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Sample records for single skinned muscle

  1. Discrepancies between Skinned Single Muscle Fibres and Whole Thigh Muscle Function Characteristics in Young and Elderly Human Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunseok Jee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to analyse the mechanical properties of skinned single muscle fibres derived from the vastus lateralis (VL muscle in relation to those of the whole intact thigh muscle and to compare any difference between young and older adults. Sixteen young men (29.25±4.65 years, 11 older men (71.45±2.94 years, 11 young women (29.64±4.88 years, and 7 older women (67.29±1.70 years were recruited. In vivo analyses were performed for mechanical properties such as isokinetic performance, isometric torque, and power. Specific force and maximum shortening velocity (Vo were measured with single muscle fibres. Sex difference showed greater impact on the functional properties of both the whole muscle (p<0.01 and single muscle fibres than aging (p<0.05. Sex difference, rather than aging, yielded more remarkable differences in gross mechanical properties in the single muscle fibre study in which significant differences between young men and young women were found only in the cross-sectional area and Vo (p<0.05. Age and sex differences reflect the mechanical properties of both single muscle fibres and whole thigh muscle, with the whole muscle yielding more prominent functional properties.

  2. Discrepancies between Skinned Single Muscle Fibres and Whole Thigh Muscle Function Characteristics in Young and Elderly Human Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Hyunseok Jee; Jae-Young Lim

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to analyse the mechanical properties of skinned single muscle fibres derived from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle in relation to those of the whole intact thigh muscle and to compare any difference between young and older adults. Sixteen young men (29.25 ? 4.65 years), 11 older men (71.45 ? 2.94 years), 11 young women (29.64 ? 4.88 years), and 7 older women (67.29 ? 1.70 years) were recruited. In vivo analyses were performed for mechanical properties such as isokinetic performance, ...

  3. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures on quiet single-limb balance and electromyographic activation onset of lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Emmanuel S; Nikolopoulos, Christos; Badekas, Athanasios; Vagenas, George; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Athanasopoulos, Spyros

    2007-09-12

    Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures on quiet single limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG) activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Thirty three male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured under three ankle brace conditions: i) without brace, ii) with brace and 30 kPa application pressure and iii) with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter) was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris) activation onset. The results showed that overall balance (total stability parameter) was not significantly affected in any of the three ankle brace conditions. However, the anteroposterior centre of pressure excursion and centre of pressure excursion velocity were significantly increased with the application of ankle brace, both with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures. Furthermore, it was found that single limb balance was significantly worse with closed eyes compared to open eyes. EMG measurements showed that the sequence of lower limb activation onset was not affected in any of the three ankle brace application conditions. The results of this study showed that the application of an ankle brace with two different skin-brace interface pressures had no effect on overall single limb balance and the sequence of lower limb muscle activation. These findings suggest that peripheral joint receptors are either not adequately stimulated by the brace application and therefore are not able to

  4. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures on quiet single-limb balance and electromyographic activation onset of lower limb muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadakis Stamatios A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures on quiet single limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Methods Thirty three male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured under three ankle brace conditions: i without brace, ii with brace and 30 kPa application pressure and iii with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris activation onset. Results The results showed that overall balance (total stability parameter was not significantly affected in any of the three ankle brace conditions. However, the anteroposterior centre of pressure excursion and centre of pressure excursion velocity were significantly increased with the application of ankle brace, both with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures. Furthermore, it was found that single limb balance was significantly worse with closed eyes compared to open eyes. EMG measurements showed that the sequence of lower limb activation onset was not affected in any of the three ankle brace application conditions. The results of this study showed that the application of an ankle brace with two different skin-brace interface pressures had no effect on overall single limb balance and the sequence of lower limb muscle activation. Conclusion These findings suggest that peripheral joint receptors are either not adequately

  5. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures with and without shoes on single-limb balance, electromyographic activation onset and peroneal reaction time of lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, E S; Nikolopoulos, C S; Athanasopoulos, S

    2008-12-01

    Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures, with and without shoes, on quiet single-limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG) activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Twelve male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured with and without shoes under three ankle brace conditions: (i) without brace, (ii) with brace and 30 kilopascals (kPa) application pressure and (iii) with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single-limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter) was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris) activation onset. Peroneus longus reaction time was also measured by provoking a sudden subtalar inversion stress test using a trap-door. The results showed that the application of athletic footwear resulted in a significant difference between the condition with shoes and without shoes, with a significantly increased anteroposterior sway and sway velocity, in all three ankle brace application conditions with shoes (F=50.9, d.f.=1, plower limb muscles. Lastly, ankle brace application with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures, with and without athletic footwear, led to a significant delay in the peroneus longus reaction time (F=9.71, d.f.=2, plimb balance, and peroneal reaction time. The application of athletic footwear, further adversely affects these parameters significantly. Further research is needed in this area with more dynamic and functional measurements, before the safe use of ankle bracing can be widely recommended.

  6. Shoulder skin and muscle hemodynamics during backpack carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Clifford P; Macias, Brandon R; Hargens, Alan R

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of loaded backpacks on shoulder muscle oxygenation, skin blood flow, and pain. We hypothesized that backpack load carriage is associated with lower shoulder muscle oxygenation and skin microvascular flow. Near-infrared spectroscopy quantified shoulder tissue oxygenation and laser Doppler flow measured skin microvascular flow. Eight adult volunteers donned a standard backpack without added load, 5 kg load, and 10 kg load for 5 min while standing. An 8 min rest period before each backpack donning condition ensured that all measured parameters returned to baseline. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA and significance set at p shoulder muscle oxygenation by 22 ± 23% as compared to the empty backpack control condition (p = 0.023). In addition, a 10 kg backpack load reduced skin microvascular flow by 82 ± 22%, as compared to the empty backpack control condition (p = 0.024). Perceived pain was significantly higher when wearing the 10 kg backpack (level 4 on a 10-maximal pain scale) as compared to the empty backpack (0, 0-no pain) (p shoulder muscle oxygenation and skin microvascular flow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuropeptide Y and neurovascular control in skeletal muscle and skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Gary J.; Jackson, Dwayne N.; Mattar, Louis; Johnson, John M.; Shoemaker, J. Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a ubiquitous peptide with multiple effects on energy metabolism, reproduction, neurogenesis, and emotion. In addition, NPY is an important sympathetic neurotransmitter involved in neurovascular regulation. Although early studies suggested that the vasoactive effects of NPY were limited to periods of high stress, there is growing evidence for the involvement of NPY on baseline vasomotor tone and sympathetically evoked vasoconstriction in vivo in both skeletal muscle and the cutaneous circulation. In Sprague-Dawley rat skeletal muscle, Y1-receptor activation appears to play an important role in the regulation of basal vascular conductance, and this effect is similar in magnitude to the α1-receptor contribution. Furthermore, under baseline conditions, agonist and receptor-based mechanisms for Y1-receptor-dependent control of vascular conductance in skeletal muscle are greater in male than female rats. In skin, there is Y1-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction during whole body, but not local, cooling. As with the NPY system in muscle, this neural effect in skin differs between males and females and in addition, declines with aging. Intriguingly, skin vasodilation to local heating also requires NPY and is currently thought to be acting via a nitric oxide pathway. These studies are establishing further interest in the role of NPY as an important vasoactive agent in muscle and skin, adding to the complexity of neurovascular regulation in these tissues. In this review, we focus on the role of NPY on baseline vasomotor tone in skeletal muscle and skin and how NPY modulates vasomotor tone in response to stress, with the aim of compiling what is currently known, while highlighting some of the more pertinent questions yet to be answered. PMID:19571208

  8. [A woman with skin abnormalities and muscle weakness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steggink, L.C.; Hettema, M.E.; Delsing, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with progressive proximal muscle weakness and a symmetric skin rash. Physical examination demonstrated a heliotrope rash, Gottron lesions, mechanic's hands and symmetrical erythema of the face, neck and upper legs. The diagnosis

  9. Using skin temperature and muscle thickness to assess muscle response to strength training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Borba Neves

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Several studies already reported the response of many biomarkers after strength training, but studies using low cost diagnostic imaging tools are rare.Objective:To evaluate the usage of skin temperature and muscle thickness (MT to monitor muscle response (until 96 hours after to high-intensity strength training.Methods:This is a short-term longitudinal study with 13 trained, healthy male volunteers. Volunteers performed five sets of biceps bi-set exercise with their dominant arm with dumbbells, with load of 70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM. The ultrasound (US and thermal images were acquired before and immediately after the last set, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after exercise.Results:The analysis was divided in two stages: acute muscle response (until 24 hours after training and delayed muscle response (from 24 to 96 hours after training. The elbow flexors thickness showed the peak value immediately after the last set of training. Skin temperature (on elbow flexors and the elbow flexors thickness grew continuously from 24 to 96 hours after strength training. There is a high correlation (r=0.941, p=0.017 between skin temperature and muscle thickness from the end of exercise until 96 hours after strength training.Conclusions:The US images showed high sensibility for muscle physiological changes on the first 24 hours after exercise. On the other hand, the thermal images had higher sensibility for muscle physiological changes than US images from 24 to 96 hours after training.

  10. Muscle force compensation among synergistic muscles after fatigue of a single muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzig, Norman; Siebert, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine control strategies among synergistic muscles after fatigue of a single muscle. It was hypothesized that the compensating mechanism is specific for each fatigued muscle. The soleus (SOL), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and medialis (GM) were fatigued in separate sessions on different days. In each experiment, subjects (n = 11) performed maximal voluntary contractions prior to and after fatiguing a single muscle (SOL, GL or GM) while the voluntary muscle activity and torque were measured. Additionally, the maximal single twitch torque of the plantarflexors and the maximal spinal reflex activity (H-reflex) of the SOL, GL and GM were determined. Fatigue was evoked using neuromuscular stimulation. Following fatigue the single twitch torque decreased by -20.1%, -19.5%, and -23.0% when the SOL, GL, or GM, have been fatigued. The maximal voluntary torque did not decrease in any session but the synergistic voluntary muscle activity increased significantly. Moreover, we found no alterations in spinal reflex activity. It is concluded that synergistic muscles compensate each other. Furthermore, it seems that self-compensating mechanism of the fatigued muscles occurred additionally. The force compensation does not depend on the function of the fatigued muscle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Multi-layer robot skin with embedded sensors and muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Ankit; Tadesse, Yonas

    2016-04-01

    Soft artificial skin with embedded sensors and actuators is proposed for a crosscutting study of cognitive science on a facial expressive humanoid platform. This paper focuses on artificial muscles suitable for humanoid robots and prosthetic devices for safe human-robot interactions. Novel composite artificial skin consisting of sensors and twisted polymer actuators is proposed. The artificial skin is conformable to intricate geometries and includes protective layers, sensor layers, and actuation layers. Fluidic channels are included in the elastomeric skin to inject fluids in order to control actuator response time. The skin can be used to develop facially expressive humanoid robots or other soft robots. The humanoid robot can be used by computer scientists and other behavioral science personnel to test various algorithms, and to understand and develop more perfect humanoid robots with facial expression capability. The small-scale humanoid robots can also assist ongoing therapeutic treatment research with autistic children. The multilayer skin can be used for many soft robots enabling them to detect both temperature and pressure, while actuating the entire structure.

  12. Structured Light Scanning of Skin, Muscle and Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilm, Jakob; Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; Aanæs, Henrik

    of error that various encoding strategies show, and propose an error correcting model, which can bring down the measurement bias considerably. Samples of raw and unprocessed pig tissue were used with the number of sampled surface points Nmeat = 1.2 * 106, Nskin = 4.0 * 106 and Nfat = 2.1 * 106 from 8......We investigate the quality of structured light 3D scanning on pig skin, muscle and fat. These particular materials are interesting in a number of industrial and medical use-cases, and somewhat challenging because they exhibit subsurface light scattering. Our goal therefor is to quantify the amount...

  13. The effect of icepack cooling on skin and muscle temperature at rest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of icepack cooling on skin and muscle temperature at rest and after exercise. M Mars, B Hadebe, M Tufts. Abstract. Objective. To compare cooling of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle, produced by an icepack, at rest and after short-duration exhaustive exercise. Methods. Eight male subjects were studied. With the ...

  14. Volume-pressure relationship (compliance) of interstitium in dog skin and muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, H; Reed, R K

    1987-08-01

    The relationship between changes in interstitial fluid volume (IFV) and pressure (IFP) during over- and dehydration was estimated in hindlimb skin and skeletal muscle of 17 dogs. IFV was measured as the extravascular distribution volume of 51Cr-EDTA after nephrectomy and IFP with micropipettes, wick-in-needle technique (WIN), and perforated capsules. Control IFP (micropipettes) averaged -1.7 +/- 0.5 (n = 17) and 0.0 +/- 1.0 mmHg (SD; n = 17) in skin and muscle, respectively, not different from corresponding WIN and capsule pressures in subcutis. Control IFV was 0.93 +/- 0.34 (n = 17) and 0.42 +/- 0.11 ml/g dry wt (SD; n = 17) in skin and muscle, respectively. Peritoneal dialysis with 20% glucose reduced IFV by 27% in skin and by 44% in muscle, whereas micropipette IFP fell gradually by approximately 4 mmHg in skin and muscle. Compliance during dehydration was 7.6 and 12.5% change in IFV per millimeter Hg fall in IFP (micropipettes) in skin and muscle, respectively, whereas compliance in subcutis based on perforated capsule pressure was 2.0% change in IFV per millimeter Hg. The maximal increase in IFP during overhydration was approximately 2 mmHg in both skin and muscle. Skin and muscle compliance in dogs did not differ significantly from that of rats and cats. We conclude that the difference in compliance among previous studies mainly results from different methods for IFP measurement but is probably also influenced by the state of hydration before altering IFV.

  15. Volume-pressure relationship (compliance) of interstitium in dog skin and muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiig, H.; Reed, R.K. (Univ. of Bergen (Norway))

    1987-08-01

    The relationship between changes in interstitial fluid volume (IFV) and pressure (IFP) during over- and dehydration was estimated in hindlimb skin and skeletal muscle of 17 dogs. IFV was measured as the extravascular distribution volume of {sup 51}Cr-EDTA after nephrectomy and IFP with micropipettes, wick-in-needle technique (WIN), and perforated capsules. Control IFP (micropipettes) averaged {minus}1.7 {plus minus} 0.5 and 0.0 {plus minus} 1.0 mmHg in skin and muscle, respectively, not different from corresponding WIN and capsule pressures in subcutis. Control IFV was 0.93 {plus minus} 0.34 and 0.42 {plus minus} 0.11 ml/g dry wt in skin and muscle, respectively. Peritoneal dialysis with 20% glucose reduced IFV by 27% in skin and by 44% in muscle, whereas micropipette IFP fell gradually by {approximately} 4 mmHg in skin and muscle. Compliance during dehydration was 7.6 and 12.5% change in IFV per millimeter Hg fall in IFP (micropipettes) in skin and muscle, respectively, whereas compliance in subcutis based on perforated capsule pressure was 2.0% change in IFV per millimeter Hg. The maximal increase in IFP during overhydration was {approximately}2 mmHg in both skin and muscle. Skin and muscle compliance in dogs did not differ significantly from that of rats and cats. The authors conclude that the difference in compliance among previous studies mainly results from different methods for IFP measurement but is probably also influenced by the state of hydration before altering IFV.

  16. Single Muscle Fiber Proteomics Reveals Fiber-Type-Specific Features of Human Muscle Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Murgia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a key tissue in human aging, which affects different muscle fiber types unequally. We developed a highly sensitive single muscle fiber proteomics workflow to study human aging and show that the senescence of slow and fast muscle fibers is characterized by diverging metabolic and protein quality control adaptations. Whereas mitochondrial content declines with aging in both fiber types, glycolysis and glycogen metabolism are upregulated in slow but downregulated in fast muscle fibers. Aging mitochondria decrease expression of the redox enzyme monoamine oxidase A. Slow fibers upregulate a subset of actin and myosin chaperones, whereas an opposite change happens in fast fibers. These changes in metabolism and sarcomere quality control may be related to the ability of slow, but not fast, muscle fibers to maintain their mass during aging. We conclude that single muscle fiber analysis by proteomics can elucidate pathophysiology in a sub-type-specific manner.

  17. Deriving muscle fiber diameter from recorded single fiber potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate muscle fiber diameters through analysis of single muscle fiber potentials (SFPs) recorded in the frontalis muscle of a healthy subject. Our previously developed analytical and graphic method to derive fiber diameter from the analysis of the negative peak duration and the amplitude of SFP, was applied to a sample of ten SFPs recorded in vivo. Muscle fiber diameters derived from the simulation method for the sample of frontalis muscle SFPs are consistent with anatomical data for this muscle. The results confirm the utility of proposed simulation method. Outlying data could be considered as the result of a contribution of other fibers to the potential recorded using an SFEMG electrode. Our graphic tool provides a rapid estimation of muscle fiber diameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthetic smooth muscle in the outer blood plexus of the rhinarium skin of Lemur catta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elofsson, Rolf; Kröger, Ronald H H

    2017-01-01

    The skin of the lemur nose tip (rhinarium) has arterioles in the outer vascular plexus that are endowed with an unusual coat of smooth muscle cells. Comparison with the arterioles of the same area in a number of unrelated mammalians shows that the lemur pattern is unique. The vascular smooth muscle cells belong to the synthetic type. The function of synthetic smooth muscles around the terminal vessels in the lemur rhinarium is unclear but may have additional functions beyond regulation of vessel diameter.

  19. Titin force enhancement following active stretch of skinned skeletal muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Krysta; Joumaa, Venus; Jinha, Azim; Moo, Eng Kuan; Smith, Ian Curtis; Nishikawa, Kiisa; Herzog, Walter

    2017-09-01

    In actively stretched skeletal muscle sarcomeres, titin-based force is enhanced, increasing the stiffness of active sarcomeres. Titin force enhancement in sarcomeres is vastly reduced in mdm , a genetic mutation with a deletion in titin. Whether loss of titin force enhancement is associated with compensatory mechanisms at higher structural levels of organization, such as single fibres or entire muscles, is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether mechanical deficiencies in titin force enhancement are also observed at the fibre level, and whether mechanisms compensate for the loss of titin force enhancement. Single skinned fibres from control and mutant mice were stretched actively and passively beyond filament overlap to observe titin-based force. Mutant fibres generated lower contractile stress (force divided by cross-sectional area) than control fibres. Titin force enhancement was observed in control fibres stretched beyond filament overlap, but was overshadowed in mutant fibres by an abundance of collagen and high variability in mechanics. However, titin force enhancement could be measured in all control fibres and most mutant fibres following short stretches, accounting for ∼25% of the total stress following active stretch. Our results show that the partial loss of titin force enhancement in myofibrils is not preserved in all mutant fibres and this mutation likely affects fibres differentially within a muscle. An increase in collagen helps to reestablish total force at long sarcomere lengths with the loss in titin force enhancement in some mutant fibres, increasing the overall strength of mutant fibres. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Coupling of albumin flux to volume flow in skin and muscles of anesthetized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renkin, E.M.; Gustafson-Sgro, M.; Sibley, L.

    1988-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) labeled with 131 I or 125 I was injected intravenously in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized rats, and tracer clearances into leg skin and muscles were measured over 30, 60, and 120 min. BSA labeled with the alternate tracer was used as vascular volume reference. Two minutes before injection of the tracer, a ligature was tied around one femoral vein to occlude outflow partially and raise capillary pressure in that leg. The unoccluded leg served as control. Skin and muscles of the occluded leg had variably and substantially higher water contents (delta W) than paired control tissues and slightly but consistently increased albumin clearances (CA). The delta CA/delta W, equivalent to the albumin concentration of capillary filtrate relative to plasma determined by linear regression, were as follows: leg skin 0.004 (95% confidence limits -0.001 to +0.009), muscle biceps femoris 0.005 (0.001-0.010), muscle gastrocnemius 0.011 (0.004-0.019), muscle tibialis anterior 0.016 (0.012-0.021). All these values are significantly less than 0.10, which corresponds to a reflection coefficient for serum albumin (sigma A) of 0.90. Convective coupling of albumin flux to volume flux in skin and muscles of intact, anesthetized rats is low, with sigma AS in the range 0.98 to greater than 0.99

  1. Camphor induces cold and warm sensations with increases in skin and muscle blood flow in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaka, Tomohiko; Kimura, Shoji; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto; Iwamoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Application of camphor to the skin has been empirically thought to improve blood circulation. However, camphor's effects on blood circulation to the skin and on thermal sensation have not been well elucidated. In this study, we examined its effects on the quality of sensation as well as on skin and muscle blood flow in human. Nine adults (average age 37±9.4 years) participated in the study. Petroleum jelly containing 5%, 10%, 20% camphor, or 2% menthol was separately applied to the skin on the medial side of one forearm of each subject. Just after the application, camphor at each concentration induced a cold sensation in a dose-dependent manner. Within 10 min, each subject reported that the cold sensation had faded, after which it was replaced by a warm sensation. As reported previously, a cold sensation was induced by application of 2% menthol, but the subjects did not adapt to that sensation. In addition, menthol did not induce a warm sensation at all. Application of menthol has been shown to increase blood flow in the skin. Finally, we measured blood flow in skin and muscle after the application of camphor or menthol. Application of camphor or menthol separately induced increases in local blood flow in the skin and muscle. The present results indicate that camphor induces both cold and warm sensations and improves blood circulation.

  2. Regeneration of the skin and muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following mechanical injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    Mechanical injury induced by needles penetrating the skin and underlying muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was used as a model to study the initial phase(s) of tissue regeneration. Tissue regeneration in humans is characterised by four phases; hemostatis, inflammation, prolifer......Mechanical injury induced by needles penetrating the skin and underlying muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was used as a model to study the initial phase(s) of tissue regeneration. Tissue regeneration in humans is characterised by four phases; hemostatis, inflammation...

  3. Structural design and analysis of morphing skin embedded with pneumatic muscle fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yijin; Yin, Weilong; Leng, Jinsong; Liu, Yanju

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of morphing skin embedded with pneumatic muscle fibers is proposed from the bionics perspective. The elastic modulus of the designed pneumatic muscle fibers is experimentally determined and their output force is tested with internal air pressure varying from 0 to 0.4 MPa. The experimental results show that the contraction ratio of the pneumatic muscle fibers using the given material could reach up to 26.8%. Isothermal tensile tests are conducted on the fabricated morphing skin, and the results are compared with theoretical predictions based on the rule of mixture. When the strain is lower than 3% and in its linear-elastic range, the rule of mixture is proved to possess satisfying accuracy in the prediction of the elastic modulus of the morphing skin. Subsequently, the output force of the morphing skin is tested. It is revealed that when the volume ratio of the pneumatic muscle fibers is 0.228, the contraction ratio can reach up to 17.8%, which is satisfactory for meeting the camber requirement of morphing skin with maximum strain level below 2%. Finally, stress-bearing capability tests of the morphing skin on local uniformly distributed loads are conducted, and the test results show that the transverse stiffness of the morphing skin can be regulated by changing the internal air pressure. Under a uniformly distributed load of 540 Pa, the designed morphing skin is capable of varying by more than two orders of magnitude in the transverse stiffness by changing the internal air pressure

  4. Structural design and analysis of morphing skin embedded with pneumatic muscle fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yijin; Yin, Weilong; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, a kind of morphing skin embedded with pneumatic muscle fibers is proposed from the bionics perspective. The elastic modulus of the designed pneumatic muscle fibers is experimentally determined and their output force is tested with internal air pressure varying from 0 to 0.4 MPa. The experimental results show that the contraction ratio of the pneumatic muscle fibers using the given material could reach up to 26.8%. Isothermal tensile tests are conducted on the fabricated morphing skin, and the results are compared with theoretical predictions based on the rule of mixture. When the strain is lower than 3% and in its linear-elastic range, the rule of mixture is proved to possess satisfying accuracy in the prediction of the elastic modulus of the morphing skin. Subsequently, the output force of the morphing skin is tested. It is revealed that when the volume ratio of the pneumatic muscle fibers is 0.228, the contraction ratio can reach up to 17.8%, which is satisfactory for meeting the camber requirement of morphing skin with maximum strain level below 2%. Finally, stress-bearing capability tests of the morphing skin on local uniformly distributed loads are conducted, and the test results show that the transverse stiffness of the morphing skin can be regulated by changing the internal air pressure. Under a uniformly distributed load of 540 Pa, the designed morphing skin is capable of varying by more than two orders of magnitude in the transverse stiffness by changing the internal air pressure.

  5. MRI diagnosis of muscle denervation from herpes zoster with discordant distribution of the skin rash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Amit; Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Winalski, Carl S. [Cleveland Clinic, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Herpes zoster is a common disorder characterized by a painful rash along a dermatome caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV). Muscle denervation injury from motor involvement is an uncommon phenomenon. Discordant distribution of the skin rash and motor nerve involvement, presenting as a skin rash in one body part and muscle weakness or pain from nerve involvement in another body part is an even more uncommonly reported finding. We present an unusual case of muscle denervation injury resulting from motor involvement of a peripheral nerve by VZV diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging with cutaneous manifestations in a different dermatomal distribution. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no similar case reported in the English radiology literature. We suggest that whenever a radiologist notices MRI findings suggesting denervation injury and a cause not readily identified, VZV-related denervation injury should be included in the differential diagnosis, especially in an older immunocompromised patient. (orig.)

  6. Mitochondrial specialization revealed by single muscle fiber proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiaffino, S; Reggiani, C; Kostrominova, T Y

    2015-01-01

    that in skeletal muscle, IDH2 functions in the forward direction of the Krebs cycle and that substrate flux along the cycle occurs predominantly via IDH2 in type 1 fibers and via IDH3 in 2X and 2B fibers. IDH2-mediated conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate leads to the generation of NADPH, which is critical......We have developed a highly sensitive mass spectrometry-based proteomic workflow to examine the proteome of single muscle fibers. This study revealed significant differences in the mitochondrial proteome of the four major fiber types present in mouse skeletal muscle. Here, we focus on Krebs cycle...... enzymes and in particular on the differential distribution of the two mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenases, IDH2 and IDH3. Type 1/slow fibers contain high levels of IDH2 and relatively low levels of IDH3, whereas fast 2X and 2B fibers show an opposite expression pattern. The findings suggest...

  7. Enhancement of Force Generated by Individual Myosin Heads in Skinned Rabbit Psoas Muscle Fibers at Low Ionic Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Sugi, Haruo; Abe, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Takakazu; Chaen, Shigeru; Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Saeki, Yasutake; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence has been presented that, at low ionic strength, myosin heads in relaxed skeletal muscle fibers form linkages with actin filaments, the effect of low ionic strength on contraction characteristics of Ca(2+)-activated muscle fibers has not yet been studied in detail. To give information about the mechanism of muscle contraction, we have examined the effect of low ionic strength on the mechanical properties and the contraction characteristics of skinned rabbit psoas muscle fiber...

  8. Relaxing action of adrenergic β2-agonists on guinea-pig skinned tracheal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Nemoto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Although adrenergic β2-agonist-induced smooth muscle relaxation has been attributed to increased intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP, a relaxation response has been observed at low β2-agonist concentrations that do not cause increased cAMP To elucidate the mechanism of tracheal muscle relaxation induced by low concentrations of β2-agonists, we used a guinea-pig skinned tracheal smooth muscle preparation to examine the effects on the contractile protein system. The isotonic contraction of β-escin-treated skinned tracheal muscle from guinea-pig was measured. When the intracellular Ca2+ concentration was maintained at 1 μmol/L in the presence of guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP; 100 μmol/L, neither isoproterenol (10nmol/L nor salbutamol (60 nmol/L affected Ca2+ sensitivity, but a significant decrease in Ca2+ sensitivity was observed in the presence of okadaic acid (1 μmol/L. The decrease in Ca2+ sensitivity was a slow response and was blocked by pretreatment with propranolol (1 μmol/L. Forskolin (1 μmol/L did not affect Ca2+ sensitivity. These results suggest that adrenergic b 2-agonists may activate protein phosphatase through an unknown pathway involving the β2-receptor, which enhances dephosphorylation of the myosin light chain and/or thin filament proteins, resulting in relaxation of the tracheal smooth muscle.

  9. Measuring mitochondrial respiration in intact single muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Rosemary A; Jackson, Kathryn C; Khairallah, Ramzi J; Ward, Christopher W; Spangenburg, Espen E

    2012-03-15

    Measurement of mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle is a vital tool for understanding regulation of cellular bioenergetics. Currently, a number of different experimental approaches are employed to quantify mitochondrial function, with each involving either mechanically or chemically induced disruption of cellular membranes. Here, we describe a novel approach that allows for the quantification of substrate-induced mitochondria-driven oxygen consumption in intact single skeletal muscle fibers isolated from adult mice. Specifically, we isolated intact muscle fibers from the flexor digitorum brevis muscle and placed the fibers in culture conditions overnight. We then quantified oxygen consumption rates using a highly sensitive microplate format. Peak oxygen consumption rates were significantly increased by 3.4-fold and 2.9-fold by simultaneous stimulation with the uncoupling agent, carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP), and/or pyruvate or palmitate exposure, respectively. However, when calculating the total oxygen consumed over the entire treatment, palmitate exposure resulted in significantly more oxygen consumption compared with pyruvate. Further, as proof of principle for the procedure, we isolated fibers from the mdx mouse model, which has known mitochondrial deficits. We found significant reductions in initial and peak oxygen consumption of 51% and 61% compared with fibers isolated from the wild-type (WT) animals, respectively. In addition, we determined that fibers isolated from mdx mice exhibited less total oxygen consumption in response to the FCCP + pyruvate stimulation compared with the WT mice. This novel approach allows the user to make mitochondria-specific measures in a nondisrupted muscle fiber that has been isolated from a whole muscle.

  10. Power output of skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Timothy G; Toepfer, Christopher N; Woledge, Roger C; Curtin, Nancy A; Rowlerson, Anthea; Kalakoutis, Michaeljohn; Hudson, Penny; Wilson, Alan M

    2013-08-01

    Muscle samples were taken from the gluteus, semitendinosus and longissimus muscles of a captive cheetah immediately after euthanasia. Fibres were 'skinned' to remove all membranes, leaving the contractile filament array intact and functional. Segments of skinned fibres from these cheetah muscles and from rabbit psoas muscle were activated at 20°C by a temperature-jump protocol. Step and ramp length changes were imposed after active stress had developed. The stiffness of the non-contractile ends of the fibres (series elastic component) was measured at two different stress values in each fibre; stiffness was strongly dependent on stress. Using these stiffness values, the speed of shortening of the contractile component was evaluated, and hence the power it was producing. Fibres were analysed for myosin heavy chain content using gel electrophoresis, and identified as either slow (type I) or fast (type II). The power output of cheetah type II fibre segments was 92.5±4.3 W kg(-1) (mean ± s.e., 14 fibres) during shortening at relative stress 0.15 (the stress during shortening/isometric stress). For rabbit psoas fibre segments (presumably type IIX) the corresponding value was significantly higher (Pcheetah was less than that of rabbit when maximally activated at 20°C, and does not account for the superior locomotor performance of the cheetah.

  11. 45Ca distribution and transport in saponin skinned vascular smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, M.A.; Diecke, F.P.

    1983-01-01

    45 Ca distribution and transport were studied in chemically skinned strips of caudal artery from Kyoto Wistar rats. Sarcolemmal membranes were made hyperpermeable by exposure for 60 min to solutions containing 0.1 mg/ml of saponin. Skinned helical strips responded with graded contractions to changes in ethylene glycol bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid buffered free Ca solutions (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) and were sensitive to the Mg-ATP concentration. Tissues loaded in the presence of 10(-7) M Ca contracted in response to 10 mM caffeine. These experiments indicate the strips are skinned and possess a functional regulatory and contractile system and an intact Ca sequestering system. 45 Ca distributes in three compartments in skinned caudal artery strips. The Ca contents of two components are linear functions of the Ca-ethylene glycol bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid concentration and desaturate at rapid rates. They correspond to the extracellular and cytoplasmic spaces. A significantly smaller component releases Ca at comparatively slower rates. 45 Ca uptake by the slow component consists of an ATP-dependent and an ATP-independent fraction. The 45 Ca content of the ATP-dependent fraction is a function of the free Ca concentration and is independent of the Ca-ethylene glycol bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid concentration. Its content was enhanced by oxalate and was abolished by Triton X-100 skinning solutions. The ATP-independent component was not affected by Triton X-100 skinning and may represent Ca binding to cytoplasmic molecules and structures. The sequestered Ca was released with caffeine or Ca but not by epinephrine. The observations indicate that the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of vascular smooth muscle strips skinned with saponin retain their functional integrity after saponin skinning

  12. Transient impairments in single muscle fibre contractile function after prolonged cycling in elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, L G; Gejl, Kasper Degn; Bech, R D

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged muscle activity impairs whole-muscle performance and function. However, little is known about the effects of prolonged muscle activity on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged exercise and subsequent...

  13. Single muscle fiber proteomics reveals unexpected mitochondrial specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgia, Marta; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Deshmukh, Atul S

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles are composed of multinucleated cells termed slow or fast fibers according to their contractile and metabolic properties. Here, we developed a high-sensitivity workflow to characterize the proteome of single fibers. Analysis of segments of the same fiber by traditional...... and unbiased proteomics methods yielded the same subtype assignment. We discovered novel subtype-specific features, most prominently mitochondrial specialization of fiber types in substrate utilization. The fiber type-resolved proteomes can be applied to a variety of physiological and pathological conditions...

  14. Use of skin stretchers for single-stage bilateral mastectomies in a dog and a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yuta; Aikawa, Takeshi; Shimatsu, Taichi; Nishimura, Masaaki; Sadahiro, Shigeo

    2018-04-01

    To describe the application of skin stretchers for closure of single-stage bilateral mastectomies in a dog and a cat. Clinical case report. A 12-year-old intact female Miniature Dachshund and a 13-year-old spayed female domestic short-hair cat. Skin stretchers were applied to the site of the skin adjacent to mammary glands for 2-4 days before surgery. Cable tension was adjusted every 6-8 hours to elongate the skin and to achieve primary closure of single-stage bilateral mastectomy without tension. Wound closure after single-stage bilateral mastectomy was achieved without tension or major complication in both animals. Use of skin stretchers allows primary closure of single-stage bilateral mastectomy in dogs and cats. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. Single muscle fiber gene expression with run taper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Murach

    Full Text Available This study evaluated gene expression changes in gastrocnemius slow-twitch myosin heavy chain I (MHC I and fast-twitch (MHC IIa muscle fibers of collegiate cross-country runners (n = 6, 20±1 y, VO₂max = 70±1 ml•kg-1•min-1 during two distinct training phases. In a controlled environment, runners performed identical 8 kilometer runs (30:18±0:30 min:s, 89±1% HRmax while in heavy training (∼72 km/wk and following a 3 wk taper. Training volume during the taper leading into peak competition was reduced ∼50% which resulted in improved race times and greater cross-section and improved function of MHC IIa fibers. Single muscle fibers were isolated from pre and 4 hour post run biopsies in heavily trained and tapered states to examine the dynamic acute exercise response of the growth-related genes Fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (FN14, Myostatin (MSTN, Heat shock protein 72 (HSP72, Muscle ring-finger protein-1 (MURF1, Myogenic factor 6 (MRF4, and Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 via qPCR. FN14 increased 4.3-fold in MHC IIa fibers with exercise in the tapered state (P<0.05. MSTN was suppressed with exercise in both fiber types and training states (P<0.05 while MURF1 and HSP72 responded to running in MHC IIa and I fibers, respectively, regardless of training state (P<0.05. Robust induction of FN14 (previously shown to strongly correlate with hypertrophy and greater overall transcriptional flexibility with exercise in the tapered state provides an initial molecular basis for fast-twitch muscle fiber performance gains previously observed after taper in competitive endurance athletes.

  16. Anticardiolipine antibodies in skin and muscle eluates of patients with primary and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z S Alekberova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To detect anticardiolipin antibodies (АСА, anti-p2-GPl antibodies, C3 and C4 complement components in immune complexes including those containing АСА in skin and muscle eluates of pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS. Material and methods . In 7 pts (6 female and I male, 2 with primary APS, 3 with SLE+APS and 2 with SLE skin and muscle biopsies were taken. 6 from 7 pts had thrombotic complications. Eluates were obtained from frozen skin and skeletal muscle biopsies (size was 1,5x0,5 and 0,5x0,5 respectively. Because of small size of biopsies it was not possible to use traditional methods of tissue pounding such as sharp homogenization of tissues in homogenizers with pulverizing and subsequent process of freezing-unfreezing which lead to large protein loss and make impossible serological tissue analysis. Application of acid eluates method by T.E.W. Feltkamp and J,H. Boode of own modification allowed to minimize tissue protein loss and perform serological tissue analysis. Results. Serum of all 7 pts contained antiphospholipid antibodies - IgG-ACA in 3, combination of IgG- und IgM-ACA in 5. In 5 from 7 eluates lgG АСА exceeded 0,109 OO units were revealed. They contained СЗ, C4 and different protein products mostly immunoglobulines. Anti-(I2GP1 antiboddie;. were absent. Conclusion. For the first time presence of АСА in tissues of APS pts was showed which may be of particular interest in studying morphogenesis of local tissue disturbances with participation of immune complexes containing АСА.

  17. Mueller's Muscle Conjunctival Resection With Skin-Only Blepharoplasty: Effects on Eyelid and Eyebrow Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Grant H; Rootman, Daniel B; Karlin, Justin; Goldberg, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of concurrent blepharoplasty and Mueller's muscle conjunctival resection (MMCR) surgery on eyelid position and eyebrow height. Clinical data from 274 eyes that met inclusion criteria for this study were reviewed. Mueller's muscle conjunctival resection surgery was performed alone in 198 eyes and was performed with concurrent blepharoplasty in 76 cases. In this study blepharoplasty consisted of only skin removal, leaving the muscle, fat, and tarsus intact. Preoperative and postoperative pupil to eyebrow, and eyelid margin to eyebrow distances were calculated and compared. Preoperative margin reflex distance 1 (MRD1) was similar for both groups of patients (p > 0.05) as was the postoperative MRD1 (p > 0.05). The change in MRD1 was similar between patients undergoing MMCR alone versus those undergoing MMCR with blepharoplasty (1.5 mm vs. 1.3 mm, respectively, p = 0.36). For similar amounts of tissue resection, the postoperative change in MRD1 was similar for patients undergoing MMCR-only surgery and MMCR with blepharoplasty (p > 0.05). Eyebrow height significantly decreased following both MMCR with blepharoplasty (0.73 mm, p < 0.05) and MMCR-only surgery (0.87 mm, p < 0.05), and this change in eyebrow height was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Combining MMCR surgery with skin-only blepharoplasty does not significantly alter eyelid height when compared with MMCR surgery alone for the correction of upper eyelid ptosis. This may assist in preoperative planning for combined MMCR with skin-only blepharoplasty.

  18. Functional effects of the DCM mutant Gly159Asp troponin C in skinned muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preston, Laura C; Lipscomb, Simon; Robinson, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We recently reported a dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) causing mutation in a novel disease gene, TNNC1, which encodes cardiac troponin C (TnC). We have determined how this mutation, Gly159Asp, affects contractile regulation when incorporated into muscle fibres. Endogenous troponin in rabbit skinned...... psoas fibres was partially replaced by recombinant human cardiac troponin containing either wild-type or Gly159Asp TnC. We measured both the force-pCa relationship of these fibres and the activation rate using the caged-Ca(2+) compound nitrophenyl-EGTA. Gly159Asp TnC had no significant effect on either...

  19. Titin isoform variance and length dependence of activation in skinned bovine cardiac muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Norio; Wu, Yiming; Farman, Gerrie; Irving, Thomas C; Granzier, Henk

    2003-11-15

    We have explored the role of the giant elastic protein titin in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart by measuring the sarcomere length (SL) dependence of activation in skinned cardiac muscles with different titin-based passive stiffness characteristics. We studied muscle from the bovine left ventricle (BLV), which expresses a high level of a stiff titin isoform, and muscle from the bovine left atrium (BLA), which expresses more compliant titin isoforms. Passive tension was also varied in each muscle type by manipulating the pre-history of stretch prior to activation. We found that the SL-dependent increases in Ca2+ sensitivity and maximal Ca2+-activated tension were markedly more pronounced when titin-based passive tension was high. Small-angle X-ray diffraction experiments revealed that the SL dependence of reduction of interfilament lattice spacing is greater in BLV than in BLA and that the lattice spacing is coupled with titin-based passive tension. These results support the notion that titin-based passive tension promotes actomyosin interaction by reducing the lattice spacing. This work indicates that titin may be a factor involved in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart by promoting actomyosin interaction in response to stretch.

  20. Peptide IC-20, encoded by skin kininogen-1 of the European yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata, antagonizes bradykinin-induced arterial smooth muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives were to determine if the skin secretion of the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata, in common with other related species, contains a bradykinin inhibitor peptide and to isolate and structurally characterize this peptide. Materials and Methods: Lyophilized skin secretion obtained from this toad was subjected to reverse phase HPLC fractionation with subsequent bioassay of fractions for antagonism of the bradykinin activity using an isolated rat tail artery smooth muscle preparation. Subsequently, the primary structure of the peptide was established by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectroscopy, and molecular cloning, following which a synthetic replicate was chemically synthesised for bioassay. Results: A single peptide of molecular mass 2300.92 Da was resolved in HPLC fractions of skin secretion and its primary structure determined as IYNAIWP-KH-NK-KPGLL-. Database interrogation with this sequence indicated that this peptide was encoded by skin kininogen-1 previously cloned from B. variegata. The blank cycles were occupied by cysteinyl (C residues and the peptide was located toward the C-terminus of the skin kininogen, and flanked N-terminally by a classical -KR- propeptide convertase processing site. The peptide was named IC-20 in accordance (I = N-terminal isoleucine, C = C-terminal cysteine, 20 = number of residues. Like the natural peptide, its synthetic replicate displayed an antagonism of bradykinin-induced arterial smooth muscle relaxation. Conclusion: IC-20 represents a novel bradykinin antagonizing peptide from amphibian skin secretions and is the third such peptide found to be co-encoded with bradykinins within skin kininogens.

  1. Myofibrillar ATPase activity and mechanical performance of skinned fibres from rabbit psoas muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potma, E J; Stienen, G J; Barends, J P; Elzinga, G

    1994-01-15

    1. The relationship between energy turnover and mechanical performance was investigated in chemically skinned single fibres from rabbit psoas muscle at 15 degrees C, pH = 7.1, with MgATP, 5 mM; free Mg2+, 1 mM; ionic strength, 200 mM and sarcomere length, 2.4 microns by measuring force production and myofibrillar ATP turnover during isometric contractions as well as during repetitive changes in length. ATP hydrolysis was stoichiometrically coupled to the breakdown of NADH, which was measured photometrically via the absorption of near UV light at 340 nm. 2. Force and ATPase activity were measured during square-wave length changes of different amplitudes (1-10% of the fibre length, Lo) and different frequencies (2.5-167 Hz). The average force during the length changes was less than the isometric value and decreased with increasing amplitude and frequency. At full activation (pCa 4.5), the isometric ATP turnover rate (+/- S.E.M.) was 2.30 +/- 0.05 s-1 per myosin head. ATP turnover increased monotonically with increasing amplitude as well as with increasing frequency until saturation was reached. The greatest increase observed was 2.4 times the isometric value. 3. Force and ATPase activity were also determined for ramp shortenings followed by fast restretches. The average force decreased with increasing shortening velocity in a hyperbolic fashion. The ATP turnover increased with ramp velocity up to 0.5 L0 s-1 and stayed almost constant (at 2.2 times the isometric value) for larger velocities. 4. Isometric force and ATPase activity both decreased as the calcium concentration was decreased. They did not vary in proportion at low Ca2+ concentrations, but this could largely be accounted for by the presence of a residual, Ca(2+)-dependent, membrane-bound ATPase. At high calcium concentrations ATPase activity during square-wave length changes was higher than the isometric value, but at low calcium concentrations (pCa > 6.1), the ATPase activity during the length changes

  2. Grafting of a single donor myofibre promotes hypertrophy in dystrophic mouse muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Boldrin

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle has a remarkable capability of regeneration following injury. Satellite cells, the principal muscle stem cells, are responsible for this process. However, this regenerative capacity is reduced in muscular dystrophies or in old age: in both these situations, there is a net loss of muscle fibres. Promoting skeletal muscle muscle hypertrophy could therefore have potential applications for treating muscular dystrophies or sarcopenia. Here, we observed that muscles of dystrophic mdx nude host mice that had been acutely injured by myotoxin and grafted with a single myofibre derived from a normal donor mouse exhibited increased muscle area. Transplantation experiments revealed that the hypertrophic effect is mediated by the grafted fibre and does not require either an imposed injury to the host muscle, or the contribution of donor cells to the host muscle. These results suggest the presence of a crucial cross-talk between the donor fibre and the host muscle environment.

  3. Grafting of a Single Donor Myofibre Promotes Hypertrophy in Dystrophic Mouse Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, Luisa; Morgan, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has a remarkable capability of regeneration following injury. Satellite cells, the principal muscle stem cells, are responsible for this process. However, this regenerative capacity is reduced in muscular dystrophies or in old age: in both these situations, there is a net loss of muscle fibres. Promoting skeletal muscle muscle hypertrophy could therefore have potential applications for treating muscular dystrophies or sarcopenia. Here, we observed that muscles of dystrophic mdx nude host mice that had been acutely injured by myotoxin and grafted with a single myofibre derived from a normal donor mouse exhibited increased muscle area. Transplantation experiments revealed that the hypertrophic effect is mediated by the grafted fibre and does not require either an imposed injury to the host muscle, or the contribution of donor cells to the host muscle. These results suggest the presence of a crucial cross-talk between the donor fibre and the host muscle environment. PMID:23349935

  4. Subciliary skin-muscle flap approach in patients with orbital fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Esmail Hassanpour

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Selection of a suitable incision for orbital floor and medial wall fractures is one of the challenging problems in plastic surgery. The most frequently used is the subciliary step skin muscle incision with advantages including: adequate exposure and acceptable cosmetic result and disadvantages such as ectropion and skin necrosis.In this article we have tried to determine the rate of complications of this incision in a series of patients with orbital trauma that have been operated by the authors in 15khordad hospital during a three years period  (September 2000-september 2003.Methods: This retrospective review includes 52consecuative cases of orbital trauma (61 eye referred to our center who have been operated by authors. Step skin-muscle incision approach was used for reduction and fixation of orbital rim and floor fractures .These patients have been evaluated according to causes of fractures, kind and number of incisions, hospital stay, and complications of step skin-muscle incision. The mean duration of postoperative follow-up was two years.Results: Among the 52 patients reviewed, there were 48 males and 4 females; their mean age was 29 years (range: 15-67 years. Injuries were on the left side in 25 (49% patients, on the right side in 18(35% patients and both sides in 9 (16% patients. The main cause of trauma was car accident (50%. Six patients had scleral show 1-2 mm, five of them were managed by non

  5. Interrelationships between body fat and skin blood flow and the current required for electrical stimulation of human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold S; Suh, Hye Jin; Gunda, Shashi; Prowse, Michelle; Batt, Jennifer

    2008-09-01

    There is variability between individuals in the current needed to elicit a contraction in human muscle with surface electrodes. To understand what might be causing some of this variability, 25 subjects whose average age was 24.4+/-2.3 years, whose height was 165.5+/-9.5 cm, and whose average weight was 70.3+/-21 kg were examined. Electrical stimulation was applied above the motor point of the quadriceps, biceps, and lateral gastrocnemius muscles. To assess body fat, 2D ultrasound was used with a 1cm stand off. Electrical stimulation was applied with sine wave stimulation at 100 micros pulse width and at a frequency of 30 Hz. To alter skin blood flow, aside from the natural difference in skin blood flow at rest, hot packs and cold packs were used for 5 min. The average fat thickness below the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles was 0.75+/-0.13 cm and under the biceps was 0.48+/-0.16 cm. Without the use of hot or cold packs, the currents for the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles were significantly higher than that of the biceps (phot or cold packs, when hot packs were applied, skin blood flow increased as did the current required to stimulate muscle to threshold. When cold packs were applied, there was a decrease in the current required to stimulate these muscles. In conclusion, there is a causal relationship between skin blood flow, the thickness of the fat layer below the skin, and the current required to stimulate the muscle.

  6. Temperature-induced structural changes in the myosin thick filament of skinned rabbit psoas muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinchik, S; Xu, S; Yu, L C

    1997-11-01

    By using synchrotron radiation and an imaging plate for recording diffraction patterns, we have obtained high-resolution x-ray patterns from relaxed rabbit psoas muscle at temperatures ranging from 1 degree C to 30 degrees C. This allowed us to obtain intensity profiles of the first six myosin layer lines and apply a model-building approach for structural analysis. At temperatures 20 degrees C and higher, the layer lines are sharp with clearly defined maxima. Modeling based on the data obtained at 20 degrees C reveals that the average center of the cross-bridges is at 135 A from the center of the thick filament and both of the myosin heads appear to wrap around the backbone. At 10 degrees C and lower, the layer lines become very weak and diffuse scattering increases considerably. At 4 degrees C, the peak of the first layer line shifts toward the meridian from 0.0047 to 0.0038 A(-1) and decreases in intensity approximately by a factor of four compared to that at 20 degrees C, although the intensities of higher-order layer lines remain approximately 10-15% of the first layer line. Our modeling suggests that as the temperature is lowered from 20 degrees C to 4 degrees C the center of cross-bridges extends radially away from the center of the filament (135 A to 175 A). Furthermore, the fraction of helically ordered cross-bridges decreases at least by a factor of two, while the isotropic disorder (the temperature factor) remains approximately unchanged. Our results on the order/disordering effects of temperature are in general agreement with earlier results of Wray [Wray, J. 1987. Structure of relaxed myosin filaments in relation to nucleotide state in vertebrate skeletal muscle. J. Muscle Res. Cell Motil. 8:62a (Abstr.)] and Lowy et al. (Lowy, J., D. Popp, and A. A. Stewart. 1991. X-ray studies of order-disorder transitions in the myosin heads of skinned rabbit psoas muscles. Biophys. J. 60:812-824). and support Poulsen and Lowy's hypothesis of coexistence of ordered

  7. Secretion of wound healing mediators by single and bi-layer skin substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarof, Manira; Law, Jia Xian; Chowdhury, Shiplu Roy; Khairoji, Khairul Anuar; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj

    2016-10-01

    Limitations of current treatments for skin loss caused by major injuries leads to the use of skin substitutes. It is assumed that secretion of wound healing mediators by these skin substitutes plays a role in treating skin loss. In our previous study, single layer keratinocytes (SK), single layer fibroblast (SF) and bilayer (BL; containing keratinocytes and fibroblasts layers) skin substitutes were fabricated using fibrin that had shown potential to heal wounds in preclinical studies. This study aimed to quantify the secretion of wound healing mediators, and compare between single and bi-layer skin substitutes. Skin samples were digested to harvest fibroblasts and keratinocytes, and expanded to obtain sufficient cells for the construction of skin substitutes. Acellular fibrin (AF) construct was used as control. Substitutes i.e. AF, SK, SF and BL were cultured for 2 days, and culture supernatant was collected to analyze secretion of wound healing mediators via multiplex ELISA. Among 19 wound healing mediators tested, BL substitute secreted significantly higher amounts of CXCL1 and GCSF compared to SF and AF substitute but this was not significant with respect to SK substitute. The BL substitute also secreted significantly higher amounts of CXCL5 and IL-6 compared to other substitutes. In contrast, the SK substitute secreted significantly higher amounts of VCAM-1 compared to other substitutes. However, all three skin substitutes also secreted CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, GM-CSF, IL8, IL-1α, TNF-α, ICAM-1, FGF-β, TGF-β, HGF, VEGF-α and PDGF-BB factors, but no significant difference was seen. Secretion of these mediators after transplantation may play a significant role in promoting wound healing process for the treatment of skin loss.

  8. From single muscle fiber to whole muscle mechanics: a finite element model of a muscle bundle with fast and slow fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Lorenzo; Reggiani, Carlo; Natali, Arturo N; Pavan, Piero G

    2017-12-01

    Muscles exhibit highly complex, multi-scale architecture with thousands of muscle fibers, each with different properties, interacting with each other and surrounding connective structures. Consequently, the results of single-fiber experiments are scarcely linked to the macroscopic or whole muscle behavior. This is especially true for human muscles where it would be important to understand of how skeletal muscles disorders affect patients' life. In this work, we developed a mathematical model to study how fast and slow muscle fibers, well characterized in single-fiber experiments, work and generate together force and displacement in muscle bundles. We characterized the parameters of a Hill-type model, using experimental data on fast and slow single human muscle fibers, and comparing experimental data with numerical simulations obtained from finite element (FE) models of single fibers. Then, we developed a FE model of a bundle of 19 fibers, based on an immunohistochemically stained cross section of human diaphragm and including the corresponding properties of each slow or fast fiber. Simulations of isotonic contractions of the bundle model allowed the generation of its apparent force-velocity relationship. Although close to the average of the force-velocity curves of fast and slow fibers, the bundle curve deviates substantially toward the fast fibers at low loads. We believe that the present model and the characterization of the force-velocity curve of a fiber bundle represents the starting point to link the single-fiber properties to those of whole muscle with FE application in phenomenological models of human muscles.

  9. Endoscopic latissimus dorsi muscle flap for breast reconstruction after skin-sparing total mastectomy: report of 14 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Martin; Gonzalez-Chapa, Diego R

    2013-08-01

    Some authors have mentioned that the endoscopic harvesting of the latissimus dorsi muscle flap for breast reconstruction is an uncommon technique that has been abandoned due to its technical complexity. Therefore, its use for immediate breast reconstruction after skin-sparing total mastectomies is reported for only a few patients, without clinical images of the reconstructed breast or of the donor site. This report describes 14 breast reconstructions using the aforementioned approach, with the latissimus dorsi muscle flap harvested by endoscopy plus the insertion of a breast implant in a single surgical procedure. The objective is to show images of the long-range clinical aesthetic results, both in the reconstructed breast and at the donor site as well as the complications so the reader can evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the technique. From 2008 to 2011, 12 women who experienced skin-sparing total mastectomy and 2 women who underwent modified radical mastectomy were reconstructed using the aforementioned technique. The average age was 42 years (range 30-58 years), and the average body mass index was 29 kg/m(2) (range 22-34 kg/m(2)). Three patients were heavy smokers: one had undergone a previous abdominoplasty; one had hepatitis C; and one had undergone massive weight loss. Immediate reconstructions were performed for 11 patients, and 3 reconstructions were delayed. The implant volume ranged from 355 to 640 ml. The average endoscopic harvesting time was 163.5 min (range 120-240 min), and the average bleeding was 300 ml. Four patients experienced seromas at the donor site. Acceptance of the reconstructed breast was good in six cases, moderate in seven cases, and poor in one case. Acceptance of the donor site was good in 13 cases and moderate for 1 case. Endoscopic harvesting of the latissimus dorsi muscle has technical difficulties that have limited its acceptance. However, this technique offers the same quality of breast reconstruction as the

  10. Change in attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Listeria monocytogenes to pork skin and muscle after hot water and lactic acid decontamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morild, Rikke K.; Olsen, John E.; Aabo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The attachment of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Listeria monocytogenes to pig skin and muscle tissue decontaminated with 80°C water or 55°C, 1% lactic acid for 5 and 15s was investigated. Attachment properties differed between skin and muscle...

  11. The transfer of current through skin and muscle during electrical stimulation with sine, square, Russian and interferential waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, J; Laymon, M; Prowse, M; Gunda, S; Batt, J

    2009-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is a commonly used modality for both athletic training and physical therapy. However, there are limited objective data available to determine the waveform which provides the maximum muscle strength as well as minimizing pain. In the present investigation, two groups of subjects were examined. Group 1 was composed of six males and four females and group 2 was composed of three male and three female subjects. The first series of experiments investigated muscle strength with stimulation at currents of 20, 40 and 60 milliamps using sine, square, Russian and interferential waveforms evaluating strength production and pain as outcomes. The second phase of experiments compared the effect of the different waveforms on current dispersion in surface versus deep muscle electrodes with these same waveforms. The results of the experiments showed that sine wave stimulation produced significantly greater muscle strength and significantly less pain than square wave, Russian or interferential stimulation at that same current. The most painful stimulation was square wave. Strength production was greatest with sine wave and least with Russian and interferential. An explanation of these findings may be the filtering effect of the fat layer separating skin from muscle. The highly conductive muscle and skin dermal layers would form the plates of a capacitor separated by the subcutaneous fat layer providing an RC filter. This filtering effect, while allowing sine wave stimulation to pass to the muscle, reduced power transfer in square wave, Russian and interferential stimulation is observed.

  12. Skin, bone and muscle collagen extraction from the trash fish, leather jacket (Odonus niger) and their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Nagarajan; Jeya Shakila, Robinson; Sukumar, Durairaj; Jeyasekaran, G

    2013-12-01

    Acid soluble (ASC) and pepsin soluble (PSC) collagens were extracted from the skin, bone and muscle of a trash fish, leather jacket (Odonus niger) by three different extraction methods. Method I gave 46-50% yield for ASC, Method II gave 49-58% yield for both ASC and PSC and Method III gave 64-71% yield for PSC. The addition of pepsin had increased the yield by 30-45%. The yields of collagen from skin and bone were higher than muscle. SDS-PAGE pattern revealed that skin and bone collagen as Type I collagen with a typical (α1)2α2 chains and muscle collagen as Type V collagen with a typical α1α3α2 chains. Td values of bone and muscle collagen were high (30-32 °C) compared to skin collagen (27-28 °C). The higher imino acids (190 residues/1,000 residues) were found responsible for the higher Td values. The trash fish, leather jacket can therefore be exploited effectively for collagen as it has got good thermal properties for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

  13. Myofascial force transmisison between antagonistic rat lower limb muscles: effects of single muscle or muscle group lengthening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M; Rijkelijkhuizen, Josina M.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of lengthening of the whole group of anterior crural muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus muscles (TA + EHL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL)) on myofascial interaction between synergistic EDL and TA + EHL muscles, and on myofascial force transmission between anterior

  14. Myofascial force transmission between antagonistic rat lower limb muscles: Effects of single muscle or muscle group lengthening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.J.M.; Rijkelijkhuizen, J.M.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of lengthening of the whole group of anterior crural muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus muscles (TA + EHL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL)) on myofascial interaction between synergistic EDL and TA + EHL muscles, and on myofascial force transmission between anterior

  15. Effect of single bout versus repeated bouts of stretching on muscle recovery following eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rui; Pinho, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Cabri, Jan M H

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the effects of a single bout and repeated bouts of stretching on indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage. A randomized controlled clinical trial at a university human research laboratory was conducted. Fifty-six untrained males were randomly divided into four groups. (I) a single stretching group underwent a single bout of stretching on the quadriceps muscle; (II) an eccentric exercised group underwent eccentric quadriceps muscle contractions until exhaustion; (III) an eccentric exercise group followed by a single bout of stretching; (IV) an eccentric exercised group submitted to repeated bouts of stretching performed immediately and 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise. Muscle stiffness, muscle soreness, maximal concentric peak torque, and plasma creatine kinase activity were assessed before exercise and 1, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-exercise. All exercised groups showed significant reduction in maximal concentric peak torque and significant increases in muscle soreness, muscle stiffness, and plasma creatine kinase. There were no differences between these groups in all assessed variables, with the exception of markers of muscle stiffness, which were significantly lower in the eccentric exercise group followed by single or repeated bouts. The single stretching group showed no change in any assessed variables during the measurement period. Muscle stretching performed after exercise, either as single bout or as repeated bouts, does not influence the levels of the main markers of exercise-induced muscle damage; however, repeated bouts of stretching performed during the days following exercise may have favorable effects on muscle stiffness. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modulation of cross-bridge affinity for MgGTP by Ca2+ in skinned fibers of rabbit psoas muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbie, S M; Chalovich, J M; Brenner, B; Yu, L C

    1997-05-01

    Previously we reported that saturation of cross-bridges with MgATP gamma S in skinned muscle fibers was calcium sensitive. In the present study we investigate whether this observation can be generalized to other nucleotides by studying saturation of cross-bridges with MgGTP. In solution, myosin-subfragment 1 (S1) in the presence of 10 mM MgGTP was found to bind to actin with low affinity, similar to that in the presence of MgATP and MgATP gamma S. In EGTA buffer, the equatorial x-ray diffraction intensity ratio I11/I10 recorded in single skinned fibers decreased upon increasing MgGTP concentration from 0 to 10 mM (1 degree C and 170 mM ionic strength). The I11/I10 ratio leveled off at 10 mM MgGTP, indicating full saturation of cross-bridges with the nucleotide. Under these conditions, the value of I11/I10 is indistinguishable from that obtained in the presence of saturating [MgATP]. In CaEGTA buffer, however, the decrease in I11/I10 occurs over a wider range of concentrations, and there is no indication of I11/I10 leveling off at 10 mM MgGTP, suggesting that full saturation is not reached. The Ca2+ dependence of GTP binding appears to be a direct consequence of the differences in the affinities of the strongly bound cross-bridges to actin versus weakly bound cross-bridges to actin. A biochemical scheme that could qualitatively explain the titration behavior of ATP gamma S and GTP is presented.

  17. Comparative evaluation of 2 g single dose versus conventional dose azithromycin in uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sudipta Kumar; Das, Amal Kanti; Sen, Sumit; Hazra, Avijit

    2015-01-01

    Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections (uSSSIs) are a common clinical problem. Majority are caused by staphylococci and streptococci. Different oral antibiotics are used for uSSSI, with comparable efficacy but varying treatment duration, cost, and adverse event profile. Azithromycin is used in uSSSI in adults conventionally in a dose of 500 mg once for 5 days. The extensive tissue distribution of the drug and its long elimination half-life prompted us to explore whether a single 2 g dose of the drug would produce a response in uSSSI comparable to conventional dosing. We conducted a parallel group, open-label, randomized, controlled trial (CTRI/2015/07/005969) with subjects of either sex, ≥12 years of age, presenting with uSSSI to the dermatology outpatient department. One group (n = 146) received 2 g single supervised dose while the other (n = 146) received conventional dose of 500 mg once daily for 5 days. Subjects were followed up on day 4 and day 8. Complete clinical cure implied complete healing of lesions, without residual signs or symptoms, within 7 days. High cure rate was observed in both arms (97.97% and 98.63%, respectively) along with noticeable improvement in symptom profile from baseline but without statistically significant difference between groups. However, excellent adherence (defined as no tablets missed) was better in single dosing arm (98.65% vs. 86.30%). Tolerability was also comparable between groups with the majority of adverse events encountered being gastrointestinal in nature and mild. Single 2 g azithromycin dose achieved the same result as conventional azithromycin dosing in uSSSI with comparable tolerability but with the advantage of assured adherence. This dose can, therefore, be recommended as an alternative and administration supervised if feasible.

  18. Twitch and Tetanic Tension during Culture of Mature Xenopus laevis Single Muscle Fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, R.T.; Feenstra, Hiske; Lee-de Groot, M.B.E.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.; van der Laarse, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of the mechanisms of muscle adaptation requires independent control of the regulating factors. The aim of the present study was to develop a serum-free medium to culture mature single muscle fibres of Xenopus laevis. As an example, we used the culture system to study adaptation of

  19. Single dose of fluoxetine increases muscle activation in chronic stroke patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Genderen, Hanneke Irene; Nijlant, Juliette M.M.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria; Movig, Kris L.L.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This pilot study explores the influence of a single dose of fluoxetine (20 mg) on the muscle activation patterns and functional ability of the muscles in the lower part of the arm in chronic stroke patients. Methods: A crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 10

  20. Activation properties of chemically skinned fibres from human isolated bronchial smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savineau, J P; Marthan, R

    1994-01-01

    1. The contractile activation properties of human isolated bronchial smooth muscle were investigated using chemically (beta-escin) skinned strips. 2. Concentration-dependent contractions were induced by free ion concentrations of Ca2+ (0.5-3 microM), Sr2+ (2-200 microM) and Ba2+ (50-1000 microM). The resulting -log[cation]-tension relationships were fitted by sigmoidal curves with EC50 values (cation concentration required to produce half-maximal tension) and co-operativity factors (Hill coefficient, nH) of, respectively, 0.25 microM and 3.4 for Ca2+, 12 microM and 2.64 for Sr2+ and 100 microM and 1.73 for Ba2+. Maximal responses to Sr2+ and Ba2+ were 125.5 +/- 15.4 and 96 +/- 8.1% (n = 5) respectively of the maximum tension induced by Ca2+. 3. Trifluoperazine (5-100 microM), cyclic AMP (50-300 microM) and cyclic GMP (50-100 microM) each antagonized Ca2+ in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, okadaic acid (OA, 0.2-1 microM) potentiated Ca2+ and increased the maximum response to Ca2+ (+25 +/- 5.4%, n = 5, for 1 microM OA). 4. This study has demonstrated the high Ca2+ sensitivity of the activation mechanism of human isolated bronchial smooth muscle. It also suggests that control of the contractile machinery in the human bronchus involves processes of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. The beta-escin-treated human bronchus may be a useful model for investigating the cellular basis of some pathophysiological processes such as bronchial hyper-responsiveness. PMID:8014904

  1. Evolution of Skin Temperature after the Application of Compressive Forces on Tendon, Muscle and Myofascial Trigger Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Marina Figueiredo; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Oliveira Guirro, Elaine Caldeira; Girasol, Carlos Eduardo; de Oliveira, Alessandra Kelly; Dias, Fabiana Rodrigues Cancio; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Some assessment and diagnosis methods require palpation or the application of certain forces on the skin, which affects the structures beneath, we highlight the importance of defining possible influences on skin temperature as a result of this physical contact. Thus, the aim of the present study is to determine the ideal time for performing thermographic examination after palpation based on the assessment of skin temperature evolution. Randomized and crossover study carried out with 15 computer-user volunteers of both genders, between 18 and 45 years of age, who were submitted to compressive forces of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kg/cm2 for 30 seconds with a washout period of 48 hours using a portable digital dynamometer. Compressive forces were applied on the following spots on the dominant upper limb: myofascial trigger point in the levator scapulae, biceps brachii muscle and palmaris longus tendon. Volunteers were examined by means of infrared thermography before and after the application of compressive forces (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes). In most comparisons made over time, a significant decrease was observed 30, 45 and 60 minutes after the application of compressive forces (p 0.05). In conclusion, infrared thermography can be used after assessment or diagnosis methods focused on the application of forces on tendons and muscles, provided the procedure is performed 15 minutes after contact with the skin. Regarding to the myofascial trigger point, the thermographic examination can be performed within 60 minutes after the contact with the skin.

  2. A case of polyarteritis nodosa limited to the right calf muscles, fascia, and skin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Francesca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Limited polyarteritis nodosa is a rare benign disease that usually responds well to systemic corticosteroid treatment. We report a case limited to calf muscles, fascia, and skin treated with local corticosteroid therapy directed to the affected areas by ultrasound guidance. Case presentation A 36-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 10-month history of progressive right calf pain and swelling, which were unresponsive to treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physiotherapy. An examination revealed a swollen tender right calf with indurated overlying skin. Laboratory investigations showed an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 24 mm/hour and a C-reactive protein of 15 mg/dl. Full blood count, renal profile, and creatinine kinase level were normal. A full autoantibody screen and hepatitis B and C serology results were negative. A chest X-ray was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging of the right leg revealed increased signal intensity in T2-weighted images and this was suggestive of extensive inflammatory changes of the gastrocnemius muscle and, to a lesser extent, the soleus muscle. There were marked inflammatory changes throughout the gastrocnemius muscle and the subcutaneous tissue circumferentially around the right lower leg. A biopsy of affected skin, muscle, and fascia showed histopathological features consistent with polyarteritis nodosa, including small-vessel vasculitis with fibrinoid changes in the vessel wall and intense perivascular and focal mural chronic inflammatory changes. Our patient declined treatment with oral steroids. She received a course of ultrasound-guided injections of steroid (Depo-Medrone, methylprednisolone in the involved muscle area and commenced maintenance azathioprine with a good response. Conclusions Limited polyarteritis nodosa is rare and affects middle-aged individuals. In most cases, treatment with moderate- to high-dose corticosteroids gives symptomatic relief

  3. Clinical efficacy comparison of flabby skin excision combined orbicularis oculi muscle shortening surgery in patients with senile entropion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Liang Xu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical effect of slack skin excision combined with orbicularis oculi muscle shortening and orbicularis muscle shortening in the treatment of elderly patients with lower eyelid entropion, and provide the reference for the clinical treatment.METHODS: Eighty-two(126 eyesclinical diagnosis's elderly patients with lower eyelid entropion were collected from our department, then randomly divided into excised relaxing skin and orbicularis oculi muscle shortening treatment group and the orbicularis muscle shortening treatment group.The general data of the two groups, long term curative effect and short-term curative effect were compared. RESULTS: The age, sex, proportion of patients with the first time operation, course of disease were no statistical significance between the observation group and the control group(P>0.05. The short-term effective rate of the observation group was 95.2%, while the short-term effective rate of the control group was 77.8%, the short-term efficiency differences between the two groups was statistical significance(χ2=4.100, P=0.043. The long-term cure rate of the observation group was 82.5%(34 cases, 52 eyes, recurrence rate was 17.5%(7 cases, 11 eyes, while the cure rate of the control group was 60.3%(25 cases, 38 eyes, recurrence rate was 39.7%(16 cases, 25 eyes, the difference of long term cure rate was statistical significance between the two groups(PCONCLUSION: The clinical curative effect of slack skin excision combined with orbicularis oculi muscle shortening in the treatment of senile inferior entropion is better than orbicularis muscle shortening operation, recommending application in the clinical.

  4. Observation of skin thermal inertia distribution during reactive hyperaemia using a single-hood measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M; Togawa, T

    2001-02-01

    An attempt was made to image the thermal inertia (defined as the square root of the product of thermal conductivity, specific heat and density) of the skin to observe the distribution of blood in the skin during post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia in normal healthy volunteers. The method was based on the ability to calculate thermal inertia by successive thermographic measurements of the skin after stepwise change in ambient radiation temperature surrounding the skin area. The stepwise change was achieved within 0.1 s through a single hood. Experimentation on the undisturbed volar forearm of normal subjects at the same site showed that the measurements thus achieved were reproducible. The thermal inertia values of forearm skin in normal subjects were scattered throughout the range 1.1 x 10(3) to 1.7 x 10(3) W s(1/2) m(-2) K(-1). Experiments on forearm skin subjected to arterial cuff occlusion indicated that thermal inertia can be detected at a low level of blood perfusion. A linear relationship was observed between thermal inertia and blood perfusion measured by laser Doppler imager before and during blood flow occlusion. During reactive hyperaemia, the thermal inertia image exhibited a non-uniform island-shaped pattern of distribution over the forearm, suggesting that, after release from occlusion, recovery of blood flow is non-uniform.

  5. Low Po2 conditions induce reactive oxygen species formation during contractions in single skeletal muscle fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Li; Shiah, Amy; Roberts, William J.; Chien, Michael T.; Wagner, Peter D.; Hogan, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Contractions in whole skeletal muscle during hypoxia are known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, identification of real-time ROS formation within isolated single skeletal muscle fibers has been challenging. Consequently, there is no convincing evidence showing increased ROS production in intact contracting fibers under low Po2 conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that intracellular ROS generation in single contracting skeletal myofibers increases during low Po2 compared wi...

  6. Predicting muscle forces during the propulsion phase of single leg triple hop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvim, Felipe Costa; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Menegaldo, Luciano Luporini

    2018-01-01

    Functional biomechanical tests allow the assessment of musculoskeletal system impairments in a simple way. Muscle force synergies associated with movement can provide additional information for diagnosis. However, such forces cannot be directly measured noninvasively. This study aims to estimate muscle activations and forces exerted during the preparation phase of the single leg triple hop test. Two different approaches were tested: static optimization (SO) and computed muscle control (CMC). As an indirect validation, model-estimated muscle activations were compared with surface electromyography (EMG) of selected hip and thigh muscles. Ten physically healthy active women performed a series of jumps, and ground reaction forces, kinematics and EMG data were recorded. An existing OpenSim model with 92 musculotendon actuators was used to estimate muscle forces. Reflective markers data were processed using the OpenSim Inverse Kinematics tool. Residual Reduction Algorithm (RRA) was applied recursively before running the SO and CMC. For both, the same adjusted kinematics were used as inputs. Both approaches presented similar residuals amplitudes. SO showed a closer agreement between the estimated activations and the EMGs of some muscles. Due to inherent EMG methodological limitations, the superiority of SO in relation to CMC can be only hypothesized. It should be confirmed by conducting further studies comparing joint contact forces. The workflow presented in this study can be used to estimate muscle forces during the preparation phase of the single leg triple hop test and allows investigating muscle activation and coordination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Single motor unit activity in human extraocular muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Konrad P; Rosengren, Sally M; Michels, Rike; Sturm, Veit; Straumann, Dominik; Landau, Klara

    2012-01-01

    Motor unit activity in human eye muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is not well understood, since the associated head and eye movements normally preclude single unit recordings. Therefore we recorded single motor unit activity following bursts of skull vibration and sound, two vestibular otolith stimuli that elicit only small head and eye movements. Inferior oblique (IO) and inferior rectus (IR) muscle activity was measured in healthy humans with concentric needle electrodes. Vibration elicited highly synchronous, short-latency bursts of motor unit activity in the IO (latency: 10.5 ms) and IR (14.5 ms) muscles. The activation patterns of the two muscles were similar, but reciprocal, with delayed activation of the IR muscle. Sound produced short-latency excitation of the IO muscle (13.3 ms) in the eye contralateral to the stimulus. Simultaneous needle and surface recordings identified the IO as the muscle of origin of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) thus validating the physiological basis of this recently developed clinical test of otolith function. Single extraocular motor unit recordings provide a window into neural activity in humans that can normally only be examined using animal models and help identify the pathways of the translational VOR from otoliths to individual eye muscles. PMID:22526888

  8. Association between muscle mass and a single measurement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between muscle mass and a diagnosis of hypertension in a sample of Korean adults (N=225)was investigated. The participants included adults aged >20 years who visited the S-gu Public Health Centre, Seoul, Korea for a medical check-up in 2011. The Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, ...

  9. A method for determination of muscle fiber diameter using single fiber potential (SFP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Ewa; Nandedkar, Sanjeev D; Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, Irena

    2012-12-01

    We have used computer simulation to study the relationship between the muscle fiber diameter and parameters: peak-to-peak amplitude and duration of the negative peak of the muscle fiber action potential. We found that the negative peak duration is useful in the determination of fiber diameter via the diameter dependence of conduction velocity. We have shown a direct link between the underlying physiology and the measurements characterizing single fiber potential. Using data from simulations, a graphical tool and an analytical method to estimate the muscle fiber diameter from the recorded action potential has been developed. The ability to quantify the fiber diameter can add significantly to the single fiber electromyography examination. It may help study of muscle fiber diameter variability and thus compliment the muscle biopsy studies.

  10. Viscoelastic Characteristics of Fins, Muscle and Skin in Crucian Carp (Carassius Auratus) Described by the Fractional Zener Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ming; Jia Lai-Bing; Yin Xie-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Fish are supposed to be able to adapt to various underwater environments. The mechanical properties of the body of a fish is of essential importance in order to explore the source of high efficiency during fish swimming. We investigate the viscoelastic properties of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp (carassius auratus). A fractional Zener model is used to fit the relaxation force and the results show that the model can describe the relaxation process well. With a Fourier transform, we discuss the response functions of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp under the external excitation of a harmonic force. Comparison of these results with the cruising frequency of Crucian carp shows that the dissipation due to internal viscoelasticity during cruising is small. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  11. Tanning Shade Gradations of Models in Mainstream Fitness and Muscle Enthusiast Magazines: Implications for Skin Cancer Prevention in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Ethan, Danna; Berdnik, Alyssa; Basch, Charles E

    2015-07-01

    Tanned skin has been associated with perceptions of fitness and social desirability. Portrayal of models in magazines may reflect and perpetuate these perceptions. Limited research has investigated tanning shade gradations of models in men's versus women's fitness and muscle enthusiast magazines. Such findings are relevant in light of increased incidence and prevalence of melanoma in the United States. This study evaluated and compared tanning shade gradations of adult Caucasian male and female model images in mainstream fitness and muscle enthusiast magazines. Sixty-nine U.S. magazine issues (spring and summer, 2013) were utilized. Two independent reviewers rated tanning shade gradations of adult Caucasian male and female model images on magazines' covers, advertisements, and feature articles. Shade gradations were assessed using stock photographs of Caucasian models with varying levels of tanned skin on an 8-shade scale. A total of 4,683 images were evaluated. Darkest tanning shades were found among males in muscle enthusiast magazines and lightest among females in women's mainstream fitness magazines. By gender, male model images were 54% more likely to portray a darker tanning shade. In this study, images in men's (vs. women's) fitness and muscle enthusiast magazines portrayed Caucasian models with darker skin shades. Despite these magazines' fitness-related messages, pro-tanning images may promote attitudes and behaviors associated with higher skin cancer risk. To date, this is the first study to explore tanning shades in men's magazines of these genres. Further research is necessary to identify effects of exposure to these images among male readers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Single rat muscle Na+channel mutation confers batrachotoxin autoresistance found in poison-dart frogPhyllobates terribilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sho-Ya; Wang, Ging Kuo

    2017-09-26

    Poison-dart Phyllobates terribilis frogs sequester lethal amounts of steroidal alkaloid batrachotoxin (BTX) in their skin as a defense mechanism against predators. BTX targets voltage-gated Na + channels and enables them to open persistently. How BTX autoresistance arises in such frogs remains a mystery. The BTX receptor has been delineated along the Na + channel inner cavity, which is formed jointly by four S6 transmembrane segments from domains D1 to D4. Within the P. terribilis muscle Na + channel, five amino acid (AA) substitutions have been identified at D1/S6 and D4/S6. We therefore investigated the role of these naturally occurring substitutions in BTX autoresistance by introducing them into rat Nav1.4 muscle Na + channel, both individually and in combination. Our results showed that combination mutants containing an N1584T substitution all conferred a complete BTX-resistant phenotype when expressed in mammalian HEK293t cells. The single N1584T mutant also retained its functional integrity and became exceptionally resistant to 5 µM BTX, aside from a small residual BTX effect. Single and combination mutants with the other four S6 residues (S429A, I433V, A445D, and V1583I) all remained highly BTX sensitive. These findings, along with diverse BTX phenotypes of N1584K/A/D/T mutant channels, led us to conclude that the conserved N1584 residue is indispensable for BTX actions, probably functioning as an integral part of the BTX receptor. Thus, complete BTX autoresistance found in P. terribilis muscle Na + channels could emerge primarily from a single AA substitution (asparagine→threonine) via a single nucleotide mutation (AAC→ACC).

  13. Efficiency of high- and low-voltage pulse combinations for gene electrotransfer in muscle, liver, tumor, and skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    André, F M; Gehl, J; Sersa, G

    2008-01-01

    Gene electrotransfer is gaining momentum as an efficient methodology for nonviral gene transfer. In skeletal muscle, data suggest that electric pulses play two roles: structurally permeabilizing the muscle fibers and electrophoretically supporting the migration of DNA toward or across......, but not to liver; and (4) efficient gene electrotransfer was achieved with HV field strengths below the detectability thresholds for permeabilization; and (5) the lag time interval between the HV and LV pulses decreased sensitivity to the HV pulses, enabling a wider HV amplitude range. In conclusion, HV plus LV...... the permeabilized membrane. To investigate this further, combinations of permeabilizing short high-voltage pulses (HV; hundreds of V/cm) and mainly electrophoretic long low-voltage pulses (LV; tens of V/cm) were investigated in muscle, liver, tumor, and skin in rodent models. The following observations were made...

  14. A mini-overview of single muscle fibre mechanics: the effects of age, inactivity and exercise in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Hyunseok; Kim, Jong-Hee

    2017-09-05

    Many basic movements of living organisms are dependent on muscle function. Muscle function allows for the coordination and harmonious integrity of movement that is necessary for various biological processes. Gross and fine motor skills are both regulated at the micro-level (single muscle fibre level), controlled by neuronal regulation, and it is therefore important to understand muscle function at both micro- and macro-levels to understand the overall movement of living organisms. Single muscle mechanics and the cellular environment of muscles fundamentally allow for the harmonious movement of our bodies. Indeed, a clear understanding of the functionality of muscle at the micro-level is indispensable for explaining muscular function at the macro-(whole gross muscle) level. By investigating single muscle fibre mechanics, we can also learn how other factors such Ca2+ kinetics, enzyme activity and contractile proteins can contribute to muscle mechanics at the micro- and macro-levels. Further, we can also describe how aging affects the capacity of skeletal muscle cells, as well as how exercise can prevent aging-based sarcopenia and frailty. The purpose of this review is to introduce and summarise the current knowledge of single muscle fibre mechanics in light of aging and inactivity. We then describe how exercise mitigates negative muscle adaptations that occur under those circumstances. In addition, single muscle fibre mechanics in both animal and human models are discussed.

  15. Comparison of thermal and hemodynamic responses in skin and muscles to heating with electric and magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Glažar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 12.00 Introduction: It has been shown that sufficient amount of energy provided by electromagnetic diathermy induces the increase of skin temperature and underlying tissues. However, scarce information is available on the differences in responses initiated by various techniques of diathermy. The goal of the present study was to compare thermal and hemodynamic responses of the skin and underlying muscles of the forearm to diathermy applied with electric (EF or magnetic field (MF. Methods: Eleven healthy volunteers participated in the study. On two separate occasions, they randomly received 20-minut diathermy with EF or with MF. Skin and tympanic temperature, and heart rate were measured. Further, kinetics of muscle oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin kinetics were obtained. Thermal perception and thermal comfort were noted through the application of EF and MF. Results: The skin temperature increased similarly during the administration of EF and MF, by ~ 8.0 ± 1.3°C on both occasions. The thermal perception was more intense during the application of EF. Accordingly, the thermal comfort during the application of EF was perceived as less comfortable as compared with MF. During MF the increase in minute muscle blood flow and oxygen consumption was for ~ 42 % higher compared to the heating with EF. Conclusion: Although the increase in skin temperature was similar between EF and MF, the application of diathermy with MF was perceived more comfortable by the participants. Furthermore, the increase in minute muscle blood flow and oxygen consumption was higher in MF compared with EF. Thus, when muscle is the target tissue for physical therapy, a diathermy with magnetic field is the technique of choice. Normal 0 21 false false false SL X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Navadna tabela"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso

  16. Quantitative analysis of single muscle fibre action potentials recorded at known distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, B.A.; Put, J.H.M.; Wallinga, W.; Wirtz, P.

    1989-01-01

    In vivo records of single fibre action potentials (SFAPs) have always been obtained at unknown distance from the active muscle fibre. A new experimental method has been developed enabling the derivation of the recording distance in animal experiments. A single fibre is stimulated with an

  17. Single sodium channels from human ventricular muscle in planar lipid bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wartenberg, H. C.; Wartenberg, J. P.; Urban, B. W.

    2001-01-01

    Sodium channels from human ventricular muscle membrane vesicles were incorporated into planar lipid bilayers and the steady-state behavior of single sodium channels were examined in the presence of batrachotoxin. In symmetrical 500 mM NaCl the averaged single channel conductance was 24.7 +/- 1.3 pS

  18. Insulin-Induced Microvascular Recruitment in Skin and Muscle are Related and Both are Associated with Whole-Body Glucose Uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.I.; de Boer, M.P.; Groen, M.R.; Eringa, E.C.; Rattigan, S.; Barrett, E.J.; Smulders, Y.M.; Serné, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Insulin-induced capillary recruitment is considered a determinant of insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Insulin action on the microvasculature has been assessed in skin; however, there is concern as to whether the vascular responses observed in skin reflect those in the muscle. We

  19. Evaluation of the role of the cyclooxygenase signaling pathway during inflammation in skin and muscle tissues of ball pythons (Python regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Ryan A; Schumacher, Juergen P; Rathore, Kusum; Newkirk, Kim M; Cole, Grayson; Seibert, Rachel; Cekanova, Maria

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine degrees of production of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 and other mediators of inflammation in noninflamed and inflamed skin and muscle tissues in ball pythons (Python regius). ANIMALS 6 healthy adult male ball pythons. PROCEDURES Biopsy specimens of noninflamed skin and muscle tissue were collected from anesthetized snakes on day 0. A 2-cm skin and muscle incision was then made 5 cm distal to the biopsy sites with a CO2 laser to induce inflammation. On day 7, biopsy specimens of skin and muscle tissues were collected from the incision sites. Inflamed and noninflamed tissue specimens were evaluated for production of COX-1, COX-2, phosphorylated protein kinase B (AKT), total AKT, nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, phosphorylated extracellular receptor kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2, and total ERK proteins by western blot analysis. Histologic evaluation was performed on H&E-stained tissue sections. RESULTS All biopsy specimens of inflamed skin and muscle tissues had higher histologic inflammation scores than did specimens of noninflamed tissue. Inflamed skin specimens had significantly greater production of COX-1 and phosphorylated ERK than did noninflamed skin specimens. Inflamed muscle specimens had significantly greater production of phosphorylated ERK and phosphorylated AKT, significantly lower production of COX-1, and no difference in production of COX-2, compared with production in noninflamed muscle specimens. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Production of COX-1, but not COX-2, was significantly greater in inflamed versus noninflamed skin specimens from ball pythons. Additional research into the reptilian COX signaling pathway is warranted.

  20. Properties of extensor digitorum longus muscle and skinned fibers from adult and aged male and female Actn3 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephen; Seto, Jane T; Houweling, Peter J; Yang, Nan; North, Kathryn N; Head, Stewart I

    2011-01-01

    Absence of α-actinin-3, encoded by the ACTN3 "speed gene," is associated with poorer sprinting performance in athletes and a slowing of relaxation in fast-twitch muscles of Actn3 knockout (KO) mice. Our first aim was to investigate, at the individual-fiber level, possible mechanisms for this slowed relaxation. Our second aim was to characterize the contractile properties of whole extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from KO mice by age and gender. We examined caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release in mechanically skinned EDL fibers from KO mice, and measured isolated whole EDL contractile properties. The sarcoplasmic reticulum of KO muscle fibers loaded Ca(2+) more slowly than that of wild-types (WTs). Whole KO EDL muscles had longer twitch and tetanus relaxation times than WTs, and reduced mass and cross-sectional area. These effects occurred in both male and female mice, but they diminished with age. These changes in KO muscles and fibers help to explain the effects of α-actinin-3 deficiency observed in athletes. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Single- and multiple-set resistance training improves skeletal and respiratory muscle strength in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahin, Odilon; Rodrigues, Rejane P; Nascimento, Vanderson C; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E; Sousa, Evitom C; Marçal, Anderson C

    2014-01-01

    Aging involves a progressive reduction of respiratory muscle strength as well as muscle strength. Compare the effects of resistance training volume on the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), functional performance, and muscle strength in elderly women. Thirty elderly women were randomly assigned to a group performing either single sets (1-SET) or three sets (3-SET) of exercises. The sit-to-stand test, MIP, MEP, and muscle strength were assessed before and after 24 training sessions. Progressive resistance training was performed two times per week for a total of 8-12 repetitions, using the main muscle groups of the upper and lower limbs. The main results showed that the participants significantly increased their MEP (Ptraining sessions, muscle strength also significantly increased (Ptraining programs increased MIP, MEP, muscle strength, and sit-to-stand test performance in elderly women after 24 sessions of training. In conclusion, our results suggested that elderly women who are not in the habit of physical activity may start with single-set resistance training programs as a short-term strategy for the maintenance of health.

  2. Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant disease involving the skin represents a significant work load to the general radiotherapist and can involve interesting diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Primary skin cancer is also relatively common and there is a need to provide an efficient service in which the first treatment is successful in the majority of patients. The reward for careful attention to technique is very considerable both in terms of clinical cancer control and functional results. Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and intra-epidermal carcinoma constitute the majority of the lesions dealt with clinically, but metastatic disease, lymphomas, and malignant melanomas are also referred regularly for opinions and may require radiotherapy. The general principle of the techniques of assessment and radiotherapeutic management to be described are equally applicable to any malignant skin tumour once the decision has been made to accept it for radiotherapy. Dosage and fractionation may have to be adjusted to allow for the nature of the disease process and the intent of the treatment

  3. Effect of taurine on sarcoplasmic reticulum function and force in skinned fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Anthony J; Berg, Helen M

    2002-01-01

    We examined the effect of taurine on depolarisation-induced force responses and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function in mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of the rat. Taurine (20 mM) produced a small but significant (P Taurine had no statistically significant effect on the slope of the force-pCa curve. Depolarisation-induced force responses in the skinned fibres were markedly increased in peak value by 20 mM taurine, to 120.8 +/- 5.3 % of control measurements (P = 0.0006, n = 27). Taurine (20 mM) significantly increased the SR Ca(2+) accumulation in the skinned fibres by 34.6 +/- 9.3 % compared to control conditions (measured by comparing the integral of caffeine contractures in fibres previously loaded with Ca(2+) in the absence or presence of taurine; P = 0.0014, n = 10). Taurine (20 mM) also increased both the peak and rate of rise of caffeine-induced force responses in the fibres by 29.2 +/- 9.7 % (P = 0.0298, n = 6) and 27.6 +/- 8.9 % (P = 0.037), respectively, compared with controls. This study shows that taurine is a modulator of contractile function in mammalian skeletal muscle. Taurine may increase the size of depolarisation-induced force responses by augmenting SR Ca(2+) accumulation and release.

  4. Effects of ageing on single muscle fibre contractile function following short-term immobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Ortenblad, Niels; Aagaard, Per

    2011-01-01

    Very little attention has been given to the combined effects of healthy ageing and short-term disuse on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of 2 weeks of lower limb cast immobilisation (i.e. disuse) on selected contractile.......05), respectively. In conclusion, 2 weeks of lower limb immobilisation caused greater impairments in single muscle fibre force and specific force in MHC IIa than MHC I fibres independently of age. In contrast, immobilisation-induced changes in Ca(2+) sensitivity that were dependent on age and MHC isoform....... properties of single muscle fibres (n = 378) from vastus lateralis of nine young (24 ± 1 years) and eight old (67 ± 2 years) healthy men with comparable levels of physical activity. Prior to immobilisation, MHC IIa fibres produced higher maximum Ca(2+)-activated force (approx. 32%) and specific force (approx...

  5. Excitation-calcium release uncoupling in aged single human skeletal muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbono, O; O'Rourke, K S; Ettinger, W H

    1995-12-01

    The biological mechanisms underlying decline in muscle power and fatigue with age are not completely understood. The contribution of alterations in the excitation-calcium release coupling in single muscle fibers was explored in this work. Single muscle fibers were voltage-clamped using the double Vaseline gap technique. The samples were obtained by needle biopsy of the vastus lateralis (quadriceps) from 9 young (25-35 years; 25.9 +/- 9.1; 5 female and 4 male) and 11 old subjects (65-75 years; 70.5 +/- 2.3; 6 f, 5 m). Data were obtained from 36 and 39 fibers from young and old subjects, respectively. Subjects included in this study had similar physical activity. Denervated and slow-twitch muscle fibers were excluded from this study. A significant reduction of maximum charge movement (Qmax) and DHP-sensitive Ca current were recorded in muscle fibers from the 65-75 group. Qmax values were 7.6 +/- 0.9 and 3.2 +/- 0.3 nC/muF for young and old muscle fibers, respectively (P charge inactivation or interconversion (charge 1 to charge 2) were found. The peak Ca current was (-)4.7 +/- 0.08 and (-)2.15 +/- 0.11 muA/muF for young and old fibers, respectively (P muscle fibers, respectively. Caffeine (0.5 mM) induced potentiation of the peak calcium transient in both groups. The decrease in the voltage-/Ca-dependent Ca release ratio in old fibers (0.18 +/- 0.02) compared to young fibers (0.47 +/- 0.03) (P skeletal muscle and, the reduction of Ca release is due to DHPR-ryanodine receptor uncoupling in fast-twitch fibers. These alterations can account, at least partially for the skeletal muscle function impairment associated with aging.

  6. Excitation of skinned muscle fibers by imposed ion gradients. IV. Effects of stretch and perchlorate ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, E W

    1989-01-01

    Depolarizing ion gradients stimulate 45Ca release in skeletal muscle fibers skinned by microdissection. Several lines of indirect evidence suggest that sealed transverse (T) tubules rather than sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) are the locus of such stimulatory depolarization. Two implications of this hypothesis were tested. (a) A requirement for signal transmission was evaluated from the stimulation of 45Ca efflux in fibers that had been highly stretched, an intervention that can impair the electrical stimulation of intact fibers. Length was increased over approximately 95-115 s, after loading with 45Ca and rinsing at normal length; prestimulus 45Ca loss due to stretch itself was very small. In the first study, stimulation of 45Ca release by KCl replacement of K propionate was inhibited completely in fibers stretched to twice slack length, compared with fibers at 1.05-1.1 times slack length. Identical protocols did not alter 45Ca release stimulated by caffeine or Mg2+ reduction, implying that SR Ca release per se was fully functional and inhibition was selective for a preceding step in ionic stimulation. In a second study, stimulation by choline Cl replacement of K methanesulfonate, at constant [K+] [Cl-] product, was inhibited strongly; total 45Ca release decreased 69%, and stimulation above control loss decreased 78%, in segments stretched to twice the length at which sarcomere spacing had been 2.2 micron, compared with paired controls from the same fibers kept at 2.3 micron. (b) Perchlorate potentiation of T tubule activation was evaluated in fibers stimulated at constant [K+] [Cl-] at normal length (2.3 micron); this anion shifts the voltage dependence of intramembrane charge movement and contractile activation in intact fibers. Perchlorate (8 mM) potentiated both submaximal stimulation of Ca2+-dependent 45Ca release by partial choline Cl replacement of K methanesulfonate and the small Ca2+-insensitive 45Ca efflux component stimulated by nearly full replacement in

  7. Effects of ageing on single muscle fibre contractile function following short-term immobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Ørtenblad, Niels; Aagaard, Per

    2011-01-01

    Very little attention has been given to the combined effect of healthy ageing and short-term disuse on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of 2 weeks of lower limb cast immobilisation (i.e. disuse) on selected contractile...... properties of single muscle fibres (n=378) from vastus lateralis of 9 young (24 ± 1 years) and 8 old (67 ± 2 years) healthy men with comparable levels of physical activity. Prior to immobilisation, MHC IIa fibres produced higher maximum Ca2+-activated force (approx. 32%) and specific force (approx. 33......%) and had lower Ca2+ sensitivity than MHC I fibres (p...

  8. Quantitative evaluation of muscle synergy models: a single-trial task decoding approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis eDelis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Muscle synergies, i.e. invariant coordinated activations of groups of muscles, have been proposed as building blocks that the central nervous system uses to construct the patterns of muscle activity utilized for executing movements. Several efficient dimensionality reduction algorithms that extract putative synergies from electromyographic (EMG signals have been developed. Typically, the quality of synergy decompositions is assessed by computing the variance accounted for (VAF. Yet, little is known about the extent to which the combination of those synergies encodes task-discriminating variations of muscle activity in individual trials. To address this question, here we conceive and develop a novel computational framework to evaluate muscle synergy decompositions in task space. Unlike previous methods considering the total variance of muscle patterns (VAF based metrics, our approach focuses on variance discriminating execution of different tasks. The procedure is based on single-trial task decoding from muscle synergy activation features. The task decoding based metric evaluates quantitatively the mapping between synergy recruitment and task identification and automatically determines the minimal number of synergies that captures all the task-discriminating variability in the synergy activations. In this paper, we first validate the method on plausibly simulated EMG datasets. We then show that it can be applied to different types of muscle synergy decomposition and illustrate its applicability to real data by using it for the analysis of EMG recordings during an arm pointing task. We find that time-varying and synchronous synergies with similar number of parameters are equally efficient in task decoding, suggesting that in this experimental paradigm they are equally valid representations of muscle synergies. Overall, these findings stress the effectiveness of the decoding metric in systematically assessing muscle synergy decompositions in task

  9. Quantitative evaluation of muscle synergy models: a single-trial task decoding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Ioannis; Berret, Bastien; Pozzo, Thierry; Panzeri, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Muscle synergies, i.e., invariant coordinated activations of groups of muscles, have been proposed as building blocks that the central nervous system (CNS) uses to construct the patterns of muscle activity utilized for executing movements. Several efficient dimensionality reduction algorithms that extract putative synergies from electromyographic (EMG) signals have been developed. Typically, the quality of synergy decompositions is assessed by computing the Variance Accounted For (VAF). Yet, little is known about the extent to which the combination of those synergies encodes task-discriminating variations of muscle activity in individual trials. To address this question, here we conceive and develop a novel computational framework to evaluate muscle synergy decompositions in task space. Unlike previous methods considering the total variance of muscle patterns (VAF based metrics), our approach focuses on variance discriminating execution of different tasks. The procedure is based on single-trial task decoding from muscle synergy activation features. The task decoding based metric evaluates quantitatively the mapping between synergy recruitment and task identification and automatically determines the minimal number of synergies that captures all the task-discriminating variability in the synergy activations. In this paper, we first validate the method on plausibly simulated EMG datasets. We then show that it can be applied to different types of muscle synergy decomposition and illustrate its applicability to real data by using it for the analysis of EMG recordings during an arm pointing task. We find that time-varying and synchronous synergies with similar number of parameters are equally efficient in task decoding, suggesting that in this experimental paradigm they are equally valid representations of muscle synergies. Overall, these findings stress the effectiveness of the decoding metric in systematically assessing muscle synergy decompositions in task space.

  10. The effects of surface condition on abdominal muscle activity during single-legged hold exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sung-min; Oh, Jae-seop; Jeon, In-cheol; Kwon, Oh-yun

    2015-02-01

    To treat low-back pain, various spinal stability exercises are commonly used to improve trunk muscle function and strength. Because human movement for normal daily activity occurs in multi-dimensions, the importance of exercise in multi-dimensions or on unstable surfaces has been emphasized. Recently, a motorized rotating platform (MRP) for facilitating multi-dimensions dynamic movement was introduced for clinical use. However, the abdominal muscle activity with this device has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare the abdominal muscle activity (rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique muscles) during an active single-leg-hold (SLH) exercise on a floor (stable surface), foam roll, and motorized rotating platform (MRP). Thirteen healthy male subjects participated in this study. Using electromyography, the abdominal muscle activity was measured while the subjects performed SLH exercises on floor (stable surface), foam roll, and MRP. There were significant differences in the abdominal muscle activities among conditions (P.05) (Fig. 2). After the Bonferroni correction, however, no significant differences among conditions remained, except for differences in both side IO muscle activity between the floor and foam roll conditions (padjactivities of both side of RA and IO, and Rt. EO compared to floor condition. However, there were no significant differences in abdominal muscles activity in the multiple comparison between conditions (mean difference were smaller than the standard deviation in the abdominal muscle activities) (padj>0.017), except for differences in both side IO muscle activity between the floor (stable surface) and foam roll (padj<0.017) (effect size: 0.79/0.62 (non-supporting/supporting leg) for foam-roll versus floor). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Safety and efficacy of high fluence CO2 laser skin resurfacing with a single pass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosh, M M; Larrabee, W F; Smoller, B

    1999-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser skin resurfacing has nearly replaced more traditional methods of superficial skin rejuvenation. Post-treatment erythema is the most common side effect of this method of skin resurfacing. Sublethal thermal damage to the dermis has been proposed as an etiology for post laser erythema. Recent developments in laser resurfacing technology have aimed at minimizing thermal damage to the dermis. To determine depth of skin ablation, extent of thermal injury, and ideal laser parameters for the FeatherTouch laser system. To assess the safety and efficacy of laser resurfacing at high energy fluences with a single pass. Laser resurfacing was performed in the preauricular skin of five patients undergoing rhytidectomy. A total of 60 sites were tested with fluences of 7 to 17 Joules/cm2. Histologic evaluation of excised skin showed maximal thermal injury to be restricted to 60 microns in the papillary dermis. The reticular dermis showed no evidence of injury. Based on these findings, laser resurfacing at 17 J/cm2 (70 watts) was performed on 30 patients (in the periorbital area, a maximum of 9 J/cm2 or 36 watts was used). Follow up ranged between 12 and 18 months. Based on histologic comparison of average and high fluence laser resurfacing, high fluence laser resurfacing did not cause added thermal damage to the reticular dermis. In the clinical group, no major complications such as scarring, scleral show, infection or ectropion were encountered. Transient hyperpigmentation was noted in three patients. Overall patient satisfaction was good to excellent. Post-treatment erythema lasted an average of 4 weeks. We conclude that CO2 laser resurfacing of the face (excluding the periorbital region) can be performed safely and effectively, with the FeatherTouch laser, at 17 J/cm2 with one pass. In our group of patients, laser resurfacing with a single pass at 17 J/cm2 caused less post-operative erythema than two or more passes at 9 J/cm2.

  12. The effect of icepack cooling on skin and muscle tempera- ture at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The skinfold thickness was measured at this point using skin callipers (John Bull skinfold callipers, British Indicators, England) and the thickness of adipose tissue was taken as half the skinfold thickness. A cutaneous temperature probe (YSI 4494, Yellow Springs. Instrument Co) was attached to the skin over the middle of.

  13. Muscle power failure in mobility-limited older adults: preserved single fiber function despite lower whole muscle size, quality and rate of neuromuscular activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kieran F; Doros, Gheorghe; Clark, David J; Patten, Carolynn; Carabello, Robert J; Cloutier, Gregory J; Phillips, Edward M; Krivickas, Lisa S; Frontera, Walter R; Fielding, Roger A

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the physiological and gender determinants of the age-related loss of muscle power in 31 healthy middle-aged adults (aged 40-55 years), 28 healthy older adults (70-85 years) and 34 mobility-limited older adults (70-85 years). We hypothesized that leg extensor muscle power would be significantly lower in mobility-limited elders relative to both healthy groups and sought to characterize the physiological mechanisms associated with the reduction of muscle power with aging. Computed tomography was utilized to assess mid-thigh body composition and calculate specific muscle power and strength. Surface electromyography was used to assess rate of neuromuscular activation and muscle biopsies were taken to evaluate single muscle fiber contractile properties. Peak muscle power, strength, muscle cross-sectional area, specific muscle power and rate of neuromuscular activation were significantly lower among mobility-limited elders compared to both healthy groups (P ≤ 0.05). Mobility-limited older participants had greater deposits of intermuscular adipose tissue (P mobility-limited elders relative to both healthy groups. Male gender was associated with greater decrements in peak and specific muscle power among mobility-limited participants. Impairments in the rate of neuromuscular activation and concomitant reductions in muscle quality are important physiological mechanisms contributing to muscle power deficits and mobility limitations. The dissociation between age-related changes at the whole muscle and single fiber level suggest that, even among older adults with overt mobility problems, contractile properties of surviving muscle fibers are preserved in an attempt to maintain overall muscle function.

  14. Isolation and individual electrical stimulation of single smooth-muscle cells from the urinary bladder of the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Glerum (Jacobus); R. van Mastrigt (Ron); J.C. Romijn (Johannes); D.J. Griffiths (Derek)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractIn contrast to striated muscle, measurements on strips of smooth muscle cannot be uniquely interpreted in terms of an array of contractile units. Therefore scaling down to the single-cell level is necessary to gain detailed understanding of the contractile process in this type of muscle.

  15. Characterizing rapid-onset vasodilation to single muscle contractions in the human leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credeur, Daniel P.; Holwerda, Seth W.; Restaino, Robert M.; King, Phillip M.; Crutcher, Kiera L.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Padilla, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    Rapid-onset vasodilation (ROV) following single muscle contractions has been examined in the forearm of humans, but has not yet been characterized in the leg. Given known vascular differences between the arm and leg, we sought to characterize ROV following single muscle contractions in the leg. Sixteen healthy men performed random ordered single contractions at 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) using isometric knee extension made with the leg above and below heart level, and these were compared with single isometric contractions of the forearm (handgrip). Single thigh cuff compressions (300 mmHg) were utilized to estimate the mechanical contribution to leg ROV. Continuous blood flow was determined by duplex-Doppler ultrasound and blood pressure via finger photoplethysmography (Finometer). Single isometric knee extensor contractions produced intensity-dependent increases in peak leg vascular conductance that were significantly greater than the forearm in both the above- and below-heart level positions (e.g., above heart level: leg 20% MVC, +138 ± 28% vs. arm 20% MVC, +89 ± 17%; P leg. Collectively, these data demonstrate the presence of a rapid and robust vasodilation to single muscle contractions in the leg that is largely independent of mechanical factors, thus establishing the leg as a viable model to study ROV in humans. PMID:25539935

  16. Efficacy and safety of topical depigmenting agent in healthy human fair skin female volunteers: A single-arm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saurabh; Chew, Soon-Keong

    2017-11-28

    Skin hyperpigmentation is the darkening of skin due to the increased production of melanin in the body. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a botanical-based Rosa E pigmentation serum in healthy fair skin female volunteers with wrinkles, skin tone, and pigmentation. This was a single-arm, open label study conducted in healthy Indian females; 18 subjects aged 30-55, having fair Caucasian-like skin with at least 2 dark skin pigments with facial wrinkles diagnosed by dermatologist were selected. Rosa E pigmentation serum was applied twice a day for 84 days. Effect was evaluated by (i) instrumental technique (spectrophotometer ® 2600D), (ii) clinically by dermatologist regarding product efficacy (skin tone, antiwrinkle, pigmentation), and (iii) volunteers self-evaluation. The L* value of spectrophotometer reading represents lightness in the skin pigment. Reduction in the pigment was reported from day 14, with significant reductions observed till day 84 compared with baseline. Significant (P < .0001) skin pigmentation lightening was seen on day 14 (1.11) vastly improving on day 84 (1.94) based on photographic assessments. The significant reduction in skin pigment was 76.85%, Felix von Luschan skin color score was 30.24% (P < .0001) with a 7.38-fold reduction in skin tone and 57% reduction in facial wrinkles at day 84 from baseline. Rosa E pigmentation serum was found safe and effective in significant reduction in skin pigments, improvement of skin tone, and antiwrinkle properties instrumentally, clinically, and self-evaluation by volunteers. In these evaluations, best results were seen the longer the Rosa E was used. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sensitivity of the amplitude of the single muscle fibre action potential to microscopic volume conduction parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, B.A.; Rutten, Wim; Wallinga, W.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1988-01-01

    A microscopic model of volume conduction was applied to examine the sensitivity of the single muscle fibre action potential to variations in parameters of the source and of the volume conductor, such as conduction velocity, intracellular conductivity and intracellular volume fraction. The model

  18. Single sodium channels from human skeletal muscle in planar lipid bilayers: characterization and response to pentobarbital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wartenberg, Hans C.; Urban, Bernd W.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the response to general anesthetics of different sodium-channel subtypes, we examined the effects of pentobarbital, a close thiopental analogue, on single sodium channels from human skeletal muscle and compared them to existing data from human brain and human ventricular

  19. Mechanical properties of mammalian single smooth muscle cells. I. A low cost large range microforce transducer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Glerum (Jacobus); R. van Mastrigt (Ron)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA transducer has been developed for measuring the minute forces generated during isometric contractions (1.0-10.0 microN) of single smooth muscle cells from the pig urinary bladder and the human uterus. In addition to its high sensitivity, resolution and stability (100 mV microN-1, and

  20. Cryopreservation with dimethyl sulfoxide prevents accurate analysis of skinned skeletal muscle fibers mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Alain; Charles, Anne-Laure; Zoll, Joffrey; Guillot, Max; Lejay, Anne; Singh, François; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve; Pistea, Cristina; Charloux, Anne; Geny, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Impact of cryopreservation protocols on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration remains controversial. We showed that oxygen consumption with main mitochondrial substrates in rat skeletal muscles was higher in fresh samples than in cryopreserved samples and that this difference was not fixed but grow significantly with respiration rates with wide fluctuations around the mean difference. Very close results were observed whatever the muscle type and the substrate used. Importantly, the deleterious effects of ischemia-reperfusion observed on fresh samples vanished when cryopreserved samples were studied. These data demonstrate that this technic should probably be performed only extemporaneously. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Forensic Image Analyses of Skin and Underlying Muscles as a Tool for Postmortem Interval Delimitation: Histopathologic Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Moselhy, Walaa A; Hassan, Nour El-Houda Y

    2017-06-01

    One of the biggest challenges for forensic pathologists is to diagnose the postmortem interval (PMI) delimitation; therefore, the aim of this study was to use a routine histopathologic examination and quantitative analysis to obtain an accurate diagnosis of PMI. The current study was done by using 24 adult male albino rats divided into 8 groups based on the scarification schedule (0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, and 72 hours PMI). Skin specimens were collected and subjected to a routine histopathologic processing. Examination of hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections from the skin, its appendages and underlying muscles were carried out. Morphometric analysis of epidermal nuclear chromatin intensities and area percentages, reticular dermis integrated density, and sebaceous gland nuclei areas and chromatin condensation was done. Progressive histopathologic changes could be detected in epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, underlying muscles including nerve endings, and red blood cells in relation to hours PMI. Significant difference was found in epidermal nuclear chromatin intensities at different-hours PMI (at P PMI. Quantitative analysis of measurements of dermal collagen area percentages revealed a high significant difference between 0 hours PMI and 24 to 72 hours PMI (P PMI increases, sebaceous gland nuclei and nuclear chromatin condensation showed a dramatic decrease. Significant differences of sebaceous gland nuclei areas between 0 hours and different-hours PMI (P PMI.

  2. Localizations of γ-Actins in Skin, Hair, Vibrissa, Arrector Pili Muscle and Other Hair Appendages of Developing Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Kiyokazu; Takano-Ohmuro, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Six isoforms of actins encoded by different genes have been identified in mammals including α-cardiac, α-skeletal, α-smooth muscle (α-SMA), β-cytoplasmic, γ-smooth muscle (γ-SMA), and γ-cytoplasmic actins (γ-CYA). In a previous study we showed the localization of α-SMA and other cytoskeletal proteins in the hairs and their appendages of developing rats (Morioka K., et al. (2011) Acta Histochem. Cytochem. 44, 141–153), and herein we determined the localization of γ type actins in the same tissues and organs by immunohistochemical staining. Our results indicate that the expression of γ-SMA and γ-CYA is suggested to be poor in actively proliferating tissues such as the basal layer of the epidermis and the hair matrix in the hair bulb, and as well as in highly keratinized tissues such as the hair cortex and hair cuticle. In contrast, the expression of γ-actins were high in the spinous layer, granular layer, hair shaft, and inner root sheath, during their active differentiations. In particular, the localization of γ-SMA was very similar to that of α-SMA. It was located not only in the arrector pili muscles and muscles in the dermis, but also in the dermal sheath and in a limited area of the outer root sheath in both the hair and vibrissal follicles. The γ-CYA was suggested to be co-localized with γ-SMA in the dermal sheath, outer root sheath, and arrector pili muscles. Sparsely distributed dermal cells expressed both types of γ-actin. The expression of γ-actins is suggested to undergo dynamic changes according to the proliferation and differentiation of the skin and hair-related cells

  3. The effect of a single dose of morphine on muscle fatigue indices in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Amiresmaili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Endogenous opioids and addictive opiate drugs change many body functions. . Previous studies have referred to the effects of morphine on smooth and pulmonary muscles ., but the  effects of opioids on skeletal muscles is not known well. Thus, the current study aimed at assessing the effect of a single dose of morphine on muscle fatigue in male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats weighing 220-270 g were randomly divided into four equal groups: control (the mice were kept in their cages and received food and water, morphine receiving group, fatigue group (the mice in this group were kept running on  a treadmill . for120 minutes at a rate of 20 meters per minute, and morphine plus fatigue group. At the end of the experiments, blood samples were obtained from the corner of their eyes and were sent to the laboratory for measurement of muscle fatigue indexes including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine phosphokinase (CPK. Results: Administration of morphine to the fatigue group decreased running time compared with the control group (P=0.009. Furthermore, administration of morphine to the fatigue group significantly increased serum levels of LDH (P=0.009 and CPK (P=0.008. Conclusion: The present study showed that administration of a single dose of morphine in rats increases muscle fatigue biomarkers (LDH, CPK.

  4. Comparison of CO(2) laser and 4.0 MHz radiosurgery for making incisions in the skin and muscles of green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Divers, S J; Stahl, S J; Rakich, P M; Blas-Machado, U

    2009-01-03

    Four green iguanas scheduled for euthanasia were used to compare the extent of collateral tissue damage associated with CO(2) laser and 4.0 MHz radiosurgery. The iguanas were anaesthetised and a series of three skin and three muscle incisions was made by 4.0 MHz radiosurgery (0.18 mm wire electrode, 25 W, cut mode) and CO(2) laser (0.3 mm ceramic tip, 15 W focused beam super-pulse mode), and three incisions were made with a scalpel blade as controls. Following euthanasia, a total of 60 skin and 36 muscle sections were evaluated histologically. Radiosurgery and the laser both produced bloodless incisions, but radiosurgery caused significantly less collateral tissue damage in the skin (307 [97] v 386 [108] microm) and the muscle (18 [7] v 91 [15] microm).

  5. Evaluation of haemoglobin changes of skin and muscle tissue of the calf induced by topical application of a nonivamide / nicoboxil cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, Jan; Wendt, Thomas; Schak, Matthias; Schiffer, Thorsten; Bloch, Wilhelm; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias

    2011-07-01

    Topical agents inducing hyperaemisation like nonivamide or nicoboxil increase cutaneous blood flow and temperature and induce erythema. It is not proven up to now whether there is also a hyperaemisation effect in skeletal muscle. This study has the objective to determine the effects of a nonivamide / nicoboxil cream on haemodynamics in skin and calf muscle via optical spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared with a separation of changes for skin and muscle. Left and right calves of 14 healthy subjects were treated with a nonivamide / nicoboxil cream or mock administration, and cutaneous and muscle haemoglobin were measured using a combined NIRS / VIS sensor. The topical application of the cream increased the concentration of oxygenated haemoglobin and tissue oxygen saturation significantly in skin as well as in muscle of the treated legs already after 15 minutes, with stronger and faster effects in skin. In contrast, the change in deoxygenated haemoglobin was found to be small. The kinetic of all changes varied widely between the subjects. The found haemoglobin changes might explain the beneficial effect of hyperaemisation creams for the treatment of minor injuries.

  6. Skin closure methods after single port laparoscopic surgery: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sue Yeon; Kim, Kye Hyun; Yuk, Jin-Sung; Ji, Hyun Young; Lee, Jung Hun

    2015-06-01

    To compare postoperative cosmetic outcomes according to different umbilical closure methods after single port laparoscopic surgery (SP-LS). A total of 138 women who were scheduled to receive elective SP-LS were randomized to undergo closure of the umbilical incision with either a subcutaneous suture only without subcuticular skin suture (case group, n=68) or both a subcutaneous suture and subcuticular skin suture (control group, n=70) after fascial closure. At postoperative months 1 and 3, the umbilical scar was evaluated using the Vancouver scar scale (VSS), the patient and observer scar assessment scale, and a visual analog scale (VAS). Overall satisfaction with scar cosmesis and surgery was assessed with the VAS. There was no significant difference in the clinical characteristics and operative data between the groups. The objective and subjective scar assessments and the overall satisfaction with scar cosmesis were not different between the groups. In the control group, four (5.7%) women experienced wound discharge and were treated with conservative treatments and delayed closure. In women who completed the first and second assessments, the changes in the scar assessment and overall satisfaction with the scar according to time after surgery were not different in either group, but the patient scar assessment scale in both groups and the VSS in the case group improved. After SP-LS, the approximation of the fascia and subcutaneous layer seems to be enough for the closure of an umbilical incision. Skin closure with subcuticular sutures did not improve the postoperative cosmetic outcomes and might lead to impaired wound healing. However, large randomized trials with various closure techniques and materials are needed to confirm this finding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Comparing the Leg Muscles Electromyography during Single Leg Drop Landing in Pesplanus and Normal Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mostafa bazvand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: pesplanus is one of the changes that brings about changes in muscle activation patterns. Being aware of muscles activity changes in various standing positions among pesplanus patients provides insights into preventing lower extremity injuries in this population. The aim of this study was to compare leg muscles electromyography during various standing positions in pesplanus and normal subjects. Methods: 60 healthy male university students, 30 subjects with pesplanus deformity (with average age 23/54±3/57 year, average height 175/34±7/62 cm, average weight 74/87±10/72 kg and 30 normal subjects (with average age 22/97±2/38 year, average height 176/6±5/59 cm, average weight 73/58±8/36 kg participated in this comparative study. Deformity of pesplanus was assessed with navicular drop test. Each subject performed single-leg landing dropping from 30cm height onto a force platform where muscles activity was recorded with EMG device. For data analysis, Matlab and Spss softwares were used and independent sample t-test was used to compare the dependent variables at a significance level of P &le 0/05. Results: Significant differences were observed between the two groups for the activities of the longus peroneus and anterior tibialis muscles ( p&le0/05 while no significant differences were observed in other muscles. Conclusion: The changes in the normal structure of the foot might affect muscle activities during standing, which can cause changes in the injury patterns. Therefore, it is proposed that focusing on corrective exercises and therapy plan can reduce these risks.

  8. [AO distribution and fluorescence spectra in myoblasts and single muscle fibres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaeva, T N; Krolenko, S A; Leont'eva, E A; Mozhenok, T P; Salova, A V; Faddeeva, M D

    2009-01-01

    Using spectral scanning regime of Leica TCS SL confocal microscope, acridine orange (AO) fluorescence spectra in nuclei and cytoplasms of living myoblasts L6J1 and frog single muscle fibres have been studied. AO fluorescence spectra in salt solutions dependent on free AO concentrations and in AO complexes with DNA have also been obtained for comparison. Myoblasts nuclei fluoresced in green spectral region with maximum at approximately 530 nm (corresponding AO monomers fluorescence), nucleoli fluoresced most brightly. Nuclear chromatin fluoresced not uniformly in these cells. We saw similar to myoblasts AO emission in nucleoli and nuclei of frog single muscle fibres. The uniformed weak green fluorescence was observed for myoblast cytoplasm. As to the muscle fibres sarcoplasm, we saw also AO green fluorescence in A-discs. In myoblasts and muscle fibre cytoplasm we saw the fluorescent red, yellow and green granules which were acidic organelles. The comparison of AO fluorescence spectra in living cells with fluorescence spectra of different AO concentrations and complexes of AO with DNA in buffer solutions allows estimation of AO concentration in acidic granules which is of interest in the investigation of cellular organelles functions in the processes of intracellular transport, adaptation, apoptosis and a number of pathological conditions.

  9. Single sodium channels from human skeletal muscle in planar lipid bilayers: characterization and response to pentobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, Hans C; Urban, Bernd W

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the response to general anesthetics of different sodium-channel subtypes, we examined the effects of pentobarbital, a close thiopental analogue, on single sodium channels from human skeletal muscle and compared them to existing data from human brain and human ventricular muscle channels. Sodium channels from a preparation of human skeletal muscle were incorporated into planar lipid bilayers, and the steady-state behavior of single sodium channels and their response to pentobarbital was examined in the presence of batrachotoxin, a sodium-channel activator. Single-channel currents were recorded before and after the addition of pentobarbital (0.34-1.34 mM). In symmetrical 500 mM NaCl, human skeletal muscle sodium channels had an averaged single-channel conductance of 21.0 +/- 0.6 pS, and the channel fractional open time was 0.96 +/- 0.04. The activation midpoint potential was -96.2 +/- 1.6 mV. Extracellular tetrodotoxin blocked the channel with a half-maximal concentration (k1/2) of 60 nM at 0 mV. Pentobarbital reduced the time-averaged conductance of single skeletal muscle sodium channels in a concentration-dependent manner (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50] = 0.66 mM). The steady-state activation was shifted to more hyperpolarized potentials (-16.7 mV at 0.67 mM pentobarbital). In the planar lipid bilayer system, skeletal muscle sodium channels have some electrophysiological properties that are significantly different compared with those of sodium channels from cardiac or from central nervous tissue. In contrast to the control data, these different human sodium channel subtypes showed the same qualitative and quantitative response to the general anesthetic pentobarbital. The implication of these effects for overall anesthesia will depend on the role the individual channels play within their neuronal networks, but suppression of both central nervous system and peripheral sodium channels may add to general anesthetic effects.

  10. Changes in satellite cells in human skeletal muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crameri, Regina M; Langberg, Henning; Magnusson, Peter

    2004-01-01

    No studies to date have reported activation of satellite cells in vivo in human muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise. In this investigation, eight individuals performed a single bout of high intensity exercise with one leg, the contralateral leg being the control. A significant...... increase in mononuclear cells staining for the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) and fetal antigen 1 (FA1) were observed within the exercised human vastus lateralis muscle on days 4 and 8 post exercise. In addition, a significant increase in the concentration of the FA1 protein was determined...... in the control leg. Despite this increase in N-CAM- and FA1-positive mononuclear cells, an increased expression of myogenin and the neonatal isoform of the myosin heavy chain (MHCn) was not observed. Interestingly, myofibre lesions resulting from extensive damage to the proteins within the myofibre, particularly...

  11. Enhanced procollagen processing in skeletal muscle after a single bout of eccentric loading in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crameri, Regina M; Langberg, Henning; Teisner, Børge

    2004-01-01

    young healthy male subjects performed a single bout of unaccustomed high intensity eccentric exercise on one leg, with the contralateral leg being the control. A significant increase in the muscle interstitial concentration of the N-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (PINP) was observed (day 0: 1......-terminal propeptide of procollagen type III (PIIINP) was also shown in the exercising leg only. Further, from day 2 post-exercise, immunoreactivity for tenascin C and reactive macrophages (CD68+ cells) was seen within the perimysial and endomysial connective tissue of the exercising leg only, indicating a high...... mechanical load and inflammation. This study shows that following a single bout of high intensity eccentric exercise there is an increase in procollagen processing within skeletal muscle in humans....

  12. Effect of BCNU on mouse skin and spinal cord in single drug and radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelieveld, P.; Brown, J.M.; Goffinet, D.R.; Schoeppel, S.L.; Scoles, M.

    1979-01-01

    We set out to determine whether any interaction occurs between BCNU and radiation for the mouse skin and spinal cord. Single doses of BCNU of 10, 20, or 30 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally as a function of time before or after irradiation of the foot or spinal cord of anesthesized C3H mice. Enhancement of the radiation skin reaction (dose enhancement factor = 1.3) was seen when BCNU (30 mg/kg) was given 1 day, 6 hr, and 2 hr prior to irradiation of the foot with 2,500 rad, and a larger DEF of 1.6 was observed when BCNU was given immediately before the radiation dose. However, with a different mouse strain (BALB/c) not anesthetized at the time of irradiation, no significant enhancement following a dose of 20 mg/kg BCNU was observed. Experiments are in progress to determine the cause of these differences. BCNU (10 mg/kg) was given 24 hr or immediately prior to various single doses of radiation to a 12 mm segment of the mouse spinal cord (T/sub 11-12/ to L/sub 1-2/), and the subsequent myelitis was scored monthly. The addition of BCNU to irradiation did not accelerate the development of myelitis, not the ultimate proportion of animals developing hind limb paralysis: the 50% myelitis dose at 10 months (MD/sub 50/10/sub mo/) values for irradiation alone, BCNU at the time of irradiation and 24 hr before were 3,722, 3,795 and 3,853 rad, respectively

  13. Improvement in hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength following cruciate-retaining single radius total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowicki, Jennifer; Khlopas, Anton; Sultan, Assem A; Sodhi, Nipun; Samuel, Linsen T; Chughtai, Morad; Roche, Martin; Bonutti, Peter M; Mont, Michael A

    2017-12-01

    The ability to reach full functional capacity following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is reliant on the strength of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles. Weakness of these muscles can persist anywhere from 1 to 3 years post-operatively. There remains considerable controversy as to what factors influence restoration of muscle strength after TKA. Implant designs have been implicated in the ability of patients to recover. Currently there is a paucity of literature available describing the influence of patient characteristics, surgical factors, and clinical outcomes on quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength following TKA with a cruciate-retaining, single radius (SR) implant. For this reason, we sought to investigate TKA patients for: (I) quadriceps muscle strength; (II) hamstring muscle strength; (III) flexion/extension (F/E) ratio; (IV) clinical outcome scores; (V) influence of patient characteristics on muscle strength at one-year post-operatively. A review of TKA patients who were assessed for hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength was conducted. A total of 39 patients (26 men and 13 women), who had a mean age of 68 years (range, 51 to 88 years) were included. Isokinetic dynamometer testing at 180 degree/second for 3 sets of 10 repetitions in extension and flexion were performed by an independent physical therapist to assess dynamic concentric torque of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscle. F/E ratios were calculated. TKA was performed via subvastus (n=20) or midvastus (n=19) approach. Subgroup analysis for surgical approach, concomitant spinal pathology (n=11), gender, age and body mass index (BMI) were performed. Knee Society Scores (KSS) and range of motion (ROM) were assessed at each visit. Comparisons of groups were performed using paired t -tests. Mean postoperative relative extension torque was 23 Nm/kg (range, 9 to 43 Nm/kg), representing a mean increase of 38% (range, -16% to 100%; P=0.0267) from pre-operative status. A mean increase of 27% (range, -15

  14. Effects of cyclopiazonic acid, a novel Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor, on contractile responses in skinned ileal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyama, Y.; Imaizumi, Y.; Watanabe, M.

    1992-01-01

    1. Effects of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a specific inhibitor of the Ca(2+)-ATPase in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal and cardiac muscles, on contractile responses induced by Ca(2+)-release from intracellular storage sites were examined in the longitudinal smooth muscle strip of the guinea-pig ileum skinned with beta-escin. 2. Ca(2+)-loading of storage sites (Ca(2+)-uptake) was performed in pCa 6.3 solution. The amount of Ca2+ taken up was monitored by use of the amplitude of contraction following application of 25 mM caffeine or 25 microM inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). 3. Contractile responses to caffeine or IP3 were reduced or abolished when the preceding Ca(2+)-uptake was performed in the presence of 0.1-10 microM CPA. The dose of CPA required to inhibit the contraction induced by caffeine or IP3 by 50% was approximately 0.6 microM. The CPA-sensitive Ca(2+)-uptake completely depended upon the presence of ATP in the solution during Ca(2+)-uptake. 4. When 1 microM CPA was added after Ca(2+)-uptake, the subsequent caffeine- or IP3-induced contraction was not significantly affected by the presence of CPA. 5. Acetylcholine-induced contraction was also almost abolished when the preceding Ca(2+)-uptake was performed in the presence of 10 microM CPA. 6. The relationship between pCa and contraction was not affected by the presence of 10 microM CPA in skinned fibres where Ca2+ storage sites had been destroyed by treatment with A23187. The enhancement of contraction in pCa 6.0 solution by calmodulin was not affected by 10 microM CPA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1387024

  15. Activation of fast skeletal muscle: contributions of studies on skinned fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, E W

    1981-01-01

    The membrane potential of vertebrate twitch fibers closely controls Ca fluxes between intracellular compartments, which in turn control contraction. Recent work on intracellular Ca movement is reviewed in the general context of current efforts to synthesize physiological, biochemical, and structural observations on the contractile mechanism and its regulation, emphasizing the increasing role of functionally skinned fibers in this synthesis. Skinned fiber preparations, with removed or disrupted sarcolemma, bridge the gap between properties of isolated subsystems and their constrained operation in the intact fiber. Recent studies indicate that the surface action potential propagates along the transverse tubules, but not the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), which appears to be a distinct intracellular compartment. Voltage-dependent charge movements in the transverse tubules probably control Ca flux across the SR membranes. Current questions concern the mechanism of the signal that bridges the junctional gap between the two membrane systems, the mechanism and properties of the activated Ca efflux to the myofilament space, and the operation of the Ca pump of the SR during activation. New methods applied to intact fibers, cut fibers, skinned fibers, and subcellular systems are yielding the kind of information needed for a complete description of these central steps in excitation-contraction coupling and of Ca regulation of the myofilaments.

  16. Ankle muscle activity modulation during single-leg stance differs between children, young adults and seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Eduard; Faude, Oliver; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Donath, Lars

    2018-02-01

    Incomplete maturation and aging-induced declines of the neuromuscular system affect postural control both in children and older adults and lead to high fall rates. Age-specific comparisons of the modulation of ankle muscle activation and behavioral center of pressure (COP) indices during upright stance have been rarely conducted. The objective of the present study was to quantify aging effects on a neuromuscular level. Thus, surface electromyography (SEMG) modulation and co-activity of ankle muscles during single-leg standing was compared in healthy children, young adults and seniors. Postural steadiness (velocity and mean sway frequency of COP), relative muscle activation (SEMG modulation) and co-activation of two ankle muscles (tibialis anterior, TA; soleus, SO) were examined during single-leg stance in 19 children [age, 9.7 (SD 0.5) years], 30 adults [23.3 (1.5) years] and 29 seniors [62.7 (6.1) years]. Velocity of COP in medio-lateral and anterior-posterior directions, mean sway frequency in anterior-posterior direction, relative muscle activation (TA and SO) and co-activation revealed large age effects (P  0.14). Post-hoc comparisons indicated higher COP velocities, anterior-posterior frequencies, relative SO activation and co-activation in children and seniors when compared with adults. Relative TA activation was higher in children and adults compared with seniors (P modulation. However, TA modulation is higher in children and adults, whereas seniors' TA modulation capacity is diminished. An aging-induced decline of TA motor units might account for deteriorations of TA modulation in seniors.

  17. Muscle free amino acid profiles are related to differences in skeletal muscle growth between single and twin ovine fetuses near term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Francisco; Pacheco, David; Blair, Hugh; Kenyon, Paul; McCoard, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Twin sheep fetuses have reduced skeletal muscle weight near birth relative to singles as a result of restricted muscle hypertrophy. Intracellular free amino acids (FAA) are reported to regulate metabolic pathways which control muscle protein accretion, whereby reduced intracellular content of specific FAA may reduce their activation and therefore, muscle hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to determine whether differences in muscle weight between singleton and twin fetuses, under different maternal conditions is associated with reduced concentration of specific FAA. The FAA content in the semitendinosus muscle (ST) in singleton and twin fetuses (rank) at 140 days of gestation from heavy (H) or light (L) ewes fed ad libitum (A) or maintenance (M) level of nutrition was measured. Muscle weight was reduced in twin fetuses compared to singletons in all groups. Reduced concentrations of leucine, threonine and valine, but higher concentrations of methionine, ornithine, lysine and serine were found in twin fetuses compared to singletons. Maternal size and nutrition interaction with rank resulted in reduced glutamine in twins from HM-ewes (H-ewes under M nutrition) compared to their singleton counterparts. Maternal weight interaction with pregnancy rank reduced the concentration of arginine in twins, with a larger effect on H-ewes compared with L-ewes. Maternal size interaction with pregnancy rank resulted in twins from M-ewes to have lower alanine, while twins from A-ewes had lower aspartic acid concentration compared to singletons. The ST muscle weight was positively correlated only with arginine concentration after taking into account rank, size and nutrition. The present results indicate that reduced concentrations of specific intracellular FAA, such as arginine, leucine, valine, glutamine, which are known to play a role in muscle growth, could be acting as limiting factors for muscle hypertrophy in twin fetuses during late gestation. Ewe size and nutrition can

  18. Single vs. Multi-Joint Resistance Exercises: Effects on Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Paulo; Soares, Saulo; Bottaro, Martim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some authors suggest that single joint (SJ) exercises promote greater muscle hypertrophy because they are easier to be learned and therefore have less reliance on neural factors. On the other hand, some authors recommend an emphasis on multi-joint (MJ) exercises for maximizing muscle strength, assuming that MJ exercises are more effective than SJ exercises because they enable a greater magnitude of weight to be lifted. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of MJ vs. SJ exercises on muscle size and strength gains in untrained young men. Patients and Methods: Twenty-nine young men, without prior resistance training experience, were randomly divided into two groups. One group performed (n = 14) only MJ exercises involving the elbow flexors (lat. pull downs), while the other (n = 15) trained the elbow flexors muscles using only SJ exercises (biceps curls). Both groups trained twice a week for a period of ten weeks. The volunteers were evaluated for peak torque of elbow flexors (PT) in an isokinetic dynamometer and for muscle thickness (MT) by ultrasonography. Results: There were significant increases in MT of 6.10% and 5.83% for MJ and SJ, respectively; and there were also significant increases in PT for MJ (10.40%) and SJ (11.87%). However, the results showed no difference between groups pre or post training for MT or PT. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that MJ and SJ exercises are equally effective for promoting increases in upper body muscle strength and size in untrained men. Therefore, the selection between SJ and MJ exercises should be based on individual and practical aspects, such as, equipment availability, movement specificity, individual preferences and time commitment. PMID:26446291

  19. Enhancement of force generated by individual myosin heads in skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers at low ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugi, Haruo; Abe, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Takakazu; Chaen, Shigeru; Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Saeki, Yasutake; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence has been presented that, at low ionic strength, myosin heads in relaxed skeletal muscle fibers form linkages with actin filaments, the effect of low ionic strength on contraction characteristics of Ca(2+)-activated muscle fibers has not yet been studied in detail. To give information about the mechanism of muscle contraction, we have examined the effect of low ionic strength on the mechanical properties and the contraction characteristics of skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers in both relaxed and maximally Ca(2+)-activated states. By progressively decreasing KCl concentration from 125 mM to 0 mM (corresponding to a decrease in ionic strength μ from 170 mM to 50 mM), relaxed fibers showed changes in mechanical response to sinusoidal length changes and ramp stretches, which are consistent with the idea of actin-myosin linkage formation at low ionic strength. In maximally Ca(2+)-activated fibers, on the other hand, the maximum isometric force increased about twofold by reducing KCl concentration from 125 to 0 mM. Unexpectedly, determination of the force-velocity curves indicated that, the maximum unloaded shortening velocity Vmax, remained unchanged at low ionic strength. This finding indicates that the actin-myosin linkages, which has been detected in relaxed fibers at low ionic strength, are broken quickly on Ca(2+) activation, so that the linkages in relaxed fibers no longer provide any internal resistance against fiber shortening. The force-velocity curves, obtained at various levels of steady Ca(2+)-activated isometric force, were found to be identical if they are normalized with respect to the maximum isometric force. The MgATPase activity of muscle fibers during isometric force generation was found not to change appreciably at low ionic strength despite the two-fold increase in Ca(2+)-activated isometric force. These results can be explained in terms of enhancement of force generated by individual myosin heads, but not by any changes in

  20. Enhancement of force generated by individual myosin heads in skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers at low ionic strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Sugi

    Full Text Available Although evidence has been presented that, at low ionic strength, myosin heads in relaxed skeletal muscle fibers form linkages with actin filaments, the effect of low ionic strength on contraction characteristics of Ca(2+-activated muscle fibers has not yet been studied in detail. To give information about the mechanism of muscle contraction, we have examined the effect of low ionic strength on the mechanical properties and the contraction characteristics of skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers in both relaxed and maximally Ca(2+-activated states. By progressively decreasing KCl concentration from 125 mM to 0 mM (corresponding to a decrease in ionic strength μ from 170 mM to 50 mM, relaxed fibers showed changes in mechanical response to sinusoidal length changes and ramp stretches, which are consistent with the idea of actin-myosin linkage formation at low ionic strength. In maximally Ca(2+-activated fibers, on the other hand, the maximum isometric force increased about twofold by reducing KCl concentration from 125 to 0 mM. Unexpectedly, determination of the force-velocity curves indicated that, the maximum unloaded shortening velocity Vmax, remained unchanged at low ionic strength. This finding indicates that the actin-myosin linkages, which has been detected in relaxed fibers at low ionic strength, are broken quickly on Ca(2+ activation, so that the linkages in relaxed fibers no longer provide any internal resistance against fiber shortening. The force-velocity curves, obtained at various levels of steady Ca(2+-activated isometric force, were found to be identical if they are normalized with respect to the maximum isometric force. The MgATPase activity of muscle fibers during isometric force generation was found not to change appreciably at low ionic strength despite the two-fold increase in Ca(2+-activated isometric force. These results can be explained in terms of enhancement of force generated by individual myosin heads, but not by any

  1. Characterization of the C-protein from posterior latissimus dorsi muscle of the adult chicken: heterogeneity within a single sarcomere

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Specific isoforms of myofibrillar proteins are expressed in different muscles and in various fiber types within a single muscle. We have isolated and characterized monoclonal antibodies against C-proteins from slow tonic (anterior latissimus dorsi, ALD) and fast twitch (pectoralis major) muscles of the chicken. Although the antibody against "fast" C-protein (MF-1) did not bind to the "slow" isoform and the antibody to the "slow" C-protein (ALD-66) did not bind to the "fast" isoform, we observ...

  2. Impact of lung inflation cycle frequency on rat muscle and skin sympathetic activity recorded using suction electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunhua; Marina, Nephtali; Gilbey, Michael P

    2009-10-05

    Microneurography has been used in humans to study sympathetic activity supplying targets within skeletal muscle and skin. Comparable animal studies are relatively few, probably due to the technical demands of traditional fibre picking techniques. Here we apply a simple suction electrode technique to record cutaneous (CVC) and muscle (MVC) vasoconstrictor activities and describe and investigate the basis of the frequency dependence of lung inflation related modulation. Hindlimb MVC and CVC activities were recorded concurrently. The magnitude of MVC and CVC activities at the lung inflation cycle frequency was significantly less at 2.0 Hz than at lung inflation cycle frequencies inflation cycle frequency was increased the coherence between lung inflation cycle or BP and MVC or CVC waveforms decreased. Consistent with the hypothesis that much of the coherence between lung inflation cycle and nerve activity waveforms is secondary to oscillating baroreceptor activity attributable to BP waves, partialization with the BP waveform significantly decreased the coherence between lung inflation cycle and nerve waveforms, and there was an absence of coherence between these waveforms following sinus and aortic denervation. Our data extend findings from other laboratories and establish the value of a suction electrode technique for recording MVC and CVC activities. Furthermore, our observations describe the rates of positive pressure ventilation that avoid strong and regular gating of sympathetic activity.

  3. Kassina senegalensis skin tachykinins: molecular cloning of kassinin and (Thr2, Ile9)-kassinin biosynthetic precursor cDNAs and comparative bioactivity of mature tachykinins on the smooth muscle of rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Lynch, Laura; Chen, Tianbao; Walker, Brian; Shaw, Chris

    2009-05-01

    Tachykinins are among the most widely-studied families of regulatory peptides characterized by a highly-conserved C-terminal -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met.amide motif, which also constitutes the essential bioactive core. The amphibian skin has proved to be a rich source of these peptides with physalaemin from the skin of Physalaemus fuscomaculatus representing the archetypal aromatic tachykinin (X=Tyr or Phe) and kassinin from the skin of Kassina senegalensis representing the archetypal aliphatic tachykinin in which X=Val or Ile. Despite the primary structures of both mature peptides having been known for at least 30 years, neither the structures nor organizations of their biosynthetic precursors have been reported. Here we report the structure and organization of the biosynthetic precursor of kassinin deduced from cDNA cloned from a skin secretion library. In addition, a second precursor cDNA encoding the novel kassinin analog (Thr(2), Ile(9))-kassinin was identified as was the predicted mature peptide in skin secretion. Both transcripts exhibited a high degree of nucleotide sequence similarity and of open-reading frame translated amino acid sequences of putative precursor proteins. The translated preprotachykinins each consisted of 80 amino acid residues encoding single copies of either kassinin or its site-substituted analog. Synthetic replicates of each kassinin were found to be active on rat urinary bladder smooth muscle at nanomolar concentrations. The structural organization of both preprotachykinins differs from that previously reported for those of Odorrana grahami skin indicating a spectrum of diversity akin to that established for amphibian skin preprobradykinins.

  4. Comparison between body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness and mid-arm muscle circumference in Saudi adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalkhail, B.; Shawky, S.

    2002-01-01

    Adolescence is an important period in an individual's life. Overweight and obesity are fraught with several health problems even late in life. The objective of this study was estimate the overweight, obesity, body fat and muscle content of Saudi adolescents as compared to a recognized reference population. Data were collected from a sample of Saudi adolescents in Jeddah from 42 boys' and 42 girls' school during the month of April 2000. Data collection was done by personal interviews to collect sociodemograhic factors and by direct measurement of weight, height, triceps skin fold thickness (TSF) and mid-arm circumference (MAC). The 50th, 85th and 95th percentiles(P50, P85 and P95) for body mass index (BMI) and triceps skin fold thickness (TSF) were taken, then the 50th, 90th, and 95th percentiles (P50, P90 and P95) for the mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were calculated. These measurements were compared with corresponding values of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (NHANES I). The P85 and P95 for the BMI and TSF were higher for Saudi adolescents than the NHANES I and the difference was wider for P95. Conversely, there was a lower MAMC at P90 and P95thane the NHANES I reference population curves. The lower MAMC curves were less marked in girls than in boys. On the other hand Saudi boys and girls showed on average similar body mass index indicated by MBI at P50, which was misleading, since those adolescents showing similar body mass index had more fatness than of average reference population indicated by TSF and P50, and less muscularity on average than reference population indicated MAMC at P-50. Overweight and obesity with increased body fat content and decreased body muscle content appear to be widespread among Saudi adolescents even among those adolescents showing average body index. Public health interventions are required to improve quality of food, encourage physical, activity and exercise, as well as correct the perception of

  5. Single-Dose Azithromycin for the Treatment of Haemophilus ducreyi Skin Ulcers in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Beiras, Camila; Kapa, August; Vall-Mayans, Marti; Paru, Raymond; Gavilán, Sergi; Houinei, Wendy; Bieb, Sibauk; Sanz, Sergi; Martins, Rosario; Mitjà, Oriol

    2017-11-29

    Haemophilus ducreyi (HD) and Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue (TP) are major causative agents of cutaneous ulcer (CU) in the tropics. Azithromycin is recommended to treat sexually transmitted HD infections and has good in vitro activity against HD strains from both genital and skin ulcers. We investigated the efficacy of oral single-dose azithromycin on HD-CU. We conducted a community-based cohort study in Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea, from October 2014 through May 2016. Consenting patients with skin ulcers >1 cm in diameter were eligible for this study and had collected a lesional swab for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All participants were treated with single-dose azithromycin (30 mg/kg) and were followed up for assessment of clinical resolution. We retrospectively classified patients according to PCR results into HD, TP, and PCR-negative groups. The primary endpoint was healing rates of HD-CU at 14 days after treatment. We obtained full outcome data from 246 patients; 131 (53.3%) were HD PCR positive, 37 (15.0%) were TP positive, and 78 (31.7%) were negative for all tests. Healing rates were 88.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], .82-.93) in the HD group, 78.4% [95% CI, .63-.89] in the TP group, and 74.4% (95% CI, .64-.83) in the PCR-negative group. If we included the participants with improved ulcers, the healing rates increased to 94.7%, 97.3%, and 89.7% respectively. HD cases classified as not healed all converted to HD-negative PCR. Based upon clinical resolution and PCR conversion to HD negative, a single oral dose of azithromycin is efficacious for the treatment of HD-CU. These results have implications for the treatment of individual patients and for the use of antibiotics in public health strategies to control CU in the tropics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The effect of double versus single oscillating exercise devices on trunk and limb muscle activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shruti; Button, Duane C; Basset, Fabien A; Behm, David G

    2013-08-01

    Proper strengthening of the core and upper extremities is important for muscular health, performance, and rehabilitation. Exercise devices have been developed that attempt to disrupt the center of gravity in order to activate the trunk stabilizing muscles. The objective of this study was to analyze the trunk and shoulder girdle muscle activation with double and single oscillating exercise devices (DOD and SOD respectively) in various planes. TWELVE MALE SUBJECTS PERFORMED THREE INTERVENTIONS USING BOTH DEVICES UNDER RANDOMIZED CONDITIONS: single-handed vertical orientation of DOD and SOD to produce 1) medio-lateral oscillation in the frontal plane 2) dorso-ventral oscillation in the sagittal plane and 3) single-handed horizontal orientation for superior and inferior oscillation in the transverse plane. Electromyographic (EMG) activity during the interventions of the anterior deltoid, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, forearm flexors as well as lower abdominal and back stabilizer muscles was collected, and were normalized to maximal voluntary contractions. A two way repeated measures ANOVA (2x3) was conducted to assess the influence of the devices and movement planes on muscle activation. The DOD provided 35.9%, 40.8%, and 52.3% greater anterior deltoid, transverse abdominus (TA)/internal oblique (IO) and lumbo-sacral erector spinae (LSES) activation than did the SOD respectively. Effect size calculations revealed that these differences were of moderate to large magnitude (0.86, 0.48, and 0.61 respectively). There were no significant differences in muscular activation achieved between devices for the triceps brachii, biceps brachii and forearm flexor muscles. Exercise in the transverse plane resulted in 30.5%, 29.5%, and 19.5% greater activation than the sagittal and 21.8%, 17.2%, and 26.3% greater activation than the frontal plane for the anterior deltoid, TA/IO and LSES respectively. A DOD demonstrated greater muscular activity for trunk and shoulder muscle

  7. Full-thickness skin wound healing using autologous keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts with fibrin: bilayered versus single-layered substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj; Rameli, Mohd Adha bin P; Low, Kiat Cheong; Law, Jia Xian; Chua, Kien Hui; Latiff, Mazlyzam Bin Abdul; Saim, Aminuddin Bin

    2014-04-01

    Split-skin grafting (SSG) is the gold standard treatment for full-thickness skin defects. For certain patients, however, an extensive skin lesion resulted in inadequacies of the donor site. Tissue engineering offers an alternative approach by using a very small portion of an individual's skin to harvest cells for propagation and biomaterials to support the cells for implantation. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of autologous bilayered tissue-engineered skin (BTES) and single-layer tissue-engineered skin composed of only keratinocytes (SLTES-K) or fibroblasts (SLTES-F) as alternatives for full-thickness wound healing in a sheep model. Full-thickness skin biopsies were harvested from adult sheep. Isolated fibroblasts were cultured using medium Ham's F12: Dulbecco modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, whereas the keratinocytes were cultured using Define Keratinocytes Serum Free Medium. The BTES, SLTES-K, and SLTES-F were constructed using autologous fibrin as a biomaterial. Eight full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsum of the body of the sheep. On 4 wounds, polyvinyl chloride rings were used as chambers to prevent cell migration at the edge. The wounds were observed at days 7, 14, and 21. After 3 weeks of implantation, the sheep were euthanized and the skins were harvested. The excised tissues were fixed in formalin for histological examination via hematoxylin-eosin, Masson trichrome, and elastin van Gieson staining. The results showed that BTES, SLTES-K, and SLTES-F promote wound healing in nonchambered and chambered wounds, and BTES demonstrated the best healing potential. In conclusion, BTES proved to be an effective tissue-engineered construct that can promote the healing of full-thickness skin lesions. With the support of further clinical trials, this procedure could be an alternative to SSG for patients with partial- and full-thickness burns.

  8. Low Po2 conditions induce reactive oxygen species formation during contractions in single skeletal muscle fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Amy; Roberts, William J.; Chien, Michael T.; Wagner, Peter D.; Hogan, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Contractions in whole skeletal muscle during hypoxia are known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, identification of real-time ROS formation within isolated single skeletal muscle fibers has been challenging. Consequently, there is no convincing evidence showing increased ROS production in intact contracting fibers under low Po2 conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that intracellular ROS generation in single contracting skeletal myofibers increases during low Po2 compared with a value approximating normal resting Po2. Dihydrofluorescein was loaded into single frog (Xenopus) fibers, and fluorescence was used to monitor ROS using confocal microscopy. Myofibers were exposed to two maximal tetanic contractile periods (1 contraction/3 s for 2 min, separated by a 60-min rest period), each consisting of one of the following treatments: high Po2 (30 Torr), low Po2 (3–5 Torr), high Po2 with ebselen (antioxidant), or low Po2 with ebselen. Ebselen (10 μM) was administered before the designated contractile period. ROS formation during low Po2 treatment was greater than during high Po2 treatment, and ebselen decreased ROS generation in both low- and high-Po2 conditions (P Po2. Force was reduced >30% for each condition except low Po2 with ebselen, which only decreased ∼15%. We concluded that single myofibers under low Po2 conditions develop accelerated and more oxidative stress than at Po2 = 30 Torr (normal human resting Po2). Ebselen decreases ROS formation in both low and high Po2, but only mitigates skeletal muscle fatigue during reduced Po2 conditions. PMID:23576612

  9. Subcellular distribution of glycogen and decreased tetanic Ca2+ in fatigued single intact mouse muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Cheng, Arthur J; Ørtenblad, Niels

    2014-01-01

    of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release. The aim of the present study was to test directly how the decrease in cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) during repeated tetanic contractions relates to the subcellular glycogen distribution. Single fibres of mouse flexor digitorum brevis muscles were fatigued with 70 Hz......In skeletal muscle fibres, glycogen has been shown to be stored at different subcellular locations: (i) between the myofibrils (intermyofibrillar); (ii) within the myofibrils (intramyofibrillar); and (iii) subsarcolemmal. Of these, intramyofibrillar glycogen has been implied as a critical regulator......, 350 ms tetani given at 2 s (high-intensity fatigue, HIF) or 10 s (low-intensity fatigue, LIF) intervals, while force and [Ca(2+)]i were measured. Stimulation continued until force decreased to 30% of its initial value. Fibres were then prepared for analyses of subcellular glycogen distribution...

  10. The Use of Cryopreserved Human Skin Allograft for the Treatment of Wounds With Exposed Muscle, Tendon, and Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas C; Wilson, Jessica A; Crim, Brandon; Lowery, Nicholas J

    2016-04-01

    Wounds with exposed bone or tendon continue to be a challenge for wound care physicians, and there is little research pertaining to the treatment of these particular wounds with allograft skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a biologically active cryopreserved human skin allograft for treating wounds with exposed bone and/or tendon in the lower extremities. Fifteen patients with 15 wounds at a single hospital-based wound care center were included in the study. Eleven wounds had exposed bone, 1 wound had exposed ten- don, and 3 wounds had exposed bone and tendon. Standard treatment principles with adjunctive cadaveric allograft application were performed on all wounds in the study. In this study 14/15 (93.3%) of the wounds healed completely. The mean duration of days until coverage of the bone and/or tendon with granulation tissue was 36.14 (5.16 weeks) (range 5-117 days). Mean duration to complete healing of the wound was 133 days (19 weeks) (range 53-311 days). The mean number of grafts applied was 2. There were no adverse events directly related to the graft. Zero major amputations and 1 minor amputation occurred. This study found biologically active cryopreserved human skin allografts to be safe and effective in treating difficult wounds with exposed bone and/or tendon. To the authors' knowledge, this is the largest study to date focused on the utilization of allograft skin as an adjunct therapy for lower extremity wounds with exposed tendon and/or bone.

  11. NOX2 inhibition impairs early muscle gene expression induced by a single exercise bout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henríquez-Olguín

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS participate as signaling molecules in response to exercise in skeletal muscle. However, the source of ROS and the molecular mechanisms involved in these phenomena are still not completely understood. The aim of this work was to study the role of skeletal muscle NADPH oxidase isoform 2 (NOX2 in the molecular response to physical exercise in skeletal muscle. BALB/c mice, pre-treated with a NOX2 inhibitor, apocynin, (3 mg/kg or vehicle for 3 days, were swim-exercised for 60 min. Phospho-p47phox levels were significantly upregulated by exercise in flexor digitorum brevis (FDB. Moreover, exercise significantly increased NOX2 complex assembly (p47phox-gp91phox interaction demonstrated by both proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation. Exercise-induced NOX2 activation was completely inhibited by apocynin treatment. As expected, exercise increased the mRNA levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, citrate synthase (CS, mitochondrial transcription factor A (tfam and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in FDB muscles. Moreover, the apocynin treatment was associated to a reduced activation of p38 MAP kinase, ERK 1/2, and NF-κB signaling pathways after a single bout of exercise. Additionally, the increase in plasma IL-6 elicited by exercise was decreased in apocynin-treated mice compared with the exercised vehicle-group (p<0.001. These results were corroborated using gp91-dstat in an in-vitro exercise model. In conclusion, NOX2 inhibition by both apocynin and gp91dstat, alters the intracellular signaling to exercise and electrical stimuli in skeletal muscle, suggesting that NOX2 plays a critical role in molecular response to an acute exercise.

  12. Skin and soft tissue concentrations of tedizolid (formerly torezolid), a novel oxazolidinone, following a single oral dose in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahre, Martina; Sabarinath, Sreedharan; Grant, Maria; Seubert, Christoph; Deanda, Carisa; Prokocimer, Philippe; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2012-07-01

    Plasma concentrations of antimicrobial drugs have long been used to correlate exposure with effect, yet one cannot always assume that unbound plasma and tissue concentrations are similar. Knowledge about unbound tissue concentrations is important in the development of antimicrobial drugs, since most infections are localised in tissues. Therefore, a clinical microdialysis study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of tedizolid (TR-700), the active moiety of the antimicrobial prodrug tedizolid phosphate (TR-701), into interstitial fluid (ISF) of subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues following a single oral 600 mg dose of tedizolid phosphate in fasting conditions. Twelve healthy adult subjects were enrolled. Two microdialysis probes were implanted into the thigh of each subject, one into the vastus medialis muscle and one into subcutaneous adipose tissue. Probes were calibrated using retrodialysis. Dialysate samples were collected every 20 min for 12h following a single oral dose of 600 mg tedizolid phosphate, and blood samples were drawn over 24h. Unbound tedizolid levels in plasma were similar to those in muscle and adipose tissue. The ratios of unbound (free) AUC in tissues over unbound AUC in plasma (fAUC(tissue)/fAUC(plasma)) were 1.1 ± 0.2 and 1.2 ± 0.2 for adipose and muscle tissue, respectively. The median half-life was 8.1, 9.2 and 9.6h for plasma, adipose tissue and muscle tissue, respectively. Mean protein binding was 87.2 ± 1.8%. The study drug was very well tolerated. The results of this study show that tedizolid distributes well into ISF of adipose and muscle tissues. Unbound levels of tedizolid in plasma, adipose tissue and muscle tissue were well correlated. Free plasma levels are indicative of unbound levels in the ISF of muscle and adipose tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  13. Loss of a single allele for Ku80 leads to progenitor dysfunction and accelerated aging in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Nathalie; Hourdé, Christophe; Amthor, Helge; Marazzi, Giovanna; Sassoon, David

    2012-01-01

    Muscle wasting is a major cause of morbidity in the elderly. Ku80 is required for DNA double strand repair and is implicated in telomere maintenance. Complete loss-of-function leads to reduced post-natal growth and severe progeria in mice. We examined the role of Ku80 in age-related skeletal muscle atrophy. While complete loss of Ku80 leads to pronounced aging in muscle as expected, accompanied by accumulation of DNA damage, loss of a single allele is sufficient to accelerate aging in skeletal muscle although post-natal growth is normal. Ku80 heterozygous muscle shows no DNA damage accumulation but undergoes premature telomere shortening that alters stem cell self-renewal through stress response pathways including p53. These data reveal an unexpected requirement for both Ku80 alleles for optimal progenitor function and prevention of early onset aging in muscle, as well as providing a useful model for therapeutic approaches. PMID:22915554

  14. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers affect mRNA expression of DNA nucleotide excision repair in skin and muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergio, Luiz Philippe S; Campos, Vera Maria A; Vicentini, Solange C; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; de Paoli, Flavia; Fonseca, Adenilson S

    2016-04-01

    Lasers emit light beams with specific characteristics, in which wavelength, frequency, power, fluence, and emission mode properties determine the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological responses. Low-intensity lasers could induce free radical generation in biological tissues and cause alterations in macromolecules, such as DNA. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and excision repair cross-complementing group 2 (ERCC2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in biological tissues exposed to low-intensity lasers. Wistar rat (n = 28, 4 for each group) skin and muscle were exposed to low-intensity red (660 nm) and near-infrared (880 nm) lasers at different fluences (25, 50, and 100 J/cm(2)), and samples of these tissues were withdrawn for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and gene expression evaluation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Laser exposure was in continuous wave and power of 100 mW. Data show that ERCC1 and ERCC2 mRNA expressions decrease in skin (p laser, but increase in muscle tissue (p  0.05), but ERCC2 mRNA expression decreases in skin (p laser. Our results show that ERCC1 and ERCC2 mRNA expression is differently altered in skin and muscle tissue exposed to low-intensity lasers depending on wavelengths and fluences used in therapeutic protocols.

  15. Single stage reconstruction of ruptured tendoachilles tendon with skin cover using distally based superficial sural artery flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Suhas V; Kulkarni, Ananta; Agarwal, Naveen Kumar

    2009-10-01

    Ruptured tendoachilles along with skin defect is a complex problem to reconstruct. Both things require a priority. Single stage reconstruction of ruptured tendoachilles tendon with skin cover using distally based superficial sural arterial flap allows us to perform both. This procedure gives excellent result, shortens the stay, thereby reducing the cost. This method is a simple solution to the complex problem like ruptured tendoachilles with skin defect. In this study, 6 patients with rupture of tendoachilles tendon due to penetrating injury, with skin defect are presented. The repair was done using aponeurotic part of tendoachilles tendon, taken from proximal part of tendoachilles in the midline measuring around 2 to 2.5 cm in width and 8 to 10 cm in length, with intact distal attachment. The tendon was turned upside down by 180 degrees and sutured to the distal stump of the tendoachilles tendon without tension. The skin defect was covered using distally based superficial sural artery flap in the same sitting. The follow-up period was 9 to 30 months. All patients showed good results. In one patient there was distal necrosis of 1.5 cm of the distally based superficial sural artery flap, which healed satisfactorily with conservative treatment. Single stage tendoachilles reconstruction can be used with good functional result and patient satisfaction.

  16. Effects of strain on contractile force and number of sarcomeres in series of Xenopus laevis single muscle fibres during long-term culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, R.T.; Feenstra, Hiske; Verheyen, A.K.; van der Laarse, W.J.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to test whether mechanical strain uniquely regulates muscle fibre atrophy/hypertrophy and adaptation of the number of sarcomeres in series within mature muscle fibres in vitro. Mature single muscle fibres from Xenopus laevis illiofibularis muscle were cultured (4--97

  17. Effects of strain on contractile force and number of sarcomeres in series of Xenopus laevis single muscle fibres during long-term culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, R.T.; Feenstra, H.M.; Verheyen, A.K.; van der Laarse, W.J.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to test whether mechanical strain uniquely regulates muscle fibre atrophy/hypertrophy and adaptation of the number of sarcomeres in series within mature muscle fibres in vitro. Mature single muscle fibres from Xenopus laevis illiofibularis muscle were cultured (4 - 97

  18. CD34-positive stromal cells and alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive stromal cells in the tumor capsule of skin sweat gland neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hirofumi; Enzan, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Eriko; Moriki, Toshiaki; Toi, Makoto; Zhang, Yanhu

    2002-01-01

    To elucidate the roles of CD34-positive stromal cells and alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive stromal cells at the tumor border of skin sweat gland neoplasms, we examined expression of stromal cell markers in the tumor capsule of 19 skin sweat gland neoplasms (16 mixed tumors of the skin and three nodular hidradenomas) using monoclonal antibodies to CD34, CD31, cytokeratin 14 (CK14), alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA) and high molecular weight caldesmon (HCD). We regarded CD34-positive, CD31-, CK14-, ASMA- and HCD-negative stromal cells to be CD34-positive stromal cells, and ASMA-positive, HCD-, CK14-, CD34- and CD31-negative stromal cells to be ASMA-positive stromal cells. CD34-positive stromal cells were detected in the tumor capsule of all 19 of the tumors examined. In nine of the 16 mixed tumors (56%) and all of the three nodular hidradenomas, ASMA-positive stromal cells were detected at the immediate inner side of the CD34-positive stromal cell layers. These results indicate that cellular components in the tumor capsules of mixed tumors of the skin and nodular hidradenomas are CD34-positive stromal cells and ASMA-positive stromal cells, and suggest that stromal cells of these two cell types are associated with tumor capsule formation of skin sweat gland neoplasms.

  19. Mitochondrial specialization revealed by single muscle fiber proteomics: focus on the Krebs cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaffino, S; Reggiani, C; Kostrominova, T Y; Mann, M; Murgia, M

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a highly sensitive mass spectrometry-based proteomic workflow to examine the proteome of single muscle fibers. This study revealed significant differences in the mitochondrial proteome of the four major fiber types present in mouse skeletal muscle. Here, we focus on Krebs cycle enzymes and in particular on the differential distribution of the two mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenases, IDH2 and IDH3. Type 1/slow fibers contain high levels of IDH2 and relatively low levels of IDH3, whereas fast 2X and 2B fibers show an opposite expression pattern. The findings suggest that in skeletal muscle, IDH2 functions in the forward direction of the Krebs cycle and that substrate flux along the cycle occurs predominantly via IDH2 in type 1 fibers and via IDH3 in 2X and 2B fibers. IDH2-mediated conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate leads to the generation of NADPH, which is critical to buffering the H2O2 produced by the respiratory chain. Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT), the other major mitochondrial enzyme involved in NADPH generation, is also more abundant in type 1 fibers. We suggest that the continuously active type 1 fibers are endowed with a more efficient H2O2 scavenging capacity to cope with the higher levels of reactive oxygen species production. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Finite element analysis of mechanics of lateral transmission of force in single muscle fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Gao, Yingxin

    2012-07-26

    Most of the myofibers in long muscles of vertebrates terminate within fascicles without reaching either end of the tendon, thus force generated in myofibers has to be transmitted laterally through the extracellular matrix (ECM) to adjacent fibers; which is defined as the lateral transmission of force in skeletal muscles. The goal of this study was to determine the mechanisms of lateral transmission of force between the myofiber and ECM. In this study, a 2D finite element model of single muscle fiber was developed to study the effects of mechanical properties of the endomysium and the tapered ends of myofiber on lateral transmission of force. Results showed that most of the force generated is transmitted near the end of the myofiber through shear to the endomysium, and the force transmitted to the end of the model increases with increased stiffness of ECM. This study also demonstrated that the tapered angle of the myofiber ends can reduce the stress concentration near the myofiber end while laterally transmitting force efficiently. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Skin-derived precursors from human subjects with Type 2 diabetes yield dysfunctional vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Sarah K; Yau, Terrence M; Ouzounian, Maral; Abdel-Qadir, Husam; Chandy, Mark; Waddell, Thomas K; Husain, Mansoor

    2017-08-01

    Objective : Few methods enable molecular and cellular studies of vascular aging or Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here, we report a new approach to studying human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) pathophysiology by examining VSMCs differentiated from progenitors found in skin. Approach and results : Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) were cultured from biopsies ( N =164, ∼1 cm 2 ) taken from the edges of surgical incisions of older adults ( N =158; males 72%; mean age 62.7 ± 13 years) undergoing cardiothoracic surgery, and differentiated into VSMCs at high efficiency (>80% yield). The number of SKPs isolated from subjects with T2D was ∼50% lower than those without T2D (cells/g: 0.18 ± 0.03, N =58 versus 0.40 ± 0.05, N =100, P <0.05). Importantly, SKP-derived VSMCs from subjects with T2D had higher Fluo-5F-determined baseline cytosolic Ca 2+ concentrations (AU: 1,968 ± 160, N =7 versus 1,386 ± 170, N =13, P <0.05), and a trend toward greater Ca 2+ cycling responses to norepinephrine (NE) (AUC: 177,207 ± 24,669, N =7 versus 101,537 ± 15,881, N =20, P <0.08) despite a reduced frequency of Ca 2+ cycling (events s -1 cell -1 : 0.011 ± 0.004, N =8 versus 0.021 ± 0.003, N =19, P <0.05) than those without T2D. SKP-derived VSMCs from subjects with T2D also manifest enhanced sensitivity to phenylephrine (PE) in an impedance-based assay (EC 50 nM: 72.3 ± 63.6, N =5 versus 3,684 ± 3,122, N =9, P <0.05), and impaired wound closure in vitro (% closure: 21.9 ± 3.6, N =4 versus 67.0 ± 10.3, N =4, P <0.05). Compared with aortic- and saphenous vein-derived primary VSMCs, SKP-derived VSMCs are functionally distinct, but mirror defects of T2D also exhibited by primary VSMCs. Skin biopsies from older adults yield sufficient SKPs to differentiate VSMCs, which reveal abnormal phenotypes of T2D that survive differentiation and persist even after long-term normoglycemic culture. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  2. X-ray diffraction studies of cross-bridges weakly bound to actin in relaxed skinned fibers of rabbit psoas muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, S; Malinchik, S; Gilroy, D; Kraft, T; Brenner, B; Yu, L C

    1997-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained from skinned rabbit psoas muscle under relaxing and rigor conditions over a wide range of ionic strengths (50-170 mM) and temperatures (1 degree C-30 degrees C). For the first time, an intensification of the first actin-based layer line is observed in the relaxed muscle. The intensification, which increases with decreasing ionic strength at various temperatures, including 30 degrees C, parallels the formation of weakly attached cross-bridges in the rel...

  3. Bion 11 Spaceflight Project: Effect of Weightlessness on Single Muscle Fiber Function in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, Robert H.; Romatowski, Janell G.; Widrick, Jeffrey J.; DeLaCruz, Lourdes

    1999-01-01

    Although it is well known that microgravity induces considerable limb muscle atrophy, little is known about how weightlessness alters cell function. In this study, we investigated how weightlessness altered the functional properties of single fast and slow striated muscle fibers. Physiological studies were carried out to test the hypothesis that microgravity causes fiber atrophy, a decreased peak force (Newtons), tension (Newtons/cross-sectional area) and power, an elevated peak rate of tension development (dp/dt), and an increased maximal shortening velocity (V(sub o)) in the slow type I fiber, while changes in the fast-twitch fiber are restricted to atrophy and a reduced peak force. For each fiber, we determined the peak force (P(sub o)), V(sub o), dp/dt, the force-velocity relationship, peak power, the power-force relationship, the force-pCa relationship, and fiber stiffness. Biochemical studies were carried out to assess the effects of weightlessness on the enzyme and substrate profile of the fast- and slow-twitch fibers. We predicted that microgravity would increase resting muscle glycogen and glycolytic metabolism in the slow fiber type, while the fast-twitch fiber enzyme profile would be unaltered. The increased muscle glycogen would in part result from an elevated hexokinase and glycogen synthase. The enzymes selected for study represent markers for mitochondrial function (citrate synthase and 0-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase), glycolysis (Phosphofructokinase and lactate dehydrogenase), and fatty acid transport (Carnitine acetyl transferase). The substrates analyzed will include glycogen, lactate, adenosine triphosphate, and phosphocreatine.

  4. The natural history of skin-limited Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a single-institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Humphrey, Stephen R; Kelly, Michael E; Chiu, Yvonne E; Galbraith, Sheila S

    2014-11-01

    Prior reports of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) suggest that isolated skin involvement is rare and often progresses to systemic disease. More rapid access to pediatric subspecialty care has likely led to more frequent representation of this condition. The purpose of this study is to characterize the natural history of skin-limited LCH in an era of increased access to pediatric subspecialty care. A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients newly diagnosed with LCH between 2001 and 2012 at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. Extensive review of laboratory, physical examination, and imaging reports was performed and data collected for patients with biopsy-proven skin LCH. Sixteen individuals with skin-limited LCH were identified. The median age at onset of skin eruption was birth (range, birth to 6 mo), and median duration of follow-up was 19.5 months (range, 2 wk to 10 y) from diagnosis. One patient (6%) developed pituitary disease and 1 patient (6%) had refractory skin involvement. All others experienced complete resolution. For patients without progressive or refractory disease, resolution of skin findings occurred within 7 months from onset. Progression of skin-limited to multisystem LCH likely may be less frequent than previously described.

  5. Position control of a single pneumatic artificial muscle with hysteresis compensation based on modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xizhe; Liu, Yixiang; Heng, Shuai; Lin, Zhenkun; Zhao, Jie

    2017-01-01

    High-performance position control of pneumatic artificial muscles is limited by their inherent nonlinearity and hysteresis. This study aims to model the length/pressure hysteresis of a single pneumatic artificial muscle and to realize its accurate position tracking control with forward hysteresis compensation. The classical Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is widely used in hysteresis modelling and compensation. But it is only effective for symmetric hysteresis. Therefore, a modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is built to characterize the asymmetric length/pressure hysteresis of a single pneumatic artificial muscle, by replacing the classical play operators with two more flexible elementary operators to independently describe the ascending branch and descending branch of hysteresis loops. On the basis, a position tracking controller, which is composed of cascade forward hysteresis compensation and simple proportional pressure controller, is designed for the pneumatic artificial muscle. Experiment results show that the MPI model can reproduce the length/pressure hysteresis of the pneumatic artificial muscle, and the proposed controller for the pneumatic artificial muscle can track the reference position signals with high accuracy. By modelling the length/pressure hysteresis with the modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii model and using its inversion for compensation, precise position control of a single pneumatic artificial muscle is achieved.

  6. Increasing temperature speeds intracellular PO2 kinetics during contractions in single Xenopus skeletal muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, S; Wüst, R C I; Walsh, B; Kindig, C A; Rossiter, H B; Hogan, M C

    2013-01-01

    Precise determination of the effect of muscle temperature (T(m)) on mitochondrial oxygen consumption kinetics has proven difficult in humans, in part due to the complexities in controlling for T(m)-related variations in blood flow, fiber recruitment, muscle metabolism, and contractile properties. To address this issue, intracellular Po(2) (P(i)(O(2))) was measured continuously by phosphorescence quenching following the onset of contractions in single Xenopus myofibers (n = 24) while controlling extracellular temperature. Fibers were subjected to two identical contraction bouts, in random order, at 15°C (cold, C) and 20°C (normal, N; n = 12), or at N and 25°C (hot, H; n = 12). Contractile properties were determined for every contraction. The time delay of the P(i)(O(2)) response was significantly greater in C (59 ± 35 s) compared with N (35 ± 26 s, P = 0.01) and H (27 ± 14 s, P = 0.01). The time constant for the decline in P(i)(O(2)) was significantly greater in C (89 ± 34 s) compared with N (52 ± 15 s; P kinetics and T(m) (r = 0.322, P = 0.03). Estimated ATP turnover was significantly greater in H than in C (P kinetics among conditions. These results demonstrate that P(i)(O(2)) kinetics in single contracting myofibers are dependent on T(m), likely caused by temperature-induced differences in metabolic demand and by temperature-dependent processes underlying mitochondrial activation at the start of muscle contractions.

  7. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Arising from Endometriosis in the Groin: Wide Resection and Reconstruction with a Fascia Lata Tensor Muscle Skin Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shozo Yoshida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein report a case of clear cell carcinoma arising from endometriosis in the groin in a 53-year-old woman. The findings of MRI and FDG/PET-CT indicated a malignant tumor, and surgical biopsy confirmed adenocarcinoma of the female genital tract. The tumor including a part of the abdominal rectus muscle and rectus sheath, subcutaneous fat, skin, and the right inguinal ligament was resected en bloc. The defect in the abdominal wall was reconstructed with a fascia lata tensor muscle skin flap. The tumor was composed of clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from extrapelvic endometriosis. The patient received chemotherapy with gemcitabine and carboplatin for 6 cycles and had no evidence of recurrence 7 months after the treatment. We herein described the diagnosis and surgical management of endometriosis-associated carcinoma in the groin.

  8. Myosin content of single muscle fibers following short-term disuse and active recovery in young and old healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Brocca, Lorenza; Ørtenblad, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Short-term disuse and subsequent recovery affect whole muscle and single myofiber contractile function in young and old. While the loss and recovery of single myofiber specific force (SF) following disuse and rehabilitation has been shown to correlate with alterations in myosin concentrations...

  9. Comparison of skin hydration in combination and single use of common moisturizers (cream, toner, and spray water).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanxi, Li; Wei, Hua; Lidan, Xiiong; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess the moisturization in combination or single use (including seven general applications) of three common moisturizers: cream, toner, and spray water. Groups were set as C: cream only; T: toner only; C+T, T+C: cream or toner applied successively within a few minutes; C-T, C-S: cream applied with repeated toner or spray water every 2 h; T-T: toner applied with repeated toner every 2 h; and N: untreated group. Outcomes were the change in skin hydration from baseline at 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after applications. All treated zones displayed a significantly higher degree of hydration compared with the untreated zone ( p 35 a.u.), C-T led to greatest hydration change rate compared with others, followed by C+T, T+C, and C. Those three applications exhibited analogous hydration at each test point ( p > 0.05). The hydration rate of C-S differed slightly from T-T, followed by those four mentioned above, with T being the last. For dry skin (hydration value at baseline 0.05), the other results were identical. When cream and toner were applied successively, the application order has little effect on skin hydration. The application of cream only was an effective and brief way to achieve favorable moisturization especially for dry skin. As a complement, repeated application of toner rather than spray water is efficacious for skin hydration.

  10. Blood flow in skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in the forearm of normal man during an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Astrup, A; Christensen, N J

    1987-01-01

    Blood flow to the forearm, and the subcutaneous tissue and skin in the forearm were measured by strain gauge plethysmography, 133Xe-elimination and Laser Doppler flowmetry during an oral glucose load (I g glucose kg-1 lean body mass) and during control conditions. The forearm blood flow remained......, muscle blood flow decreased about 20-30% during both experiments. Proximal nervous blockade did not abolish the glucose-induced vasodilatation in subcutaneous tissue. In the glucose experiment, arterial glucose concentration increased to 7.8 +/- 1.17 mmol l-1 30 min after the load was given...... constant during both experiments. Glucose induced a two-fold vasodilatation in subcutaneous tissue. In skin, glucose induced a relative vasodilatation and later a relative vasoconstriction compared with control experiments. When estimated from forearm blood flow and subcutaneous and skin blood flows...

  11. Action potential-evoked calcium release is impaired in single skeletal muscle fibers from heart failure patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino DiFranco

    Full Text Available Exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure (HF has been attributed to abnormalities of the skeletal muscles. Muscle function depends on intact excitation-contraction coupling (ECC, but ECC studies in HF models have been inconclusive, due to deficiencies in the animal models and tools used to measure calcium (Ca2+ release, mandating investigations in skeletal muscle from HF patients. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Ca2+ release is significantly impaired in the skeletal muscle of HF patients in whom exercise capacity is severely diminished compared to age-matched healthy volunteers.Using state-of-the-art electrophysiological and optical techniques in single muscle fibers from biopsies of the locomotive vastus lateralis muscle, we measured the action potential (AP-evoked Ca2+ release in 4 HF patients and 4 age-matched healthy controls. The mean peak Ca2+ release flux in fibers obtained from HF patients (10±1.2 µM/ms was markedly (2.6-fold and significantly (p<0.05 smaller than in fibers from healthy volunteers (28±3.3 µM/ms. This impairment in AP-evoked Ca2+ release was ubiquitous and was not explained by differences in the excitability mechanisms since single APs were indistinguishable between HF patients and healthy volunteers.These findings prove the feasibility of performing electrophysiological experiments in single fibers from human skeletal muscle, and offer a new approach for investigations of myopathies due to HF and other diseases. Importantly, we have demonstrated that one step in the ECC process, AP-evoked Ca2+ release, is impaired in single muscle fibers in HF patients.

  12. Elevation in heat shock protein 72 mRNA following contractions in isolated single skeletal muscle fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Stary, Creed M.; Walsh, Brandon J.; Knapp, Amy E.; Brafman, David; Hogan, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was 1) to develop a stable model for measuring contraction-induced elevations in mRNA in single skeletal muscle fibers and 2) to utilize this model to investigate the response of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) mRNA following an acute bout of fatiguing contractions. Living, intact skeletal muscle fibers were microdissected from lumbrical muscle of Xenopus laevis and either electrically stimulated for 15 min of tetanic contractions (EX; n = 26) or not stimulated ...

  13. Muscle power failure in mobility-limited adults: preserved single muscle fibre function despite reduced whole muscle size, quality and neuromuscular activiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the physiological and gender determinants of the age-related loss of muscle power in 31 healthy middle-aged adults (aged 40-55 years), 28 healthy older adults (70-85 years) and 34 mobility-limited older adults (70-85 years). We hypothesized that leg extensor muscle power woul...

  14. Activation dependence and kinetics of force and stiffness inhibition by aluminiofluoride, a slowly dissociating analogue of inorganic phosphate, in chemically skinned fibres from rabbit psoas muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, P B; Martyn, D A; Hannon, J D

    1994-04-01

    To examine the mechanism by which aluminiofluoride, a tightly binding analogue of inorganic phosphate, inhibits force in single, chemically skinned fibres from rabbit psoas muscle, we measured the Ca(2+)-dependence of the kinetics of inhibitor dissociation and the kinetics of actomyosin interactions when aluminiofluoride was bound to the crossbridges. The relation between stiffness and the speed of stretch during small amplitude ramp stretches (strength (pCa 4.0, 0.2 M gamma/2), stiffness exhibited a steep dependence on the rate of stretch; aluminiofluoride inhibition at pCa 4.0 (0.2 M gamma/2) resulted in an overall decrease in stiffness, with stiffness at high rates of stretch (10(3)-10(4) nm per h.s. per s) being disproportionately reduced. Thus the slope of the stiffness-speed relation was reduced during aluminiofluoride inhibition of activated fibres. Relaxation of inhibited fibres (pCa 9.2, 0.2 M gamma/2) resulted in aluminiofluoride being 'trapped' and was accompanied by a further decrease in stiffness at all rates of stretch which was comparable to that found in control relaxed fibres. In relaxed, low ionic strength conditions (pCa 9.2, 0.02 M gamma/2) which promote weak crossbridge binding, stiffness at all rates of stretch was significantly inhibited by aluminiofluoride 'trapped' in the fibre. To determine the Ca(2+)-dependence of inhibitor dissociation, force was regulated independent of Ca2+ using an activating troponin C (aTnC). Results obtained with a TnC-activated fibres confirmed that there is no absolute requirement for Ca2+ for recovery from force inhibition by inorganic phosphate analogues in skinned fibres; the only requirement is thin filament activation which enables active crossbridge cycling. These results indicate that aluminiofluoride preferentially inhibits rapid equilibrium or weak crossbridge attachment to actin, that aluminiofluoride-bound crossbridges attach tightly to the activated thin filament, and that, at maximal (or near

  15. Atomic force microscope observation of branching in single transcript molecules derived from human cardiac muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jason; Hsueh, Carlin; Mishra, Bud; Gimzewski, James K.

    2008-09-01

    We have used an atomic force microscope to examine a clinically derived sample of single-molecule gene transcripts, in the form of double-stranded cDNA, (c: complementary) obtained from human cardiac muscle without the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. We observed a log-normal distribution of transcript sizes, with most molecules being in the range of 0.4-7.0 kilobase pairs (kb) or 130-2300 nm in contour length, in accordance with the expected distribution of mRNA (m: messenger) sizes in mammalian cells. We observed novel branching structures not previously known to exist in cDNA, and which could have profound negative effects on traditional analysis of cDNA samples through cloning, PCR and DNA sequencing.

  16. Foot muscle morphology is related to center of pressure sway and control mechanisms during single-leg standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianyi; Schütte, Kurt Heinrich; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2017-09-01

    Maintaining balance is vitally important in everyday life. Investigating the effects of individual foot muscle morphology on balance may provide insights into neuromuscular balance control mechanisms. This study aimed to examine the correlation between the morphology of foot muscles and balance performance during single-leg standing. Twenty-eight recreational runners were recruited in this study. An ultrasound device was used to measure the thickness and cross-sectional area of three intrinsic foot muscles (abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis and quadratus plantae) and peroneus muscles. Participants were required to perform 30s of single-leg standing for three trials on a force plate, which was used to record the center of pressure (COP). The standard deviation of the amplitude and ellipse area of the COP were calculated. In addition, stabilogram diffusion analysis (SDA) was performed on COP data. Pearson correlation coefficients were computed to examine the correlation between foot muscle morphology and traditional COP parameters as well as with SDA parameters. Our results showed that larger abductor hallucis correlated to smaller COP sway, while larger peroneus muscles correlated to larger COP sway during single-leg standing. Larger abductor hallucis also benefited open-loop dynamic stability, as well as supported a more efficient transfer from open-loop to closed loop control mechanisms. These results suggest that the morphology of foot muscles plays an important role in balance performance, and that strengthening the intrinsic foot muscles may be an effective way to improve balance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Pre-embedding staining of single muscle fibers for light and electron microscopy studies of subcellular organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralston, E; Ploug, Thorkil

    1996-01-01

    ) immunocytochemistry. Here we show that pre-embedding staining of single teased fibers, or of single enzymatically dissociated fibers, has several advantages over the use of sections for observing discrete patterns that extend over long distances in the cells. We report on an optimization study carried out......Skeletal muscle fibers are large, multinucleated cells which pose a challenge to the morphologist. In the course of studies of the distribution of the glucose transporter GLUT4, in muscle, we have compared different preparative procedures, for both light (LM) and electron microscopy (EM...

  18. Single-Trial EEG-EMG coherence analysis reveals muscle fatigue-related progressive alterations in corticomuscular coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemionow, Vlodek; Sahgal, Vinod; Yue, Guang H

    2010-04-01

    Voluntary muscle fatigue is a progressive process. A recent study demonstrated muscle fatigue-induced weakening of functional corticomuscular coupling measured by coherence between the brain [electroencephalogram (EEG)] and muscle [electromyogram (EMG)] signals after a relatively long-duration muscle contraction. Comparing the EEG-EMG coherence before versus after fatigue or between data of two long-duration time blocks is not adequate to reveal the dynamic nature of the fatigue process. The purpose of this study was to address this issue by quantifying single-trial EEG-EMG coherence and EEG, EMG power based on wavelet transform. Eight healthy subjects performed 200 maximal intermittent handgrip contractions in a single session with handgrip force, EEG and EMG signals acquired simultaneously. The EEG and EMG data during each 2-s handgrip was subjected to single trial EEG-EMG wavelet energy spectrum and coherence computation. The EEG-EMG coherence and energy spectrum at beta (15 ~ 35 Hz) and gamma (35-50 Hz) frequency bands were statistically analyzed in 2-block (75 trials per block), 5-block (30 trials/block), and 10-block (15 trials/block) data settings. The energy of both the EEG and EMG signals decreased significantly with muscle fatigue. The EEG-EMG coherence had a significant reduction for the 2-block comparison. More detailed dynamical changing and inter-subject variation of the EEG-EMG coherence and energy were revealed by 5- and 10-block comparisons. These results show feasibility of wavelet transform-based measurement of the EEG-EMG coherence and corresponding energy based on single-trial data, which provides extra information to demonstrate a time course of dynamic adaptations of the functional corticomuscular coupling, as well as brain and muscle signals during muscle fatigue.

  19. Removal of Muscle Artifacts from Single-Channel EEG Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition and Multiset Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG recordings are often contaminated with muscle artifacts. This disturbing muscular activity strongly affects the visual analysis of EEG and impairs the results of EEG signal processing such as brain connectivity analysis. If multichannel EEG recordings are available, then there exist a considerable range of methods which can remove or to some extent suppress the distorting effect of such artifacts. Yet to our knowledge, there is no existing means to remove muscle artifacts from single-channel EEG recordings. Moreover, considering the recently increasing need for biomedical signal processing in ambulatory situations, it is crucially important to develop single-channel techniques. In this work, we propose a simple, yet effective method to achieve the muscle artifact removal from single-channel EEG, by combining ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD with multiset canonical correlation analysis (MCCA. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed method through numerical simulations and application to real EEG recordings contaminated with muscle artifacts. The proposed method can successfully remove muscle artifacts without altering the recorded underlying EEG activity. It is a promising tool for real-world biomedical signal processing applications.

  20. Differential effects of dopamine and opioid receptor blockade on motivated Coca-Cola drinking behavior and associated changes in brain, skin and muscle temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, E A

    2010-05-05

    Although pharmacological blockade of both dopamine (DA) and opiate receptors has an inhibiting effect on appetitive motivated behaviors, it is still unclear which physiological mechanisms affected by these treatments underlie the behavioral deficit. To clarify this issue, we examined how pharmacological blockade of either DA (SCH23390+eticlopride at 0.2 mg/kg each) or opioid receptors (naloxone 1 mg/kg) affects motor activity and temperature fluctuations in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), temporal muscle, and facial skin associated with motivated Coca-Cola drinking behavior in rats. In drug-free conditions, presentation of a cup containing 5 ml of Coca-Cola induced locomotor activation and rapid NAcc temperature increases, which both transiently decreased during drinking, and phasically increased again after the cup was emptied. Muscle temperatures followed this pattern, but increases were weaker and more delayed than those in the NAcc. Skin temperature rapidly dropped after cup presentation, remained at low levels during consumption, and slowly restored during post-consumption behavioral activation. By itself, DA receptor blockade induced robust decrease in spontaneous locomotion, moderate increases in brain and muscle temperatures, and a relative increase in skin temperatures, suggesting metabolic activation coupled with adynamia. Following this treatment (approximately 180 min), motor activation to cup presentation and Coca-Cola consumption were absent, but rats showed NAcc and muscle temperature increases following cup presentation comparable to control. Therefore, DA receptor blockade does not affect significantly central and peripheral autonomic responses to appetitive stimuli, but eliminates their behavior-activating effects, thus disrupting appetitive behavior and blocking consumption. Naloxone alone slightly decreased brain and muscle temperatures and increased skin temperatures, pointing at the enhanced heat loss and possible minor inhibition of basal

  1. Neuromuscular organization of avian flight muscle: architecture of single muscle fibres in muscle units of the pectoralis (pars thoracicus) of pigeon (Columba livia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    The M. pectoralis (pars thoracicus) of pigeons (Columba livia) is comprised of short muscle fibres that do not extend from muscle origin to insertion but overlap 'in-series'. Individual pectoralis motor units are limited in territory to a portion of muscle length and are comprised of either fast twitch, oxidative and glycolytic fibres (FOG) or fast twitch and glycolytic fibres (FG). FOG fibres make up 88 to 90% of the total muscle population and have a mean diameter one-half of that of the relatively large FG fibres. Here we report on the organization of individual fibres identified in six muscle units depleted of glycogen, three comprised of FOG fibres and three comprised of FG fibres. For each motor unit, fibre counts revealed unequal numbers of depleted fibres in different unit cross-sections. We traced individual fibres in one unit comprised of FOG fibres and a second comprised of FG fibres. Six fibres from a FOG unit (total length 15.45 mm) ranged from 10.11 to 11.82 mm in length and averaged (± s.d.) 10.74 ± 0.79 mm. All originated bluntly (en mass) from a fascicle near the proximal end of the muscle unit and all terminated intramuscularly. Five of these ended in a taper and one ended bluntly. Fibres coursed on average for 70% of the muscle unit length. Six fibres from a FG unit (total length 34.76 mm) ranged from 8.97 to 18.38 mm in length and averaged 15.32 ± 3.75 mm. All originated bluntly and terminated intramuscularly; one of these ended in a taper and five ended bluntly. Fibres coursed on average for 44% of the muscle unit length. Because fibres of individual muscle units do not extend the whole muscle unit territory, the effective cross-sectional area changes along the motor unit length. These non-uniformities in the distribution of fibres within a muscle unit emphasize that the functional interactions within and between motor units are complex.

  2. Fetal Tendinous Connection Between the Tensor Tympani and Tensor Veli Palatini Muscles: A Single Digastric Muscle Acting for Morphogenesis of the Cranial Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Sakiyama, Koji; Abe, Hiroshi; Amano, Osamu; Murakami, Gen

    2016-04-01

    Some researchers contend that in adults the tensor tympani muscle (TT) connects with the tensor veli palatini muscle (TVP) by an intermediate tendon, in disagreement with the other researchers. To resolve this controversy, we examined serial sections of 50 human embryos and fetuses at 6-17 weeks of development. At 6 weeks, in the first pharyngeal arch, a mesenchymal connection was found first to divide a single anlage into the TT and TVP. At and after 7 weeks, the TT was connected continuously with the TVP by a definite tendinous tissue mediolaterally crossing the pharyngotympanic tube. At 11 weeks another fascia was visible covering the cranial and lateral sides of the tube. This "gonial fascia" had two thickened borders: the superior one corresponded to a part of the connecting tendon between the TT and TVP; the inferior one was a fibrous band ending at the os goniale near the lateral end of the TVP. In association with the gonial fascia, the fetal TT and TVP seemed to provide a functional complex. The TT-TVP complex might first help elevate the palatal shelves in association with the developing tongue. Next, the tubal passage, maintained by contraction of the muscle complex, seems to facilitate the removal of loose mesenchymal tissues from the tympanic cavity. Third, the muscle complex most likely determined the final morphology of the pterygoid process. Consequently, despite the controversial morphologies in adults, the TT and TVP seemed to make a single digastric muscle acting for the morphogenesis of the cranial base. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Estimation of thigh muscle cross-sectional area by single- and multifrequency segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yosuke; Ikenaga, Masahiro; Takeda, Noriko; Morimura, Kazuhiro; Miyoshi, Nobuyuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Kimura, Misaka; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-15

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has been used to estimate skeletal muscle mass, but its application in the elderly is not optimal. The accuracy of BIA may be influenced by the expansion of extracellular water (ECW) relative to muscle mass with aging. Multifrequency BIA (MFBIA) can evaluate the distribution between ECW and intracellular water (ICW), and thus may be superior to single-frequency BIA (SFBIA) to estimate muscle mass in the elderly. A total of 58 elderly participants aged 65-85 years were recruited. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was obtained from computed tomography scans at the mid-thigh. Segmental SFBIA and MFBIA were measured for the upper legs. An index of the ratio of ECW and ICW was calculated using MFBIA. The correlation between muscle CSA and SFBIA was moderate (r = 0.68), but strong between muscle CSA and MFBIA (r = 0.85). ECW/ICW index was significantly and positively correlated with age (P < 0.001). SFBIA tends to significantly overestimate muscle CSA in subjects who had relative expansion of ECW in the thigh segment (P < 0.001). This trend was not observed for MFBIA (P = 0.42). Relative expansion of ECW was observed in older participants. The relative expansion of ECW affects the validity of traditional SFBIA, which is lowered when estimating muscle CSA in the elderly. By contrast, MFBIA was not affected by water distribution in thigh segments, thus rendering the validity of MFBIA for estimating thigh muscle CSA higher than SFBIA in the elderly.

  4. Subcellular distribution of glycogen and decreased tetanic Ca2+ in fatigued single intact mouse muscle fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Cheng, Arthur J; Ørtenblad, Niels; Westerblad, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    In skeletal muscle fibres, glycogen has been shown to be stored at different subcellular locations: (i) between the myofibrils (intermyofibrillar); (ii) within the myofibrils (intramyofibrillar); and (iii) subsarcolemmal. Of these, intramyofibrillar glycogen has been implied as a critical regulator of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release. The aim of the present study was to test directly how the decrease in cytoplasmic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) during repeated tetanic contractions relates to the subcellular glycogen distribution. Single fibres of mouse flexor digitorum brevis muscles were fatigued with 70 Hz, 350 ms tetani given at 2 s (high-intensity fatigue, HIF) or 10 s (low-intensity fatigue, LIF) intervals, while force and [Ca2+]i were measured. Stimulation continued until force decreased to 30% of its initial value. Fibres were then prepared for analyses of subcellular glycogen distribution by transmission electron microscopy. At fatigue, tetanic [Ca2+]i was reduced to 70 ± 4% and 54 ± 4% of the initial in HIF (P glycogen content was 60–75% lower than in rested control fibres (P glycogen was similar to control. Individual fibres showed a good correlation between the fatigue-induced decrease in tetanic [Ca2+]i and the reduction in intermyofibrillar (P = 0.051) and intramyofibrillar (P = 0.0008) glycogen. In conclusion, the fatigue-induced decrease in tetanic [Ca2+]i, and hence force, is accompanied by major reductions in inter- and intramyofibrillar glycogen. The stronger correlation between decreased tetanic [Ca2+]i and reduced intramyofibrillar glycogen implies that sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release critically depends on energy supply from the intramyofibrillar glycogen pool. PMID:24591577

  5. Subcellular distribution of glycogen and decreased tetanic Ca2+ in fatigued single intact mouse muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Cheng, Arthur J; Ørtenblad, Niels; Westerblad, Hakan

    2014-05-01

    In skeletal muscle fibres, glycogen has been shown to be stored at different subcellular locations: (i) between the myofibrils (intermyofibrillar); (ii) within the myofibrils (intramyofibrillar); and (iii) subsarcolemmal. Of these, intramyofibrillar glycogen has been implied as a critical regulator of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release. The aim of the present study was to test directly how the decrease in cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) during repeated tetanic contractions relates to the subcellular glycogen distribution. Single fibres of mouse flexor digitorum brevis muscles were fatigued with 70 Hz, 350 ms tetani given at 2 s (high-intensity fatigue, HIF) or 10 s (low-intensity fatigue, LIF) intervals, while force and [Ca(2+)]i were measured. Stimulation continued until force decreased to 30% of its initial value. Fibres were then prepared for analyses of subcellular glycogen distribution by transmission electron microscopy. At fatigue, tetanic [Ca(2+)]i was reduced to 70 ± 4% and 54 ± 4% of the initial in HIF (P glycogen content was 60-75% lower than in rested control fibres (P glycogen was similar to control. Individual fibres showed a good correlation between the fatigue-induced decrease in tetanic [Ca(2+)]i and the reduction in intermyofibrillar (P = 0.051) and intramyofibrillar (P = 0.0008) glycogen. In conclusion, the fatigue-induced decrease in tetanic [Ca(2+)]i, and hence force, is accompanied by major reductions in inter- and intramyofibrillar glycogen. The stronger correlation between decreased tetanic [Ca(2+)]i and reduced intramyofibrillar glycogen implies that sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release critically depends on energy supply from the intramyofibrillar glycogen pool.

  6. Safety data on single application of emu and macadamia nut oil on human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayoshi Miyashita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article provides the results of skin sensitization testing for emu and macadamia nut oil on 20 participants (ages 22–59 years old, including 3 men and 17 women. The test was carried out by performing a standard patch test using a Finn Chamber on Scanpor tape. The oils were applied to the participant's back using the tape and left in place for 24 h. After 1- and 24-h from removal of the tape, the reaction of the participant's skin was judged based on a scoring method recommended by Japanese Patch Test Research Group. Results are shown in table format. Keywords: Emu, Macadamia nut, Safety, Patch test

  7. Dystrophic calcification in muscles of legs in calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia syndrome: Accurate evaluation of the extent with (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Partha Sarathi; Karunanithi, Sellam; Dhull, Varun Singh; Kumar, Kunal; Tripathi, Madhavi

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 35-year-old man with calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia variant scleroderma who presented with dysphagia, Raynaud's phenomenon and calf pain. (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy was performed to identify the extent of the calcification. It revealed extensive dystrophic calcification in the left thigh and bilateral legs which was involving the muscles and was well-delineated on single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. Calcinosis in scleroderma usually involves the skin but can be found in deeper periarticular tissues. Myopathy is associated with a poor prognosis.

  8. l-arginine modulates inflammation and muscle regulatory genes after a single session of resistance exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, S R L; Brito, V G B; Mello, W G; Oliveira, S H P

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the skeletal muscle adaptation to l-arginine supplementation prior to a single session of resistance exercise (RE) during the early phase of muscle repair. Wistar rats were randomly assigned into non-exercised (Control), RE plus vehicle (RE); RE plus l-arginine (RE+L-arg) and RE plus aminoguanidine (RE+AG) groups. Animals received four doses of either vehicle (0.9% NaCl), l-arg (1 g/b.w.), or AG (iNOS inhibitor) (50 mg/b.w.). The animals performed a single RE session until the concentric failure (ladder climbing; 80% overload) and the skeletal muscles were harvested at 0, 8, 24, and 48 hours post-RE. The RE resulted in increased neutrophil infiltrate (24 hours post-RE) (3621 vs 11852; Pl-arginine supplementation attenuates neutrophil infiltration (5622; Pl-arginine supplementation seems to attenuate the resolution of RE-induced muscle inflammation and up-regulates MyoD expression during the early phase of muscle repair. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [X-ray diffraction study of the molecular nature of the dependence of rigor tension developed by skinned rabbit psoas muscle on the ionic strength of the solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednev, V V; Kornev, A N; Srebnitskaia, L K

    1983-01-01

    Molecular origin of the dependence of rigor tension developed by skinned rabbit psoas muscle on the value of ionic strength in rigorizing solution was studied by means of X-ray diffraction technique. It is shown that a deviation of the ionic strength from "normal" value (= 0.125) either to high (= 0.34) or to low (= 0.04) values is accompanied by the changes in the relative intensities of some meridional reflections while their axial positions remained unchanged. This may be explained as the result of the detachment of myosin subfragments-2 from the surfaces of thick filaments. The data obtained indicate that there is a correlation between the structure and localization of myosin subfragments-2 and the value of force generated by the muscle.

  10. Highlights from the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength or FAMuSS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Pescatello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength study or FAMuSS was to identify genetic factors that dictated the response of health-related fitness phenotypes to resistance exercise training (RT. The phenotypes examined were baseline muscle strength and muscle, fat, and bone volume and their response to RT. FAMuSS participants were 1300 young (24 years, healthy men (42% and women (58% that were primarily of European-American descent. They were genotyped for ~500 polymorphisms and completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess energy expenditure and time spent in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity habitual physical activity and sitting. Subjects then performed a 12-week progressive, unilateral RT program of the nondominant arm with the dominant arm used as a comparison. Before and after RT, muscle strength was measured with the maximum voluntary contraction and one repetition maximum, while MRI measured muscle, fat, and bone volume. We will discuss the history of how FAMuSS originated, provide a brief overview of the FAMuSS methods, and summarize our major findings regarding genotype associations with muscle strength and size, body composition, cardiometabolic biomarkers, and physical activity.

  11. Muscle and liver-specific alterations in lipid and acylcarnitine metabolism after a single bout of exercise in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoene, Miriam; Li, Jia; Li, Yanjie; Runge, Heike; Zhao, Xinjie; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Lehmann, Rainer; Xu, Guowang; Weigert, Cora

    2016-02-26

    Intracellular lipid pools are highly dynamic and tissue-specific. Physical exercise is a strong physiologic modulator of lipid metabolism, but most studies focus on changes induced by long-term training. To assess the acute effects of endurance exercise, mice were subjected to one hour of treadmill running, and (13)C16-palmitate was applied to trace fatty acid incorporation in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle and liver. The amounts of carnitine, FFA, lysophospholipids and diacylglycerol and the post-exercise increase in acetylcarnitine were pronouncedly higher in soleus than in gastrocnemius. In the liver, exercise increased the content of lysophospholipids, plasmalogens and carnitine as well as transcript levels of the carnitine transporter. (13)C16-palmitate was detectable in several lipid and acylcarnitine species, with pronounced levels of tracer-derived palmitoylcarnitine in both muscles and a strikingly high incorporation into triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine in the liver. These data illustrate the high lipid storing activity of the liver immediately after exercise whereas in muscle, fatty acids are directed towards oxidation. The observed muscle-specific differences accentuate the need for single-muscle analyses as well as careful consideration of the particular muscle employed when studying lipid metabolism in mice. In addition, our results reveal that lysophospholipids and plasmalogens, potential lipid signalling molecules, are acutely regulated by physical exercise.

  12. The effect of lattice spacing change on cross-bridge kinetics in chemically skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers. I. Proportionality between the lattice spacing and the fiber width

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, M.; Wray, J.S.; Zhao, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Chemically skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers/bundles were osmotically compressed with a macromolecule dextran T-500 (0-16%, g/100 ml) at 20 degrees C, 200 mM ionic strength, and pH 7.0. The lattice spacing of psoas bundles was measured by equatorial x-ray diffraction studies during relaxation and after rigor induction, and the results were compared with the fiber width measurements by optical microscopy. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether fiber width is a reliable measu...

  13. Elevation in heat shock protein 72 mRNA following contractions in isolated single skeletal muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stary, Creed M; Walsh, Brandon J; Knapp, Amy E; Brafman, David; Hogan, Michael C

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was 1) to develop a stable model for measuring contraction-induced elevations in mRNA in single skeletal muscle fibers and 2) to utilize this model to investigate the response of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) mRNA following an acute bout of fatiguing contractions. Living, intact skeletal muscle fibers were microdissected from lumbrical muscle of Xenopus laevis and either electrically stimulated for 15 min of tetanic contractions (EX; n=26) or not stimulated to contract (REST; n=14). The relative mean developed tension of EX fibers decreased to 29+/-7% of initial peak tension at the stimulation end point. Following treatment, individual fibers were allowed to recover for 1 (n=9), 2 (n=8), or 4 h (n=9) prior to isolation of total cellular mRNA. HSP72, HSP60, and cardiac alpha-actin mRNA content were then assessed in individual fibers using quantitative PCR detection. Relative HSP72 mRNA content was significantly (Pelevated at the 2-h postcontraction time point relative to REST fibers when normalized to either HSP60 (18.5+/-7.5-fold) or cardiac alpha-actin (14.7+/-4.3-fold), although not at the 1- or 4-h time points. These data indicate that 1) extraction of RNA followed by relative quantification of mRNA of select genes in isolated single skeletal muscle fibers can be reliably performed, 2) HSP60 and cardiac alpha-actin are suitable endogenous normalizing genes in skeletal muscle following contractions, and 3) a significantly elevated content of HSP72 mRNA is detectable in skeletal muscle 2 h after a single bout of fatiguing contractions, despite minimal temperature changes and without influence from extracellular sources.

  14. Single-cell sequencing analysis characterizes common and cell-lineage-specific mutations in a muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingrui; Xu, Xun; Song, Luting

    2012-01-01

    sequencing of 66 individual tumor cells from a muscle-invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Analyses of the somatic mutant allele frequency spectrum and clonal structure revealed that the tumor cells were derived from a single ancestral cell, but that subsequent evolution occurred, leading...... to two distinct tumor cell subpopulations. By analyzing recurrently mutant genes in an additional cohort of 99 TCC tumors, we identified genes that might play roles in the maintenance of the ancestral clone and in the muscle-invasive capability of subclones of this bladder cancer, respectively...

  15. Is the Fundamental Electrical Response of the Single Heart Muscle Cell a Spike Potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churney, Leon; Ohshima, Hisashi

    1963-01-01

    The urodele amphibians, Amphiuma and Necturus, provide heart fibers large enough to serve for microelectrode recording under visual control with the microscope. Bundles containing as few as 5 to 10 fibers yield spike potentials, rather than the plateau forms generally considered to be characteristic of heart muscle. These spikes fail to overshoot. The plateau form, and only the plateau form, is recorded exclusively from large tissue masses. An intermingling of spikes and plateau-shaped action potentials is obtained from bundles of intermediate size. These data are confirmed in experiments in which the myocardium is sliced into adhering strips of unequal sizes. The conclusion is drawn that the configuration of the recorded action potential curve is contingent upon the mass and geometry of the tissue impaled by the microelectrode. The crucial experiment of recording from an isolated single heart fiber is not possible, because of the attendant injury. Our proposal that the spike form is the elemental heart action potential is, to this extent, an extrapolation. Attempts to explain the nature of the spike along classical lines are not entirely satisfactory. Other theories are considered which, in their turn, are generally unacceptable. Evidently only further experimentation can clarify the situation. PMID:14021260

  16. Pathological grooming: Evidence for a single factor behind trichotillomania, skin picking and nail biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraz, Aniko; Hende, Borbála; Urbán, Róbert; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2017-01-01

    Although trichotillomania (TTM), skin picking (SP), and nail biting (NB) have been receiving growing scientific attention, the question as to whether these disorders can be regarded as separate entities or they are different manifestations of the same underlying tendency is unclear. Data were collected online in a community survey, yielding a sample of 2705 participants (66% women, mean age: 29.1, SD: 8.6). Hierarchical factor analysis was used to identify a common latent factor and the multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC) modelling was applied to test the predictive effect of borderline personality disorder symptoms, impulsivity, distress and self-esteem on pathological grooming. Pearson correlation coefficients between TTM, SP and NB were between 0.13 and 0.29 (p grooming factor. Impulsivity, psychiatric distress and contingent self-esteem had significant predictive effects, whereas borderline personality disorder had a nonsignificant predictive effect on the latent factor. We found evidence that the category of pathological grooming is meaningful and encompasses three symptom manifestations: trichotillomania, skin picking and nail biting. This latent underlying factor is not better explained by indicators of psychopathology, which supports the notion that the urge to self-groom, rather than general psychiatric distress, impulsivity, self-esteem or borderline symptomatology, is what drives individual grooming behaviours.

  17. Single motor unit firing behavior in the right trapezius muscle during rapid movement of right or left index finger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karen; Olsen, Henrik B; Blangsted, Anne K

    2014-01-01

    of a general multi joint motor program, while a generally increased and continuous firing rate would support the attention related muscle activation. METHOD: Twelve healthy female subjects were seated at a computer work place with elbows and forearms supported. Ten double clicks (DC) were performed with right......BACKGROUND: Computer work is associated with low level sustained activity in the trapezius muscle that may cause development of trapezius myalgia. Such a low level activity may be attention related or alternatively, be part of a general multi joint motor program providing stabilization...... of the shoulder joint as a biomechanical prerequisite for precise finger manipulation. This study examines single motor unit (MU) firing pattern in the right trapezius muscle during fast movements of ipsilateral or contralateral index finger. A modulation of the MU firing rate would support the existence...

  18. Effects of muscle fatigue on gait characteristics under single and dual-task conditions in young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wehrle Anja

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle fatigue and dual-task walking (e.g., concurrent performance of a cognitive interference (CI while walking represent major fall risk factors in young and older adults. Thus, the objectives of this study were to examine the effects of muscle fatigue on gait characteristics under single and dual-task conditions in young and older adults and to determine the impact of muscle fatigue on dual-task costs while walking. Methods Thirty-two young (24.3 ± 1.4 yrs, n = 16 and old (71.9 ± 5.5 yrs, n = 16 healthy active adults participated in this study. Fatigue of the knee extensors/flexors was induced by isokinetic contractions. Subjects were tested pre and post fatigue, as well as after a 5 min rest. Tests included the assessment of gait velocity, stride length, and stride length variability during single (walking, and dual (CI+walking task walking on an instrumented walkway. Dual-task costs while walking were additionally computed. Results Fatigue resulted in significant decreases in single-task gait velocity and stride length in young adults, and in significant increases in dual-task gait velocity and stride length in older adults. Further, muscle fatigue did not affect dual-task costs during walking in young and older adults. Performance in the CI-task was improved in both age groups post-fatigue. Conclusions Strategic and/or physiologic rationale may account for the observed differences in young and older adults. In terms of strategic rationale, older adults may walk faster with longer strides in order to overcome the feeling of fatigue-induced physical discomfort as quickly as possible. Alternatively, older adults may have learned how to compensate for age-related and/or fatigue-induced muscle deficits during walking by increasing muscle power of synergistic muscle groups (e.g., hip flexors. Further, a practice and/or learning effect may have occurred from pre to post testing. Physiologic rationale may comprise motor unit

  19. Epidermal Cells Expressing Putative Cell Markers in Nonglabrous Skin Existing in Direct Proximity with the Distal End of the Arrector Pili Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Torkamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconsistent with the view that epidermal stem cells reside randomly spread along the basal layer of the epidermal rete ridges, we found that epidermal cells expressing stem cell markers in nonglabrous skin exist in direct connection with the distal end of the arrector pili muscle. The epidermal cells that express stem cell markers consist of a subpopulation of basal keratinocytes located in a niche at the lowermost portion of the rete ridges at the distal arrector pili muscle attachment site. Keratinocytes in the epidermal stem cell niche express K15, MCSP, and α6 integrin. α5 integrin marks the distal end of the APM colocalized with basal keratinocytes expressing stem cell markers located in a well-protected and nourished environment at the lowermost point of the epidermis; these cells are hypothesized to participate directly in epidermal renewal and homeostasis and also indirectly in wound healing through communication with the hair follicle bulge epithelial stem cell population through the APM. Our findings, plus a reevaluation of the literature, support the hierarchical model of interfollicular epidermal stem cell units of Fitzpatrick. This new view provides insights into epidermal control and the possible involvement of epidermal stem cells in nonmelanoma skin carcinogenesis.

  20. Effects of UV radiation and diet on polyunsaturated fatty acids in the skin, ocular tissue and dorsal muscle of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) held in outdoor rearing tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Michael T; Browman, Howard I; Jokinen, Ilmari E; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit

    2010-01-01

    The effect of UV radiation (UVR) on juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was assessed by measuring the fatty acid (FA) profiles of muscle, dorsal and ventral skin, and ocular tissues following 4-month long exposures to four different UVR treatments in outdoor rearing tanks. Fish were fed two different diets (Anchovy- and Herring-oil based) that differed in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations. Anchovy-fed salmon had higher concentrations of ALA (alpha-linoleic acid; 18:3n-3), EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid; 20:5n-3) and DPA (docosapentaenoic acid, 22:5n-3) in their muscle tissues than fish fed the Herring feed. Fish subjected to enhanced UVB levels had higher concentrations of LIN (linolenic acid, 18:2n-6) and ALA, total omega-6 FA and SAFA (saturated fatty acids) in their tissues compared with fish in reduced UV treatments. Concentrations of ALA, LIN, GLA (gamma-linolenic acid; 18:3n-6), EPA, PUFA and total FA were higher in ventral skin of fish exposed to enhanced UVB compared with fish in reduced UV treatments. Salmon exposed to reduced UV weighed more per-unit-length than fish exposed to ambient sunlight. The FA profiles suggest that fish exposed to UV radiation were more quiescent than fish in the reduced UV treatments resulting in a buildup of catabolic substrates.

  1. BUILDING A BETTER GLUTEAL BRIDGE: ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF HIP MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING MODIFIED SINGLE-LEG BRIDGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael; Haverkamp, Ryan; Martin, Lani; Porter, Kambry; Thach, Kailey; Sack, Richard J.; Hakansson, Nils A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Gluteal strength plays a role in injury prevention, normal gait patterns, eliminating pain, and enhancing athletic performance. Research shows high gluteal muscle activity during a single-leg bridge compared to other gluteal strengthening exercises; however, prior studies have primarily measured muscle activity with the active lower extremity starting in 90 ° of knee flexion with an extended contralateral knee. This standard position has caused reports of hamstring cramping, which may impede optimal gluteal strengthening. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine which modified position for the single-leg bridge is best for preferentially activating the gluteus maximus and medius. Study Design Cross-Sectional Methods Twenty-eight healthy males and females aged 18-30 years were tested in five different, randomized single-leg bridge positions. Electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on subjects’ gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris of their bridge leg (i.e., dominant or kicking leg), as well as the rectus femoris of their contralateral leg. Subjects performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for each tested muscle prior to performing five different bridge positions in randomized order. All bridge EMG data were normalized to the corresponding muscle MVIC data. Results A modified bridge position with the knee of the bridge leg flexed to 135 ° versus the traditional 90 ° of knee flexion demonstrated preferential activation of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius compared to the traditional single-leg bridge. Hamstring activation significantly decreased (p gluteus maximus and medius, respectively). Conclusion Modifying the traditional single-leg bridge by flexing the active knee to 135 ° instead of 90 ° minimizes hamstring activity while maintaining high levels of gluteal activation, effectively building a bridge better suited for preferential gluteal activation

  2. The effect of calf stretching box on stretching calf muscle compliance: a prospective, randomized single-blinded controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadchavalpanichaya, Navaporn; Srisawasdi, Gulapar; Suwannakin, Atchara

    2010-12-01

    To study the effect of calf stretching box usage in increasing the compliance of performing calf stretching exercise as compared to the conventional exercise method. To study the effect of calf stretching box usage in decreasing the calf muscle tightness and complications as compared to the conventional exercise method. Eighty patients older than 45 years old with calf muscles tightness were enrolled in a prospective, randomized single-blinded controlled trial at the out-patient Rehabilitation medicine clinic, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok Thailand between April and August 2009. Patients were randomized into two groups, the study group (stretching by using calf stretching box) and the control group (stretching by the conventional exercise method). Patients in both groups were asked to hold the stretch for at least 1 minute and to perform the stretching program at least two times per day, every day for two weeks. Furthermore, they were asked to record the real frequency and duration of their exercise and complications in a logbook every day. Thirty-eight patients in each group completed the study. The baseline characteristics of the patients in both groups were similar. The study group had higher frequency and longer duration of performing calf stretching exercise than the control group. They also reported more decrease of calf muscle tightness with less pain complication (shoulder pain, knee pain, low back pain, and calf muscle pain) than the control group (p calf muscle and degree of ankle range of motion between the two groups. Stretching calf muscle with calf stretching box can increase compliance, decrease calf muscle tightness and decrease complications when compared with the conventional exercise method.

  3. Evaluation of Low-Dose Ultraviolet Light C for Reduction of Select ESKAPE Pathogens in a Canine Skin and Muscle Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujowich, Mauricio; Case, J Brad; Ellison, Gary; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at comparing the ability of low-dose UVC, 0.05% chlorhexidine, and combined UVC with 0.05% chlorhexidine to reduce colony-forming units (CFUs) on select ESKAPE pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecium) in a canine skin and muscle model. Surgical site infections (SSIs) result in increased morbidity and cost. UVC damages DNA, rendering bacteria nonviable and does not discriminate between drug-sensitive and multi-drug-resistant organisms. Specimens were inoculated with one of three pathogens. Samples were treated with a 254 nm UVC mercury lamp or a 270 nm UVC LED light at 0.015, 0.03, or 0.04 J/cm(2) doses; 0.05% and 2% chlorhexidine were used as positive controls. To evaluate synergism, 0.05% chlorhexidine was used with 0.015 J/cm(2) of UVC. CFUs were counted and compared against the negative control. There were no significant differences in CFU counts between samples of the same tissue type treated with different light sources of the same UVC dose. UVC significantly decreased CFUs when compared against all negative controls in both skin and muscle. There was no consistently superior bactericidal UVC dose identified for individual bacteria or for tissue type. The bactericidal activity of UVC at 0.015 J/cm(2) versus 0.05% chlorhexidine was not different in muscle for any bacteria. The bactericidal activity of UVC at 0.015 J/cm(2) was superior to 0.05% chlorhexidine in skin for S. aureus and K. pneumonia, but not E. faecium. Combination of UVC and 0.05% chlorhexidine showed synergy against E. faecium when evaluated on skin. Low-dose UVC shows promise as a rapid, effective, and synergistic means of reducing bacterial burdens, which may decrease the incidence of SSIs. It should be further evaluated for use when 2% chlorhexidine would be contraindicated or impractical, such as open wounds or surgical sites.

  4. Effects of inactivity on human muscle glutathione synthesis by a double-tracer and single-biopsy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Francesco; Dalla Libera, Luciano; Rittweger, Jörn; Mazzucco, Sara; Jurdana, Mihaela; Mekjavic, Igor B; Pisot, Rado; Gorza, Luisa; Narici, Marco; Biolo, Gianni

    2010-12-15

    Oxidative stress is often associated to inactivity-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy. Glutathione is one of the major antioxidant systems stimulated, both at muscular and systemic level, by activation of oxidative processes. We measured changes in glutathione availability, oxidative stress induction and the extent of atrophy mediated by 35 days of experimental bed rest in vastus lateralis muscle of healthy human volunteers. To assess muscle glutathione synthesis, we applied a novel single-biopsy and double-tracer ([(2)H(2)]glycine and [(15)N]glycine) approach based on evaluation of steady-state precursor incorporation in product. The correlations between the traditional (multiple-samples, one-tracer) and new (one-sample, double-tracer infusion) methods were analysed in erythrocytes by Passing-Bablok and Altman-Bland tests. Muscle glutathione absolute synthesis rate increased following bed rest from 5.5 ± 1.1 to 11.0 ± 1.5 mmol (kg wet tissue)(-1) day(-1) (mean ± S.E.M.; n = 9; P = 0.02) while glutathione concentration failed to change significantly. Bed rest induced vastus lateralis muscle atrophy, as assessed by pennation angle changes measured by ultrasonography (from 18.6 ± 1.0 to 15.3 ± 0.9 deg; P = 0.01) and thickness changes (from 2.3 ± 0.2 to 1.9 ± 0.1 cm; P well as to compensatory activation of the glutathione system.

  5. Linalool prevents oxidative stress activated protein kinases in single UVB-exposed human skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Srithar; Balupillai, Agilan; Govindasamy, Kanimozhi; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Muthusamy, Ganesan; Shanmugam, Mohana; Thangaiyan, Radhiga; Robert, Beaulah Mary; Prasad Nagarajan, Rajendra; Ponniresan, Veeramani Kandan; Rathinaraj, Pierson

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (285-320 nm) elicits a number of cellular signaling elements. We investigated the preventive effect of linalool, a natural monoterpene, against UVB-induced oxidative imbalance, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling in HDFa cells. We observed that linalool treatment (30 μM) prevented acute UVB-irradiation (20 mJ/cm2) mediated loss of activities of antioxidant enzymes in HDFa cells. The comet assay results illustrate that linalool significantly prevents UVB-mediated 8-deoxy guanosine formation (oxidative DNA damage) rather than UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine (CPD) formation. This might be due to its ability to prevent UVB-induced ROS formation and to restore the oxidative imbalance of cells. This has been reflected in UVB-induced overexpression of MAPK and NF-κB signaling. We observed that linalool inhibited UVB-induced phosphorylation of ERK1, JNK and p38 proteins of MAPK family. Linalool inhibited UVB-induced activation of NF-κB/p65 by activating IκBa. We further observed that UVB-induced expression of TNF-α, IL6, IL-10, MMP-2 and MMP-9 was modulated by linalool treatment in HDFa cells. Thus, linalool protects the human skin cells from the oxidative damages of UVB radiation and modulates MAPK and NF-κB signaling in HDFa cells. The present findings substantiate that linalool may act as a photoprotective agent against UVB-induced skin damages.

  6. Pathological grooming: Evidence for a single factor behind trichotillomania, skin picking and nail biting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniko Maraz

    Full Text Available Although trichotillomania (TTM, skin picking (SP, and nail biting (NB have been receiving growing scientific attention, the question as to whether these disorders can be regarded as separate entities or they are different manifestations of the same underlying tendency is unclear. Data were collected online in a community survey, yielding a sample of 2705 participants (66% women, mean age: 29.1, SD: 8.6. Hierarchical factor analysis was used to identify a common latent factor and the multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC modelling was applied to test the predictive effect of borderline personality disorder symptoms, impulsivity, distress and self-esteem on pathological grooming. Pearson correlation coefficients between TTM, SP and NB were between 0.13 and 0.29 (p < 0.01. The model yielded an excellent fit to the data (CFI = 0.992, TLI = 0.991, χ2 = 696.65, p < 0.001, df = 222, RMSEA = 0.030, Cfit of RMSEA = 1.000, supporting the existence of a latent factor. The MIMIC model indicated an adequate fit (CFI = 0.993, TLI = 0.992, χ2 = 655.8, p < 0.001, df = 307, RMSEA = 0.25, CI: 0.022-0.028, pclose = 1.000. TTM, SP and NB each were loaded significantly on the latent factor, indicating the presence of a general grooming factor. Impulsivity, psychiatric distress and contingent self-esteem had significant predictive effects, whereas borderline personality disorder had a nonsignificant predictive effect on the latent factor. We found evidence that the category of pathological grooming is meaningful and encompasses three symptom manifestations: trichotillomania, skin picking and nail biting. This latent underlying factor is not better explained by indicators of psychopathology, which supports the notion that the urge to self-groom, rather than general psychiatric distress, impulsivity, self-esteem or borderline symptomatology, is what drives individual grooming behaviours.

  7. Nanonet force microscopy for measuring forces in single smooth muscle cells of the human aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alexander; Chan, Patrick; Sheets, Kevin; Apperson, Matthew; Delaughter, Christopher; Gleason, Thomas G; Phillippi, Julie A; Nain, Amrinder

    2017-07-07

    A number of innovative methods exist to measure cell-matrix adhesive forces, but they have yet to accurately describe and quantify the intricate interplay of a cell and its fibrous extracellular matrix (ECM). In cardiovascular pathologies, such as aortic aneurysm, new knowledge on the involvement of cell-matrix forces could lead to elucidation of disease mechanisms. To better understand this dynamics, we measured primary human aortic single smooth muscle cell (SMC) forces using nanonet force microscopy in both inside-out (I-O intrinsic contractility) and outside-in (O-I external perturbation) modes. For SMC populations, we measured the I-O and O-I forces to be 12.9 ± 1.0 and 57.9 ± 2.5 nN, respectively. Exposure of cells to oxidative stress conditions caused a force decrease of 57 and 48% in I-O and O-I modes, respectively, and an increase in migration rate by 2.5-fold. Finally, in O-I mode, we cyclically perturbed cells at constant strain of varying duration to simulate in vivo conditions of the cardiac cycle and found that I-O forces decrease with increasing duration and O-I forces decreased by half at shorter cycle times. Thus our findings highlight the need to study forces exerted and felt by cells simultaneously to comprehensively understand force modulation in cardiovascular disease. © 2017 Hall et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. Determining the impact of oxidation on the motility of single muscle-fibres expressing different myosin isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Li, M.; Baron, Caroline P.

    2013-01-01

    (motility speed) and force-generation capacity of specific MyHC isoforms. In the experimental procedure, single muscle fibres were split in different segments and each segment was exposed to a different concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Speed and force measurements were recorded and compared, to assess...... the effect of myosin oxidation on motility and force. The MyHC isoform expression in the single muscle fibre was subsequently determined on silver-stained gel SDS-PAGE. Preliminary results indicate a decrease of directionality and speed of the in-vitro motility as a result of an oxidative environment......, and the successful use of the assay in determining fibre-specific responses to oxidation. Subsequent analyses will focus on the location of protein modifications on the myosin molecule and on how these modifications induce changes in speed and force....

  9. BUILDING A BETTER GLUTEAL BRIDGE: ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF HIP MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING MODIFIED SINGLE-LEG BRIDGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehecka, B J; Edwards, Michael; Haverkamp, Ryan; Martin, Lani; Porter, Kambry; Thach, Kailey; Sack, Richard J; Hakansson, Nils A

    2017-08-01

    Gluteal strength plays a role in injury prevention, normal gait patterns, eliminating pain, and enhancing athletic performance. Research shows high gluteal muscle activity during a single-leg bridge compared to other gluteal strengthening exercises; however, prior studies have primarily measured muscle activity with the active lower extremity starting in 90 ° of knee flexion with an extended contralateral knee. This standard position has caused reports of hamstring cramping, which may impede optimal gluteal strengthening. The purpose of this study was to determine which modified position for the single-leg bridge is best for preferentially activating the gluteus maximus and medius. Cross-Sectional. Twenty-eight healthy males and females aged 18-30 years were tested in five different, randomized single-leg bridge positions. Electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on subjects' gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris of their bridge leg (i.e., dominant or kicking leg), as well as the rectus femoris of their contralateral leg. Subjects performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for each tested muscle prior to performing five different bridge positions in randomized order. All bridge EMG data were normalized to the corresponding muscle MVIC data. A modified bridge position with the knee of the bridge leg flexed to 135 ° versus the traditional 90 ° of knee flexion demonstrated preferential activation of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius compared to the traditional single-leg bridge. Hamstring activation significantly decreased (p bridge by flexing the active knee to 135 ° instead of 90 ° minimizes hamstring activity while maintaining high levels of gluteal activation, effectively building a bridge better suited for preferential gluteal activation. 3.

  10. Single- and multiple-set resistance training improves skeletal and respiratory muscle strength in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahin O

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Odilon Abrahin,1–3 Rejane P Rodrigues,1–3 Vanderson C Nascimento,3 Marzo E Da Silva-Grigoletto,1,4 Evitom C Sousa,3 Anderson C Marçal1,2 1Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil; 2Center of Research in Intracellular Signaling, Department of Morphology, Federal University of Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil; 3Laboratory of Resistance Exercise and Health, Sports Department, University of Pará State, Belem, Brazil; 4Scientific Sport, Sergipe, Brazil Introduction: Aging involves a progressive reduction of respiratory muscle strength as well as muscle strength. Purpose: Compare the effects of resistance training volume on the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP, maximum expiratory pressure (MEP, functional performance, and muscle strength in elderly women. Methods: Thirty elderly women were randomly assigned to a group performing either single sets (1-SET or three sets (3-SET of exercises. The sit-to-stand test, MIP, MEP, and muscle strength were assessed before and after 24 training sessions. Progressive resistance training was performed two times per week for a total of 8–12 repetitions, using the main muscle groups of the upper and lower limbs. Results: The main results showed that the participants significantly increased their MEP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 34.6%; 3-SET: 35.8% and MIP (P<0.05; 1-SET: 13.7%; 3-SET: 11.2%. Both groups also improved in the sit-to-stand test (P<0.05; 1-SET: 10.6%; 3-SET: 17.1%. After 24 training sessions, muscle strength also significantly increased (P<0.0001; 40%–80% in both groups. An intergroup comparison did not show any statistically significant differences between the groups in any of the parameters analyzed. Conclusion: Single- and multiple-set resistance training programs increased MIP, MEP, muscle strength, and sit-to-stand test performance in elderly women after 24 sessions of training. In conclusion, our results suggested that elderly women who are not in the habit of

  11. In Vivo skin hydration and anti-erythema effects of Aloe vera, Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii gel materials after single and multiple applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lizelle T.; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Gerber, Minja; van Zyl, Sterna; Boneschans, Banie; Hamman, Josias H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the skin hydrating and anti-erythema activity of gel materials from Aloe marlothii A. Berger and A. ferox Mill. in comparison to that of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in healthy human volunteers. Materials and Methods: Aqueous solutions of the polisaccharidic fractions of the selected aloe leaf gel materials were applied to the volar forearm skin of female subjects. The hydration effect of the aloe gel materials were measured with a Corneometer® CM 825, Visioscan® VC 98 and Cutometer® dual MPA 580 after single and multiple applications. The Mexameter® MX 18 was used to determine the anti-erythema effects of the aloe material solutions on irritated skin areas. Results: The A. vera and A. marlothii gel materials hydrated the skin after a single application, whereas the A. ferox gel material showed dehydration effects compared to the placebo. After multiple applications all the aloe materials exhibited dehydration effects on the skin. Mexameter® readings showed that A. vera and A. ferox have anti-erythema activity similar to that of the positive control group (i.e. hydrocortisone gel) after 6 days of treatment. Conclusion: The polysaccharide component of the gel materials from selected aloe species has a dehydrating effect on the skin after multiple applications. Both A. vera and A. ferox gel materials showed potential to reduce erythema on the skin similar to that of hydrocortisone gel. PMID:24991119

  12. Assessment of paraspinal muscle hardness in subjects with a mild single scoliosis curve: a preliminary myotonometer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Barbosa-Romero, Alejandro; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Jesús; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Tejero-García, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hardness of the paraspinal muscles in the convexity and concavity of patients with scoliosis curvatures and in the upper trapezius (UT) muscle in subjects with mild idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and to observe the correlation between the myotonometer (MYO) measurements and the value of body mass index (BMI) and the Cobb angle. The sample included 13 patients with a single-curve mild IS (Risser sign ≤ 4) at thoracic, lumbar, or thoracolumbar level (mean Cobb angle of 11.53º). Seven females and 6 males were recruited, with a mean age of 12.84 ± 3.06 (9-18) years. A MYO was used to examine the differences in muscle hardness on both sides of the scoliosis curvature at several points: (a) apex of the curve, (b) upper and lower limits of the curve, and (c) the midpoint between the apex and the upper limit and between the apex and the lower limit. The UT was also explored. Although the MYO recorded lower values in all points on the concave side of the scoliosis, there were no significant differences in the comparison between sides (P > .05). No association was observed between BMI and MYO values, whereas the Cobb angle negatively correlated with muscle hardness only at 2 points on the convex side. The preliminary findings show that, in subjects with a single-curve mild IS, muscular hardness in the UT and paraspinal muscles, as assessed using a MYO, was not found to differ between the concave and the convex sides at different reference levels. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. New perspective on the in vivo use of cold stress dynamic thermography in integumental reconstruction with the use of skin-muscle flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolacz, Szymon; Moderhak, Mateusz; Jankau, Jerzy

    2017-05-15

    Among the problems encountered by plastic surgeons is the reconstruction of defects following tumors. One of the reconstructive options is trans rectus abdominis (TRAM) flap. Despite that anatomy is well explored, marginal flap necrosis may develop. To minimize the complications, imaging examinations were designed to determine the degree of flap perfusion. One of them is the thermographic examination. We examined 38 patients who had undergone 10 reconstructive breast surgeries with a pedicled TRAM ipsilateral flap, 10 patients with a TRAM contralateral flap, and 18 patients with a TRAM supercharged flap. Each operated patient underwent a thermographic examination before the surgery, after the dissection of the skin-muscle flap, immediately after suturing flap, and during the first and seventh day after the surgery. The collected data were then processed to yield results in a numerical form and compared with clinical examination. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of new thermal model calculation of dT norm and t 90_10 in cold stress dynamic thermography in the in vivo assessment of intraoperative and postoperative skin blood supply in humans before ischemic lesions become clinically apparent. Of 38 patients participating in the study, nine patients developed marginal necrosis of the skin flap despite intraoperative clinical evaluation of blood supply. Explicit circulatory disorders apparent in a clinical examination developed after 24 h. Cold stress t norm and t 90_10 dynamic thermography can be a helpful additional tool to assess and monitor the blood supply to the flap skin both intraoperatively and postoperatively. Active dynamic thermography; cold stress dynamic thermography, thermography; TRAM; flap necrosis; flap monitoring, breast reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cefodizime in serum and skin blister fluid after single intravenous and intramuscular doses in healthy volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Korting, H C; Schäfer-Korting, M; Maass, L; Klesel, N; Mutschler, E

    1987-01-01

    In gonorrhea therapy, cephalosporins are conventionally administered by intramuscular (i.m.) injection, which rather frequently leads to local side effects. To investigate whether the well-tolerated intravenous (i.v.) injection of cephalosporins may be of comparable gonocidal effect, levels of cefodizime, a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin, in serum and tissue fluid (suction blister and cantharides blister fluid) were determined in six healthy men. Single doses of 1 g of cefodizime were injec...

  15. X-ray diffraction studies of cross-bridges weakly bound to actin in relaxed skinned fibers of rabbit psoas muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S; Malinchik, S; Gilroy, D; Kraft, T; Brenner, B; Yu, L C

    1997-11-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained from skinned rabbit psoas muscle under relaxing and rigor conditions over a wide range of ionic strengths (50-170 mM) and temperatures (1 degree C-30 degrees C). For the first time, an intensification of the first actin-based layer line is observed in the relaxed muscle. The intensification, which increases with decreasing ionic strength at various temperatures, including 30 degrees C, parallels the formation of weakly attached cross-bridges in the relaxed muscle. However, the overall intensities of the actin-based layer lines are low. Furthermore, the level of diffuse scattering, presumably a measure of disorder among the cross-bridges, is little affected by changing ionic strength at a given temperature. The results suggest that the intensification of the first actin layer line is most likely due to the cross-bridges weakly bound to actin, and that the orientations of the weakly attached cross-bridges are hardly distinguishable from the detached cross-bridges. This suggests that the orientations of the weakly attached cross-bridges are not precisely defined with respect to the actin helix, i.e., nonstereospecific. Intensities of the myosin-based layer lines are only marginally affected by changing ionic strength, but markedly by temperature. The results could be explained if in a relaxed muscle the cross-bridges are distributed between a helically ordered and a disordered population with respect to myosin filament structure. Within the disordered population, some are weakly attached to actin and others are detached. The fraction of cross-bridges in the helically ordered assembly is primarily a function of temperature, while the distribution between the weakly attached and the detached within the disordered population is mainly affected by ionic strength. Some other notable features in the diffraction patterns include a approximately 1% decrease in the pitch of the myosin helix as the temperature is raised from 4 degrees C

  16. Effects of pinacidil on contractile proteins in high K(+)-treated intact, and in beta-escin-treated skinned smooth muscle of the rabbit mesenteric artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, T.; Suzuki, S.; Kuriyama, H.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effects of pinacidil were investigated on changes in cellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and tension in intact and chemically skinned smooth muscle strips of the rabbit mesenteric artery. 2. High K+ (128 mM) produced a large phasic followed by a tonic increase in [Ca2+]i and tension in intact muscle strips. Pinacidil at 10 microM but not 1 microM, inhibited the phasic and tonic contractions induced by 128 mM K+ without a corresponding change in [Ca2+]i. 3. In beta-escin-treated skinned smooth muscle, the minimum Ca2+ concentration that produced contraction was 0.1 microM and the maximum contraction was obtained at 10 microM. Pinacidil at 10 microM but not 1 microM, shifted the pCa-tension relation curve to the right and also inhibited the maximum contraction induced by Ca2+. The concentrations of Ca2+ required for half maximal tension were 0.9 microM in control and 1.5 microM in the presence of 10 microM pinacidil. Calmodulin (2 microM) increased the contraction induced by 0.3 microM Ca2+ (but not by 10 microM Ca2+) in the skinned strips. Pinacidil (10 microM) inhibited the contraction induced by 0.3 microM or 10 microM Ca2+ in the presence of 2 microM calmodulin. 4. Noradrenaline (NA, 10 microM) with guanosine triphosphate (GTP, 3 microM), guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S, 3 microM) or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, 0.1 microM) all enhanced the contraction induced by 0.3 microM Ca2+. Pinacidil (10 microM) inhibited the contraction induced by 0.3 microM Ca2+ more strongly in the presence of the above agents than in their absence.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1933133

  17. Granulation tissue exhibits differences in alpha-smooth muscle actin expression after laser-assisted skin closure (LASC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Capon, Alexandre; Fleurisse, Laurence; Creusy, Collette

    2001-05-01

    Laser assisted skin closure (LASC) has been shown to accelerate wound healing and to reduce scarring. However, the mechanisms involved during the cutaneous wound repair after LASC remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the inflammation process and the wound repair fibroplasia, particularly the involvement of granulation tissue fibroblasts (myofibroblasts).

  18. Distinct effects of subcellular glycogen localization on tetanic relaxation time and endurance in mechanically skinned rat skeletal muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Schrøder, H D; Rix, C G

    2009-01-01

    by transmission electron microscopy. The other segment was mechanically skinned and, in the presence of high and constant myoplasmic ATP and PCr, electrically stimulated (10 Hz, 0.8 s every 3 s) eliciting repeated tetanic contractions until the force response was decreased by 50% (mean +/- S.E.M., 81 +/- 16...

  19. Ca2+-activated force-generating properties of mammalian skeletal muscle fibres: histochemically identified single peeled rabbit fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, S K

    1984-12-01

    Single peeled (sarcolemma removed) rabbit skeletal muscle fibres, identified histochemically from their myofibrillar ATPase and oxidative staining patterns, were characterized according to their Ca2+-activated steady-state force-generating properties at normal intracellular pH (7.0) and under acidotic (pH 6.5) conditions. Maximum force-generating capacity of each fibre was assessed by measuring steady-state isometric force generation at saturating Ca2+ concentration at both pH values. The Ca2+ sensitivity of each fibre was ascertained by determining the percentage of maximum force generated at each of several subsaturating Ca2+ concentrations at both pH values. Fibres were selected from soleus, tibialis anterior and adductor magnus muscles. At subsaturating Ca2+ concentrations only two functional groups of fibres were distinguishable, corresponding to the histochemical classifications type I and type II. Type I fibres were more sensitive to Ca2+ and less depressed by acidosis than type II fibres in the subsaturating range of Ca2+ concentrations. At saturating Ca2+ concentrations, the acidotic depression of maximum force was significantly less for type I fibres than type II nonoxidative fibres regardless of their muscle of origin. Type II oxidative fibre maximum force properties depended upon the muscle of origin and demonstrated subgroups of these fibres that were different from type II nonoxidative fibres and similar to type I fibres.

  20. Intracellular β2-adrenergic receptor signaling specificity in mouse skeletal muscle in response to single-dose β2-agonist clenbuterol treatment and acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shogo; Shirato, Ken; Mitsuhashi, Ryosuke; Inoue, Daisuke; Kizaki, Takako; Ohno, Hideki; Tachiyashiki, Kaoru; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the intracellular β2-adrenergic receptor signaling specificity in mouse slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch tibialis anterior (TA) muscles, resulting from single-dose β2-agonist clenbuterol treatment and acute exercise. At 1, 4, and 24 h after single-dose treatment with clenbuterol or after acute running exercise, the soleus and TA muscles were isolated and subjected to analysis. The phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) increased after single-dose clenbuterol treatment and acute exercise in the soleus muscle but not in the TA muscle. Although there was no change in the phosphorylation of Akt after acute exercise in either muscle, phosphorylation of Akt in the soleus muscle increased after single-dose clenbuterol treatment, whereas that in the TA muscle remained unchanged. These results suggest that p38 MAPK and Akt pathways play a functional role in the adaptation to clenbuterol treatment and exercise, particularly in slow-twitch muscles.

  1. Investigating reduction of dimensionality during single-joint elbow movements: a case study on muscle synergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico eChiovetto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A long standing hypothesis in the neuroscience community is that the CNS generates the muscle activities to accomplish movements by combining a relatively small number of stereotyped patterns of muscle activations, often referred to as muscle synergies. Different definitions of synergies have been given in the literature. The most well-known are those of synchronous, time-varying and temporal muscle synergies. Each one of them is based on a different mathematical model used to factor some EMG array recordings collected during the execution of variety of motor tasks into a well-determined spatial, temporal or spatio-temporal organization. This plurality of definitions and their separate application to complex tasks have so far complicated the comparison and interpretation of the results obtained across studies, and it has always remained unclear why and when one synergistic decomposition should be preferred to another one. By using well-understood motor tasks such as elbow flexions and extensions, we aimed in this study to clarify better what are the motor features characterized by each kind of decomposition and to assess whether, when and why one of them should be preferred to the others. We found that three temporal synergies, each one of them accounting for specific temporal phases of the movements could account for the majority of the data variation. Similar performances could be achieved by two synchronous synergies, encoding the agonist-antagonist nature of the two muscles considered, and by two time-varying muscle synergies, encoding each one a task-related feature of the elbow movements, specifically their direction. Our findings support the notion that each EMG decomposition provides a set of well-interpretable muscle synergies, identifying reduction of dimensionality in different aspects of the movements. Taken together, our findings suggest that all decompositions are not equivalent and may imply different neurophysiological substrates

  2. Investigating reduction of dimensionality during single-joint elbow movements: a case study on muscle synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiovetto, Enrico; Berret, Bastien; Delis, Ioannis; Panzeri, Stefano; Pozzo, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    A long standing hypothesis in the neuroscience community is that the central nervous system (CNS) generates the muscle activities to accomplish movements by combining a relatively small number of stereotyped patterns of muscle activations, often referred to as "muscle synergies." Different definitions of synergies have been given in the literature. The most well-known are those of synchronous, time-varying and temporal muscle synergies. Each one of them is based on a different mathematical model used to factor some EMG array recordings collected during the execution of variety of motor tasks into a well-determined spatial, temporal or spatio-temporal organization. This plurality of definitions and their separate application to complex tasks have so far complicated the comparison and interpretation of the results obtained across studies, and it has always remained unclear why and when one synergistic decomposition should be preferred to another one. By using well-understood motor tasks such as elbow flexions and extensions, we aimed in this study to clarify better what are the motor features characterized by each kind of decomposition and to assess whether, when and why one of them should be preferred to the others. We found that three temporal synergies, each one of them accounting for specific temporal phases of the movements could account for the majority of the data variation. Similar performances could be achieved by two synchronous synergies, encoding the agonist-antagonist nature of the two muscles considered, and by two time-varying muscle synergies, encoding each one a task-related feature of the elbow movements, specifically their direction. Our findings support the notion that each EMG decomposition provides a set of well-interpretable muscle synergies, identifying reduction of dimensionality in different aspects of the movements. Taken together, our findings suggest that all decompositions are not equivalent and may imply different neurophysiological

  3. Electrophysiologic evaluation of lumbosacral single nerve roots using compound muscle action potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Taku; Shikata, Hideto; Hase, Hitoshi; Mori, Masaki; Hayashida, Taturo; Osawa, Toru; Mikami, Yasuo; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2003-10-01

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation applied to the vertebral column produces compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) from the leg muscles. Using this method, we evaluated the efferent pathways of the lumbosacral nerve roots. The subjects were 26 healthy volunteers and 31 patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). CMAP recordings were obtained from the bilateral vastus medialis, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum brevis, and abductor hallucis muscles using low-output-impedance stimulation. In normal subjects, the CMAP latency increased linearly with the distance between the stimulating electrode and the recording electrode, with little difference in latency between the left and the right sides in each subject. The CMAP amplitude was significantly lower in the patients with LDH, and the latency was also prolonged when the stimulating electrode was placed above the lesion. This technique may thus be a useful noninvasive method for assessing lumbosacral nerve root function in patients with LDH.

  4. Effect of a peptide inhibitor of protein kinase C on G-protein-mediated increase in myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity in rabbit arterial skinned muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, T.; Suzuki, A.; Watanabe, Y.

    1994-01-01

    1. To investigate the role of protein kinase C in the increase mediated by guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins (G-proteins) in the sensitivity of the contractile proteins to Ca2+ in vascular smooth muscle, the effect of a novel peptide inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC19-36) on Ca(2+)-induced contraction and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation was studied in the presence and absence of guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S) in beta-escin-skinned smooth muscle strips of rabbit mesenteric artery. For comparison, the effects were also observed of PKC19-36 on the action of phorbol 12,13-dibutylate (PDBu, an activator of PKC) on the two Ca(2+)-induced responses. 2. In beta-escin-skinned strips treated with ionomycin, Ca2+ (0.1-3 microM) concentration-dependently produced contraction in parallel with an increase in MLC-phosphorylation. GTP gamma S (10 microM) and PDBu (0.1 microM) each shifted both the Ca(2+)-force and Ca(2+)-MLC-phosphorylation relationships to the left without a significant change in either maximum response. The relationship between force and MLC-phosphorylation was not modified by either GTP gamma S or PDBu, indicating that the sensitivity of MLC-phosphorylation to Ca2+ is enhanced by both GTP gamma S and PDBu. 3. PKC19-36 itself modified neither the contraction nor MLC-phosphorylation induced by Ca2+ but it did block the PDBu-induced enhancement of these two Ca(2+)-induced responses. By contrast, PKC19-36 did not modify the GTP gamma S-induced enhancement of the two Ca(2+)-induced responses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8012712

  5. Increased pain and muscle glutamate concentration after single ingestion of monosodium glutamate by myofascial temporomandibular disorders patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, A; Castrillon, E E; Baad-Hansen, L; Ghafouri, B; Gerdle, B; Wåhlén, K; Ernberg, M; Cairns, B E; Svensson, P

    2016-10-01

    A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted to investigate if single monosodium glutamate (MSG) administration would elevate muscle/serum glutamate concentrations and affect muscle pain sensitivity in myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients more than in healthy individuals. Twelve myofascial TMD patients and 12 sex- and age-matched healthy controls participated in two sessions. Participants drank MSG (150 mg/kg) or NaCl (24 mg/kg; control) diluted in 400 mL of soda. The concentration of glutamate in the masseter muscle, blood plasma and saliva was determined before and after the ingestion of MSG or control. At baseline and every 15 min after the ingestion, pain intensity was scored on a 0-10 numeric rating scale. Pressure pain threshold, pressure pain tolerance (PPTol) and autonomic parameters were measured. All participants were asked to report adverse effects after the ingestion. In TMD, interstitial glutamate concentration was significantly greater after the MSG ingestion when compared with healthy controls. TMD reported a mean pain intensity of 2.8/10 at baseline, which significantly increased by 40% 30 min post MSG ingestion. At baseline, TMD showed lower PPTols in the masseter and trapezius, and higher diastolic blood pressure and heart rate than healthy controls. The MSG ingestion resulted in reports of headache by half of the TMD and healthy controls, respectively. These findings suggest that myofascial TMD patients may be particularly sensitive to the effects of ingested MSG. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?': Elevation of interstitial glutamate concentration in the masseter muscle caused by monosodium glutamate (MSG) ingestion was significantly greater in myofascial myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients than healthy individuals. This elevation of interstitial glutamate concentration in the masseter muscle significantly increased the intensity of spontaneous pain in myofascial TMD patients. © 2016

  6. Granulomatous slack skin - seven years follow-up of a case with features of "parapsoriasis en plaques", muscle involvement, granulomatous vasculitis, and necrobiotic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChiriŢă, Aurel Doru; Mărgăritescu, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Granulomatous slack skin (GSS) represents an extremely rare variant of mycosis fungoides with only 70 cases reported in the literature to date. It is characterized clinically by the occurrence of bulky, pendulous skinfolds, usually located in flexural areas and histologically by an infiltrate composed of small neoplastic T-lymphocytes joined by granulomatous inflammation with scattered multinucleated giant cells containing nuclei arranged in a wreath-like fashion. Since its first description, very rare cases of GSS with muscle involvement, large vessels involvement, or necrobiotic changes have been reported. We present an extraordinary case of GSS with all these unusual features developing in the lesions of the same patient. The long follow-up of seven years allowed us to document the evolution of each lesion. Some lesions appeared and evolved in a manner very reminiscent of those of "parapsoriasis en plaques", others were classical GSS lesions, and still others developed large ulcerated lesions. These ulcerated lesions consistently failed to respond to conventional wound therapy, skin directed therapy [retinoids + psoralen combined with ultraviolet A (PUVA)-therapy], and interferon-alpha therapy. Remarkably, the ulcers completely healed when systemic corticosteroids were added. We hence postulate that the ulcers appeared because of large vessel vasculitis rather than tumoral direct destruction.

  7. The effects of aging, physical training, and a single bout of exercise on mitochondrial protein expression in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bori, Zoltan; Zhao, Zhongfu; Koltai, Erika; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Douroudos, Ioannis I; Terzis, Gerasimos; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Sovatzidis, Apostolos; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2012-06-01

    Aging results in a significant decline in aerobic capacity and impaired mitochondrial function. We have tested the effects of moderate physical activity on aerobic capacity and a single bout of exercise on the expression profile of mitochondrial biogenesis, and fusion and fission related genes in skeletal muscle of human subjects. Physical activity attenuated the aging-associated decline in VO2 max (pAging increased and a single exercise bout decreased the expression of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1), while the transcription factor A (TFAM) expression showed a strong relationship with VO(2max) and increased significantly in the young physically active group. Mitochondrial fission representing FIS1 was induced by regular physical activity, while a bout of exercise decreased fusion-associated gene expression. The expression of polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) changed inversely in young and old groups and decreased with aging. The A2 subunit of cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was induced by a single bout of exercise in skeletal muscle samples of both young and old subjects (pphysical activity increases a larger number of mitochondrial biogenesis-related gene expressions in young individuals than in aged subjects. Mitochondrial fission is impaired by aging and could be one of the most sensitive markers of the age-associated decline in the adaptive response to physical activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thin filament activation probed by fluorescence of N-((2-(iodoacetoxy)ethyl)-N-methyl)amino-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-labeled troponin I incorporated into skinned fibers of rabbit psoas muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, B; Kraft, T; Yu, L C; Chalovich, J M

    1999-11-01

    A method is described for the exchange of native troponin of single rabbit psoas muscle fibers for externally applied troponin complexes without detectable impairment of functional properties of the skinned fibers. This approach is used to exchange native troponin for rabbit skeletal troponin with a fluorescent label (N-((2-(iodoacetoxy)ethyl)-N-methyl)amino-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazole, IANBD) on Cys(133) of the troponin I subunit. IANBD-labeled troponin I has previously been used in solution studies as an indicator for the state of activation of reconstituted actin filaments (. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 77:7209-7213). In the skinned fibers, the fluorescence of this probe is unaffected when cross-bridges in their weak binding states attach to actin filaments but decreases either upon the addition of Ca(2+) or when cross-bridges in their strong binding states attach to actin. Maximum reduction is observed when Ca(2+) is raised to saturating concentrations. Additional attachment of cross-bridges in strong binding states gives no further reduction of fluorescence. Attachment of cross-bridges in strong binding states alone (low Ca(2+) concentration) gives only about half of the maximum reduction seen with the addition of calcium. This illustrates that fluorescence of IANBD-labeled troponin I can be used to evaluate thin filament activation, as previously introduced for solution studies. In addition, at nonsaturating Ca(2+) concentrations IANBD fluorescence can be used for straightforward classification of states of the myosin head as weak binding (nonactivating) and strong binding (activating), irrespective of ionic strength or other experimental conditions. Furthermore, the approach presented here not only can be used as a means of exchanging native skeletal troponin and its subunits for a variety of fluorescently labeled or mutant troponin subunits, but also allows the exchange of native skeletal troponin for cardiac troponin.

  9. A new topical panthenol-containing emollient: skin-moisturizing effect following single and prolonged usage in healthy adults, and tolerability in healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Hans; Kurka, Peter; Wagner, Christine; Sznurkowska, Katarzyna; Czernicka, Olga; Böhling, Arne; Bielfeldt, Stephan; Wilhelm, Klaus-Peter; Lenz, Holger

    2017-05-01

    Two studies were conducted with a new topical panthenol-containing emollient (NTP-CE) to investigate the skin-moisturizing effect in healthy adults and tolerability in healthy infants. In Study 1 (N = 44), a single skin application of NTP-CE was performed followed by a 4-week twice-daily application. Skin hydration and stratum corneum (SC) water content change (using Raman spectroscopy) were measured. In the 4-week Study 2 (N = 65, aged 3-25 months), NTP-CE tolerability was assessed using a 5-point scoring system; skin hydration was determined in a subset (N = 21). In Study 1, mean AUC 0 - 24 h for skin capacitance change from baseline was 302.03 i.u. with NTP-CE and -15.90 i.u. in control areas (p < .001). With NTP-CE (at 4 h), the water content within the upper SC part was reduced (-45.10 vs. -13.39 g/cm 2 , p = .013) and the water gradient increased (0.51 vs. 0.11 g/cm 4 , p = .036), indicating relocation of water into deeper layers. In Study 2, there was no statistically significant change from baseline in mean cutaneous tolerability scores. At days 7, 14, and 28, skin hydration had increased by 42%, 54%, and 49%, respectively (all p < .001). Single and prolonged NTP-CE usage is associated with sustained and deep skin moisturization. NTP-CE is well tolerated by healthy infants.

  10. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Skin Naphthyl–Keratin Adduct Levels in Workers Exposed to Naphthalene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rong; French, John E.; Stober, Vandy P.; Kang-Sickel, Juei-Chuan C.; Zou, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Background: Individual genetic variation that results in differences in systemic response to xenobiotic exposure is not accounted for as a predictor of outcome in current exposure assessment models. Objective: We developed a strategy to investigate individual differences in single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as genetic markers associated with naphthyl–keratin adduct (NKA) levels measured in the skin of workers exposed to naphthalene. Methods: The SNP-association analysis was conducted in PLINK using candidate-gene analysis and genome-wide analysis. We identified significant SNP–NKA associations and investigated the potential impact of these SNPs along with personal and workplace factors on NKA levels using a multiple linear regression model and the Pratt index. Results: In candidate-gene analysis, a SNP (rs4852279) located near the CYP26B1 gene contributed to the 2-naphthyl–keratin adduct (2NKA) level. In the multiple linear regression model, the SNP rs4852279, dermal exposure, exposure time, task replacing foam, age, and ethnicity all were significant predictors of 2NKA level. In genome-wide analysis, no single SNP reached genome-wide significance for NKA levels (all p ≥ 1.05 × 10–5). Pathway and network analyses of SNPs associated with NKA levels were predicted to be involved in the regulation of cellular processes and homeostasis. Conclusions: These results provide evidence that a quantitative biomarker can be used as an intermediate phenotype when investigating the association between genetic markers and exposure–dose relationship in a small, well-characterized exposed worker population. PMID:22391508

  11. Comparison of single- or multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and spectroscopy for assessment of appendicular skeletal muscle in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yosuke; Watanabe, Yuya; Ikenaga, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Morimoto, Taketoshi; Kimura, Misaka

    2013-09-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is used to assess skeletal muscle mass, although its application in the elderly has not been fully established. Several BIA modalities are available: single-frequency BIA (SFBIA), multifrequency BIA (MFBIA), and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS). The aim of this study was to examine the difference between SFBIA, MFBIA, and BIS for assessment of appendicular skeletal muscle strength in the elderly. A total of 405 elderly (74.2 ± 5.0 yr) individuals were recruited. Grip strength and isometric knee extension strength were measured. Segmental SFBIA, MFBIA, and BIS were measured for the arms and upper legs. Bioelectrical impedance indexes were calculated by squared segment length divided by impedance (L2/Z). Impedance at 5 and 50 kHz (Z5 and Z50) was used for SFBIA. Impedance of the intracellular component was calculated from MFBIA (Z250-5) and BIS (RICW). Correlation coefficients between knee extension strength and L2/Z5, L2/Z50, L2/RICW, and L2/Z250-5 of the upper legs were 0.661, 0.705, 0.790, and 0.808, respectively (P < 0.001). Correlation coefficients were significantly greater for MFBIA and BIS than SFBIA. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that L2/Z250-5 and L2/RICW had significantly larger areas under the curve for the diagnosis of muscle weakness compared with L2/Z5 and L2/Z50. Very similar results were observed for grip strength. Our findings suggest that MFBIA and BIS are better methods than SFBIA for assessing skeletal muscle strength in the elderly.

  12. Impact of a single session of intermittent pneumatic leg compressions on skeletal muscle and isolated artery gene expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseguini, Bruno T; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A; Newcomer, Sean C; Laughlin, M H

    2011-12-01

    Intermittent pneumatic leg compressions (IPC) have proven to be an effective noninvasive approach for treatment of patients with claudication, but the mechanisms underlying the clinical benefits remain elusive. In the present study, a rodent model of claudication produced by bilateral ligation of the femoral artery was used to investigate the acute impact of a single session of IPC (150 min) on hemodynamics, skeletal muscle (tibialis anterior), and isolated collateral artery (perforating artery) expression of a subset of genes associated with inflammation and vascular remodeling. In addition, the effect of compression frequency (15 vs. 3 compressions/min) on the expression of these factors was studied. In ligated animals, IPC evoked an increase of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CXCL1) mRNA (P < 0.01) and immunostaining (P < 0.05), as well as a minor increase in VEGF immunostaining in the muscle endomysium 150 min postintervention. Further, collateral arteries from these animals showed an increased expression of MCP-1 (approximately twofold, P = 0.02). These effects were most evident in the group exposed to the high-frequency protocol (15 compressions/min). In contrast, IPC in sham-operated control animals evoked a modest initial upregulation of VEGF (P = 0.01), MCP-1 (P = 0.02), and CXCL1 (P = 0.03) mRNA in the muscle without concomitant changes in protein levels. No changes in gene expression were observed in arteries isolated from sham animals. In conclusion, IPC acutely up-regulates the expression of important factors involved in vascular remodeling in the compressed muscle and collateral arteries in a model of hindlimb ischemia. These effects appear to be dependent on the compression frequency, such that a high compression frequency (15 compressions/min) evokes more consistent and robust effects compared with the frequency commonly employed clinically to treat patients with claudication (3

  13. Single motor unit firing behaviour in the right trapezius muscle during rapid movement of right or left index finger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eSøgaard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Computer work is associated with low level sustained activity in the trapezius muscle that may cause myalgia. The activity may be attention related or part of a general multijoint motor program providing stabilization of the shoulder girdle for precise finger manipulation. This study examines single motor unit (MU firing pattern in the right trapezius muscle during fast movements of ipsi or contralateral index finger. Modulated firing rate would support a general multi joint motor program, while a generally increased and continuous firing rate would support attention related activation. 12 healthy female subjects were seated at a computer work place with elbows and forearms supported. Ten double clicks (DC were performed with right and left index finger on a computer mouse instrumented with a trigger.Surface EMG was recorded from right and left trapezius muscle. Intramuscular EMG was recorded with a quadripolar wire electrode in the right trapezius.Surface EMG was analysed as %MVE. The intramuscular EMG was decomposed into individual MU action potential trains. Instantaneous firing rate (IFR was calculated from inter-spike interval with ISI shorter than 20 ms defined as doublets. IFR was averaged across 10 DC to show IFR modulation.Surface EMG in both right and left trapezius was 1.8-2.5%MVE. During right hand DC a total of 32 MUs were identified. Four subjects showed no activity. Four showed MU activity with weak or no variations related to the timing of DC. Four subjects showed large modulation in IFR with temporal relation to DC. During left hand DC 15 MUs were identified in 4 subjects, for two of the subjects with IFR modulations related to DC. Doublets was found as an integrated part of MU activation in the trapezius muscle and for one subject temporarily related to DC. In conclusion, DC with ipsi- and contralateral fast movements of the index finger was found to evoke biomechanically as well as attention related activity pattern in the

  14. Controlled intermittent shortening contractions of a muscle-tendon complex: muscle fibre damage and effects on force transmission from a single head of rat EDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, H.; Lehti, T.M.; Tiihonen, V.; Komulainen, J.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to examine effects of prolonged (3 h) intermittent shortening (amplitude 2 mm) contractions (muscles were excited maximally) of head III of rat extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL III) on indices of muscle damage and on force transmission within the intact anterior crural

  15. Consuming High-Carotenoid Fruit and Vegetables Influences Skin Yellowness and Plasma Carotenoids in Young Women: A Single-Blind Randomized Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezdirc, Kristine; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Williams, Rebecca L; Rollo, Megan E; Burrows, Tracy L; Wood, Lisa G; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Collins, Clare E

    2016-08-01

    Consumption of dietary carotenoids from fruits and vegetables (F/V) leads to accumulations in human skin, altering skin yellowness. The influence of the quantity of F/V consumed on skin yellowness and plasma carotenoid concentrations has not been examined previously. To compare the influence of consuming high-carotenoid-containing F/V (HCFV) (176,425 μg beta carotene/wk) vs low-carotenoid F/V (LCFV) (2,073 μg beta carotene/wk) on skin yellowness and plasma carotenoid concentrations, over 4 weeks. A single-blind randomized controlled crossover trial from October 2013 to March 2014. Thirty women were randomized to receive 7 daily servings of HCFV or LCFV for 4 weeks. Following a 2-week washout period they followed the alternate intervention. Skin color (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*b* color space, where L* represents skin lightness and positive values of a* and b* represent degrees of redness and yellowness, respectively) was assessed by reflectance spectroscopy in both sun-exposed and nonexposed skin areas. Fasting plasma carotenoids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, before and after each intervention period. Linear mixed models were used to determine the HCFV and LCFV response on skin color and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for intervention order, time, and interaction between baseline differences and time. There were no significant differences in mean daily fruit (P=0.42) and vegetable (P=0.17) intakes between HCFV and LCFV groups. Dietary alpha carotene, beta carotene, lutein, and beta cryptoxanthin intakes were significantly different between the two groups (Pcarotenoid concentrations were significantly higher following HCFV than LCFV over 4 weeks. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlation of single-breath count test and neck flexor muscle strength with spirometry in myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Bakri; Arnold, W David; Gharibshahi, Shahram; Reynolds, Jerold; Freimer, Miriam; Kissel, John T

    2016-01-01

    Although formal spirometry is the gold standard for monitoring respiratory function in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), such testing is often delayed or unavailable. There is a need for a simple bedside test that can accurately measure respiratory function. We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional, single-blind study in adults with acetylcholine receptor antibody positive MG. Participants performed the single breath count test (SBCT) and underwent manual muscle strength testing, and a respiratory therapist performed spirometry blinded to SBCT and strength results. Thirty-one patients, aged 57 ± 19 years participated. SBCT showed significant correlations with forced vital capacity (FVC), negative inspiratory force, and neck flexor strength (P strength (P = 0.02) but no correlation with shoulder abductor strength. These data suggest that the SBCT and neck flexor strength testing are valuable tools for bedside assessment of respiratory function in MG patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A single dose of histamine-receptor antagonists before downhill running alters markers of muscle damage and delayed-onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Matthew R; Romero, Steven A; Sieck, Dylan C; Mangum, Joshua E; Luttrell, Meredith J; Halliwill, John R

    2017-03-01

    Histamine contributes to elevations in skeletal muscle blood flow following exercise, which raises the possibility that histamine is an important mediator of the inflammatory response to exercise. We examined the influence of antihistamines on postexercise blood flow, inflammation, muscle damage, and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in a model of moderate exercise-induced muscle damage. Subjects consumed either a combination of fexofenadine and ranitidine (blockade, n = 12) or nothing (control, n = 12) before 45 min of downhill running (-10% grade). Blood flow to the leg was measured before and throughout 120 min of exercise recovery. Markers of inflammation, muscle damage, and DOMS were obtained before and at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postexercise. At 60 min postexercise, blood flow was reduced ~29% with blockade compared with control ( P histamine-receptor blockade reduced postexercise blood flow, had no effect on the pattern of inflammatory markers, increased serum creatine kinase concentrations, attenuated muscle strength loss, and reduced pain perception following muscle-damaging exercise. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Histamine appears to be intimately involved with skeletal muscle during and following exercise. Blocking histamine's actions during muscle-damaging exercise, via common over-the-counter antihistamines, resulted in increased serum creatine kinase, an indirect marker of muscle damage. Paradoxically, blocking histamine's actions attenuated muscle strength loss and reduced perceptions of muscle pain for 72 h following muscle-damaging exercise. These results indicate that exercise-induced histamine release may have a broad impact on protecting muscle from exercise-induced damage. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Prolonged increase of cis-urocanic acid levels in human skin and urine after single total-body ultraviolet exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammeyer, A.; Pavel, S.; Asghar, S. S.; Bos, J. D.; Teunissen, M. B.

    1997-01-01

    Cis-urocanic acid (cis-UCA), a mediator of immunosuppression, is formed from trans-UCA upon UV-exposure of the skin. This study describes a liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantification of cis- and trans-UCA in skin, urine and plasma of nonirradiated volunteers. It also describes

  19. Effects of single and repeated exposure to biocidal active substances on the barrier function of the skin in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Heer, C. de

    2005-01-01

    The dermal route of exposure is important in worker exposure to biocidal products. Many biocidal active substances which are used on a daily basis may decrease the barrier function of the skin to a larger extent than current risk assessment practice addresses, due to possible skin effects of

  20. Efficacy and safety of a new microneedle patch for skin brightening: A Randomized, split-face, single-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kui Young; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Lee, Changjin; Kim, Daegun; Yoon, Jun Jin; Kim, Myeong Nam; Kim, Beom Joon

    2017-09-01

    Although microneedles are one of the best transdermal drug delivery systems for active compounds, few clinical trials have examined the safety and efficacy of brightening microneedle patches. To determine the efficacy and safety of a newly developed whitening microneedle patch. A split-face study was designed for efficacy assessment with 34 Korean women applying the tested product (a whitening microneedle patch) on one cheek and a control whitening essence on the other. We objectively measured changes in melanin index values and skin brightness by mexameter and chromameter. Each participant also used global assessment to determine skin whitening. In addition, 55 participants were selected for primary skin irritation tests and repeated insult patch tests for safety assessments. Mean skin brightness and melanin indexes improved (Pmicroneedle patch was effective and safe for skin brightening and would be a promising functional cosmetic product. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells in skin, people couldn't feel warmth, cold, or other sensations. For instance, goosebumps form when the erector pili muscles contract to make hairs on the skin stand up straight when someone is cold, excited, or frightened — the blood vessels keep the ...

  2. Application of Single Molecule Fluorescence Microscopy to Characterize the Penetration of a Large Amphiphilic Molecule in the Stratum Corneum of Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Volz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here on the application of laser-based single molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM to study the penetration of molecules through the skin. Penetration of topically applied drug molecules is often observed to be limited by the size of the respective drug. However, the molecular mechanisms which govern the penetration of molecules through the outermost layer of the skin are still largely unknown. As a model compound we have chosen a larger amphiphilic molecule (fluorescent dye ATTO-Oxa12 with a molecular weight >700 Da that was applied to excised human skin. ATTO-Oxa12 penetrated through the stratum corneum (SC into the viable epidermis as revealed by TIRFM of cryosections. Single particle tracking of ATTO-Oxa12 within SC sheets obtained by tape stripping allowed us to gain information on the localization as well as the lateral diffusion dynamics of these molecules. ATTO-Oxa12 appeared to be highly confined in the SC lipid region between (intercellular space or close to the envelope of the corneocytes. Three main distinct confinement sizes of 52 ± 6, 118 ± 4, and 205 ± 5 nm were determined. We conclude that for this amphiphilic model compound several pathways through the skin exist.

  3. A neuro-mechanical model of a single leg joint highlighting the basic physiological role of fast and slow muscle fibres of an insect muscle system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Istvan Toth

    Full Text Available In legged animals, the muscle system has a dual function: to produce forces and torques necessary to move the limbs in a systematic way, and to maintain the body in a static position. These two functions are performed by the contribution of specialized motor units, i.e. motoneurons driving sets of specialized muscle fibres. With reference to their overall contraction and metabolic properties they are called fast and slow muscle fibres and can be found ubiquitously in skeletal muscles. Both fibre types are active during stepping, but only the slow ones maintain the posture of the body. From these findings, the general hypothesis on a functional segregation between both fibre types and their neuronal control has arisen. Earlier muscle models did not fully take this aspect into account. They either focused on certain aspects of muscular function or were developed to describe specific behaviours only. By contrast, our neuro-mechanical model is more general as it allows functionally to differentiate between static and dynamic aspects of movement control. It does so by including both muscle fibre types and separate motoneuron drives. Our model helps to gain a deeper insight into how the nervous system might combine neuronal control of locomotion and posture. It predicts that (1 positioning the leg at a specific retraction angle in steady state is most likely due to the extent of recruitment of slow muscle fibres and not to the force developed in the individual fibres of the antagonistic muscles; (2 the fast muscle fibres of antagonistic muscles contract alternately during stepping, while co-contraction of the slow muscle fibres takes place during steady state; (3 there are several possible ways of transition between movement and steady state of the leg achieved by varying the time course of recruitment of the fibres in the participating muscles.

  4. Radiation therapy outcomes in muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer: A single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwana, M S; Ni, L H; Saini, S; Verma, S K; Doddamani, D; Jain, N; Biswas, M; Gupta, Meenu; Gupta, Madhur; Saini, M; Chauhan, N

    2016-01-01

    To audit the survival outcomes and loco-regional control in muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy (RT). From November 2008 through December 2011, 50 consecutively diagnosed muscle invasive urinary bladder carcinoma (T2-4a N0-2, M0) patients were included in this retrospective study. All these patients received external beam RT to a median dose of 60 Gy (range 30-66 Gy), and were not suitable for radical surgery due to patients' preference or medical comorbidities. A stepwise procedure using proportional hazard regression was used to identify prognostic factors with respect to survival. Completion trans-urethral resection of bladder tumor was done in 38 (76%) patients of the cohort and 47 (94%) had transitional cell carcinoma on histopathology. Clinical stage T2 was diagnosed in 40 (80%) patients. The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 14 ± 8.9 months (range 1-36 months). In conclusion, 24 patients (48%) were free of disease, 5 patients (10%) had residual disease, and 13 patients (26%) had died of disease. Two-year and 3 year overall survival of intact bladder for the entire cohort was 58% and 43.6%, respectively. Cox regression modeling strongly suggested clinical stage (P = 0.01) and RT dose (P = 0.001) as being predictors for overall survival. RT shows reliable outcomes and excellent compliance in this advanced disease. Prescribing a higher RT dose could potentially correlate to better intact bladder control rates while maintaining good quality of life in selected patients.

  5. Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33 secreted from impaired vessels in the skin compared to fractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun-Jung, E-mail: forejs2@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Won, E-mail: JUNWON@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hyun, E-mail: gochunghee@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Woori, E-mail: asleo02@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioinformatics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Hoon, E-mail: wonhoon@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seoae, E-mail: seoae@cnkgenomics.com [C& K Genomics, Seoul National University Mt.4-2, Main Bldg. #514, SNU Research Park, NakSeoungDae, Gwanakgu, Seoul 151-919 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yu Jeong, E-mail: yunk9275@daum.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Jin, E-mail: yjlee8@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Effects, Research Center for Radiotherapy, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-760 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaeho, E-mail: jjhmd@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-14

    We have revealed in a porcine skin injury model that eosinophil recruitment was dose-dependently enhanced by a single high-dose irradiation. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of eosinophil-associated skin fibrosis and the effect of high-dose-per-fraction radiation. The dorsal skin of a mini-pig was divided into two sections containing 4-cm{sup 2} fields that were irradiated with 30 Gy in a single fraction or 5 fractions and biopsied regularly over 14 weeks. Eosinophil-related Th2 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and C–C motif chemokine-11 (CCL11/eotaxin) were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. RNA-sequencing using 30 Gy-irradiated mouse skin and functional assays in a co-culture system of THP-1 and irradiated-human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were performed to investigate the mechanism of eosinophil-mediated radiation fibrosis. Single high-dose-per-fraction irradiation caused pronounced eosinophil accumulation, increased profibrotic factors collagen and transforming growth factor-β, enhanced production of eosinophil-related cytokines including IL-4, IL-5, CCL11, IL-13, and IL-33, and reduced vessels compared with 5-fraction irradiation. IL-33 notably increased in pig and mouse skin vessels after single high-dose irradiation of 30 Gy, as well as in irradiated HUVECs following 12 Gy. Blocking IL-33 suppressed the migration ability of THP-1 cells and cytokine secretion in a co-culture system of THP-1 cells and irradiated HUVECs. Hence, high-dose-per-fraction irradiation appears to enhance eosinophil-mediated fibrotic responses, and IL-33 may be a key molecule operating in eosinophil-mediated fibrosis in high-dose-per fraction irradiated skin. - Highlights: • Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33. • Vascular endothelial cells damaged by high-dose radiation secrete IL-33. • Blocking IL-33 suppressed migration of inflammatory cells and cytokine secretion. • IL

  6. Protein Kinase CK2 Regulates Leukocyte-Endothelial Cell Interactions during Ischemia and Reperfusion in Striated Skin Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, Emmanuel; Widmaier, Daniela; Montenarh, Mathias; Menger, Michael D; Laschke, Matthias W

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) causes tissue injury by inflammatory processes. This involves the upregulation of endothelial surface proteins by phospho-regulated signaling pathways, resulting in enhanced interactions of leukocytes with endothelial cells. Recently, we found that protein kinase CK2 is a crucial regulator of leukocyte-mediated inflammation. Therefore, in this study we investigated the involvement of CK2 in leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions during I/R injury. We first analyzed the inhibitory action of (E)-3-(2,3,4,5-tetrabromophenyl)acrylic acid (TBCA) and CX-4945 on CK2 kinase activity and the viability of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC). To mimic I/R conditions in vitro, HDMEC were exposed to hypoxia and reoxygenation and the expression of adhesion molecules was analyzed by flow cytometry. Moreover, we analyzed in vivo the effect of CK2 inhibition on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in the dorsal skinfold chamber model of I/R injury by means of repetitive intravital fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. We found that TBCA and CX-4945 suppressed the activity of CK2 in HDMEC without affecting cell viability. This was associated with a significant downregulation of E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 after in vitro hypoxia and reoxygenation. In vivo, CX-4945 treatment significantly decreased the numbers of adherent and transmigrated leukocytes in striated muscle tissue exposed to I/R. Our findings indicate that CK2 is involved in the regulation of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions during I/R by mediating the expression of E-selectin and ICAM-1. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Lion (Panthera leo) and caracal (Caracal caracal) type IIx single muscle fibre force and power exceed that of trained humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Tertius A; Noakes, Timothy D

    2013-03-15

    This study investigated for the first time maximum force production, shortening velocity (Vmax) and power output in permeabilised single muscle fibres at 12°C from lion, Panthera leo (Linnaeus 1758), and caracal, Caracal caracal (Schreber 1776), and compared the values with those from human cyclists. Additionally, the use and validation of previously frozen tissue for contractile experiments is reported. Only type IIx muscle fibres were identified in the caracal sample, whereas type IIx and only two type I fibres were found in the lion sample. Only pure type I and IIa, and hybrid type IIax fibres were identified in the human samples - there were no pure type IIx fibres. Nevertheless, compared with all the human fibre types, the lion and caracal fibres were smaller (Plion: 3008±151 μm(2), caracal: 2583±221 μm(2)). On average, the felid type IIx fibres produced significantly greater force (191-211 kN m(-2)) and ~3 times more power (29.0-30.3 kN m(-2) fibre lengths s(-1)) than the human IIax fibres (100-150 kN m(-2), 4-11 kN m(-2) fibre lengths s(-1)). Vmax values of the lion type IIx fibres were also higher than those of human type IIax fibres. The findings suggest that the same fibre type may differ substantially between species and potential explanations are discussed.

  8. Gene expression changes of single skeletal muscle fibers in response to modulation of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Chemello

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU gene codifies for the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM channel responsible for mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Cytosolic Ca2+ transients are involved in sarcomere contraction through cycles of release and storage in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In addition cytosolic Ca2+ regulates various signaling cascades that eventually lead to gene expression reprogramming. Mitochondria are strategically placed in close contact with the ER/SR, thus cytosolic Ca2+ transients elicit large increases in the [Ca2+] of the mitochondrial matrix ([Ca2+]mt. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake regulates energy production and cell survival. In addition, we recently showed that MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake controls skeletal muscle trophism. In the same report, we dissected the effects of MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake on gene expression through microarray gene expression analysis upon modulation of MCU expression by in vivo AAV infection. Analyses were performed on single skeletal muscle fibers at two time points (7 and 14 days post-AAV injection. Raw and normalized data are available on the GEO database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/ (GSE60931.

  9. Equatorial x-ray diffraction from single skinned rabbit psoas fibers at various degrees of activation. Changes in intensities and lattice spacing.

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, B; Yu, L C

    1985-01-01

    Equatorial x-ray diffraction patterns were obtained from single skinned rabbit psoas fibers during various degrees of activation under isometric conditions at ionic strength 170 mM and 6-9 degrees C. By direct calcium activation, contraction was homogeneous throughout the preparation, and by using a cycling technique (Brenner, 1983) integrity of the fiber was maintained even during prolonged steady activation. The intensity ratio of the two innermost reflections I11/I10, and the normalized in...

  10. Four days of muscle disuse impairs single fiber contractile function in young and old healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Suetta, Charlotte; Aagaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of 4days of disuse (knee brace) on contractile function of isolated vastus lateralis fibers (n=486) from 11 young (24.3±0.9yrs) and 11 old (67.2±1.0yrs) healthy men having comparable levels of physical activity. Prior to disuse single fiber...

  11. The equivalent circuit of single crab muscle fibers as determined by impedance measurements with intracellular electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, R S

    1967-07-01

    The input impedance of muscle fibers of the crab was determined with microelectrodes over the frequency range 1 cps to 10 kc/sec. Care was taken to analyze, reduce, and correct for capacitive artifact. One dimensional cable theory was used to determine the properties of the equivalent circuit of the membrane admittance, and the errors introduced by the neglect of the three dimensional spread of current are discussed. In seven fibers the equivalent circuit of an element of the membrane admittance must contain a DC path and two capacitances, each in series with a resistance. In two fibers, the element of membrane admittance could be described by one capacitance in parallel with a resistance. In several fibers there was evidence for a third very large capacitance. The values of the elements of the equivalent circuit depend on which of several equivalent circuits is chosen. The circuit (with a minimum number of elements) that was considered most reasonably consistent with the anatomy of the fiber has two branches in parallel: one branch having a resistance R(e) in series with a capacitance C(e); the other branch having a resistance R(b) in series with a parallel combination of a resistance R(m) and a capacitance C(m). The average circuit values (seven fibers) for this model, treating the fiber as a cylinder of sarcolemma without infoldings or tubular invaginations, are R(e) = 21 ohm cm(2); C(e) = 47 microf/cm(2); R(b) = 10.2 ohm cm(2); R(m) = 173 ohm cm(2); C(m) = 9.0 microf/cm(2). The relation of this equivalent circuit and another with a nonminimum number of circuit elements to the fine structure of crab muscle is discussed. In the above equivalent circuit R(m) and C(m) are attributed to the sarcolemma; R(e) and C(e), to the sarcotubular system; and R(b), to the amorphous material found around crab fibers. Estimates of actual surface area of the sarcolemma and sarcotubular system permit the average circuit values to be expressed in terms of unit membrane area. The

  12. Effect of Feedback Corrective Exercise on Knee Valgus and Electromyographic Activity of Lower Limb Muscles in Single Leg Squat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Koorosh-fard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was assessing the effect of feedback correcting exercise in front of mirror during running on frontal plane knee and pelvic kinematic and electromyography activity of some lower extremity muscles in single leg squat (SLS. Materials & Methods: This study was quasi experimental. 23 active female subjects participated in two experimental and control groups with mean age (21.86± 2.43 years .experimental group contains subjects with knee valgus and pelvic drop angle more than a mean plus one standard deviation of the population in functional SLS. Muscular activity (RMS of gluteus maximus, Gluteus medius, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and semitendinosus, angle of knee valgus and pelvic drop were register in end of SLS Pre and post of 8 training sessions. Comparing Variable has done with independent t statistical test between 2 groups and pair sample t test within each groups with significant level of 0.05. Results: Statistical analysis Before training showed no significant differences in pelvic drop between two groups (P&ge0.05, but knee valgus angle was significantly more than control group (P&le0.05. In spit that most muscle activities (% MVC except biceps femoris (P&le0.05, were greater in experimental group, no significant difference (P&ge0.05 has seen in two groups. Comparing pre and post test has showed no significant difference in knee valgus of experimental group, however it decreased around 2 degrees and although %MVC decreased in all muscles, just rectuse femoris has shown significant difference (P&le0.05. No significant difference has seen in control group in all variables (P&ge0.05. Conclusion: Findings showed poor neuromuscular control in experimental group which improved to some extent after training because lower muscle activity and energy consumption in specific movement with similar kinematic indicate improvement of motor control or cause learning. It seems that

  13. Relationship of Physical Function to Single Muscle Fiber Contractility in Older Adults: Effects of Resistance Training with and without Caloric Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Min; Leng, Xiaoyan; Messi, María Laura; Choi, Seung J; Marsh, Anthony P; Nicklas, Barbara; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2018-03-13

    Previous studies support beneficial effects of both resistance exercise training (RT) and caloric restriction (CR) on skeletal muscle strength and physical performance. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of adding CR to RT on single-muscle fiber contractility responses to RT in older overweight and obese adults. We analyzed contractile properties in 1,253 single myofiber from muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis, as well as physical performance and thigh muscle volume, in 31 older (65-80 yrs), overweight or obese (body mass index= 27-35 kg/m2) men (n=19) and women (n=12) who were randomly assigned to a standardized, progressive RT intervention with CR (RT+CR; n=15) or without CR (RT; n=16) for 5 months. Both interventions evoked an increase in force normalized to CSA, in type-I and type-II fibers and knee extensor quality. However, these improvements were not different between intervention groups. In the RT group, changes in total thigh fat volume inversely correlated with changes in type-II fiber force (r = -0.691; p=0.019). Within the RT+CR group, changes in gait speed correlated positively with changes in type-I fiber CSA (r=0.561; p=0.030). In addition, increases in type-I normalized fiber force were related to decreases in thigh intermuscular fat volume (r= -0.539; p= 0.038). Single muscle fiber force and knee extensor quality improve with RT and RT+CR; however, CR does not enhance improvements in single muscle fiber contractility or whole muscle in response to RT in older overweight and obese men and women.

  14. Lower extremity muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Janssens, Luc; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan; Staes, Filip F

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies mainly focused on muscles at the operated knee after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, less on muscles around other joints of the operated and non-operated leg. The aim of this study was to investigate muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects. Lower extremity muscle activation onset times of both legs of 20 fully returned to sport anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects and 20 non-injured control subjects were measured during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate differences between groups and differences between legs within both groups, while controlling for peak center of pressure velocity. Significantly delayed muscle activation onset times were found in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group compared to the control group for gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, vastus medialis obliquus, medial hamstrings, lateral hamstrings and gastrocnemius in both eyes open and eyes closed conditions (Panterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group, no significant different muscle activation onset times were found between the operated and non-operated leg (P>.05). Despite completion of rehabilitation and full return to sport, the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group showed neuromuscular control deficits that were not limited to the operated knee joint. Clinicians should focus on relearning multi-segmental anticipatory neuromuscular control strategies after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and diclofenac (topical and intramuscular) as single and combined therapy in experimental model of controlled muscle strain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva Carvalho, Rodrigo Leal; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Petrellis, Maria Carla; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; de Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli; De Nucci, Gilberto; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão

    2013-01-01

    Muscle injuries represent ca 30% of sports injuries and excessive stretching of muscle causes more than 90% of injuries. Currently the most used treatments are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), however, in last years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is becoming an interesting therapeutic modality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of single and combined therapies (LLLT, topical application of diclofenac and intramuscular diclofenac) on functional and biochemical aspects in an experimental model of controlled muscle strain in rats. Muscle strain was induced by overloading tibialis anterior muscle of rats. Injured groups received either no treatment, or a single treatment with topical or intramuscular diclofenac (TD and ID), or LLLT (3 J, 810 nm, 100 mW) 1 h after injury. Walking track analysis was the functional outcome and biochemical analyses included mRNA expression of COX-1 and COX-2 and blood levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ). All treatments significantly decreased COX-1 and COX-2 gene expression compared with injury group (P < 0.05). However, LLLT showed better effects than TD and ID regarding PGE2 levels and walking track analysis (P < 0.05). We can conclude that LLLT has more efficacy than topical and intramuscular diclofenac in treatment of muscle strain injury in acute stage. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  16. The Effect of Intelligence, Leg Muscle Strength, and Balance Towards The Learning Outcomes of Pencak Silat with Empty-Handed Single Artistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aridhotul Haqiyah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to Determine the effect of intelligence, leg muscle strength, as well as the balance towards the learning outcomes of pencak silat empty-handed single artistic on the Physical Education students of Islamic University 45 Bekasi. The research method is a survey, and the analysis technique is path analysis. This research held in Islamic University 45 Bekasi with 122 people of population. The sampling technique used is random sampling, then a sample of this research is 60 people. The instruments used are a rubric 4 scale (very good, good, enough and less of the learning outcomes of pencak silat emptyhanded single artistic, intelligence test with IST (Intelligent Structure Test, leg muscle strength with instrument squat test, and test of balance by using the modified bass test of dynamic balance. Based the result of the data processing and analysis, the Conclusions are: : (1 Intelligence directly effect on the learningoutcomes of pencak silat empty-handed single artistic with ρy1  = 0.359, (2 Leg muscles strength directlyeffect on the learning outcomes of pencak silat empty-handed single artistic with ρy2 = 0.228, (3 Balance directly effect on the learning outcomes of pencak silat empty-handed single artistic with ρy3 = 0.356, (4 Intelligence directly effects on the balance with ρ31 = 0.662, and (5 Leg muscle strength directly effectson the balance with ρ32 = 0.298.

  17. Arterial and venous oxygen partial pressure and utilization factor η, resp., and 133Xe muscle clearance after UV irradiation of skin or blood of healthy persons and patients with occlusive arterial disease and psoriasis, resp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherf, H.P.; Strangfeld, D.; Meffert, H.; Glatzel, E.; Siewert, H.; Soennichsen, N.; Correns, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    In three teams of test persons series of UV irradiations of the skin (λ max 365 nm) and of the blood (λ max 254 nm) were performed, and moreover pseudoirradiations of the blood as placebo and infrared irradiations of the skin were carried out. UV irradiations of the blood increased the factor η (O 2 utilization) in all test persons. In healthy persons and patients with psoriasis UV irradiations of the skin involved a homogeneous, but less distinct effect, this was, however, not the case in patients with vascular diseases. According to the results of the 133 Xe muscle clearance the improved utilization of oxygen does not result from increased peripheral blood supply. (author)

  18. Comparison of Abdominal Muscle Activity During a Single-Legged Hold in the Hook-Lying Position on the Floor and on a Round Foam Roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Jung; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Oh, Jae-Seop; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Weon, Jong-Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    Context: To improve trunk stability or trunk muscle strength, many athletic trainers and physiotherapists use various types of unstable equipment for training. The round foam roll is one of those unstable pieces of equipment and may be useful for improving trunk stability. Objective: To assess the effect of the supporting surface (floor versus round foam roll) on the activity of abdominal muscles during a single-legged hold exercise performed in the hook-lying position on the floor and on a round foam roll. Design: Crossover study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Nineteen healthy volunteers (11 men, 8 women) from a university population. Interventions : The participants were instructed to perform a single-legged hold exercise while in the hook-lying position on the floor (stable surface) and on a round foam roll (unstable surface). Main Outcome Measure(s): Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the bilateral rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles. Dependent variables were examined with a paired t test. Results: The EMG activities in all abdominal muscles were greater during the single-legged hold exercise performed on the round foam roll than on the stable surface. Conclusions: The single-legged hold exercise in the hook-lying position on an unstable supporting surface induced greater abdominal muscle EMG amplitude than the same exercise performed on a stable supporting surface. These results suggest that performing the single-legged hold exercise while in the hook-lying position on a round foam roll is useful for activating the abdominal muscles. PMID:21944072

  19. Chemoradiotherapy for muscle invading bladder carcinoma. final report of a single institutional organ-sparing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Fernando; Dominguez, Miguel A.; Martinez, Enrique; Illarramendi, Jose J.; Miquelez, Santiago; Pascual, Ignacio; Marcos, Marta

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Chemoradiotherapy is becoming an alternative to radical cystectomy among patients with muscle invading bladder cancer. We began a prospective study in 1988 to determine the possibilities of conservative treatment and aiming to improve the results obtained by cystectomy alone in invasive bladder cancer. A combination of methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin, and cisplatin (M-VAC), followed by radiotherapy and concomitant cisplatin was used. Methods: Fifty patients with good performance status and with stages T2 to T4 operable untreated invasive bladder cancer were entered in the study. Treatment protocol was as follows: (i) cytoreductive transurethral resection; (ii) two cycles of M-VAC chemotherapy; (iii) radiotherapy, 45 Gy on pelvic volume and, at the same time, 20 mg/m 2 cisplatin on days 1 to 5. Cystoscopic evaluation: if there was a complete response, radiotherapy was completed up to 65 Gy; if there was not a complete response, a cystectomy was performed. Median follow-up of the series was 73 months (18-180 m). Results: Tumor response was as follows: 34 complete responses (68%), 9 partial responses (18%), and 7 nonresponses (14%) were observed. The 5-year overall survival and local control were 48% and 47%, respectively. For the complete responder patient, 5-year survival and local control were 65% and 70%, respectively. Severe toxicity was uncommon. The most frequent were leucopenia and cystitis. No treatment-related deaths occurred with either treatment protocol. Conclusions: Conservative combination treatment may be an acceptable alternative to immediate cystectomy in selected patients with bladder cancer, although a randomized clinical trial would be required to produce definitive results

  20. Muscle and skin necrotizing and edema-forming activities of Duvernoy's gland secretion of the xenodontine colubrid snake Philodryas patagoniensis from the north-east of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichoto, M E; Acosta, O; Leiva, L; Teibler, P; Maruñak, S; Ruíz, R

    2004-11-01

    Philodryas patagoniensis is a colubrid snake spread by all South America, but very little is known about the composition and biological activities of its Duvernoy's gland secretion. In order to characterize it, we studied edematogenic, dermonecrotic and myonecrotic activities. For edematogenic activity, solutions containing different amounts of secretion were injected s.c. in the right foot pad of mice, both feet were subsequently cut off and weighed individually. For myonecrotic activity, mice were injected i.m. with solutions containing 40 microg of secretion, and at various time intervals mice were bled to determine serum creatine kinase activity and gastrocnemius muscles were removed for microscopic examination (Hematoxylin-Eosin stain). For dermonecrotic activity, solutions containing different amounts of secretion were injected into the shaved dorsal skin of mice; the necrotic lesion was measured on the inner surface of the skin and trimmed for microscopic examination (Hematoxylin-Eosin stain). Phospholipase A(2) activity was evaluated using a kinetic method. Results showed that P. patagoniensis Duvernoy's gland secretion exhibits a high edematogenic activity and moderate myonecrotic and dermonecrotic activities, while lacking phospholipase A(2) effect. Regarding edema, a 30% increase in the weight was produced by injecting 0.26 microg of Duvernoy's gland secretion. Microscopically, myonecrosis reached its highest intensity 12 h after injection, which was also demonstrated by serum creatine kinase levels. Dermonecrosis was proportional to the amount of secretion injected, with a minimum necrotizing dose of 15.7 microg. Myonecrotic, edematogenic and dermonecrotic activities were inhibited when the secretion was pre-incubated with 1 mM Na(2)EDTA. This suggests that the enzymes responsible for those activities are mostly metalloproeinases. All the studies carried out up to now demonstrate the potential toxicity of P. patagoniensis Duvernoy's gland secretion

  1. Relationship Between Muscle Dissection Method and Postoperative Muscle Atrophy in the Lateral Suboccipital Approach to Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Toshihiro; Goto, Tetsuya; Aoyama, Tatsuro; Hara, Yosuke; Nagm, Alhusain; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2016-10-01

    Various techniques are available for occipital skull exposure with muscle dissection, as well as different types of skin incisions in the lateral suboccipital approach to vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery. The skin incisions are generally classified as S-shaped, J-shaped, or C-shaped. In each method, the technique used for muscle dissection differs in terms of cut, single layer, and multiple layers. This study was performed to identify the relationships among muscle dissection method, skin incision type, and muscle atrophy in the lateral suboccipital approach to surgery for VS. Between 2002 and 2011, we performed surgical resection in 53 patients with VS at Shinshu University Hospital. Of these 53 patients, 35 with radiographic annual follow-up for >3 years after surgery were evaluated retrospectively. These patients included 14 who underwent an S-shaped incision, 6 with a J-shaped incision, and 15 with a C-shaped incision. Bilateral areas of the skin and occipital muscles were measured, and rates of atrophy were calculated and compared among the 3 methods. Postoperative muscle atrophy was significantly advanced in the second postoperative year, but did not tend to develop further after the third year. The postoperative muscle atrophy ratio was significantly lower in the C-shaped incision group (mean ± SD, 4.0% ± 6.9%) compared with the S-shaped (17.1% ± 9.8%) and J-shaped (17.6% ± 10.0%) incision groups within 2 years after surgery (P < 0.05). The C-shaped skin incision with multilayer muscle dissection was associated with significantly reduced postoperative muscle atrophy compared with the other methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lower limb muscle pre-motor time measures during a choice reaction task associate with knee abduction loads during dynamic single leg landings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Scott G; Borotikar, Bhushan; Lucey, Sarah M

    2010-07-01

    Female neuromuscular control during dynamic landings is considered central to their increased ACL injury risk relative to males. There is limited insight, however, into the neuromuscular parameters governing this risk, which may hinder prevention success. This study targeted a new screenable and potentially trainable neuromuscular risk factor. Specifically, we examined whether lower limb muscle pre-motor times, being the time between stimulus presentation and initiation of the muscle EMG burst, elicited during a simple choice reaction task correlated with knee abduction loads during separate single leg landings. Twenty female NCAA athletes had muscle (n=8) pre-motor time and knee biomechanics data recorded bilaterally during a choice reaction task. Knee biomechanics were also quantified during anticipated and unanticipated single (dominant and non-dominant) leg landings. Mean peak knee abduction loads during landings were submitted to a two-way ANOVA to test for limb and decision effects. Individual regression coefficients were initially computed between-limb-based muscle pre-motor times and peak abduction moments elicited during both the choice reaction and landing tasks. Limb-based linear stepwise regression coefficients were also computed between muscle PMT's demonstrating significant (Pmuscle pre-motor times during a specific choice reaction task are associated with peak knee abduction loads during separate single leg landings. These muscles appear critical in stabilizing the knee against the extreme dynamic load states associated with such tasks. Targeted screening and training of supraspinal processes governing these muscle pre-motor times may ultimately enable external knee loads associated with landings to be more effectively countered by the overarching neuromuscular strategy. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial and frequency domain ring source models for the single muscle fiber action potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Kaj-åge; R., Plonsey

    1994-01-01

    In the paper, single-fibre models for the extracellular action potential are developed that will allow the potential to the evaluated at an arbitrary field point in the extracellular space. Fourier-domain models are restricted in that they evaluate potentials at equidistant points along a line...... parallel to the fibre axis. Consequently, they cannot easily evaluate the potential at the boundary nodes of a boundary-element electrode model. The Fourier-domain models employ axial-symmetric ring source models, and thereby provide higher accuracy that the line source model, where the source is lumped...... including anisotropy show that the spatial models require extreme care in the integration procedure owing to the singularity in the weighting functions. With adequate sampling, the spatial models can evaluate extracellular potentials with high accuracy....

  4. Mechanical properties of mammalian single smooth muscle cells. II. Evaluation of a modified technique for attachment of cells to the measurement apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Glerum (Jacobus); R. van Mastrigt (Ron)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA method is described for attaching isolated single smooth muscle cells to an apparatus designed for measuring the longitudinal forces developed passively and actively by the cell upon straining, electrical or pharmacological stimulation. Primary attachment of the cell is based on its

  5. Post-Burn Skin Deformities of the Face and Neck Region in Pediatric Patients: Single-Stage Treatment Using Collagen Elastin Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağlayan Yağmur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Treating severe post-burn deformities of the face and neck region in pediatric populations is challenging because of technical difficulties (e.g., limited full thickness skin graft donor site, limited flap options, unavailability for expander placement and increased donor site morbidity (e.g., related to flap and graft donor sites. In this study, we present the single-stage treatment of severe post-burn skin deformities of the face and neck region in pediatric patients using collagen-elastin matrix (Matriderm® combined with partial thickness skin grafts. Material and Methods: The total number of cases was eight (four females, four males, and the ages were between two and 11 years. All cases were operated on for only one region. Following the release of contractures and/or excision of wide excessive/ unfavorable dermal scars, defects were reconstructed using collagen- elastin matrix (Matriderm® combined with partial-thickness skin grafts. The final functional and aesthetic results were evaluated using photography and examination. Results: The deformities were in the form of contractures and/ or excessive dermal scarring. The involved regions were the face (n=3 and neck (n=5. The grafts yielded favorable plication and texture, and no recurrence of excessive dermal scarring was observed. All contractures healed unproblematically. Two patients were re-operated on for regrafting caused by minor graft loss (5% and 12% of the total area, respectively. Conclusion: In this study, we observed that collagen elastin matrix combined with partial-thickness skin grafts provides a favorable option for the treatment of pediatric late post-burn complications in the face and neck region with limited surgical options.

  6. Cell and Tissue Damage after Skin Exposure to Ionizing Radiation: Short- and Long-Term Effects after a Single and Fractional Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Kahori; Ishimine, Hisako; Shiraishi, Kenshiro; Kato, Harunosuke; Doi, Kentaro; Kuno, Shinichiro; Kanayama, Koji; Mineda, Kazuhide; Mashiko, Takanobu; Feng, Jingwei; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Kurisaki, Akira; Itami, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is often used to treat progressive neoplasms. However, the consequences of long-term radiation exposure to healthy skin tissue are poorly understood. We aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term radiation damage to healthy skin of the same irradiation given either as single or fractional doses. C57BL/J6 mice were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a control and two exposure groups (5 Gy ×2 or 10 Gy ×1). The inguinal area was irradiated (6-MeV beam) 1 week after depilation in the treatment groups. Skin samples were evaluated macroscopically and histologically for up to 6 months after the final exposure. After anagen hair follicle injury by irradiation, hair cycling resumed in both groups, but hair graying was observed in the 10 Gy ×1 group but not in the 5 Gy ×2 group, suggesting the dose of each fractional exposure is more relevant to melanocyte stem cell damage than the total dose. On the other hand, in the long term, the fractional double exposures induced more severe atrophy and capillary reduction in the dermis and subcutis, suggesting fractional exposure may cause more depletion of tissue stem cells and endothelial cells in the tissue. Thus, our results indicated that there were differences between the degrees of damage that occurred as a result of a single exposure compared with fractional exposures to ionizing radiation: the former induces more severe acute injury to the skin with irreversible depigmentation of hairs, while the latter induces long-term damage to the dermis and subcutis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Myofascial force transmission in dynamic muscle conditions: effects of dynamic shortening of a single head of multi-tendoned rat extensor digitorum longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Huub; Huijing, Peter A

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of myofascial force transmission during dynamic shortening of head III of rat extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL III). The anterior crural compartment was left intact. Force was measured simultaneously at the distal EDL III tendon, the proximal EDL tendon and the distal tendons of tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus muscles (TA + EHL). Two types of distal shortening of EDL III were studied: (1) sinusoidal shortening (2 mm) and (2) isokinetic shortening (8 mm). Sinusoidal shortening of EDL III caused a decrease in force exerted at the distal tendon of EDL III: from 0.58 (0.08) N to 0.26 (0.04) N. In contrast, hardly any changes in proximal EDL force and distal TA+EHL force were found. Maximal concentric force exerted at the distal tendon of EDL III was higher than maximal isometric force expected on the basis of the physiological cross-sectional area of EDL III muscle fibers (Maas et al. 2003). Therefore, a substantial fraction of this force must originate from sources other than muscle fibers of EDL III. Isokinetic shortening of EDL III caused high changes in EDL III force from 0.97 (0.15) N to zero. In contrast, changes in proximal EDL force were much smaller: from 2.44 (0.25) N to 1.99 (0.19) N. No effects on TA + EHL force could be shown. These results are explained in terms of force transmission between the muscle belly of EDL III and adjacent tissues. Thus, also in dynamic muscle conditions, muscle fiber force is transmitted via myofascial pathways.

  8. An examination of resveratrol's mechanisms of action in human tissue: impact of a single dose in vivo and dose responses in skeletal muscle ex vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron B Williams

    Full Text Available The current study tested the hypothesis that a single, moderate dose of RSV would activate the AMPK/SIRT1 axis in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Additionally, the effects of RSV on mitochondrial respiration in PmFBs were examined. Eight sedentary men (23.8±2.4 yrs; BMI: 32.7±7.1 reported to the lab on two occasions where they were provided a meal supplemented with 300 mg of RSV or a placebo. Blood samples, and a muscle biopsy were obtained in the fasted state and again, with the addition of an adipose tissue biopsy, two hours post-prandial. The effect of RSV on mitochondrial respiration was examined in PmFBs taken from muscle biopsies from an additional eight men (23.4±5.4 yrs; BMI: 24.4±2.8. No effect of RSV was observed on nuclear SIRT1 activity, acetylation of p53, or phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC or PKA in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. A decrease in post absorptive insulin levels was accompanied by elevated skeletal muscle phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but no change in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue insulin signalling. Mitochondrial respiration in PmFBs was rapidly inhibited by RSV at 100-300 uM depending on the substrate examined. These results question the efficacy of a single dose of RSV at altering skeletal muscle and adipose tissue AMPK/SIRT1 activity in humans and suggest that RSV mechanisms of action in humans may be associated with altered cellular energetics resulting from impaired mitochondrial ATP production.

  9. L-arginine supplementation protects exercise performance and structural integrity of muscle fibers after a single bout of eccentric exercise in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia N Lomonosova

    Full Text Available Eccentric exercise is known to disrupt sarcolemmal integrity and induce damage of skeletal muscle fibers. We hypothesized that L-arginine (L-Arg; nitric oxide synthase (NOS substrate supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise would diminish exercise-induced damage. In addition, we used N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; NOS inhibitor to clarify the role of native NOS activity in the development of exercise-induced muscle damage. Rats were divided into four groups: non-treated control (C, downhill running with (RA or without (R L-Arg supplementation and downhill running with L-NAME supplementation (RN. Twenty four hours following eccentric exercise seven rats in each group were sacrificed and soleus muscles were dissected and frozen for further analysis. The remaining seven rats in each group were subjected to the exercise performance test. Our experiments showed that L-Arg supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise improved subsequent exercise performance capacity tests in RA rats when compared with R, RN and C rats by 37%, 27% and 13%, respectively. This outcome is mediated by L-Arg protection against post-exercise damage of sarcolemma (2.26- and 0.87-fold less than R and RN groups, respectively, reduced numbers of damaged muscle fibers indicated by the reduced loss of desmin content in the muscle (15% and 25% less than R and RN groups, respectively, and diminished µ-calpain mRNA up-regulation (42% and 30% less than R and RN groups, respectively. In conclusion, our study indicates that L-Arg supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise alleviates muscle fiber damage and preserves exercise performance capacity.

  10. L-arginine supplementation protects exercise performance and structural integrity of muscle fibers after a single bout of eccentric exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonosova, Yulia N; Shenkman, Boris S; Kalamkarov, Grigorii R; Kostrominova, Tatiana Y; Nemirovskaya, Tatyana L

    2014-01-01

    Eccentric exercise is known to disrupt sarcolemmal integrity and induce damage of skeletal muscle fibers. We hypothesized that L-arginine (L-Arg; nitric oxide synthase (NOS) substrate) supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise would diminish exercise-induced damage. In addition, we used N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; NOS inhibitor) to clarify the role of native NOS activity in the development of exercise-induced muscle damage. Rats were divided into four groups: non-treated control (C), downhill running with (RA) or without (R) L-Arg supplementation and downhill running with L-NAME supplementation (RN). Twenty four hours following eccentric exercise seven rats in each group were sacrificed and soleus muscles were dissected and frozen for further analysis. The remaining seven rats in each group were subjected to the exercise performance test. Our experiments showed that L-Arg supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise improved subsequent exercise performance capacity tests in RA rats when compared with R, RN and C rats by 37%, 27% and 13%, respectively. This outcome is mediated by L-Arg protection against post-exercise damage of sarcolemma (2.26- and 0.87-fold less than R and RN groups, respectively), reduced numbers of damaged muscle fibers indicated by the reduced loss of desmin content in the muscle (15% and 25% less than R and RN groups, respectively), and diminished µ-calpain mRNA up-regulation (42% and 30% less than R and RN groups, respectively). In conclusion, our study indicates that L-Arg supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise alleviates muscle fiber damage and preserves exercise performance capacity.

  11. Pre-bisection of a single skin biopsy does not produce technically inadequate specimens for direct immunofluorescence: a review of 3450 specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Ern; Armstrong, April W; Fung, Maxwell A

    2014-11-01

    Evaluation of a potential immunobullous disorder typically requires two pieces of tissue obtained by skin biopsy: one placed in formalin for conventional microscopy and a second placed in a different transport medium suitable for direct immunofluorescence (DIF) testing. Clinical practice in this area is not standardized, with dermatologists either obtaining two biopsies or dividing (pre-bisecting) a single biopsy. Some DIF specimens are technically inadequate for interpretation of subepidermal imunobullous disorders because the basement membrane zone is not intact, but it is unknown whether pre-bisecting the tissue increases the risk of compromising the specimen. To investigate whether technically inadequate DIF specimens are associated with pre-bisection. DIF specimens were consecutively sampled from a single referral center and identified as whole (non-bisected) biopsy specimens or pre-bisected biopsy specimens. The proportion of inadequate specimens was calculated for both groups. A total of 3450 specimens were included. The percentage of inadequate specimens was 5.072% (153/3016) for whole (non-bisected) specimens and 5.299% for pre-bisected specimens. This difference was not significant (chi square, p = 0.84). The study was sufficiently powered to detect a relative risk of 1.685. Pre-bisection of a single skin biopsy does not significantly increase the risk of a technically inadequate specimen for direct immunofluorescence testing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Skin antisepsis with 0.05% sodium hypochlorite before central venous catheter insertion in neonates: A 2-year single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccia, Matilde; Chakrokh, Roksana; Molinazzi, Dario; Zanni, Angela; Farruggia, Patrizia; Sandri, Fabrizio

    2018-02-01

    The study reports a 2-year single-center experience of the practice of skin antisepsis using a 0.05% sodium hypochlorite solution before central venous catheter placement in neonates. Eligible subjects included any hospitalized neonate who needed a central line for at least 48 hours. Infants were excluded if they had a generalized or localized skin disorder. An ad hoc Excel (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA) file was used to record the data from each patient. The catheter sites were monitored daily for the presence of contact dermatitis. Central line-associated bloodstream infection was diagnosed according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. One hundred five infants underwent central venous catheter placement and were enrolled. A total of 198 central lines were inserted. The median gestational age was 31 weeks (range, 23-41 weeks) and median birth weight was 1,420 g (range, 500-5,170 g). There were no signs of 0.05% sodium hypochlorite-related skin toxicity in any infant. Of 198 catheters (1,652 catheter-days) prospectively studied, 9 were associated with bloodstream infections (5.4 per 1,000 catheter-days). During the observation period, no local adverse effects were observed suggesting that 0.05% sodium hypochlorite may be a safe choice in this context. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Negative pressure wound therapy using a portable single-use device for free skin grafts on the distal extremity in seven dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A J; Cashmore, R G; Marchevsky, A M; Havlicek, M; Brown, P M; Fearnside, S M

    2016-09-01

    Retrospective study to describe clinical experience with a portable single-use negative pressure wound therapy device after application of full-thickness meshed skin grafts to wounds on the distal extremities of seven dogs. Seven dogs were treated with portable NPWT after receiving skin grafts; six as the result of tumour resection and one for traumatic injury. Medical records were reviewed and data recorded on patient signalment, cause and location of wound, surgical technique, application and maintenance of portable NPWT, graft survival and outcome, and complications encountered with the system. NPWT was provided for between 4 and 7 days. Five patients were discharged from hospital during the treatment period. Application and maintenance of the portable device was technically easy and no major complications were encountered. Minor complications consisted of fluid accumulation in the evacuation tubing. All dogs achieved 100% graft survival. Application and maintenance of the portable device was technically straightforward. All dogs receiving portable NPWT after transfer of a free skin graft to the distal extremity had a successful outcome. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. Myofascial force transmission in dynamic muscle conditions: effects of dynamic shortening of a single head of multi-tendoned rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, H.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of myofascial force transmission during dynamic shortening of head III of rat extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL III). The anterior crural compartment was left intact. Force was measured simultaneously at the distal EDL III tendon, the proximal EDL tendon and

  15. Results of fractional ablative facial skin resurfacing with the erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser 1 week and 2 months after one single treatment in 30 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelles, Mario A; Mordon, Serge; Velez, Mariano; Urdiales, Fernando; Levy, Jean Luc

    2009-03-01

    The erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser has recently been used in the fractional resurfacing of photo-aged skin. Our study evaluated the results after one single session of fractional resurfacing with Er:YAG. Thirty women participated in the study, with an average age of 46 years, skin types from II to IV, and wrinkle grades I to III. The 2,940 nm Er:YAG system used (Pixel, Alma Laser, Israel) had variable pulse durations (1 ms to 2 ms) and energy densities (800 mJ/cm(2) to 1,400 mJ/cm(2)) which, together with the number of passes (four to eight), were selected as a function of wrinkle severity. All patients received only one treatment. Postoperative side effects were evaluated. The number of wrinkles was documented with clinical photography and was scored. Histological assessment was carried out on two patients before and 2 months after treatment. All patients completed the study. Of the patients, 93% reported good or very good improvement of the degree of their wrinkles, with a satisfaction index of 83%. Pain was not a problem during treatment, and there were no side effects except for in one phototype IV patient, who had hyperpigmentation. Histology 2 months after the single treatment demonstrated younger morphology of both the epidermis and dermis, with improvement of the pretreatment typical elastotic appearance. At the parameters used in our study, only one treatment session of Er:YAG laser could achieve effective skin rejuvenation, with effects recognized in both the dermis and, more importantly, the epidermis. This regimen offers an interesting alternative to the conventional approach of multi-session fractional resurfacing.

  16. Comparison of skin sensory thresholds using pre-programmed or single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jong Ho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to compare the sensory thresholds of healthy subjects using pre-programmed or single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. [Subjects] Ninety healthy adult subjects were randomly assigned to pre-programmed or single-frequency stimulation groups, each consisting of 45 participants. [Methods] Sensory thresholds were measured in the participants' forearms using von Frey filaments before and after pre-programmed or single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and the result in values were analyzed. [Results] Significant increases in sensory threshold after stimulation were observed in both groups. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in sensory thresholds after stimulation or in the magnitude of threshold increases following stimulation. [Conclusion] Our results show that there are no differences between sensory threshold increases induced by pre-programmed and single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

  17. Skin toxicity and quality of life in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer during first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI treatment in a single-arm phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaler, Josef; Köhne, Claus-Henning; Karthaus, Meinolf; Mineur, Laurent; Greil, Richard; Letocha, Henry; Hofheinz, Ralf; Fernebro, Eva; Gamelin, Erick; Baños, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Integument-related toxicities are common during epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy. Panitumumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting the EGFR that significantly improves progression-free survival when added to chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have wild-type (WT) KRAS tumours. Primary efficacy and tolerability results from a phase II single-arm study of first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have been reported. Here we report additional descriptive tolerability and quality of life data from this trial. Integument-related toxicities and quality of life were analysed; toxicities were graded using modified National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to and duration of first integument-related toxicity were prepared. Quality of life was measured using EuroQoL EQ-5D and EORTC QLQ-C30. Best overall response was analysed by skin toxicity grade and baseline quality of life. Change in quality of life was analysed by skin toxicity severity. 154 patients were enrolled (WT KRAS n = 86; mutant KRAS n = 59); most (98%) experienced integument-related toxicities (most commonly rash [42%], dry skin [40%] and acne [36%]). Median time to first integument-related toxicity was 8 days; median duration was 334 days. Overall, proportionally more patients with grade 2+ skin toxicity responded (56%) compared with those with grade 0/1 (29%). Mean overall EQ-5D health state index scores (0.81 vs. 0.78), health rating scores (72.5 vs. 71.0) and QLQ-C30 global health status scores (65.8 vs. 66.7) were comparable at baseline vs. safety follow-up (8 weeks after completion), respectively and appeared unaffected by skin toxicity severity. First-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI has acceptable tolerability and appears to have little impact on quality of life, despite the high incidence of integument-related toxicity. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00508404

  18. Skin toxicity and quality of life in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer during first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI treatment in a single-arm phase II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaler Josef

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integument-related toxicities are common during epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-targeted therapy. Panitumumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting the EGFR that significantly improves progression-free survival when added to chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have wild-type (WT KRAS tumours. Primary efficacy and tolerability results from a phase II single-arm study of first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have been reported. Here we report additional descriptive tolerability and quality of life data from this trial. Methods Integument-related toxicities and quality of life were analysed; toxicities were graded using modified National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to and duration of first integument-related toxicity were prepared. Quality of life was measured using EuroQoL EQ-5D and EORTC QLQ-C30. Best overall response was analysed by skin toxicity grade and baseline quality of life. Change in quality of life was analysed by skin toxicity severity. Results 154 patients were enrolled (WT KRAS n = 86; mutant KRAS n = 59; most (98% experienced integument-related toxicities (most commonly rash [42%], dry skin [40%] and acne [36%]. Median time to first integument-related toxicity was 8 days; median duration was 334 days. Overall, proportionally more patients with grade 2+ skin toxicity responded (56% compared with those with grade 0/1 (29%. Mean overall EQ-5D health state index scores (0.81 vs. 0.78, health rating scores (72.5 vs. 71.0 and QLQ-C30 global health status scores (65.8 vs. 66.7 were comparable at baseline vs. safety follow-up (8 weeks after completion, respectively and appeared unaffected by skin toxicity severity. Conclusions First-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI has acceptable tolerability and appears to have little impact on quality of life, despite the high incidence of integument

  19. The influence of single and fractionated dose external beam irradiation on injury-induced arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, U.; Micke, O.; Dorszewski, A.; Breithardt, G.; Willich, N.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Restenosis after catheter-based revascularization has been demonstrated to be primarily caused by smooth muscle cell proliferation. This study examined the effects of external beam irradiation on neointimal proliferation after external injury to the central artery of the rabbit ear. Materials and Methods: 40 male New Zealand White rabbits were used in this study. Crush lesions were performed on each ear under general anesthesia and bilateral auricular nerve blockade. A single dose of 12 Gy (n=10), 16 Gy (n=10), or 20 Gy (n=10) and a fractionated dose of 4 x 5 Gy (n=10) gamma radiation was delivered to the left or right central artery of the ear 24 hours after injury; the contralateral central artery served as control. All rabbits were sacrificed after twenty-one days and the central arteries of the ear were fixed for morphometric measurements. Results: Mean (± SD) neointimal area was 0.062 ± 0.005 mm 2 (12 Gy), 0.022 ± 0,005 mm 2 (16 Gy), 0,028 ± 0,006 mm 2 and 0.038 mm 2 ± 0,02 mm 2 (4 x 5 Gy) in irradiated arteries compared with 0,081 ± 0,009 mm 2 in the control group. Mean (±SD) luminal area was 0.049 ± 0.004 mm 2 (12 Gy), 0.059 ± 0.002 mm 2 (16 Gy), 0.072 ± 0,006 mm 2 (20 Gy) and 0.048 mm 2 ± 0,018 mm 2 (4 x 5 Gy) in irradiated arteries compared with 0,043 ± 0,008 mm 2 in the control group. The difference in neointimal and luminal area between control and irradiated arteries was significant (p<0.05) only for the 16 and 20 Gy group compared to control. Conclusion: We conclude that in this model, external beam X-ray irradiation was successful in reducing neointimal proliferation after injury of the central artery of the rabbit ear. The optimal dose seems to be a single dose of 16 Gy - 20 Gy. Only a less prominent effect was noted for a fractionated dose of 4 x 5 Gy. Whether this approach can be used successfully to inhibit restenosis in the clinical setting requires further investigation

  20. Adsorption behavior of modified Iron stick yam skin with Polyethyleneimine as a potential biosorbent for the removal of anionic dyes in single and ternary systems at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Zhuo; Li, Jun; Zhao, Jing; Bian, Wei; Li, Yun; Wang, Xiu-Jie

    2016-12-01

    The skin of Iron stick yam (ISY) was modified with Polyethyleneimine (ISY@PEI) and evaluated for use as a potential biosorbent to remove the anionic dyes Sunset yellow (SY), Lemon yellow (LY), and Carmine (CM) from wastewater under low temperature conditions (5-15°C) in single and ternary dye systems. Both in the single and ternary systems, experimental data showed that adsorption capacity reached the highest value at 5°C, and adsorption capacity decreased when the temperature increased (10-50°C). The equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir model and the extended Langmuir isotherm, for the single and ternary systems, respectively. The maximum adsorption capability was 138.92, 476.31, and 500.13mg/g for LY, SY, and CM, respectively, in a single system and 36.63, 303.31, and 294.12mg/g for LY, SY, and CM, respectively, in a ternary system. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that it was a spontaneous and exothermic process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Delayed diagnosis of single compartment muscle contusion after radical hysterectomy in the lithotomy position: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenro Chikazawa

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging is useful for diagnosis. For patients who complain of edema and tenderness in the lower leg after surgery in the lithotomy position, muscle contusions should be considered.

  2. Fluid-driven origami-inspired artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuguang; Vogt, Daniel M.; Rus, Daniela; Wood, Robert J.

    2017-12-01

    Artificial muscles hold promise for safe and powerful actuation for myriad common machines and robots. However, the design, fabrication, and implementation of artificial muscles are often limited by their material costs, operating principle, scalability, and single-degree-of-freedom contractile actuation motions. Here we propose an architecture for fluid-driven origami-inspired artificial muscles. This concept requires only a compressible skeleton, a flexible skin, and a fluid medium. A mechanical model is developed to explain the interaction of the three components. A fabrication method is introduced to rapidly manufacture low-cost artificial muscles using various materials and at multiple scales. The artificial muscles can be programed to achieve multiaxial motions including contraction, bending, and torsion. These motions can be aggregated into systems with multiple degrees of freedom, which are able to produce controllable motions at different rates. Our artificial muscles can be driven by fluids at negative pressures (relative to ambient). This feature makes actuation safer than most other fluidic artificial muscles that operate with positive pressures. Experiments reveal that these muscles can contract over 90% of their initial lengths, generate stresses of ˜600 kPa, and produce peak power densities over 2 kW/kg—all equal to, or in excess of, natural muscle. This architecture for artificial muscles opens the door to rapid design and low-cost fabrication of actuation systems for numerous applications at multiple scales, ranging from miniature medical devices to wearable robotic exoskeletons to large deployable structures for space exploration.

  3. Improvements in kinematics, muscle activity and pain during functional tasks in females with patellofemoral pain following a single patterned electrical stimulation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaviano, Neal R; Huntsman, Stephanie; Dembeck, Ashley; Hart, Joseph M; Saliba, Susan

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with patellofemoral pain present with altered hip muscle activation, faulty movement patterns, and pain during functional tasks. Examining new treatment options to address these impairments may better treat those with patellofemoral pain. The purpose of this study was to determine if patterned electrical stimulation to the lower extremity affects muscle activity, movement patterns, and pain following a single treatment. Fifteen females with patellofemoral pain were randomized to receive a single 15-minute treatment of either a patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation or a sham. Peak kinematics of the knee, hip, and trunk, electromyography and pain were examined pre and post-intervention during a single leg squat and lateral step-down task. Group means and pre/post reduced kinematic values were also plotted during the entire task with 90% confidence intervals to identify differences in movement strategies. No baseline differences were found in peak kinematics between groups. No pre to post-intervention differences in peak knee, hip and trunk kinematics were found, however differences were seen when the quality of movement across the entire tasks was assessed. The electrical stimulation group had improved knee flexion and hip abduction during the lateral step-down. A significant improvement in gluteus medius activation following patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation occurred during the step-down (P=0.039). Significant pain improvements were also seen in both the single leg squat (P=0.025) and lateral step-down (P=0.006). A single treatment of patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation improved muscle activation, lower extremity kinematics during functional tasks, and pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE LEG HOP PROGRESSION AND DOUBLE LEGS HOP PROGRESSION EXERCISE TO INCREASE SPEED AND EXPLOSIVE POWER OF LEG MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining W. Kusnanik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise to increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. Plyometric is one of the training methods that can increase explosive power. There are many models of plyometric training including single leg hop progression and double leg hop progression. This research was experimental using match subject design techniques. The subjects of this study were 39 students who joined basketball school club. There were 3 groups in this study: Group 1 were 13 students who given sin¬gle leg hop progression exercise, Group 2 were 13 students who given double legs hop progression exercise, Group 3 were 13 students who given conventional exercise. The data was collected during pre test and post test by testing 30m speed running and vertical jump. The data was analyzed using Analysis of Varians (Anova. It was found that there were significantly increased on speed and explosive power of leg muscles of Group 1 and Group 2. It can be stated that single leg hop progression exercise was more effective than double leg hop progression exercise. The recent findings supported the hypothesis that single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise can increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. These finding were supported by some previous studies (Singh, et al, 2011; Shallaby, H.K., 2010. The single leg hop progression is more effective than double legs hop progression. This finding was consistent with some previous evidences (McCurdy, et al, 2005; Makaruk et al, 2011.

  5. Relationships between knee valgus, hip-muscle strength, and hip-muscle recruitment during a single-limb step-down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, John H; Ginos, Barbara E; Kozuchowski, Jakub; Vaughn, Amanda S; Krause, David A; Youdas, James W

    2009-02-01

    Reduced strength and activation of hip muscles might correlate with increased weight-bearing knee valgus. To describe relationships among frontal-plane hip and knee angles, hip-muscle strength, and electromyographic (EMG) recruitment in women during a step-down. Exploratory study. Laboratory. 20 healthy women 20 to 30 years of age. Frontal-plane hip and knee angles were measured. Gluteus maximus and medius recruitment were examined with surface EMG. Hip-abduction and -external-rotation strength were quantified with handheld dynamometry. The authors analyzed correlation coefficients between knee and hip angles, gluteus maximus and medius EMG, and hip-abduction and -external-rotation strength. Hip-adduction angles (r = .755, P = .001), gluteus maximus EMG (r = -.451, P = .026), and hip-abduction strength (r = .455, P = .022) correlated with frontal-plane projections of knee valgus. Gluteus maximus recruitment might have greater association with reduced knee valgus in women than does external-rotation strength during step-down tasks. Gluteus medius strength might be associated with increased knee valgus.

  6. Quality Control of Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX Measurements in 6 Muscles in a Single-Subject "Round-Robin" Setup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Neuwirth

    Full Text Available Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX is a neurophysiological measure that provides an index of the number of lower motor neurons in a muscle. Its performance across centres in healthy subjects and patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS has been established, but inter-rater variability between multiple raters in one single subject has not been investigated.To assess reliability in a set of 6 muscles in a single subject among 12 examiners (6 experienced with MUNIX, 6 less experienced and to determine variables associated with variability of measurements.Twelve raters applied MUNIX in six different muscles (abductor pollicis brevis (APB, abductor digiti minimi (ADM, biceps brachii (BB, tibialis anterior (TA, extensor dig. brevis (EDB, abductor hallucis (AH twice in one single volunteer on consecutive days. All raters visited at least one training course prior to measurements. Intra- and inter-rater variability as determined by the coefficient of variation (COV between different raters and their levels of experience with MUNIX were compared.Mean intra-rater COV of MUNIX was 14.0% (±6.4 ranging from 5.8 (APB to 30.3% (EDB. Mean inter-rater COV was 18.1 (±5.4 ranging from 8.0 (BB to 31.7 (AH. No significant differences of variability between experienced and less experienced raters were detected.We provide evidence that quality control for neurophysiological methods can be performed with similar standards as in laboratory medicine. Intra- and inter-rater variability of MUNIX is muscle-dependent and mainly below 20%. Experienced neurophysiologists can easily adopt MUNIX and adequate teaching ensures reliable utilization of this method.

  7. How much protein can the body use in a single meal for muscle-building? Implications for daily protein distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan Albert

    2018-01-01

    Controversy exists about the maximum amount of protein that can be utilized for lean tissue-building purposes in a single meal for those involved in regimented resistance training. It has been proposed that muscle protein synthesis is maximized in young adults with an intake of ~ 20-25 g of a high-quality protein; anything above this amount is believed to be oxidized for energy or transaminated to form urea and other organic acids. However, these findings are specific to the provision of fast-digesting proteins without the addition of other macronutrients. Consumption of slower-acting protein sources, particularly when consumed in combination with other macronutrients, would delay absorption and thus conceivably enhance the utilization of the constituent amino acids. The purpose of this paper was twofold: 1) to objectively review the literature in an effort to determine an upper anabolic threshold for per-meal protein intake; 2) draw relevant conclusions based on the current data so as to elucidate guidelines for per-meal daily protein distribution to optimize lean tissue accretion. Both acute and long-term studies on the topic were evaluated and their findings placed into context with respect to per-meal utilization of protein and the associated implications to distribution of protein feedings across the course of a day. The preponderance of data indicate that while consumption of higher protein doses (> 20 g) results in greater AA oxidation, this is not the fate for all the additional ingested AAs as some are utilized for tissue-building purposes. Based on the current evidence, we conclude that to maximize anabolism one should consume protein at a target intake of 0.4 g/kg/meal across a minimum of four meals in order to reach a minimum of 1.6 g/kg/day. Using the upper daily intake of 2.2 g/kg/day reported in the literature spread out over the same four meals would necessitate a maximum of 0.55 g/kg/meal.

  8. Effects of fatigue on lower limb, pelvis and trunk kinematics and lower limb muscle activity during single-leg landing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessi, Giovanna Camparis; Serrão, Fábio Viadanna

    2017-08-01

    Because there are no studies that have evaluated the effects of fatigue on the kinematics of the trunk and pelvis or on muscle activation in subjects with ACL reconstruction, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fatigue on the lower limb, pelvis and trunk kinematics and lower limb muscle activation in subjects with ACL reconstruction during a single-leg landing compared to a healthy control group. The participants included 20 subjects with ACL reconstruction (ACL reconstruction group-ACLRG) and 20 healthy subjects (control group-CG) who were aged between 18 and 35 years. Kinematic and electromyographic analyses were performed during a single-leg landing before and after fatigue. The fatigue protocol included a series of 10 squats, two vertical jumps, and 20 steps. The effects of fatigue were increased peak trunk flexion and increased activation of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus maximus (GMax) during the landing phase. After the fatigue protocol, an increase in peak trunk flexion and activation of the GMax and BF were observed, most likely as a strategy to reduce the load on the ACL. ACL injury prevention programs should include strength and endurance exercises for the hip and trunk extensor muscles so that they can efficiently control trunk flexion during landing. Prospective comparative study, Level II.

  9. Growth on demand: reviewing the mechanobiology of stretched skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöllner, Alexander M; Holland, Maria A; Honda, Kord S; Gosain, Arun K; Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-12-01

    Skin is a highly dynamic, autoregulated, living system that responds to mechanical stretch through a net gain in skin surface area. Tissue expansion uses the concept of controlled overstretch to grow extra skin for defect repair in situ. While the short-term mechanics of stretched skin have been studied intensely by testing explanted tissue samples ex vivo, we know very little about the long-term biomechanics and mechanobiology of living skin in vivo. Here we explore the long-term effects of mechanical stretch on the characteristics of living skin using a mathematical model for skin growth. We review the molecular mechanisms by which skin responds to mechanical loading and model their effects collectively in a single scalar-valued internal variable, the surface area growth. This allows us to adopt a continuum model for growing skin based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a reversible elastic and an irreversible growth part. To demonstrate the inherent modularity of this approach, we implement growth as a user-defined constitutive subroutine into the general purpose implicit finite element program Abaqus/Standard. To illustrate the features of the model, we simulate the controlled area growth of skin in response to tissue expansion with multiple filling points in time. Our results demonstrate that the field theories of continuum mechanics can reliably predict the manipulation of thin biological membranes through mechanical overstretch. Our model could serve as a valuable tool to rationalize clinical process parameters such as expander geometry, expander size, filling volume, filling pressure, and inflation timing to minimize tissue necrosis and maximize patient comfort in plastic and reconstructive surgery. While initially developed for growing skin, our model can easily be generalized to arbitrary biological structures to explore the physiology and pathology of stretch-induced growth of other living systems such as hearts

  10. Effect of speed endurance training and reduced training volume on running economy and single muscle fiber adaptations in trained runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christiansen, Danny; Christensen, Peter Møller

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improved running economy with a period of speed endurance training and reduced training volume could be related to adaptations in specific muscle fibers. Twenty trained male (n = 14) and female (n = 6) runners (maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 -max...... was performed. In addition, running at 60% vVO2 -max, and a 10-km run was performed in a normal and a muscle slow twitch (ST) glycogen-depleted condition. After compared to before the intervention, expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) was lower (P ....05) in ST muscle fibers, and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 1 (SERCA1) was lower (P VO2 -max (11.6 ± 0.2 km/h) and at v10-km (13.7 ± 0.3 km/h) was ~2% better (P

  11. Quantification of early fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff muscles: comparison of multi-echo Dixon with single-voxel MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agten, Christoph A.; Rosskopf, Andrea B.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A. [Balgrist University Hospital, Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Gerber, Christian [Balgrist University Hospital, Orthopaedic Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    To evaluate quantification of early fatty infiltration in supraspinatus muscles with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using a T2*-corrected multi-echo 3D-gradient-echo Dixon-based sequence (multi-echo Dixon) and compare it to proton-MR-spectroscopy. Sixty subjects (mean age 46 years, 41 men) with good supraspinatus muscle quality on 1.5 T MR imaging were included. Fat percentage (FP) in the supraspinatus muscle was quantified using a multi-echo Dixon compared to single-voxel MR spectroscopy as reference standard. In 18 subjects the multi-echo Dixon was repeated to assess test-retest reliability. Measurements based on multi-echo Dixon were performed by two independent readers by placing regions-of-interest (ROIs) in the supraspinatus muscle corresponding to the MR-spectroscopy voxel. Intraclass and concordance correlation coefficients (ICC/CCC) were used for statistical analysis. Test-retest reliability was substantial for reader 1 (ICC = 0.757) and almost perfect for reader 2 (ICC = 0.873). Inter-reader reliability for multi-echo Dixon was almost perfect (ICC = 0.893, P <.0005). Mean FP in all 60 subjects with multi-echo Dixon was 3.5 ± 1.6 for reader 1, 3.7 ± 1.8 for reader 2, and 2.8 ± 1.4 with MR spectroscopy. Correlation between multi-echo Dixon and MR spectroscopy was moderate (CCC = 0.641). The multi-echo Dixon sequence is a reliable method and comparable to MR-spectroscopy for quantification of low levels of fatty infiltration in the supraspinatus muscle. (orig.)

  12. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Sagging Skin Treatment Options Learn more about the ...

  13. Clinical and instrumental evaluation of a cross-linked hyaluronic acid filler dermal injection: effects on nasolabial folds skin biophysical parameters and augmentation from a single-dose, monocentric, open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Norma; Mariano, Maria; Serio, Mirko; Berardesca, Enzo

    2016-10-01

    When a hyaluronic acid dermal device to fill soft tissues is chosen, efficacy, safety and durability are key concerns. This is an open-label prospective study to instrumentally evaluate the effects of HA filler dermal injection on nasolabial folds skin biophysical parameters and augmentation. A single Italian site treated female subjects aged 40-55, for nasolabial folds, with a single standardized injection. The outcome was evaluated with objective quantitative measurements after 90 (T1) and 180 days (T2) from the injection comparing to baseline (T0) by means of Corneometer (skin hydration measurement), Cutometer (skin elasticity measurement), and Visioface devices for digital and UV computerized image analysis. Secondary endpoints were safety assessment, subject investigator satisfaction with the intervention. Assessment of aesthetic results included photographic documentation. The computerized image analysis confirmed the clinical assessment showing statistically significant reduction in nasolabial folds both at T1 and T2. Visioface® indexes showed a marked and statistical significant response. An excellent profile of satisfaction of the product at T2 from investigators and patients was recorded. Skin hydration and elasticity did not show significant changes. In our study, a standardized HA filler dermal injection on nasolabial folds did not influence skin biophysical parameters such as skin hydration and elasticity. Nasolabial folds showed a persistent and significative response at T2 confirmed by instrumental evaluation. The tolerability and safety profile of the product was excellent.

  14. Imaging of muscle injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khoury, G.Y. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Brandser, E.A. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Kathol, M.H. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Tearse, D.S. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery; Callaghan, J.J. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery

    1996-01-01

    Although skeletal muscle is the single largest tissue in the body, there is little written about it in the radiologic literature. Indirect muscle injuries, also called strains or tears, are common in athletics, and knowing the morphology and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit is the key to the understanding of these injuries. Eccentric muscle activation produces more tension within the muscle tan when it is activated concentrically, making it more susceptible to tearing. Injuries involving the muscle belly tend to occur near the myotendinous junction. In adolescents, the weakest link in the muscle-tendon-bone complex is the apophysis. Traditionally, plain radiography has been the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of these injuries; however, with the advent of MRI it has become much easier to diagnose injuries primarily affecting the soft tissues. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit as they relate to indirect muscle injuries. Examples of common muscle injuries are illustrated. (orig.)

  15. The Effect of Cleft Palate Repair on Contractile Properties of Single Permeabilized Muscle Fibers From Congenitally Cleft Goats Palates

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cleft palate goat model was used to study the contractile properties of the levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle which is responsible for the movement of the soft palate. In 15-25% of patients that undergo palatoplasty, residual velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) remains a problem and often require...

  16. Spatial distribution of surface EMG on trapezius and lumbar muscles of violin and cello players in single note playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharipour, Babak; Petracca, Francesco; Gasparini, Mauro; Merletti, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Musicians activate their muscles in different patterns, depending on their posture, the instrument being played, and their experience level. Bipolar surface electrodes have been used in the past to monitor such activity, but this method is highly sensitive to the location of the electrode pair. In this work, the spatial distribution of surface EMG (sEMG) of the right trapezius and right and left erector spinae muscles were studied in 16 violin players and 11 cello players. Musicians played their instrument one string at a time in sitting position with/without backrest support. A 64 sEMG electrode (16×4) grid, 10mm inter-electrode distance (IED), was placed over the middle and lower trapezius (MT and LT) of the bowing arm. Two 16×2 electrode grids (IED=10mm) were placed on the left and right erector spinae muscles. Subjects played each of the four strings of the instrument either in large (1bow/s) or detaché tip/tail (8bows/s) bowing in two sessions (two days). In each of two days, measurements were repeated after half an hour of exercise to see the effect of exercise on the muscle activity and signal stability. A "muscle activity index" (MAI) was defined as the spatial average of the segmented active region of the RMS map. Spatial maps were automatically segmented using the watershed algorithm and thresholding. Results showed that, for violin players, sliding the bow upward from the tip toward the tail results in a higher MAI for the trapezius muscle than a downward bow. On the contrary, in cello players, higher MAI is produced in the tail to tip movement. For both instruments, an increasing MAI in the trapezius was observed as the string position became increasingly lateral, from string 1 (most medial) toward string 4 (most lateral). Half an hour of performance did not cause significant differences between the signal quality and the MAI values measured before and after the exercise. The MAI of the left and right erector spinae was smaller in the case of

  17. The acute effects of static stretching on peak force, peak rate of force development and muscle activity during single- and multiple-joint actions in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Raquel; Gurjão, André Luiz Demantova; Jambassi Filho, José Claudio; Farinatti, Paulo De Tarso Veras; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Gobbi, Sebastião

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the acute effects of static stretching on peak force, peak rate of force development and integrated electromyography (iEMG) in 27 older women (65 ± 4 years; 69 ± 9 kg; 157 ± 1 cm; 28 ± 4 kg · m(-2)). The participants were tested during two exercises (leg press and knee extension) after two conditions: stretching and control. The data were collected on four days (counterbalanced with a 24-hour rest period). In the stretching condition, the quadriceps muscle was stretched (knee flexion) for three sets of 30 s with 30 s rest intervals. No significant difference was detected for peak force and peak rate of force development during the single- and multiple-joint exercises, regardless of the following interactions: condition (stretching and control) vs. time (pre x post x 10 x 20 x 30 minutes post; P > 0.05) and exercise vs. time (P > 0.05). Additionally, no significant interaction was found for the iEMG activity (condition vs. time; P > 0.05) in the single- and multiple-joint exercises. In conclusion, a small amount of stretching of an agonist muscle (quadriceps) did not affect the peak force, peak rate of force development and EMG activity in older women during single- and multiple-joint exercises.

  18. The effects of acute experimental hip muscle pain on dynamic single-limb balance performance in healthy middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Anna L; Hug, François; Chen, Sarah H; Reid, Christine; Sorensen, Nicole A; Tucker, Kylie

    2016-10-01

    Middle-aged adults with painful hip conditions show balance impairments that are consistent with an increased risk of falls. Pathological changes at the hip, accompanied by pain, may accelerate pre-existing age-related balance deficits present in midlife. To consider the influence of pain alone, we investigated the effects of acute experimental hip muscle pain on dynamic single-limb balance in middle-aged adults. Thirty-four healthy adults aged 40-60 years formed two groups (Group-1: n=16; Group-2: n=18). Participants performed four tasks: Reactive Sideways Stepping (ReactSide); Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT); Step Test; Single-Limb Squat; before and after an injection of hypertonic saline into the right gluteus medius muscle (Group-1) or ∼5min rest (Group-2). Balance measures included the range and standard deviation of centre of pressure (CoP) movement in mediolateral and anterior-posterior directions, and CoP total path velocity (ReactSide, Squat); reach distance (SEBT); and number of completed steps (Step Test). Data were assessed using three-way analysis of variance. Motor outcomes were altered during the second repetition of tasks irrespective of exposure to experimental hip muscle pain or rest, with reduced SEBT anterior reach (-1.2±4.1cm, P=0.027); greater step number during Step Test (1.5±1.7 steps, PCoP velocity during Single-Limb Squat (-4.9±9.4mms -1 , P=0.024). Factors other than the presence of pain may play a greater role in balance impairments in middle-aged adults with hip pathologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of speed endurance training and reduced training volume on running economy and single muscle fiber adaptations in trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christiansen, Danny; Christensen, Peter M; Almquist, Nicki W; Thomassen, Martin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improved running economy with a period of speed endurance training and reduced training volume could be related to adaptations in specific muscle fibers. Twenty trained male (n = 14) and female (n = 6) runners (maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 -max): 56.4 ± 4.6 mL/min/kg) completed a 40-day intervention with 10 sessions of speed endurance training (5-10 × 30-sec maximal running) and a reduced (36%) volume of training. Before and after the intervention, a muscle biopsy was obtained at rest, and an incremental running test to exhaustion was performed. In addition, running at 60% vVO 2 -max, and a 10-km run was performed in a normal and a muscle slow twitch (ST) glycogen-depleted condition. After compared to before the intervention, expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) was lower (P < 0.05) and dystrophin was higher (P < 0.05) in ST muscle fibers, and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 1 (SERCA1) was lower (P < 0.05) in fast twitch muscle fibers. Running economy at 60% vVO 2 -max (11.6 ± 0.2 km/h) and at v10-km (13.7 ± 0.3 km/h) was ~2% better (P < 0.05) after the intervention in the normal condition, but unchanged in the ST glycogen-depleted condition. Ten kilometer performance was improved (P < 0.01) by 3.2% (43.7 ± 1.0 vs. 45.2 ± 1.2 min) and 3.9% (45.8 ± 1.2 vs. 47.7 ± 1.3 min) in the normal and the ST glycogen-depleted condition, respectively. VO 2 -max was the same, but vVO 2 -max was 2.0% higher (P < 0.05; 19.3 ± 0.3 vs. 18.9 ± 0.3 km/h) after than before the intervention. Thus, improved running economy with intense training may be related to changes in expression of proteins linked to energy consuming processes in primarily ST muscle fibers. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  20. Correlation between cross-bridge kinetics obtained from Trp fluorescence of myofibril suspensions and mechanical studies of single muscle fibers in rabbit psoas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candau, Robin; Kawai, Masataka

    2011-12-01

    Our goal is to correlate kinetic constants obtained from fluorescence studies of myofibril suspension with those from mechanical studies of skinned muscle fibers from rabbit psoas. In myofibril studies, the stopped-flow technique with tryptophan fluorescence was used; in muscle fiber studies, tension transients with small amplitude sinusoidal length perturbations were used. All experiments were performed using the equivalent solution conditions (200 mM ionic strength, pH 7.00) at 10°C. The concentration of MgATP was varied to characterize kinetic constants of the ATP binding step 1 (K (1): dissociation constant), the binding induced cross-bridge detachment step 2 (k (2), k (-2): rate constants), and the ATP cleavage step 3 (k (3), k (-3)). In myofibrils we found that K (1) = 0.52 ± 0.08 mM (±95% confidence limits), k (2) = 242 ± 24 s(-1), and k (-2) ≈ 0; in muscle fibers, K (1) = 0.46 ± 0.06 mM, k (2) = 286 ± 32 s(-1), and k (-2) = 57 ± 21 s(-1). From these results, we conclude that myofibrils and muscle fibers exhibit nearly equal ATP binding step, and nearly equal ATP binding induced cross-bridge detachment step. Consequently, there is a good correlation between process C (phase 2 of step analysis) and the cross-bridge detachment step. The reverse detachment step is finite in fibers, but almost absent in myofibrils. We further studied partially cross-linked myofibrils and found little change in steps 2 and 3, indicating that cross-linking does not affect these steps. However, we found that K (1) is 2.5× of native myofibrils, indicating that MgATP binding is weakened by the presence of the extra load. We further studied the phosphate (Pi) effect in myofibrils, and found that Pi is a competitive inhibitor of MgATP, with the inhibitory dissociation constant of ~9 mM. Similar results were also deduced from fiber studies. To characterize the ATP cleavage step in myofibrils, we measured the slow rate constant in fluorescence, and

  1. Effect of stretching with and without muscle strengthening exercises for the foot and hip in patients with plantar fasciitis: A randomized controlled single-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamonseki, Danilo H; Gonçalves, Geiseane A; Yi, Liu C; Júnior, Império Lombardi

    2016-06-01

    To compare the effect of stretching with and without muscle strengthening of the foot alone or foot and hip on pain and function in patients with plantar fasciitis. Single blind randomized controlled trial. Eighty-three patients with plantar fasciitis were allocated to one of three treatment options for an eight-week period: Foot Exercise Group (FEG - extrinsic and intrinsic foot muscles), Foot and Hip Exercise Group (FHEG - abductor and lateral rotator muscles) and Stretching Alone Exercise Group (SAEG). A visual analog scale for pain, the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score and the Star Excursion Balance Test. All evaluations were performed before treatment and after the last treatment session. Improvements were found in all groups regarding the visual analog scale, the pain, activities of daily living, sports and recreation, quality of life (p  0.05). All three exercise protocols analyzed led to improvements at eight-week follow-up in pain, function and dynamic lower limb stability in patients with plantar fasciitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Accumulation of Copper in Gill, Liver, Spleen, Kidney and Muscle Tissues of Clarias gariepinus Exposed to the Metal Singly and in Mixture with Chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçsoy, Mustafa; Duran, Servet; Ay, Özcan; Cicik, Bedii; Erdem, Cahit

    2016-10-01

    Accumulation of copper (Cu), applied singly and in mixture with chitosan (CT), in gill, liver, spleen, kidney and muscle tissues of Clarias gariepinus was studied after exposing the fish to no Cu (control), 5 ppm Cu, 5 ppm Cu + 75 ppm CT mixture over 1, 7 and 15 days. Metal levels in tissues were determined using an ICP-AES spectrophotometer. No mortality was observed during the experiments. Highest accumulation of Cu was observed in liver while lowest accumulation was observed in muscle tissue. Exposure to Cu-CT mixture decreased Cu accumulation in liver at all exposure periods and in kidney on the 15th day compared to Cu alone. Exposure to Cu alone and Cu-CT mixture had no effect on Cu accumulation in spleen or muscle tissue. Copper accumulation increased in gill tissue compared to control when exposed to Cu alone at all exposure periods, and exposure to the Cu-CT mixture significantly increased Cu accumulation in this tissue at all exposure periods compared to Cu alone.

  3. Effect of cleft palate repair on the susceptibility to contraction-induced injury of single permeabilized muscle fibers from congenitally-clefted goat palates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Erik P; Cederna, Paul S; McClellan, William T; Caterson, Stephanie A; Panter, Kip E; Yu, Deborah; Buchman, Steven R; Larkin, Lisa M; Faulkner, John A; Weinzweig, Jeffrey

    2008-03-01

    Despite cleft palate repair, velopharyngeal competence is not achieved in approximately 15% of patients, often necessitating secondary surgical correction. Velopharyngeal competence postrepair may require the conversion of levator veli palatini muscle fibers from injury-susceptible type 2 fibers to injury-resistant type 1 fibers. As an initial step to determining the validity of this theory, we tested the hypothesis that, in most cases, repair induces the transformation to type 1 fibers, thus diminishing susceptibility to injury. Single permeabilized levator veli palatini muscle fibers were obtained from normal palates and nonrepaired congenitally-clefted palates of young (2 months old) and adult (14 to 15 months old) goats and from repaired palates of adult goats (8 months old). Repair was done at 2 months of age using a modified von Langenbeck technique. Fiber type was determined by contractile properties and susceptibility to injury was assessed by force deficit, the decrease in maximum force following a lengthening contraction protocol expressed as a percentage of initial force. For normal palates and cleft palates of young goats, the majority of the fibers were type 2 with force deficits of approximately 40%. Following repair, 80% of the fibers were type 1 with force deficits of 20% +/- 2%; these deficits were 45% of those for nonrepaired cleft palates of adult goats (p < .0001). The decrease in the percentage of type 2 fibers and susceptibility to injury may be important for the development of a functional levator veli palatini muscle postrepair.

  4. Single-stage Dynamic Reanimation of the Smile in Irreversible Facial Paralysis by Free Functional Muscle Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Thiele, Jan; Bannasch, Holger; Stark, G. Bjoern; Eisenhardt, Steffen U.

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral facial paralysis is a common disease that is associated with significant functional, aesthetic and psychological issues. Though idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell?s palsy) is the most common diagnosis, patients can also present with a history of physical trauma, infectious disease, tumor, or iatrogenic facial paralysis. Early repair within one year of injury can be achieved by direct nerve repair, cross-face nerve grafting or regional nerve transfer. It is due to muscle atrophy that...

  5. Red yeast rice induces less muscle fatigue symptom than simvastatin in dyslipidemic patients: a single center randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yangjing; Tao, Luyuan; Wu, Shaoze; Wang, Guoqiang; Qian, Lu; Li, Jiwu; Liao, Lianming; Tang, Jifei; Ji, Kangting

    2017-05-18

    About 10-15% patients who take statins experience skeletal muscle problems. Red yeast rice has a good safety profile could provide a compromise therapeutic strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of red yeast rice, when compared to simvastatin, on the muscle fatigue symptom and the serum lipid level in dyslipidemic patients with low to moderate cardiovascular risk. A total of 60 dyslipidemic patients with low to moderate cardiovascular risk were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either simvastatin (n = 33) or red yeast rice (n = 27) for 4 weeks. The muscle fatigue score, the physical activity, the serum lipid profile and the safety profile were then evaluated. At the end of study, the fatigue score was significantly increased in patients treated with simvastatin, whereas no significant change was observed in patients receiving red yeast rice. In addition, the physical activity level was significantly decreased in patients from simvastatin group when compared to those from red yeast rice group. Similar lipid-lowering effects were observed in two groups. The safety profile was not affected after the treatments. Among dyslipidemic patients with low to moderate cardiovascular risk, red yeast rice induced less fatigue side effect and exerted comparable lipid-lowering effects when compared to simvastatin in this pilot primary prevention study. NCT01686451 .

  6. Robust and Accurate Closed-Loop Control of McKibben Artificial Muscle Contraction with a Linear Single Integral Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Tondu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the possibility of taking advantage of artificial muscle’s own stiffness and damping, and substituting it for a classic proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID controller an I controller. The advantages are that there would only be one parameter to tune and no need for a dynamic model. A stability analysis is proposed from a simple phenomenological artificial muscle model. Step and sinus-wave tracking responses performed with pneumatic McKibben muscles are reported showing the practical efficiency of the method to combine accuracy and load robustness. In the particular case of the McKibben artificial muscle technology, we suggest that the dynamic performances in stability and load robustness would result from the textile nature of its braided sleeve and its internal friction which do not obey Coulomb’s third law, as verified by preliminary reported original friction experiments. Comparisons are reported between three kinds of braided sleeves made of rayon yarns, plastic, and thin metal wires, whose similar closed-loop dynamic performances are highlighted. It is also experimentally shown that a sleeve braided with thin metal wires can give high accuracy performance, in step as in tracking response. This would be due to a low static friction coefficient combined with a kinetic friction exponentially increasing with speed in accordance with hydrodynamic lubrication theory applied to textile physics.

  7. Skeletal muscle mass in hospitalized elderly patients: comparison of measurements by single-frequency BIA and DXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosaeus, Ingvar; Wilcox, Gisela; Rothenberg, Elisabet; Strauss, Boyd J

    2014-06-01

    There is increasing interest in estimating skeletal muscle mass (SMM) in clinical practice. We aimed to validate a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) prediction equation for SMM, developed in a different healthy elderly population, in a population of hospital patients aged 70 and over, by comparison with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) SMM estimates. Comparison was also made with two other previously published BIA muscle prediction equations. Muscle measurements by BIA and DXA were compared in 117 patients with a range of clinical conditions (45 female, 72 male, mean age 75 years). The BIA equation used yielded an accurate estimate of DXA-derived SMM. Mean (SD) difference was 0.26(1.79) kg (ns). The two other BIA equations over-estimated SMM compared to DXA (both p equations were highly correlated. The BIA equation used, developed in a different healthy elderly population, gave an accurate estimate of DXA-derived SMM in a population with various clinical disorders. BIA appears potentially capable to estimate SMM in clinical disorders, but the optimal approach to its use for this purpose requires further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Skin Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  9. Sensitivity of Satellite-Based Skin Temperature to Different Surface Emissivity and NWP Reanalysis Sources Demonstrated Using a Single-Channel, Viewing-Angle-Corrected Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarino, B. R.; Minnis, P.; Yost, C. R.; Chee, T.; Palikonda, R.

    2015-12-01

    Single-channel algorithms for satellite thermal-infrared- (TIR-) derived land and sea surface skin temperature (LST and SST) are advantageous in that they can be easily applied to a variety of satellite sensors. They can also accommodate decade-spanning instrument series, particularly for periods when split-window capabilities are not available. However, the benefit of one unified retrieval methodology for all sensors comes at the cost of critical sensitivity to surface emissivity (ɛs) and atmospheric transmittance estimation. It has been demonstrated that as little as 0.01 variance in ɛs can amount to more than a 0.5-K adjustment in retrieved LST values. Atmospheric transmittance requires calculations that employ vertical profiles of temperature and humidity from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Selection of a given NWP model can significantly affect LST and SST agreement relative to their respective validation sources. Thus, it is necessary to understand the accuracies of the retrievals for various NWP models to ensure the best LST/SST retrievals. The sensitivities of the single-channel retrievals to surface emittance and NWP profiles are investigated using NASA Langley historic land and ocean clear-sky skin temperature (Ts) values derived from high-resolution 11-μm TIR brightness temperature measured from geostationary satellites (GEOSat) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR). It is shown that mean GEOSat-derived, anisotropy-corrected LST can vary by up to ±0.8 K depending on whether CERES or MODIS ɛs sources are used. Furthermore, the use of either NOAA Global Forecast System (GFS) or NASA Goddard Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for the radiative transfer model initial atmospheric state can account for more than 0.5-K variation in mean Ts. The results are compared to measurements from the Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD), an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program ground

  10. Identification of proteins from 4200-year-old skin and muscle tissue biopsies from ancient Egyptian mummies of the first intermediate period shows evidence of acute inflammation and severe immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Ravishankar, Prathiba; Xavier, Dylan; Lim, Do Seon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Bianucci, Raffaella; Haynes, Paul A

    2016-10-28

    We performed proteomics analysis on four skin and one muscle tissue samples taken from three ancient Egyptian mummies of the first intermediate period, approximately 4200 years old. The mummies were first dated by radiocarbon dating of the accompany-\\break ing textiles, and morphologically examined by scanning electron microscopy of additional skin samples. Proteins were extracted, separated on SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) gels, and in-gel digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were analysed using nanoflow high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified a total of 230 unique proteins from the five samples, which consisted of 132 unique protein identifications. We found a large number of collagens, which was confirmed by our microscopy data, and is in agreement with previous studies showing that collagens are very long-lived. As expected, we also found a large number of keratins. We identified numerous proteins that provide evidence of activation of the innate immunity system in two of the mummies, one of which also contained proteins indicating severe tissue inflammation, possibly indicative of an infection that we can speculate may have been related to the cause of death.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Kinetics of a single cross-bridge in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy heart muscle measured by reverse Kretschmann fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettikolla, Prasad; Calander, Nils; Luchowski, Rafal; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Borejdo, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) is a serious heart disease that often leads to a sudden cardiac death of young athletes. It is believed that the alteration of the kinetics of interaction between actin and myosin causes FHC by making the heart to pump blood inefficiently. We set out to check this hypothesis ex vivo. During contraction of heart muscle, a myosin cross-bridge imparts periodic force impulses to actin. The impulses are analyzed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) of fluorescently labeled actin. To minimize observation volume and background fluorescence, we carry out FCS measurements in surface plasmon coupled emission mode in a reverse Kretschmann configuration. Fluorescence is a result of near-field coupling of fluorophores excited in the vicinity of the metal-coated surface of a coverslip with the surface plasmons propagating in the metal. Surface plasmons decouple on opposite sides of the metal film and emit in a directional manner as far-field p-polarized radiation. We show that the rate of changes of orientation is significantly faster in contracting cardiac myofibrils of transgenic mice than wild type. These results are consistent with the fact that mutated heart muscle myosin translates actin faster in in vitro motility assays.

  12. Hypospadias and concomitant undescended testis: Comparison of no skin incision with inguinal and scrotal skin incision orchiopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetkish, Shabnam; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Sabetkish, Nastaran

    2015-10-01

    To present the feasibility of no skin incision orchiopexy in children with concomitant hypospadias and undescended testis (UDT) by a single subcoronal incision technique. To introduce the creation of subdartos muscle scrotal pouch with no scrotal skin incision. From one thousand and twenty-one children with hypospadias, 61 patients presented with concomitant palpable UDT and hypospadias. In group I (N = 34) single subcoronal incision with no scrotal skin incision was applied. In group II (N = 27), multi-incision technique was applied for classical orchiopexy and hypospadias surgery. For hypospadias reconstruction, all patients had classical subcoronal and para urethral plate incision with penile skin degloving according to the location of urethral meatus. Early and late complications, surgical time, hospital stay, and cosmetic results were recorded. Children with unilateral UDT and hypospadias had one incision in group I and three skin incisions in group II. Patients with bilateral UDT had one incision in group I and five skin incisions in group II. The operation time was significantly shorter in group I (93 ± 11 min) compared with group II (138 ± 17 min) (P = 0.03). Both groups were operated as day care basis; however, the hospital stay was slightly longer in group II (group I = 12 ± 2 h, vs group II = 16 ± 3 h) (P = 0.07). All testes were satisfactorily positioned into the bottom of the scrotum without development of any testicular atrophy. Single subcoronal penile skin incision is a feasible, safe, and cosmetically satisfactory technique in patients with hypospadias and concomitant UDT. Reduced postoperative pain, better objective cosmetic results, shorter operative time and comfortable post-operative period are the most significant advantages of this approach. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Single molecule fluorescence image patterns linked to dipole orientation and axial position: application to myosin cross-bridges in muscle fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Burghardt

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoactivatable fluorescent probes developed specifically for single molecule detection extend advantages of single molecule imaging to high probe density regions of cells and tissues. They perform in the native biomolecule environment and have been used to detect both probe position and orientation.Fluorescence emission from a single photoactivated probe captured in an oil immersion, high numerical aperture objective, produces a spatial pattern on the detector that is a linear combination of 6 independent and distinct spatial basis patterns with weighting coefficients specifying emission dipole orientation. Basis patterns are tabulated for single photoactivated probes labeling myosin cross-bridges in a permeabilized muscle fiber undergoing total internal reflection illumination. Emitter proximity to the glass/aqueous interface at the coverslip implies the dipole near-field and dipole power normalization are significant affecters of the basis patterns. Other characteristics of the basis patterns are contributed by field polarization rotation with transmission through the microscope optics and refraction by the filter set. Pattern recognition utilized the generalized linear model, maximum likelihood fitting, for Poisson distributed uncertainties. This fitting method is more appropriate for treating low signal level photon counting data than χ(2 minimization.Results indicate that emission dipole orientation is measurable from the intensity image except for the ambiguity under dipole inversion. The advantage over an alternative method comparing two measured polarized emission intensities using an analyzing polarizer is that information in the intensity spatial distribution provides more constraints on fitted parameters and a single image provides all the information needed. Axial distance dependence in the emission pattern is also exploited to measure relative probe position near focus. Single molecule images from axial scanning fitted

  14. Therapeutic ultrasound treatment for excessive skin on the upper arms due to extensive weight loss after bariatric surgery: A single blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerså, Kristofer; Biörserud, Christina; Fagevik Olsén, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Excessive skin is a side-effect of massive weight loss. The only evidence-based treatment for excessive skin is plastic surgery. Non-invasive treatments, therefore, need to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of therapeutic ultrasound treatment on excess skin on the upper arms after bariatric surgery. Fourteen patients were randomised to receive five treatments, each lasting for 30 minutes with active ultrasound treatment by CellsonicTM (Cellsonic Ltd) on one arm. The other arm served as control. The effect was evaluated objectively by measuring arm volume, circumference, and ptosis, and subjectively by a questionnaire where the patients assessed the effect of the treatment and amount and/or discomfort of the excess skin. No statistical differences were observed in the objectively measured variables. Some patients reported perceived effects and a majority reported positive experiences of the treatment. No side-effects were reported. This study could not find any objectively measured effect of ultrasound treatment on excessive skin after bariatric surgery. However, participants experienced relief of symptoms associated with excess skin, such as pain, looseness, and decreased skin burst, which indicates that ultrasonic treatment of patients with excessive skin should be further investigated.

  15. Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abscess Cellulitis Taking Care of Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your Skin Impetigo Paronychia Pityriasis Rosea Abscess View more Partner Message ...

  16. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  17. The effects of adding single-joint exercises to a multi-joint exercise resistance training program on upper body muscle strength and size in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Henrique Silvestre; Branco, Paulo Alexandre Nordeste; Guedes Junior, Dilmar Pinto; Gentil, Paulo; Steele, James; Teixeira, Cauê Vazquez La Scala

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was compare changes in upper body muscle strength and size in trained men performing resistance training (RT) programs involving multi-joint plus single-joint (MJ+SJ) or only multi-joint (MJ) exercises. Twenty young men with at least 2 years of experience in RT were randomized in 2 groups: MJ+SJ (n = 10; age, 27.7 ± 6.6 years) and MJ (n = 10; age, 29.4 ± 4.6 years). Both groups trained for 8 weeks following a linear periodization model. Measures of elbow flexors and extensors 1-repetition maximum (1RM), flexed arm circumference (FAC), and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were taken pre- and post-training period. Both groups significantly increased 1RM for elbow flexion (4.99% and 6.42% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), extension (10.60% vs 9.79%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), FAC (1.72% vs 1.45%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), and AMC (1.33% vs 3.17% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively). Comparison between groups revealed no significant difference in any variable. In conclusion, 8 weeks of RT involving MJ or MJ+SJ resulted in similar alterations in muscle strength and size in trained participants. Therefore, the addition of SJ exercises to a RT program involving MJ exercises does not seem to promote additional benefits to trained men, suggesting MJ-only RT to be a time-efficient approach.

  18. Skin graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been skin damage or skin ... anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Problems with breathing Risks for this surgery are: Bleeding Chronic pain (rarely) Infection Loss of ...

  19. Skin optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, M. J.; Jacques, S. L.; Sterenborg, H. J.; Star, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model

  20. The acute effects of a single session of expiratory muscle strength training on blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laciuga, Helena; Davenport, Paul; Sapienza, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) is a rehabilitative program that has been tested for outcomes related to respiratory muscle strength, cough, swallow, and voice function in healthy young adult, elderly individuals, and in patients with progressive neurodegenerative disease. Because EMST has been used in patient care, the associated cardiovascular responses during EMST are of importance. This study investigated the changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), and oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) during one session of EMST in healthy, young adults as a preliminary study of device safety. Thirty-one participants completed a single session of 25 trials with the EMST device. Valsalva maneuvers were performed at the beginning and at the end of the EMST trials for task comparison. The SBP, DBP, HR, and SpO(2) were recorded at the baseline and after completing the following tasks: a Valsalva maneuver, 12 trials using the EMST device, 13 trials using the EMST device, and 5 min of rest following the EMST session. A mixed linear model tested for changes across the six time points. The results indicated no significant change of SBP, DBP, HR, or SpO(2) during or following the EMST trials or after performing the Valsalva maneuver. The results suggest that EMST does not elicit significant fluctuations of blood pressure, HR, and SpO(2) in healthy young adults even when considering the effects of covariates on the outcomes measures.

  1. Development of a new Xe-133 single dose multi-step method (SDMM) for muscle blood flow measurement using gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunko, Hisashi; Seto, Mikito; Taki, Junichi

    1985-01-01

    In order to measure the muscle blood flow (MBF) during exercise (Ex), a new Xe-133 single dose multi-step method (SDMM) for leg MBF measurement before, during and after Ex using gamma camera was developped. Theoretically, if the activity of Xe-133 in the muscle immediately before and after Ex are known, then the mean MBF during Ex can be calculated. In SDMM, these activities are corrected through correction formula using time delays between end of data aquisition (DA) at rest (R1) and begining of the Ex (TAB), and between end of Ex and begining of the DA after Ex (R2) (TDA). Validity of the SDMM and MBF response on mild and heavy Ex were evaluated in 11 normal volunteers. Ex MBF calculated from 5 and 2.5 min DA (5 sec/frame) both at R1 and R2 were highly correlated (r=.996). Ex MBF by SDMM and direct(measurement by fixed leg exercise were also highly correlated (r=.999). Reproducibility of the R1 and Ex MBF were excellent (r=.999). The highest MBF was seen in GCM on miled walking Ex and in VLM on heavy squatting Ex. After miled Ex, MBF rapidly returned to normal. After heavy Ex, MBF remaind high in VLM In conclusion, SDMM is simple and accurate method for evaluation of dynamic MBF response according to exercise. SDMM is also applicable to the field of sports medicine. (author)

  2. The evaluation of modified foot orthosis on muscle activity and kinetic in a subject with flexible flat foot : single case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Hassan; Mousavi, Mohammad E; Majddoleslam, Basir; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Aminian, Gholamreza; Tabatabai Ghomshe, Farhad; Movahedi Yeganeh, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    Due to blocking of pronation/dorsiflexion in flexible flat foot and restriction of these movements in using the University of California Berkeley Laboratory orthosis, provided pressures in sole by the orthosis were increased. Therefore, this article describes the evaluation of modified foot orthosis with flexible structure in the management of individuals with flexible flat foot. CASE DESCRIPTION AND METHOD: The patient was a 21-year-old male who had symptomatic flat foot. The modified foot orthosis included movable surface and the outside structure. The modified foot orthosis was evaluated by standing foot X-ray, comfort rate, electromyography of leg muscle and vertical ground reaction force during walking. The modified foot orthosis improved the foot alignment and decreased the symptoms of flat foot with more comfort. Subtalar position by sub-maximum supination had higher position than neutral in sagittal plane. It may increase the muscle activity of peroneus longus by 7% compared to barefoot, and there was a decrease of 11% ground reaction force in mid stance. The result of this single case evaluation only proposed the feasibility of this modified insole as the orthotic treatment in flexible flat foot. Clinical relevance The modified foot orthosis, which is mobile in the midfoot, is an orthosis for walking and standing in subjects with flexible flat foot.

  3. Novel single base-pair deletion in exon 1 of XK gene leading to McLeod syndrome with chorea, muscle wasting, peripheral neuropathy, acanthocytosis and haemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiethoff, Sarah; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Bettencourt, Conceição; Kioumi, Anna; Tsiptsios, Iakovos; Tychalas, Athanasios; Evaggelia, Markousi; George, Kaltsounis; Makris, Vasileios; Hardy, John; Houlden, Henry

    2014-04-15

    We present a 70-year-old male patient of Greek origin with choreatic movements of the tongue and face, lower limb muscle weakness, peripheral neuropathy, elevated creatinephosphokinase (CPK), acanthocytosis and haemolysis in the absence of Kell RBC antigens with an additional Factor IX-deficiency. Genetic testing for mutations in the three exons of the XK gene revealed a previously unreported hemizygous single base-pair frameshift deletion at exon 1 (c.229delC, p.Leu80fs). In conclusion, we hereby describe a rare phenotype of a patient with McLeod syndrome which was discovered coincidentally during routine blood group testing and consecutively genetically confirmed. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of acupuncture depth on muscle pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitakoji Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While evidence supports efficacy of acupuncture and/or dry needling in treating musculoskeletal pain, it is unclear which needling method is most effective. This study aims to determine the effects of depth of needle penetration on muscle pain. Methods A total of 22 healthy volunteers performed repeated eccentric contractions to induce muscle soreness in their extensor digital muscle. Subjects were assigned randomly to four groups, namely control group, skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle, muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle and non-segmental group (depth of 10 mm: the anterior tibial muscle. Pressure pain threshold and electrical pain threshold of the skin, fascia and muscle were measured at a point 20 mm distal to the maximum tender point on the second day after the exercise. Results Pressure pain thresholds of skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle and muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle were significantly higher than the control group, whereas the electrical pain threshold at fascia of muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle was a significantly higher than control group; however, there was no significant difference between the control and other groups. Conclusion The present study shows that acupuncture stimulation of muscle increases the PPT and EPT of fascia. The depth of needle penetration is important for the relief of muscle pain.

  5. The Magnitude of Peripheral Muscle Fatigue Induced by High and Low Intensity Single-Joint Exercise Does Not Lead to Central Motor Output Reductions in Resistance Trained Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W M Marshall

    Full Text Available To examine quadriceps muscle fatigue and central motor output during fatiguing single joint exercise at 40% and 80% maximal torque output in resistance trained men.Ten resistance trained men performed fatiguing isometric knee extensor exercise at 40% and 80% of maximal torque output. Maximal torque, rate of torque development, and measures of central motor output and peripheral muscle fatigue were recorded at two matched volumes of exercise, and after a final contraction performed to exhaustion. Central motor output was quantified from changes in voluntary activation, normalized surface electromyograms (EMG, and V-waves. Quadriceps muscle fatigue was assessed from changes in the size and shape of the resting potentiated twitch (Q.(pot.tw. Central motor output during the exercise protocols was estimated from EMG and interpolated twitches applied during the task (VA(sub.Greater reductions in maximal torque and rate of torque development were observed during the 40% protocol (p<0.05. Maximal central motor output did not change for either protocol. For the 40% protocol reductions from pre-exercise in rate and amplitude variables calculated from the Q.(pot.tw between 66.2 to 70.8% (p<0.001 exceeded those observed during the 80% protocol (p<0.01. V-waves only declined during the 80% protocol between 56.8 ± 35.8% to 53.6 ± 37.4% (p<0.05. At the end of the final 80% contraction VA(sub had increased from 91.2 ± 6.2% to 94.9 ± 4.7% (p = 0.005, but a greater increase was observed during the 40% contraction where VA(sub had increased from 67.1 ± 6.1% to 88.9 ± 9.6% (p<0.001.Maximal central motor output in resistance trained men is well preserved despite varying levels of peripheral muscle fatigue. Upregulated central motor output during the 40% contraction protocol appeared to elicit greater peripheral fatigue. V-waves declines during the 80% protocol suggest intensity dependent modulation of the Ia afferent pathway.

  6. Effect of a Single Administration of Focused Extracorporeal Shock Wave in the Relief of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness: Results of a Partially Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Johannes; Friton, Mara; Himmelreich, Heiko; Banzer, Winfried

    2017-05-01

    To examine the effects of a single administration of focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy on eccentric exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Three-arm randomized controlled study. University research center. Participants (N=46; 23 women) had a mean age of 29.0±3.0 years and a mean body mass index of 23.8±2.8kg/m 2 . Participants were randomly allocated to verum- (energy flux density, .06-.09mJ/mm 2 ; pulse ratio per point, 200) or sham-focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy (no energy) at 7 equidistant points along the biceps muscle or no intervention. The primary outcome was the difference in pain intensity. Secondary outcomes included maximum isometric voluntary force (MIVF), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and impairment in daily life. Despite descriptive clinically meaningful differences, mixed-effects analysis (group × time) of changes to baseline did not reveal significant differences in the reduction of pain intensity between groups (F 2,42 =2.5, P=.094). MIVF was not significantly different between groups (F 2,43 =1.9, P=.159). PTT (F 2,43 =0.2, P=.854) and daily life impairment (F 2,42 =1.4, P=.248) were not significantly decreased over time, and there were no differences between groups in the post hoc analysis. DOMS is a common symptom in people participating in exercise, sports, or recreational physical activities. A single treatment with focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy causes clinically relevant effects in the relief of pain, increase in force, and improvement of pain-associated impairments of daily living. Still, results need to be cautiously interpreted because of the pilot character of this study. Focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy might present an option in the midterm recovery from DOMS (72h) and be an approach to enhance the return to play in athletes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. [Diabetic muscle infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Bals, Edske; van der Woude, Henk-Jan; Smets, Yves F C

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare complication of diabetes mellitus that typically presents in the thigh; microvascular abnormalities may play a role. A 32-year-old female presented at the outpatient clinic with a painful, swollen thigh. She had suffered from type 1 diabetes for 22 years. The patient was admitted to the nephrology ward for further evaluation. Deep-venous thrombosis and abscess were excluded with echography. After additional investigations - MRI and a biopsy of skin, muscle and fascia - the diagnosis diabetic muscle infarction was made. The patient was treated with bed rest and analgesics. With hindsight, the muscle biopsy was not actually required in reaching a diagnosis. The diagnosis 'diabetic muscle infarction' is made on the basis of clinical presentation in combination with MRI findings. The treatment consists of bed rest and analgesics.

  8. Effect of Dangguibohyul-Tang, a Mixed Extract of Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica sinensis, on Allergic and Inflammatory Skin Reaction Compared with Single Extracts of Astragalus membranaceus or Angelica sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Yeon Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dangguibohyul-tang (DBT, herbal formula composed of Astragalus membranaceus (AM and Angelica sinensis (AS at a ratio of 5 : 1, has been used for the treatment of various skin diseases in traditional medicine. We investigated the effect of DBT on allergic and inflammatory skin reaction in atopic dermatitis-like model compared to the single extract of AM or AS. DBT treatment showed the remission of clinical symptoms, including decreased skin thickness and scratching behavior, the total serum IgE level, and the number of mast cells compared to DNCB group as well as the single extract of AM- or AS-treated group. Levels of cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β and inflammatory mediators (NF-κB, phospho-IκBα, and phospho-MAPKs were significantly decreased in AM, AS, and DBT groups. These results demonstrated that AM, AS, and DBT may have the therapeutic property on atopic dermatitis by inhibition of allergic and inflammatory mediators and DBT formula; a mixed extract of AM and AS based on the herb pairs theory especially might be more effective on antiallergic reaction as compared with the single extract of AM or AS.

  9. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a serious case, you might need medical help. Impetigo —A skin infection caused by bacteria. Usually the ... and form a thick crust. You can treat impetigo with antibiotics. Melanoma © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Melanoma — ...

  10. Influence of shoes and foot orthoses on lower extremity muscle activation onset times in healthy subjects during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, B; Peeraer, L; Deschamps, K; Fieuws, S; Janssens, L; Staes, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of shoes and foot orthoses on lower extremity muscle activation patterns in healthy subjects during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance. Eight male and seven female young asymptomatic adults who wear foot orthoses were recruited. Muscle activation onset times of 9 lower extremity muscles were recorded using surface electromyography during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance, performed with eyes open and with eyes closed. This was tested in 4 experimental conditions: 1) barefoot (BF); 2) shoes only (SO); 3) shoes with standardized FO (SSFO); and 4) shoes with customized FO (SCFO). Based on a four-way (condition-region-leg-vision) linear model for repeated measures, we found a significant condition effect (P=0.025). Differences between conditions did not depend on the leg and/or the vision condition, but on the region (ankle-knee-hip). Based on a two-way (condition-muscle) linear model within each region, only significant differences between conditions for peroneus longus (P=0.003) were found. The onset times of peroneus longus were significantly earlier in SO (P=0.029) and SCFO (P=0.001) compared to BF. These results indicate that SO and SCFO can accelerate peroneus longus muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance. Further research is required to determine how these adaptations may develop over time.

  11. The apparent rate constant for the dissociation of force generating myosin crossbridges from actin decreases during Ca2+ activation of skinned muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrick, W G; Potter, J D; Hoar, P E

    1991-02-01

    The effect of Ca2+ activation on the apparent rate constant governing the dissociation of force generating myosin crossbridges was studied in skinned rabbit adductor magnus fibres (fast-twitch) at 21 +/- 1 degree C. Simultaneous measurements of Ca2(+)-activated isometric force and ATPase activity were conducted in parallel with simultaneous measurements of DANZ-labelled troponin C (TnCDANZ) fluorescence and isometric force in fibres whose endogenous troponin C had been partially replaced with TnCDANZ. The Ca2+ activation of isometric force occurred at approximately two times higher Ca2+ concentration than did actomyosin ATPase activity at 2.0 mM MgATP. Since increases in both TnCDANZ fluorescence and ATPase activity occurred over approximately the same Ca2+ concentration range at substantially lower concentrations of Ca2+ than did force, this data suggests that the TnCDANZ fluorescence is associated with the Ca2+ activation of myosin crossbridge turnover (ATPase) rather than force. According to the model of Huxley (1957) and assuming the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP per cycle of the crossbridge, the apparent rate constant gapp for the dissociation of force generating myosin crossbridges is proportional to the actomyosin ATPase/isometric force ratio. This measure of gapp shows approximately a fivefold decrease during Ca2+ activation of isometric force. This change in gapp is responsible for separation of the Ca2+ sensitivity of the normalized ATPase activity and isometric force curves. If the MgATP concentration is reduced to 0.5 mM, the change in gapp is reduced and consequently the difference in Ca2+ sensitivity between normalized steady state ATPase and force is also reduced.

  12. Correlated spectroscopic imaging of calf muscle in three spatial dimensions using group sparse reconstruction of undersampled single and multichannel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Neil E; Burns, Brian L; Iqbal, Zohaib; Thomas, M Albert

    2015-11-01

    To implement a 5D (three spatial + two spectral) correlated spectroscopic imaging sequence for application to human calf. Nonuniform sampling was applied across the two phase encoded dimensions and the indirect spectral dimension of an echo planar-correlated spectroscopic imaging sequence. Reconstruction was applied that minimized the group sparse mixed ℓ2,1-norm of the data. Multichannel data were compressed using a sensitivity map-based approach with a spatially dependent transform matrix and utilized the self-sparsity of the individual coil images to simplify the reconstruction. Single channel data with 8× and 16× undersampling are shown in the calf of a diabetic patient. A 15-channel scan with 12× undersampling of a healthy volunteer was reconstructed using 5 virtual channels and compared to a fully sampled single slice scan. Group sparse reconstruction faithfully reconstructs the lipid cross peaks much better than ℓ1 minimization. COSY spectra can be acquired over a 3D spatial volume with scan time under 15 min using echo planar readout with highly undersampled data and group sparse reconstruction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after ... It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves that malfunction. Sometimes ...

  14. Single dose of intra-muscular platelet rich plasma reverses the increase in plasma iron levels in exercise-induced muscle damage: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekine Punduk

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Acute exhaustive exercise increased muscle damage markers, including plasma iron, IBC, and ferritin levels, indicating muscle damage induced by exercise. PRP administration improves inflammation by reversing the increase in the iron levels post-exercise without displaying any myotoxicity and may have a role to play in the recovery of exercise-induced muscle damage.

  15. A biosafety evaluation of synchrotron radiation X-ray to skin and bone marrow: single dose irradiation study of rats and macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yifan; Tang, Guanghui; Lin, Hui; Lin, Xiaojie; Jiang, Lu; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Wang, Yongting

    2017-06-01

    Very limited experimental data is available regarding the safe dosages related to synchrotron radiation (SR) procedures. We used young rats and macaques to address bone marrow and skin tolerance to various doses of synchrotron radiation. Rats were subjected to 0, 0.5, 2.5, 5, 25 or 100 Gy local SR X-ray irradiation at left hind limb. Rat blood samples were analyzed at 2-90 days after irradiation. The SR X-ray irradiated skin and tibia were sectioned for morphological examination. For non-human primate study, three male macaques were subjected to 0.5 or 2.5 Gy SR X-ray on crus. Skin responses of macaques were observed. All rats that received SR X-ray irradiation doses greater than 2.5 Gy experienced hair loss and bone-growth inhibition, which were accompanied by decreased number of follicles, thickened epidermal layer, and decreased density of bone marrow cells (p X-ray but showed significant hair loss when the dose was raised above 2.5 Gy. The safety threshold doses of SR X-ray for rat skin, bone marrow and macaque skin are between 0.5 and 2.5 Gy. Our study provided essential information regarding the biosafety of SR X-ray irradiation.

  16. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Moro, Tatiana; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint exercises (MJ) on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years) exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc.) and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years) with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.). The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load) was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ), bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ), knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ) and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ). In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition. PMID:29312007

  17. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Genetics ...

  18. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help identify the cause of the infection. Treatment You can apply moist heat (such as warm compresses) to help the abscess ... if you develop new symptoms during or after treatment of a skin abscess. Prevention ... the skin around minor wounds clean and dry to prevent infection. Call your provider if you ...

  19. Skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the development of skin cancer associated with radiation, focusing on the knowledge of A-bomb radiation-induced skin cancer. Since the discovery of X radiation in 1895, acute and chronic radiation dermatitis has been the first matter of concern. Then, in 1902, skin cancer found among radiological personnel has posed a social problem. In earlier study determining the relationship between skin cancer and A-bomb radiation, there is no increase in the incidence of either skin cancer or precancerous condition during the first 20 years after A-bombing. More recent studies have showed that there is a significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and distance from the hypocenter; and the incidence of skin cancer is found to be remarkably increased since 1975 in the group exposed at ≤2,000 m. Excess relative risk is 2.2 at one Gy dose. The incidence of skin cancer is also found to be extremely increased with aging. Relative risk is high in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Histologically, basal cell carcinoma is more senstitive to ionizing radiation than squamous cell carcinoma. (N.K.)

  20. Ex vivo gene editing of the dystrophin gene in muscle stem cells mediated by peptide nucleic acid single stranded oligodeoxynucleotides induces stable expression of dystrophin in a mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik-Ahd, Farnoosh; Bertoni, Carmen

    2014-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which result in the complete absence of dystrophin protein throughout the body. Gene correction strategies hold promise to treating DMD. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated the ability of peptide nucleic acid single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (PNA-ssODNs) to permanently correct single-point mutations at the genomic level. In this study, we show that PNA-ssODNs can target and correct muscle satellite cells (SCs), a population of stem cells capable of self-renewing and differentiating into muscle fibers. When transplanted into skeletal muscles, SCs transfected with correcting PNA-ssODNs were able to engraft and to restore dystrophin expression. The number of dystrophin-positive fibers was shown to significantly increase over time. Expression was confirmed to be the result of the activation of a subpopulation of SCs that had undergone repair as demonstrated by immunofluorescence analyses of engrafted muscles using antibodies specific to full-length dystrophin transcripts and by genomic DNA analysis of dystrophin-positive fibers. Furthermore, the increase in dystrophin expression detected over time resulted in a significant improvement in muscle morphology. The ability of transplanted cells to return into quiescence and to activate upon demand was confirmed in all engrafted muscles following injury. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using gene editing strategies to target and correct SCs and further establish the therapeutic potential of this approach to permanently restore dystrophin expression into muscle of DMD patients. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  1. Identification of bradykinin: related peptides from Phyllomedusa nordestina skin secretion using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after a single-step liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Conceição

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphibian skin secretions are a source of potential new drugs with medical and biotechnological applications. Rich in peptides produced by holocrine-type serous glands in the integument, these secretions play different roles, either in the regulation of physiological skin functions or in the defense against predators or microorganisms. The aim of the present work was to identify novel peptides with bradykinin-like structure and/or activity present in the skin of Phyllomedusa nordestina. In order to achieve this goal, the crude skin secretion of this frog was pre-fractionated by solid phase extraction and separated by reversed-phase chromatography. The fractions were screened for low-molecular-mass peptides and sequenced by mass spectrometry. It was possible to identify three novel bradykinin-related peptides, namely: KPLWRL-NH2 (Pnor 3, RPLSWLPK (Pnor 5 and VPPKGVSM (Pnor 7 presenting vascular activities as assessed by intravital microscopy. Pnor 3 and Pnor 7 were able to induce vasodilation. On the other hand, Pnor 5 was a potent vasoconstrictor. These effects were reproduced by their synthetic analogues.

  2. The use of purse-string skin closure in loop ileostomy reversals leads to lower wound infection rates--a single high-volume centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbe, Nils; Hannes, Sabine; Liese, Juliane; Woeste, Guido; Bechstein, Wolf Otto; Strey, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Wound infections affect not only the individual patient but lead to an increase in medical costs. After ileostomy reversal, surgical site infections are a common problem. The objective of the study was to compare the infection rates of purse-string and conventional skin closure techniques in a high volume setting. Patients undergoing ileostomy reversal at the Goethe University Hospital between January 2009 and August 2012 were retrospectively analysed regarding surgical site infections and associated risk factors. Patients received either conventional skin closure (running, interrupted or stapled suturing; group C) or subcuticular purse-string suture (group PS). In total, 114 patients have been analysed. Conventional wound closure was performed in 81 patients and 33 patients received purse-string skin closure. The groups did not differ regarding age, gender, indication for ileostomy, previous chemotherapy, and operation time. Median hospital stay was 7 days (3-34) in group PS and 8 (3-53) in group C (p = 0.15). Wound infections only occurred in groups C (n = 10, 12 %) compared to group PS (n = 0; 0 %; p = 0.034), and the wound closure technique was the only significant factor associated with surgical site infection. Surgery performed by a resident under supervision was not a risk factor for complications compared to the procedure done by a senior surgeon (p = 0.73). This study reveals an advantage of the purse-string skin closure technique in ileostomy reversals analysing a large cohort of patients. Therefore, we recommend the use of the purse-string skin closure in ileostomy reversals as one way to lower wound infection rates.

  3. Short term study of human skin irritation by single application closed patch test: assessment of four multiple emulsion formulations loaded with botanical extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tariq; Akhtar, Naveed

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of skin irritation potential is a major concern in safety assessment of cosmetics, when long-term use of these products are expected. Non-invasive bioengineering probes have been used previously to measure skin irritation potential of cosmetic ingredients. Experimentation carried out to weigh up the skin irritation potential of four multiple emulsion formulations via visual and non-invasive measurements. Immediate effects of formulations and comparison of two assessment techniques were also tried to establish. Four multiple emulsion formulations one control (without botanical active) and three containing the functional botanical actives plus additives were tested in this study using the following techniques: transepidermal water loss (TEWL), COLIPA visual scoring method (CVSM), Mexameter MPA 5 (Courage + Khazaka, Germany) and capacitance [Corneometer MPA 5 (Courage + Khazaka, Germany)]. Visual examination and non-invasive measurements were performed at baseline and after 24 h. The formulations were applied on the forearm of 12 healthy volunteers of same sexes aged 20-25 years. We found that none of the formulation produced irritation both on visual and instrumental evaluation. However, formulations MeB and MeC have comparable immediate effects on dryness, erythema, melanin and TEWL. Formulation MeC produced more effective results on different parameters, may be due to synergistic effect of two extracts, while MeA failed to produce any immediate effects on skin parameters. Moreover results of both assessment methods are parallel to each other. None of the formulation produce irritant effects, barrier impairment effects or immediate effects except for the formulation MeC which produced appreciable results than other formulations but statistically these results were insignificant (p > 0.05). Based on these results, it could be concluded that formulations may be implied safely as skin rejuvenating candidates.

  4. Angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation of single-level dynamic spiral CT scans in arterial phase and expression of α-smooth muscle actin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Min Pengqiu; Chen Weixia; Zhang Lin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between the single-level dynamic spiral CT scans (SDCT) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in arterial phase (AP) and the immunohistochemistry expression of α-smooth muscle actin (ASMA). Methods: 33 cases of suspected HCC undergoing spiral CT plain scan of the whole liver, the single-level dynamic scan of the target level of lesion in AP and finally the whole liver scan in portal-venous phase before operations and proved after were included into the study. After the SDCT, a time-density curve (T-DC) was drawn according to the density change of the region of interest (ROI) of the tumor parenchyma with some parameters calculated, and signs of enhancement evaluated. Slices of post-operation specimen underwent hemotoxylin-eosin (HE) and ASMA immunohistochemistry staining. Then the slices were evaluated with emphases on the ASMA-positive neovasculatures in the parenchyma and mesenchyma of carcinomas, and the average count in a low microscopic field (x 100) was recorded (5 low microscopic field were observed and then an average was calculated.). Finally the immunohistochemistry and histologic results were correlated with image findings. Results: According to the PV of the tumor parenchyma, T-DC was divided into type I, II and III in which the criteria were PV>80, 40 HU< PV< 80 HU and PV<40 HU respectively. In the 33 cases, type I, II and III of T-DC were 3, 17 and 13 cases with PV of 103.30, 57.65 and 33.55 HU respectively. In ASMA immunohistochemistry study, ASMA-positive neovasculatures were devided into type A with a thick wall and B with a thin wall. The mean count of neovasculatures of tumor parenchyma in type I, II and III of T-DC were 10, 4.59 and 1 respectively. Statistically, different types of T-DC were significantly correlated with the count of neovasculatures in the parenchyma of carcinomas (r=-0.567, P<0.01). Homogeneous and inhomogeneous enhancement of carcinomas during SDCT in AP were correlated with the

  5. A Single-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of the Effectiveness of ANT1 Soybean Extract Cream on Skin Recovery After Nd: YAG Laser Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Chien; Wu, Yi-Chia; Huang, Shu-Hung; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Lee, Su-Shin

    2018-02-01

    Nd:YAG laser has been used extensively for its versatility in treating many common aesthetic problems, but numerous adverse effects are often complained by recipients of Nd:YAG laser. This study introduces the ANT1 soybean extract cream, which was formulated to alleviate adverse effects after laser therapy. This study explores whether ANT1 enhances the repair mechanism of the postlaser skin, decreases laser-induced complication, and shortens recovery time. The study also aims to pinpoint the ANT1 concentration that is most effective in improving the skin condition after Nd-YAG laser therapy. This study was a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients eligible for the study were Asian women, aged 25 to 40 years, who were free of dermatological diseases and allergic reaction. There were a total of 45 subjects. Each subject received a session of Nd-YAG laser therapy every 2 weeks, totaling 3 sessions. Facial skin assessment was achieved via VISIA complexion analysis. VISIA complexion analysis quantitatively assessed the skin condition and tracked the recovery progress of each subject at baseline, immediately after all 3 laser sessions, and a week after the final laser treatment. Skin condition was evaluated by VISIA complexion analysis. Skin condition was recorded in aspects of pigmented spots, wrinkles, texture, pores, and red area. After Nd-YAG laser therapy, postlaser inflammation was observed in all subjects. Throughout the laser sessions and the outpatient follow-up clinic, the adverse effects of laser therapy, such as redness, spots, wrinkles, pores, and textures, decreased with the use of ANT1 cream. There has been a marked effect in wrinkle reduction in the patients who received a higher concentration of ANT1 cream (P ≤ 0.05). Statistically significant improvement in spots and pores is also seen (P ≤ 0.05). Through this study, the results suggest that the application of ANT1 soybean extract cream ameliorates the

  6. The Acute Effects of Unilateral Ankle Plantar Flexors Static- Stretching on Postural Sway and Gastrocnemius Muscle Activity During Single-Leg Balance Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bráulio N. Lima, Paulo R.G. Lucareli, Willy A. Gomes, Josinaldo J. Silva, Andre S. Bley, Erin H. Hartigan, Paulo H. Marchetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of unilateral ankle plantar flexors static- stretching on surface electromyography (sEMG and the center of pressure (COP during a single-leg balance task in both lower limbs. Fourteen young healthy, non-athletic individuals performed unipodal quiet standing for 30s before and after (stretched limb: immediately post-stretch, 10 and 20 minutes and non-stretched limb: immediately post-stretch a unilateral ankle plantar flexor static- stretching protocol [6 sets of 45s/15s, 70-90% point of discomfort (POD]. Postural sway was described using the COP area, COP speed (antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions and COP frequency (antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions. Surface EMG (EMG integral [IEMG] and Median frequency[FM] was used to describe the muscular activity of gastrocnemius lateralis. Ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion increased in the stretched limb before and after the static-stretching protocol (mean ± SD: 15.0° ± 6.0 and 21.5° ± 7.0 [p < 0.001]. COP area and IEMG increased in the stretch limb between pre-stretching and immediately post-stretching (p = 0.015 and p = 0.036, respectively. In conclusion, our static- stretching protocol effectively increased passive ankle ROM. The increased ROM appears to increase postural sway and muscle activity; however these finding were only a temporary or transient effect.

  7. Long-term safety and stability of angiogenesis induced by balanced single-vector co-expression of PDGF-BB and VEGF164 in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni-Barrera, Roberto; Burger, Maximilian; Wolff, Thomas; Heberer, Michael; Schaefer, Dirk J.; Gürke, Lorenz; Mujagic, Edin; Banfi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis by growth factor delivery is an attractive treatment strategy for ischemic diseases, yet clinical efficacy has been elusive. The angiogenic master regulator VEGF-A can induce aberrant angiogenesis if expressed above a threshold level. Since VEGF remains localized in the matrix around expressing cells, homogeneous dose distribution in target tissues is required, which is challenging. We found that co-expression of the pericyte-recruiting factor PDGF-BB at a fixed ratio with VEGF from a single bicistronic vector ensured normal angiogenesis despite heterogeneous high VEGF levels. Taking advantage of a highly controlled gene delivery platform, based on monoclonal populations of transduced myoblasts, in which every cell stably produces the same amount of each factor, here we rigorously investigated a) the dose-dependent effects, and b) the long-term safety and stability of VEGF and PDGF-BB co-expression in skeletal muscle. PDGF-BB co-expression did not affect the normal angiogenesis by low and medium VEGF doses, but specifically prevented vascular tumors by high VEGF, yielding instead normal and mature capillary networks, accompanied by robust arteriole formation. Induced angiogenesis persisted unchanged up to 4 months, while no tumors appeared. Therefore, PDGF-BB co-expression is an attractive strategy to improve safety and efficacy of therapeutic angiogenesis by VEGF gene delivery. PMID:26882992

  8. A Single CRISPR-Cas9 Deletion Strategy that Targets the Majority of DMD Patients Restores Dystrophin Function in hiPSC-Derived Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Courtney S; Hicks, Michael R; Ermolova, Natalia V; Nakano, Haruko; Jan, Majib; Younesi, Shahab; Karumbayaram, Saravanan; Kumagai-Cresse, Chino; Wang, Derek; Zack, Jerome A; Kohn, Donald B; Nakano, Atsushi; Nelson, Stanley F; Miceli, M Carrie; Spencer, Melissa J; Pyle, April D

    2016-04-07

    Mutations in DMD disrupt the reading frame, prevent dystrophin translation, and cause Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here we describe a CRISPR/Cas9 platform applicable to 60% of DMD patient mutations. We applied the platform to DMD-derived hiPSCs where successful deletion and non-homologous end joining of up to 725 kb reframed the DMD gene. This is the largest CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion shown to date in DMD. Use of hiPSCs allowed evaluation of dystrophin in disease-relevant cell types. Cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle myotubes derived from reframed hiPSC clonal lines had restored dystrophin protein. The internally deleted dystrophin was functional as demonstrated by improved membrane integrity and restoration of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, miR31 was reduced upon reframing, similar to observations in Becker muscular dystrophy. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using a single CRISPR pair to correct the reading frame for the majority of DMD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of P2X7R/ERK signaling in dorsal root ganglia satellite glial cells in the development of chronic postsurgical pain induced by skin/muscle incision and retraction (SMIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingnian; Ying, Yanlu; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xianguo; Xu, Xuebing; Wei, Xuhong; Ruan, Xiangcai

    2018-03-01

    The mechanisms of chronic postsurgical pain remain to be elucidated. We reported here that skin/muscle incision and retraction (SMIR), a rat model of postsurgical pain, phosphorylated the extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) signaling components c-Raf, MEK (ERK kinase) and ERK1/2 in lumbar 3 dorsal root ganglion (L3 DRG) in rats. Intrathecal injection of ERK specific inhibitor SCH772984 suppressed the mechanical allodynia induced by SMIR. Furthermore, SMIR upregulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in L3 DRG, which could be inhibited by SCH772984. Intrathecal injection of TNF antagonist Etanercept could also inhibit the mechanical allodynia and the increased ERK phosphorylation in L3 DRG induced by SMIR. In addition, immunofluorescent data showed that P2X7R was located exclusively in GFAP labeled satellite glial cells and was highly colocalized with p-ERK1/2 following SMIR. Pretreatment with P2X7R antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG) could also block the mechanical allodynia, inhibited the phosphorylation of c-Raf, MEK, ERK1/2, and decrease the expression of TNF-α. Finally, intrathecal injection of BzATP produced mechanical allodynia and induced ERK phosphorylation in satellite glial cells in L3 DRG. Thus, P2X7R activation in satellite glial cells in L3 DRG, leading to a positive feedback between ERK pathway activation and TNF-α production, is suggested to be involved in the induction of chronic postsurgical pain following SMIR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R, Taylor SC, Lim HW. Skin cancer and photoprotection in people of color: a review and recommendations ... 4): 663 - 672.e3 19 World Health Organization, Solar ultraviolet radiation: Global burden of disease from solar ...

  11. Skin Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  12. Cryotherapy - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy; Actinic keratosis - cryotherapy; Solar keratosis - cryotherapy ... Cryotherapy is done using a cotton swab that has been dipped into liquid nitrogen or a probe ...

  13. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, neck, hands, and arms. ...

  14. Skin Pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This Article Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Impetigo and Ecthyma (News) Don't Get Caught Without ... Professional version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Impetigo is a bacterial skin infection. The infection leads ...

  15. Skin - clammy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causes of clammy skin include: Anxiety attack Heart attack Heat exhaustion Internal bleeding Low blood oxygen levels Medicine reaction Sepsis (body-wide infection) Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) Severe pain Shock (low blood pressure)

  16. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tape it closed with small strips of clear, sticky tape. If you get stitches, your doctor will ... of Your Skin Melanoma Eczema Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Impetigo Pityriasis Rosea View more Partner Message ...

  17. Multiple smooth muscle hamartoma: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydeh Ghaninezhadh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle hamartoma (SMH is a proliferative disorder of cells originating from muscle cells. It is a benign tumoral mass that usually presents as a single congenital skin-colored and hypertrichotic plaque involving the trunk and extremities. Multiple SMHs have rarely been reported in the literature. We describe the case of a seven-month-old girl with multiple SMHs located over the back and arm areas. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy and immunohistochemical (IHC staining. She had no cerebral or skeletal abnormalities and her growth and development were normal.

  18. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ or multi-joint exercises (MJ on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc. and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.. The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ, bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ, knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ. In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  19. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plikus, Maksim V.; Van Spyk, Elyse Noelani; Pham, Kim; Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Andersen, Bogi

    2015-01-01

    Historically work on peripheral circadian clocks has been focused on organs and tissues that have prominent metabolic functions, such as liver, fat and muscle. In recent years, skin is emerging as a model for studying circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, stem cell functions, tissue regeneration, aging and carcinogenesis. Morphologically skin is complex, containing multiple cell types and structures, and there is evidence for a functional circadian clock in most, if not all, of its cell types. Despite the complexity, skin stem cell populations are well defined, experimentally tractable and exhibit prominent daily cell proliferation cycles. Hair follicle stem cells also participate in recurrent, long-lasting cycles of regeneration -- the hair growth cycles. Among other advantages of skin is a broad repertoire of available genetic tools enabling the creation of cell-type specific circadian mutants. Also, due to the accessibility of the skin, in vivo imaging techniques can be readily applied to study the circadian clock and its outputs in real time, even at the single-cell level. Skin provides the first line of defense against many environmental and stress factors that exhibit dramatic diurnal variations such as solar UV radiation and temperature. Studies have already linked the circadian clock to the control of UVB-induced DNA damage and skin cancers. Due to the important role that skin plays in the defense against microorganisms, it represents a promising model system to further explore the role of the clock in the regulation of the body's immune functions. To that end, recent studies have already linked the circadian clock to psoriasis, one of the most common immune-mediated skin disorders. The skin also provides opportunities to interrogate clock regulation of tissue metabolism in the context of stem cells and regeneration. Furthermore, many animal species feature prominent seasonal hair molt cycles, offering an attractive model for investigating the

  20. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  1. A single-blind, dose escalation, phase I study of high-fluence light-emitting diode-red light (LED-RL) on human skin: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Derek; Kraeva, Ekaterina; Wun, Ted; Isseroff, R Rivkah; Jagdeo, Jared

    2016-08-02

    Skin fibrosis is involved in a variety of pathologic conditions ranging from scar formation secondary to surgery or trauma to immune-mediated processes. Skin fibrosis is a significant international health problem with an estimated incidence of greater than 100 million people affected per year worldwide with few effective treatment options available. Preliminary in vitro data generated by our research group suggests that red light can function as a stand-alone treatment for skin fibrosis. To our knowledge, no prior clinical trials have been performed to determine the safety of high-fluence (dose) light-emitting diode-red light (LED-RL) phototherapy. The goal of this study is to evaluate the safety of LED-RL fluences from 160 J/cm(2) up to 640 J/cm(2) in healthy subjects. This is a single-blind, dose escalation, randomized controlled, phase I study to evaluate the safety of high-fluence LED-RL on human skin. The protocol for dose escalation requires subjects be enrolled sequentially in groups of five. Within each group, three subjects will be randomized to LED-RL phototherapy and two subjects randomized to mock therapy. Subjects in group 1 randomized to LED-RL phototherapy will receive the maximum recommended starting dose (160 J/cm(2)). LED-RL dose will be escalated in subsequent groups (320 J/cm(2), 480 J/cm(2) and 640 J/cm(2)). The maximally tolerated dose (MTD) is defined as the dose level below the dose producing unacceptable but reversible toxicity and is considered to be the upper limit of subject tolerance. After either a MTD has been established, or the study endpoint of 640 J/cm(2) has been achieved, an additional 27 LED-RL phototherapy subjects (for a total of 30) and 18 mock therapy subjects (for a total of 20) (determined randomly) will be enrolled. Each subject will receive a total of nine procedures, three times per week for three consecutive weeks. This study may provide important safety information on the effects of high-fluence LED

  2. A single-dose, open-label, parallel, randomized, dose-proportionality study of paliperidone after intramuscular injections of paliperidone palmitate in the deltoid or gluteal muscle in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleton, Adriaan; Rossenu, Stefaan; Crauwels, Herta; Berwaerts, Joris; Hough, David; Gopal, Srihari; Eerdekens, Marielle; Vandebosch, An; Remmerie, Bart; De Meulder, Marc; Rosso, Clara M

    2014-09-01

    Paliperidone palmitate (PP) is a long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic, developed for monthly intramuscular (i.m.) administration into deltoid/gluteal muscle, approved for the treatment of schizophrenia in many countries. To assess the options for i.m. injection sites, dose-proportionality of PP was investigated after injection of a single dose (25-150 mg eq.) of PP in either gluteal (n = 106) or deltoid (n = 95) muscle of schizophrenic patients. Overall, mean (geometric) area under plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC∞ ) of paliperidone increased proportionally with increasing PP doses, regardless of injection site. Mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) was slightly less than dose-proportional for both injection sites at PP doses >50 mg eq. Mean Cmax was higher after injection in the deltoid compared with the gluteal muscle, except for the 100 mg eq. dose, while AUC∞ for both injection sites was comparable at all doses. Median time to reach Cmax (tmax ) ranged from 13-14 days after deltoid and 13-17 days after gluteal injection across all doses. Single PP injections in deltoid and gluteal muscles in the dose range of 25-150 mg eq. were generally tolerable both locally and systemically. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  3. Skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehrle, G.

    1975-01-01

    A general survey of skin decontamination is given. The success of every decontamination treatments depends mainly on the speed, but also on the care, with which the action is taken. The best way to remove the skin contaminants is thorough washing under lukewarm running water with mild soap and a soft brush. This washing is to be repeated several times for a period of several minutes. If results are not satisfactory, light duty detergents and wetting agents available commercially may also be used. Some solutions which have proved useful are mentioned. The decontamination solutions are best used in the order given. When one has no satisfactory decontamination effect, the next one is to be used. If necessary, these agents must be used several times in the stated order as long as this does not involve too much strain for the skin. All the decontamination measures mentioned refer, of course, to intact healthy skin. After decontamination has been completed, the skin should be treated with a protective cream

  4. Six-Year Retrospective Review of Hospital Data on Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Skin Infections from a Single Institution in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Stefanaki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus isolated from Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI to various antibiotics. Material and Methods: All culture-positive results for S. aureus from swabs taken from patients presenting at one Greek hospital with a skin infection between the years 2010–2015 were examined retrospectively. Bacterial cultures, identification of S. aureus and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using the disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines and European Committee on Antimicrobial testing (EUCAST breakpoints. EUCAST breakpoints were applied if no CLSI were available. Results: Of 2069 S. aureus isolates identified, 1845 (88% were resistant to one or more antibiotics. The highest resistance was observed for benzylpenicillin (71.9%, followed by erythromycin (34.3%. Resistant strains to cefoxitin defined as MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus represented 21% of total isolates. Interestingly, resistance to fusidic acid was 22.9% and to mupirocin as high as 12.7%. Low rates were observed for minocycline, rifampicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT. Resistance to antibiotics remained relatively stable throughout the six-year period, with the exception of cefoxitin, fusidic acid and SXT. A high percentage of MRSA strains were resistant to erythromycin (60%, fusidic acid (46%, clindamycin (38% and tetracycline (35.5%. Conclusions: Special attention is required in prescribing appropriate antibiotic therapeutic regimens, particularly for MRSA. These data on the susceptibility of S. aureus may be useful for guiding antibiotic treatment.

  5. Muscle pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Summary Points. • Muscle pain, known as myalgia, can be in one targeted area or across many muscles, occurring with overexertion or overuse of these muscles. • Pain can be classified as acute or chronic pain and further categorized as nociceptive or neuropathic. • Causes of muscle pain include stress, physical ...

  6. Enhanced skeletal muscle ribosome biogenesis, yet attenuated mTORC1 and ribosome biogenesis-related signalling, following short-term concurrent versus single-mode resistance training

    OpenAIRE

    Fyfe, Jackson J.; Bishop, David J.; Bartlett, Jonathan D.; Hanson, Erik D.; Anderson, Mitchell J.; Garnham, Andrew P.; Stepto, Nigel K.

    2018-01-01

    Combining endurance training with resistance training (RT) may attenuate skeletal muscle hypertrophic adaptation versus RT alone; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We investigated changes in markers of ribosome biogenesis, a process linked with skeletal muscle hypertrophy, following concurrent training versus RT alone. Twenty-three males underwent eight weeks of RT, either performed alone (RT group, n = 8), or combined with either high-intensity interval training (HIT+RT group, ...

  7. Single molecular image of cytosolic free Ca2+ of skeletal muscle cells in rats pre- and post-exercise-induced fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Heming; Zhao, Yanping; Liu, Zhiming

    2009-08-01

    A growing body of literature indicated the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells changes significantly during exercise-induced fatigue. But it is confusing whether cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration increase or decrease. Furthermore, current researches mainly adopt muscle tissue homogenate as experiment material, but the studies based on cellular and subcellular level is seldom. This study is aimed to establish rat skeletal muscle cell model of exercise-induced fatigue, and confirm the change of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells in rats preand post- exercise-induced fatigue. In this research, six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n=3) and exercise-induced fatigue group (n=3). The former group were allowed to freely move and the latter were forced to loaded swimming to exhaustive. Three days later, all the rats were sacrificed, the muscle tissue from the same site of skeletal muscle were taken out and digested to cells. After primary culture of the two kinds of skeletal muscle cells from tissue, a fluorescent dye-Fluo-3 AM was used to label the cytosolic free Ca2+. The fluorescent of Ca2+ was recorded by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results indicated that, the Ca2+ fluorescence intensity of cells from the rat of exercise-induced fatigue group was significantly higher than those in control group. In conclusion, cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells has a close relation with exercise-induced fatigue, and the increase of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration may be one of the important factors of exercise-induced fatigue.

  8. [Skin defect coverage with micro skin graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Nazim; Kaya, Yalçin; Karakaya, Sadik; Camci, Cemalettin

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study is to coverage of the large skin defect with microskin graft. The wound coverage of the large skin defect may be difficult with auto skin graft. In these patients, split thickness skin graft may be used in a bloc shape or expanded skin graft shape and a stamp skin graft shape or expanded stamp skin graft shape. On the other hand, split thickness skin graft may be used as a micrograft shape after the mincing process, which reduces of the graft size in a few millimeters. In this study, 6 patients with skin defect was admitted in our clinic, and their skin defect was treated with micro skin graft. Expansion ratio was 1:15. Epithelialization on the wound surface was completed in 4 to 6 weeks and cobblestone appearance was observed after the wound coverage. Skin defect coverage with micrograft is an effective technique like the other skin graft coverage methods.

  9. Elastic proteins in the flight muscle of Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chen-Ching; Ma, Weikang; Schemmel, Peter; Cheng, Yu-Shu; Liu, Jiangmin; Tsaprailis, George; Feldman, Samuel; Ayme Southgate, Agnes; Irving, Thomas C

    2015-02-15

    The flight muscles (DLM1) of the Hawkmoth, Manduca sexta are synchronous, requiring a neural spike for each contraction. Stress/strain curves of skinned DLM1 showed hysteresis indicating the presence of titin-like elastic proteins. Projectin and kettin are titin-like proteins previously identified in Lethocerus and Drosophila flight muscles. Analysis of Manduca muscles with 1% SDS-agarose gels and western blots showed two bands near 1 MDa that cross-reacted with antibodies to Drosophila projectin. Antibodies to Drosophila kettin cross-reacted to bands at ∼500 and ∼700 kDa, but also to bands at ∼1.6 and ∼2.1 MDa, that had not been previously observed in insect flight muscles. Mass spectrometry identified the 2.1 MDa protein as a product of the Sallimus (sls) gene. Analysis of the gene sequence showed that all 4 putative Sallimus and kettin isoforms could be explained as products of alternative splicing of the single sls gene. Both projectin and sallimus isoforms were expressed to higher levels in ventrally located DLM1 subunits, primarily responsible for active work production, as compared to dorsally located subunits, which may act as damped springs. The different expression levels of the 2 projectin isoforms and 4 sallimus/kettin isoforms may be adaptations to the specific requirements of individual muscle subunits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  11. Construction of predictive models for recurrence and progression in >1000 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) from a single centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-El-Dein, Bedeir; Sooriakumaran, Prasanna; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Barakat, Tamer S; Nabeeh, Adel; Ibrahiem, El-Housseiny I

    2013-06-01

    To construct predictive models based on the objectively calculated risks of progression and recurrence of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in a large cohort of patients from a single centre. Between October 1984 and March 2009 a cohort of 1019 patients (877 males; 142 females; median age 44 years) with histologically confirmed NMIBC was included in this study. Among these patients, 74% received bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-based therapy. Complete transurethral resection of bladder tumour of all visible tumours was carried out in all patients, and the stage and grade were determined. Univariate analysis and multivariate Cox regression were used to identify predictors of recurrence and progression. The studied predictors included age, sex, stage, grade, associated carcinoma in situ, tumour size, multiplicity, macroscopic appearance of the tumour, history of recurrence and type of adjuvant intravesical therapy. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to develop the 12- and 60-month recurrence and progression predictive models. The predictive accuracy of the models was assessed for discrimination as well as calibration. The median (range) follow-up was 44 (6-254) months. On multivariate analysis, stage, multiplicity, history of recurrence and adjuvant intravesical therapy were significantly associated with recurrence, whereas for progression only tumour grade and size were significant independent predictors. The constructed nomograms had a 64.9% and 69.4% chance of correctly distinguishing between two patients, one destined to have a recurrence and one not at 12 and 60 months, respectively. The constructed nomograms had a 70.2% and 73.5% chance of correctly distinguishing between two patients, one destined to progress and one not at 12 and 60 months, respectively. All predictive models were well calibrated. Based on multivariate analysis of the studied prognostic factors nomograms for predicting recurrence and progression in NMIBC were

  12. Evidence for ACTN3 as a Speed Gene in Isolated Human Muscle Fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siacia Broos

    Full Text Available To examine the effect of α-actinin-3 deficiency due to homozygosity for the ACTN3 577X-allele on contractile and morphological properties of fast muscle fibers in non-athletic young men.A biopsy was taken from the vastus lateralis of 4 RR and 4 XX individuals to test for differences in morphologic and contractile properties of single muscle fibers. The cross-sectional area of the fiber and muscle fiber composition was determined using standard immunohistochemistry analyses. Skinned single muscle fibers were subjected to active tests to determine peak normalized force (P0, maximal unloading velocity (V0 and peak power. A passive stretch test was performed to calculate Young's Modulus and hysteresis to assess fiber visco-elasticity.No differences were found in muscle fiber composition. The cross-sectional area of type IIa and IIx fibers was larger in RR compared to XX individuals (P<0.001. P0 was similar in both groups over all fiber types. A higher V0 was observed in type IIa fibers of RR genotypes (P<0.001 but not in type I fibers. The visco-elasticity as determined by Young's Modulus and hysteresis was unaffected by fiber type or genotype.The greater V0 and the larger fast fiber CSA in RR compared to XX genotypes likely contribute to enhanced whole muscle performance during high velocity contractions.

  13. Deep soft-tissue massage applied to healthy calf muscle has no effect on passive mechanical properties: a randomized, single-blind, cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Daniel; Gupta, Amitabh; Arundell, Jesica; Crosbie, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Massage is often applied with the intention of improving flexibility or reducing stiffness in musculotendinous tissue. There is, however, a lack of supporting evidence that such mechanical effects occur. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of massage on the passive mechanical properties of the calf muscle complex. Twenty nine healthy volunteers aged between 18 and 45 years of age had their calf muscle compliance and ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) measured using an instrumented footplate before, immediately and 30 minutes after a ten minute application of deep massage or superficial heating to the calf muscle complex. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine differences between testing sessions and the types of intervention. Reliability testing for the measurement method was conducted using analysis of variance both within and between testing sessions. There was no significant change in calf muscle stiffness or ankle dorsiflexion range of motion with or without the application of calf massage. Inter- and intra-session reliability were very high, ICC > 0.88 (p calf muscle complex. The findings of this study suggest that the use of massage to increase tissue flexibility prior to activity is not justified.

  14. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... UVB Skin of Color Tanning Teacher Resources Related: What Is Skin Cancer? | Window Film | Healthy Lifestyle | True Stories Skin Cancer Information Actinic Keratosis Atypical Moles Basal Cell Carcinoma Melanoma Merkel Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancer ...

  15. A persistent increase in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by both fast-twitch and slow-twitch skeletal muscles after a single exercise session by old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuanyuan; Sharma, Naveen; Arias, Edward B; Castorena, Carlos M; Cartee, Gregory D

    2013-06-01

    Exercise has been demonstrated to enhance subsequent insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) by predominantly type II (fast-twitch) muscle of old rats, but previous research has not evaluated exercise effects on GU by type I (slow-twitch) muscle from old rats. Accordingly, we studied male Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats (24 months old) and determined GU (0, 100, 200, and 5,000 μU/ml insulin) of isolated soleus (predominantly type I) and epitrochlearis (predominantly type II) muscles after one exercise session. Epitrochlearis (100, 200, and 5,000 μU/ml insulin) and soleus (100 and 200 μU/ml insulin) GU were greater at 3-h postexercise vs. age-matched sedentary controls. Insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr1162/1163) was unaltered by exercise in either muscle. Akt phosphorylation (pAkt) was greater for exercised vs. sedentary rats in the epitrochlearis (Ser473 and Thr308 with 100 and 200 μU/ml, respectively) and soleus (Ser473 with 200 μU/ml). AS160 phosphorylation (pAS160) was greater for exercised vs. sedentary rats in the epitrochlearis (Thr642 with 100 μU/ml), but not the soleus. Exercised vs. sedentary rats did not differ for total protein abundance of insulin receptor, Akt, AS160, or GLUT4 in either muscle. These results demonstrate that both predominantly type I and type II muscles from old rats are susceptible to exercise-induced improvement in insulin-mediated GU by mechanisms that are independent of enhanced insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation or altered abundance of important signaling proteins or GLUT4. Exercise-induced elevation in pAkt, and possibly pAS160, may contribute to this effect in the epitrochlearis of old rats, but other mechanisms are likely important for the soleus.

  16. A Skin Crease Preserving Modification of Open-Sky Mullerectomy for Blepharoptosis Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szamocki, Sonia; Shah-Desai, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    To report the results of skin crease preservation with a modified technique of open-sky Muller's muscle-conjunctival resection that precludes the need to reconstruct the upper eyelid skin crease with full thickness sutures. A nonrandomized, retrospective audit of 45 eyelids of 37 consecutive patients with acquired blepharoptosis, undergoing surgical correction by a single surgeon, between November 2011 and July 2014. Surgical technique involved subtotal resection of Muller's muscle plus underlying conjunctiva, under direct visualization. The stump of Muller's muscle was then reattached to the superior tarsus with buried 7-0 Vicryl. Wound closure was achieved using interrupted buried 7-0 Vicryl, without full thickness skin crease reformation. Outcomes were evaluated according to standards recommended by the British Oculoplastic Surgery Society National Ptosis survey. These included assessment of upper margin reflex distance (MRD1), skin crease, eyelid contour and symmetry and surgical complications. In total, all 45 eyelids met the outcome criteria for success. The median MRD1 increased from 0 mm preoperatively (range: -2 to 2) to 3.1 mm (range: 3-5 mm) following surgery, p value < 0.01. For patients with unilateral blepharoptosis, the average postoperative eyelid height difference between right and left was 0.17 mm (range: 0-1 mm). All patients achieved good eyelid contour and symmetry and none required reoperation as assessed at final follow up following surgery (mean 77 days, range: 24-366). Skin crease was lowered and normalized in all patients with median preoperative and postoperative measurements of 12 mm and 10 mm, respectively, p value < 0.01. Two cases (4.4%) developed early asymptomatic superficial punctate keratopathy, which resolved spontaneously by 4 weeks. Nonstandardized patient experience survey achieved high scores for overall satisfaction and likelihood to recommend treatment to friends and family, with low scores for postoperative

  17. MUSCLE ACTIVITY RESPONSE TO EXTERNAL MOMENT DURING SINGLE-LEG DROP LANDING IN YOUNG BASKETBALL PLAYERS: THE IMPORTANCE OF BICEPS FEMORIS IN REDUCING INTERNAL ROTATION OF KNEE DURING LANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meguru Fujii

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal tibial rotation with the knee close to full extension combined with valgus collapse during drop landing generally results in non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between internal rotation of the knee and muscle activity from internal and external rotator muscles, and between the internal rotation of knee and externally applied loads on the knee during landing in collegiate basketball players. Our hypothesis was that the activity of biceps femoris muscle would be an important factor reducing internal knee rotation during landing. The subjects were 10 collegiate basketball students: 5 females and 5 males. The subjects performed a single-leg drop landing from a 25-cm height. Femoral and tibial kinematics were measured using a 3D optoelectronic tracking system during the drop landings, and then the knee angular motions were determined. Ground reaction forces and muscle activation patterns (lateral hamstring and medial hamstring were simultaneously measured and computed. Results indicated that lower peak internal tibial rotation angle at the time of landing was associated with greater lateral hamstring activity (r = -0.623, p < 0.001. When gender was considered, the statistically significant correlation remained only in females. There was no association between the peak internal tibial rotation angle and the knee internal rotation moment. Control of muscle activity in the lateral to medial hamstring would be an important factor in generating sufficient force to inhibit excessive internal rotation during landing. Strengthening the biceps femoris might mitigate the higher incidence of non-contact ACL injury in female athletes

  18. The creation of a measurable contusion injury in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret N. Deane

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect that compressed air massage (CAM has on skeletal muscle has been ascertained by the morphological and morphometric evaluation of healthy vervet monkey and rabbit skeletal muscle. How CAM may influence the process of healing following a contusion injury is not known. To determine how CAM or other physiotherapeutic modalities may influence healing, it is necessary to create a minor injury that is both reproducible and quantifiable at the termination of a pre-determined healing period. An earlier study described changes in the morphology of skeletal muscle following a reproducible contusion injury. This study extended that work in that it attempted to quantify the ‘severity’ of such an injury. A 201 g, elongated oval-shaped weight was dropped seven times through a 1 m tube onto the left vastus lateralis muscle of four New Zealand white rabbits. Biopsies were obtained 6 days after injury from the left healing juxta-bone and sub-dermal muscle and uninjured (control right vastus lateralis of each animal. The tissue was fixed in formal saline, embedded in wax, cut and stained with haematoxylin and phosphotungstic haematoxylin. The muscle was examined by light microscopy and quantification of the severity of injury made using a modified, ‘in-house’ morphological index and by the comparative morphometric measurement of the cross-sectioned epimysium and myofibres in injured and control muscle. The results showed that a single contusion causes multiple, quantifiable degrees of injury from skin to bone – observations of particular importance to others wishing to investigate contusion injury in human or animal models.

  19. The creation of a measurable contusion injury in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret N. Deane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect that compressed air massage (CAM has on skeletal muscle has been ascertained by the morphological and morphometric evaluation of healthy vervet monkey and rabbit skeletal muscle. How CAM may influence the process of healing following a contusion injury is not known. To determine how CAM or other physiotherapeutic modalities may influence healing, it is necessary to create a minor injury that is both reproducible and quantifiable at the termination of a pre-determined healing period. An earlier study described changes in the morphology of skeletal muscle following a reproducible contusion injury. This study extended that work in that it attempted to quantify the ‘severity’ of such an injury. A 201 g, elongated oval-shaped weight was dropped seven times through a 1 m tube onto the left vastus lateralis muscle of four New Zealand white rabbits. Biopsies were obtained 6 days after injury from the left healing juxta-bone and sub-dermal muscle and uninjured (control right vastus lateralis of each animal. The tissue was fixed in formal saline, embedded in wax, cut and stained with haematoxylin and phosphotungstic haematoxylin. The muscle was examined by light microscopy and quantification of the severity of injury made using a modified, ‘in-house’ morphological index and by the comparative morphometric measurement of the cross-sectioned epimysium and myofibres in injured and control muscle. The results showed that a single contusion causes multiple, quantifiable degrees of injury from skin to bone – observations of particular importance to others wishing to investigate contusion injury in human or animal models.

  20. A new, lateral, continuous, combined, femoral–sciatic nerve approach via a single skin puncture for postoperative analgesia in intramedullary tibial nail insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imbelloni LE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni,1,2 Carlos Rava,1,3 Marildo A Gouveia21Faculdade de Medicina Nova Esperança, 2Institute for Regional Anesthesia, 3Complexo Hospitalar de Mangabeira Governador Tarcisio Burity, João Pessoa, BrazilBackground: The prevalence of anterior knee pain following intramedullary tibial nail insertion is high. Continuous peripheral nerve blockade is an alternative method of pain control to opiods. This case illustrates the use of femoral nerve and sciatic nerve peripheral catheters with an elastomeric infusion pump for major intramedullary nailing surgery.Case report: A 36-year-old male with fractures to the left leg bones presented for placement of an intramedullary nail under spinal anesthesia. At the end of the procedure, access to the lateral femoral and sciatic continuous nerve block was achieved by using a stimulator connected to a 110 mm 18G Tuohy needle. Postoperative analgesia was provided with a 40-hour infusion of 0.1% bupivacaine (400 mL at a rate of 10 mL hour-1 with an elastomeric pump. Anesthetic dispersion and contrast were investigated. The analog scale remained with scores below 3 during the 40 hours after surgery, and boluses were not necessary.Conclusion: The use of a femoral and sciatic nerve peripheral catheter offered an alternative to conventional pain control. Continuous femoral–sciatic peripheral blockade via a skin puncture with an infusion of 0.1% bupivacaine with elastomeric pumps is a safe and effective procedure in adults.Keywords: local anesthetic, bupivacaine, continuous peripheral nerve block, orthopedic surgery, tibia, elastomeric pump

  1. Phase II study of cetuximab as first-line single-drug therapy in patients with unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubec, Eve; Petrow, Peter; Scheer-Senyarich, Isabelle; Duvillard, Pierre; Lacroix, Ludovic; Gelly, Julien; Certain, Agnès; Duval, Xavier; Crickx, Béatrice; Buffard, Valérie; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Saez, Pierre; Duval-Modeste, Anne-Bénédicte; Adamski, Henri; Mansard, Sandrine; Grange, Florent; Dompmartin, Anne; Faivre, Sandrine; Mentré, France; Avril, Marie-Françoise

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), as a first-line monotherapy in patients with unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SCCS). Thirty-six patients received cetuximab (initial dose of 400 mg/m(2) followed by subsequent weekly doses of 250 mg/m(2)) for at least 6 weeks with a 48-week follow-up. The primary end point was the disease control rate (DCR) at 6 weeks (according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] criteria). Secondary end points included best response rate, overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS), and toxicity assessment. Association of treatment efficacy with RAS mutations or FcγR genotypes was investigated. Median age of the study population was 79 years. DCR at 6 weeks was obtained in 25 of 36 patients (69%; 95% CI, 52% to 84%) of the intention-to-treat population. The best responses were eight partial responses and two complete responses. There were no cetuximab-related deaths. There were three related serious adverse events: two grade 4 infusion reactions and one grade 3 interstitial pneumopathy. Grade 1 to 2 acne-like rash occurred in 78% of patients and was associated with prolonged PFS. One HRAS mutation was identified. Combined FcγRIIa-131H/H and/or FcγRIIIa-158V/V polymorphisms were not associated with the clinical outcomes. As a first-line treatment in patients with unresectable SCCS, cetuximab achieved 69% DCR. A randomized phase III trial is warranted to confirm that cetuximab may be considered as a therapeutic option especially in elderly patients. The low frequency of RAS mutations in SCCS makes SCCS tumors attractive for EGFR inhibition.

  2. Sustained AS160 and TBC1D1 phosphorylations in human skeletal muscle 30 minutes after a single bout of exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Møller, Andreas Buch; Treebak, Jonas Thue

    2014-01-01

    muscle after aerobic exercise followed by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Design: Eight healthy males were studied on two occasions: 1) in the resting state and 2) in the hours after a one-hour bout of ergometer-cycling. A hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was initiated 240 minutes after exercise...

  3. Effect of cleft palate repair on the susceptibility to contraction-induced injury of single permeabilized muscle fibers from congenitally-clefted goat palates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite cleft palate repair, velopharyngeal competence is not achieved in ~ 15% of patients, often necessitating secondary surgical correction. Velopharyngeal competence postrepair may require the conversion of levator veli palatini muscle fibers from injury-susceptible type 2 fibers to injury-resi...

  4. Tuberculosis skin testing, anergy and protein malnutrition in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, T F; Santillan, C F; Gilman, R H; Cabrera, L Z; Garcia, E; Vidal, C; Zimic, M J; Moore, D A J; Evans, C A

    2005-09-01

    Malnutrition and intestinal parasites cause immunosuppression. This may cause false-negative tuberculin skin tests (TST) and failure to identify tuberculosis (TB) infection. To assess factors associated with TST positivity and anergy in disadvantaged communities in Peru. A study of 212 randomly selected adults: 102 in a rural Amazonian village and 110 shanty town residents in urban Lima. Respectively 52% and 53% of urban and rural jungle populations were TST-positive. Using simultaneous tetanus and candida skin tests, 99% had at least one positive skin test. Generalised anergy was therefore rare, despite frequent intestinal parasitic infection, including 34% helminth infection prevalence in the jungle. TST positivity was associated with age (P = 0.001), known TB contact (P = 0.02) and poor household ventilation (P = 0.007). TST positivity was not significantly associated with crowding, reported past TB, single/multiple BCG vaccination, income, intestinal parasites, dietary factors, body mass index or body fat. Individuals with lower anthropometric body protein, as measured by corrected arm muscle area, were less likely to be TST-positive (P = 0.02), implying that protein malnutrition caused tuberculin-specific anergy. These results identify the importance of household ventilation for community TB transmission and add to the evidence that protein malnutrition suppresses TB immunity, causing false-negative TST results.

  5. Quantifying skin motion artifact error of the hindfoot and forefoot marker clusters with the optical tracking of a multi-segment foot model using single-plane fluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, R; Kedgley, A E; Jenkyn, T R

    2011-05-01

    The trajectories of skin-mounted markers tracked with optical motion capture are assumed to be an adequate representation of the underlying bone motions. However, it is well known that soft tissue artifact (STA) exists between marker and bone. This study quantifies the STA associated with the hindfoot and midfoot marker clusters of a multi-segment foot model. To quantify STA of the hindfoot and midfoot marker clusters with respect to the calcaneus and navicular respectively, fluoroscopic images were collected on 27 subjects during four quasi-static positions, (1) quiet standing (non-weight bearing), (2) at heel strike (weight-bearing), (3) at midstance (weight-bearing) and (4) at toe-off (weight-bearing). The translation and rotation components of STA were calculated in the sagittal plane. Translational STA at the calcaneus varied from 5.9±7.3mm at heel-strike to 12.1±0.3mm at toe-off. For the navicular the translational STA ranged from 7.6±7.6mm at heel strike to 16.4±16.7mm at toe-off. Rotational STA was relatively smaller for both bones at all foot positions. For the calcaneus they varied between 0.1±2.2° at heel-strike to 0.2±0.6° at toe-off. For the navicular, the rotational STA ranged from 0.6±0.9° at heel-strike to 0.7±0.7° at toe-off. The largest translational STA found in this study (16mm for the navicular) was smaller than those reported in the literature for the thigh and the lower leg, but was larger than the STA of individual spherical markers affixed to the foot. The largest errors occurred at toe-off position for all subjects for both the hindfoot and midfoot clusters. Future studies are recommended to quantify true three-dimensional STA of the entire foot during gait. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Water and Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Grazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.

  7. Survey of skin pigmentation of yellow-skinned broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Meluzzi, A

    2010-07-01

    The appearance of whole carcass and skin-on cut-up products is an important attribute that deeply affects the consumer's choice. Skin pigmentation is affected mainly by genetics, concentration and dietary source of pigments, health status of the birds, and scalding-plucking conditions during slaughtering, although other factors might play an important role. Retailers request batches of broiler chicken carcasses characterized by uniform skin pigmentation to be sold as whole carcass or parts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of skin color of yellow-skinned broilers reared under intensive conditions. For the study, a total of 2,300 medium size broiler chickens (2,300 to 2,500 g of live weight) from 23 flocks (100 birds/flock; n = 12 flocks of males and n = 11 flocks of females; n = 12 flocks of Ross 508 and n = 11 flocks of Ross 308) were randomly selected in a single slaughterhouse. The color measurements were carried out on both breast and thigh pterylae as well as on shank skin adopting the L* a* b* system and using a Minolta colorimeter CR 300. The overall range in measured yellowness (b*) was fairly large for all skin color measurement positions. For breast, a mean value of 22.77 (SD = 5.12) was observed, with values ranging from 7.45 to 39.12. Average values of thigh and shank were 20.23 (SD = 5.02; range 1.99 to 37.82) and 53.99 (SD = 8.13; range 24.22 to 78.65), respectively. A higher skin yellowness was observed in females in all body parts as well as in Ross 308. Yellowness values of breast and thigh were significantly correlated (r = 0.85; P < 0.01), suggesting that the color evaluation may be carried out only on one measurement position of the skin.

  8. Does giving segmental muscle vibration alter the response to botulinum toxin injections in the treatment of spasticity in people with multiple sclerosis? A single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoloni, Marco; Giovannelli, Morena; Mangone, Massimiliano; Leonardi, Laura; Tavernese, Emanuela; Di Pangrazio, Elisabetta; Bernetti, Andrea; Santilli, Valter; Pozzilli, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    To determine if segmental muscle vibration and botulinum toxin-A injection, either alone or in combination, reduces spasticity in a sample of patients with multiple sclerosis. Single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Physical medicine and rehabilitation outpatients service. Forty-two patients affected by the secondary progressive form of multiple sclerosis randomized to group A (30 minutes of 120 Hz segmental muscle vibration over the rectus femoris and gastrocnemius medial and lateral, three per week, over a period of four weeks), group B (botulinum toxin in the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius medial and lateral and soleus, and segmental muscle vibration) and group C (botulinum toxin). Modified Ashworth Scale at knee and ankle, and Fatigue Severity Scale. All the measurements were performed at baseline (T0), 10 weeks (T1) and 22 weeks (T2) postallocation. Modified Ashworth Scale at knee and ankle significantly decreased over time (p spasticity at T2 when compared with T1 (p spasticity and improves fatigue in the medium-term follow-up in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  9. RNA sequencing for global gene expression associated with muscle growth in a single male modern broiler line compared to a foundational Barred Plymouth Rock chicken line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Byung-Whi; Hudson, Nicholas; Seo, Dongwon; Lee, Seok; Khatri, Bhuwan; Lassiter, Kentu; Cook, Devin; Piekarski, Alissa; Dridi, Sami; Anthony, Nicholas; Bottje, Walter

    2017-01-13

    Modern broiler chickens exhibit very rapid growth and high feed efficiency compared to unselected chicken breeds. The improved production efficiency in modern broiler chickens was achieved by the intensive genetic selection for meat production. This study was designed to investigate the genetic alterations accumulated in modern broiler breeder lines during selective breeding conducted over several decades. To identify genes important in determining muscle growth and feed efficiency in broilers, RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was conducted with breast muscle in modern pedigree male (PeM) broilers (n = 6 per group), and with an unselected foundation broiler line (Barred Plymouth Rock; BPR). The RNAseq analysis was carried out using Ilumina Hiseq (2 x 100 bp paired end read) and raw reads were assembled with the galgal4 reference chicken genome. With normalized RPM values, genes showing >10 average read counts were chosen and genes showing 1.3 fold change were considered as differentially expressed (DE) between PeM and BPR. DE genes were subjected to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) for bioinformatic functional interpretation. The results indicate that 2,464 DE genes were identified in the comparison between PeM and BPR. Interestingly, the expression of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in chicken are significantly biased towards the BPR group, suggesting a lowered mitochondrial content in PeM chicken muscles compared to BPR chicken. This result is inconsistent with more slow muscle fibers bearing a lower mitochondrial content in the PeM. The molecular, cellular and physiological functions of DE genes in the comparison between PeM and BPR include organismal injury, carbohydrate metabolism, cell growth/proliferation, and skeletal muscle system development, indicating that cellular mechanisms in modern broiler lines are tightly associated with rapid growth and differential muscle fiber contents compared to the unselected BPR line. Particularly, PDGF (platelet derived

  10. Enhanced skeletal muscle ribosome biogenesis, yet attenuated mTORC1 and ribosome biogenesis-related signalling, following short-term concurrent versus single-mode resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bishop, David J; Bartlett, Jonathan D; Hanson, Erik D; Anderson, Mitchell J; Garnham, Andrew P; Stepto, Nigel K

    2018-01-12

    Combining endurance training with resistance training (RT) may attenuate skeletal muscle hypertrophic adaptation versus RT alone; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We investigated changes in markers of ribosome biogenesis, a process linked with skeletal muscle hypertrophy, following concurrent training versus RT alone. Twenty-three males underwent eight weeks of RT, either performed alone (RT group, n = 8), or combined with either high-intensity interval training (HIT+RT group, n = 8), or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT+RT group, n = 7). Muscle samples (vastus lateralis) were obtained before training, and immediately before, 1 h and 3 h after the final training session. Training-induced changes in basal expression of the 45S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursor (45S pre-rRNA), and 5.8S and 28S mature rRNAs, were greater with concurrent training versus RT. However, during the final training session, RT further increased both mTORC1 (p70S6K1 and rps6 phosphorylation) and 45S pre-rRNA transcription-related signalling (TIF-1A and UBF phosphorylation) versus concurrent training. These data suggest that when performed in a training-accustomed state, RT induces further increases mTORC1 and ribosome biogenesis-related signalling in human skeletal muscle versus concurrent training; however, changes in ribosome biogenesis markers were more favourable following a period of short-term concurrent training versus RT performed alone.

  11. The effects of a single bout of downhill running and ensuing delayed onset of muscle soreness on running economy performed 48 h later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, William A; Dutto, Darren J

    2003-09-01

    Delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) is a common response to exercise involving significant eccentric loading. Symptoms of DOMS vary widely and may include reduced force generating capacity, significant alterations in biochemical indices of muscle and connective tissue health, alteration of neuromuscular function, and changes in mechanical performance. The purpose of the investigation was to examine the effects of downhill running and ensuing DOMS on running economy and stride mechanics. Nine, well-trained distance runners and triathletes participated in the study. Running economy was measured at three relative intensities [65, 75, and 85% of maximal aerobic capacity ( VO(2peak))] before (RE1) and 48 h after (RE2) a 30-min downhill run (-10%) at 70% VO(2peak). Dependent variables included leg muscle soreness, rate of oxygen consumption ( VO(2)), minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, lactate, heart rate, and stride length. These measurements were entered into a two-factor multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The analysis revealed a significant time effect for all variables and a significant interaction (time x intensity) for lactate. The energy cost of locomotion was elevated at RE2 by an average of 3.2%. This was coupled with a significant reduction in stride length. The change in VO(2) was inversely correlated with the change in stride length ( r= -0.535). Lactate was significantly elevated at RE2 for each run intensity, with a mean increase of 0.61 mmol l(-1). Based on these findings, it is suggested that muscle damage led to changes in stride mechanics and a greater reliance on anaerobic methods of energy production, contributing to the change in running economy during DOMS.

  12. Power Production and Biochemical Markers of Metabolic Stress and Muscle Damage Following a Single Bout of Short-Sprint and Heavy Strength Exercise in Well-Trained Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Kristoffersen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Although strength and sprint training are widely used methods in competitive cycling, no previous studies have compared the acute responses and recovery rates following such sessions among highly trained cyclists. The primary aim of the current study was to compare power production and biochemical markers of metabolic stress and muscle damage following a session of heavy strength (HS and short-sprint training (SS.Methods: Eleven well-trained male cyclists (18 ± 2 years with maximal oxygen uptake of 67.2 ± 5.0 mL·kg−1·min−1 completed one HS session and one SS session in a randomized order, separated by 48 h. Power production and biochemical variables were measured at baseline and at different time points during the first 45 h post exercise.Results: Lactate and human growth hormone were higher 5 min, 30 min and 1 h post the SS compared to the HS session (all p ≤ 0.019. Myoglobin was higher following the HS than the SS session 5 min, 30 min and 1 h post exercise (all p ≤ 0.005, while creatine kinase (CK was higher following the HS session 21 and 45 h post exercise (p ≤ 0.038. Counter movement jump and power production during 4 sec sprint returned to baseline levels at 23 and 47 h with no difference between the HS and SS session, whereas the delayed muscle soreness score was higher 45 h following the HS compared to the SS session (p = 0.010.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that SS training provides greater metabolic stress than HS training, whereas HS training leads to more muscle damage compared to that caused by SS training. The ability to produce power remained back to baseline already 23 h after both training sessions, indicating maintained performance levels although higher CK level and muscle soreness were present 45 h post the HS training session.

  13. Improved Muscle Function in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy through L-Arginine and Metformin: An Investigator-Initiated, Open-Label, Single-Center, Proof-Of-Concept-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Patricia; Bonati, Ulrike; Erne, Beat; Schmid, Maurice; Rubino, Daniela; Pohlman, Urs; Peters, Thomas; Rutz, Erich; Frank, Stephan; Neuhaus, Cornelia; Deuster, Stefanie; Gloor, Monika; Bieri, Oliver; Fischmann, Arne; Sinnreich, Michael; Gueven, Nuri; Fischer, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Altered neuronal nitric oxide synthase function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy leads to impaired mitochondrial function which is thought to be one cause of muscle damage in this disease. The study tested if increased intramuscular nitric oxide concentration can improve mitochondrial energy metabolism in Duchenne muscular dystrophy using a novel therapeutic approach through the combination of L-arginine with metformin. Five ambulatory, genetically confirmed Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients aged between 7–10 years were treated with L-arginine (3 x 2.5 g/d) and metformin (2 x 250 mg/d) for 16 weeks. Treatment effects were assessed using mitochondrial protein expression analysis in muscular biopsies, indirect calorimetry, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, quantitative thigh muscle MRI, and clinical scores of muscle performance. There were no serious side effects and no patient dropped out. Muscle biopsy results showed pre-treatment a significantly reduced mitochondrial protein expression and increased oxidative stress in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients compared to controls. Post-treatment a significant elevation of proteins of the mitochondrial electron transport chain was observed as well as a reduction in oxidative stress. Treatment also decreased resting energy expenditure rates and energy substrate use shifted from carbohydrates to fatty acids. These changes were associated with improved clinical scores. In conclusion pharmacological stimulation of the nitric oxide pathway leads to improved mitochondria function and clinically a slowing of disease progression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This study shall lead to further development of this novel therapeutic approach into a real alternative for Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02516085.

  14. Muscle activity characterization by laser Doppler Myography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalise, Lorenzo; Casaccia, Sara; Marchionni, Paolo; Ercoli, Ilaria; Tomasini, Enrico Primo

    2013-01-01

    Electromiography (EMG) is the gold-standard technique used for the evaluation of muscle activity. This technique is used in biomechanics, sport medicine, neurology and rehabilitation therapy and it provides the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. Among the parameters measured with EMG, two very important quantities are: signal amplitude and duration of muscle contraction, muscle fatigue and maximum muscle power. Recently, a new measurement procedure, named Laser Doppler Myography (LDMi), for the non contact assessment of muscle activity has been proposed to measure the vibro-mechanical behaviour of the muscle. The aim of this study is to present the LDMi technique and to evaluate its capacity to measure some characteristic features proper of the muscle. In this paper LDMi is compared with standard superficial EMG (sEMG) requiring the application of sensors on the skin of each patient. sEMG and LDMi signals have been simultaneously acquired and processed to test correlations. Three parameters has been analyzed to compare these techniques: Muscle activation timing, signal amplitude and muscle fatigue. LDMi appears to be a reliable and promising measurement technique allowing the measurements without contact with the patient skin

  15. Muscle activity characterization by laser Doppler Myography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Lorenzo; Casaccia, Sara; Marchionni, Paolo; Ercoli, Ilaria; Primo Tomasini, Enrico

    2013-09-01

    Electromiography (EMG) is the gold-standard technique used for the evaluation of muscle activity. This technique is used in biomechanics, sport medicine, neurology and rehabilitation therapy and it provides the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. Among the parameters measured with EMG, two very important quantities are: signal amplitude and duration of muscle contraction, muscle fatigue and maximum muscle power. Recently, a new measurement procedure, named Laser Doppler Myography (LDMi), for the non contact assessment of muscle activity has been proposed to measure the vibro-mechanical behaviour of the muscle. The aim of this study is to present the LDMi technique and to evaluate its capacity to measure some characteristic features proper of the muscle. In this paper LDMi is compared with standard superficial EMG (sEMG) requiring the application of sensors on the skin of each patient. sEMG and LDMi signals have been simultaneously acquired and processed to test correlations. Three parameters has been analyzed to compare these techniques: Muscle activation timing, signal amplitude and muscle fatigue. LDMi appears to be a reliable and promising measurement technique allowing the measurements without contact with the patient skin.

  16. Comparison of the effects of knee and hip and single knee muscles strengthening/ stretching exercises on pain intensity and function in athletes with patellofemoral pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Mazloum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is a common musculoskeletal condition among athletes. The evidence emphasizes on the importance of hip musculature strengthening exercises for such patients. Objective: To investigate the effects of strengthening-stretching knee muscles exercises and hip posterolateral musculature exercises in athletes with PFPS. Methods: In this clinical trial, 28 athletes with age average of 22.7±2.4 years with PFPS were allocated into conventional knee muscles exercises (CKME (n=14 and posterolateral hip muscles exercises (PHME (n=14. The subjects of both groups performed the supervised exercise protocols in 12 sessions. The Visual Analogue Scale and 6-minute walking tests were administrated respectively to evaluate pain intensity and function. The data were analyzed using Shapiro-wilk test, Independent-sample t test, and Repeated Measure ANOVA test. Findings: Demographic, pain intensity, and physical function data were similar between groups at baseline. Both groups significantly improved in pain intensity and function following a 4-week exercise program. Additionally, the athletes in PHME group had higher level of decreased pain intensity and improved function in follow-up assessment than the subjects in CKME group. Conclusion: Using hip posterolateral musculature exercises in addition to the knee conventional exercises is more effective for athletes with PFPS.

  17. Regenerative Potential of D-δ-Tocotrienol Rich Fraction on Crushed Skeletal Muscle of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijo Elsy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed muscle growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle in diabetics is believed to be due to diabetic myopathy because of alteration in the skeletal muscle homeostatis. Since vitamin E is a natural antioxidant and is also important for the integrity of sarcolemma, the present study was designed to explore the muscle regenerative potency of d-δ-tocotrienol-rich fraction (d-δ-TRF on crushed skeletal muscle in healthy and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced through single subcutaneous injection of alloxan (100 mg/kg. Twenty-four albino rats were divided into four groups; healthy control, diabetic control, healthy treated, and diabetic treated. Treated groups received injections orally, daily (200 mg/kg for 3 weeks. A horizontal skin incision was made on the shaved right mid-thigh region, by splitting the fascia between gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata, and gluteus maximus was crushed with Kocher’s forceps. Skin wound was closed with an absorbable suture. The crushed muscle changes were studied by assessing the histopathological features, histomorphological measurements, and biochemical analyses on 3rd week following induction of injury. One-way “ANOVA” followed by Tukey’s test and Student t-test were used for statistical analysis of data. Results: Results obtained through various methods indicate that the d-δ-TRF treated groups have controlled glycemic status, improved antioxidant capacity, faster revascularization, re-innervation, regeneration of myofibers, and connective tissue remodeling. Conclusion: It is, therefore, concluded that the d-δ-TRF is a beneficial nutritional adjuvant for skeletal muscles’ structural and functional recovery after crushed injury in both healthy and diabetics. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2017; 5(2.000: 36-42

  18. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Genetics ...

  19. Supplementation with Eskimo Skin Care improves skin elasticity in women. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segger, Dörte; Matthies, Andreas; Saldeen, Tom

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the question of whether supplementation with an oral oil formulation rich in natural stable fish oil can alter skin elasticity, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and skin roughness in healthy women. Twenty-four healthy women aged 40-60 years participated in a single-blind randomized trial for testing the effect of a proprietary oral supplement for skin nutrition (Eskimo Skin Care) on skin elasticity, TEWL, and skin roughness. Skin elasticity was measured by an optical cutometer, TEWL by a water-loss module based upon the vapour gradient principle, and skin roughness with a three-dimensional microtopography imaging system. Skin elasticity increased by 10% after 3 months of treatment with the supplement, a statistically significant increase in comparison with the control group (p=0.0298). There was a trend, though not statistically significant, towards a positive influence on the skin's barrier function. No effect on the skin roughness was observed. Eskimo Skin Care, an oral preparation rich in natural stable fish oil, can improve skin elasticity.

  20. Empirical Evaluation of Voluntarily Activatable Muscle Synergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunta Togo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The muscle synergy hypothesis assumes that individual muscle synergies are independent of each other and voluntarily controllable. However, this assumption has not been empirically tested. This study tested if human subjects can voluntarily activate individual muscle synergies extracted by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF, the standard mathematical method for synergy extraction. We defined the activation of a single muscle synergy as the generation of a muscle activity pattern vector parallel to the single muscle synergy vector. Subjects performed an isometric force production task with their right hand, and the 13 muscle activity patterns associated with their elbow and shoulder movements were measured. We extracted muscle synergies during the task using electromyogram (EMG data and the NMF method with varied numbers of muscle synergies. The number (N of muscle synergies was determined by using the variability accounted for (VAF, NVAF and the coefficient of determination (CD, NCD. An additional muscle synergy model with NAD was also considered. We defined a conventional muscle synergy as the muscle synergy extracted by the NVAF, NCD, and NAD. We also defined an extended muscle synergy as the muscle synergy extracted by the NEX> NAD. To examine whether the individual muscle synergy was voluntarily activatable or not, we calculated the index of independent activation, which reflects similarities between a selected single muscle synergy and the current muscle activation pattern of the subject. Subjects were visually feed-backed the index of independent activation, then instructed to generate muscle activity patterns similar to the conventional and extended muscle synergies. As a result, an average of 90.8% of the muscle synergy extracted by the NVAF was independently activated. However, the proportion of activatable muscle synergies extracted by NCD and NAD was lower. These results partly support the assumption of the muscle synergy

  1. Collagen synthesis in human musculoskeletal tissues and skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, J A; Cuthbertson, D J R; Smith, K

    2005-01-01

    . In postabsorptive, healthy young men (28 +/- 6 yr) synthetic rates for tendon, ligament, muscle, and skin collagen were 0.046 +/- 0.005, 0.040 +/- 0.006, 0.016 +/- 0.002, and 0.037 +/- 0.003%/h, respectively (means +/- SD). In postabsorptive, healthy elderly men (70 +/- 6 yr) the rate of skeletal muscle collagen......We have developed a direct method for the measurement of human musculoskeletal collagen synthesis on the basis of the incorporation of stable isotope-labeled proline or leucine into protein and have used it to measure the rate of synthesis of collagen in tendon, ligament, muscle, and skin...

  2. Deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) skin flap: clinical experience of 15 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostakoğlu, N; Keçik, A

    1998-01-01

    Skin flaps devoid of rectus muscle, raised on a single musculocutaneous perforator (14 cases), and on two musculocutaneous perforators (1 case) of the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) were used in 14 patients to cover various defects during a period of 3 years. The flaps were raised on the perforator arising slightly lateral to the centre of the muscle below the umbilicus, which is a sub-branch of the lateral branch of DIEA. The defects were located on the upper limb in four, the lower limb in nine, and the scalp and forehead in the remaining two cases. In one patient, the flap was preexpanded for 4 weeks prior to transfer. The longest flap was 40 x 12 cm, and the widest flap was 30 x 18 cm in dimension. All donor defects were closed primarily. Two flaps were lost due to venous thrombosis on the fourth postoperative day. Tip necrosis was observed in two flaps, both of which were salvaged from venous thrombosis at 36 hours and 5 days postoperatively. The remaining 11 flaps survived completely. The DIEA skin flap was found to provide the following benefits: (1) the largest available skin flap where the donor site could be closed primarily; (2) decreased possibility of abdominal wall weakness and hernia formation; and (3) potential of obtaining a thin flap either by trimming of the subcutaneous fat or by preexpansion.

  3. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Neuromodulators for Aging Skin Treatment Options Learn more ...

  4. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  5. The effect of compressed air massage on skin blood flow and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Maurice; Maharaj, Sunil S; Tufts, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Compressed air massage is a new treatment modality that uses air under pressure to massage skin and muscle. It is claimed to improve skin blood flow but this has not been verified. Several pilot studies were undertaken to determine the effects of compressed air massage on skin blood flow and temperature. Skin blood flow (SBF), measured using laser Doppler fluxmetry and skin temperature was recorded under several different situations: (i) treatment, at 1 Bar pressure using a single-hole (5-mm) applicator head, for 1 min at each of several sites on the right and left lower legs, with SBF measured on the dorsum of the left foot; (ii) at the same treatment pressure, SBF was measured over the left tibialis anterior when treatment was performed at different distances from the probe; (iii) SBF and skin temperature of the lower leg were measured with treatment at 0 or 1 Bar for 45 min, using two different applicator heads; (iv) SBF was measured on the dorsum of the foot of 10 subjects with treatment for 1 min at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Bar using three different applicator heads. (i) SBF of the left foot was not altered by treatment of the right leg or chest, but was significantly increased during treatment of the left sole and first web, p Compressed air massage causes an immediate increase in SBF, and an immediate fall in SBF when treatment is stopped. The effect appears to be locally and not centrally mediated and is related to the pressure used. Treatment cools the skin for at least 15 min after a 45-min treatment.

  6. Building Muscles, Keeping Muscles: Protein Turnover During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Arny; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As we age we lose muscle mass and strength. The problem is a matter of use it or lose it and more - a fact to which any active senior can attest. An imbalance in the natural cycle of protein turnover may be a contributing factor to decreased muscle mass. But the answer is not so simple, since aging is associated with changes in hormones, activity levels, nutrition, and often, disease. The human body constantly uses amino acids to build muscle protein, which then breaks down and must be replaced. When protein turnover gets out of balance, so that more protein breaks down than the body can replace, the result is muscle loss. This is not just the bane of aging, however. Severely burned people may have difficulty building new muscle long after the burned skin has been repaired. Answers to why we lose muscle mass and strength - and how doctors can fix it - may come from space. Astronauts usually eat a well-balanced diet and maintain an exercise routine to stay in top health. During long-duration flight, they exercise regularly to reduce the muscle loss that results from being in a near-weightless environment. Despite these precautions, astronauts lose muscle mass and strength during most missions. They quickly recover after returning to Earth - this is a temporary condition in an otherwise healthy population. Members of the STS-107 crew are participating in a study of the effects of space flight, hormone levels, and stress on protein turnover. When we are under stress, the body responds with a change in hormone levels. Researchers hypothesize that this stress-induced change in hormones along with the near-weightlessness might result in the body synthesizing less muscle protein, causing muscles to lose their strength and size. Astronauts, who must perform numerous duties in a confined and unusual environment, experience some stress during their flight, making them excellent candidates for testing the researchers' hypothesis.

  7. Effect of stretching-based rehabilitation on pain, flexibility and muscle strength in dancers with hamstring injury: a single-blind, prospective, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Giwon; Kim, Hyangsun; Kim, Woo K; Kim, Junesun

    2017-10-24

    Hamstring injuries commonly occur in mainstream sports and occupations that involve physical activity. We evaluated the effect of a stretching-based rehabilitation program on pain, flexibility, and strength in dancers with hamstring injuries. Sixteen Korean traditional dancers with unilateral hamstring injuries were included and randomly assigned to a rehabilitation or control group. The rehabilitation group received stretching-based rehabilitation for 8 weeks, which comprised simple static stretches and basic range of motion (ROM) exercises, such as static and active stretching, concentric and eccentric ROM training, and trunk stabilization exercises. The control group received conventional treatment with analgesics and physical therapy. Outcomes were assessed before and after the interventions in both groups by comparing the visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain, straight leg raise ROM test for hamstring muscle flexibility, and isometric strength test for hamstring muscle strength. Subjects who underwent rehabilitation showed significant improvements in VAS score for pain (p = 0.017) and ROM for flexibility (p flexibility and strength in patients with hamstring injury. The data indicate that a stretching-based rehabilitation program can help promote functional recovery from hamstring injury.

  8. Muscle biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, G; Bugiardini, E; Cardani, R

    2012-04-01

    Muscle biopsy is required to provide a definitive diagnosis in many neuromuscular disorders. It can be performed through an open or needle technique under local anesthesia. The major limitations of the needle biopsy technique are the sample size, which is smaller than that obtained with open biopsy, and the impossibility of direct visualization of the sampling site. However, needle biopsy is a less invasive procedure than open biopsy and is particularly indicated for diagnosis of neuromuscular disease in infancy and childhood. The biopsied muscle should be one affected by the disease but not be too weak or too atrophic. Usually, in case of proximal muscle involvement, the quadriceps and the biceps are biopsied, while under suspicion of mitochondrial disorder, the deltoid is preferred. The samples must be immediately frozen or fixed after excision to prevent loss of enzymatic reactivity, DNA depletion or RNA degradation. A battery of stainings is performed on muscle sections from every frozen muscle biopsy arriving in the pathology laboratory. Histological, histochemical, and histoenzymatic stainings are performed to evaluate fiber atrophy, morphological, and structural changes and metabolic disorders. Moreover, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis may be used for expression analysis of muscle proteins to obtain a specific diagnosis. There are myopathies that do not need muscle biopsy since a genetic test performed on a blood sample is enough for definitive diagnosis. Muscle biopsy is a useful technique which can make an enormous contribution in the field of neuromuscular disorders but should be considered and interpreted together with the patient's family and clinical history.

  9. Clinical utility of skin karyotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza E. Dorfman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe report the case of a patient with Patau syndrome, diagnosed by skin karyotype, emphasizing the applications and importance of this test. The pregnancy morphology ultrasound showed face defects and of central nervous system and heart chambers asymmetry. In the postnatal evaluation it was identified microcephaly, single central nostril, and other malformations. We performed skin karyotype that resulted in full trisomy 13. Our report highlights the possibility of performing karyotype examination in cases when it is no longer possible to obtain a blood sample, thus providing the correct diagnosis and genetic counseling for the family.

  10. Skin self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Cancer Institute. What You Need To Know About Melanoma and Other Skin Cancers: How To Check Your Skin. (NIH Publication No. ...

  11. Estrogens and aging skin

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  12. Muscle activation in healthy subjects during single step up [Aktivace svalů u zdravých osob při nákroku na schod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Opavský

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The single step up is an integral movement performance for functional mobility and activities of daily living. During this activity the body has to be able to keep its balance and maintain a stable upright posture for performing voluntary movement. For this purpose the central nervous system creates different motor programs specific to the task. A motor programme is believed to contain the pre-programmed sequence of muscle activity prior to the initiation of the task, and includes both the muscle activity for the task, as well as postural muscle activity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to examine the sequence of muscular activation, and to determine the timing of the involvement of selected trunk and leg muscles whilst stepping up. The further aim was to find out the most common muscle patterns in this model of motor activity in healthy subjects. METHODS: The bilateral electromyographic (EMG signal from the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris and erectores spinae muscles were recorded using surface electromyography. The visual record of the step up performance was registered simultaneously with surface electromyography. The tested group consisted of 16 healthy (5 men with an average age of 23.6, 11 women with an average age of 23.2. They were monitored during the motor task – the step up task, that is which was performed by the dominant leg. The subject stood facing the step (height of the step = 20 cm. Upon request he/she stepped up with the right leg at a spontaneous speed. The motor task was completed by bringing the left leg up onto the step. RESULTS: During this task, we registered the activation of the right erector spinae muscle, right biceps femoris muscle, left erector spinae muscle and left biceps femoris muscle before the beginning of the visually recognizable movement. The most frequently registered pattern of activation on the side that carried out the step was: right biceps femoris muscle → right erector spinae

  13. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it well before you attach the pouch. Avoid skin care products that contain alcohol. These can make your skin ... the pouch to your skin. Use fewer special skin care products. This will make problems with your skin less ...

  14. Unusual intramuscular lipoma of deltoid muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Papathanasiou, Jiannis; Dermon, Antonios; Dimitrakopoulou, Alexandra; Ververidis, Athanasios; Chloropoulou, Pelagia; Kazakos, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    Lipomas are common soft tissue tumors usually located under the skin. Nevertheless, intramuscular lipomas of deltoid muscle are unusual tumors. We present a case of 74-year-old woman with an intramuscular like clepsydra lipoma of deltoid muscle. The lesion was a palpable soft mass at the lateral side of the humerus. The patient had no previous history of trauma. The main symptom was pain only in abduction and extension. Imaging, pathological findings and surgical excision are discussed.

  15. Snapshot RGB mapping of skin melanin and hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigulis, Janis; Oshina, Ilze

    2015-05-01

    The concept of snapshot red-green-blue (RGB) multispectral imaging was applied for skin chromophore mapping. Three monochromatic spectral images have been extracted from a single RGB image dataset at simultaneous illumination of skin by 473-, 532-, and 659-nm laser lines. The spectral images were further transformed into distribution maps of skin melanin, oxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin, related to pigmented and vascular skin malformations. The performance and clinical potential of the proposed technique are discussed.

  16. Study on distribution of terminal branches of the facial nerve in mimetic muscles (orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Shiozawa, Kei; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2014-01-01

    There have been many anatomical reports to date regarding the course of the facial nerve to the mimetic muscles. However, reports are relatively scarce on the detailed distribution of the terminal branches of the facial nerve to the mimetic muscles. In this study, we performed detailed examination of the terminal facial nerve branches to the mimetic muscles, particularly the branches terminating in the orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle. Examination was performed on 25 Japanese adult autopsy cases, involving 25 hemifaces. The mean age was 87.4 years (range, 60-102 years). There were 12 men and 13 women (12 left hemifaces and 13 right hemifaces). In each case, the facial nerve was exposed through a preauricular skin incision. The main trunk of the facial nerve was dissected from the stylomastoid foramen. A microscope was used to dissect the terminal branches to the periphery and observe them. The course and distribution were examined for all terminal branches of the facial nerve. However, focus was placed on the course and distribution of the zygomatic branch, buccal branch, and mandibular branch to the orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle. The temporal branch was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in all cases and the marginal mandibular branch was distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in all cases. The zygomatic branch was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in all cases, but it was also distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in 10 of 25 cases. The buccal branch was not distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in 3 of 25 cases, and it was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in 8 cases. There was no significant difference in the variations. The orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle perform particularly important movements among the facial mimetic muscles. According to textbooks, the temporal branch and zygomatic branch innervate the orbicularis oculi muscle, and the buccal branch

  17. Getting Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re thinking about aren't possible for kids. Superheroes, of course, aren't real, and professional athletes ... can make you stronger. Why? Because you're using your muscles when you do it. Eat Strong ...

  18. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  19. Thermosensitive Hydrogel Mask Significantly Improves Skin Moisture and Skin Tone; Bilateral Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Quattrone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A temperature-sensitive state-changing hydrogel mask was used in this study. Once it comes into contact with the skin and reaches the body temperature, it uniformly and quickly releases the active compounds, which possess moisturizing, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. Methods: An open label clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the test product on skin hydration, skin tone and skin ageing. Subjects applied the product to one side of their face and underwent Corneometer® and Chromameter measurements, Visual assessment of facial skin ageing and facial photography. All assessments and Self-Perception Questionnaires (SPQ were performed at baseline, after the first application of the test product and after four applications. Results: After a single treatment we observed an increase in skin moisturisation, an improvement of skin tone/luminosity and a reduction in signs of ageing, all statistically significant. After four applications a further improvement in all measured parameters was recorded. These results were confirmed by the subjects’ own perceptions, as reported in the SPQ both after one and four applications. Conclusion: The hydrogel mask tested in this study is very effective in improving skin hydration, skin radiance and luminosity, in encouraging an even skin tone and in reducing skin pigmentation.

  20. Individual skin care during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.S.; Budach, W.; Doerr, W.

    1998-01-01

    Background: In many clinical settings, the irradiated patient feels additional discomfort by the inhibition of washing the treatment portals and interruption of his adapted skin care habits. Material and methods: An analysis of the scientific recommendations as well as an analysis of the skin dose to the irradiated portals has been performed. An individual scheme for skin care under radiation has been developed. Results: A substantial decrease of the skin dose is achieved in many modern radiation techniques. The consequent reduction of severe skin reactions allowed the use of water and mild soaps as has been approved within many radiotherapy departments. This has lead to an individualized concept for skin care under radiation treatment including the allowance of gentle washing. The skin marks may be saved by using highly tolerable adhesive plasters or small tattoo points, if they are not superfluous by using masks or single referee points instead of marks for the field borders. Conclusions: The individualized concept for skin care during radiation may offer improved life quality to the patient and may decrease the acute reactions of the skin at least in some cases. (orig.) [de

  1. Trunk extensor muscle fatigue influences trunk muscle activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinpoor, Tahere Seyed; Kahrizi, Sedighe; Mobini, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Trunk muscles fatigue is one of the risk factors in workplaces and daily activities. Loads would be redistributed among active and passive tissues in a non-optimal manner in fatigue conditions. Therefore, a single tissue might be overloaded with minimal loads and as a result the risk of injury would increase. The goal of this paper was to assess the electromyographic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles after trunk extensor muscles fatigue induced by cyclic lifting task. This was an experimental study that twenty healthy women participated. For assessing automatic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles before and after the fatigue task, electromyographic activities of 6 muscles: thorasic erector spine (TES), lumbar erector spine (LES), lumbar multifidus (LMF), transverse abdominis/ internal oblique (TrA/IO), rectus abdominis (RA) and external oblique (EO) were recorded in standing position with no load and symmetric axial loads equal to 25% of their body weights. Statistical analysis showed that all the abdominal muscles activity decreased with axial loads after performing fatigue task but trunk extensor activity remained constant. Results of the current study indicated that muscle recruitment strategies changed with muscle fatigue and load bearing, therefore risks of tissue injury may increase in fatigue conditions.

  2. Enzyme replacement therapy rescues weakness and improves muscle pathology in mice with X-linked myotubular myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Michael W; Armstrong, Dustin; Viola, Marissa G; Widrick, Jeffrey J; Meng, Hui; Grange, Robert W; Childers, Martin K; Hsu, Cynthia P; O'Callaghan, Michael; Pierson, Christopher R; Buj-Bello, Anna; Beggs, Alan H

    2013-04-15

    No effective treatment exists for patients with X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), a fatal congenital muscle disease caused by deficiency of the lipid phosphatase, myotubularin. The Mtm1δ4 and Mtm1 p.R69C mice model severely and moderately symptomatic XLMTM, respectively, due to differences in the degree of myotubularin deficiency. Contractile function of intact extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles from Mtm1δ4 mice, which produce no myotubularin, is markedly impaired. Contractile forces generated by chemically skinned single fiber preparations from Mtm1δ4 muscle were largely preserved, indicating that weakness was largely due to impaired excitation contraction coupling. Mtm1 p.R69C mice, which produce small amounts of myotubularin, showed impaired contractile function only in EDL muscles. Short-term replacement of myotubularin with a prototypical targeted protein replacement agent (3E10Fv-MTM1) in Mtm1δ4 mice improved contractile function and muscle pathology. These promising findings suggest that even low levels of myotubularin protein replacement can improve the muscle weakness and reverse the pathology that characterizes XLMTM.

  3. Surface Imaging Skin Friction Instrument and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James L. (Inventor); Naughton, Jonathan W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A surface imaging skin friction instrument allowing 2D resolution of spatial image by a 2D Hilbert transform and 2D inverse thin-oil film solver, providing an innovation over prior art single point approaches. Incoherent, monochromatic light source can be used. The invention provides accurate, easy to use, economical measurement of larger regions of surface shear stress in a single test.

  4. Oily skin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Thais H; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Oily skin (seborrhea) is a common cosmetic problem that occurs when oversized sebaceous glands produce excessive amounts of sebum giving the appearance of shiny and greasy skin. This paper overviews the main concepts of sebaceous gland anatomy and physiology, including the biosynthesis, storage and release of sebum, as well as its relationship to skin hydration and water barrier function. We also address how skin oiliness may vary according to diet, age, gender, ethnicity and hot humid climates. The deeper understanding of this skin type provides the opportunity to better guide patients regarding skin care and also assist in the development of sebosuppressive agents. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Whole body oxygen uptake and evoked torque during subtetanic isometric electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscles in a single 30-minute session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minogue, Conor M; Caulfield, Brian M; Lowery, Madeleine M

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the time course of fatigue in torque output and oxygen uptake during isometric subtetanic neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) to facilitate the design of NMES-based rehabilitation protocols that can accumulate a defined aerobic exercise volume within a given time period. Single-arm intervention study with within-subject comparisons. University research laboratory. Volunteer sample of healthy men (N=11; mean age, 34.2 ± 11.5 y; range, 19-53 y; body mass, 79.1 ± 11.7 kg; range, 58-100 kg). A single 30-minute session of continuous bilateral isometric quadriceps NMES at 4 Hz evoking a mean twitch amplitude of 12% of the maximum voluntary contraction. Whole body oxygen consumption rate (V˙o2), and evoked torque were measured simultaneously throughout. Mean increment in V˙o2 was 596 ± 238 mL/min, and average exercise intensity during the session was 3 ±.47 metabolic equivalents. The V˙o2 and torque declined slowly at a rate of -.54%±.31% and -.47%±.57% per minute, respectively. Despite having a higher incremental V˙o2, the observed fatigue rate was considerably less than that previously reported during intermittent isometric tetanic stimulation, suggesting that subtetanic isometric NMES is more sustainable for exercise interventions aimed at accumulating a therapeutic aerobic exercise volume. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [The gluteus maximus inferior split-muscle flap for the cover of ischiatic pressure ulcers: Study of 61 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, P-L; Pinatel, B; Viard, R; Comparin, J-P; Gir, P; Voulliaume, D

    2016-12-01

    The coverage of ischiatic pressure ulcers is characterized by a significant recurrence rate (8-64% depending on the series). It therefore seems necessary to introduce the concept of saving in the use of muscle flaps available to avoid being in a situation of therapeutic impasse. The gluteus maximus inferior split-muscle flap allows a tailored coverage to the ischiatic pressure ulcers grade IV with skin defect less than 8cm after surgical debridement. It is associated with an advancement-rotation skin flap removed above the sub-gluteal fold. The surgical treatment is performed in a single-stage (care+coverage), undercovered by probabilistic antibiotic per- and postoperative then secondarily adapted. After excision of the cavity, a gluteus maximus inferior split-muscle flap was realized. The inferior gluteal artery ensures the muscular flap vascularization. Afterwards, patients follow a rehabilitation program in a specialized center. Sixty-one flaps were performed in 55 patients between September 2000 and January 2015. Fifty-nine (97%) were conducted in first-line and 2 (3%) for covering recurrent pressure ulcers. After a mean duration of 4 years and 8 months follow-up, 13 pressure ulcers (21.3%) relapsed. If reoperation, a simple remobilization of the muscle flap was achieved in 54% of cases, a myocutaneous flap of biceps femoris in 23% and surgical abstention in a patient with non-compliant perioperative care. The gluteus maximus inferior split-muscle flap, simple to implement, provides coverage of ischial pressure sores while sparing muscle flaps usually used for this indication. The recurrence rate associated with the gluteus maximus inferior split-muscle flap is comparable to biceps femoris and gluteus maximus muscle flaps (totally harvested). It does not sacrifice function gluteus maximus muscle and can be performed in the valid patient. This flap keeps the Superior split-muscle, mobilized in case of sacral pressure ulcer. The gluteus maximus inferior split-muscle

  7. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  8. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: February 7, 2018 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  9. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beds) over long periods of time. Having a fair complexion, which includes the following: Fair skin that freckles and burns easily, does not ... beds) over long periods of time. Having a fair complexion, which includes the following: Fair skin that ...

  10. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beds) over long periods of time. Having a fair complexion, which includes the following: Fair skin that freckles and burns easily, does not ... beds) over long periods of time. Having a fair complexion, which includes the following: Fair skin that ...

  11. Healthy Skin Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your skin in good health. Eating a balanced diet will help you maintain a healthy weight and ... for your skin and your overall health. A balanced diet: Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free ...

  12. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ...

  13. Radiation therapy -- skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000735.htm Radiation therapy - skin care To use the sharing features on ... should treat your skin with care while receiving radiation therapy. Causes External radiation therapy uses high-powered x- ...

  14. Allergic Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 28 days to go away, even with treatment. Nickel, perfumes, dyes, rubber (latex) products and cosmetics also ... or swollen skin, you may have a skin allergy. • Urticaria (hives) are red, itchy, raised areas of ...

  15. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not well controlled with medicine Hives and angioedema Food allergies Skin rashes ( dermatitis ), in which the skin becomes ... prick test may also be used to diagnose food allergies. Intradermal tests are not used to test for ...

  16. Allergy Skin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hay fever (allergic rhinitis) Allergic asthma Dermatitis (eczema) Food allergies Penicillin allergy Bee venom allergy Latex allergy Skin ... and dust mites. Skin testing may help diagnose food allergies. But because food allergies can be complex, you ...

  17. Use of prediction equations to determine the accuracy of whole-body fat and fat-free mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass measurements from a single abdominal image using computed tomography in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, Robert D; Cardiff, Katrina; Rosenthall, Leonard; Lucar, Enriqueta; Trutschnigg, Barbara; Vigano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single abdominal images from computed tomography (CT) in advanced cancer patients (ACP) have important diagnostic and prognostic value. The question arises as to whether CT scans can serve as surrogates for DXA in terms of whole-body fat-free mass (FFM), whole-body fat mass (FM), and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) mass. Predictive equations to estimate body composition for ACP from CT images have been proposed (Mourtzakis et al. 2008; Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metabol. 33(5): 997-1006); however, these equations have yet to be validated in an independent cohort of ACP. Thus, this study evaluated the accuracy of these equations in estimating FFM, FM, and ASM mass using CT images at the level of the third lumbar vertebrae and compared these values with DXA measurements. FFM, FM, and ASM mass were estimated from the prediction equations proposed by Mourtzakis and colleagues (2008) using single abdominal CT images from 43 ACP and were compared with whole-body DXA scans using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman analyses. Despite a moderate to high correlation between the actual (DXA) and predicted (CT) values for FM (rho = 0.93; p ≤ 0.001), FFM (rho = 0.78; p ≤ 0.001), and ASM mass (rho = 0.70; p ≤ 0.001), Bland-Altman analyses revealed large range-of-agreement differences between the 2 methods (29.39 kg for FFM, 15.47 kg for FM, and 3.99 kg for ASM mass). Based on the magnitude of these differences, we concluded that prediction equations using single abdominal CT images have poor accuracy, cannot be considered as surrogates for DXA, and may have limited clinical utility.

  18. Experience with peroneus brevis muscle flaps for reconstruction of distal leg and ankle defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Bajantri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Peroneus brevis is a muscle in the leg which is expendable without much functional deficit. The objective of this study was to find out its usefulness in coverage of the defects of the lower leg and ankle. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the use of 39 pedicled peroneus brevis muscle flaps used for coverage of defects of the lower leg and ankle between November 2010 and December 2012 was carried out. The flaps were proximally based for defects of the lower third of the leg in 12 patients and distally based for reconstruction of defects of the ankle in 26 patients, with one patient having flaps on both ankles. Results: Partial flap loss in critical areas was found in four patients requiring further flap cover and in non-critical areas in two patients, which were managed with a skin graft. Three of the four critical losses occurred when we used it for covering defects over the medial malleolus. There was no complete flap loss in any of the patients. Conclusion: This flap has a unique vascular pattern and fails to fit into the classification of the vasculature of muscles by Mathes and Nahai. The unusual feature is an axial vessel system running down the deep aspect of the muscle and linking the perforators from the peroneal artery and anterior tibial artery, which allows it to be raised proximally or distally on a single perforator. The flap is simple to raise and safe for the reconstruction of small-to moderate-sized skin defects of the distal third of the tibia and all parts of the ankle except the medial malleolus, which is too far from the pedicle of the distally based flap. The donor site can be closed primarily to provide a linear scar. The muscle flap thins with time to provide a good result aesthetically at the primary defect.

  19. Synchronous monitoring of muscle dynamics and electromyogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakir Hossain, M.; Grill, Wolfgang

    2011-04-01

    A non-intrusive novel detection scheme has been implemented to detect the lateral muscle extension, force of the skeletal muscle and the motor action potential (EMG) synchronously. This allows the comparison of muscle dynamics and EMG signals as a basis for modeling and further studies to determine which architectural parameters are most sensitive to changes in muscle activity. For this purpose the transmission time for ultrasonic chirp signal in the frequency range of 100 kHz to 2.5 MHz passing through the muscle under observation and respective motor action potentials are recorded synchronously to monitor and quantify biomechanical parameters related to muscle performance. Additionally an ultrasonic force sensor has been employed for monitoring. Ultrasonic traducers are placed on the skin to monitor muscle expansion. Surface electrodes are placed suitably to pick up the potential for activation of the monitored muscle. Isometric contraction of the monitored muscle is ensured by restricting the joint motion with the ultrasonic force sensor. Synchronous monitoring was initiated by a software activated audio beep starting at zero time of the subsequent data acquisition interval. Computer controlled electronics are used to generate and detect the ultrasonic signals and monitor the EMG signals. Custom developed software and data analysis is employed to analyze and quantify the monitored data. Reaction time, nerve conduction speed, latent period between the on-set of EMG signals and muscle response, degree of muscle activation and muscle fatigue development, rate of energy expenditure and motor neuron recruitment rate in isometric contraction, and other relevant parameters relating to muscle performance have been quantified with high spatial and temporal resolution.

  20. Laser-induced skin temperature oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podtaev, S.; Dumler, A.; Muravyov, N.; Myasnikov, M.; Tsiberkin, K.

    2010-11-01

    Adaptive wavelet analysis algorithms are used to study skin temperature oscillations caused by periodic changes in the blood flow resulting from oscillations in the vasomotor smooth muscle tone. Reduction in the amplitude of temperature fluctuations with frequency arises because the skin, owing to its low thermal diffusivity, has the properties of a lowfrequency filter. In view of their small amplitude, oscillations in the spectral range, reflecting the influence of heartbeat and respiration, cannot be distinguished from the external thermal noise. To analyze changes in oscillations of skin temperature during the laser stimulation (10 mW/cm2, 630 nm) we extract three frequency bands, corresponding to myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial vascular tone regulation mechanisms. Red laser irradiation causes temperature fluctuations changes within spectral ranges corresponding endothelial functioning and neurogenic activity.

  1. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during pregnancy. For most skin changes, however, health care providers are not sure of the exact cause. Why do dark spots and patches appear on the skin during pregnancy? Dark spots and patches are caused by an increase in the body’s melanin—a natural substance that gives color to the skin and ...

  2. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing

  3. Effect of repeated forearm muscle cooling on the adaptation of skeletal muscle metabolism in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Takayuki; Wijayanto, Titis; Watanuki, Shigeki; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated cooling of forearm muscle on adaptation in skeletal muscle metabolism. It is hypothesized that repeated decreases of muscle temperature would increase the oxygen consumption in hypothermic skeletal muscle. Sixteen healthy males participated in this study. Their right forearm muscles were locally cooled to 25 °C by cooling pads attached to the skin. This local cooling was repeated eight times on separate days for eight participants (experimental group), whereas eight controls received no cold exposure. To evaluate adaptation in skeletal muscle metabolism, a local cooling test was conducted before and after the repeated cooling period. Change in oxy-hemoglobin content in the flexor digitorum at rest and during a 25-s isometric handgrip (10% maximal voluntary construction) was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy at every 2 °C reduction in forearm muscle temperature. The arterial blood flow was occluded for 15 s by upper arm cuff inflation at rest and during the isometric handgrip. The oxygen consumption in the flexor digitorum muscle was evaluated by a slope of the oxy-hemoglobin change during the arterial occlusion. In the experimental group, resting oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle did not show any difference between pre- and post-intervention, whereas muscle oxygen consumption during the isometric handgrip was significantly higher in post-intervention than in pre-test from thermoneutral baseline to 31 °C muscle temperature ( P < 0.05). This result indicated that repeated local muscle cooling might facilitate oxidative metabolism in the skeletal muscle. In summary, skeletal muscle metabolism during submaximal isometric handgrip was facilitated after repeated local muscle cooling.

  4. Lactate per se improves the excitability of depolarised rat skeletal muscle by reducing the Cl- conductance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo; Ørtenblad, Niels; Pedersen, Thomas Holm

    2010-01-01

    to lactate can inhibit muscle Cl- channels it is possible that lactate per se can increase muscle excitability by exerting a direct effect on these channels. We therefore examined effects of lactate on the function of intact muscles and skinned fibres together with effects on pH and Cl- conductance...

  5. Muscle size explains low passive skeletal muscle force in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzolo, Fausto Antonio; Maiorana, Andrew J; Naylor, Louise H; Dembo, Lawrence G; Lloyd, David G; Green, Daniel J; Rubenson, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in skeletal muscle function and architecture have been linked to the compromised exercise capacity characterizing chronic heart failure (CHF). However, how passive skeletal muscle force is affected in CHF is not clear. Understanding passive force characteristics in CHF can help further elucidate the extent to which altered contractile properties and/or architecture might affect muscle and locomotor function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate passive force in a single muscle for which non-invasive measures of muscle size and estimates of fiber force are possible, the soleus (SOL), both in CHF patients and age- and physical activity-matched control participants. Passive SOL muscle force and size were obtained by means of a novel approach combining experimental data (dynamometry, electromyography, ultrasound imaging) with a musculoskeletal model. We found reduced passive SOL forces (∼30%) (at the same relative levels of muscle stretch) in CHF vs. healthy individuals. This difference was eliminated when force was normalized by physiological cross sectional area, indicating that reduced force output may be most strongly associated with muscle size. Nevertheless, passive force was significantly higher in CHF at a given absolute muscle length (non length-normalized) and likely explained by the shorter muscle slack lengths and optimal muscle lengths measured in CHF compared to the control participants. This later factor may lead to altered performance of the SOL in functional tasks such gait. These findings suggest introducing exercise rehabilitation targeting muscle hypertrophy and, specifically for the calf muscles, exercise that promotes muscle lengthening.

  6. Mastectomy skin necrosis after microsurgical breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Christina R; Koolen, Pieter G; Anderson, Katarina E; Paul, Marek A; Tobias, Adam M; Lin, Samuel J; Lee, Bernard T

    2015-10-01

    Mastectomy skin necrosis represents a significant clinical morbidity after immediate breast reconstruction. In addition to aesthetic deformity, necrosis of the native mastectomy skin may require debridement, additional reconstruction, or prolonged wound care and potentially delay oncologic treatment. This study aims to evaluate patient and procedural characteristics to identify predictors of mastectomy skin necrosis after microsurgical breast reconstruction. A retrospective review was performed of all immediate microsurgical breast reconstructions performed at a single academic center. Patient records were queried for age, diabetes, active smoking, previous breast surgery, preoperative radiation, preoperative chemotherapy, body mass index, mastectomy type, mastectomy weight, flap type, autologous flap type, and postoperative mastectomy skin flap necrosis. There were 746 immediate autologous microsurgical flaps performed by three plastic surgeons at our institution during the study period. The incidence of mastectomy skin flap necrosis was 13.4%. Univariate analysis revealed a significantly higher incidence of mastectomy skin necrosis in patients with higher mastectomy weight (P mastectomy type. Multivariate analysis demonstrated statistically significant associations between mastectomy skin necrosis and both increasing mastectomy weight (odds ratio 1.348 per quartile increase, P = 0.009) and diabetes (odds ratio 2.356, P = 0.011). Increasing mastectomy weight and coexisting diabetes are significantly associated with postoperative mastectomy skin necrosis after microsurgical reconstruction. These characteristics should be considered during patient counseling, procedure selection, operative planning, and intraoperative tissue viability assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An open label, single-arm, phase II multicenter study of the safety and efficacy of CG0070 oncolytic vector regimen in patients with BCG-unresponsive non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: Interim results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packiam, Vignesh T; Lamm, Donald L; Barocas, Daniel A; Trainer, Andrew; Fand, Benjamin; Davis, Ronald L; Clark, William; Kroeger, Michael; Dumbadze, Igor; Chamie, Karim; Kader, A Karim; Curran, Dominic; Gutheil, John; Kuan, Arthur; Yeung, Alex W; Steinberg, Gary D

    2017-07-26

    CG0070 is a replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus that targets bladder tumor cells through their defective retinoblastoma pathway. Prior reports of intravesical CG0070 have shown promising activity in patients with high-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) who previously did not respond to bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). However, limited accrual has hindered analysis of efficacy, particularly for pathologic subsets. We evaluated interim results of a phase II trial for intravesical CG0070 in patients with BCG-unresponsive NMIBC who refused cystectomy. At interim analysis (April 2017), 45 patients with residual high-grade Ta, T1, or carcinoma-in-situ (CIS) ± Ta/T1 had evaluable 6-month follow-up in this phase II single-arm multicenter trial (NCT02365818). All patients received at least 2 prior courses of intravesical therapy for CIS, with at least 1 being a course of BCG. Patients had either failed BCG induction therapy within 6 months or had been successfully treated with BCG with subsequent recurrence. Complete response (CR) at 6 months was defined as absence of disease on cytology, cystoscopy, and random biopsies. Of 45 patients, there were 24 pure CIS, 8 CIS + Ta, 4 CIS + T1, 6 Ta, 3 T1. Overall 6-month CR (95% CI) was 47% (32%-62%). Considering 6-month CR for pathologic subsets, pure CIS was 58% (37%-78%), CIS ± Ta/T1 50% (33%-67%), and pure Ta/T1 33% (8%-70%). At 6 months, the single patient that progressed to muscle-invasive disease had Ta and T1 tumors at baseline. No patients with pure T1 had 6-month CR. Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) at 6 months were most commonly urinary bladder spasms (36%), hematuria (28%), dysuria (25%), and urgency (22%). Immunologic treatment-related AEs included flu-like symptoms (12%) and fatigue (6%). Grade III treatment-related AEs included dysuria (3%) and hypotension (1.5%). There were no Grade IV/V treatment-related AEs. This phase II study demonstrates that intravesical CG0070 yielded an overall 47

  8. A single bout of whole-leg, peristaltic pulse external pneumatic compression upregulates PGC-1α mRNA and endothelial nitric oxide sythase protein in human skeletal muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Wesley C; Mobley, C Brooks; Fox, Carlton D; Pascoe, David D; Sefton, JoEllen M; Wilson, Trent J; Goodlett, Michael D; Kavazis, Andreas N; Roberts, Michael D; Martin, Jeffrey S

    2015-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does 60 min of peristaltic pulse external pneumatic compression (EPC) alter gene and protein expression patterns related to metabolism, vascular biology, redox balance and inflammation in vastus lateralis biopsy samples? What is the main finding and its importance? A single bout of EPC transiently upregulates PGC-1α mRNA, while also upregulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein and nitric oxide metabolite concentrations in vastus lateralis biopsy samples. We investigated whether a single 60 min bout of whole-leg, lower pressure external pneumatic compression (EPC) altered select vascular, metabolic, antioxidant and inflammation-related mRNAs. Ten participants (eight male, two female; aged 22.0 ± 0.4 years) reported to the laboratory 4 h postprandial, and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before (PRE) and 1 and 4 h after EPC treatment. Messenger RNA expression was analysed using real-time RT-PCR, and significant mRNA findings were investigated further by Western blot analysis of respective protein concentrations. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA increased by 77% 1 h following EPC compared with PRE levels (P = 0.005), but no change in protein concentration 1 or 4 h post-EPC was observed. Increases in endothelial nitric oxide sythase (eNOS) mRNA (+44%) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) mRNA (+57%) 1 h post-EPC as well as an increase in interleukin-10 mRNA (+132%) 4 h post-EPC compared with PRE levels were observed, but only approached significance (P = 0.076, 0.077 and 0.074, respectively). Interestingly, eNOS protein (+40%, P = 0.025) and nitrate and nitrite (NOx) concentrations (+69%, P = 0.025) increased 1-4 h post-EPC. Moreover, SOD2 protein tended to increase from PRE to 4 h post-EPC (+43%, P = 0.074), although no changes in tissue 4-hydroxnonenal levels was observed. An acute bout of EPC transiently upregulates PGC-1α mRNA, while also upregulating e

  9. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    barrier integrity, factors influencing the penetration of the skin, influence of wet work, and guidance for prevention and saving the barrier. Distinguished researchers have contributed to this book, providing a comprehensive and thorough overview of the skin barrier function. Researchers in the field...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  10. Exercise-stimulated interleukin-15 is controlled by AMPK and regulates skin metabolism and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Justin D; MacNeil, Lauren G; Lally, James S; Ford, Rebecca J; Bujak, Adam L; Brar, Ikdip K; Kemp, Bruce E; Raha, Sandeep; Steinberg, Gregory R; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Aging is commonly associated with a structural deterioration of skin that compromises its barrier function, healing, and susceptibility to disease. Several lines of evidence show that these changes are driven largely by impaired tissue mitochondrial metabolism. While exercise is associated with numerous health benefits, there is no evidence that it affects skin tissue or that endocrine muscle-to-skin signaling occurs. We demonstrate that endurance exercise attenuates age-associated changes to skin in humans and mice and identify exercise-induced IL-15 as a novel regulator of mitochondrial function in aging skin. We show that exercise controls IL-15 expression in part through skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a central regulator of metabolism, and that the elimination of muscle AMPK causes a deterioration of skin structure. Finally, we establish that daily IL-15 therapy mimics some of the anti-aging effects of exercise on muscle and skin in mice. Thus, we elucidate a mechanism by which exercise confers health benefits to skin and suggest that low-dose IL-15 therapy may prove to be a beneficial strategy to attenuate skin aging. PMID:25902870

  11. Traumatic avulsion of extraocular muscles: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilza Minguini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We described the clinical, surgical details and results (motor and sensory of the retrieving procedure of traumatically avulsed muscles in three patients with no previous history of strabismus or diplopia seen in the Department of Ophthalmology, State University of Campinas, Brazil. The slipped muscle portion was reinserted at the original insertion and under the remaining stump, which was sutured over the reinserted muscle. For all three cases there was recovery of single binocular vision and stereopsis.

  12. [Autocontrol of muscle relaxation with vecuronium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibilla, C; Zatelli, R; Marchi, M; Zago, M

    1990-01-01

    The optimal conditions for maintaining desired levels of muscle relaxation with vecuronium are obtained by means of the continuous infusion (I.V.) technique. A frequent correction of the infusion flow is required, since it is impossible to predict the exact amount for the muscle relaxant in single case. In order to overcome such limits the authors propose a very feasible infusion system for the self-control of muscle relaxation; furthermore they positively consider its possible daily clinical application.

  13. Heat stress inhibits skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Frier, Bruce C.; Locke, Marius

    2007-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are molecular chaperones that aid in protein synthesis and trafficking and have been shown to protect cells/tissues from various protein damaging stressors. To determine the extent to which a single heat stress and the concurrent accumulation of Hsps influences the early events of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, Sprague-Dawley rats were heat stressed (42°C, 15 minutes) 24 hours prior to overloading 1 plantaris muscle by surgical removal of the gastrocnemius muscle. The...

  14. Stretching skeletal muscle: chronic muscle lengthening through sarcomerogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Zöllner

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle responds to passive overstretch through sarcomerogenesis, the creation and serial deposition of new sarcomere units. Sarcomerogenesis is critical to muscle function: It gradually re-positions the muscle back into its optimal operating regime. Animal models of immobilization, limb lengthening, and tendon transfer have provided significant insight into muscle adaptation in vivo. Yet, to date, there is no mathematical model that allows us to predict how skeletal muscle adapts to mechanical stretch in silico. Here we propose a novel mechanistic model for chronic longitudinal muscle growth in response to passive mechanical stretch. We characterize growth through a single scalar-valued internal variable, the serial sarcomere number. Sarcomerogenesis, the evolution of this variable, is driven by the elastic mechanical stretch. To analyze realistic three-dimensional muscle geometries, we embed our model into a nonlinear finite element framework. In a chronic limb lengthening study with a muscle stretch of 1.14, the model predicts an acute sarcomere lengthening from 3.09[Formula: see text]m to 3.51[Formula: see text]m, and a chronic gradual return to the initial sarcomere length within two weeks. Compared to the experiment, the acute model error was 0.00% by design of the model; the chronic model error was 2.13%, which lies within the rage of the experimental standard deviation. Our model explains, from a mechanistic point of view, why gradual multi-step muscle lengthening is less invasive than single-step lengthening. It also explains regional variations in sarcomere length, shorter close to and longer away from the muscle-tendon interface. Once calibrated with a richer data set, our model may help surgeons to prevent muscle overstretch and make informed decisions about optimal stretch increments, stretch timing, and stretch amplitudes. We anticipate our study to open new avenues in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery and enhance

  15. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  16. Skin absorption through atopic dermatitis skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, A-S; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and non-lesional skin. They are typically exposed to emollients daily and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, hereby increasing the risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposed to chemicals...... ingredients found in these topical preparations. We systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in atopic dermatitis patients, but also animals with experimentally induced dermatitis. We identified 40 articles, i.e. 11 human studies...... examining model penetrants, 26 human studies examining atopic dermatitis drugs and 3 animal studies. We conclude that atopic dermatitis patients have nearly two-fold increased skin absorption when compared to healthy controls. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological and dermato...

  17. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer brochure Is it true that only people with light skin get skin cancer? No. Anyone can get skin cancer. It's more common among people with a light (fair) skin tone, but skin cancer can affect anyone. ...

  18. Anti-CTGF single-chain variable fragment dimers inhibit human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell proliferation by down-regulating p-Akt and p-mTOR levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Cai, Liting; Xu, Xudong; Fan, Juxiang; Xue, Xiulei; Yan, Xuejiao; Qu, Qinrong; Wang, Xihua; Zhang, Chen; Wu, Guoqiu

    2014-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) contributes to airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell hyperplasia in asthma. Humanized single-chain variable fragment antibody (scFv) was well characterized as a CTGF antagonist in the differentiation of fibroblast into myofibroblast and pulmonary fibrosis in our previous studies. To further improve the bioactivity of scFv, we constructed a plasmid to express scFv-linker-matrilin-6×His fusion proteins that could self-assemble into the scFv dimers by disulfide bonds in matrilin under non-reducing conditions. An immunoreactivity assay demonstrated that the scFv dimer could highly bind to CTGF in a concentration-dependent manner. The MTT and EdU assay results revealed that CTGF (≥10 ng/mL) promoted the proliferation of ASM cells, and this effect was inhibited when the cells were treated with anti-CTGF scFv dimer. The western blot analysis results showed that increased phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR induced by CTGF could be suppressed by this scFv dimer. Based on these findings, anti-CTGF scFv dimer may be a potential agent for the prevention of airway remodeling in asthma.

  19. Diffusion of [2-14C]diazepam across hairless mouse skin and human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.L.; Palicharla, P.; Groves, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the absorption of diazepam applied topically to the hairless mouse in vivo and to determine the diffusion of diazepam across isolated hairless mouse skin and human skin. [ 14 C]Diazepam was readily absorbed after topical administration to the intact hairless mouse, a total of 75.8% of the 14 C-label applied being recovered in urine and feces. Diazepam was found to diffuse across human and hairless mouse skin unchanged in experiments with twin-chambered diffusion cells. The variation in diffusion rate or the flux for both human and mouse tissues was greater among specimens than between duplicate or triplicate trials for a single specimen. Fluxes for mouse skin (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) were greater than for human skin (stratum corneum and epidermis): 0.35-0.61 microgram/cm2/h for mouse skin vs 0.24-0.42 microgram/cm2/h for human skin. The permeability coefficients for mouse skin ranged from 1.4-2.4 X 10(-2)cm/h compared with 0.8-1.4 X 10(-2)cm/h for human skin. Although human stratum corneum is almost twice the thickness of that of the hairless mouse, the diffusion coefficients for human skin were 3-12 times greater (0.76-3.31 X 10(-6) cm2/h for human skin vs 0.12-0.27 X 10(-6) cm2/h for hairless mouse) because of a shorter lag time for diffusion across human skin. These differences between the diffusion coefficients and diffusion rates (or permeability coefficients) suggest that the presence of the dermis may present some barrier properties. In vitro the dermis may require complete saturation before the diazepam can be detected in the receiving chamber

  20. Single organ variant of polyarteritis nodosa in epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis that typically affects medium-sized muscular arteries, with occasional involvement of small muscular arteries. Unlike some other vasculitides (e.g. microscopic polyarteritis, Wegener′s granulomatosis PAN is not associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Patients typically present with systemic symptoms such as fever, weight loss, and malaise. The kidneys, skin, joints, muscles, nerves, and gastrointestinal tract are commonly involved, usually in some combination. PAN can affect any organ, but usually spare the lungs. Clinical variants or subsets of PAN include single-organ disease and cutaneous-only PAN. Scrotal involvement is rarely the first presenting sign. We herein report a case of 36-year-old man who presented with a swelling in the left epididymis, which was surgically removed. The swelling histopathologically showed necrotizing inflammation, fibrinoid necrosis of the medium-sized arteries of the epididymis and was diagnosed to be single organ variant of PAN.

  1. Identification of a Novel Vasodilatory Octapeptide from the Skin Secretion of the African Hyperoliid Frog, Kassina senegalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qiang; Wang, Hui; Ma, Chengbang; Wu, Yue; Xi, Xinping; Zhou, Mei; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris; Wang, Lei

    2017-07-19

    The defensive skin secretions of amphibians continue to be an excellent source of novel biologically-active peptides. Here we report the identification and pharmacological activity of a novel C-terminally amided myotropic octapeptide from the skin secretion of the African hyperoliid frog, Kassina senegalensis . The 8-amino acid peptide has the following primary structure: WMSLGWSL-amide and has a molecular mass of 978 Da. The primary structure and organisation of the biosynthetic precursor of WL-8 amide was successfully deduced from cloned skin secretion-derived cDNA. The open-reading frame encoded a single copy of WL-8, located at the C-terminus. Synthetic WL-8 amide was found to cause relaxation of rat tail artery smooth muscle with an EC 50 of 25.98 nM. This peptide is unique in terms of its primary structure and is unlike any other peptide previously isolated from an amphibian source which has been archived in the NCBI database. WL-8 amide thus represents the prototype of a novel family of myotropic peptide from amphibian defensive skin secretions.

  2. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    OpenAIRE

    Heide, E. van der; Zeng, X.; Masen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is frequently one of the interacting surfaces in relative motion. People seem to solve these problems related to skin friction based upon a trial-and-error strategy and based upon on our sense for touch....

  3. Muscle-fiber conduction velocity and electromyography as diagnostic tools in patients with suspected inflammatory myopathy: a prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijham, P.J.; Hengstman, G.J.D.; Laak, H.J. ter; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Zwarts, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Combinations of different techniques can increase the diagnostic yield from neurophysiological examination of muscle. In 25 patients with suspected inflammatory myopathy, we prospectively performed needle electromyography (EMG) and measured muscle-fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) in a single muscle,

  4. MRI findings of muscle involvement in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, W.; Staebler, A.; Reiser, M.

    1999-01-01

    A 40-year-old white man presented with fever, muscle pain, skin nodules and persistent hypereosinophilia over a period of 1 year. In addition, he had ventricular arrhythmias with episodes of tachycardia. Besides a lack of response to antiparasitic therapy, laboratory and pathological data excluded the diagnosis of trichinosis or any other parasitic infection. The patient's course of the disease over the previous 1 1 / 2 years was compatible with hypereosinophilic syndrome. In a muscle biopsy several eosinophilic perivascular and leucocytic intravascular infiltrates were found, indicative of muscle involvement by the disease. This is a report on the MRI findings of muscle involvement in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. (orig.)

  5. Normal histology structure of dog's skin (art state)

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Clarena Castellanos I.; Gersain Rodríguez T.; Carlos Arturo Iregui C.

    2005-01-01

    The skin is one of the largest organs of the body, and it has multiple functions: metabolic, temperature regulator, sensibility, and protection. The skin is formed by three layers: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis; the annexed ones are found in the dermis: hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sweat glands; the nails are found in the appendix. Although the skin structure in domestic animals is similar, there are variations among species and even in a single specie related to epidermal thickness, ...

  6. Covalent cross-linking of single fibers from rabbit psoas increases oscillatory power

    OpenAIRE

    Tawada, K.; Kawai, M.

    1990-01-01

    Single fibers from chemically skinned rabbit psoas muscle were treated with 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethyl-amino)proyl]-carbodiimide (EDC) at 20 degrees C after rigor was induced. A 22-min treatment resulted in 18% covalent cross-linking between myosin heads and the thin filament as determined by stiffness measurements. This treatment also results in covalent cross-linking among rod portions of myosin molecules in the backbone of the thick filament. The fibers thus prepared are stable and do not disso...

  7. Muscle soreness and delayed-onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Paul B; Ruby, Deana; Bush-Joseph, Charles A

    2012-04-01

    Immediate and delayed-onset muscle soreness differ mainly in chronology of presentation. Both conditions share the same quality of pain, eliciting and relieving activities and a varying degree of functional deficits. There is no single mechanism for muscle soreness; instead, it is a culmination of 6 different mechanisms. The developing pathway of DOMS begins with microtrauma to muscles and then surrounding connective tissues. Microtrauma is then followed by an inflammatory process and subsequent shifts of fluid and electrolytes. Throughout the progression of these events, muscle spasms may be present, exacerbating the overall condition. There are a multitude of modalities to manage the associated symptoms of immediate soreness and DOMS. Outcomes of each modality seem to be as diverse as the modalities themselves. The judicious use of NSAIDs and continued exercise are suggested to be the most reliable methods and recommended. This review article and each study cited, however, represent just one part of the clinician's decisionmaking process. Careful affirmation of temporary deficits from muscle soreness is not to be taken lightly, nor is the advisement and medical management of muscle soreness prescribed by the clinician.

  8. Anatomy of the Skin and the Pathogenesis of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losquadro, William D

    2017-08-01

    Skin is composed of the epidermis, dermis, and adnexal structures. The epidermis is composed of 4 layers-the stratums basale, spinosum, granulosum, and corneum. The dermis is divided into a superficial papillary dermis and deeper reticular dermis. Collagen and elastin within the reticular dermis are responsible for skin tensile strength and elasticity, respectively. The 2 most common kinds of nonmelanoma skin cancers are basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. Both are caused by a host of environmental and genetic factors, although UV light exposure is the single greatest predisposing factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Muscle channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statland, Jeffrey; Phillips, Lauren; Trivedi, Jaya R

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle channelopathies are rare heterogeneous diseases with marked genotypic and phenotypic variability. Despite advances in understanding of the molecular pathology of these disorders, the diverse phenotypic manifestations remain a challenge in diagnosis and therapeutics. These disorders can cause lifetime disability and affect quality of life. There is no treatment of these disorders approved by the US Food and Drug Administration at this time. Recognition and treatment of symptoms might reduce morbidity and improve quality of life. This article summarizes the clinical manifestations, diagnostic studies, pathophysiology, and treatment options in nondystrophic myotonia, congenital myasthenic syndrome, and periodic paralyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Variability of femoral muscle attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, G N; Brand, D; Freitag, S; Lierse, W; Schneider, E

    1996-09-01

    Analytical and experimental models of the musculoskeletal system often assume single values rather than ranges for anatomical input parameters. The hypothesis of the present study was that anatomical variability significantly influences the results of biomechanical analyses, specifically regarding the moment arms of the various thigh muscles. Insertions and origins of muscles crossing or attaching to the femur were digitized in six specimens. Muscle volumes were measured; muscle attachment area and centroid location were computed. To demonstrate the influence of inter-individual anatomic variability on a mechanical modeling parameter, the corresponding range of muscle moment arms were calculated. Standard deviations, as a percentage of the mean, were about 70% for attachment area and 80% for muscle volume and attachment centroid location. The resulting moment arms of the m. gluteus maximus and m. rectus femoris were especially sensitive to anatomical variations (SD 65%). The results indicate that sensitivity to anatomical variations should be analyzed in any investigation simulating musculoskeletal interactions. To avoid misinterpretations, investigators should consider using several anatomical configurations rather than relying on a mean data set.

  11. Machine Learning Approaches for Predicting Human Skin Sensitization Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of ICCVAM’s top priorities is the development and evaluation of non-animal approaches to identify potential skin sensitizers. The complexity of biological events necessary for a substance to elicit a skin sensitization reaction suggests that no single in chemico, in vit...

  12. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, E. van der; Zeng, X.; Masen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is

  13. Deformable skinning on bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Petersen, Kim Steen; Jakobsen, Bjarke

    2001-01-01

    Applying skin to a model is a relatively simple task to implement. Nonetheless it seems that no good resource exists that describes both the concepts and math necessary to understand and implement skinning. The intention of this article is an attempt to give a thoroughly description of the theore...

  14. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Leonida, Mihaela D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  15. Photoprotection in ethnic skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. Al-Jamal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although cutaneous photodamage is partially mitigated by darker skin pigmentation, sun-induced aging, dyspigmentation, sunburns, and skin cancers are reported worldwide in all skin types and races. The severity of photodamage varies from individual to individual, and is predominantly based upon genetic differences altering the body's response or susceptibility to sun damage. In addition, non-Caucasian patients are less likely to perform skin self-examinations, attend dermatologic follow-ups, and seven times less likely to apply sunscreen than Caucasian patients. Therefore, the remainder of this article will discuss the categories of photoprotective agent [environmental, biologic, physical, and UV filters, i.e., sunscreens] as well as the topics of photoaging, dyspigmentation, photocarcinogenesis, and the controversy surrounding vitamin D deficiency from photoprotection in the context of ethnic skin.

  16. Muscle phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naini, Ali; Toscano, Antonio; Musumeci, Olimpia

    2009-01-01

    storage disease type X and novel mutations in the gene encoding the muscle subunit of PGAM (PGAM2). DESIGN: Clinical, pathological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. SETTING: Tertiary care university hospitals and academic institutions. Patients A 37-year-old Danish man of Pakistani origin who had...... PGAM deficiency, and molecular studies revealed 2 novel homozygous mutations, a nonsense mutation and a single nucleotide deletion. Pathological studies of muscle showed mild glycogen accumulation but prominent tubular aggregates in both patients. CONCLUSIONS: We found that glycogen storage disease...

  17. Disseminated cysticercosis with huge muscle hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is caused by cysticercus cellulose, which is the larva of Taenia solium , the pork tapeworm. The larvae are carried in the blood stream after penetrating the walls of the alimentary tract and they lodge in different tissues like the skin, skeletal muscles, brain, fundus and heart, to cause disseminated cysticercosis. Cases of disseminated cysticercosis have rarely been reported in the literature. They may inhabit the muscles and cause muscular hypertrophy, which, at times, may assume gross proportions. Morbidity is usually caused by the involvement of the central nervous system or the eyes.

  18. Intrascrotal Dedifferentiated Leiomyosarcoma Originating from Dartos Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Teshima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old man, who had visited our hospital complaining of a small intrascrotal nodule ten years ago, returned to us because of the rapid growth of the nodule. Computed tomography revealed a heterogeneously enhanced intrascrotal tumor of approximately 4×3 cm. The tumor and the right testis were excised with the adhered right scrotal skin. The pathological diagnosis was pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma with dedifferentiation originating from the dartos muscle. Urological dedifferentiated leiomyosarcomas are rarely reported and the clinical features are mostly unknown. This is the first report to describe the dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma of the dartos muscle.

  19. Resistance and the management of complicated skin and skin structure infections: the role of ceftobiprole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Barbour

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available April Barbour1, Hartmut Derendorf21GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Antimicrobial resistant bacteria are an increasing concern due to the resulting increase in morbidity, mortality, and health-care costs associated with the administration of inadequate or delayed antimicrobial therapy. The implications of inadequate antimicrobial therapy in complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs have gained more attention recently, most likely due to the recent emergence of community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and the already high prevalence of MRSA in the nosocomial setting. Due to the continuous threat of resistance arising and the limitations of currently available agents for the treatment of cSSSIs, it is necessary to develop new antimicrobials for this indication. Ceftobiprole medocaril, the prodrug of ceftobiprole, is a parental investigational cephalosporin for the treatment of cSSSIs displaying a wide-spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative species, including MRSA. Ceftobiprole displays noncomplex linear pharmacokinetics, is eliminated primarily by glomerular filtration, and distributes to extracellular fluid. Additionally, it has been shown that the extent of distribution to the site of action with regard to cSSSIs, ie, the extracellular space fluid of subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, is expected to be efficacious, as free concentrations meet efficacy targets for most pathogens. Similar to other beta-lactams, it displays an excellent safety and tolerability profile with the primary adverse events being dysgeusia in healthy volunteers, resulting from the conversion of the prodrug to the active, and nausea in patients. Ceftobiprole has demonstrated noninferiority in two large-scale pivotal studies comparing it to vancomycin, clinical cure rates 93.3% vs

  20. Dry skin - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pat skin dry then apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, or other chemicals. Take short, warm baths or showers. Limit your ... gentle skin cleansers or soap with added moisturizers. Only use ...

  1. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  2. The skin aging exposome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutmann, Jean; Bouloc, Anne; Sore, Gabrielle; Bernard, Bruno A; Passeron, Thierry

    2017-03-01

    The term "exposome" describes the totality of exposures to which an individual is subjected from conception to death. It includes both external and internal factors as well as the human body's response to these factors. Current exposome research aims to understand the effects all factors have on specific organs, yet today, the exposome of human skin has not received major attention and a corresponding definition is lacking. This review was compiled with the collaboration of European scientists, specialized in either environmental medicine or skin biology. A comprehensive review of the existing literature was performed using PubMed. The search was restricted to exposome factors and skin aging. Key review papers and all relevant, epidemiological, in vitro, ex vivo and clinical studies were analyzed to determine the key elements of the exposome influencing skin aging. Here we propose a definition of the skin aging exposome. It is based on a summary of the existing scientific evidence for the role of exposome factors in skin aging. We also identify future research needs which concern knowledge about the interaction of distinct exposomal factors with each other and the resulting net effects on skin aging and suggest some protective measures. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An elastic second skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  4. Grenz ray-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frentz, G.

    1989-09-01

    In 28 patients, nonmelanoma skin cancers developed in areas previously exposed to grenz rays. In 17 patients who did not have psoriasis, no other relevant carcinogenic exposure could be incriminated. Women were more often affected than men. Most of the tumors were basal cell cancers, and most of the patients had multiple tumors. No threshold dose could be established. The distribution of the latency time among patients without psoriasis was strictly normal (median 18 years). These observations suggest that usual therapeutic doses of grenz rays, as a single agent, are capable of causing skin cancer, but only in those persons who are abnormally sensitive to x-rays. 9 references.

  5. Zebrafish: a model animal for analyzing the impact of environmental pollutants on muscle and brain mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Rossignol, R; Brèthes, D

    2013-01-01

    Mercury, anthropogenic release of uranium (U), and nanoparticles constitute hazardous environmental pollutants able to accumulate along the aquatic food chain with severe risk for animal and human health. The impact of such pollutants on living organisms has been up to now approached by classical toxicology in which huge doses of toxic compounds, environmentally irrelevant, are displayed through routes that never occur in the lifespan of organisms (for instance injecting a bolus of mercury to an animal although the main route is through prey and fish eating). We wanted to address the effect of such pollutants on the muscle and brain mitochondrial bioenergetics under realistic conditions, at unprecedented low doses, using an aquatic model animal, the zebrafish Danio rerio. We developed an original method to measure brain mitochondrial respiration: a single brain was put in 1.5 mL conical tube containing a respiratory buffer. Brains were gently homogenized by 13 strokes with a conical plastic pestle, and the homogenates were immediately used for respiration measurements. Skinned muscle fibers were prepared by saponin permeabilization. Zebrafish were contaminated with food containing 13 μg of methylmercury (MeHg)/g, an environmentally relevant dose. In permeabilized muscle fibers, we observed a strong inhibition of both state 3 mitochondrial respiration and cytochrome c oxidase activity after 49 days of MeHg exposure. We measured a dramatic decrease in the rate of ATP release by skinned muscle fibers. Contrarily to muscles, brain mitochondrial respiration was not modified by MeHg exposure although brain accumulated twice as much MeHg than muscles. When zebrafish were exposed to 30 μg/L of waterborne U, the basal mitochondrial respiratory control ratio was decreased in muscles after 28 days of exposure. This was due to an increase of the inner mitochondrial membrane permeability. The impact of a daily ration of food containing gold nanoparticles of two sizes (12 and

  6. Venous malformations: MR imaging features that predict skin burns after percutaneous alcohol embolization procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, Laura M.; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Carrino, John A.; Bluemke, David A.; Mitchell, Sally

    2008-01-01

    To examine the value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for predicting the occurrence of skin burns in patients with venous malformations who undergo percutaneous alcohol embolization was the objective of the study. Pre-procedural MR imaging at 1.5 T from 40 patients with venous malformations who had undergone percutaneous alcohol embolization was retrospectively reviewed by two observers for these features: anatomic location, definition (well-defined or ill-defined), and the presence of skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, tendon, bone, joint, and deep venous system involvement. One observer recorded the length of skin involvement and volume of the malformation. Univariate and multivariate analysis tests were used to determine whether an association between the occurrence of skin burns and MR imaging features existed. The anatomic locations of the venous malformations were the lower extremity (20 out of 40), upper extremity (11 out of 40), trunk (four out of 40), head/neck (three out of 40) and pelvis (two out of 40). Of the 40 subjects, 15% (six out of 40) experienced skin burns. There was a significant association between the absence of muscle involvement (p=0.0198) as well as the length of skin involvement (p=0.027), with the occurrence of skin burns. Malformation size and all other features were not significantly associated with skin burns. Skin burns in patients with venous malformations treated with alcohol embolization are associated with the length of skin involvement and with the absence of deeper tissue involvement, as depicted on MR imaging. (orig.)

  7. Multifunctional and context-dependent control of vocal acoustics by individual muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srivastava, Kyle H; Elemans, Coen P H; Sober, Samuel J

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between muscle activity and behavioral output determines how the brain controls and modifies complex skills. In vocal control, ensembles of muscles are used to precisely tune single acoustic parameters such as fundamental frequency and sound amplitude. If individual vocal muscles...... parameter. Additionally, it is unknown whether the function of single muscles is fixed or varies across different vocal gestures. A fixed relationship would allow the brain to use the same changes in muscle activation to, for example, increase the fundamental frequency of different vocal gestures, whereas...... recorded electromyographic data from vocal muscles in singing Bengalese finches. Second, we electrically perturbed the activity of single muscles during song. Third, we developed an ex vivo technique to analyze the biomechanical and acoustic consequences of single-muscle perturbations. We found that single...

  8. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stage III Melanoma Treatment: Stage IV Finding the Right Doctor Glossary of Terms Resources Resources Global Resources Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Download a Skin Self-Exam Card ...

  9. Aging changes in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Aging changes in skin URL of this page: //medlineplus. ...

  10. Allergy Skin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications: Know your options Allergy skin tests About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  11. Bacterial Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other immune disorders, or hepatitis People who are undergoing chemotherapy or treatment with other drugs that suppress the immune system Skin that is inflamed or damaged by sunburn, scratching, or other trauma is more likely to become infected. In fact, ...

  12. Occupational skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, V; Aalto-Korte, K; Alfonso, J H

    2017-01-01

    in Science and Technology (COST) Action TD 1206 (StanDerm) (www.standerm.eu). RESULTS: Besides a national health service or a statutory health insurance, most European member states implemented a second insurance scheme specifically geared at occupational diseases [insurance against occupational risks......BACKGROUND: Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal...... diseases, neurologic diseases, lung diseases, diseases of the sensory organs, skin diseases) in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To retrieve information and compare the current state of national frameworks and pathways to manage patients with occupational skin disease with regard to prevention, diagnosis, treatment...

  13. [Currently available skin substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravcová, Darina; Koller, Ján

    2014-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. Autologous split or full-thickness skin graft are the best definitive burn wound coverage, but it is constrained by the limited available sources, especially in major burns. Donor site morbidities in term of additional wounds and scarring are also of concern of the autograft application. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. This paper reviews currently available skin substitutes, produced in not for-profit skin banks as well as commercially available. They are divided according to type of material included, as biological, biosynthetic and synthetic and named respectively.

  14. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  15. Caring for Tattooed Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  16. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... touching the infected area. Diagnosis Skin scrapings or cultures Doctors may suspect a fungal infection when they ...

  17. An elastic second skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Gilchrest, Barbara A; Anderson, R Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  18. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Glossary of Terms Resources Resources Global Resources Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card ...

  19. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Who We Are Be On Our PAGE MIF Staff Programs & Services Scientific Advisory Board Advisory Board Patrons & ... Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a ...

  20. Skin or nail culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  1. Renal-skin syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Has, Cristina; He, Yinghong

    2017-07-01

    Renal-skin syndroms are a group of genetic disorders with renal and cutaneous manifestations that target molecular components present in both organs. Inherited renal-skin syndromes are mainly associated with defects of cell-matrix adhesion. We provide a non-exhaustive overview of the main molecular players at cell-matrix adhesions in mouse models and in human genetic disorders affecting kidney and skin. Renal and urinary tract involvement is described in all four major epidermolysis bullosa types and, in particular, in junctional subtypes and in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. Here, we describe in detail those subtypes for which reno-urinary involvement is a constant and primary feature. Furthermore, complex multiorgan disorders with a predisposition to malignancies or attributable to metabolic defects that involve both kidney and skin are briefly summarized.

  2. Biocatalytic Polymer Skin Adhesives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LeJeune, Keith

    2001-01-01

    .... Preliminary results also suggest that the incorporation of enzymes within such polymers reduces immunogenic and allergenic responses that are often observed when applying protein-based materials on skin tissue...

  3. Skin lesion of blastomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection. It is most often found in: Africa Canada, around the Great Lakes South central and north ... is diagnosed by identifying the fungus in a culture taken from a skin lesion. This usually requires ...

  4. Preliminary study of muscle contraction assessment by NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmetti, Andrea; Giardini, Mario E.; Lago, Paolo; Pavesi, Roberta; Zambarbieri, Daniela; Maestri, R.; Felicetti, G.

    1998-01-01

    NIR spectroscopy allows monitoring of muscle oxygenation and perfusion during contraction. The knowledge of modifications of blood characteristics in body tissues has relevant clinical interest. A compact and reliable device, which makes use of two laser diodes at 750 and 810 nm coupled with the skin surface through optical fibers, was tested. NIR and surface EMG signals during isokinetic contractions were studied. A set of parameters was analyzed in order to obtain information about metabolic modifications during muscle fatigue.

  5. Swelling of the temporal region: a case of benign masticatory muscle hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecka, M; Weismann, K; Herning, Gudrun Margrethe

    1997-01-01

    A 35-year-old Caucasian woman had bilateral indolent swelling of the temporal regions. Imaging studies with nuclear magnetic resonance, ultrasonography and histopathological investigation revealed enlargement of the temporal and masseter muscles, with no pathology in the skin or subcutaneous tiss....... A small prolactinoma of the pituitary gland was incidentally found. The condition, designated benign masticatory muscle hypertrophy, should be distinguished from similar diseases affecting the skin and the subcutaneous tissue of the scalp. The cause remains unknown...

  6. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenefelt PD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  7. ReciPlySkin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic Larsen, Olga; Andersen, Mikkel; Munk-Andersen, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    The report presents process that enbabled the production of the ReciPlySkin structure exhibited at the Circular Economy Exhibition at KADK during the Autumn 2017. The concept, design, detailed design and production are presented in this report.......The report presents process that enbabled the production of the ReciPlySkin structure exhibited at the Circular Economy Exhibition at KADK during the Autumn 2017. The concept, design, detailed design and production are presented in this report....

  8. Adnexal Tumours Of Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parate Sanjay N

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A total 120 cases of epidermal appendage tumours of skin were analysed and classified according to the classification provided by WHO’. Epidermal appendage tumours accounted for 12.87% of all skin tumours, of