, a better understanding of valves, their development and the progression of valve disease is warranted. In the past decade, molecules that are important for vascular function in humans have been identified, with mouse studies also providing new insights into valve formation and function. Intriguing similarities have recently emerged between the different types of valves concerning their molecular identity, architecture and development. Shear stress generated by fluid flow has also been shown to regulate endothelial cell identity in valves. Here, we review our current understanding of valve development with an emphasis on its mechanobiology and significance to human health, and highlight unanswered questions and translational opportunities. PMID:29125824

  11. Screening and dotting virtual slides: A new challenge for cytotechnologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid E Khalbuss


    Full Text Available Digital images are increasingly being used in cytopathology. Whole-slide imaging (WSI is a digital imaging modality that uses computerized technology to scan and convert entire cytology glass slides into digital images that can be viewed on a digital display using the image viewer software. Digital image acquisition of cytology glass slides has improved significantly over the years due to the use of liquid-based preparations and advances in WSI scanning technology such as automatic multipoint pre-scan focus technology or z-stack scanning technology. Screening cytotechnologists are responsible for every cell that is present on an imaged slide. One of the challenges users have to overcome is to establish a technique to review systematically the entire imaged slide and to dot selected abnormal or significant findings. The scope of this article is to review the current user interface technology available for virtual slide navigation when screening digital slides in cytology. WSI scanner vendors provide tools, built into the image viewer software that allow for a more systematic navigation of the virtual slides, such as auto-panning, keyboard-controlled slide navigation and track map. Annotation tools can improve communication between the screener and the final reviewer or can be used for education. The tracking functionality allows recording of the WSI navigation process and provides a mechanism for confirmation of slide coverage by the screening cytotechnologist as well as a useful tool for quality assurance. As the WSI technology matures, additional features and tools to support navigation of a cytology virtual slide are anticipated.

  12. Robust Sliding Mode Control for Tokamaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Garrido


    Full Text Available Nuclear fusion has arisen as an alternative energy to avoid carbon dioxide emissions, being the tokamak a promising nuclear fusion reactor that uses a magnetic field to confine plasma in the shape of a torus. However, different kinds of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities may affect tokamak plasma equilibrium, causing severe reduction of particle confinement and leading to plasma disruptions. In this sense, numerous efforts and resources have been devoted to seeking solutions for the different plasma control problems so as to avoid energy confinement time decrements in these devices. In particular, since the growth rate of the vertical instability increases with the internal inductance, lowering the internal inductance is a fundamental issue to address for the elongated plasmas employed within the advanced tokamaks currently under development. In this sense, this paper introduces a lumped parameter numerical model of the tokamak in order to design a novel robust sliding mode controller for the internal inductance using the transformer primary coil as actuator.

  13. Sliding through a superlight granular medium. (United States)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F; Ruiz-Suárez, J C


    We explore the penetration dynamics of an intruder in a granular medium composed of expanded polystyrene spherical particles. Three features distinguish our experiment from others studied so far in granular physics: (a) the impact is horizontal, decoupling the effects of gravity and the drag force; (b) the density of the intruder rho(i) is up to 350 times larger than the density of the granular medium rho(m); and (c) the way the intruder moves through the material, sliding at the bottom of the column with small friction. Under these conditions we find that the final penetration D scales with (rho(i)/rho(m)) and the drag force Fd and D saturate with the height of the granular bed.

  14. 23. Blois meeting 2011- Slides and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grannis, P.; LeCompte, T.J.; Godbole, R.; Silk, J.; Glover, N.; Verzocchi, M.; Punzi, G.; Maltoni, F.; Narain, M.; Golutvin, A.; Swanson, E.; Iijima, T.; Loizides, C.; Salgado, C.; Oz, Y.; Buchmueller, O.; Pomarol, A.; Taffard, A.; Myers, S.; Lisi, E.; Lindner, M.; Pascoli, S.; Lunardini, C.; Terning, J.; Horava, P.; Gomez, C.; Oberlack, U.; Gunion, J.; Patanchon, G.; Kowalski, M.; Binetruy, P.; Rezzolla, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Montaruli, T.; Sigl, G.; Lykken, J.; Tsybychev, D.; Blanc, F.; Yusa, Yosuke; Oakes, L.; Deschamps, O.; Kolomensky, Y.; Etzion, E.; Espagnon, B.; Niebuhr, C.; Grebenyuk, J.; Blessing, S.; Saoulidou, L.; Bifani, S.; Benhabib, L.; Piskunova, O.; Santel, D.; Fulsom, B.; Zhong, Bin; Tian, Haolai; Fantechi, R.; Daskalakis, G.; Marrouche, J.; Ubiali, M.; Petroff, P.; Bernhard, R.; Kuehn, S.; Aharrouche, M.; Jorda Lope, C.; Sorin, V.; Venturi, N.; Zaro, M.; Desai, Satish; Yu, Geum Bong; Elmsheuser, J.; Botta, C.; Couderc, F.; Rauch, M.; Lister, A.; Saleem, M.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Takeuchi, M.; Soustruznik, K.; Rao, Kanishka; Moreau, G.; Janicsko, J.; Garrido, X.; Mueller, T.; Mehdiyev, R.; Zimmerman, E.; Li, T.; Raselli, G.L.; Bellerive, A.; Manecki, S.M.; Studenikin, A.; Lamblin, J.; Censier, B.; Cooley, J.; Moulin, E.; Baldini, L.; Carmona-Benitez, C.; Tytgat, M.; Faldowski, A.; Rao, Soumya; Serra, J.; Neiman, Y.; Novikov, V.; De Aquino, P.; Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; Canonica, L.; Cattaneo, P.; Gruenendahl, S.; Widl, E.E.; Cote, D.; Falkowski, A.; Torre, R.; Vidal, M.; De Guio, F.; Cuhadar, Donszelmann; Colin, P.; Komin, Nukri; Palioselitis, D.; Baret, B.; Toscano, S.; Roth, M.; Deligny, O.; Guy, Julien; Chotard, N.; Rapetti, D.; Lychkovskiy, O.; Staggs, S.; Wehus, I.C.


    This conference on 'Particle Physics and Cosmology' will emphasize the increasing interplay between high energy accelerator based physics and cosmology. The meeting will be articulated around the results and their impact on current theories from the 3 major new experimental and observational facilities which are coming on line or have recently been commissioned: the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the Planck satellite, and the Herschel satellite. The topics will include: -) the Standard Model in particle physics, in new data and analyses, -) the search for the Higgs boson, -) theories of and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model, -) heavy flavour physics, -) neutrino physics (astrophysical and laboratory), -) dark matter, dark energy and recent advances in cosmology. This document gathers the program, the slides and some abstracts of the presentations

  15. The Temperature Dependence of Macroscopic Sliding Friction (United States)

    Burton, J. C.; Taborek, P.; Rutledge, J. E.


    We present measurements of the static and kinetic coefficients of friction of gold-plated copper on gold-plated copper and sapphire on sapphire as a function of temperature from 10K to 400K. The measurements were done by sliding a block down a controllable incline plane and using high-speed video to extract the acceleration. The large size of our optical cryostat allowed linear motion of 7.5 cm over which to measure the acceleration. Surfaces were baked under high vacuum at 400K, and data was taken as they cooled. Preliminary results indicate that the coefficient of friction for gold plated copper surfaces change by 10 percent from room temperature to 10K.

  16. Mitral Valve Repair: The Chordae Tendineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos-A Mestres


    Full Text Available Repair of the mitral valve is the treatment of choice for mitral valve regurgitation when the anatomy is favorable. It is well known that mitral valve repair enjoys better clinical and functional results than any other type of valve substitute. This fact is beyond doubt regardless of the etiology of the valve lesion and is of particular importance in degenerative diseases.This review analyzes the most important advances in the knowledge of the anatomy, pathophysiology, and chordal function of the mitral valve as well as the different alternatives in the surgical repair and clinical results of the most prevalent diseases of the mitral valve. An attempt has been made to organize the acquired information available in a practical way.

  17. Shape of the dilated aorta in children with bicuspid aortic valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mart, Christopher R; McNerny, Bryn E


    The dilated aorta in adults with bicuspid aortic valve has been shown to have different shapes, but it is not known if this occurs in children. This observational study was performed to determine if there are different shapes of the dilated aorta in children with bicuspid aortic valve and their association with age, gender, hemodynamic alterations, and degree of aortic enlargement. One hundred and eighty-seven echocardiograms done on pediatric patients (0 – 18 years) for bicuspid aortic valve, during 2008, were reviewed. Aortic valve morphology, shape/size of the aorta, and pertinent hemodynamic alterations were documented. Aortic dilation was felt to be present when at least one aortic segment had a z-score > 2.0; global aortic enlargement was determined by summing the aortic segment z-scores. The aortic shape was assessed by age, gender, valve morphology, and hemodynamic alterations. Aortic dilation was present in 104/187 patients. The aorta had six different shapes designated from S1 through S6. There was no association between the aortic shape and gender, aortic valve morphology, or hemodynamic abnormalities. S3 was the most common after the age of six years and was associated with the most significant degree of global aortic enlargement. The shape of the dilated aorta in children with bicuspid aortic valve does not occur in a uniform manner and multiple shapes are seen. S2 and S3 are most commonly seen. As aortic dilation becomes more significant, a single shape (S3) becomes the dominant pattern

  18. Transient analysis for a system with a tilted disc check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeung, Jaesik; Lee, Kyukwang; Cho, Daegwan


    Check valves are used to prevent reverse flow conditions in a variety of systems in nuclear power plants. When a check valve is closed by a reverse flow, the transient load can jeopardize the structural integrity on the piping system and its supports. It may also damage intended function of the in-line components even though the severity of the load differs and depends strongly on types of the check valves. To incorporate the transient load in the piping system, it is very important to properly predict the system response to transients such as a check valve closure accompanied by pump trip and to evaluate the system transient. The one-dimensional transient simulation codes such as the RELAP5/MOD3.3 and TRACE were used. There has not been a single model that integrates the two codes to handle the behavior of a tilted disc check valve, which is designed to mitigate check valve slams by shorting the travel of the disc. In this paper a model is presented to predict the dynamic motion of a tilted disc check valve in the transient simulation using the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code and the model is incorporated in a system transient analysis using control variables of the code. In addition, transient analysis for Essential Service Water (ESW) system is performed using the proposed model and the associated load is evaluated for the system. (author)

  19. Transcatheter aortic valve prosthesis surgically replaced 4 months after implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyregod, Hans Gustav; Lund, Jens Teglgaard; Engstrøm, Thomas


    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a new and rapidly evolving treatment option for high-risk surgical patients with degenerative aortic valve stenosis. Long-term results with these new valve prostheses are lacking, and potential valve dysfunction and failure would require valve replacemen....... We report the first case of surgical valve replacement in a patient with a dysfunctional transcatheter-implanted aortic valve prosthesis 4 months after implantation....

  20. How to Make a Heart Valve: From Embryonic Development to Bioengineering of Living Valve Substitutes (United States)

    MacGrogan, Donal; Luxán, Guillermo; Driessen-Mol, Anita; Bouten, Carlijn; Baaijens, Frank; de la Pompa, José Luis


    Cardiac valve disease is a significant cause of ill health and death worldwide, and valve replacement remains one of the most common cardiac interventions in high-income economies. Despite major advances in surgical treatment, long-term therapy remains inadequate because none of the current valve substitutes have the potential for remodeling, regeneration, and growth of native structures. Valve development is coordinated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways and environmental cues that cause disease when perturbed. Cardiac valves develop from endocardial cushions that become populated by valve precursor mesenchyme formed by an epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). The mesenchymal precursors, subsequently, undergo directed growth, characterized by cellular compartmentalization and layering of a structured extracellular matrix (ECM). Knowledge gained from research into the development of cardiac valves is driving exploration into valve biomechanics and tissue engineering directed at creating novel valve substitutes endowed with native form and function. PMID:25368013

  1. A new self-made digital slide scanner and microscope for imaging and quantification of fluorescent microspheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, William; Bjerglund Andersen, Julie; Højgaard, Liselotte


    Objective: A low-cost microscope slide scanner was constructed for the purpose of digital imaging of newborn piglet brain tissue and to quantify fluorescent microspheres in tissue. Methods: Using a standard digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera, fluorescent imaging of newborn piglet brain tiss...

  2. Robust spatiotemporal matching of electronic slides to presentation videos. (United States)

    Fan, Quanfu; Barnard, Kobus; Amir, Arnon; Efrat, Alon


    We describe a robust and efficient method for automatically matching and time-aligning electronic slides to videos of corresponding presentations. Matching electronic slides to videos provides new methods for indexing, searching, and browsing videos in distance-learning applications. However, robust automatic matching is challenging due to varied frame composition, slide distortion, camera movement, low-quality video capture, and arbitrary slides sequence. Our fully automatic approach combines image-based matching of slide to video frames with a temporal model for slide changes and camera events. To address these challenges, we begin by extracting scale-invariant feature-transformation (SIFT) keypoints from both slides and video frames, and matching them subject to a consistent projective transformation (homography) by using random sample consensus (RANSAC). We use the initial set of matches to construct a background model and a binary classifier for separating video frames showing slides from those without. We then introduce a new matching scheme for exploiting less distinctive SIFT keypoints that enables us to tackle more difficult images. Finally, we improve upon the matching based on visual information by using estimated matching probabilities as part of a hidden Markov model (HMM) that integrates temporal information and detected camera operations. Detailed quantitative experiments characterize each part of our approach and demonstrate an average accuracy of over 95% in 13 presentation videos.

  3. A Simple Measurement of the Sliding Friction Coefficient (United States)

    Gratton, Luigi M.; Defrancesco, Silvia


    We present a simple computer-aided experiment for investigating Coulomb's law of sliding friction in a classroom. It provides a way of testing the possible dependence of the friction coefficient on various parameters, such as types of materials, normal force, apparent area of contact and sliding velocity.

  4. Optimizing Student Learning: Examining the Use of Presentation Slides (United States)

    Strauss, Judy; Corrigan, Hope; Hofacker, Charles F.


    Sensory overload and split attention result in reduced learning when instructors read slides with bullet points and complex graphs during a lecture. Conversely, slides containing relevant visual elements, when accompanied by instructor narration, use both the visual and verbal channels of a student's working memory, thus improving the chances of…

  5. Focusing in on the Slide: Its Practical Applications (United States)

    Runte, Roseann


    Slides can be used in the foreign language classroom as a free conversation stimulus, for vocabulary building and grammar exercises as well as in composition, culture, and literature. No more than ten slides should be used. Students should participate fully, not merely listen to the teacher's monologue. (CFM)

  6. The Easy Way to Create Computer Slide Shows. (United States)

    Anderson, Mary Alice


    Discusses techniques for creating computer slide shows. Topics include memory; format; color use; HyperCard and CD-ROM; font styles and sizes; graphs and graphics; the slide show option; special effects; and tips for effective presentation. (Author/AEF)

  7. Computer Slide Shows: A Trap for Bad Teaching (United States)

    Klemm, W. R.


    Slide shows presented with software such as PowerPoint or WordPerfect Presentations can trap instructors into bad teaching practices. Research on memory suggests that slide-show instruction can actually be less effective than traditional lecturing when the teacher uses a blackboard or overhead projector. The author proposes a model of classroom…

  8. Model-free adaptive sliding mode controller design for generalized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L M WANG


    Aug 16, 2017 ... A novel model-free adaptive sliding mode strategy is proposed for a generalized projective synchronization (GPS) ... the neural network theory, a model-free adaptive sliding mode controller is designed to guarantee asymptotic stability of the generalized ..... following optimization parameters are needed: ⎧.

  9. A modified sliding spectral method and its application to COSMIC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the moist lower troposphere, a limitation of the sliding spectral (SS) method is the restriction of the resolution of bending angle profiles because of the atmospheric multipath effect and noise. A modified sliding spectral (MSS) method is proposed in this paper to improve the inversion resolution of SS method in the moist ...

  10. Determining the Ecosystem Services Important for Urban Landscapes-Slides (United States)

    This presentation consists of introductory slides on ecosystem services in urban landscapes and then a discussion of two case studies concerning the provision of water quality in urban landscapes. The introductory slides will explore the range of ecosystem services provided by u...

  11. Sliding behaviors of elastic cylindrical tanks under seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, N.


    There is a paper that reports on the occurrence of sliding in several oil tanks on Alaskan earthquake of 1964. This incident appears to be in need of further investigation for the following reasons: First, in usual seismic designing of cylindrical tanks ('tanks'), sliding is considered to occur when the lateral inertial force exceeds the static friction force. When the tank in question can be taken as a rigid body, this rule is known to hold true. If the tank is capable of undergoing a considerable amount of elastic deformation, however, its applicability has not been proved. Second, although several studies have been done on the critical conditions for static sliding the present author is unaware of like ones made on the dynamic sliding, except for the pioneering work of Sogabe, in which they have empirically indicated possibility of sliding to occur under the force of sloshing. Third, this author has shown earlier on that tanks, if not anchored properly, will start rocking, inducing uplifting of the base plate, even at a relatively small seismic acceleration of 10 gal or so. The present study has been conducted with these observations for the background. Namely, based on a notion that elastic deformation given rise to by rocking oscillation should be incorporated as an important factor in any set of critical conditions for the onset of sliding, a series of shaking table experiments were performed for rigid steel block to represent the rigid tanks ('rigid model') and a model tank having a same sort of plate thickness-to-diameter ratio as industrial tanks to represent the elastic cylindrical tanks ('elastic model'). Following observations have been obtained for the critical condition of the onset of sliding: (1) sliding of rigid tanks will occur when the lateral force given rise to by oscillation exceeds the static, or the Coulombic, friction force. (2) if vertical oscillation is imposed on the lateral oscillation, the lateral force needed to induce sliding of a

  12. Terminal Sliding Mode Tracking Controller Design for Automatic Guided Vehicle (United States)

    Chen, Hongbin


    Based on sliding mode variable structure control theory, the path tracking problem of automatic guided vehicle is studied, proposed a controller design method based on the terminal sliding mode. First of all, through analyzing the characteristics of the automatic guided vehicle movement, the kinematics model is presented. Then to improve the traditional expression of terminal sliding mode, design a nonlinear sliding mode which the convergence speed is faster than the former, verified by theoretical analysis, the design of sliding mode is steady and fast convergence in the limited time. Finally combining Lyapunov method to design the tracking control law of automatic guided vehicle, the controller can make the automatic guided vehicle track the desired trajectory in the global sense as well as in finite time. The simulation results verify the correctness and effectiveness of the control law.

  13. Sliding inguinal hernia is a risk factor for recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Bisgaard, Thue; Rosenberg, Jacob


    PURPOSE: A sliding inguinal hernia is defined as a hernia where part of the hernial sac wall is formed by an organ, e.g., the colon or bladder. Thus, repair of a sliding inguinal hernia may have higher risk of complications and recurrence compared with non-sliding inguinal hernia. The aim......: In total, 70,091 primary hernia repairs were included for analysis. The occurrence of sliding inguinal hernias of the total group of included hernia repairs was 9.4 % among males and 2.9 % among females (p ... compared with non-sliding inguinal hernias (6.0 versus 4.2 %, log-rank p = 0.001). A Cox regression model was fitted and showed that the type of repair affected the risk for reoperation for recurrence; hazard ratio (95 % confidence interval): open non-mesh: reference, Lichtenstein 0.43 (0.39-0.48), other...

  14. Teaching Veterinary Histopathology: A Comparison of Microscopy and Digital Slides. (United States)

    Brown, Peter J; Fews, Debra; Bell, Nick J


    Virtual microscopy using digitized slides has become more widespread in teaching in recent years. There have been no direct comparisons of the use of virtual microscopy and the use of microscopes and glass slides. Third-year veterinary students from two different schools completed a simple objective test, covering aspects of histology and histopathology, before and after a practical class covering relevant material presented as either glass slides viewed with a microscope or as digital slides. There was an overall improvement in performance by students at both veterinary schools using both practical formats. Neither format was consistently better than the other, and neither school consistently outperformed the other. In a comparison of student appraisal of use of digital slides and microscopes, the digital technology was identified as having many advantages.

  15. Sliding Spotlight Mode Imaging with GF-3 Spaceborne SAR Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjun Zhang


    Full Text Available Synthetic aperture radar (SAR sliding spotlight work mode can achieve high resolutions and wide swath (HRWS simultaneously by steering the radar antenna beam. This paper aims to obtain well focused images using sliding spotlight mode with the Chinese Gaofen-3 SAR sensor. We proposed an integrated imaging scheme with sliding spotlight echoes. In the imaging scheme, the two-step approach is applied to the spaceborne sliding spotlight SAR imaging algorithm, followed by the Doppler parameter estimation algorithm. The azimuth spectral folding phenomenon is overcome by the two-step approach. The results demonstrate a high Doppler parameter estimation accuracy. The proposed imaging process is accurate and highly efficient for sliding spotlight SAR mode.

  16. Sliding mode control the delta-sigma modulation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sira-Ramírez, Hebertt


    This monograph presents a novel method of sliding mode control for switch-regulated nonlinear systems. The Delta Sigma modulation approach allows one to implement a continuous control scheme using one or multiple, independent switches, thus effectively merging the available linear and nonlinear controller design techniques with sliding mode control.   Sliding Mode Control: The Delta-Sigma Modulation Approach, combines rigorous mathematical derivation of the unique features of Sliding Mode Control and Delta-Sigma modulation with numerous illustrative examples from diverse areas of engineering. In addition, engineering case studies demonstrate the applicability of the technique and the ease with which one can implement the exposed results. This book will appeal to researchers in control engineering and can be used as graduate-level textbook for a first course on sliding mode control.

  17. Controllable sliding bearings and controllable lubrication principles-an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar F.


    Hydrodynamic and aerodynamic lubrication regimes in their controllable forms have been intensively investigated over the last two decades. With the aim of reducing friction and improving thermal, static, and dynamic characteristics of radial sliding bearings, different types of electro-mechanical...... about advantages and drawbacks of the different design solutions for controllable sliding bearings and the main challenges to be overcome towards industrial applications.......Hydrodynamic and aerodynamic lubrication regimes in their controllable forms have been intensively investigated over the last two decades. With the aim of reducing friction and improving thermal, static, and dynamic characteristics of radial sliding bearings, different types of electro....... In this framework, this paper gives one main original contribution to the state-of-the-art of radial sliding bearings and controllable lubrication: a comprehensive overview about the different types of controllable sliding bearings and principles used by several authors. The paper ends with some conclusive remarks...

  18. Advances in sliding mode control concept, theory and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Janardhanan, S; Spurgeon, Sarah


    The sliding mode control paradigm has become a mature technique for the design of robust controllers for a wide class of systems including nonlinear, uncertain and time-delayed systems. This book is a collection of plenary and invited talks delivered at the 12th IEEE International Workshop on Variable Structure System held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, India in January 2012. After the workshop, these researchers were invited to develop book chapters for this edited collection in order to reflect the latest results and open research questions in the area. The contributed chapters have been organized by the editors to reflect the various themes of sliding mode control which are the current areas of theoretical research and applications focus; namely articulation of the fundamental underpinning theory of the sliding mode design paradigm, sliding modes for decentralized system representations, control of time-delay systems, the higher order sliding mode concept, results applicable to nonlinear an...

  19. Static and dynamic friction in sliding colloidal monolayers. (United States)

    Vanossi, Andrea; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio


    In a pioneer experiment, Bohlein et al. realized the controlled sliding of two-dimensional colloidal crystals over laser-generated periodic or quasi-periodic potentials. Here we present realistic simulations and arguments that besides reproducing the main experimentally observed features give a first theoretical demonstration of the potential impact of colloid sliding in nanotribology. The free motion of solitons and antisolitons in the sliding of hard incommensurate crystals is contrasted with the soliton-antisoliton pair nucleation at the large static friction threshold F(s) when the two lattices are commensurate and pinned. The frictional work directly extracted from particles' velocities can be analyzed as a function of classic tribological parameters, including speed, spacing, and amplitude of the periodic potential (representing, respectively, the mismatch of the sliding interface and the corrugation, or "load"). These and other features suggestive of further experiments and insights promote colloid sliding to a unique friction study instrument.

  20. Automated valve fault detection based on acoustic emission parameters and support vector machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah M. Ali


    Full Text Available Reciprocating compressors are one of the most used types of compressors with wide applications in industry. The most common failure in reciprocating compressors is always related to the valves. Therefore, a reliable condition monitoring method is required to avoid the unplanned shutdown in this category of machines. Acoustic emission (AE technique is one of the effective recent methods in the field of valve condition monitoring. However, a major challenge is related to the analysis of AE signal which perhaps only depends on the experience and knowledge of technicians. This paper proposes automated fault detection method using support vector machine (SVM and AE parameters in an attempt to reduce human intervention in the process. Experiments were conducted on a single stage reciprocating air compressor by combining healthy and faulty valve conditions to acquire the AE signals. Valve functioning was identified through AE waveform analysis. SVM faults detection model was subsequently devised and validated based on training and testing samples respectively. The results demonstrated automatic valve fault detection model with accuracy exceeding 98%. It is believed that valve faults can be detected efficiently without human intervention by employing the proposed model for a single stage reciprocating compressor. Keywords: Condition monitoring, Faults detection, Signal analysis, Acoustic emission, Support vector machine