WorldWideScience

Sample records for single site study

  1. On-Site Chiropractic Care as an Employee Benefit: A Single-Location Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicozzi, Salvatore J; Russell, Brent S

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the role of on-site chiropractic care in one corporate environment. A part-time chiropractic practice that provides services to a single company on site, 1 day per week, is described. Most care is oriented toward "wellness," is paid for by the employer, and is limited only by the chiropractor's few weekly hours of on-site availability. With approval from the company, the authors conducted an absenteeism analysis after obtaining ethics approval and consent from employee-patients who received care between 2012 and 2014. Comparisons of absenteeism rates of the sample were compared with lost worktime rates from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics' Labor Force Statistics. Of 40 current employees, 35 used chiropractic services; 17 employee-patients met the inclusion criteria. The lost worktime rates of those using chiropractic services (0.72%, 0.55%, and 0.67%, for 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively) were lower than corresponding rates from Labor Force Statistics (1.5%, 1.2%, and 1.1%). Absenteeism for the employee-patients was lower than equivalent national figures in this sample of workers. Though these results may or may not be related to the chiropractic care, these findings prompt further investigation into this relationship.

  2. Robotic single-site pelvic lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, Saverio; Nozza, Arrigo; Del Pezzo, Chiara; Mereu, Liliana

    2014-09-01

    To examine the feasibility of performing pelvic lymphadenectomy with robotic single site approach. Recent papers described the feasibility of robotic-single site hysterectomy [1-3] for benign and malign pathologies but only with the development of new single site 5mm instruments as the bipolar forceps, robotic single site platform can be safely utilized also for lymphadenectomy. A 65 year-old, multiparous patient with a body mass index of 22.5 and diagnosed with well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium underwent a robotic single-site peritoneal washing, total hysterectomy, bilateral adnexectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. The procedure was performed using the da Vinci Si Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) through a single 2,5 cm umbilical incision, with a multi-channel system and two single site robotic 5mm instruments. A 3-dimensional, HD 8.5mm endoscope and a 5mm accessory instrument were also utilized. Type I lymphonodes dissection for external iliac and obturator regions was performed [4]. Total operative time was 210 min; incision, trocar placement and docking time occurring in 12 min. Total console time was 183 min, estimated blood loss was 50 ml, no intra-operative or post-operative complications occurred. Hospital discharge occurred on post operative day 2 and total number of lymphnodes removed was 33. Difficulties in term of instrument's clashing and awkward motions have been encountered. Robotic single-site pelvic lymphadenectomy using bipolar forceps and monopolar hook is feasible. New developments are needed to improve surgical ergonomics and additional studies should be performed to explore possible benefits of this procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Single site and conventional totally extraperitoneal techniques for uncomplicated inguinal hernia repair: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Felipe Brandão Corrêa; Starling, Eduardo Simão; Maricevich, Marco; Tobias-Machado, Marcos

    2014-10-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of endoscopic extraperitoneal single site (EESS) inguinal hernia repair and compare it outcomes with the conventional totally extraperitoneal (TEP) technique. TEP inguinal hernia repair is a widely accepted alternative to conventional open technique with several perioperative advantages. Transumbilical laparoendoscopic singlesite surgery (LESS) is an emerging approach and has been reported for a number of surgical procedures with superior aesthetic results but other advantages need to be proven. Thirty-eight uncomplicated inguinal hernias were repaired by EESS approach between January 2010 and January 2011. All procedures were performed through a 25 cm infraumbilical incision using the Alexis wound retractor attached to a surgical glove and three trocars. Body mass index, age, operative time, blood loss, complications, conversion rate, analgesia requirement, hospital stay, return to normal activities and patient satisfaction with aesthetic results were analysed and compared with the last 38 matched-pair group of patients who underwent a conventional TEP inguinal hernia repair by the same surgeon. All procedures were performed successfully with no conversion. In both unilateral and bilateral EESS inguinal repairs, the mean operative time was longer than conventional TEP (55± 20 vs. 40± 15 min, P = 0.049 and 70± 15 vs. 55± 10 min, P = 0.014). Aesthetic result was superior in the EESS group (2.88± 0.43 vs. 2.79± 0.51, P = 0.042). There was no difference between the two approaches regarding blood loss, complications, hospital stay, time until returns to normal activities and analgesic requirement. EESS inguinal hernia repair is safe and effective, with superior cosmetic results in the treatment of uncomplicated inguinal hernias. Other advantages of this new technique still need to be proven.

  4. Catalysis on singly dispersed bimetallic sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiran; Nguyen, Luan; Liang, Jin-Xia; Shan, Junjun; Liu, Jingyue; Frenkel, Anatoly I.; Patlolla, Anitha; Huang, Weixin; Li, Jun; Tao, Franklin

    2015-08-01

    A catalytic site typically consists of one or more atoms of a catalyst surface that arrange into a configuration offering a specific electronic structure for adsorbing or dissociating reactant molecules. The catalytic activity of adjacent bimetallic sites of metallic nanoparticles has been studied previously. An isolated bimetallic site supported on a non-metallic surface could exhibit a distinctly different catalytic performance owing to the cationic state of the singly dispersed bimetallic site and the minimized choices of binding configurations of a reactant molecule compared with continuously packed bimetallic sites. Here we report that isolated Rh1Co3 bimetallic sites exhibit a distinctly different catalytic performance in reduction of nitric oxide with carbon monoxide at low temperature, resulting from strong adsorption of two nitric oxide molecules and a nitrous oxide intermediate on Rh1Co3 sites and following a low-barrier pathway dissociation to dinitrogen and an oxygen atom. This observation suggests a method to develop catalysts with high selectivity.

  5. Laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgett, Steven E; Hernandez, Jonathan M; Morton, Connor A; Ross, Sharona B; Albrink, Michael; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2009-02-01

    The journey from conventional "open" operations to truly "minimally invasive" operations naturally includes progression from operations involving multiple trocars and multiple incisions to operations involving access through the umbilicus alone. Laparoscopic operations through the umbilicus alone, laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS), offer improved cosmesis and hopes for less pain and improved recovery. This study was undertaken to evaluate our initial experience with LESS cholecystectomy and to compare our initial experience to concurrent outcomes with more conventional multiport, multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All patients referred for cholecystectomy over a 6-month period were offered LESS. Outcomes, including blood loss, operative time, complications, and length of stay were recorded. Outcomes with our first LESS cholecystectomies were compared to an uncontrolled group of concurrent patients undergoing multiport, multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy at the same hospital by the same surgeon. Twenty-nine patients of median age 50 years undergoing LESS cholecystectomy from November 2007 until May 2008 were compared to 29* patients, median age 48 years, undergoing standard multiport, multiple-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy over the same time period. Median operative time for patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy was 72 min and was not different from that of patients undergoing multiport, multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.81). Median length of hospital stay was 1.0 day for patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy and was not different from patients undergoing standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.46). Operative estimated blood loss was less than 100 cc for all patients. No patients undergoing attempted LESS cholecystectomy had conversions to "open" operations; two patients had an additional trocar(s) placed distant from the umbilicus to aid in exposure. Three patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy had

  6. Photoemission and electron-stimulated desorption studies of H on W(110): Single- versus two-binding-site models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, S.

    1982-01-01

    The chemisorption of H on W(110) at room temperature is studied with the use of angle-integrated photoemission and electron-stimulated desorption (ESD). The ESD cross sections of H + are found to be sol low that no significant H + signals with meaningful ion energy distributions are observed. The photoemission results show, however, two types of H adatoms, referred to as β 2 and β 1 states, for this chemisorptive system. Both states are found to appear simultaneously rather than sequentially as suggested by previous studies, and exhibit a simple 1-theta adsorption kinetics with different initial sticking coefficients. The β 2 state induces two binding energy levels at -2.0 and -6.0 eV, respectively, whereas the β 1 state induces a level at -3.8 eV. The work-function change (with a maximum value of -0.45 eV) is found to follow exactly with the intensity of the β 2 state. These results are found to be compatible with the two-binding-site model, inherently suggested by the reflection high-enery electron-diffraction data. However, the results can also be consistent with a single-binding-site model suggested by a recent angle-resolved photoemission and inelastic electron scattering study. A model based on the present results is proposed and critically compared with previous studies. Unresolved problems associated with both single- and two-binding-site models are also discussed

  7. The effect of driving force on intramolecular electron transfer in proteins. Studies on single-site mutated azurins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Skov, L K; van de Kamp, M

    1992-01-01

    -6972]. To further investigate the nature of this long-range electron transfer (LRET) proceeding within the protein matrix, we have now investigated it in two azurins where amino acids have been substituted by single-site mutation of the wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin. In one mutated protein, a methionine...... the reorganization energy, lambda and electronic coupling factor, beta. The calculated values fit very well with a through-bond LRET mechanism....

  8. Very late complications of cervical arthroplasty: results of 2 controlled randomized prospective studies from a single investigator site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Francis M; Babcock, Rebecca M; Hacker, Robert J

    2013-12-15

    Prospective, single-site, randomized, Food and Drug Administration-approved investigational device exemption clinical trials of 2 cervical arthroplasty (CA) devices. To evaluate complications with CA occurring more than 4 years after the surgical procedure in Food and Drug Administration clinical trials of the Bryan and Prestige LP arthroplasty devices. Reports of several randomized clinical studies have shown CA to be a safe and effective alternative to anterior cervical fusion in the treatment of degenerative cervical disc disorders. A majority include follow-up intervals of 4 years or less. Between 2002 and 2006, 94 patients were enrolled in Food and Drug Administration studies of the Bryan and Prestige LP cervical disc devices. Charts, imaging studies, and hospital records were reviewed for those who underwent arthroplasty and returned more than 4 years after their surgical procedure with neck-related pain or dysfunction. Excluding adjacent segment disease that occurred with a similar rate for patients who underwent fusion and arthroplasty, 5 patients, all treated with arthroplasty, returned for evaluation of neck and arm symptoms between 48 and 72 months after surgery. Four patients had peridevice vertebral body bone loss. One patient had posterior device migration and presented with myelopathy. Three required revision surgery and 2 were observed. Four patients maintained follow-up and reported stabilization or improvement in symptoms. Despite their similarities, CA and fusion are not equivalent procedures in this study in regard to very late complications. Similar to large joint arthroplasty, delayed device-related complications may occur with CA. These complications commenced well beyond the time frame for complications associated with more traditional cervical spine procedures. Both patients and surgeons should be aware of the potential for very late device-related complications occurring with CA and the need for revision surgery. 1.

  9. Laparoendoscopic single-site adrenalectomy versus conventional laparoscopic surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linhui; Wu, Zhenjie; Li, Mingmin; Cai, Chen; Liu, Bing; Yang, Qing; Sun, Yinghao

    2013-06-01

    To assess the surgical efficacy and potential advantages of laparoendoscopic single-site adrenalectomy (LESS-AD) compared with conventional laparoscopic adrenalectomy (CL-AD) based on published literature. An online systematic search in electronic databasesM including Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, as well as manual bibliography searches were performed. All studies that compared LESS-AD with CL-AD were included. The outcome measures were the patient demographics, tumor size, blood loss, operative time, time to resumption of oral intake, hospital stay, postoperative pain, cosmesis satisfaction score, rates of complication, conversion, and transfusion. A meta-analysis of the results was conducted. A total of 443 patients were included: 171 patients in the LESS-AD group and 272 patients in the CL-AD group (nine studies). There was no significant difference between the two groups in any of the demographic parameters expect for lesion size (age: P=0.24; sex: P=0.35; body mass index: P=0.79; laterality: P=0.76; size: P=0.002). There was no significant difference in estimated blood loss, time to oral intake resumption, and length of stay between the two groups. The LESS-AD patients had a significantly lower postoperative visual analog pain score compared with the CL-AD group, but a longer operative time was noted. Both groups had a comparable cosmetic satisfaction score. The two groups had a comparable rate of complication, conversion, and transfusion. In early experience, LESS-AD appears to be a safe and feasible alternative to its conventional laparoscopic counterpart with decreased postoperative pain noted, albeit with a longer operative time. As a promising and emerging minimally invasive technique, however, the current evidence has not verified other potential advantages (ie, cosmesis, recovery time, convalescence, port-related complications, etc.) of LESS-AD.

  10. Functionalization of silicon-doped single walled carbon nanotubes at the doping site: An ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chen; Xia Yueyuan; Zhao Mingwen; Liu Xiangdong; Li Feng; Huang Boda; Zhang Hongyu; Zhang Bingyun

    2006-01-01

    We performed ab initio calculations on the cytosine-functionalized silicon-doped single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The results show that silicon substitutional doping to SWNT can dramatically change the atomic and electronic structures of the SWNT. And more importantly, it may provide an efficient pathway for further sidewall functionalization to synthesize more complicated SWNT based complex materials, for example, our previously proposed base-functionalized SWNTs, because the doping silicon atom can improve the reaction activity of the tube at the doping site due to its preference to form sp3 hybridization bonding

  11. A comparison of single- and multi-site calibration and validation: a case study of SWAT in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianwen; Shen, Zhenyao; Yan, Tiezhu

    2017-09-01

    An essential task in evaluating global water resource and pollution problems is to obtain the optimum set of parameters in hydrological models through calibration and validation. For a large-scale watershed, single-site calibration and validation may ignore spatial heterogeneity and may not meet the needs of the entire watershed. The goal of this study is to apply a multi-site calibration and validation of the Soil andWater Assessment Tool (SWAT), using the observed flow data at three monitoring sites within the Baihe watershed of the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China. Our results indicate that the multi-site calibration parameter values are more reasonable than those obtained from single-site calibrations. These results are mainly due to significant differences in the topographic factors over the large-scale area, human activities and climate variability. The multi-site method involves the division of the large watershed into smaller watersheds, and applying the calibrated parameters of the multi-site calibration to the entire watershed. It was anticipated that this case study could provide experience of multi-site calibration in a large-scale basin, and provide a good foundation for the simulation of other pollutants in followup work in the Miyun Reservoir watershed and other similar large areas.

  12. Transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site radical prostatectomy and cystectomy with the aid of a transurethral port: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian; Zhu, Qingyi; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Qingling; Wei, Yunfei

    2018-01-01

    To describe the surgical technique and report early outcomes of transurethral assisted laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) radical prostatectomy (RP) and LESS radical cystectomy (RC) in a single institution. Between December 2014 and March 2016, a total of 114 LESS RPs and RCs were performed, comprising 68 LESS RPs, 38 LESS RCs with cutaneous ureterostomy (CU) and eight LESS RCs with orthotopic ileal neobladder (OIN). Access was achieved via a single-port, with four channels placed through a transumblical incision. After the apex of prostate was separated from the urethra, a self-developed port ('Zhu's port') was inserted through the urethra to facilitate resection of prostate and urethrovesical anastomosis. The peri-operative and postoperative data were collected and analysed retrospectively. Patients were followed up postoperatively for evidence of long-term side effects. All the procedures were completed successfully. No conversion to conventional laparoscopic surgery was necessary. For LESS RP, the average operating time was 152 min. Estimated blood loss was 117 mL. The mean hospital stay was 16.4 days after surgery. For LESS RC with CU and LESS RC with OIN, the mean operating times were 215 and 328 min, mean estimated blood loss was 175 and 252 mL, and mean hospital stay was 9.4 and 18.2 days, respectively. Six patients required blood transfusion (5.26%). Intra-operative complications occurred in two patients (1.75%), and postoperative complications in nine (7.89%). Fourteen out of 68 (20.6%) patients who underwent LESS RP had positive surgical margins. Follow-up ranged from 10 to 30.6 months. In the prostate cancer cases, good urinary control was observed in 35.3%, 97.1% and 100% of patients at 1, 6 and 12 months after the operation, respectively, while biochemical recurrence was observed in 11.8% patients. In the bladder cancer cases, two patients had local recurrence and two patients had distant metastasis. Our results showed that LESS RP and LESS RC

  13. Laparoendoscopic single site in pelvic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Clavijo, Rafael; Barret, Eric; Sotelo, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) has recently gained momentum as feasible techniques for minimal access surgery. Our aim is to describe the current status of laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) in pelvic surgery. A comprehensive revision of the literature in LESS pelvic surgery was performed. References for this manuscript were obtained by performing a review of the available literature in PubMed from 01-01-01 to 30-11-11. References outside the search period were obtained selected manuscript΄s bibliography. Search terms included: pelvic anatomy, less in gynecology, single port colectomy, urological less, single port, single site, NOTES, LESS and single incision. 314 manuscripts were initially identified. Out of these, 46 manuscripts were selected based in their pelvic anatomy or surgical content; including experimental experience, clinical series and literature reviews. LESS drastically limit the surgeon's ability to perform in the operative field and the latter becomes hardened by the lack of space in anatomical location like the pelvis. Potential advantages of LESS are gained with the understanding that the surgical procedure is more technically challenging. Pelvic surgical procedures related to colorectal surgery, gynecology and urology have been performed with LESS technique and information available is mostly represented by case reports and short case series. Comparative series remain few. LESS pelvic surgery remain in its very beginning and due to the very specific anatomical conditions further development of LESS surgery in the mentioned area can be clearly be facilitated by using robotic technology. Standardization ad reproducibility of techniques are mandatory to further develop LESS in the surgical arena.. PMID:22557719

  14. Laparoendoscopic single site in pelvic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sanchez-Salas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoendoscopic single site (LESS has recently gained momentum as feasible techniques for minimal access surgery. Our aim is to describe the current status of laparoendoscopic single site (LESS in pelvic surgery. A comprehensive revision of the literature in LESS pelvic surgery was performed. References for this manuscript were obtained by performing a review of the available literature in PubMed from 01-01-01 to 30-11-11. References outside the search period were obtained selected manuscript΄s bibliography. Search terms included: pelvic anatomy, less in gynecology, single port colectomy, urological less, single port, single site, NOTES, LESS and single incision. 314 manuscripts were initially identified. Out of these, 46 manuscripts were selected based in their pelvic anatomy or surgical content; including experimental experience, clinical series and literature reviews. LESS drastically limit the surgeon′s ability to perform in the operative field and the latter becomes hardened by the lack of space in anatomical location like the pelvis. Potential advantages of LESS are gained with the understanding that the surgical procedure is more technically challenging. Pelvic surgical procedures related to colorectal surgery, gynecology and urology have been performed with LESS technique and information available is mostly represented by case reports and short case series. Comparative series remain few. LESS pelvic surgery remain in its very beginning and due to the very specific anatomical conditions further development of LESS surgery in the mentioned area can be clearly be facilitated by using robotic technology. Standardization ad reproducibility of techniques are mandatory to further develop LESS in the surgical arena..

  15. Laparoendoscopic single site surgery in urology: A single centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind P Ganpule

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To analyze our experience of 87 cases with single port surgery, which is also known as laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS. Materials and Methods: Case records of all LESS procedures performed between December 2007 and June 2010 were analysed. The procedures performed were donor nephrectomy (n=45, simple nephrectomy (n=27, radical nephrectomy (n=5, pyeloplasty (n=9, and ureteroneocystostomy (n=1. Parameters analysed were operating room (OR time, estimated blood loss (EBL, visual analogue score (VAS, and complications in all patients undergoing LESS procedure and additionally, warm ischaemia time (WIT and graft outcome in patients undergoing LESS donor nephrectomy. In reconstructive procedures, the functional assessment was performed with a diuretic renogram at 6 months. Results: In LESS donor nephrectomy, the mean WIT was 6.9 ± 1.9 min. Mean serum creatinine in recipients at 1 month was 0.96 ± 0.21 mg%. We encountered one instance each of renal artery injury, renal vein injury, large bowel injury, minor cortical laceration at the upper pole and two instances of diaphragmatic injury. In LESS simple nephrectomy, the average OR time was 148.7 ± 52.2 min and hospital stay was 3.7 ± 1.2 days. There was one instance of large bowel injury during specimen retrieval. In LESS radical nephrectomy, the average OR time was 202.5 ± 35.7 min and average hospital stay was 4.2 ± 1.3 days. 6 patients of LESS pyeloplasty completed follow up with a diuretic renogram showing a good drainage. LESS ureteroneocystostomy could also be performed successfully without any complications. Conclusion: LESS surgery can be accomplished safely in nephrectomy and reconstructive procedures such as pyeloplasty and ureteroneocystostomy with equivalent outcomes as standard laparoscopy and with added benefits of cosmesis and quicker convalescence. LESS donor nephrectomy is a technically feasible procedure; current status of procedure needs to be proved with

  16. Methodology of site studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caries, J.C.; Hugon, J.; Grauby, A.

    1980-01-01

    This methodology consists in an essentially dynamic, estimated and follow-up analysis of the impact of discharges on all the environment compartments, whether natural or not, that play a part in the protection of man and his environment. It applies at two levels, to wit: the choice of site, or the detailed study of the site selected. Two examples of its application will be developed, namely: at the choice of site level in the case of marine sites, and of the detailed study level of the chosen site in that of a riverside site [fr

  17. Nuclear site selection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.; Zohoorian Izadpanah, A.A.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2000-01-01

    It is of special importance, especially from the nuclear safety viewpoint, to select suitable sites for different nuclear structures with the considered future activities. Site selection sometimes involves high costs not necessarily for merely selecting of site but for some preliminary measures to be taken so as the site may have the necessary characteristics. The more suitable the natural characteristics of the site for the considered project, the more successful and efficient the project, the lower the project costs and the longer the project operation period. If so, the project will cause the growth of public culture and sustainable socioeconomic development. This paper is the result of the conclusion of numerous massive reports of this activity in the preliminary phase based on theories, practices and the related safety principles on this ground as well as the application of data and information of the past and a glance to the future. The conception of need for a site for medium structures and nuclear research projects and how to perform this process are presented step by step here with a scientific approach to its selection during the investigations. In this study, it is practically described how the site is selected, by determining and defining the characteristics of research and nuclear projects with medium structures and also its fitting to the optimum site. The discovered sites typically involve the best advantages in technical and economic aspects and no particular contrast with the concerned structures

  18. Fixation method does not affect restoration of rotation center in hip replacements: A single-site retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Wegner, Alexander; Kauther, Max Daniel; Landgraeber, Stefan; von Knoch, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Aseptic loosening is one of the greatest problems in hip replacement surgery. The rotation center of the hip is believed to influence the longevity of fixation. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of cemented and cementless cup fixation techniques on the position of the center of rotation because cemented cup fixation requires the removal of more bone for solid fixation than the cementless technique. Methods We retrospectively compared pre- and post-operativ...

  19. Fixation method does not affect restoration of rotation center in hip replacements: A single-site retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegner Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aseptic loosening is one of the greatest problems in hip replacement surgery. The rotation center of the hip is believed to influence the longevity of fixation. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of cemented and cementless cup fixation techniques on the position of the center of rotation because cemented cup fixation requires the removal of more bone for solid fixation than the cementless technique. Methods We retrospectively compared pre- and post-operative positions of the hip rotation center in 25 and 68 patients who underwent artificial hip replacements in our department in 2007 using cemented or cementless cup fixation, respectively, with digital radiographic image analysis. Results The mean horizontal and vertical distances between the rotation center and the acetabular teardrop were compared in radiographic images taken pre- and post-operatively. The mean horizontal difference was −2.63 mm (range: -11.00 mm to 10.46 mm, standard deviation 4.23 mm for patients who underwent cementless fixation, and −2.84 mm (range: -10.87 to 5.30 mm, standard deviation 4.59 mm for patients who underwent cemented fixation. The mean vertical difference was 0.60 mm (range: -20.15 mm to 10.00 mm, standard deviation 3.93 mm and 0.41 mm (range: -9.26 mm to 6.54 mm, standard deviation 3.58 mm for the cementless and cemented fixation groups, respectively. The two fixation techniques had no significant difference on the position of the hip rotation center in the 93 patients in this study. Conclusions The hip rotation center was similarly restored using either the cemented or cementless fixation techniques in this patient cohort, indicating that the fixation technique itself does not interfere with the position of the center of rotation. To completely answer this question further studies with more patients are needed.

  20. Mechanistic studies aimed at the development of single site metal alkoxide catalysts for the production of polyoxygenates from renewable resources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Malcolm H. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The work proposed herein follows on directly from the existing 3 year grant and the request for funding is for 12 months to allow completion of this work and graduation of current students supported by DOE. The three primary projects are as follows. 1.) A comparative study of the reactivity of LMg(OR) (solvent), where L= a β-diiminate or pyrromethene ligand, in the ring-opening of cyclic esters. 2.) The homopolymerization of expoxides, particularly propylene oxide and styrene oxide, and their copolymerizations with carbon dioxide or organic anhydrides to yield polycarbonates or polyesters, respectively. 3.) The development of well-defined bismuth (III) complexes for ring-opening polymerizations that are tolerant of both air and water. In each of these topics special emphasis is placed on developing a detailed mechanistic understanding of the ring-opening event and how this is modified by the employment of specific metal and ligand combinations. This document also provides a report on findings of the past grant period that are not yet in the public domain/published and shows how the proposed work will bring the original project to conclusion.

  1. Contributing factors of elective surgical case cancellation: a retrospective cross-sectional study at a single-site hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kaiye; Xie, Xiaolei; Luo, Li; Gong, Renrong

    2017-09-11

    Case cancellation (CC) has significant impact on the efficiency of operating room (OR) management, which can be mitigated by taking preventive measures. In this study, using the data of the West China Hospital (WCH), we identified the effect of contributing factors and recommended hospital interventions to facilitate CC prevention. We conducted a retrospective review of 11,331 elective surgical cases from January 1 to December 31, 2014. CC reasons were grouped into six categories. The methods of descriptive statistics and hypothesis test were used to identify the effect of factors. CC reasons (746) were divided into six broad categories: workup related (preoperative diagnostic assessment issues or sudden medical condition changes) (25.8%), non-specified reasons (25.8%), coordination issues (15.1%), patient related (13.0%), support system issues (11.8%), and doctor related (8.5%). The types of the most frequently performed operations are identified, as well as their CRs. The cancellation rate (CR) of males was lower than that of females (16.7% to 18.3%). A large difference in the CRs existed among doctors. The CR on Monday was significantly higher than the other four weekdays. Workup related issues, the types of procedures, the menstrual cycle of females, highly imbalanced CRs among doctors, and tendency of cancellation on Monday are the major identified factors, which account for a significant amount of preventable cancellations. It is suggested that corresponding hospital interventions can reduce CR and improve OR efficiency, including maintaining effective coordination, good communication and well-designed preoperative assessment processes, focusing on the type of procedures which are more time-consuming and complex, paying special attention to the physiology of females during surgery planning, taking measures to reduce CR of top eight doctors, and improving surgery scheduling on Monday.

  2. Single-site neural tube closure in human embryos revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Bernadette S; Driessen, Stan; Boukens, Bastiaan J D; van den Hoff, Maurice J B; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-10-01

    Since the multi-site closure theory was first proposed in 1991 as explanation for the preferential localizations of neural tube defects, the closure of the neural tube has been debated. Although the multi-site closure theory is much cited in clinical literature, single-site closure is most apparent in literature concerning embryology. Inspired by Victor Hamburgers (1900-2001) statement that "our real teacher has been and still is the embryo, who is, incidentally, the only teacher who is always right", we decided to critically review both theories of neural tube closure. To verify the theories of closure, we studied serial histological sections of 10 mouse embryos between 8.5 and 9.5 days of gestation and 18 human embryos of the Carnegie collection between Carnegie stage 9 (19-21 days) and 13 (28-32 days). Neural tube closure was histologically defined by the neuroepithelial remodeling of the two adjoining neural fold tips in the midline. We did not observe multiple fusion sites in neither mouse nor human embryos. A meta-analysis of case reports on neural tube defects showed that defects can occur at any level of the neural axis. Our data indicate that the human neural tube fuses at a single site and, therefore, we propose to reinstate the single-site closure theory for neural tube closure. We showed that neural tube defects are not restricted to a specific location, thereby refuting the reasoning underlying the multi-site closure theory. Clin. Anat. 30:988-999, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory....

  4. Comparative Study of 2D and 3D Optical Imaging Systems: Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery in an Ex Vivo Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaça, Jaime; Pinto, José Pedro; Fernandes, Sandra; Costa, Patrício; Pinto, Jorge Correia; Leão, Pedro

    2017-12-01

    Usually laparoscopy is performed by means of a 2-dimensional (2D) image system and multiport approach. To overcome the lack of depth perception, new 3-dimensional (3D) systems are arising with the added advantage of providing stereoscopic vision. To further reduce surgery-related trauma, there are new minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed, such as LESS (laparoendoscopic single-site) surgery. The aim of this study was to compare 2D and 3D laparoscopic systems in LESS surgical procedures. All participants were selected from different levels of experience in laparoscopic surgery-10 novices, 7 intermediates, and 10 experts were included. None of the participants had had previous experience in LESS surgery. Participants were chosen randomly to begin their experience with either the 2D or 3D laparoscopic system. The exercise consisted of performing an ex vivo pork cholecystectomy through a SILS port with the assistance of a fixed distance laparoscope. Errors, time, and participants' preference were recorded. Statistical analysis of time and errors between groups was conducted with a Student's t test (using independent samples) and the Mann-Whitney test. In all 3 groups, the average time with the 2D system was significantly reduced after having used the 3D system ( P 3D system. This study suggests that the 3D system may improve the learning curve and that learning from the 3D system is transferable to the 2D environment. Additionally, the majority of participants prefer 3D equipment.

  5. Totally Transanal Laparo-Endoscopic Single-Site ProctoColectomy-Ileoanal J-Pouch (TLPC-J: An Experimental Study of a Novel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Vahdad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES has become a commonly considered novel approach in the surgical field. The NOTES provide possibility of operation through the natural orifice and decreases the intentional puncture of the systemic organ and subsequent complications. Totally transanal laparo-endoscopic single-site proctoColectomy-Ileoanal J-Pouch (TLPC-J is a novel method in minimally invasive surgery for total colectomy. The main goal of this study is to perform this new method on an animal model, to assess probable complication and to resolve probable issues by using patients that are candidate for total colectomy. Method: Five dogs were prepared in lithotomy position. The TLPC-I procedure consists of endorectal technique with full thickness rectal dissection starting 1 cm orally from the dentate line above the peritoneal reflection and the proximal bowel was replaced into the abdominal cavity. Afterwards, the TriPort system was inserted in the anal canal and mesentrial resection of the total colon, mobilization of a distal ileal segment and intracorporeal suture of an ileal J-loop was accomplished by this system. An incision in the J-loop was conducted transanally. The J-pouch was created with an Endo-GIA® and sutured to the rectal wall. Results: All animals survived and passed stool with clear post operation situation. There was no infection in site of anastomosis. Conclusion: The TLPC-I provides the possibility of surgery without abdominal wall incision and decreases post operation complication such as pain, abdominal wound infection and wound dehiscence. This technique increases the quality of life and surgeons can discharge the patients early.

  6. Recruitment Strategies and Costs Associated With Enrolling People With Insomnia and High Blood Pressure Into an Online Behavioral Sleep Intervention: A Single-Site Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Faye S; Davis, Tara D; Dunbar, Sandra B

    Recruitment in clinical research is a common challenge and source of study failure. The reporting of recruitment methods and costs in hypertension trials is limited especially for smaller, single-site trials, online intervention trials, and trials using newer online recruitment strategies. The aims of this study are to describe and examine the feasibility of newer online-e-mail recruitment strategies and traditional recruitment strategies used to enroll participants with insomnia and high blood pressure into an online behavioral sleep intervention study (Sleeping for Heart Health). The 16 online-e-mail-based and traditional recruitment strategies used are described. Recruitment strategy feasibility was examined by study interest and enrollee yields, conversion rates, and costs (direct, remuneration, labor, and cost per enrollee). From August 2014 to October 2015, 183 people were screened and 58 (31.7%) enrolled in the study (51.1 ± 12.9 years, 63.8% female, 72.4% African American, 136 ± 12/88 ± 7 mm Hg, 87.9% self-reported hypertension, 67.2% self-reported antihypertensive medication use). The recruitment strategies yielding the highest enrollees were the university hospital phone waiting message system (25.4%), Craigslist (22.4%), and flyers (20.3%) at a per enrollee cost of $42.84, $98.90, and $128.27, respectively. The university hospital phone waiting message system (55.6%) and flyers (54.5%) had the highest interested participant to enrolled participant conversion rate of all recruitment strategies. Approximately 70% of all enrolled participants were recruited from the university hospital phone waiting message system, Craigslist, or flyers. Given the recruitment challenges that most researchers face, we encourage the documenting, assessing, and reporting of detailed recruitment strategies and associated recruitment costs so that other researchers may benefit.

  7. The single-particle mixing state and cloud scavenging of black carbon: a case study at a high-altitude mountain site in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guohua; Lin, Qinhao; Peng, Long; Bi, Xinhui; Chen, Duohong; Li, Mei; Li, Lei; Brechtel, Fred J.; Chen, Jianxin; Yan, Weijun; Wang, Xinming; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying; Zhou, Zhen

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, a ground-based counterflow virtual impactor (GCVI) was used to sample cloud droplet residual (cloud RES) particles, while a parallel PM2.5 inlet was used to sample cloud-free or cloud interstitial (cloud INT) particles. The mixing state of black carbon (BC)-containing particles and the mass concentrations of BC in the cloud-free, RES and INT particles were investigated using a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) and two aethalometers, respectively, at a mountain site (1690 m a. s. l. ) in southern China. The measured BC-containing particles were extensively internally mixed with sulfate and were scavenged into cloud droplets (with number fractions of 0.05-0.45) to a similar (or slightly lower) extent as all the measured particles (0.07-0.6) over the measured size range of 0.1-1.6 µm. The results indicate the preferential activation of larger particles and/or that the production of secondary compositions shifts the BC-containing particles towards larger sizes. BC-containing particles with an abundance of both sulfate and organics were scavenged less than those with sulfate but limited organics, implying the importance of the mixing state on the incorporation of BC-containing particles into cloud droplets. The mass scavenging efficiency of BC with an average of 33 % was similar for different cloud events independent of the air mass. This is the first time that both the mixing state and cloud scavenging of BC in China have been reported. Our results would improve the knowledge on the concentration, mixing state, and cloud scavenging of BC in the free troposphere.

  8. Socioeconomic Site Study Plan: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    Social and economic issues and concerns of the Deak Smith County site area will be evaluated during site characterization. Effects that the area could experience from a repository project include demographic, economic, community service, fiscal, and social impacts. The Socioeconomic Site Study Plan is designed to provide a strategy to assess the potential for those impacts. The Socioeconomic Site Study Plan is structured to provide an overview of the socioeconomic program requirements, objectives, and activities to be conducted during site characterization. This report will describe the study design and its rationale; data collection, management, and reporting; program schedules and milestones; site study organization and management; and quality assurance issues. 43 refs

  9. Robotic-assisted single-port donor nephrectomy using the da Vinci single-site platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMattina, John C; Alvarez-Casas, Josue; Lu, Irene; Powell, Jessica M; Sultan, Samuel; Phelan, Michael W; Barth, Rolf N

    2018-02-01

    Although single-port donor nephrectomy offers improved cosmetic outcomes, technical challenges have limited its application to selected centers. Our center has performed over 400 single-port donor nephrectomies. The da Vinci single-site robotic platform was utilized in an effort to overcome the steric, visualization, ergonomic, and other technical limitations associated with the single-port approach. Food and Drug Administration device exemption was obtained. Selection criteria for kidney donation included body mass index da Vinci single-site platform. Our experience supported the safety of this approach but found that the technology added cost and complexity without tangible benefit. Development of articulating instruments, energy, and stapling devices will be necessary for increased application of robotic single-site surgery for donor nephrectomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. On multi-site damage identification using single-site training data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthorpe, R. J.; Manson, G.; Worden, K.

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for developing multi-site damage location systems for engineering structures that can be trained using single-site damaged state data only. The methodology involves training a sequence of binary classifiers based upon single-site damage data and combining the developed classifiers into a robust multi-class damage locator. In this way, the multi-site damage identification problem may be decomposed into a sequence of binary decisions. In this paper Support Vector Classifiers are adopted as the means of making these binary decisions. The proposed methodology represents an advancement on the state of the art in the field of multi-site damage identification which require either: (1) full damaged state data from single- and multi-site damage cases or (2) the development of a physics-based model to make multi-site model predictions. The potential benefit of the proposed methodology is that a significantly reduced number of recorded damage states may be required in order to train a multi-site damage locator without recourse to physics-based model predictions. In this paper it is first demonstrated that Support Vector Classification represents an appropriate approach to the multi-site damage location problem, with methods for combining binary classifiers discussed. Next, the proposed methodology is demonstrated and evaluated through application to a real engineering structure - a Piper Tomahawk trainer aircraft wing - with its performance compared to classifiers trained using the full damaged-state dataset.

  11. Robotic single-access splenectomy using the Da Vinci Single-Site® platform: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcione, Francesco; Bracale, Umberto; Pirozzi, Felice; Cuccurullo, Diego; Angelini, Pier Luigi

    2014-03-01

    Single-access laparoscopic splenectomy can offer patients some advantages. It has many difficulties, such as instrument clashing, lack of triangulation, odd angles and lack of space. The Da Vinci Single-Site® robotic surgery platform could decrease these difficulties. We present a case of single-access robotic splenectomy using this device. A 37 year-old female with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura was operated on with a single-site approach, using the Da Vinci Single-Site robotic surgery device. The procedure was successfully completed in 140 min. No intraoperative and postoperative complications occurred. The patient was discharged from hospital on day 3. Single-access robotic splenectomy seems to be feasible and safe using the new robotic single-access platform, which seems to overcome certain limits of previous robotic or conventional single-access laparoscopy. We think that additional studies should also be performed to explore the real cost-effectiveness of the platform. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Single site laparoscopic right hemicolectomy: an oncological feasible option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Yon Kuei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present the first 7 cases of single site right hemicolectomy in Asia using the new Single Site Laparoscopy (SSL access system from Ethicon Endo-surgery. Methods Right hemicolectomy was performed using the new Single Site Laparoscopy (SSL access system. Patient demographics, operative time, histology and post operative recovery and complications were collected and analysed. Results The median operative time was 90 mins (range 60 - 150 mins and a median wound size of 2.5 cm (range 2 to 4.5 cm. The median number of lymph nodes harvested was 24 (range 20 to 34 lymph nodes. The median length of proximal margin was 70 mm (range 30 to 145 mm and that of distal margin was 50 mm (35 to 120 mm. All patients had a median hospital stay of 7 days (range 5 to 11 and there were no significant perioperative complications except for 1 patient who had a minor myocardial event. Conclusion Right hemicolectomy using SSL access system is feasible and safe for oncologic surgery.

  13. Laparoendoscopic single site cholecystectomy: the first 100 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jonathan M; Morton, Connor A; Ross, Sharona; Albrink, Michael; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2009-08-01

    Laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) surgery promises improved cosmesis and possibly less pain. However, given the small series reported to date, true estimates of the advantages and possible disadvantages of LESS surgery remain unknown. This study was undertaken to evaluate the first 100 patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy at our institution. Patients referred for cholecystectomy since November 2007 were considered for LESS cholecystectomy. Outcomes, including blood loss, operative time, complications, and length of stay, were recorded. Outcomes are compared with an uncontrolled concurrent group of patients undergoing multi-incision laparoscopic (i.e., conventional) cholecystectomy. One hundred patients with a median age of 44 years underwent LESS cholecystectomy; 30 patients with a median age of 46 years underwent conventional cholecystectomy over the same time period. Median operative time (70 vs 66 minutes, P = 0.67, Mann-Whitney) and hospital length of stay (1 vs 1 day, P = 0.81, Mann-Whitney) were not different for patients undergoing LESS or multi-incision cholecystectomies, respectively. Five patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy had postoperative complications: cystic duct stump leak (one), pain control issues (three), and urinary retention (one). LESS cholecystectomy is a safe and effective alternative to conventional cholecystectomy. It can be undertaken without added operative time and provides patients with minimal, if any, scarring.

  14. Hanford Site Welding Program Successfully Providing A Single Site Function For Use By Multiple Contractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) recently restructured its Hanford work scope, awarding two new contracts over the past several months for a total of three contracts to manage the sites cleanup efforts. DOE-RL met with key contractor personnel prior to and during contract transition to ensure site welding activities had appropriate oversight and maintained code compliance. The transition also provided an opportunity to establish a single site-wide function that would provide welding and materials engineering services to the Hanford site contractors: CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC); Mission Support Alliance (MSA); Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS); and Washington Closure Hanford (WCH). Over the years, multiple and separate welding programs (amongst the several contractors) existed at the Hanford site leading to inefficiencies resulting from duplication of administrative efforts, maintenance of welding procedures, welder performance certifications, etc. The new, single program eliminates these inefficiencies. The new program, co-managed by two of the sites' new contractors, the CHPRC ('owner' of the program and responsible for construction welding services) and the MSA (provides maintenance welding services), provides more than just the traditional construction and maintenance welding services. Also provided, are welding engineering, specialty welding development/qualification for the closure of radioactive materials containers and materials evaluation/failure analysis. The following describes the new Hanford site welding program.

  15. Analysis of the single and combined non-destructive test approaches for on-site concrete strength assessment: General statements based on a real case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoudja Ali-Benyahia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the compressive strength of concrete in existing structures by coring is expensive, technically difficult in certain cases, and even impossible in others. The use of non-destructive testing (NDT is an interesting alternative method (i.e. affordable cost, portable, fast, etc.. However, the NDT estimation of strength requires a procedure of calibration of the model between NDT and compressive strength. The robustness of this calibration is a crucial point allowing better choice of the optimal number of cores. Studies which treat the calibration of proposed models are often based on laboratory experiments or synthetic data. The present study aims at identifying and optimizing the methodology of the calibration model on site. This paper is based on a broad campaign of auscultation using NDT (Rebound and Ultrasound and coring on an existing construction with 205 triplets of data (strengths and NDT results. Statistical data analysis enables to quantify the role of: the number of cores (NC used for the calibration, the use of only one or two-combined NDT techniques and the calibration method. The conclusions are focused on the improvement of the relevance and the effectiveness of NDT techniques in such operational situations.

  16. Interaction of water, alkyl hydroperoxide, and allylic alcohol with a single-site homogeneous Ti-Si epoxidation catalyst: A spectroscopic and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Atsushi; Bürgi, Thomas; Skrabal, Peter; Bangerter, Felix; Baiker, Alfons

    2005-02-17

    Tetrakis(trimethylsiloxy)titanium (TTMST, Ti(OSiMe3)4) possesses an isolated Ti center and is a highly active homogeneous catalyst in epoxidation of various olefins. The structure of TTMST resembles that of the active sites in some heterogeneous Ti-Si epoxidation catalysts, especially silylated titania-silica mixed oxides. Water cleaves the Ti-O-Si bond and deactivates the catalyst. An alkyl hydroperoxide, TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide), does not cleave the Ti-O-Si bond, but interacts via weak hydrogen-bonding as supported by NMR, DOSY, IR, and computational studies. ATR-IR spectroscopy combined with computational investigations shows that more than one, that is, up to four, TBHP can undergo hydrogen-bonding with TTMST, leading to the activation of the O-O bond of TBHP. The greater the number of TBHP molecules that form hydrogen bonds to TTMST, the more electrophilic the O-O bond becomes, and the more active the complex is for epoxidation. An allylic alcohol, 2-cyclohexen-1-ol, does not interact strongly with TTMST, but the interaction is prominent when it interacts with the TTMST-TBHP complex. On the basis of the experimental and theoretical findings, a hydrogen-bond-assisted epoxidation mechanism of TTMST is suggested.

  17. Methodology of site protection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farges, L.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary studies preceding building of a nuclear facility aim at assessing the choice of a site and establishing operating and control procedures. These studies are of two types. Studies on the impact of environment on the nuclear facility to be constructed form one type and studies on the impact of nuclear facilities on the environment form the second type. A methodology giving a framework to studies of second type is presented. These studies are undertaken to choose suitable sites for nuclear facilities. After a preliminary selection of a site based on the first estimate, a detailed site study is undertaken. The procedure for this consists of five successive phases, namely, (1) an inquiry assessing the initial state of the site, (2) an initial synthesis of accumulated information for assessing the health and safety consequences of releases, (3) laboratory and field studies simulating the movement of waste products for a quantitative assessment of effects, (4) final synthesis for laying down the release limits and radiological control methods, and (5) conclusions based on comparing the data of final synthesis to the limits prescribed by regulations. These five phases are outlined. Role of periodic reassessments after the facility is in operation for same time is explained. (M.G.B.)

  18. Robotic laparoendoscopic single-site surgery: From present to future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Verit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The continued effort of improving cosmesis and reducing morbidity in urologic surgery has given rise to novel alternatives to traditional minimally invasive techniques: Laparoendoscopic Single-site Surgery (LESS and Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES. Despite the development of specialized access devices and instruments, the performance of complex procedures using LESS has been challenging due to loss of triangulation and instrument clashing. A robotic interface may represent the key factor in overcoming the critical restrictions related to NOTES and LESS. Although encouraging, current clinical evidence related to R-LESS remains limited as the current da Vinci® robotic platform has not been specifically designed for LESS. Robotic innovations are imminent and are likely to govern major changes to the current landscape of scarless surgery.

  19. New Developments in Robotics and Single-site Gynecologic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Catherine A

    2017-06-01

    Within the last 10 years there have been significant advances in minimal-access surgery. Although no emerging technology has demonstrated improved outcomes or fewer complications than standard laparoscopy, the introduction of the robotic surgical platform has significantly lowered abdominal hysterectomy rates. While operative time and cost were higher in robotic-assisted procedures when the technology was first introduced, newer studies demonstrate equivalent or improved robotic surgical efficiency with increased experience. Single-port hysterectomy has not improved postoperative pain or subjective cosmetic results. Emerging platforms with flexible, articulating instruments may increase the uptake of single-port procedures including natural orifice transluminal endoscopic cases.

  20. Single-Site Palladium(II) Catalyst for Oxidative Heck Reaction: Catalytic Performance and Kinetic Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hui; Li, Mengyang; Zhang, Guanghui; Gallagher, James R.; Huang, Zhiliang; Sun, Yu; Luo, Zhong; Chen, Hongzhong; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Zou, Ruqiang; Lei, Aiwen; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The development of organometallic single-site catalysts (SSCs) has inspired the designs of new heterogeneous catalysts with high efficiency. Nevertheless, the application of SSCs in certain modern organic reactions, such as C-C bond formation reactions, has still been less investigated. In this study, a single-site Pd(II) catalyst was developed, where 2,2'-bipyridine-grafted periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) was employed as the support of a Pd(II) complex. The overall performance of the single-site Pd(II) catalyst in the oxidative Heck reaction was then investigated. The investigation results show that the catalyst displays over 99% selectivity for the product formation with high reaction yield. Kinetic profiles further confirm its high catalytic efficiency, showing that the rate constant is nearly 40 times higher than that for the free Pd(II) salt. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that the catalyst has remarkable lifetime and recyclability.

  1. Robotic Laparoendoscopic Single-site Retroperitioneal Renal Surgery: Initial Investigation of a Purpose-built Single-port Surgical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Matthew J; Ramirez, Daniel; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2017-04-01

    Robotic single-site retroperitoneal renal surgery has the potential to minimize the morbidity of standard transperitoneal and multiport approaches. Traditionally, technological limitations of non-purpose-built robotic platforms have hindered the application of this approach. To assess the feasibility of retroperitoneal renal surgery using a new purpose-built robotic single-port surgical system. This was a preclinical study using three male cadavers to assess the feasibility of the da Vinci SP1098 surgical system for robotic laparoendoscopic single-site (R-LESS) retroperitoneal renal surgery. We used the SP1098 to perform retroperitoneal R-LESS radical nephrectomy (n=1) and bilateral partial nephrectomy (n=4) on the anterior and posterior surfaces of the kidney. Improvements unique to this system include enhanced optics and intelligent instrument arm control. Access was obtained 2cm anterior and inferior to the tip of the 12th rib using a novel 2.5-cm robotic single-port system that accommodates three double-jointed articulating robotic instruments, an articulating camera, and an assistant port. The primary outcome was the technical feasibility of the procedures, as measured by the need for conversion to standard techniques, intraoperative complications, and operative times. All cases were completed without the need for conversion. There were no intraoperative complications. The operative time was 100min for radical nephrectomy, and the mean operative time was 91.8±18.5min for partial nephrectomy. Limitations include the preclinical model, the small sample size, and the lack of a control group. Single-site retroperitoneal renal surgery is feasible using the latest-generation SP1098 robotic platform. While the potential of the SP1098 appears promising, further study is needed for clinical evaluation of this investigational technology. In an experimental model, we used a new robotic system to successfully perform major surgery on the kidney through a single small

  2. Impact of Surgihoney Reactive Oxygen on surgical site infection (SSI after complex abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR of grade 3 and 4 ventral Hernias: A single arm pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Parker

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This study will provide an assessment of methods and feasibility of recruiting and following up patients who are treated with SHRO. On the basis of this pilot trial, a full trial may be proposed in the future which will provide additional, robust evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of SHRO in wound management following AWR. This may act as a model for the management of wounds in complex patients undergoing AWR.

  3. Recruitment methods and costs for a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of chiropractic care for lumbar spinal stenosis: a single-site pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambron, Jerrilyn A; Dexheimer, Jennifer M; Chang, Mabel; Cramer, Gregory D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the methods for recruitment in a clinical trial on chiropractic care for lumbar spinal stenosis. This randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study investigated the efficacy of different amounts of total treatment dosage over 6 weeks in 60 volunteer subjects with lumbar spinal stenosis. Subjects were recruited for this study through several media venues, focusing on successful and cost-effective strategies. Included in our efforts were radio advertising, newspaper advertising, direct mail, and various other low-cost initiatives. Of the 1211 telephone screens, 60 responders (5.0%) were randomized into the study. The most successful recruitment method was radio advertising, generating more than 64% of the calls (776 subjects). Newspaper and magazine advertising generated approximately 9% of all calls (108 subjects), and direct mail generated less than 7% (79 subjects). The total direct cost for recruitment was $40 740 or $679 per randomized patient. The costs per randomization were highest for direct mail ($995 per randomization) and lowest for newspaper/magazine advertising ($558 per randomization). Success of recruitment methods may vary based on target population and location. Planning of recruitment efforts is essential to the success of any clinical trial. Copyright 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Da Vinci single site© surgical platform in clinical practice: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Luca; Guadagni, Simone; Di Franco, Gregorio; Palmeri, Matteo; Di Candio, Giulio; Mosca, Franco

    2016-12-01

    The Da Vinci single-site© surgical platform (DVSSP) is a set of single-site instruments and accessories specifically dedicated to robot-assisted single-site surgery. The PubMed database from inception to June 2015 was searched for English literature on the clinical use of DVSSP in general surgery, urology and gynecology. Twenty-nine articles involving the clinical application of DVSSP were identified; 15 articles on general surgery (561 procedures), four articles on urology (48 procedures) and 10 articles on gynecology (212 procedures). All studies have proven the safety and feasibility of the use of DVSSP. The principal reported advantage is the restoration of intra-abdominal triangulation, while the main reported limitation is the lack of the endowrist. Da Vinci systems have proven to be valuable assets in single-site surgery, owing to the combination of robot use with the dedicated single-incision platform. However, case-control or prospective trials are warranted to draw more definitive conc lusions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Feasibility study of high-performance pulsed power technology for supporting Hanford Site single-shell tank waste retrieval, March 29, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed databases on retrieval methods that include more than 155 companies that have technologies potentially applicable to DSST waste retrieval, including the High Performance Pulsed Power Technology (HPT). This report summarizes the feasibility of the technology for supporting retrieval of SST waste. Other potential applications such as unblocking plugs in waste transfer pipelines are described in Appendix C. The feasibility study addresses issues of implementation, operation, and safety with a focus on strengths, weaknesses, and potential pitfalls of the technology. The feasibility study was based on information acquired from TZN GmbH, a German company that developed and manufactures HPT systems for a wide-range of applications. Marketing partners of TZN for this technology are the German company Telerob and R.J. International, the U.S. representative of both companies. An HPT system is capable of fracturing brittle materials into 100-microm particles using electrothermally-generated shock waves. Until now, the technology has been used only to separate glass, metal, ceramic, and plastic components. One primary application of the technology has been in foundries for removing ceramic molds from metal castings. Metals, except for those that are very brittle, are not impacted by the shock wave. The HPT system is highly effective in fracturing and mobilizing ceramic mold materials contained in the crevices of castings that are normally difficult to remove. The HPT system has also been shown to be effective in separating glass in windshields from their protective layers of plastic; concrete from reinforcing rods; ceramic, plastic, and metal materials in computer chips; and ceramic insulation from spark plugs and high-voltage insulators. The HP'T system has been used successfully to bore a 7-in. diameter hole into hard rock at a rate of 33 ft/hr. The HPT system has also been demonstrated successfully in mining applications

  6. Multifunctional Single-Site Catalysts for Alkoxycarbonylation of Terminal Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingkun; Zhu, Hejun; Wang, Wenlong; Du, Hong; Wang, Tao; Yan, Li; Hu, Xiangping; Ding, Yunjie

    2016-09-08

    A multifunctional copolymer (PyPPh2 -SO3 H@porous organic polymers, POPs) was prepared by combining acidic groups and heterogeneous P,N ligands through the copolymerization of vinyl-functionalized 2-pyridyldiphenylphosphine (2-PyPPh2 ) and p-styrene sulfonic acid under solvothermal conditions. The morphology and chemical structure of the copolymer were evaluated using a series of characterization techniques. Compared with traditional homogeneous Pd(OAc)2 /2-PyPPh2 / p-toluenesulfonic acid catalyst, the copolymer supported palladium catalyst (Pd-PyPPh2 -SO3 H@POPs) exhibited higher activity for alkoxycarbonylation of terminal alkynes under the same conditions. This phenomenon could be attributed to the synergistic effect between the single-site Pd centers, 2-PyPPh2 ligands, and SO3 H groups, the outstanding swelling properties as well as the high enrichment of the reactant concentration by the porous catalyst. In addition, the catalyst could be reused at least 4 times without any apparent loss of activity. The excellent catalytic reactivity and good recycling properties make it an attractive catalyst for industrial applications. This work paves the way for advanced multifunctional porous organic polymers as a new type of platform for heterogeneous catalysis in the future. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Single versus Two-Site Phacoemulsification and Mitomycin-C Trabeculectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baradaran-Rafiee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes of single-site versus two-site mitomycin-C (MMC augmented phacotrabeculectomy. METHODS: This matched randomized clinical trial included 34 eyes of 30 patients with visually significant cataracts and poorly controlled glaucoma. Equal numbers of eyes were randomly assigned to the single-site and two-site groups. In the single-site approach, phacoemulsification was performed under a superior scleral tunnel followed by trabeculectomy. The two-site approach included a temporal clear corneal phaco-emulsification combined with a separate superior trabeculectomy. MMC 0.2 mg/ml was similarly applied for one minute in both groups. RESULTS: Patients were followed for a mean period of 13±1.4 (range, 12 to 15 months. Mean best corrected visual acuity one year after surgery was 0.6±0.4 LogMAR in the single-site group and 0.4±0.28 LogMAR in the two-site group (P=0.12. In the single-site group, mean preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP was 26.4±6.6 mmHg which was decreased to 14.8±2.5 mmHg, one year after the operation (P < 0.001. Corresponding figures for the two-site group were 22.9±3.3 and 13.6±1.7 mmHg respectively (P < 0.001. At final follow up no significant difference in IOP existed between the study groups. Mean number of anti-glaucoma medications was 0.06±0.24 in the two-site group vs 0

  8. Robot-Assisted Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Partial Nephrectomy With the Novel Da Vinci Single-Site Platform: Initial Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komninos, Christos; Tuliao, Patrick; Kim, Dae Keun; Choi, Young Deuk; Chung, Byung Ha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report our initial clinical cases of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site (R-LESS) partial nephrectomy (PN) performed with the use of the novel Da Vinci R-LESS platform. Materials and Methods Three patients underwent R-LESS PN from November 2013 through February 2014. Perioperative and postoperative outcomes were collected and intraoperative difficulties were noted. Results Operative time and estimated blood loss volume ranged between 100 and 110 minutes and between 50 and 500 mL, respectively. None of the patients was transfused. All cases were completed with the off-clamp technique, whereas one case required conversion to the conventional (multiport) approach because of difficulty in creating the appropriate scope for safe tumor resection. No major postoperative complications occurred, and all tumors were resected in safe margins. Length of hospital stay ranged between 3 and 7 days. The lack of EndoWrist movements, the external collisions, and the bed assistant's limited working space were noticed to be the main drawbacks of this surgical method. Conclusions Our initial experience with R-LESS PN with the novel Da Vinci platform shows that even though the procedure is feasible, it should be applied in only appropriately selected patients. However, further improvement is needed to overcome the existing limitations. PMID:24955221

  9. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery through an ostomy site: a natural approach by an unnatural orifice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Nicole E; Peterson, Carrie Y; Ramamoorthy, Sonia L; McLemore, Elisabeth C; Sedrak, Michael F; Lowy, Andrew M; Horgan, Santiago; Talamini, Mark A; Sicklick, Jason K

    2015-02-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is gaining popularity for a wide variety of surgical operations and capitalizes on the benefits of traditional laparoscopic surgery without incurring multiple incision sites. Traditionally, SILS is performed by a midline periumbilical approach. However, such a minimally invasive approach may be utilized in patients who already have an abdominal incision. Our series retrospectively reviews 7 cases in which we utilized the fascial defect at the time of after ostomy reversal as our SILS incision site. In turn, we performed a variety of concurrent intra-abdominal procedures with excellent technical success and outcomes. Our study is the largest single-institution case series of this novel approach and suggests that utilizing an existing ostomy-site abdominal incision is a safe and effective location for SILS port placement and should be considered in patients undergoing concurrent procedures.

  10. Site locality identification study: Hanford Site. Volume II. Data cataloging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    Data compilation and cataloging for the candidate site locality identification study were conducted in order to provide a retrievable data cataloging system for the present siting study and future site evaluation and licensng processes. This task occurred concurrently with and also independently of other tasks of the candidate site locality identification study. Work in this task provided the data utilized primarily in the development and application of screening and ranking processes to identify candidate site localities on the Hanford Site. The overall approach included two steps: (1) data acquisition and screening; and (2) data compilation and cataloging. Data acquisition and screening formed the basis for preliminary review of data sources with respect to their probable utilization in the candidate site locality identification study and review with respect to the level of completeness and detail of the data. The important working assumption was that the data to be used in the study be based on existing and available published and unpublished literature. The data compilation and cataloging provided the basic product of the Task; a retrievable data cataloging system in the form of an annotated reference list and key word index and an index of compiled data. The annotated reference list and key word index are cross referenced and can be used to trace and retrieve the data sources utilized in the candidate site locality identification study

  11. Study of site layout in the Rokkasho site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kazuyoshi; Tamura, Kousaku; Yagenji, Akira; Sekiya, Shigeki; Takahashi, Hideo; Neyatani, Yuzuru; Uehara, Masaharu; Motohashi, Keiichi; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Ogino, Shunji; Nagamatsu, Nobuhide

    2006-03-01

    The Final Design Report (FDR) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) was published on July 2001 as a summary of the Engineering Design Activity (EDA). After the EDA, site dependent design has been investigated for the invitation of ITER toward Rokkasho Site (Iyasakadai area) in Aomori prefecture. This report describes the results of site layout of major buildings and structures of ITER in the Rokkasho-Site. The data of the ground near the site and the results of site dependent design in Japan were applied to this study. Through this study, the most appropriate site layout has been constructed with satisfaction of following conditions. (1) Bedrock level at the tokamak complex building is relatively high and it can be reduced the cost of excavation and foundation work. (2) Total amount of excavation soil for site preparation is minimized and the flexibility of the layout is ensured with flat ground level. (3) Accessibility of human and equipments, reduction of noise and vibration to the environment can be obtained. Total length of ducts and piping between buildings in site is minimized. (author)

  12. Induction of prophage lambda by chlorinated organics: Detection of some single-species/single-site carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, D.M.; Brooks, H.G. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-eight chlorinated organic compounds were evaluated for their ability to induce DNA damage using the Microscreen prophage-induction assay in Escherichia coli. Comparison of the performance characteristics of the prophage-induction and Salmonella assays to rodent carcinogenicity assays showed that the prophage-induction assay had a somewhat higher specificity than did the Salmonella assay (70% vs. 50%); sensitivity, concordance, and positive and negative predictivity were similar for the two microbial assays. The Microscreen prophage-induction assay failed to detect eight carcinogens, perhaps due to toxicity or other unknown factors; five of these eight carcinogens were detected by the Salmonella assay. However, the prophage-induction assay did detect six carcinogens that were not detected by the Salmonella assay, and five of these were single-species, single-site carcinogens, mostly mouse liver carcinogens. Some of these carcinogens, such as the chloroethanes, produce free radicals, which may be the basis for their carcinogenicity and ability to induce prophage. The prophage-induction (or other SOS) assay may be useful in identifying some genotoxic chlorinated carcinogens that induce DNA damage that do not revert the standard Salmonella tester strains.

  13. Development and validation of the Single Item Trait Empathy Scale (SITES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrath, Sara; Meier, Brian P; Bushman, Brad J

    2018-04-01

    Empathy involves feeling compassion for others and imagining how they feel. In this article, we develop and validate the Single Item Trait Empathy Scale (SITES), which contains only one item that takes seconds to complete. In seven studies (N=5,724), the SITES was found to be both reliable and valid. It correlated in expected ways with a wide variety of intrapersonal outcomes. For example, it is negatively correlated with narcissism, depression, anxiety, and alexithymia. In contrast, it is positively correlated with other measures of empathy, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and agreeableness. The SITES also correlates with a wide variety of interpersonal outcomes, especially compassion for others and helping others. The SITES is recommended in situations when time or question quantity is constrained.

  14. Olefin polymerization from single site catalysts confined within porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasi, Rajeswari M.

    Single Site Catalysts (SSCs) have been utilized for olefin polymerization. Altering the metal-ligand architecture in the SSCs, polyolefin properties can be enhanced in a rational manner. This influence of the ligands in the SSC on the property of polyolefins prepared can be referred to as the primary ligand influence. Extending this understanding and subsequent control of the metal-ligand framework to the interaction of SSCs within organic and inorganic supports is vital for the synthesis of polyolefins with tailored properties. The motivation behind this thesis was to explore the support influence on the reactivity of the SSC tethered to a support matrix during ethylene homo and copolymerization. In order to address this question of the support influence on the final polyolefin properties, synthetic routes to covalently bind SSCs on different matrices have been explored. Two distinct supported SSCs have been used to prepare branched polyethylenes. Branched polyethylenes can be prepared by either copolymerization (ethylene and alpha-olefin) or oligomerization/copolymerization processes (ethylene and in situ generated alpha-olefin). Synthetic routes to prepare precursor catalysts to Constrained Geometry Catalysts (CGCs) by silyl elimination chemistry have been developed (Chapter 2). Efficient synthetic protocols to assemble CGCs on aminomethylpolysytrene matrices (Chapter 3) and amine-functionalized mesoporous silica (Chapter 4) are also reported. These supported catalysts, with appropriate cocatalysts have been used to prepare ethylene homo and copolymers, the polymer thermal properties and microstructures were analyzed by various analytical techniques. Branched polyethylenes (LLDPE) can be prepared by copolymerization chemistry. It has been observed is that the influence of the support is seen in the production of lower crystalline forms of high density polyethylene (HDPE, 20--50% crystalline), while homogeneous polymerization of analogous soluble CGCs afford HDPE

  15. Micro-analysis of plaque fluid from single-site fasted plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, G.L.; Carey, C.M.; Chow, L.C.; Tatevossian, A.

    1990-01-01

    Despite the site-specific nature of caries, nearly all data on the concentration of ions relevant to the level of saturation of plaque fluid with respect to calcium phosphate minerals or enamel are from studies that used pooled samples. A procedure is described for the collection and analysis of inorganic ions relevant to these saturation levels in plaque fluid samples collected from a single surface on a single tooth. Various methods for examining data obtained by this procedure are described, and a mathematical procedure employing potential plots is recommended

  16. Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Pyelolithotomy With Use of a Carter-Thomason Needle Grasper

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Ill Young; Rim, Joung Sik

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To study the feasibility and safety of the procedure, we present our early experience with laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) pyelolithotomy performed by use of a Carter-Thomason needle grasper. Materials and Methods Four patients underwent LESS pyelolithotomy for the removal of renal pelvic stones. The patients' mean age was 57.8 years, and their mean body mass index was 23.01. We used a homemade single-port device made with a surgical glove that was inserted into a 2.5-cm periumbil...

  17. Well-defined single-site monohydride silica-supported zirconium from azazirconacyclopropane

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Bilel

    2015-01-13

    The silica-supported azazirconacyclopropane ≡SiOZr(HNMe2)(η2-NMeCH2)(NMe2) (1) leads exclusively under hydrogenolysis conditions (H2, 150°C) to the single-site monopodal monohydride silica-supported zirconium species ≡SiOZr(HNMe2)(NMe2)2H (2). Reactivity studies by contacting compound 2 with ethylene, hydrogen/ethylene, propene, or hydrogen/propene, at a temperature of 200°C revealed alkene hydrogenation.

  18. Well-defined single-site monohydride silica-supported zirconium from azazirconacyclopropane

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Bilel; El Eter, Mohamad; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Chen, Yin; Pelletier, Jeremie; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The silica-supported azazirconacyclopropane ≡SiOZr(HNMe2)(η2-NMeCH2)(NMe2) (1) leads exclusively under hydrogenolysis conditions (H2, 150°C) to the single-site monopodal monohydride silica-supported zirconium species ≡SiOZr(HNMe2)(NMe2)2H (2). Reactivity studies by contacting compound 2 with ethylene, hydrogen/ethylene, propene, or hydrogen/propene, at a temperature of 200°C revealed alkene hydrogenation.

  19. Minimal invasive single-site surgery in colorectal procedures: Current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Michele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimally invasive single-site (MISS surgery has recently been applied to colorectal surgery. We aimed to assess the current state of the art and the adequacy of preliminary oncological results. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature using Pubmed, Medline, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. Keywords used were "Single Port" or "Single-Incision" or "LaparoEndoscopic Single Site" or "SILS™" and "Colon" or "Colorectal" and "Surgery". Results: Twenty-nine articles on colorectal MISS surgery have been published from July 2008 to July 2010, presenting data on 149 patients. One study reported analgesic requirement. The final incision length ranged from 2.5 to 8 cm. Only two studies reported fascial incision length. There were two port site hernias in a series of 13 patients (15.38%. Two "fully laparoscopic" MISS procedures with preparation and achievement of the anastomosis completely intracorporeally are reported. Future site of ileostomy was used as the sole access for the procedures in three studies. Lymph node harvesting, resection margins and length of specimen were sufficient in oncological cases. Conclusions: MISS colorectal surgery is a challenging procedure that seems to be safe and feasible, but the existing clinical evidence is limited. In selected cases, and especially when an ileostomy is planned, colorectal surgery may be an ideal indication for MISS surgery leading to a no-scar surgery. Despite preliminary oncological results showing the feasibility of MISS surgery, we want to stress the need to standardize the technique and carefully evaluate its application in oncosurgery under ethical committee control.

  20. Hanford tank initiative test facility site selection study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehr, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project is developing equipment for the removal of hard heel waste from the Hanford Site underground single-shell waste storage tanks. The HTI equipment will initially be installed in the 241-C-106 tank where its operation will be demonstrated. This study evaluates existing Hanford Site facilities and other sites for functional testing of the HTI equipment before it is installed into the 241-C-106 tank

  1. International Journal of Humanistic Studies: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Humanistic Studies: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > International Journal of Humanistic Studies: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X.; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C.; Lin, Wenbin (UC)

    2016-08-30

    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C–H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.

  3. Housing Retention in Single-Site Housing First for Chronically Homeless Individuals With Severe Alcohol Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Daniel K.; Clifasefi, Seema L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We studied housing retention and its predictors in the single-site Housing First model. Methods. Participants (n = 111) were chronically homeless people with severe alcohol problems who lived in a single-site Housing First program and participated in a larger nonrandomized controlled trial (2005–2008) conducted in Seattle, Washington. At baseline, participants responded to self-report questionnaires assessing demographic, illness burden, alcohol and other drug use, and psychiatric variables. Housing status was recorded over 2 years. Results. Participants were interested in housing, although a sizable minority did not believe they would be able to maintain abstinence-based housing. Only 23% of participants returned to homelessness during the 2-year follow-up. Commonly cited risk factors—alcohol and other drug use, illness burden, psychiatric symptoms, and homelessness history—did not predict resumed homelessness. Active drinkers were more likely to stay in this housing project than nondrinkers. Conclusions. We found that single-site Housing First programming fills a gap in housing options for chronically homeless people with severe alcohol problems. PMID:24148063

  4. Site characterization and validation - geophysical single hole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Per

    1989-05-01

    A total of 15 boreholes have been drilled for preliminary characterization of a previously unexplored site at the 360 and 385 m level in the Stripa mine. To adequately described the rock mass in the vicinity of these boreholes, a comprehensive program utilizing a large number of geophysical borehole methods has been carried out in 10 of these boreholes. The specific geophysical character of the rock mass and the major deformed units distinguished in the vicinity of the boreholes are recognized, and in certain cases also correlated between the boreholes. A general conclusion based on the geophysical logging results, made in this report, is that the preliminary predictions made in stage 2, of the site characterization and validation project (Olsson et.al, 1988), are adequate. The results from the geophysical logging can support the four predicted fracture/ fracture zones GHa, GHb, GA and GB whereas the predicted zones GC and GI are hard to confirm from the logging results. (author)

  5. Surface science of single-site heterogeneous olefin polymerization catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong H.; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the surface science of the heterogeneous olefin polymerization catalysts. The specific focus is on how to prepare and characterize stereochemically specific heterogeneous model catalysts for the Ziegler–Natta polymerization. Under clean, ultra-high vacuum conditions, low-energy electron irradiation during the chemical vapor deposition of model Ziegler–Natta catalysts can be used to create a “single-site” catalyst film with a surface structure that produces only isotactic ...

  6. Report of JLC site study group

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, T; Yamashita, S

    2003-01-01

    This study group selected some good sites for construction of JLC (Electron-Positron Linear Collider) on the basis of investigation of data and field survey. The aims, activity, use of underground of private land, conditions of site, selection of site at present and future, summary and proposal are reported. 9 sites (Hidaka, Kitakami, Murayama, Abukuma, Kitaibaraki, Aichi and Gifu, Takamatsu, Hiroshima and Seburi range) are selected for the construction on the basis of firm ground and 4 sites (Okinawa, Harima, Tsukuba and Mutsuogawara) for development and researches. 9 sites area consists of plutonic rock or old strata of Paleozoic era. Many problems in each site are reported. There are three following proposals; 1) the self-governing communities of the sites have to understand JLC and start to construct it by information, 2) a site evaluation committee consists of specialist of civil engineering, building, social and natural environment and disaster prevention and 3) the vibration test should be carried out ...

  7. Site characterization and validation - geophysical single hole logging. Stage 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridh, B.

    1987-12-01

    Five 'boundary boreholes' have been drilled for preliminary characterization of a previously unexplored site at the 360 m level in the Stripa mine. Three of these boreholes are directed towards the North in the mine coordinate system, while two are directed towards the West. Furthermore, a vertical hole has been drilled at the end of the 3D-migration drift. To adequately describe the rock mass in the vicinity of these boreholes, a comprehensive program utilizing a large number of geophysical borehole methods has been carried out. The specific geophysical character of the rock mass and the major deformed units distinguished in the boreholes are recognized, and in certain cases also correlated between the boreholes. (orig.)

  8. Site-Selection in Single-Molecule Junction for Highly Reproducible Molecular Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Satoshi; Murai, Daigo; Marqués-González, Santiago; Nakamura, Hisao; Komoto, Yuki; Fujii, Shintaro; Nishino, Tomoaki; Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2016-02-03

    Adsorption sites of molecules critically determine the electric/photonic properties and the stability of heterogeneous molecule-metal interfaces. Then, selectivity of adsorption site is essential for development of the fields including organic electronics, catalysis, and biology. However, due to current technical limitations, site-selectivity, i.e., precise determination of the molecular adsorption site, remains a major challenge because of difficulty in precise selection of meaningful one among the sites. We have succeeded the single site-selection at a single-molecule junction by performing newly developed hybrid technique: simultaneous characterization of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The I-V response of 1,4-benzenedithiol junctions reveals the existence of three metastable states arising from different adsorption sites. Notably, correlated SERS measurements show selectivity toward one of the adsorption sites: "bridge sites". This site-selectivity represents an essential step toward the reliable integration of individual molecules on metallic surfaces. Furthermore, the hybrid spectro-electric technique reveals the dependence of the SERS intensity on the strength of the molecule-metal interaction, showing the interdependence between the optical and electronic properties in single-molecule junctions.

  9. Transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site donor nephrectomy: Without the use of a single port access device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Dubey

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions : Transumbilical LESS-DN can be cost-effectively performed using conventional laparoscopy instruments and without the need for a single port access device. Warm ischemia times with this technique are comparable with that during conventional multiport laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

  10. Learning curve for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery for an experienced laparoscopic surgeon

    OpenAIRE

    Pao-Ling Torng; Kuan-Hung Lin; Jing-Shiang Hwang; Hui-Shan Liu; I-Hui Chen; Chi-Ling Chen; Su-Cheng Huang

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the learning curve and safety of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery of gynecological surgeries. Materials and methods: Sixty-three women who underwent LESS surgery by a single experienced laparoscopic surgeon from February 2011 to August 2011 were included. Commercialized single-incision laparoscopic surgery homemade ports were used, along with conventional straight instruments. The learning curve has been defined as the additional surgical time with respect ...

  11. Site-controlled InGaN/GaN single-photon-emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei; Deng, Hui, E-mail: dengh@umich.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church St., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Teng, Chu-Hsiang; Ku, Pei-Cheng, E-mail: peicheng@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2016-04-11

    We report single-photon emission from electrically driven site-controlled InGaN/GaN quantum dots. The device is fabricated from a planar light-emitting diode structure containing a single InGaN quantum well, using a top-down approach. The location, dimension, and height of each single-photon-emitting diode are controlled lithographically, providing great flexibility for chip-scale integration.

  12. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program on Reducing the Incidence Rate of Healthcare-Associated Clostridium difficile Infection: A Non-Randomized, Stepped Wedge, Single-Site, Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDiodato, Giulio; McArthur, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The incidence rate of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA-CDI) is estimated at 1 in 100 patients. Antibiotic exposure is the most consistently reported risk factor for HA-CDI. Strategies to reduce the risk of HA-CDI have focused on reducing antibiotic utilization. Prospective audit and feedback is a commonly used antimicrobial stewardship intervention (ASi). The impact of this ASi on risk of HA-CDI is equivocal. This study examines the effectiveness of a prospective audit and feedback ASi on reducing the risk of HA-CDI. Single-site, 339 bed community-hospital in Barrie, Ontario, Canada. Primary outcome is HA-CDI incidence rate. Daily prospective and audit ASi is the exposure variable. ASi implemented across 6 wards in a non-randomized, stepped wedge design. Criteria for ASi; any intravenous antibiotic use for ≥ 48 hrs, any oral fluoroquinolone or oral second generation cephalosporin use for ≥ 48 hrs, or any antimicrobial use for ≥ 5 days. HA-CDI cases and model covariates were aggregated by ward, year and month starting September 2008 and ending February 2016. Multi-level mixed effect negative binomial regression analysis was used to model the primary outcome, with intercept and slope coefficients for ward-level random effects estimated. Other covariates tested for inclusion in the final model were derived from previously published risk factors. Deviance residuals were used to assess the model's goodness-of-fit. The dataset included 486 observation periods, of which 350 were control periods and 136 were intervention periods. After accounting for all other model covariates, the estimated overall ASi incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 0.48 (95% 0.30, 0.79). The ASi effect was independent of antimicrobial utilization. The ASi did not seem to reduce the risk of Clostridium difficile infection on the surgery wards (IRR 0.87, 95% CI 0.45, 1.69) compared to the medicine wards (IRR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28, 0.63). The ward-level burden of Clostridium

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program on Reducing the Incidence Rate of Healthcare-Associated Clostridium difficile Infection: A Non-Randomized, Stepped Wedge, Single-Site, Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio DiDiodato

    Full Text Available The incidence rate of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA-CDI is estimated at 1 in 100 patients. Antibiotic exposure is the most consistently reported risk factor for HA-CDI. Strategies to reduce the risk of HA-CDI have focused on reducing antibiotic utilization. Prospective audit and feedback is a commonly used antimicrobial stewardship intervention (ASi. The impact of this ASi on risk of HA-CDI is equivocal. This study examines the effectiveness of a prospective audit and feedback ASi on reducing the risk of HA-CDI.Single-site, 339 bed community-hospital in Barrie, Ontario, Canada. Primary outcome is HA-CDI incidence rate. Daily prospective and audit ASi is the exposure variable. ASi implemented across 6 wards in a non-randomized, stepped wedge design. Criteria for ASi; any intravenous antibiotic use for ≥ 48 hrs, any oral fluoroquinolone or oral second generation cephalosporin use for ≥ 48 hrs, or any antimicrobial use for ≥ 5 days. HA-CDI cases and model covariates were aggregated by ward, year and month starting September 2008 and ending February 2016. Multi-level mixed effect negative binomial regression analysis was used to model the primary outcome, with intercept and slope coefficients for ward-level random effects estimated. Other covariates tested for inclusion in the final model were derived from previously published risk factors. Deviance residuals were used to assess the model's goodness-of-fit.The dataset included 486 observation periods, of which 350 were control periods and 136 were intervention periods. After accounting for all other model covariates, the estimated overall ASi incidence rate ratio (IRR was 0.48 (95% 0.30, 0.79. The ASi effect was independent of antimicrobial utilization. The ASi did not seem to reduce the risk of Clostridium difficile infection on the surgery wards (IRR 0.87, 95% CI 0.45, 1.69 compared to the medicine wards (IRR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28, 0.63. The ward-level burden of

  14. Single site porphyrine-like structures advantages over metals for selective electrochemical CO2 reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Alexander; Ju, Wen; Varela, Ana Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Currently, no catalysts are completely selective for the electrochemical CO2 Reduction Reaction (CO2RR). Based on trends in density functional theory calculations of reaction intermediates we find that the single metal site in a porphyrine-like structure has a simple advantage of limiting...... the competing Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER). The single metal site in a porphyrine-like structure requires an ontop site binding of hydrogen, compared to the hollow site binding of hydrogen on a metal catalyst surface. The difference in binding site structure gives a fundamental energy-shift in the scaling...... relation of ∼0.3eV between the COOH* vs. H* intermediate (CO2RR vs. HER). As a result, porphyrine-like catalysts have the advantage over metal catalyst of suppressing HER and enhancing CO2RR selectivity....

  15. Current status of natural orifice trans-endoscopic surgery (NOTES and laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS in urologic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E. Sanchez-Salas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES represent novel approaches in urological surgery. To perform a review of the literature in order describe the current status of LESS and NOTES in Urology. References for this manuscript were obtained by performing a review of the available literature in PubMed from 01-01-02 to 15-05-09. Search terms included single port, single site, NOTES, LESS and single incision. A total of 412 manuscripts were initially identified. Out of these, 64 manuscripts were selected based in their urological content. The manuscript features subheadings for experimental and clinical studies, as NOTES-LESS is a new surgical technique and its future evolution will probably rely in initial verified feasibility. A subheading for reviews presents information regarding common language and consensus for the techniques. The issue of complications published in clinical series and the future needs of NOTES-LESS, are also presented.

  16. Ground state properties of a spin chain within Heisenberg model with a single lacking spin site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mebrouki, M.

    2011-01-01

    The ground state and first excited state energies of an antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain with and without a single lacking spin site are computed using exact diagonalization method, within the Heisenberg model. In order to keep both parts of a spin chain with a lacking site connected, next nearest neighbors interactions are then introduced. Also, the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) method is used, to investigate ground state energies of large system sizes; which permits us to inquire about the effect of large system sizes on energies. Other quantum quantities such as fidelity and correlation functions are also studied and compared in both cases. - Research highlights: → In this paper we compute ground state and first excited state energies of a spin chain with and without a lacking spin site. The next nearest neighbors are introduced with the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-half. → Exact diagonalization is used for small systems, where DMRG method is used to compute energies for large systems. Other quantities like quantum fidelity and correlation are also computed. → Results are presented in figures with comments. → E 0 /N is computed in a function of N for several values of J 2 and for both systems. First excited energies are also investigated.

  17. Site characterization studies in the NWTS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipler, D.; Evans, G.

    1980-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility to identify sites and construct and operate facilities for the storage or isolation of spent fuel and/or reprocessing radioactive wastes from commercial nuclear power plants. The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program has been initiated by the DOE to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of burial and isolation of high level radioactive waste in deep geologic formations. The NTWS Program plan which sets forth the criteria, procedures, and other considerations required to characterize and select a site in a comprehensive stepwise manner is discussed. The plan is not specific to any given geologic medium but serves as a guide for site selection in any geohydrologic system deemed appropriate for consideration for a deep geologic repository. The plan will be used by all NWTS Project Offices in the conduct of their site characterization program. The plan will be updated, as warranted, to reflect technology development, National policies, rulemakings by regulatory agencies, and other changing political, social, and institutional considerations. Site characterization begins with the identification of regions believed to have suitable geologic, hydrologic, and environmental characteristics for repository siting. This is followed by an iterative process of data collection and analysis to identify areas and locations which appear most suitable for further investigations. In addition, screening studies of the DOE's nuclear complexes has led to the selection of the Nevada Test Site and the Hanford Site for further characterization studies. The site characterization process results in a number of candidate sites from which a site will be selected and proposed to the NRC for licensing

  18. Robotic right colectomy using the Da Vinci Single-Site® platform: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Luca; Guadagni, Simone; Caprili, Giovanni; Di Candio, Giulio; Boggi, Ugo; Mosca, Franco

    2013-09-01

    While single-port laparoscopy for abdominal surgery is technically challenging, the Da Vinci Single-Site® robotic surgery platform may help to overcome some of the difficulties of this rapidly evolving technique. The authors of this article present a case of single-incision, robotic right colectomy using this device. A 74-year-old female with malignant polyp of caecum was operated on with a single-site approach using the Da Vinci Single-Site® robotic surgery device. Resection and anastomosis were performed extra-corporeally after undocking the robot. The procedure was successfully completed in 200 min. No surgical complications occurred during the intervention and the post-operative stay and no conversion to laparotomy or additional trocars were required. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of right colectomy using the Da Vinci Single-Site® robotic surgery platform to be reported. The procedure is feasible and safe and its main advantages are restoration of triangulation and reduced instrument clashes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. ITER site selection studies in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, M.; Alejaldre, C.; Doncel, J.; Garcia, A.; Ibarra, A.; Jimenez, J.A.; Sanchez de Mora, M.A.; Alcala, F.; Diez, J.E.; Dominguez, M.; Albisu, F.

    2003-01-01

    The studies carried out to evaluate and select a candidate site for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) construction in Spain are presented in this paper. The ITER design, completed in July 2001, considered a number of technical requirements that must be fulfilled by the selected site. Several assumptions concerning the ITER site were made in order to carry on the design before final site selection. In the studies undertaken for ITER site selection in Spain, the referred technical requirements and assumptions were applied across the whole of Spain and two areas were identified as being preferential. These areas are on the Mediterranean coast and are situated in the Catalan and Valencian regions. A comparative evaluation based on technical characteristics for the concrete plots, proposed within the preferential areas, has been done. The result of these studies was the selection of a site that was deemed to be the most competitive--Vandellos (Tarragona)--and it was proposed to the European Commission for detailed studies in order to be considered as a possible European site for ITER construction. Another key factor for hosting ITER in Spain, is the licensing process. The present status is summarised in this paper

  20. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulut, A. E-mail: abulut@samsun.omu.edu.tr; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Koeksal, F

    2000-04-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C{sub 2}H{sub 7}NO{sub 3}S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of {sup 32}SO{sup -}{sub 2} and {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radicals. The hyperfine values of {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites.

  1. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulut, A.; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Koeksal, F.

    2000-01-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C 2 H 7 NO 3 S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of 32 SO - 2 and 33 SO - 2 radicals. The hyperfine values of 33 SO - 2 radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites

  2. [The LESS (Laparo-endoscopic Single-Site) procedure in urology. Technical and clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, F; Cindolo, L; Gidaro, S; Schips, L

    2010-01-01

    Minimally invasive urology is rapidly advancing, and single-site laparoscopic surgery is being explored clinically. Such laparoscopic procedures are technically challenging and require an experienced laparoscopic surgeon due to the lack of port placement triangulation and instrument clashing. In the last years several surgeons all over the world have explored the feasibility and safety of LESS using several and different ports, approaches and devices. Hundreds of procedures have been described with overall favorable intraoperative and postoperative outcomes. Our experience consists of more than 30 procedures successfully completed for adrenal, kidney disease and varicocele. To date, LESS could be considered feasible and effective using currently available devices, however it is to be considered as an initial status technique requiring further confirmatory studies and advanced laparoscopic skills.

  3. Studies for site preparation for ITER construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardeau, A.; Blanc, F.; Cardettini, J.D.; Mandine, J.R.; Guerin, R.; Patisson, L.; Bergegere, P.; Santagiustina, A.; Garin, P.

    2004-01-01

    The implantation of a nuclear facility such as ITER (about 20 buildings on 40 ha) requires many preparatory studies, particularly with respect to: Underground characteristics; Topography, layout; Deforestation, excavations; Networks, fences and roads; Impact of seismic hazard on design. This paper presents the main results of these studies, carried out within the European ITER Site Studies framework. A dedicated paper in the conference deals with the transport studies. To choose the site for ITER implantation, detailed geological, hydrogeological and geophysical investigations have been carried out. Taking into account the meteorological data (particularly the main wind direction), topography, access, electrical supply, fluids needs and constraints (gravity systems), buildings and roads have been implemented. (authors)

  4. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  5. Laparoendoscopic single-site Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication for achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Linda; Ross, Sharona; Dahal, Sujat; Morton, Connor; Okpaleke, Chinyere; Rosas, Melissa; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2011-06-01

    Laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery is beginning to include advanced laparoscopic operations such as Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication. However, the efficacy of LESS Heller myotomy has not been established. This study aimed to evaluate the authors' initial experience with LESS Heller myotomy for achalasia. Transumbilical LESS Heller myotomy with concomitant anterior fundoplication for achalasia was undertaken for 66 patients after October 2007. Outcomes including operative time, complications, and length of hospital stay were recorded and compared with those for an earlier contiguous group of 66 consecutive patients undergoing conventional multi-incision laparoscopic Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication. Symptoms before and after myotomy were scored by the patients using a Likert scale ranging from 0 (never/not severe) to 10 (always/very severe). Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test, the Wilcoxon matched-pairs test, and Fisher's exact test where appropriate. Patients undergoing LESS Heller myotomy were similar to those undergoing conventional laparoscopic Heller myotomy in gender, age, body mass index (BMI), blood loss, and length of hospital stay. However, the patients undergoing LESS Heller myotomies had operations of significantly longer duration (median, 117 vs. 93 min with the conventional laparoscopic approach) (pHeller myotomy, additional ports/incisions were required. No patients were converted to "open" operations, and no patients had procedure-specific complications. Symptom reduction was dramatic and satisfying after both LESS and conventional laparoscopic myotomy with fundoplication. The symptom reduction was similar with the two procedures. The LESS approach left no apparent umbilical scar. Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication effectively treats achalasia. The findings showed LESS Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication to be feasible, safe, and efficacious. Although the LESS approach increases operative

  6. Ab initio calculations of partial molar properties in the single-site approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the application of the single-site approximation in calculations of partial molar quantities, e.g., impurity solution energy, segregation energy, and effective chemical potential, which are related to a variation of the composition of an alloy or its nonequivalent parts. We demonstrate...

  7. Is Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Adrenalectomy a Feasible Alternative in Treating Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Hsiung Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS and conventional multiport adrenalectomy in patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA. Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed patients who had been clinically confirmed with unilateral APA and who underwent LESS or multiport adrenalectomy between 2009 and 2014. Perioperative data were obtained for all patients. Blood pressure and the levels of serum aldosterone, renin, and potassium were checked periodically. Results. We identified 45 APA patients in the LESS group and 71 in the multiport group. The baseline characteristics were matched between two groups. All adrenalectomies were completed successfully, except one with laparoscopic conversion in the single-port group and one open conversion in the multiport group. After a mean follow-up around one year, there were no significant group differences in the improvement of hypertension, number of types of medication taken, and cure of hypokalemia after operation. Conclusions. Our study confirm that LESS adrenalectomy achieved similar clinical and functional outcomes as conventional multiport adrenalectomy for management of unilateral APA.

  8. Individual single-site travel cost model for Czech paradise geopark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Špaček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geotourism is a new phenomenon, which has emerged in the tourism literature during the past two decades, and whose meaning suffered from global census. Geotourism is still a new discipline and relatively little has been written about its demand side, demonstrated by a lack of studies in the literature This article studies the recreational value of geotourism areas, and focuses on the first geopark in the Czech Republic, namely the Czech Paradise Geopark. To assess the recreational value the travel cost method is applied, specifically the individual travel cost model. The necessary research data was gathered through intensive tourist surveys conducted in the study area. Data gathered in the respondents’ survey served to determine the consumer surplus as a measure of recreational value and to develop the single site travel cost model. The dependent variable in the conducted model is the number of visits in the area and among the independent variables, studied age, education, travel cost, family status, economic activity and income. The results were subsequently compared to findings in the available literature, research works and case studies.

  9. Web vulnerability study of online pharmacy sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Consumers are increasingly using online pharmacies, but these sites may not provide an adequate level of security with the consumers' personal data. There is a gap in this research addressing the problems of security vulnerabilities in this industry. The objective is to identify the level of web application security vulnerabilities in online pharmacies and the common types of flaws, thus expanding on prior studies. Technical, managerial and legal recommendations on how to mitigate security issues are presented. The proposed four-step method first consists of choosing an online testing tool. The next steps involve choosing a list of 60 online pharmacy sites to test, and then running the software analysis to compile a list of flaws. Finally, an in-depth analysis is performed on the types of web application vulnerabilities. The majority of sites had serious vulnerabilities, with the majority of flaws being cross-site scripting or old versions of software that have not been updated. A method is proposed for the securing of web pharmacy sites, using a multi-phased approach of technical and managerial techniques together with a thorough understanding of national legal requirements for securing systems.

  10. Ligand-tailored single-site silica supported titanium catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and towards cyanosilylation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yani; Yu, Bo; Yang, Jindou; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    A successive anchoring of Ti(NMe 2 ) 4 , cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on silica was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The silica, monitored by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FT-IR), was pretreated at different temperatures (200, 500 and 800 °C). The ligand tailored silica-supported titanium complexes were characterized by in-situ FT-IR, 13 C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface titanium species are single sited. The catalytic activity of the ligand tailored single-site silica supported titanium complexes was evaluated by a cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the dehydroxylation temperatures of silica and the configuration of the ligands. - Graphical abstract: The ligand-tailored silica supported “single site” titanium complexes were synthesized by SOMC strategy and fully characterized. Their catalytic activity were evaluated by benzaldehyde silylcyanation. - Highlights: • Single-site silica supported Ti active species was prepared by SOMC technique. • O-donor ligand tailored Ti surface species was synthesized. • The surface species was characterized by XPS, 13 C CP-MAS NMR, XANES etc. • Catalytic activity of the Ti active species in silylcyanation reaction was evaluated

  11. Single house on-site grey water treatment using a submerged membrane bioreactor for toilet flushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, M S; Markakis, N; Petousi, I; Manios, T

    2016-05-01

    Wastewater recycling has been and continues to be practiced all over the world for a variety of reasons including: increasing water availability, combating water shortages and drought, and supporting environmental and public health protection. Nowadays, one of the most interesting issues for wastewater recycling is the on-site treatment and reuse of grey water. During this study the efficiency of a compact Submerged Membrane Bioreactor (SMBR) system to treat real grey water in a single house in Crete, Greece, was examined. In the study, grey water was collected from a bathtub, shower and washing machine containing significant amounts of organic matter and pathogens. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in the system was approximately 87%. Total suspended solids (TSS) were reduced from 95mgL(-1) in the influent to 8mgL(-1) in the effluent. The efficiency of the system to reduce anionic surfactants was about 80%. Fecal and total coliforms decreased significantly using the SMBR system due to rejection, by the membrane, used in the study. Overall, the SMBR treatment produces average effluent values that would satisfy international guidelines for indoor reuse applications such as toilet flushing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Therapeutic benefits of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser on single-site HPV lesions in the lower female genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urru, Giovanni; Moretti, Gianfranco

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown contradictory variable percentages of recurrent HPV lesions, after various therapies. The present study therefore evaluates the effectiveness of CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of single-site HPV lesions of the lower female genital tract in order to confirm the conviction that physical therapy alone, in agreement with some findings reported in the literature, is capable of guaranteeing a high cure rate in selected patients. From January 1995 to June 1996, seventy- five female patients were treated with CO2 laser vaporization for single-site genital HPV lesions, some of which were associated with low-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia. The success rate after 12 months proved to be 97%. The pre-existing clinical symptoms disappeared in all the patients treated. No complication in the vaporization procedure was encountered.

  13. Investigating the widely held belief that men and women with learning disabilities receive poor quality healthcare when admitted to hospital: a single-site study of 30-day readmission rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, C L; Thomson, K; Wagner, A P; Waters, J P; Thompson, A; Jones, S; Holland, A J; Redley, M

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to use 30-day readmission rates to investigate the presumption that men and women with learning disabilities (LDs, known internationally as intellectual disabilities) receive poorer quality hospital care than their non-disabled peers. A 12-month retrospective audit was conducted using Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) at a single acute hospital in the East of England. This identified all in-patient admissions; admissions where the person concerned was recognised as having a LD; and all emergency readmissions within 30 days of discharge. Additionally, the healthcare records of all patients identified as having a LD and readmitted within 30 days as a medical emergency were examined in order to determine whether or not these readmissions were potentially preventable. Over the study period, a total of 66 870 adults were admitted as in-patients, among whom 7408 were readmitted as medical emergencies within 30 days of discharge: a readmission rate of 11%. Of these 66 870 patients, 256 were identified as having a LD, with 32 of them experiencing at least one emergency readmission within 30 days: a readmission rate of 13%. When examined, the healthcare records pertaining to these 32 patients who had a total of 39 unique 30-day readmissions revealed that 69% (n = 26) of these readmissions were potentially preventable. Although overall readmission rates were similar for patients with LDs and those from the general population, patients with LDs had a much higher rate of potentially preventable readmissions when compared to a general population estimate from van Walraven et al. This suggests that there is still work to be done to ensure that this patient population receives hospital care that is both safe and of high quality. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Single-Molecule Tethered Particle Motion: Stepwise Analyses of Site-Specific DNA Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Fang Fan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tethered particle motion/microscopy (TPM is a biophysical tool used to analyze changes in the effective length of a polymer, tethered at one end, under changing conditions. The tether length is measured indirectly by recording the Brownian motion amplitude of a bead attached to the other end. In the biological realm, DNA, whose interactions with proteins are often accompanied by apparent or real changes in length, has almost exclusively been the subject of TPM studies. TPM has been employed to study DNA bending, looping and wrapping, DNA compaction, high-order DNA–protein assembly, and protein translocation along DNA. Our TPM analyses have focused on tyrosine and serine site-specific recombinases. Their pre-chemical interactions with DNA cause reversible changes in DNA length, detectable by TPM. The chemical steps of recombination, depending on the substrate and the type of recombinase, may result in a permanent length change. Single molecule TPM time traces provide thermodynamic and kinetic information on each step of the recombination pathway. They reveal how mechanistically related recombinases may differ in their early commitment to recombination, reversibility of individual steps, and in the rate-limiting step of the reaction. They shed light on the pre-chemical roles of catalytic residues, and on the mechanisms by which accessory proteins regulate recombination directionality.

  15. Single-Site Tetracoordinated Aluminum Hydride Supported on Mesoporous Silica. From Dream to Reality!

    KAUST Repository

    Werghi, Baraa

    2016-09-26

    The reaction of mesoporous silica (SBA15) dehydroxylated at 700 °C with diisobutylaluminum hydride, i-Bu2AlH, gives after thermal treatment a single-site tetrahedral aluminum hydride with high selectivity. The starting aluminum isobutyl and the final aluminum hydride have been fully characterized by FT-IR, advanced SS NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, multiple quanta (MQ) 2D 1H-1H, and 27Al), and elemental analysis, while DFT calculations provide a rationalization of the occurring reactivity. Trimeric i-Bu2AlH reacts selectively with surface silanols without affecting the siloxane bridges. Its analogous hydride catalyzes ethylene polymerization. Indeed, catalytic tests show that this single aluminum hydride site is active in the production of a high-density polyethylene (HDPE). © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  16. Sites of termination of in vitro DNA synthesis on psoralen phototreated single-stranded templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piette, J.; Hearst, J.

    1985-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA has been photochemically induced to react with 4'-hydroxymethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (HMT) and used as substrate for DNA replication with E. coli DNA polymerase I large fragment. By using the dideoxy sequencing procedure, it is possible to map the termination sites on the template photoreacted with HMT. These sites occur at the nucleotides preceding each thymine residue (and a few cytosine residues), emphasizing the fact that in a single-stranded stretch of DNA, HMT reacts with each thymine residue without any specificity regarding the flanking base sequence of the thymine residues. In addition, termination of DNA synthesis due to psoralen-adducted thymine is not influenced by the efficiency of the 3'-5' exonuclease proof-reading activity of the DNA polymerase. (author)

  17. Single-Site Tetracoordinated Aluminum Hydride Supported on Mesoporous Silica. From Dream to Reality!

    KAUST Repository

    Werghi, Baraa; Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa; Jedidi, Abdesslem; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Cavallo, Luigi; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The reaction of mesoporous silica (SBA15) dehydroxylated at 700 °C with diisobutylaluminum hydride, i-Bu2AlH, gives after thermal treatment a single-site tetrahedral aluminum hydride with high selectivity. The starting aluminum isobutyl and the final aluminum hydride have been fully characterized by FT-IR, advanced SS NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, multiple quanta (MQ) 2D 1H-1H, and 27Al), and elemental analysis, while DFT calculations provide a rationalization of the occurring reactivity. Trimeric i-Bu2AlH reacts selectively with surface silanols without affecting the siloxane bridges. Its analogous hydride catalyzes ethylene polymerization. Indeed, catalytic tests show that this single aluminum hydride site is active in the production of a high-density polyethylene (HDPE). © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  18. Single-site catalyst promoters accelerate metal-catalyzed nitroarene hydrogenation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Liang

    2018-04-04

    Atomically dispersed supported metal catalysts are drawing wide attention because of the opportunities they offer for new catalytic properties combined with efficient use of the metals. We extend this class of materials to catalysts that incorporate atomically dispersed metal atoms as promoters. The catalysts are used for the challenging nitroarene hydrogenation and found to have both high activity and selectivity. The promoters are single-site Sn on TiO2 supports that incorporate metal nanoparticle catalysts. Represented as M/Sn-TiO2 (M = Au, Ru, Pt, Ni), these catalysts decidedly outperform the unpromoted supported metals, even for hydrogenation of nitroarenes substituted with various reducible groups. The high activity and selectivity of these catalysts result from the creation of oxygen vacancies on the TiO2 surface by single-site Sn, which leads to efficient, selective activation of the nitro group coupled with a reaction involving hydrogen atoms activated on metal nanoparticles.

  19. Single-site catalyst promoters accelerate metal-catalyzed nitroarene hydrogenation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Liang; Guan, Erjia; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Junhao; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Yang, Ming; Cen, Cheng; Fu, Gang; Gates, Bruce C.; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2018-01-01

    Atomically dispersed supported metal catalysts are drawing wide attention because of the opportunities they offer for new catalytic properties combined with efficient use of the metals. We extend this class of materials to catalysts that incorporate atomically dispersed metal atoms as promoters. The catalysts are used for the challenging nitroarene hydrogenation and found to have both high activity and selectivity. The promoters are single-site Sn on TiO2 supports that incorporate metal nanoparticle catalysts. Represented as M/Sn-TiO2 (M = Au, Ru, Pt, Ni), these catalysts decidedly outperform the unpromoted supported metals, even for hydrogenation of nitroarenes substituted with various reducible groups. The high activity and selectivity of these catalysts result from the creation of oxygen vacancies on the TiO2 surface by single-site Sn, which leads to efficient, selective activation of the nitro group coupled with a reaction involving hydrogen atoms activated on metal nanoparticles.

  20. Candidate reagents and procedures for the dissolution of Hanford Site single-shell tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; Kupfer, M.J.

    1991-10-01

    At least some of the waste in the 149 single-shell tanks (SST) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will be retrieved, treated, and disposed of. Although the importance of devising efficient and cost-effective sludge dissolution procedures has long been recognized, a concerted bench-scale effort to devise and test such procedures with actual solids representative of those in Hanford Site SSTs has not been performed. Reagents that might be used, either individually or serially, to dissolve sludges include HNO 3 , HNO 3 -oxalic acid, and HNO 3 -HF. This report consolidates and updates perspectives and recommendations concerning reagents and procedures for dissolving Hanford Site SST and selected double-shell tank (DST) sludges. The principal objectives of this report are as follows: (1) Compile and review existing experimental data on dissolution of actual Hanford Site SST and DST sludges. (2) Further inform Hanford Site engineers and scientists concerning the utility of combinations of thermally unstable complexants (TUCS) reagents and various reducing agents for dissolving SST and DST sludges. (This latter technology has recently been explored at the Argonne National Laboratory.) (3) Provide guidance in laying out a comprehensive experimental program to develop technology for dissolving all types of Hanford Site SST and DST sludges. 6 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  1. Evolution of segmental anesthesia for Laparo-Endoscopic Single Site (LESS) cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S B; Mangar, D; Karlnoski, R; Patel, R S; Camporesi, E M; Barry, L K; Luberice, K; Sprenker, C J; Rosemurgy, A S

    2012-06-01

    Transumbilical Laparo-Endoscopic Single Site (LESS) surgery promises improved cosmesis, quick recovery, reduced postoperative pain and shorter length of hospital stay. Since only a simple umbilical incision is used, LESS surgery can be completed with segmental epidural anesthesia. This study describes the evolution of our technique of LESS cholecystectomy from a combination of spinal and epidural anesthesia to thoracic epidural alone and presents our experience with its safety, the observed morbidity, and the reported patient satisfaction. In August 2009, a prospective evaluation of LESS cholecystectomy with regional anesthesia was undertaken. We recruited patients with chronic cholecystitis or symptomatic cholelithasis. Blood loss, operative time, complications, and length of hospital stay were measured. Preoperatively and 14 days postoperatively, outcome and symptom resolution were scored. Fifteen consecutive patients underwent LESS cholecystectomy; first with combined spinal-epidural (CSE), and then with thoracic epidural anesthesia alone. Immediate postoperative pain and discomfort were well tolerated. VAS scores upon admission to PACU were 0.4 (1.7±2.2). At postoperative day 14, the patients scored high values for "Satisfaction", 10 (10±1.0) and "Cosmesis", 10 (9.3±1.5). LESS cholecystectomy with epidural anesthesia can be undertaken safely. Patient satisfaction and cosmesis are particularly prominent amongst our patients. Our experience supports further utilization of epidural anesthesia for selected patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy.

  2. Defining the learning curve of laparoendoscopic single-site Heller myotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sharona B; Luberice, Kenneth; Kurian, Tony J; Paul, Harold; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2013-08-01

    Initial outcomes suggest laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication provides safe, efficacious, and cosmetically superior outcomes relative to conventional laparoscopy. This study was undertaken to define the learning curve of LESS Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication. One hundred patients underwent LESS Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication. Symptom frequency and severity were scored using a Likert scale (0 = never/not bothersome to 10 = always/very bothersome). Symptom resolution, additional trocars, and complications were compared among patient quartiles. Median data are presented. Preoperative frequency/severity scores were: dysphagia = 10/8 and regurgitation = 8/7. Additional trocars were placed in 12 patients (10%), of whom all were in the first two quartiles. Esophagotomy/gastrotomy occurred in three patients. Postoperative complications occurred in 9 per cent. No conversions to "open" operations occurred. Length of stay was 1 day. Postoperative frequency/severity scores were: dysphagia = 2/0 and regurgitation = 0/0; scores were less than before myotomy (P Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication well palliates symptoms of achalasia with no apparent scar. Placement of additional trocars only occurred early in the experience. For surgeons proficient with the conventional laparoscopic approach, the learning curve of LESS Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication is short and safe, because proficiency is quickly attained.

  3. Energy conserving site design case study: Shenandoah, Georgia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The case study examines the means by which energy conservation can be achieved at an aggregate community level by using proper planning and analytical techniques for a new town, Shenandoah, Georgia, located twenty-five miles southwest of Atlanta's Hartsfield International Airport. A potentially implementable energy conservation community plan is achieved by a study team examining the land use options, siting characteristics of each building type, alternate infrastructure plans, possible decentralized energy options, and central utility schemes to determine how community energy conservation can be achieved by use of pre-construction planning. The concept for the development of mixed land uses as a passively sited, energy conserving community is based on a plan (Level 1 Plan) that uses the natural site characteristics, maximizes on passive energy siting requirement, and allows flexibility for the changing needs of the developers. The Level 2 Plan is identical with Level 1 plan plus a series of decentraized systems that have been added to the residential units: the single-family detached, the apartments, and the townhouses. Level 3 Plan is similar to the Level 1 Plan except that higher density dwellings have been moved to areas adjacent to central site. The total energy savings for each plan relative to the conventional plan are indicated. (MCW)

  4. Archaeometric studies on the Hatahara archaeological site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Kelly Placa

    2009-01-01

    The reconstruction of the past and the understanding of historical and cultural aspects of societies that developed at archaeological sites have been enabled by archaeometric studies undertaken on ceramics located at these areas. This study aims to be a contribution to the elucidation of these aspects with the application of three physical methods of analysis: neutron activation analysis (NAA), thermoluminescence dating (TL) an electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to ceramic fragments from the Hatahara archaeological site, located at central Amazon. The elemental concentrations obtained by NAA for 120 ceramic fragments were interpreted by means of cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. The results showed the existence of five distinct ceramic groups. This information, supported by archaeological interpretation, confirm the existence of four distinct occupation Phases at Hatahara site. In order to establish a chronology for the occupations, the ages of three ceramic fragments were determined by TL. The dating of two fragments did not confirm the archaeological interpretation about their occupation Phases. However, the dating of the third fragment allowed the confirmation that it belongs to the Manacapuru Phase. The determination of the burning temperatures of four ceramic fragments was performed by EPR. It was observed that although the analyzed ceramic samples belong to three distinct groups, there was no significant variation on their burning temperatures. (author)

  5. DNA deformability changes of single base pair mutants within CDE binding sites in S. Cerevisiae centromere DNA correlate with measured chromosomal loss rates and CDE binding site symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Kenneth A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The centromeres in yeast (S. cerevisiae are organized by short DNA sequences (125 bp on each chromosome consisting of 2 conserved elements: CDEI and CDEIII spaced by a CDEII region. CDEI and CDEIII are critical sequence specific protein binding sites necessary for correct centromere formation and following assembly with proteins, are positioned near each other on a specialized nucleosome. Hegemann et al. BioEssays 1993, 15: 451–460 reported single base DNA mutants within the critical CDEI and CDEIII binding sites on the centromere of chromosome 6 and quantitated centromere loss of function, which they measured as loss rates for the different chromosome 6 mutants during cell division. Olson et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998, 95: 11163–11168 reported the use of protein-DNA crystallography data to produce a DNA dinucleotide protein deformability energetic scale (PD-scale that describes local DNA deformability by sequence specific binding proteins. We have used the PD-scale to investigate the DNA sequence dependence of the yeast chromosome 6 mutants' loss rate data. Each single base mutant changes 2 PD-scale values at that changed base position relative to the wild type. In this study, we have utilized these mutants to demonstrate a correlation between the change in DNA deformability of the CDEI and CDEIII core sites and the overall experimentally measured chromosome loss rates of the chromosome 6 mutants. Results In the CDE I and CDEIII core binding regions an increase in the magnitude of change in deformability of chromosome 6 single base mutants with respect to the wild type correlates to an increase in the measured chromosome loss rate. These correlations were found to be significant relative to 105 Monte Carlo randomizations of the dinucleotide PD-scale applied to the same calculation. A net loss of deformability also tends to increase the loss rate. Binding site position specific, 4 data-point correlations were also

  6. Characterization of the corrosion behavior of the carbon steel liner in Hanford Site single-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Schwenk, E.B.; Danielson, M.J.

    1994-06-01

    Six safety initiatives have been identified for accelerating the resolution of waste tank safety issues and closure of unreviewed safety questions. Safety Initiative 5 is to reduce safety and environmental risk from tank leaks. Item d of Safety Initiative 5 is to complete corrosion studies of single-shell tanks to determine failure mechanisms and corrosion control options to minimize further degradation by June 1994. This report has been prepared to fulfill Safety Initiative 5, Item d. The corrosion mechanisms that apply to Hanford Site single-shell tanks are stress corrosion cracking, pitting/crevice corrosion, uniform corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, and microbiologically influenced corrosion. The corrosion data relevant to the single-shell tanks dates back three decades, when results were obtained from in-situ corrosion coupons in a few single-shell tanks. Since that time there have been intertank transfers, evaporation, and chemical alterations of the waste. These activities have changed the character and the present composition of the waste is not well characterized. All conclusions and recommendations are made in the absence of relevant laboratory experimental data and tank inspection data. The report attempts to identify the failure mechanisms by a literature survey of carbon steel data in environments similar to the single-shell tank wastes, and by a review of the work performed at the Savannah River Site where similar wastes are stored in similar carbon steel tanks. Based on these surveys, and in the absence of data specific to Hanford single-shell tanks, it may be concluded that the single-shell tanks identified as leakers failed primarily by stress corrosion cracking due to the presence of high nitrate/low hydroxide wastes and residual stresses. In addition, some failures may be attributed to pitting under crevices in low hydroxide locations

  7. Bibliometric studies on single journals: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Wan , Utap Anyi; Anuar , N.B.; Zainab, A.N

    2009-01-01

    This paper covers a total of 82 bibliometric studies on single journals (62 studies cover unique titles) published between 1998 and 2008 grouped into the following fields; Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (12 items); Medical and Health Sciences (19 items); Sciences and Technology (30 items) and Library and Information Sciences (21 items). Under each field the studies are described in accordance to their geographical location in the following order, United Kingdom, United States and Americ...

  8. Study of single W bosons at JLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arogancia, Dennis C.; Sanchez, Allister Levi C.; Magallanes, Jingle B.; Gooc, Hermogenes C.; Bacala, Angelina M. [Mindanao State Univ., Dept. of Physics, Iligan (Philippines); Fujii, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Akiya [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Single W bosons are studied through computer simulation using the process e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}W{sup -} where it decays into two hadronic jets. This study focuses of the measurement of W boson mass with and without beamstrahlung and initial state radiation (ISR) effects. The JLC Study Framework (JSF) is employed for this purpose. The center-of-mass energy is set at 500 GeV. (author)

  9. Study of single W bosons at JLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arogancia, Dennis C.; Sanchez, Allister Levi C.; Magallanes, Jingle B.; Gooc, Hermogenes C.; Bacala, Angelina M.; Fujii, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Akiya

    2001-01-01

    Single W bosons are studied through computer simulation using the process e + e - → e + ν e W - where it decays into two hadronic jets. This study focuses of the measurement of W boson mass with and without beamstrahlung and initial state radiation (ISR) effects. The JLC Study Framework (JSF) is employed for this purpose. The center-of-mass energy is set at 500 GeV. (author)

  10. Additional media studies for site suitability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donich, T.R.; Kaufman, A.M.; Sauter, G.D.; Steinborn, T.L.; Towse, D.F.

    1978-01-01

    Site suitability studies have been made previously at LLL on bedded salt and shale. In the present study domed salt, basalt, and crystalline rock are compared with bedded salt and shale and with each other as possible repositories. The level of effort required to develop models for these media that are similar in quality to those available for bedded salt and shale is evaluated. The effort necessary to develop data bases on the physical and chemical properties comparable to that available for bedded salt and shale is also estimated. Each medium is evaluated as a suitable repository environment. The funding necessary for model and data base development is estimated

  11. The glass block site radionuclide migration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killey, R.W.D.; Champ, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    In 1960 25 nepheline syenite glass blocks containing 14 TBq of mixed fission products in 50 kg of glass were placed below the water table in a shallow sand aquifer at Chalk River Laboratories. Experimental studies undertaken at the site since 1960 have included detailed mapping of the plume of 90 Sr in 1963, 1966 and 1971. Mathematical modeling studies have employed the radiostrontium plume data in determining the split between ion exchange and chemisorption of 90 Sr, and in obtaining reaction rate data for chemisorption. The distribution of 137 Cs on downgradient soils was mapped in 1963 and 1979. An extended plume of low-level 137 Cs contamination observed in the 1979 study prompted an investigation of the role of particulate materials in radionuclide transport. IN 1983, large volume groundwater sampling and separation of cationic, anionic, and neutral dissolved species, as well as particulates, detected anionic and cationic dissolved europium isotopes (154 and 155), and again encountered particulate 137 Cs. A variety of investigations of cesium and strontium sorption have provided a data base on sediment mineralogy, particle surface features, and information on sorption sites and processes. The year 1990 saw the inauguration of a three-year program to update investigations of radionuclide release, transport, and sorption at the glass block site. The first stage of the program has been a detailed definition and simulation of the hydrogeologic setting. Plume mapping and aqueous speciation studies are in progress. This paper summarizes past investigations, reviews the status of the current program, and discusses components of future studies, including investigations of sediment sorption mechanisms. (Author) (17 refs., 8 figs.)

  12. Towards observing the encounter of the T7 DNA replication fork with a lesion site at the Single molecule level

    KAUST Repository

    Shirbini, Afnan

    2017-05-01

    Single-molecule DNA flow-stretching assays have been a powerful approach to study various aspects on the mechanism of DNA replication for more than a decade. This technique depends on flow-induced force on a bead attached to a surface-tethered DNA. The difference in the elastic property between double-strand DNA (long) and single-strand DNA (short) at low regime force allows the observation of the beads motion when the dsDNA is converted to ssDNA by the replisome machinery during DNA replication. Here, I aim to develop an assay to track in real-time the encounter of the bacteriophage T7 replisome with abasic lesion site inserted on the leading strand template. I optimized methods to construct the DNA substrate that contains the abasic site and established the T7 leading strand synthesis at the single molecule level. I also optimized various control experiments to remove any interference from the nonspecific interactions of the DNA with the surface. My work established the foundation to image the encounter of the T7 replisome with abasic site and to characterize how the interactions between the helicase and the polymerase could influence the polymerase proofreading ability and its direct bypass of this highly common DNA damage type.

  13. Ligand-tailored single-site silica supported titanium catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and towards cyanosilylation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yani; Yu, Bo; Yang, Jindou; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang, E-mail: gfzhang@snnu.edu.cn; Gao, Ziwei, E-mail: zwgao@snnu.edu.cn

    2015-01-15

    A successive anchoring of Ti(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4}, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on silica was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The silica, monitored by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FT-IR), was pretreated at different temperatures (200, 500 and 800 °C). The ligand tailored silica-supported titanium complexes were characterized by in-situ FT-IR, {sup 13}C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface titanium species are single sited. The catalytic activity of the ligand tailored single-site silica supported titanium complexes was evaluated by a cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the dehydroxylation temperatures of silica and the configuration of the ligands. - Graphical abstract: The ligand-tailored silica supported “single site” titanium complexes were synthesized by SOMC strategy and fully characterized. Their catalytic activity were evaluated by benzaldehyde silylcyanation. - Highlights: • Single-site silica supported Ti active species was prepared by SOMC technique. • O-donor ligand tailored Ti surface species was synthesized. • The surface species was characterized by XPS, {sup 13}C CP-MAS NMR, XANES etc. • Catalytic activity of the Ti active species in silylcyanation reaction was evaluated.

  14. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kanchana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites.

  15. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchana, S.; Sivaprakash, P.; Joseph, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites. PMID:26839916

  16. Contaminant Release from Residual Waste in Single Shell Tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA - 9276

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Determinations of elemental and solid-phase compositions, and contaminant release studies have been applied in an ongoing study of residual tank wastes (i.e., waste remaining after final retrieval operations) from five of 149 underground single-shell storage tanks (241-C-103, 241-C-106, 241-C-202, 241-C-203, and 241-S-112) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. This work is being conducted to support performance assessments that will be required to evaluate long-term health and safety risks associated with tank site closure. The results of studies completed to date show significant variability in the compositions, solid phase properties, and contaminant release characteristics from these residual tank wastes. This variability is the result of differences in waste chemistry/composition of wastes produced from several different spent fuel reprocessing schemes, subsequent waste reprocessing to remove certain target constituents, tank farm operations that concentrated wastes and mixed wastes between tanks, and differences in retrieval processes used to remove the wastes from the tanks. Release models were developed based upon results of chemical characterization of the bulk residual waste, solid-phase characterization (see companion paper 9277 by Krupka et al.), leaching and extraction experiments, and geochemical modeling. In most cases empirical release models were required to describe contaminant release from these wastes. Release of contaminants from residual waste was frequently found to be controlled by the solubility of phases that could not be identified and/or for which thermodynamic data and/or dissolution rates have not been measured. For example, significant fractions of Tc-99, I-129, and Cr appear to be coprecipitated at trace concentrations in metal oxide phases that could not be identified unambiguously. In the case of U release from tank 241-C-103 residual waste, geochemical calculations indicated that leachate

  17. Single Molecule Sensors to Study Hydrophobic Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Geisler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The nature and magnitude of the hydrophobic interaction is crucial for many technical and biological processes. In the current study a molecular probe was developed which consists of a single polymer that is bound onto the tip of an AFM cantilever in order to study these effects on the molecular scale. In the following, equilibrium forces are measured and factors of influence such as temperature, cosolvents and chemical composition are varied. Thereby, the system under investigation is so sma...

  18. A mathematical model of single target site location by Brownian movement in subcellular compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthan, Hartmut

    2003-03-07

    The location of distinct sites is mandatory for many cellular processes. In the subcompartments of the cell nucleus, only very small numbers of diffusing macromolecules and specific target sites of some types may be present. In this case, we are faced with the Brownian movement of individual macromolecules and their "random search" for single/few specific target sites, rather than bulk-averaged diffusion and multiple sites. In this article, I consider the location of a distant central target site, e.g. a globular protein, by individual macromolecules executing unbiased (i.e. drift-free) random walks in a spherical compartment. For this walk-and-capture model, the closed-form analytic solution of the first passage time probability density function (p.d.f.) has been obtained as well as the first and second moment. In the limit of a large ratio of the radii of the spherical diffusion space and central target, well-known relations for the variance and the first two moments for the exponential p.d.f. were found to hold with high accuracy. These calculations reinforce earlier numerical results and Monte Carlo simulations. A major implication derivable from the model is that non-directed random movement is an effective means for locating single sites in submicron-sized compartments, even when the diffusion coefficients are comparatively small and the diffusing species are present in one copy only. These theoretical conclusions are underscored numerically for effective diffusion constants ranging from 0.5 to 10.0 microm(2) s(-1), which have been reported for a couple of nuclear proteins in their physiological environment. Spherical compartments of submicron size are, for example, the Cajal bodies (size: 0.1-1.0 microm), which are present in 1-5 copies in the cell nucleus. Within a small Cajal body of radius 0.1 microm a single diffusing protein molecule (with D=0.5 microm(2) s(-1)) would encounter a medium-sized protein of radius 2.5 nm within 1 s with a probability near

  19. Reactivity of a Carbon-Supported Single-Site Molybdenum Dioxo Catalyst for Biodiesel Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouat, Aidan R.; Lohr, Tracy L.; Wegener, Evan C.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Delferro, Massimiliano; Stair, Peter C.; Marks, Tobin J.

    2016-08-23

    A single-site molybdenum dioxo catalyst, (Oc)2Mo(=O)2@C, was prepared via direct grafting of MoO2Cl2(dme) (dme = 1,2-dimethoxyethane) on high-surface- area activated carbon. The physicochemical and chemical properties of this catalyst were fully characterized by N2 physisorption, ICP-AES/OES, PXRD, STEM, XPS, XAS, temperature-programmed reduction with H2 (TPR-H2), and temperature-programmed NH3 desorption (TPD-NH3). The single-site nature of the Mo species is corroborated by XPS and TPR-H2 data, and it exhibits the lowest reported MoOx Tmax of reduction reported to date, suggesting a highly reactive MoVI center. (Oc)2Mo(=O)2@C catalyzes the transesterification of a variety of esters and triglycerides with ethanol, exhibiting high activity at moderate temperatures (60-90 °C) and with negligible deactivation. (Oc)2Mo(=O)2@C is resistant to water and can be recycled at least three times with no loss of activity. The transesterification reaction is determined experimentally to be first order in [ethanol] and first order in [Mo] with ΔH = 10.5(8) kcal mol-1 and ΔS = -32(2) eu. The low energy of activation is consistent with the moderate conditions needed to achieve rapid turnover. This highly active carbon-supported single-site molybdenum dioxo species is thus an efficient, robust, and lowcost catalyst with significant potential for transesterification processes.

  20. Contaminant transport modeling studies of Russian sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    1993-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) established mechanisms that promoted cooperation between U.S. and Russian scientists in scientific research as well as environmental technology transfer. Using Russian experience and U.S technology, LBL developed approaches for field investigations, site evaluation, waste disposal, and remediation at Russian contaminated sites. LBL assessed a comprehensive database as well as an actual, large-scale contaminated site to evaluate existing knowledge of and test mathematical models used for the assessment of U.S. contaminated sites

  1. Left Transperitoneal Adrenalectomy with a Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery Combined Technique: Initial Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Sumino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS is a step toward the development of minimally invasive surgery. It is initially difficult for surgeons with limited experience to perform the surgery. We describe two cases of left adrenalectomy with a LESS combined with the addition of an accessory port. After a 2.5-cm skin incision was made at the level of the paraumbilicus to insert the primary 12-mm trocar for the laparoscope, a 5-mm nonbladed trocar was placed through the skin incision side-by-side with the primary trocar. A second 3-mm nonbladed trocar was then placed along the anterior axillary line; a multichannel trocar was not used as a single port. Both adrenalectomies were completed successfully. In patients with a minor adrenal tumor, a combined technique using LESS and an additional port is easier than LESS alone and may, therefore, be a bridge between the conventional laparoscopic approach and LESS.

  2. Minimally invasive single-site surgery for the digestive system: A technological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhumane Parag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally Invasive Single Site (MISS surgery is a better terminology to explain the novel concept of scarless surgery, which is increasingly making its way into clinical practice. But, there are some difficulties. We review the existing technologies for MISS surgery with regards to single-port devices, endoscope and camera, instruments, retractors and also the future perspectives for the evolution of MISS surgery. While we need to move ahead cautiously and wait for the development of appropriate technology, we believe that the "Ultimate form of Minimally Invasive Surgery" will be a hybrid form of MISS surgery and Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery, complimented by technological innovations from the fields of robotics and computer-assisted surgery.

  3. Single-port access laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection through the colostomy site: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Morten; Bulut, O

    2012-01-01

    Single-port access (SPA) laparoscopic surgery is emerging as an alternative to conventional laparoscopic and open surgery, although its benefits still have to be determined. We present the case of a 87-year-old woman who underwent abdominoperineal resection (APR) with SPA. The abdominal part...... of the operation was performed with a SILS port inserted through the marked colostomy site, and the specimen was removed through the perineum after intersphincteric dissection. Operating time was 317 min. Bleeding was negligible. The specimen measured 26 cm in length. Thirteen lymph nodes were found, 2...

  4. Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery (LESS for a Large Ovarian Tumour: First Clinical Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Dong Chua

    2011-01-01

    Main Outcome Measure(s. Conversion to standard laparoscopic technique or laparotomy, estimated blood loss, operative time , extent of scarring, occurrence of intra- and perioperative surgical complications, technical adequacy, and clinical outcome. Result(s. No conversion to standard laparoscopic technique or laparotomy, and no intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed. Total operative time was 99 minutes. The patient was discharged home on postoperative day one. Conclusion(s. Laparoendoscopic single-site bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy of a large ovarian tumour is feasible with standard laparoscopic instruments. It is safe and effective, with good results in terms of excellent cosmesis and minimal postoperative pain.

  5. Experimental Setups for Single Event Effect Studies

    OpenAIRE

    N. H. Medina; V. A. P. Aguiar; N. Added; F. Aguirre; E. L. A. Macchione; S. G. Alberton; M. A. G. Silveira; J. Benfica; F. Vargas; B. Porcher

    2016-01-01

    Experimental setups are being prepared to test and to qualify electronic devices regarding their tolerance to Single Event Effect (SEE). A multiple test setup and a new beam line developed especially for SEE studies at the São Paulo 8 UD Pelletron accelerator were prepared. This accelerator produces proton beams and heavy ion beams up to 107Ag. A Super conducting Linear accelerator, which is under construction, may fulfill all of the European Space Agency requirements to qualify electronic...

  6. Face, content, and construct validity of four, inanimate training exercises using the da Vinci ® Si surgical system configured with Single-Site ™ instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarc, Anthony M; Curet, Myriam

    2015-08-01

    Validated training exercises are essential tools for surgeons as they develop technical skills to use robot-assisted minimally invasive surgical systems. The purpose of this study was to show face, content, and construct validity of four, inanimate training exercises using the da Vinci (®) Si surgical system configured with Single-Site (™) instrumentation. New (N = 21) and experienced (N = 6) surgeons participated in the study. New surgeons (11 Gynecology [GYN] and 10 General Surgery [GEN]) had not completed any da Vinci Single-Site cases but may have completed multiport cases using the da Vinci system. They participated in this study prior to attending a certification course focused on da Vinci Single-Site instrumentation. Experienced surgeons (5 GYN and 1 GEN) had completed at least 25 da Vinci Single-Site cases. The surgeons completed four inanimate training exercises and then rated them with a questionnaire. Raw metrics and overall normalized scores were computed using both video recordings and kinematic data collected from the surgical system. The experienced surgeons significantly outperformed new surgeons for many raw metrics and the overall normalized scores derived from video review (p da Vinci Single-Site surgery and actually testing the technical skills used during da Vinci Single-Site surgery. In summary, the four training exercises showed face, content, and construct validity. Improved overall scores could be developed using additional metrics not included in this study. The results suggest that the training exercises could be used in an overall training curriculum aimed at developing proficiency in technical skills for surgeons new to da Vinci Single-Site instrumentation.

  7. Single-site robotic cholecystectomy and robotics training: should we start in the junior years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayabe, Reed I; Parrish, Aaron B; Dauphine, Christine E; Hari, Danielle M; Ozao-Choy, Junko J

    2018-04-01

    It has become increasingly important to expose surgical residents to robotic surgery as its applications continue to expand. Single-site robotic cholecystectomy (SSRC) is an excellent introductory case to robotics. Resident involvement in SSRC is known to be feasible. Here, we sought to determine whether it is safe to introduce SSRC to junior residents. A total of 98 SSRC cases were performed by general surgery residents between August 2015 and August 2016. Cases were divided into groups based on resident level: second- and third-years (juniors) versus fourth- and fifth-years (seniors). Patient age, gender, race, body mass index, and comorbidities were recorded. The number of prior laparoscopic cholecystectomies completed by participating residents was noted. Outcomes including operative time, console time, rate of conversion to open cholecystectomy, and complication rate were compared between groups. Juniors performed 54 SSRC cases, whereas seniors performed 44. There were no significant differences in patient age, gender, race, body mass index, or comorbidities between the two groups. Juniors had less experience with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There was no significant difference in mean operative time (92.7 min versus 98.0 min, P = 0.254), console time (48.7 min versus 50.8 min, P = 0.639), or complication rate (3.7% versus 2.3%, P = 0.68) between juniors and seniors. SSRC is an excellent way to introduce general surgery residents to robotics. This study shows that with attending supervision, SSRC is feasible and safe for both junior and senior residents with very low complication rates and no adverse effect on operative time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ligand-tailored single-site silica supported titanium catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and towards cyanosilylation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yani; Yu, Bo; Yang, Jindou; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    A successive anchoring of Ti(NMe2)4, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1‧-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on silica was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The silica, monitored by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FT-IR), was pretreated at different temperatures (200, 500 and 800 °C). The ligand tailored silica-supported titanium complexes were characterized by in-situ FT-IR, 13C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface titanium species are single sited. The catalytic activity of the ligand tailored single-site silica supported titanium complexes was evaluated by a cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the dehydroxylation temperatures of silica and the configuration of the ligands.

  9. Hybrid Nanomaterials with Single-Site Catalysts by Spatially Controllable Immobilization of Nickel Complexes via Photoclick Chemistry for Alkene Epoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dwaipayan; Febriansyah, Benny; Gupta, Disha; Ng, Leonard Kia-Sheun; Xi, Shibo; Du, Yonghua; Baikie, Tom; Dong, ZhiLi; Soo, Han Sen

    2018-05-22

    Catalyst deactivation is a persistent problem not only for the scientific community but also in industry. Isolated single-site heterogeneous catalysts have shown great promise to overcome these problems. Here, a versatile anchoring strategy for molecular complex immobilization on a broad range of semiconducting or insulating metal oxide ( e. g., titanium dioxide, mesoporous silica, cerium oxide, and tungsten oxide) nanoparticles to synthesize isolated single-site catalysts has been studied systematically. An oxidatively stable anchoring group, maleimide, is shown to form covalent linkages with surface hydroxyl functionalities of metal oxide nanoparticles by photoclick chemistry. The nanocomposites have been thoroughly characterized by techniques including UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The IR spectroscopic studies confirm the covalent linkages between the maleimide group and surface hydroxyl functionalities of the oxide nanoparticles. The hybrid nanomaterials function as highly efficient catalysts for essentially quantitative oxidations of terminal and internal alkenes and show molecular catalyst product selectivities even in more eco-friendly solvents. XAS studies verify the robustness of the catalysts after several catalytic cycles. We have applied the photoclick anchoring methodology to precisely control the deposition of a luminescent variant of our catalyst on the metal oxide nanoparticles. Overall, we demonstrate a general approach to use irradiation to anchor molecular complexes on oxide nanoparticles to create recyclable, hybrid, single-site catalysts that function with high selectivity in a broad range of solvents. We have achieved a facile, spatially and temporally controllable photoclick method that can potentially be extended to other ligands, catalysts, functional molecules, and surfaces.

  10. INITIAL SINGLE-SHELL TANK (SST) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF THE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JARAYSI, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The ''Initial Single-Shell Tank System Performance Assessment for the Hanford Site [1] (SST PA) presents the analysis of the long-term impacts of residual wastes assumed to remain after retrieval of tank waste and closure of the SST farms at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The SST PA supports key elements of the closure process agreed upon in 2004 by DOE, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The SST PA element is defined in Appendix I of the ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) [2], the document that establishes the overall closure process for the SST and double-shell tank (DST) systems. The approach incorporated in the SST PA integrates substantive features of both hazardous and radioactive waste management regulations into a single analysis. The defense-in-depth approach used in this analysis defined two major engineering barriers (a surface barrier and the grouted tank structure) and one natural barrier (the vadose zone) that will be relied on to control waste release into the accessible environment and attain expected performance metrics. The analysis evaluates specific barrier characteristics and other site features that influence contaminant migration by the various pathways. A ''reference'' case and a suite of sensitivity/uncertainty cases are considered. The ''reference case'' evaluates environmental impacts assuming central tendency estimates of site conditions. ''Reference'' case analysis results show residual tank waste impacts on nearby groundwater, air resources; or inadvertent intruders to be well below most important performance objectives. Conversely, past releases to the soil, from previous tank farm operations, are shown to have groundwater impacts that re significantly above most performance objectives. Sensitivity/uncertainty cases examine single and multiple parameter variability along with plausible alternatives

  11. Single-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts. Synthesis, characterization and toward cyanosilylation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wei; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ligand-modified signal-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts were synthesized by SOMC method and characterized by a variety of techniques. The zirconium surface complexes show high catalytic efficiency for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Highlights: • Some Zr active species have been anchored on the surface of SBA-15 by SOMC technique. • The structures of the Zr species have been characterized by a variety of techniques. • The anchored Zr species are single-sited surface complexes. • The Zr surface complexes are catalytic active for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Abstract: A successive anchoring of Zr(NMe 2 ) 4 , cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on dehydroxylated SBA-15 pretreated at 500 °C for 16 h (SBA-15 -500 ) was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The dehydoxylation of SBA-15 was monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situ FT-IR). The ligand-modified SBA-15 -500 supported zirconium complexes were characterized by in situ FT-IR, 13 C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MAS) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface zirconium species are single-sited. The catalytic activity of these complexes was evaluated by cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the structure of surface species and the configuration of the ligands

  12. Single-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts. Synthesis, characterization and toward cyanosilylation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang, E-mail: gfzhang@snnu.edu.cn; Gao, Ziwei, E-mail: zwgao@snnu.edu.cn

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Ligand-modified signal-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts were synthesized by SOMC method and characterized by a variety of techniques. The zirconium surface complexes show high catalytic efficiency for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Highlights: • Some Zr active species have been anchored on the surface of SBA-15 by SOMC technique. • The structures of the Zr species have been characterized by a variety of techniques. • The anchored Zr species are single-sited surface complexes. • The Zr surface complexes are catalytic active for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Abstract: A successive anchoring of Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4}, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on dehydroxylated SBA-15 pretreated at 500 °C for 16 h (SBA-15{sub -500}) was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The dehydoxylation of SBA-15 was monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situ FT-IR). The ligand-modified SBA-15{sub -500} supported zirconium complexes were characterized by in situ FT-IR, {sup 13}C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MAS) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface zirconium species are single-sited. The catalytic activity of these complexes was evaluated by cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the structure of surface species and the configuration of the ligands.

  13. Single-site properties of U impurities doped in La2Zn17 (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H.; Anzai, K.; Takagi, S.

    1997-04-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties of heavy Fermion (HF) U compounds show similar behavior to HF Ce compounds. Although most of the magnetic properties of HF Ce compounds can be qualitatively understood on the basis of the impurity Kondo model, no such consensus for HF U compounds has been reached. In addition to this, the single-site properties of U impurities are not understood so well, in contrast to the case of Ce impurities. Recent works for dilute U systems reported new features as are not seen in dilute Ce systems. We have investigated a dilute-U2Zn17 system of (La1-zUz)2Zn17 in order to reveal the single U ion site properties of this system by preparing single crystals. The impurity contributions to various physical quantities such as ρimp(T), χimp(T), and Cimp(T) can be scaled by the U concentration between z=0.025 and 0.05, and the system is considered as in the dilute limit still for z=0.05. The electrical resistivity shows the typical impurity-Kondo upturn at low temperatures. The electronic specific-heat coefficient is strongly enhanced (γimp≈1.5 J/K2 mole U) and about 4 times as large as that for dense U2Zn17. Suppressions of the Kondo effect by the magnetic field are seen in γimp(H) and magnetoresistance. The relatively large anisotropy in χimp(T) indicates an existence of the crystal field. These features of this system will be explained in terms of the Kondo effect in the presence of the crystal field.

  14. Compact teleoperated laparoendoscopic single-site robotic surgical system: Kinematics, control, and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Lowry, Oran Jacob; Okamoto, Steele; Pedram, Sahba Aghajani; Woo, Russell; Berkelman, Peter

    2017-12-01

    To date a variety of teleoperated surgical robotic systems have been developed to improve a surgeon's ability to perform demanding single-port procedures. However typical large systems are bulky, expensive, and afford limited angular motion, while smaller designs suffer complications arising from limited motion range, speed, and force generation. This work was to develop and validate a simple, compact, low cost single site teleoperated laparoendoscopic surgical robotic system, with demonstrated capability to carry out basic surgical procedures. This system builds upon previous work done at the University of Hawaii at Manoa and includes instrument and endoscope manipulators as well as compact articulated instruments designed to overcome single incision geometry complications. A robotic endoscope holder was used for the base, with an added support frame for teleoperated manipulators and instruments fabricated mostly from 3D printed parts. Kinematics and control methods were formulated for the novel manipulator configuration. Trajectory following results from an optical motion tracker and sample task performance results are presented. Results indicate that the system has successfully met the goal of basic surgical functionality while minimizing physical size, complexity, and cost. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Fundamental Study of Single Biomass Particle Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momenikouchaksaraei, Maryam

    This thesis is a comprehensive study of single biomass particle combustion. The effect of particle shape and size and operating conditions on biomass conversion characteristics were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experimental samples were divided in two groups: particles...... well-defined conditions, and the complete combustion processes were recorded as video sequences by a CCD camera installed in the set-up. One of the project objectives is to simulate conditions reasonably close to the conditions in a power plant boiler, i.e., reasonably high temperatures (up to 1600°C...

  16. Single-site community consultation for emergency research in a community hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Kyle L; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Little, Charletta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate community member feedback from community consultation and public disclosure activities performed for a clinical investigation involving a device designed to treat traumatic brain injury in prehospital contexts. The clinical investigation of that device was to be performed under the federal regulations providing an exception from prospective informed consent requirements in emergency settings. Secondarily, we sought to assess the community consultation process by measuring the levels of outreach provided by the different communication methods used in these activities, with special attention to the effectiveness of social media for community outreach. The medical device investigation consists of a single-site pilot study based at a 345-bed community hospital in east central Illinois, which also serves as the area's only level I trauma center. Investigators, in collaboration with the local institutional review board, fulfilled community consultation and public disclosure requirements through four public town hall meetings, seven targeted focus groups, targeted mailings to 884 community leaders and researchers, a press conference and press release, internal and external websites, and multiple postings to the hospital's Facebook and Twitter accounts. Community members provided feedback by completing paper or electronic comment cards. A total of 428 community members attended the four town hall meetings and seven focus group sessions. Attendance at each meeting ranged from 4 to 20 attendees for the town hall meetings and 8 to 140 attendees for the focus groups. The investigation's external website received 626 unique visitors and the intranet website received 528 unique visits. Social media postings on Facebook and Twitter received six comments and eight "likes" to indicate that an individual read the posting. In total, attendees completed 175 comment cards to provide their feedback. Community member attitudes regarding the

  17. Catalysis by Design: Well-Defined Single-Site Heterogeneous Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Pelletier, Jeremie

    2016-03-09

    ConspectusHeterogeneous catalysis, a field important industrially and scientifically, is increasingly seeking and refining strategies to render itself more predictable. The main issue is due to the nature and the population of catalytically active sites. Their number is generally low to very low, their "acid strengths" or " redox properties" are not homogeneous, and the material may display related yet inactive sites on the same material. In many heterogeneous catalysts, the discovery of a structure-activity reationship is at best challenging. One possible solution is to generate single-site catalysts in which most, if not all, of the sites are structurally identical. Within this context and using the right tools, the catalyst structure can be designed and well-defined, to reach a molecular understanding. It is then feasible to understand the structure-activity relationship and to develop predictable heterogeneous catalysis. Single-site well-defined heterogeneous catalysts can be prepared using concepts and tools of surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC). This approach operates by reacting organometallic compounds with surfaces of highly divided oxides (or of metal nanoparticles). This strategy has a solid track record to reveal structure-activity relationship to the extent that it is becoming now quite predictable. Almost all elements of the periodical table have been grafted on surfaces of oxides (from simple oxides such as silica or alumina to more sophisticated materials regarding composition or porosity).Considering catalytic hydrocarbon transformations, heterogeneous catalysis outcome may now be predicted based on existing mechanistic proposals and the rules of molecular chemistry (organometallic, organic) associated with some concepts of surface sciences. A thorough characterization of the grafted metal centers must be carried out using tools spanning from molecular organometallic or surface chemistry. By selection of the metal, its ligand set, and the

  18. Fissure fillings from the Klipperaas study site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E.L.

    1986-07-01

    The Klipperaas study site is located within the Smaaland-Vaermland granitoid belt in southern Sweden. The area investigated can be subdivided into blocks with different hydraulic character and fracture frequency of the rocks. A fissure filling, study has been carried out within the area. This includes identification of the minerals, mineral frequency, textures within the fissures and isotope analyses of calcites. Four generation of fissure fillings, within the time space c. 1600 M.a. to present, has been distinguished. These are 1) quartz; 2) epidote + muscovite and adularia + hematite; 3) calcite + chlorite +/hematite; 4) calcite, clay minerals and Fe-oxyhydroxide. It is observed that the surface water affect the uppermost part of the bedrock resulting in calcite dissolution, break down of pyrite and precipitation of Fe-oxyhydroxide. It is also obvious from the fracture calcite frequency that calcite dissolution is more intensive close to and within the fracture zones. There, Fe-oxyhydroxide can be found down to at least 400 m depth. This gives valuable information about the physic-chemical character of the groundwater within the bedrock. Several fracture zones have been reactivated. It is also suspected that relatively late movements have taken place causing crushing of the rock and only a slight cementation of the crushed material is visible. Some of the fracture zones correspond to mafic dikes. These zones exhibit lower hydraulic conductivity than other zones due to fracture sealing by clay minerals but also by chlorite and calcite. (author)

  19. Floristic studies at the Los Medanos site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Prior to the growing season of 1980, the floristic/vegetational studies involved an area covering more than 120 square miles having several major soil and vegetation types. 1980 studies concentrated on a few square miles surrounding ERDA 9. The goal of the 1980 work was to obtain as much additional floristic data as possible, in part to determine if the summer flora could recover from the prolonged summer dry spell to provide a significant fall flora. Another goal was to assess the fall vegetation in terms of taxa present during this season as well as distribution, density and phenology of these taxa. Special attention was given to measuring the acorn biomass on shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) because this is an important component of the late summer and autumn food chain and may influence small mammal densities. The flora of the 1980 growing season showed considerable variation from more typical or normal flora at the WIPP site. Lack of rainfall at the opportune time and lower than normal temperatures account for this variation

  20. Laparoendoscopic single-site extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair: initial experience in 10 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Minh; Liatsikos, Evangelos; Beatty, John; Haefner, Tim; Dunn, Ian; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2011-06-01

    Recent technical advances and a trend toward laparoscopic single incision surgery have led us to explore the feasibility of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) hernia repair. We present our technique and initial experience with LESS extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair in 10 consecutive men with unilateral inguinal hernias. Age range was 43.7 (28-64) years. Mean body mass index was 28 (range 24-30). Six were left inguinal hernias. There were six indirect and four direct hernias. Three patients had undergone previous open appendectomy. Incarcerated or bilateral hernias were excluded from our initial series. All cases were performed by three surgeons who were experienced in conventional totally extraperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair as well as experienced in LESS. A literature review of current single-port inguinal hernia repair data is also presented. The mean operative time was 53 minutes (range 45-65  min). The average length of skin incision was 2.8  cm (range 2.3-3.2  cm). No drain was necessary in any of the patients, while no recordable bleeding was observed. There were no intraoperative or immediate postoperative complications. Hospitalization period was 2 days for all patients. After a limited follow-up of 1 month, there have been no recurrences and no complaints of testicular pain. The results of the current series compare favorably with those found in a literature review. LESS extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair is both feasible and safe, although more technically demanding than its conventional laparoscopic counterpart. Although the cosmetic result with the former approach may prove superior, there are standing questions regarding the complications and long-term outcome. Randomized and if possible blinded trials that compare conventional and single-incision laparoscopic hernia repair may help to distinguish the most advantageous technique.

  1. Evaluation of a Single-Beam Sonar System to Map Seagrass at Two Sites in Northern Puget Sound, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Lacy, Jessica R.; Finlayson, David P.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seagrass at two sites in northern Puget Sound, Possession Point and nearby Browns Bay, was mapped using both a single-beam sonar and underwater video camera. The acoustic and underwater video data were compared to evaluate the accuracy of acoustic estimates of seagrass cover. The accuracy of the acoustic method was calculated for three classifications of seagrass observed in underwater video: bare (no seagrass), patchy seagrass, and continuous seagrass. Acoustic and underwater video methods agreed in 92 percent and 74 percent of observations made in bare and continuous areas, respectively. However, in patchy seagrass, the agreement between acoustic and underwater video was poor (43 percent). The poor agreement between the two methods in areas with patchy seagrass is likely because the two instruments were not precisely colocated. The distribution of seagrass at the two sites differed both in overall percent vegetated and in the distribution of percent cover versus depth. On the basis of acoustic data, seagrass inhabited 0.29 km2 (19 percent of total area) at Possession Point and 0.043 km2 (5 percent of total area) at the Browns Bay study site. The depth distribution at the two sites was markedly different. Whereas the majority of seagrass at Possession Point occurred between -0.5 and -1.5 m MLLW, most seagrass at Browns Bay occurred at a greater depth, between -2.25 and -3.5 m MLLW. Further investigation of the anthropogenic and natural factors causing these differences in distribution is needed.

  2. The development of a code of practice for single house on-site wastewater treatment in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, L W

    2011-01-01

    The performance of six separate percolation areas was intensively monitored to ascertain the attenuation effects of unsaturated subsoils with respect to on-site wastewater effluent: three sites receiving septic tank effluent, the other three sites receiving secondary treated effluent. The development of a biomat across the percolation areas receiving secondary treated effluent was restricted on these sites compared to those sites receiving septic tank effluent. This created significant differences in terms of the hydraulic loading on the percolation areas with implications for the transport and attenuation of indicator microorganisms and nitrogen down through the subsoils and into the groundwater. The results of this work have formed a large input into the production of a new Code of Practice Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems Serving Single Houses. This has led to changes in the design of on-site hydraulic loading from 180 L per capita per day (L/c.d) down to 150 L/c.d. The range of acceptable subsoils receiving septic tank effluent has narrowed for more highly permeable subsoils following a series of tracer studies using bacteriophages. However, the range has been extended for lower permeability subsoils (range 0.08 down to 0.06 m/d) receiving secondary treated effluent in order to encourage the effluent to spread further along the trenches. The maximum individual length of percolation trenches receiving secondary effluent has also been reduced to 10 m to encourage dispersion on a wider area. This paper thus highlights how research can directly feed into a Code of Practice.

  3. Laparoendoscopic single-site myomectomy and the use of fibrin sealant (Tisseel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelito Magno

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Myomectomy remains the standard surgical treatment for women with uterine myoma, who wish to preserve their fertility. However, it is often associated with increased blood loss and adhesion formation. Laparoscopic myomectomy has multiple advantages over open myomectomy1. A newer approach, laparoendoscopic single-site surgery, also known as LESS, has been developed and applied in gynecologic field.2 This is a case of a 41-year-old G2P1 patient, with the complaints of irregular menstrual cycles and lower abdominal pain for 6 months. Transvaginal ultrasound showed uterine myoma at the anterior corpus, measuring 6 × 5 cm2. The procedure is started by grasping the bilateral edges of the umbilicus with Allis forceps. A vertical incision, 1.5–2 cm, is made from the superficial skin of the umbilicus to the ventral peritoneum. A wound retractor of appropriate size is inserted and adjusted. A multiple instrument access port (LagisEndosurgical, Taichung, Taiwan is placed over the wound retractor (Figure 1. Prior to the procedure, inspection of the pelvic organs is performed to determine the pathology. Vasopressin is injected over the area of the myoma to decrease blood loss. Location of the myoma is then identified. Uterine incision is made on the serosa over the area of the myoma using the monopolar scissors. Using a bipolar instrument LigaSure®, ValleyLab, Inc., Boulder, Colorado, the incision is extended until the myoma is exposed. The myoma is grasped gently using the tenaculum forcep, and dissected bluntly along with it's pseudocapsule using the tip of suction irrigation gear. At the base of the myoma where feeding vessels may be located, coagulation by the advanced bipolar, is performed to prevent bleeding. The specimen is removed through the umbilicus. A sliding knot is made at the tail of one zero monofilament suture to fasten the anchor of the first knot. The uterus is then repaired with a continuous non-locking method. Hemostasis is

  4. Siting analysis and risk assessment for small single-purpose heating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarjanne, R.

    1979-04-01

    Two alternative sites both 10km away from the centre of Helsinki are considered for reactor unit sizes of 400mw and 800mw. The risks associated with a small single-purpose heating reactor is evaluated for normal operation and accident conditions. The evaluation for accident condition is performed for three characteristics accidents. Three pathways are considered in the calculation of the radiation exposure: direct external gamma dose from the release plume, direct gamma radiation from deposited activity on the ground and dose due to inhalation. The risks are compared with the risks from alternative conventional fossil fuelled district heat production methods. The results show that the heating reactor alternative causes an unsignificant risk, which is far less than the risk caused by the fossil-fuelled alternatives

  5. Overview of the closure approach for the Hanford Site single-shell tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.H.

    1991-09-01

    The disposal of chemical and radioactive waste stored within the single-shell tanks (SST) represents one of the most significant waste management problems at the Hanford Site. A comprehensive program has been established to obtain analytical data regarding the chemical and radiological constituents within these tanks. This information will be used to support the development of a supplemental environmental impact statement (SEIS) and ultimately to aid in the selection of a final disposal option. This paper discusses some of the technical options and major regulatory issues associated with SST waste retrieval and in situ waste treatment and disposal. Certain closure options and treatment technologies will require further development before they can be implemented or accepted as being useful. In addition, continued negotiations with the regulatory authorities will be required to determine the preferred closure option and the regulatory pathway to accommodate such closure

  6. Analytic observations for the d=1+ 1 bridge site (or single-step) deposition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.W.; Kang, H.C.

    1991-01-01

    Some exact results for a reversible version of the d=1+1 bridge site (or single-step) deposition model are presented. Exact steady-state properties are determined directly for finite systems with various mean slopes. These show explicitly how the asymptotic growth velocity and fluctuations are quenched as the slope approaches its maximum allowed value. Next, exact hierarchial equations for the dynamics are presented. For the special case of ''equilibrium growth,'' these are analyzed exactly at the pair-correlation level directly for an infinite system. This provided further insight into asymptotic scaling behavior. Finally, the above hierarchy is compared with one generated from a discrete form of the Kardar--Parisi--Zhang equations. Some differences are described

  7. Site locality identification study: Hanford Site. Volume I. Methodology, guidelines, and screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    Presented in this report are the results of the site locality identification study for the Hanford Site using a screening process. To enable evaluation of the entire Hanford Site, the screening process was applied to a somewhat larger area; i.e., the Pasco Basin. The study consisted of a series of screening steps that progressively focused on smaller areas which are within the Hanford Site and which had a higher potential for containing suitable repository sites for nuclear waste than the areas not included for further study. Five site localities, designated H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4, H-5 (Figure A), varying in size from approximately 10 to 50 square miles, were identified on the Hanford Site. It is anticipated that each site locality may contain one or more candidate sites suitable for a nuclear waste repository. The site locality identification study began with definition of objectives and the development of guidelines for screening. Three objectives were defined: (1) maximize public health and safety; (2) minimize adverse environmental and socioeconomic impacts; and (3) minimize system costs. The screening guidelines have numerical values that provided the basis for the successive reduction of the area under study and to focus on smaller areas that had a higher likelihood of containing suitable sites

  8. Modalities of Generalization Through Single Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania

    2017-06-01

    The value of case studies for theory building is still doubted in psychology. The paper argues for the importance of case studies and the possibility of generalizing from these for a specific sociocultural understanding of human development. The paper first clarifies the notion of abduction within case studies, drawing on pragmatists James and Peirce and expanding it with the work of Lewin, and argues that it is the core mechanism that allows generalization from case studies. The second section presents the possibility of generalizing from individual single case studies, for which not only the subjective perspective, but also the dynamics by which the social and cultural environment guide and enable the person's development, have to be accounted for. The third section elaborates the question of institutional case studies, where the challenge is to account both for institutional dynamics, and for persons' trajectories within; this is exemplified with an ongoing study on the process of obtaining citizenship in Switzerland. The paper briefly concludes by highlighting two possible implications of the paper, one concerning the process of theoretical reasoning, the other, the fact that sociocultural psychology could itself be seen as an institution in-the-making.

  9. Fundamental study of single biomass particle combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, M.

    2013-06-01

    This thesis is a comprehensive study of single biomass particle combustion. The effect of particle shape and size and operating conditions on biomass conversion characteristics were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experimental samples were divided in two groups: particles with regular shapes (spheres and cylinders) and particles with irregular shapes (almost flake-like). A CAMSIZER analyser (Retsch Technology GMBH) was used to determine the size and shape of the particles via Dynamical Digital Image Processing. The experiments were performed in a single particle reactor under well-defined conditions, and the complete combustion processes were recorded as video sequences by a CCD camera installed in the set-up. One of the project objectives is to simulate conditions reasonably close to the conditions in a power plant boiler, i.e., reasonably high temperatures (up to 1600 deg. C) and varying oxygen concentrations in the 5 to 20% range. A one-dimensional mathematical model was used to simulate all the intraparticle conversion processes (drying, recondensation, devolatilisation, char gasification/oxidation and heat/mass/momentum transfer) within single particles of different shapes and size under various conditions. The model also predicts the flame layer domain of a single particle. The model was validated by experimental results under different conditions; good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental data was observed. Both the experimental and modelling results showed that cylindrical particles lose mass faster than spherical particles of a similar volume (mass) and that the burnout time is reduced by increasing the particle aspect ratio (surface area to volume ratio). Very similar conversion times were observed for cylindrical particles with nearly identical surface area to volume ratios. Similar conversion times were also observed for two size classes of pulverised particles (with irregular shapes) made from the same type of

  10. The concept, reality and utility of single-site heterogeneous catalysts (SSHCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John Meurig

    2014-05-07

    Very substantial advances have recently been made in the design and construction of solid catalysts and in elucidating both their mode of operation and the factors that determine their selectivity and longevity. This Perspective explains how and why such progress has been made. One important factor, the deployment of single-site heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysts, used either alone or in conjunction with other strategies, including metabolic engineering, enables a multitude of new products (for example, environmentally clean jet fuel) to be readily manufactured. In a practical sense SSHCs enable the advantages of homogeneous and to a lesser degree enzymatic catalysts to be united with those of heterogeneous ones. With the aid of the vastly increasing families of nanoporous solids, desired catalytically active sites may be engineered in atomic detail on their inner, accessible surfaces, thereby opening up new possibilities in synthetic organic chemistry - as in the smooth formation of C-C and C[double bond, length as m-dash]N bonds in a number of intermolecular reactions - as well as in photocatalysts and in fluidized catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons.

  11. Single-site Lennard-Jones models via polynomial chaos surrogates of Monte Carlo molecular simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoura, Ahmad, E-mail: ahmad.kadoura@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: adil.siripatana@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: shuyu.sun@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: omar.knio@kaust.edu.sa; Sun, Shuyu, E-mail: ahmad.kadoura@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: adil.siripatana@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: shuyu.sun@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: omar.knio@kaust.edu.sa [Computational Transport Phenomena Laboratory, The Earth Sciences and Engineering Department, The Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Siripatana, Adil, E-mail: ahmad.kadoura@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: adil.siripatana@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: shuyu.sun@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: omar.knio@kaust.edu.sa; Hoteit, Ibrahim, E-mail: ibrahim.hoteit@kaust.edu.sa [Earth Fluid Modeling and Predicting Group, The Earth Sciences and Engineering Department, The Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Knio, Omar, E-mail: ahmad.kadoura@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: adil.siripatana@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: shuyu.sun@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: omar.knio@kaust.edu.sa [Uncertainty Quantification Center, The Applied Mathematics and Computational Science Department, The Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-07

    In this work, two Polynomial Chaos (PC) surrogates were generated to reproduce Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation results of the canonical (single-phase) and the NVT-Gibbs (two-phase) ensembles for a system of normalized structureless Lennard-Jones (LJ) particles. The main advantage of such surrogates, once generated, is the capability of accurately computing the needed thermodynamic quantities in a few seconds, thus efficiently replacing the computationally expensive MC molecular simulations. Benefiting from the tremendous computational time reduction, the PC surrogates were used to conduct large-scale optimization in order to propose single-site LJ models for several simple molecules. Experimental data, a set of supercritical isotherms, and part of the two-phase envelope, of several pure components were used for tuning the LJ parameters (ε, σ). Based on the conducted optimization, excellent fit was obtained for different noble gases (Ar, Kr, and Xe) and other small molecules (CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}, and CO). On the other hand, due to the simplicity of the LJ model used, dramatic deviations between simulation and experimental data were observed, especially in the two-phase region, for more complex molecules such as CO{sub 2} and C{sub 2} H{sub 6}.

  12. A single splice site mutation in human-specific ARHGAP11B causes basal progenitor amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Marta; Namba, Takashi; Pääbo, Svante; Hiller, Michael; Huttner, Wieland B.

    2016-01-01

    The gene ARHGAP11B promotes basal progenitor amplification and is implicated in neocortex expansion. It arose on the human evolutionary lineage by partial duplication of ARHGAP11A, which encodes a Rho guanosine triphosphatase–activating protein (RhoGAP). However, a lack of 55 nucleotides in ARHGAP11B mRNA leads to loss of RhoGAP activity by GAP domain truncation and addition of a human-specific carboxy-terminal amino acid sequence. We show that these 55 nucleotides are deleted by mRNA splicing due to a single C→G substitution that creates a novel splice donor site. We reconstructed an ancestral ARHGAP11B complementary DNA without this substitution. Ancestral ARHGAP11B exhibits RhoGAP activity but has no ability to increase basal progenitors during neocortex development. Hence, a single nucleotide substitution underlies the specific properties of ARHGAP11B that likely contributed to the evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex. PMID:27957544

  13. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in gynaecology: A new frontier in minimally invasive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fader Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Review Objective: To review the recent developments and published literature on laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS surgery in gynaecology. Recent Findings: Minimally invasive surgery has become a standard of care for the treatment of many benign and malignant gynaecological conditions. Recent advances in conventional laparoscopy and robotic-assisted surgery have favorably impacted the entire spectrum of gynaecological surgery. With the goal of improving morbidity and cosmesis, continued efforts towards refinement of laparoscopic techniques have lead to minimization of size and number of ports required for these procedures. LESS surgery is a recently proposed surgical term used to describe various techniques that aim at performing laparoscopic surgery through a single, small-skin incision concealed within the umbilicus. In the last 5 years, there has been a surge in the developments in surgical technology and techniques for LESS surgery, which have resulted in a significant increase in utilisation of LESS across many surgical subspecialties. Recently published outcomes data demonstrate feasibility, safety and reproducibility for LESS in gynaecology. The contemporary LESS literature, extent of gynaecological procedures utilising these techniques and limitations of current technology will be reviewed in this manuscript. Conclusions: LESS surgery represents the newest frontier in minimally invasive surgery. Comparative data and prospective trials are necessary in order to determine the clinical impact of LESS in treatment of gynaecological conditions.

  14. The learning curve of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) cholecystectomy: definable, short, and safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jonathan; Ross, Sharona; Morton, Connor; McFarlin, Kellie; Dahal, Sujat; Golkar, Farhaad; Albrink, Michael; Rosemurgy, Alexander

    2010-11-01

    The applications of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery, including cholecystectomy, are occurring quickly, although little is generally known about issues associated with the learning curve of this new technique including operative time, conversion rates, and safety. We prospectively followed all patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy, and compared operations undertaken at our institutions in cohorts of 25 patients with respect to operative times, conversion rates, and complications. One-hundred fifty patients of mean age 46 years underwent LESS cholecystectomy. No significant differences in operative times were demonstrable between any of the 25-patient cohorts operated on at our institution. A significant reduction in operative times (p < 0.001) after completion of 75 LESS procedures was, however, identified with the experience of a single surgeon. No significant reduction in the number of procedures requiring an additional trocar(s) or conversion to open operations was observed after completion of 25 LESS cholecystectomies. Complication rates were low, and not significantly different between any 25-patient cohorts. For surgeons proficient with multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the learning curve for LESS cholecystectomy begins near proficiency. Operative complications and conversions were infrequent and unchanged across successive 25-patient cohorts, and were similar to those reported for multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy after the learning curve. Copyright © 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Single-site Lennard-Jones models via polynomial chaos surrogates of Monte Carlo molecular simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim

    2016-06-01

    In this work, two Polynomial Chaos (PC) surrogates were generated to reproduce Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation results of the canonical (single-phase) and the NVT-Gibbs (two-phase) ensembles for a system of normalized structureless Lennard-Jones (LJ) particles. The main advantage of such surrogates, once generated, is the capability of accurately computing the needed thermodynamic quantities in a few seconds, thus efficiently replacing the computationally expensive MC molecular simulations. Benefiting from the tremendous computational time reduction, the PC surrogates were used to conduct large-scale optimization in order to propose single-site LJ models for several simple molecules. Experimental data, a set of supercritical isotherms, and part of the two-phase envelope, of several pure components were used for tuning the LJ parameters (ε, σ). Based on the conducted optimization, excellent fit was obtained for different noble gases (Ar, Kr, and Xe) and other small molecules (CH4, N2, and CO). On the other hand, due to the simplicity of the LJ model used, dramatic deviations between simulation and experimental data were observed, especially in the two-phase region, for more complex molecules such as CO2 and C2 H6.

  16. Evaluation of accuracy in implant site preparation performed in single- or multi-step drilling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marheineke, Nadine; Scherer, Uta; Rücker, Martin; von See, Constantin; Rahlf, Björn; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Stoetzer, Marcus

    2018-06-01

    Dental implant failure and insufficient osseointegration are proven results of mechanical and thermal damage during the surgery process. We herein performed a comparative study of a less invasive single-step drilling preparation protocol and a conventional multiple drilling sequence. Accuracy of drilling holes was precisely analyzed and the influence of different levels of expertise of the handlers and additional use of drill template guidance was evaluated. Six experimental groups, deployed in an osseous study model, were representing template-guided and freehanded drilling actions in a stepwise drilling procedure in comparison to a single-drill protocol. Each experimental condition was studied by the drilling actions of respectively three persons without surgical knowledge as well as three highly experienced oral surgeons. Drilling actions were performed and diameters were recorded with a precision measuring instrument. Less experienced operators were able to significantly increase the drilling accuracy using a guiding template, especially when multi-step preparations are performed. Improved accuracy without template guidance was observed when experienced operators were executing single-step versus multi-step technique. Single-step drilling protocols have shown to produce more accurate results than multi-step procedures. The outcome of any protocol can be further improved by use of guiding templates. Operator experience can be a contributing factor. Single-step preparations are less invasive and are promoting osseointegration. Even highly experienced surgeons are achieving higher levels of accuracy by combining this technique with template guidance. Hereby template guidance enables a reduction of hands-on time and side effects during surgery and lead to a more predictable clinical diameter.

  17. Environmental radioactivity survey in site studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Gaso, M.I.; Tejera, A.; Tamez, E.

    1989-01-01

    Systematic monitoring of Rn in soil, background gamma levels and meteorological measurements was conducted at the site of a nuclear research center. The data cover a time period of several years. The radon in soil gas fluctuations is influenced by seasonal meteorological changes and by local geophysical parameters and they range between 1000 Bq/m 3 and 18000 Bq/m 3 . The observed gamma levels show geographic stability; some seasonal fluctuations were observed. Data analysis indicates that no significant changes occured at the site over the measuring period and radiation levels and meteorological changes are moderate inducing no ecological impact on the surroundings. (author) 8 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Stabilization of bacterially expressed erythropoietin by single site-specific introduction of short branched PEG chains at naturally occurring glycosylation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, E; Streichert, K; Nischan, N; Seitz, C; Brunner, T; Schwagerus, S; Hackenberger, C P R; Rubini, M

    2016-05-24

    The covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to therapeutic proteins can improve their physicochemical properties. In this work we utilized the non-natural amino acid p-azidophenylalanine (pAzF) in combination with the chemoselective Staudinger-phosphite reaction to install branched PEG chains to recombinant unglycosylated erythropoietin (EPO) at each single naturally occurring glycosylation site. PEGylation with two short 750 or 2000 Da PEG units at positions 24, 38, or 83 significantly decreased unspecific aggregation and proteolytic degradation while biological activity in vitro was preserved or even increased in comparison to full-glycosylated EPO. This site-specific bioconjugation approach permits to analyse the impact of PEGylation at single positions. These results represent an important step towards the engineering of site-specifically modified EPO variants from bacterial expression with increased therapeutic efficacy.

  19. Nuclear power plant site selection: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugasi, Y.; Mehrez, A.; Sinuany-Stern, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Selecting the site for a nuclear power plant involves the evaluation of numerous criteria and the professional judgment of various experts. The Israel Atomic Energy Commission has been concerned with the problem of selecting a site for a nuclear power station. Previous studies have been performed by the commission to identify potential sites. There were initial screenings where potential sites were chosen according to various minimal criteria and international standards. Only sites that met all the criteria were chosen. A study was made to find the most preferred site among the potential sites that met all the criteria. Two mathematical approaches were used: Keeney's multiattribute utility function and Saaty's eigenvalue prioritization technique. Both models ranked the same site as the most desirable; however, the models differed in their ranking of the other sites

  20. The application of single cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay to human monitoring studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valverde Mahara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In the search of new human genotoxic biomarkers, the single cell gel electrophoresis assay has been proposed as a sensible alternative. Material and methods. This technique detects principally single strand breaks as well as alkali-labile and repair-retarded sites. Results. Herein we present our experience using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay in human population studies, both occupationally and environmentally exposed. Conclusions. We discuss the assay feasibility as a genotoxic biomarker.

  1. Analytical study on spherules from Toungouska explosion site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehanno, C.; Robin, E.; Rocchia, R.; Boclet, D.; Danon, J.

    1989-01-01

    Eighty years after the event, the Tunguska explosion of june 1908, has not found a satisfactory explanation. The cosmic bolide, supposed responsible for the event, has not yet been identified but numerous magnetic spherules have been recovered in the vicinity of the explosion site. Eighty spherules have been studied and compared with the Fe-Ni spherules from the steady micrometeoroid flux. Ninety percents of them cannot be identified with any known micrometeoroid families; their low average iridium content rather suggests a terrestrial origin. Five other spherules are obviously Fe-Ni spherules of the steady micrometeoroid rain and, thus, are unrelated the Tunguska event. Only three of the 80 spherules, consisting of a single iron oxide phase, could have been produced by the event. (author)

  2. General siting study 95. Siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    General Siting Study 95 is a detailed description of the work carried out to put the siting of a deep repository in a national and regional context. The report is based on SKB's siting factors, which have been applied on a national scale. Different factors of importance or of possible importance for the long-term radiological safety, technology, land and environment as well as society are described and evaluated. This report is the overall description on general siting studies which the government considered that SKB should report in connection with the RD and D Programme 95. 121 refs, 40 figs

  3. General siting study 95. Siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    General Siting Study 95 is a detailed description of the work carried out to put the siting of a deep repository in a national and regional context. The report is based on SKB`s siting factors, which have been applied on a national scale. Different factors of importance or of possible importance for the long-term radiological safety, technology, land and environment as well as society are described and evaluated. This report is the overall description on general siting studies which the government considered that SKB should report in connection with the RD and D Programme 95. 121 refs, 40 figs.

  4. Well-Defined Silica Supported Aluminum Hydride: Another Step Towards the Utopian Single Site Dream?

    KAUST Repository

    Werghi, Baraa; Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa; Sofack-Kreutzer, Julien; Jedidi, Abdesslem; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Cavallo, Luigi; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Reaction of triisobutylaluminum with SBA15700 at room temperature occurs by two parallel pathways involving either silanol or siloxane bridges. It leads to the formation of a well-defined bipodal [(≡SiO)2Al-CH2CH(CH3)2] 1a, silicon isobutyl [≡Si-CH2CH(CH3)2] 1b and a silicon hydride [≡Si-H] 1c. Their structural identity was characterized by FT-IR and advance solid-state NMR spectroscopies (1H, 13C, 29Si, 27Al and 2D multiple quantum), elemental and gas phase analysis, and DFT calculations. The reaction involves the formation of a highly reactive monopodal intermediate: [≡SiO-Al-[CH2CH(CH3)2]2], with evolution of isobutane. This intermediate undergoes two parallel routes: Transfer of either one isobutyl fragment or of one hydride to an adjacent silicon atom. Both processes occur by opening of a strained siloxane bridge, ≡Si-O-Si≡ but with two different mechanisms, showing that the reality of “single site” catalyst may be an utopia: DFT calculations indicate that isobutyl transfer occurs via a simple metathesis between the Al-isobutyl and O-Si bonds, while hydride transfer occurs via a two steps mechanism, the first one is a ß-H elimination to Al with elimination of isobutene, whereas the second is a metathesis step between the formed Al-H bond and a O-Si bond. Thermal treatment of 1a (at 250 °C) under high vacuum (10-5 mbar) generates Al-H through a ß-H elimination of isobutyl fragment. These supported well-defined Al-H which are highly stable with time, are tetra, penta and octa coordinated as demonstrated by IR and 27Al–1H J-HMQC NMR spectroscopy. All these observations indicate that surfaces atoms around the site of grafting play a considerable role in the reactivity of a single site system.

  5. Well-Defined Silica Supported Aluminum Hydride: Another Step Towards the Utopian Single Site Dream?

    KAUST Repository

    Werghi, Baraa

    2015-07-17

    Reaction of triisobutylaluminum with SBA15700 at room temperature occurs by two parallel pathways involving either silanol or siloxane bridges. It leads to the formation of a well-defined bipodal [(≡SiO)2Al-CH2CH(CH3)2] 1a, silicon isobutyl [≡Si-CH2CH(CH3)2] 1b and a silicon hydride [≡Si-H] 1c. Their structural identity was characterized by FT-IR and advance solid-state NMR spectroscopies (1H, 13C, 29Si, 27Al and 2D multiple quantum), elemental and gas phase analysis, and DFT calculations. The reaction involves the formation of a highly reactive monopodal intermediate: [≡SiO-Al-[CH2CH(CH3)2]2], with evolution of isobutane. This intermediate undergoes two parallel routes: Transfer of either one isobutyl fragment or of one hydride to an adjacent silicon atom. Both processes occur by opening of a strained siloxane bridge, ≡Si-O-Si≡ but with two different mechanisms, showing that the reality of “single site” catalyst may be an utopia: DFT calculations indicate that isobutyl transfer occurs via a simple metathesis between the Al-isobutyl and O-Si bonds, while hydride transfer occurs via a two steps mechanism, the first one is a ß-H elimination to Al with elimination of isobutene, whereas the second is a metathesis step between the formed Al-H bond and a O-Si bond. Thermal treatment of 1a (at 250 °C) under high vacuum (10-5 mbar) generates Al-H through a ß-H elimination of isobutyl fragment. These supported well-defined Al-H which are highly stable with time, are tetra, penta and octa coordinated as demonstrated by IR and 27Al–1H J-HMQC NMR spectroscopy. All these observations indicate that surfaces atoms around the site of grafting play a considerable role in the reactivity of a single site system.

  6. Exploiting nanospace for asymmetric catalysis: confinement of immobilized, single-site chiral catalysts enhances enantioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John Meurig; Raja, Robert

    2008-06-01

    In the mid-1990s, it became possible to prepare high-area silicas having pore diameters controllably adjustable in the range ca. 20-200 Å. Moreover, the inner walls of these nanoporous solids could be functionalized to yield single-site, chiral, catalytically active organometallic centers, the precise structures of which could be determined using in situ X-ray absorption and FTIR and multinuclear magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. This approach opened up the prospect of performing heterogeneous enantioselective conversions in a novel manner, under the spatial restrictions imposed by the nanocavities within which the reactions occur. In particular, it suggested an alternative method for preparing pharmaceutically and agrochemically useful asymmetric products by capitalizing on the notion, initially tentatively perceived, that spatial confinement of prochiral reactants (and transition states formed at the chiral active center) would provide an altogether new method of boosting the enantioselectivity of the anchored chiral catalyst. Initially, we anchored chiral single-site heterogeneous catalysts to nanopores covalently via a ligand attached to Pd(II) or Rh(I) centers. Later, we employed a more convenient and cheaper electrostatic method, relying in part on strong hydrogen bonding. This Account provides many examples of these processes, encompassing hydrogenations, oxidations, and aminations. Of particular note is the facile synthesis from methyl benzoylformate of methyl mandelate, which is a precursor in the synthesis of pemoline, a stimulant of the central nervous system; our procedure offers several viable methods for reducing ketocarboxylic acids. In addition to relying on earlier (synchrotron-based) in situ techniques for characterizing catalysts, we have constructed experimental procedures involving robotically controlled catalytic reactors that allow the kinetics of conversion and enantioselectivity to be monitored continually, and we have access to

  7. Density functional study the interaction of oxygen molecule with defect sites of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Xuejun [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Wuhan 430074 (China); Guo Xin, E-mail: guoxin@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zheng Chuguang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The defect sites existed on the graphite surface create active sites and enhance the reactivity of carbonaceous material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen molecule more favor chemisorbed on the graphene surface contains defect sites than the perfect surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The single active oxygen atom adsorbed on the defect surfaces, it completely insert into the surface. - Abstract: The present article reports a theoretical study of oxygen interacted with graphene surface containing defect sites on the atomic level by employing the density functional theory combined with the graphene cluster model. It was founded that oxygen molecule prefers to be chemisorbed on the graphene surface containing defect sites compared to the perfect surface. The adsorption energy of O{sub 2} on the double defect site is about 2.5 times as large as that on the perfect graphene surface. Moreover, the oxygen molecule interacts with S-W defect site gives rise to stable epoxy structure, which pulling the carbon atom outward from the original site in the direction perpendicular to the surface. If the oxygen molecule is adsorbed on the single vacancy site, two C-O bonds are formed on the graphene surface. However, when the oxygen molecule is chemisorbed on the double vacancy site, the oxygen atoms substitute the missing carbon atom's position in the carbon plane and form a hexagonal structure on the graphene network. The results indicate that single active oxygen atom approaches the defect site, it's completely adsorbed in the plane and high energy is released. In all cases, the interaction of an oxygen atom with defect surface involves an exothermic process. The defect site creates active sites on the surface of graphene and produces catalytic effects during the process of oxidation of carbonaceous materials.

  8. Photoelectron diffraction studies of small adsorbates on single crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Mathieu

    2002-01-01

    The structural determination of small molecules adsorbed on single crystal surfaces has been investigated using scanned energy mode photoelectron diffraction (PhD). The experimental PhD data were compared to theoretical models using a simulation program based on multiple scattering calculations. Three adsorption systems have been examined on Ag(110), Cu(110) and Cu(111) crystals. The structure of the (2x1)-O adsorption phase on Ag(110) revealed that the O atoms occupied the long bridge site and are almost co-planar with the top layer of Ag atoms. The best agreement between multiple scattering theory and experiment has been obtained for a missing-row (or equivalently an 'added- row') reconstruction. Alternative buckled-row and unreconstructed surface models can be excluded. The adsorption of the benzoate species on Cu(110) has been found to occur via the carboxylate group. The molecules occupy short bridge sites with the O atoms being slightly displaced from atop sites and are aligned along the close-packed azimuth. The tilt of the molecule with respect to the surface and the degree to which the surface is relaxed have also been investigated. The adsorption of methyl on Cu(111) was studied using either azomethane or methyl iodide to prepare the surface layers. At saturation coverage the preferred adsorption site is the fcc threefold hollow site, whereas at half saturation coverage ∼ 30 % of the methyl species occupy the hop threefold hollow sites. Best agreement between theory and experiment corresponded to a methyl group adsorbed with C 3v symmetry. The height of the C above the surface in a pure methyl layer was 1.66 ± 0.02 A, but was reduced to 1.62 ± 0.02 A in the presence of co-adsorbed iodine, suggesting that iodine increases the strength of adsorption. Iodine was also found to occupy the fee threefold hollow sites with a Cu-l bondlength of 2.61 ± 0.02 A. (author)

  9. Single-site Green function of the Dirac equation for full-potential electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordt, Pascal

    2012-05-30

    I present an elaborated analytical examination of the Green function of an electron scattered at a single-site potential, for both the Schroedinger and the Dirac equation, followed by an efficient numerical solution, in both cases for potentials of arbitrary shape without an atomic sphere approximation. A numerically stable way to calculate the corresponding regular and irregular wave functions and the Green function is via the angular Lippmann-Schwinger integral equations. These are solved based on an expansion in Chebyshev polynomials and their recursion relations, allowing to rewrite the Lippmann-Schwinger equations into a system of algebraic linear equations. Gonzales et al. developed this method for the Schroedinger equation, where it gives a much higher accuracy compared to previous perturbation methods, with only modest increase in computational effort. In order to apply it to the Dirac equation, I developed relativistic Lippmann-Schwinger equations, based on a decomposition of the potential matrix into spin spherical harmonics, exploiting certain properties of this matrix. The resulting method was embedded into a Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker code for density functional calculations. As an example, the method is applied by calculating phase shifts and the Mott scattering of a tungsten impurity. (orig.)

  10. Single-site Green function of the Dirac equation for full-potential electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordt, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    I present an elaborated analytical examination of the Green function of an electron scattered at a single-site potential, for both the Schroedinger and the Dirac equation, followed by an efficient numerical solution, in both cases for potentials of arbitrary shape without an atomic sphere approximation. A numerically stable way to calculate the corresponding regular and irregular wave functions and the Green function is via the angular Lippmann-Schwinger integral equations. These are solved based on an expansion in Chebyshev polynomials and their recursion relations, allowing to rewrite the Lippmann-Schwinger equations into a system of algebraic linear equations. Gonzales et al. developed this method for the Schroedinger equation, where it gives a much higher accuracy compared to previous perturbation methods, with only modest increase in computational effort. In order to apply it to the Dirac equation, I developed relativistic Lippmann-Schwinger equations, based on a decomposition of the potential matrix into spin spherical harmonics, exploiting certain properties of this matrix. The resulting method was embedded into a Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker code for density functional calculations. As an example, the method is applied by calculating phase shifts and the Mott scattering of a tungsten impurity. (orig.)

  11. Evidence that adaptation in Drosophila is not limited by mutation at single sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia Karasov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation in eukaryotes is generally assumed to be mutation-limited because of small effective population sizes. This view is difficult to reconcile, however, with the observation that adaptation to anthropogenic changes, such as the introduction of pesticides, can occur very rapidly. Here we investigate adaptation at a key insecticide resistance locus (Ace in Drosophila melanogaster and show that multiple simple and complex resistance alleles evolved quickly and repeatedly within individual populations. Our results imply that the current effective population size of modern D. melanogaster populations is likely to be substantially larger (> or = 100-fold than commonly believed. This discrepancy arises because estimates of the effective population size are generally derived from levels of standing variation and thus reveal long-term population dynamics dominated by sharp--even if infrequent--bottlenecks. The short-term effective population sizes relevant for strong adaptation, on the other hand, might be much closer to census population sizes. Adaptation in Drosophila may therefore not be limited by waiting for mutations at single sites, and complex adaptive alleles can be generated quickly without fixation of intermediate states. Adaptive events should also commonly involve the simultaneous rise in frequency of independently generated adaptive mutations. These so-called soft sweeps have very distinct effects on the linked neutral polymorphisms compared to the standard hard sweeps in mutation-limited scenarios. Methods for the mapping of adaptive mutations or association mapping of evolutionarily relevant mutations may thus need to be reconsidered.

  12. Single-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts. Synthesis, characterization and toward cyanosilylation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    A successive anchoring of Zr(NMe2)4, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1‧-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on dehydroxylated SBA-15 pretreated at 500 °C for 16 h (SBA-15-500) was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The dehydoxylation of SBA-15 was monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situ FT-IR). The ligand-modified SBA-15-500 supported zirconium complexes were characterized by in situ FT-IR, 13C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MAS) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface zirconium species are single-sited. The catalytic activity of these complexes was evaluated by cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the structure of surface species and the configuration of the ligands.

  13. Regulatory Closure Options for the Residue in the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, J.R.; Shyr, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    Liquid, mixed, high-level radioactive waste (HLW) has been stored in 149 single-shell tanks (SSTS) located in tank farms on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The DOE is developing technologies to retrieve as much remaining HLW as technically possible prior to physically closing the tank farms. In support of the Hanford Tanks Initiative, Sandia National Laboratories has addressed the requirements for the regulatory closure of the radioactive component of any SST residue that may remain after physical closure. There is significant uncertainty about the end state of each of the 149 SSTS; that is, the nature and amount of wastes remaining in the SSTS after retrieval is uncertain. As a means of proceeding in the face of these uncertainties, this report links possible end-states with associated closure options. Requirements for disposal of HLW and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) are reviewed in detail. Incidental waste, which is radioactive waste produced incidental to the further processing of HLW, is then discussed. If the low activity waste (LAW) fraction from the further processing of HLW is determined to be incidental waste, then DOE can dispose of that incidental waste onsite without a license from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions (NRC). The NRC has proposed three Incidental Waste Criteria for determining if a LAW fraction is incidental waste. One of the three Criteria is that the LAW fraction should not exceed the NRC's Class C limits

  14. Regulatory Closure Options for the Residue in the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.R. Shyr, L.J.

    1998-10-05

    Liquid, mixed, high-level radioactive waste (HLW) has been stored in 149 single-shell tanks (SSTS) located in tank farms on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The DOE is developing technologies to retrieve as much remaining HLW as technically possible prior to physically closing the tank farms. In support of the Hanford Tanks Initiative, Sandia National Laboratories has addressed the requirements for the regulatory closure of the radioactive component of any SST residue that may remain after physical closure. There is significant uncertainty about the end state of each of the 149 SSTS; that is, the nature and amount of wastes remaining in the SSTS after retrieval is uncertain. As a means of proceeding in the face of these uncertainties, this report links possible end-states with associated closure options. Requirements for disposal of HLW and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) are reviewed in detail. Incidental waste, which is radioactive waste produced incidental to the further processing of HLW, is then discussed. If the low activity waste (LAW) fraction from the further processing of HLW is determined to be incidental waste, then DOE can dispose of that incidental waste onsite without a license from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions (NRC). The NRC has proposed three Incidental Waste Criteria for determining if a LAW fraction is incidental waste. One of the three Criteria is that the LAW fraction should not exceed the NRC's Class C limits.

  15. Seismic studies for nuclear installations sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.; Faure, J.

    1988-01-01

    The french experience in seismic risks assessment for french nuclear installations permits to set out the objectives, the phases the geographic extensions of workings to be realized for the installation safety. The data to be collected for the safety analysis are specified, they concern the regional seismotectonics, the essential seismic data for determining the seism level to be taken into account and defining the soil movement spectra adapted to the site. It is necessary to follow up the seismic surveillance during the installation construction and life. 7 refs. (F.M.)

  16. Sternoe study site. Scope of activities and main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Andersson, J.E.; Nordqvist, R.; Tiren, S.; Ljunggren, C.; Voss, C.

    1992-01-01

    During the period from 1977-1986 SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) performed surface and borehole investigations of 14 study sites for the purpose of assessing their suitability for a repository of spent nuclear fuel. The next phase in the SKB site selection programme will be to perform detailed characterization, including characterization from shafts and/or tunnels, of two or three sites. The detailed investigations will continue over several years to provide all the data needed for a licensing application to build a repository. Such an application is foreseen to be given to the authorities around the year 2003. It is presently not clear if anyone of the previously investigated study sites will be selected as a site for detailed characterization. Other sites with geological and/or socio-economical characteristics judged more favourable may very well be the ones selected. However, as a part of the background documentation needed for the site selection studies to come, summary reports will be prepared for most study sites. These reports will include scope of activities, main results, uncertainties and need of complementary investigations. This report concerns the Sternoe study site. This site was one of the first sites to be investigated by SKB . The studies at Sternoe were made under severe time-constraints and with prototype borehole instrumentations. These limitations should be kept in mind when reading the report. (41 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs.) (au)

  17. Status of siting studies for a near surface repository site for radioactive wastes in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Palattao, M.V.B.; Marcelo, E.A.; Caseria, E.S.; Venida, L.L.; Cruz, J.M. dela

    2002-01-01

    The Philippines, through the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), decided to conduct a study on siting a low level radioactive waste disposal facility. The infrastructure set up for this purpose, the radioactive waste disposal concept, the overall siting process, the methodology applied and preliminary results obtained are described in this paper. (author)

  18. Site-selective substitutional doping with atomic precision on stepped Al (111) surface by single-atom manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang; Zhang, Jinhu; Dong, Guofeng; Shao, Hezhu; Ning, Bo-Yuan; Zhao, Li; Ning, Xi-Jing; Zhuang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In fabrication of nano- and quantum devices, it is sometimes critical to position individual dopants at certain sites precisely to obtain the specific or enhanced functionalities. With first-principles simulations, we propose a method for substitutional doping of individual atom at a certain position on a stepped metal surface by single-atom manipulation. A selected atom at the step of Al (111) surface could be extracted vertically with an Al trimer-apex tip, and then the dopant atom will be positioned to this site. The details of the entire process including potential energy curves are given, which suggests the reliability of the proposed single-atom doping method.

  19. Screened Coulomb interactions in metallic alloys. II. Screening beyond the single-site and atomic-sphere approximations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Simak, S.I.; Korzhavyi, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    -electron potential and energy. In the case of a random alloy such interactions can be accounted for only by lifting the atomic-sphere and single-site approximations, in order to include the polarization due to local environment effects. Nevertheless, a simple parametrization of the screened Coulomb interactions...... for the ordinary single-site methods, including the generalized perturbation method, is still possible. We obtained such a parametrization for bulk and surface NiPt alloys, which allows one to obtain quantitatively accurate effective interactions in this system....

  20. Wegner estimate and localization for alloy-type models with sign-changing exponentially decaying single-site potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Karsten; Peyerimhoff, Norbert; Tautenhahn, Martin; Veselić, Ivan

    2015-05-01

    We study Schrödinger operators on L2(ℝd) and ℓ2(ℤd) with a random potential of alloy-type. The single-site potential is assumed to be exponentially decaying but not necessarily of fixed sign. In the continuum setting, we require a generalized step-function shape. Wegner estimates are bounds on the average number of eigenvalues in an energy interval of finite box restrictions of these types of operators. In the described situation, a Wegner estimate, which is polynomial in the volume of the box and linear in the size of the energy interval, holds. We apply the established Wegner estimate as an ingredient for a localization proof via multiscale analysis.

  1. Current status and future perspectives in laparoendoscopic single-site and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic urological surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autorino, Riccardo; Stein, Robert J; Lima, Estevão; Damiano, Rocco; Khanna, Rakesh; Haber, Georges-Pascal; White, Michael A; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2010-05-01

    Objective of this study is to provide an evidence-based analysis of the current status and future perspectives of scarless urological surgery. A PubMed search has been performed for all relevant urological literature regarding natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS). In addition, experience with LESS and NOTES at our own institution has been considered. All clinical and investigative reports for LESS and NOTES procedures in the urological literature have been considered. A wide variety of clinical procedures in urology have been successfully completed by using LESS techniques. Thus far, experience with NOTES has largely been investigational, although early clinical reports are emerging. Further development of instrumentation and platforms is necessary for both techniques to become more widely adopted throughout the urological community.

  2. Anti-site defected MoS2 sheet-based single electron transistor as a gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Archana; Husain, Mushahid; Srivastava, Anurag; Khan, Mohd. Shahid

    2018-05-01

    To prevent harmful and poisonous CO gas molecules, catalysts are needed for converting them into benign substances. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to study the adsorption of CO and CO2 gas molecules on the surface of MoS2 monolayer with Mo atom embedded at S-vacancy site (MoS). The strong interaction between Mo metal with pristine MoS2 sheet suggests its strong binding nature. Doping Mo into MoS2 sheet enhances CO and CO2 adsorption strength. The sensing response of MoS-doped MoS2 system to CO and CO2 gas molecules is obtained in the single electron transistor (SET) environment by varying bias voltage. Doping reduces charging energy of the device which results in fast switching of the device from OFF to ON state.

  3. Ecological and radioecological studies of nuclear installation sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caries, J. C.; Hugon, J.; Grauby, A.

    1988-01-01

    The site study method consists of a dynamic and estimated analysis and of following up the release impact on all natural or non natural media compartments that take a part in the protection of man and his environment. The stages of knowing a nuclear site include the site preliminary radioecological evaluation, diffusion parameters evaluation, the quantification of factors of radioelements transfer to man, the ecological baseline carrying out, the radioactive baseline establishment, the radioecological synthesis of the results, the site radioactive and ecological control. This method applys to selection and detailed study of site. 1 tab., 7 refs. (F.M.)

  4. Ovarian Suspension With Adjustable Sutures: An Easy and Helpful Technique for Facilitating Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Gynecologic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Hu; Chen, Li-Ru; Seow, Kok-Min

    2015-01-01

    To describe a method of ovarian suspension with adjustable sutures (OSAS) for facilitating laparoendoscopic single-site gynecologic surgery (LESS) and to investigate the effect of OSAS on LESS. Prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification: II-2). University teaching hospital. One hundred seventy-eight patients with benign 5- to 15-cm cystic ovarian tumors who underwent LESS with OSAS (suspension group, n = 90) and without OSAS (control group, n = 88). For patients who underwent OSAS (suspension group), 1 end of double-head straight needles with a polypropylene suture was inserted into the pelvic cavity through the abdominal skin to penetrate the cyst or ovarian parenchyma and puncture outside the abdominal skin. After cutting off the needles, both sides of the remaining suture were held together by a clamp, without knotting, so that the manipulator could "lift," "loosen," or "fix" the stitches to adjust the tension. The average time to create OSAS was 2.9 min. For the suspension and control groups, the average blood loss was 81.4 and 131.8 mL (p < .001), and the operative time was 42.0 and 61.3 min (p < .001), respectively. There were no significant differences in the incidence of complications (5.6% vs 9.1%; p = .365), but there were significant differences in conversions to standard non-single-site laparoscopy (5.6% vs 15.9%; p = .025) and laparotomy (1.1% vs 6.8%; p = .040). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the ratios of conversion to standard non-single-site laparoscopy (odds ratio [OR], 0.126; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.311-0.508) and laparotomy (OR, 0.032; 95% CI, 0.002-0.479) were much lower in the suspension group; the risk of complications was comparable (OR, 0.346; 95% CI, 0.085-1.403). OSAS is an easy, safe, and feasible method that offers advantages during LESS. Although routine use of OSAS is not necessary, OSAS can be considered during LESS to facilitate the surgery. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  5. Site study plan for cultural resources, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Cultural Resources Site Study Plan describes a field program to identify and evaluate the archaeological, historical, and Native American Indian resources of the site on local and regional perspectives; monitor and manage discovered cultural resources; and establish a worker education program. The archaeological field program consists of three pedestrian surveys: Survey 1 includes two EDBH seismic survey lines and the area within the exploratory shaft facility (ESF); Survey 2 includes the remainder of the site plus a 1/4 to 3/4-mi border area; and Survey 3 includes an assortment of offsite areas. The historical studies will identify and evaluate known and discovered historical sites and structures and the Native American Indian will identify and evaluate cultural and religious concerns expressed by Indian tribal groups. Prehistoric and historic sites will be evaluated to determine if they meet eligibility criteria for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. This site study plan describes the need for each study; its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data; schedule of field activities; organization of field personnel and sample management; and quality assurance requirements. The cultural resource studies will provide data for satisfying the Programmatic Agreement, engineering design needs, and SRP requirements for permits and approvals, and for minimizing effects to any cultural properties discovered during site characterization. 75 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Overview of ESO Large Single Dish Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testi, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    In this talk I will briefly summarize the motivation, methodology and outcome of the ESO Submm Single Dish Strategy WG. The WG was established by the ESO Director for Science and completed its work at the end of 2015. I will summarize the status of the report recommendations, which, among other things, led to the organization of the AtLAST workshop.

  7. Single cobalt sites in mesoporous N-doped carbon matrix for selective catalytic hydrogenation of nitroarenes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaohui

    2017-11-20

    A supported cobalt catalyst with atomically dispersed Co-Nx sites (3.5 wt% Co) in a mesoporous N-doped carbon matrix (named Co@mesoNC) is synthesized by hydrolysis of tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) in a Zn/Co bimetallic zeolitic imidazolate framework (BIMZIF(Co,Zn)), followed by high-temperature pyrolysis and SiO2 leaching. A combination of TEM, XRD XPS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies confirm the absence of cobalt nanoparticles and indicate that these highly dispersed cobalt species are present in the form of Co-Nx. The exclusive formation of Co-Nx sites in the carbon matrix is attributed to the presence of a large amount of Zn and N in the BIMZIF precursor together with the presence of SiO2 in the pore space of this framework, extending the initial spatial distance between cobalt atoms and thereby impeding their agglomeration. The presence of SiO2 during high-temperature pyrolysis is proven crucial to create mesoporosity and a high BET area and pore volume in the N-doped carbon support (1780 m2 g−1, 1.54 cm3 g−1). This heterogeneous Co@mesoNC catalyst displays high activity and selectivity (>99%) for the selective hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline at mild conditions (0.5–3 MPa, 343–383 K). When more challenging substrates (functionalized nitroarenes) are hydrogenated, the catalyst Co@mesoNC displays an excellent chemoselectivity to the corresponding substituted anilines.The presence of mesoporosity improves mass transport of reactants and/or products and the accessibility of the active Co-Nx sites, and greatly reduces deactivation due to fouling.

  8. Single cobalt sites in mesoporous N-doped carbon matrix for selective catalytic hydrogenation of nitroarenes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaohui; Olivos-Suarez, Alma I.; Osadchii, Dmitrii; Romero, Maria Jose Valero; Kapteijn, Freek; Gascon, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    A supported cobalt catalyst with atomically dispersed Co-Nx sites (3.5 wt% Co) in a mesoporous N-doped carbon matrix (named Co@mesoNC) is synthesized by hydrolysis of tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) in a Zn/Co bimetallic zeolitic imidazolate framework (BIMZIF(Co,Zn)), followed by high-temperature pyrolysis and SiO2 leaching. A combination of TEM, XRD XPS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies confirm the absence of cobalt nanoparticles and indicate that these highly dispersed cobalt species are present in the form of Co-Nx. The exclusive formation of Co-Nx sites in the carbon matrix is attributed to the presence of a large amount of Zn and N in the BIMZIF precursor together with the presence of SiO2 in the pore space of this framework, extending the initial spatial distance between cobalt atoms and thereby impeding their agglomeration. The presence of SiO2 during high-temperature pyrolysis is proven crucial to create mesoporosity and a high BET area and pore volume in the N-doped carbon support (1780 m2 g−1, 1.54 cm3 g−1). This heterogeneous Co@mesoNC catalyst displays high activity and selectivity (>99%) for the selective hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline at mild conditions (0.5–3 MPa, 343–383 K). When more challenging substrates (functionalized nitroarenes) are hydrogenated, the catalyst Co@mesoNC displays an excellent chemoselectivity to the corresponding substituted anilines.The presence of mesoporosity improves mass transport of reactants and/or products and the accessibility of the active Co-Nx sites, and greatly reduces deactivation due to fouling.

  9. Finnsjoen study site. Scope of activities and main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Andersson, J.E.; Andersson, Peter; Ittner, T.; Tiren, S.; Ljunggren, C.

    1992-12-01

    The Finnsjoen study site was selected in 1977 to provide input to the KBS-1 and KBS-2 performance assessments. The site was later used as a test site for testing new instruments and new site characterization methods, as well as a research site for studying mainly groundwater flow and groundwater transport. All together, the Finnsjoen studies have involved 11 cored boreholes, down to max 700 m depth, and extensive borehole geophysical, geochemical and geohydraulic measurements, as well as rock stress measurements and tracer tests. This report presents the scope of the Finnsjoen studies together with main results. Conceptual uncertainties in assumptions and models are discussed with emphasis on the models used for the performance assessment SKB91. Of special interest for the Finnsjoen study site is the strong influence caused by a subhorizontal fracture zone on groundwater flow, transport and chemistry

  10. Siting studies for new nuclear power plants in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaran, Gustavo A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the thesis prepared by the Group of Prospective and Energy Planning of the National Atomic Energy Commission for the 'Specialization on Applications of Nuclear Technology Course' of the Instituto Balseiro in 2007. It describes the evolution of siting studies through time and the main focus worldwide in this type of studies. Then, it makes a brief review of previous siting studies of nuclear power plants conducted in Argentina. It carries out a description of the methodology to conduct a site evaluation for nuclear power plants according to actual international criteria. Finally, it describes the licensing process that follows every site study. (author) [es

  11. Site study plan for Transportation, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This site study plan describes transportation field studies to be conducted during the characterization of the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project. The studies are needed to identify and assess potential project impacts to transportation infrastructure and systems in the project vicinity and along potential transportation routes to the site across the State of Texas. The studies are also needed to locate and design project transportation facilities, and to evaluate and design impact mitigation. After identifying the transportation information requirements needed to comply with Federal, State, and local regulations and repository program requirements, the site study plan describes the study design and rationale, the field data collection procedures and equipment, the data analysis methods and application of results, the data management strategy, the schedule of field activities, the management of the study, and the study's quality assurance program. The field data collection activities are organized into programs for the characterization of site vicinity rail corridors and highway corridors, characterization of alternative statewide transportation routes, monitoring of site characterization effects on transportation, characterization of aircraft overflight patterns and hazardous material transportation patterns, and assessment of emergency response preparedness along alternative statewide transportation routes. 34 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Analysis of laparoscopic port site complications: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Somu; Augustine, Alfred Joseph; Shibumon, Mundunadackal Madhavan; Pai, Manohar Varadaraya

    2013-04-01

    The rate of port site complications following conventional laparoscopic surgery is about 21 per 100,000 cases. It has shown a proportional rise with increase in the size of the port site incision and trocar. Although rare, complications that occur at the port site include infection, bleeding, and port site hernia. To determine the morbidity associated with ports at the site of their insertion in laparoscopic surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. Prospective descriptive study. In the present descriptive study, a total of 570 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgeries for various ailments between August 2009 and July 2011 at our institute were observed for port site complications prospectively and the complications were reviewed. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. The statistical software, namely, SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data. Of the 570 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, 17 (3%) had developed complications specifically related to the port site during a minimum follow-up of three months; port site infection (PSI) was the most frequent (n = 10, 1.8%), followed by port site bleeding (n = 4, 0.7%), omentum-related complications (n = 2; 0.35%), and port site metastasis (n = 1, 0.175%). Laparoscopic surgeries are associated with minimal port site complications. Complications are related to the increased number of ports. Umbilical port involvement is the commonest. Most complications are manageable with minimal morbidity, and can be further minimized with meticulous surgical technique during entry and exit.

  13. Quantifying the cognitive cost of laparo-endoscopic single-site surgeries: Gaze-based indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Ruiz-Rabelo, Juan Francisco; Rieiro, Héctor; Sanchez Carrion, Jose M; Catena, Andrés

    2017-11-01

    Despite the growing interest concerning the laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) procedure, LESS presents multiple difficulties and challenges that are likely to increase the surgeon's cognitive cost, in terms of both cognitive load and performance. Nevertheless, there is currently no objective index capable of assessing the surgeon cognitive cost while performing LESS. We assessed if gaze-based indices might offer unique and unbiased measures to quantify LESS complexity and its cognitive cost. We expect that the assessment of surgeon's cognitive cost to improve patient safety by measuring fitness-for-duty and reducing surgeons overload. Using a wearable eye tracker device, we measured gaze entropy and velocity of surgical trainees and attending surgeons during two surgical procedures (LESS vs. multiport laparoscopy surgery [MPS]). None of the participants had previous experience with LESS. They performed two exercises with different complexity levels (Low: Pattern Cut vs. High: Peg Transfer). We also collected performance and subjective data. LESS caused higher cognitive demand than MPS, as indicated by increased gaze entropy in both surgical trainees and attending surgeons (exploration pattern became more random). Furthermore, gaze velocity was higher (exploration pattern became more rapid) for the LESS procedure independently of the surgeon's expertise. Perceived task complexity and laparoscopic accuracy confirmed gaze-based results. Gaze-based indices have great potential as objective and non-intrusive measures to assess surgeons' cognitive cost and fitness-for-duty. Furthermore, gaze-based indices might play a relevant role in defining future guidelines on surgeons' examinations to mark their achievements during the entire training (e.g. analyzing surgical learning curves). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation by a Homogeneous Copper Catalyst Disfavors Single-Site Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Sara J; Light, Kenneth M; VanNatta, Peter E; Wiley, Keaton M; Kieber-Emmons, Matthew T

    2017-06-28

    Deployment of solar fuels derived from water requires robust oxygen-evolving catalysts made from earth abundant materials. Copper has recently received much attention in this regard. Mechanistic parallels between Cu and single-site Ru/Ir/Mn water oxidation catalysts, including intermediacy of terminal Cu oxo/oxyl species, are prevalent in the literature; however, intermediacy of late transition metal oxo species would be remarkable given the high d-electron count would fill antibonding orbitals, making these species high in energy. This may suggest alternate pathways are at work in copper-based water oxidation. This report characterizes a dinuclear copper water oxidation catalyst, {[(L)Cu(II)] 2 -(μ-OH) 2 }(OTf) 2 (L = Me 2 TMPA = bis((6-methyl-2-pyridyl)methyl)(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) in which water oxidation proceeds with high Faradaic efficiency (>90%) and moderate rates (33 s -1 at ∼1 V overpotential, pH 12.5). A large kinetic isotope effect (k H /k D = 20) suggests proton coupled electron transfer in the initial oxidation as the rate-determining step. This species partially dissociates in aqueous solution at pH 12.5 to generate a mononuclear {[(L)Cu(II)(OH)]} + adduct (K eq = 0.0041). Calculations that reproduce the experimental findings reveal that oxidation of either the mononuclear or dinuclear species results in a common dinuclear intermediate, {[LCu(III)] 2 -(μ-O) 2 } 2+ , which avoids formation of terminal Cu(IV)═O/Cu(III)-O • intermediates. Calculations further reveal that both intermolecular water nucleophilic attack and redox isomerization of {[LCu(III)] 2 -(μ-O) 2 } 2+ are energetically accessible pathways for O-O bond formation. The consequences of these findings are discussed in relation to differences in water oxidation pathways between Cu catalysts and catalysts based on Ru, Ir, and Mn.

  15. One-site versus two-site phacotrabeculectomy: a prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moschos MM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Marilita M Moschos,1 Irini P Chatziralli,2 Michael Tsatsos3 1First Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens, 2Second Department of Ophthalmology, Ophthalmiatrion Athinon, Athens, Greece; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Cambridge University Hospital NHS, Cambridge, UK Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of one-site and two-site combined phacotrabeculectomy with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation.Methods: Thirty-four patients (41 eyes with glaucoma and cataract were randomly assigned to undergo either a one-site (22 eyes or a two-site (19 eyes combined procedure. One-site approach consisted of a standard superior phacotrabeculectomy with a limbus-based conjunctival flap, while two-site approach consisted of a clear cornea phacoemulsification and a separate superior trabeculectomy with a limbus-based conjunctival flap.Results: Mean follow-up period was 54 months (standard deviation [SD] 2.3. Mean preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP in the one-site group was 21.3 mmHg (SD 2.8 and in the two-site group was 21.8 mmHg (SD 3.0 (P>0.1. Mean postoperative IOP significantly decreased in both groups compared to the preoperative level and was 15.6 mmHg (SD 3.5 in the one-site group and 14.9 mmHg (SD 2.7 in the two-site group. Three months later, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P=0.058. The one-site group required significantly more medications than the two-site group (P=0.03. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved similarly in both groups, but there was less postoperative (induced astigmatism in the two-site group in a marginal statistical level (P=0.058. Intra- and postoperative complications were comparable in the two groups.Conclusion: Both techniques yielded similar results concerning final BCVA and IOP reduction. However, the two-site group had less induced astigmatism and a better postoperative IOP control with less required

  16. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) for the treatment of different urologic pathologies in pediatrics: single-center single-surgeon experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Karim, Aly M; Elmissery, Mostafa; Elsalmy, Salah; Moussa, Ahmed; Aboelfotoh, Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Recently LESS has been reported as a valid minimally option for treatment of some urologic pathologies in pediatrics. However, the initial reports of pediatric LESS are still limited to case reports and initial case series. This may be due to the inherent technical difficulty of LESS and the currently available LESS instruments. In this report, we present the largest case series of pediatric LESS for treatment of different urologic pathologies in pediatrics. Included in this study are children who had LESS during the period of January 2011 to June 2013. Both Olympus TriPort (Olympus, New York, USA and Advance Surgical Concept, Wicklow, Ireland) and Covedien SILS access port (Covedien, Chicopec, Massachusetts, USA) were used and were inserted through the umbilicus. Exclusion criteria included children less than 3 years old, history of previous transperitoneal abdominal surgery, malignant indications, and complex urogenital congenital anomalies. All LESS procedures were done by a single experienced laparoscopist and data were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty-two children had 39 LESS procedures without conversion to conventional laparoscopy or open surgery. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were reported and no extra-port was added in any of the patients. The following table shows the mean age, operative time, hospital stay, VAS as well as the overall mean of different LESS procedures. In all patients the umbilical scar was invisible and all patients and their parents had high wound satisfaction. At a mean follow up of 18.6 ± 6.4 months, all patients with UPJO had successful repair. Our study included 13 boys with undescended testis who were managed in different ways according to the length of spermatic vessels and the size of the testis. One of the arguments against LESS management of undescended testis is that it requires a 2.5-cm incision, which is collectively larger than a 5-mm camera and two 3-mm working ports of conventional laparoscopy. However

  17. Stability of detectability over 17 years at a single site and other lizard detection comparisons from Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Dean-Bradley, Kathryn; Campbell, Earl W.; Fritts, Thomas H.; Lardner, Bjorn; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Reed, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    To obtain quantitative information about population dynamics from counts of animals, the per capita detectabilities of each species must remain constant over the course of monitoring. We characterized lizard detection constancy for four species over 17 yr from a single site in northern Guam, a relatively benign situation because detection was relatively easy and we were able to hold constant the site, habitat type, species, season, and sampling method. We monitored two species of diurnal terrestrial skinks (Carlia ailanpalai [Curious Skink], Emoia caeruleocauda [Pacific Bluetailed Skink]) using glueboards placed on the ground in the shade for 3 h on rainless mornings, yielding 10,286 skink captures. We additionally monitored two species of nocturnal arboreal geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus [Common House Gecko]; Lepidodactylus lugubris [Mourning Gecko]) on the basis of 15,212 sightings. We compared these count samples to a series of complete censuses we conducted from four or more total removal plots (everything removed to mineral soil) totaling 400 m2(about 1% of study site) in each of the years 1995, 1999, and 2012, providing time-stamped quantification of detectability for each species. Unfortunately, the actual population trajectories taken by the four species were masked by unexplained variation in detectability. This observation of debilitating latent variability in lizard detectability under nearly ideal conditions undercuts our trust in population estimation techniques that fail to quantify venue-specific detectability, rely on pooled detection probability estimates, or assume that modulation in predefined environmental covariates suffices for estimating detectability.

  18. SITE WIDE SHORT CIRCUIT STUDY ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARRATT, R.T.

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Energy requested that Fluor Hanford develop a plan to update the electrical distribution studies for FH managed facilities. Toward this end, an assessment of FH's nuclear facilities was performed to determine whether a current short circuit study of the facility electrical distribution system exists, and the status of such study. This report presents the methodology and results of that assessment. The assessment identified 29 relevant facilities. Of these, a short circuit study could not be identified for 15 facilities. A short circuit study was found to exist for fourteen facilities, however, of these 14, four were not released into a controlled document system, and two were not performed for the entire electrical distribution system. It is recommended that for four of the facilities no further action is required based upon the limited nature of the existing electrical system, or as in the case of PFP, the status of the existing short circuit study was determined adequate. For the majority of the facilities without a short circuit study, it is recommended that one is performed, and released into a controlled document system. Two facilities require further evaluation due to missing or conflicting documentation. For the remainder of the facilities, the recommendations are to review and revise as appropriate the existing study, and release into a controlled document system. A summation of the recommendations is presented

  19. Klipperaas study site. Scope of activities and main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Andersson, J.E.; Andersson, Peter; Ittner, T.; Tiren, S.; Ljunggren, C.

    1992-09-01

    During the period from 1977 - 1986 SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.) performed surface and borehole investigations of 14 study sites for the purpose of assessing their suitability for a repository of spent nuclear fuel. The next phase in the SKB site selection rpogramme will be to perform detailed characterisation, including characterization from shafts and/or tunnels, of two or three sites. The detailed investigations will continue over several years to provide all the data needed for a licensing application to build a repository. Such an application is foreseen to be given to the authorities around the year 2003. It is presently not clear if any of the study sites will be selected as a site for detailed characterization. Other sites with geological and/or socio-economical characteristics judged more favorable may very well be the ones selected. However, as a part of the background documentation needed for the site selection studies to come, summary reports will be prepared for most study sites. These reports will include scope of activities, main results, uncertainties and need of complementary investigations. This report concern the Klipperaas study site. The main topics are the scope of activities, geologic model, geohydrological model, groundwater chemistry, assessment of solute transport, and rock mechanics

  20. Gideaa study site. Scope of activities and main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Andersson, J.E.; Nordqvist, R.; Ljunggren, C.; Tiren, S.; Voss, C.

    1991-10-01

    During the period from 1977-1986 SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) performed surface and borehole investigations of 14 study sites for the purpose of assessing their suitability for a repository of spent nuclear fuel. The next phase in the SKB site selection programme will be to perform detailed characterization, including characterization from shafts and/or tunnels, of two or three sites. The detailed investigations will continue over several years to provide all the data needed for a licensing application to build a repository. Such an application is foreseen to be given to the authorities around the year 2003. It is presently not clear if anyone of the study sites will be selected as a site for detailed characterization. Other site with geological and/or socio-economical characteristics judged more favourable may very well be the ones selected. However, as a part of the background documentation needed for the site selection studies to come, summary reports will be prepared for most study sites. These reports will include scope of activities, main results, uncertainties and need of complementary investigations. This report concerns the Gideaa study site. (au)

  1. Kamlunge study site. Scope of activities and main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Andersson, J.E.; Andersson, P.; Ittner, T.; Tiren, S.; Ljunggren, C.

    1992-05-01

    During the period from 1977-1986 SKB (Swedish nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.) performed surface and borehole investigations of 14 study sites for the purpose of assessing their suitability for a repository of spent nuclear fuel. The next phase in the SKB site selection programme will be to perform detailed characterization, including characterization from shafts and/or tunnels, of two or three sites. The detailed investigations will continue over several years to provide all the data needed for a licensing application to build a repository. Such an application is foreseen to be given to the authorities around the year 2003. It is presently not clear if anyone of the study sites will be selected as a site for detailed characterization. Other sites with geological and/or socio-economical characteristics judged more favourable may very well be selected. However, as a part of the background documentation needed for the site selection studies to come, summary reports will be prepared for most study sites. These reports will include scope of activities, main results, uncertainties and need of complementary investigations. This report concerns the Kamlunge study site. (79 refs.) (au)

  2. Fjaellveden study site. Scope of activities and main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Andersson, J.E.; Nordqvist, R.; Ljunggren, C.; Tiren, S.; Voss, C.

    1991-10-01

    During the period from 1977-1986 SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management CO) performed surface and borehole investigations of 14 study sites for the purpose of assessing their suitability for a repository of spent nuclear fuel. The next phase in the SKB site selection programme will be to perform detailed characterization, including characterization from shafts and/or tunnels, of two or three sites. The detailed investigations will continue over several years to provide all the data needed for a licensing application to build repository. Such an application is foreseen to be given to the authorities around the year 2003. It is presently not clear if anyone of the study sites will be selected as a site for detailed characterization. Other sites with geological and/or socio-economical characteristics judged more favourable may very well be the ones selected. However, as a part of the background documentation needed for the site selection studies to come, summary reports will be prepared for most study sites. These reports will include scope of activities, main results, uncertainties and need for complementary investigations. This report concerns the Fjaellveden study site. (au)

  3. Case study of siting technology for underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibino, Satoshi; Komada, Hiroya; Honsho, Shizumitsu; Fujiwara, Yoshikazu; Motojima, Mutsumi; Nakagawa, Kameichiro; Nosaki, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    Underground siting method is one of new feasible siting methods for nuclear power plants. This report presents the results on case studies on underground siting. Two sites of a steeply inclined and plateau like configurations were selected. 'Tunnel type cavern; all underground siting' method was applied for the steeply inclined configuration, and 'shaft type semi-cavern; partial underground siting' method was applied for the plateau like configuration. The following designs were carried out for these two sites as case studies; (1) conceptual designs, (2) geological surveys and rock mechanics tests, (3) stability analysis during cavern excavations, (4) seismic stability analysis of caverns during earthquake, (5) reinforcement designs for caverns, (6) drainage designs. The case studies showed that these two cases were fully feasible, and comparison between two cases revealed that the 'shaft type semi-cavern; partial underground siting' method was more suitable for Japanese islands. As a first step of underground siting, therefore, the authors recommend to construct a nuclear power plant by this method. (author)

  4. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for primary adenocarcinomas of the urinary bladder: a single-site experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Zhou, Jin; Cai, Hongzhou; Xu, Ting; Xu, Zicheng; Zou, Qing; Gu, Min

    2015-01-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare malignancy. Radical surgery is suggested as the best available treatment for early-stage disease, but there is currently no consensus on standard chemotherapy regimen for advanced stage. We assessed the feasibility and effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) plus S-1 for patients with locally advanced primary adenocarcinomas of the urinary bladder. Six patients with locally advanced urachal or non-urachal (n = 3, each) primary adenocarcinoma of the bladder were treated from October 2010 to October 2013 at a single center. All the patients were treated with 3 cycles (21d, each) of GC plus S-1 (gemcitabine, 1000 mg/m2, days 1 and 8; cisplatin, 70 mg/m2, day 2; and S-1, 50 mg bid, day 1-14). After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, patients with urachal cancer were treated with en bloc radical cystectomy and umbilectomy; the remaining 3 patients were treated with cystectomy. All patients successfully completed the neoadjuvant chemotherapy without serious side effects. Two patients were assessed as complete response, 2 as partial response, 1 as stable disease and 1 as progressive disease. Despite the limitations of a small study population, the GC plus S-1 regimen for locally advanced primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder was effective, and facilitated the success of surgery to a certain extent. Short follow-up time was also a limitation of our study. More studies are needed to evaluate the results.

  5. Structural features of single-stranded integron cassette attC sites and their role in strand selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bouvier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that cassette integration and deletion in integron platforms were occurring through unconventional site-specific recombination reactions involving only the bottom strand of attC sites. The lack of sequence conservation among attC sites led us to hypothesize that sequence-independent structural recognition determinants must exist within attC sites. The structural data obtained from a synaptic complex of the Vibrio cholerae integrase with the bottom strand of an attC site has shown the importance of extra helical bases (EHB inside the stem-loop structure formed from the bottom strand. Here, we systematically determined the contribution of three structural elements common to all known single-stranded attC site recombination substrates (the EHBs, the unpaired central spacer (UCS, and the variable terminal structure (VTS to strand choice and recombination. Their roles have been evaluated in vivo in the attIxattC reaction context using the suicide conjugation assay we previously developed, but also in an attCxattC reaction using a deletion assay. Conjugation was used to deliver the attC sites in single-stranded form. Our results show that strand choice is primarily directed by the first EHB, but the presence of the two other EHBs also serves to increase this strand selection. We found that the structure of the central spacer is essential to achieve high level recombination of the bottom strand, suggesting a dual role for this structure in active site exclusion and for hindering the reverse reaction after the first strand exchange. Moreover, we have shown that the VTS has apparently no role in strand selectivity.

  6. Site Response Analysis Using DeepSoil: Case Study of Bangka Site, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iswanto, Eko Rudi; Yee, Eric [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Indonesia government declared through Act No. 17 year 2007 on the National Long-Term Development Plant Year 2005-2025 and Presidential Decree No. 5 year 2006 on the National Energy Policy (Indonesia 2007; Indonesia 2006), that nuclear energy is stated as a part of the national energy system. In order to undertake the above national policy, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, as the promotor for the utilization of nuclear energy will conduct site study, which is a part of infrastructure preparation for NPP construction. Thorough preparation and steps are needed to operate an NPP and it takes between 10 to 15 years from the preliminary study (site selection, financial study, etc.) up to project implementation (manufacturing, construction, commissioning). During project implementation, it is necessary to prepare various documents relevant for permit application such as Safety Evaluation Report for site permit, Preliminary Safety Analysis Report and Environment Impact Assessment Report for construction permit. Considering the continuously increasing electricity energy demand, it is necessary to prepare for alternative NPP sites. The safety requirements of NPP's are stringent; amongst the various requirements is the ability to safely shut down in the wake of a possible earthquake. Ground response analysis of a potential site therefore needs to be carried out, parameter that affect the resistance of an NPP to earthquakes such as peak strain profiles is analysed. The objective of this paper is to analyse the ground response of the selected site for a NPP, using The Mw 7.9 in Sikuai Island, West Sumatra on September 12, 2007 as present input motion. This analysis will be carried out using a ground response analysis program, DeepSoil. In addition to this, an attempt was made to define the site specific input motion characteristics of the selected site for use in DeepSoil (DeepSoil 5.0). A site investigation at the WB site was performed primarily on the PS

  7. Universal Access in Heritage Sites: A Case Study on Historic Sites in Jaipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardia, Shweta; Khare, Rachna; Khare, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    A nation is recognized by a range of its significant historical, cultural and natural properties. These properties are generally preserved and maintained either by national administration or by private owners and charitable trusts due to higher value of their cultural inheritance and termed globally as heritage or historic sites. Heritage sites are a significant asset, a unique and irreplaceable resource which reflects a rich and diverse expression of past societies and forms an integral part of local, regional and national cultural identity. Today, heritage sites also play an important role in communication and knowledge exchange. Thus the rapidly increasing heritage tourism industry faces several challenges too. One of the challenges is that there is a segment of society who is not yet able to equally enjoy the visit to historic structures/sites and attractions, facilities and services. This paper aims to study the experience and develop understanding regarding the heritage structures/sites approached and interacted by diverse users. This study is an outcome of a hands on workshop conducted with diverse users at various historic sites in the city of Jaipur viz. at The City Palace Complex, Jaipur, Jaigarh Fort and the Haveli at Kanota near to Jaipur India.

  8. No difference in incidence of port-site hernia and chronic pain after single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette W; Brandt, Erik; Oehlenschläger, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    and matched 1:2 with patients subjected to CLC using pre-defined criteria. Follow-up data were obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry, mailed patient questionnaires, and clinical examination. A port-site hernia was defined as a repair for a port-site hernia or clinical hernia located at one......BACKGROUND: Conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC) is regarded as the gold standard for cholecystectomy. However, single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC) has been suggested to replace CLC. This study aimed at comparing long-term incidences of port-site hernia and chronic pain...... after SLC versus CLC. METHODS: We conducted a matched cohort study based on prospective data (Jan 1, 2009-June 1, 2011) from the Danish Cholecystectomy Database with perioperative information and clinical follow-up. Consecutive patients undergoing elective SLC during the study period were included...

  9. Synthesis of a molecularly defined single-active site heterogeneous catalyst for selective oxidation of N-heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujing; Pang, Shaofeng; Wei, Zhihong; Jiao, Haijun; Dai, Xingchao; Wang, Hongli; Shi, Feng

    2018-04-13

    Generally, a homogeneous catalyst exhibits good activity and defined active sites but it is difficult to recycle. Meanwhile, a heterogeneous catalyst can easily be reused but its active site is difficult to reveal. It is interesting to bridge the gap between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis via controllable construction of a heterogeneous catalyst containing defined active sites. Here, we report that a molecularly defined, single-active site heterogeneous catalyst has been designed and prepared via the oxidative polymerization of maleimide derivatives. These polymaleimide derivatives can be active catalysts for the selective oxidation of heterocyclic compounds to quinoline and indole via the recycling of -C=O and -C-OH groups, which was confirmed by tracing the reaction with GC-MS using maleimide as the catalyst and by FT-IR analysis with polymaleimide as the catalyst. These results might promote the development of heterogeneous catalysts with molecularly defined single active sites exhibiting a comparable activity to homogeneous catalysts.

  10. Site study plan for borehole search and characterization, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This site study plan describes the Borehole Search and Characterization field activities to be conducted during the early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from Federal/State/Local regulatory requirements and repository program requirements. Air and ground surveys, an extensive literature search, and landowner interviews will be conducted to locate wells within and adjacent to the proposed nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County. Initially, the study will center around the planned Exploratory Shaft Facilities location and will expand outward from that location. Findings from this study may lead to preparation of a new site study plan to search suspected borehole locations, and excavate or reenter known boreholes for additional characterization or remedial action. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. The Technical Field Services Contractor (TFSC) is responsible for conducting the field program. Data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that appropriate documentation is maintained. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Site study plan for routine laboratory rock mechanics, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This Site Study Plan for Routine Laboratory Rock Mechanics describes routine laboratory testing to be conducted on rock samples collected as part of the characterization of the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. This study plan describes the early laboratory testing. Additional testing may be required and the type and scope of testing will be dependent upon the results of the early testing. This study provides for measurements of index, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical properties with tests which are standardized and used widely in geotechnical investigations. Another Site Study Plan for Nonroutine Laboratory Rock Mechanics describes laboratory testing of samples from the site to determine mechanical, thermomechanical, and thermal properties by less widely used methods, many of which have been developed specifically for characterization of the site. Data from laboratory tests will be used for characterization of rock strata, design of shafts and underground facilities, and modeling of repository behavior in support of resolution of both preclosure and postclosure issues. A tentative testing schedule and milestone log are given. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that appropriate documentation is maintained. 18 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Site Study Plan for Acoustics, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Acoustics site study plan describes a field program which characterizes existing sound levels, determines the area's sound propagation characteristics, and monitors the project-related sound emissions. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Requirements Document. 37 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Carbon monoxide adsorption on low-silica zeolites: from single to dual and to multiple cation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero Areán, C; Rodríguez Delgado, M; López Bauçà, C; Vrbka, L; Nachtigall, P

    2007-09-07

    Infrared spectra of CO adsorbed on the Al-rich Na-A zeolite were analysed by using a combined theoretical and experimental approach, showing that such spectra cannot be interpreted by assigning each IR band to CO interacting with a specific type of single cation site. This concept, which usually works well for high-silica zeolites, should not be uncritically extended to Al-rich zeolites that are crowded with cations in configurations which lead to preferential formation of CO adsorption complexes involving more than one cation site.

  14. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of placental site trophoblastic tumor: experience of single institution in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Joo; Shin, Wonkyo; Jang, Yun Jeong; Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2018-05-01

    Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is the rarest form of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) and the optimum management is still controversial. In this study, we analyzed the clinical features, treatment, and outcomes of 6 consecutive patients with PSTT treated in our institution. The electronic medical record database of Samsung Medical Center was screened to identify patients with PSTT from 1994 to 2017. Medical records for the details of each patient's clinical features and treatment were extracted and reviewed. This study was approved Institutional Review Board of our hospital. A total of 418 cases of GTD, 6 (1.4%) patients with PSTT were identified. The median age of the patients was 31 years. The antecedent pregnancy was term in all 5 cases with available antecedent pregnancy information and the median interval from pregnancy to diagnosis of PSTT was 8 months. The median titer of serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) at diagnosis was 190.9 mIU/mL. Five (83.3%) patients presented with irregular vaginal bleeding and one (16.7%) had amenorrhea. All patients had disease confined to the uterus without metastasis at diagnosis and were successfully treated by hysterectomy alone. All of them were alive without disease during the follow-up period. In this study, we observed low level serum β-hCG titer and irregular vaginal bleeding with varying interval after antecedent term pregnancy were most common presenting features of PSTT. In addition, we demonstrated hysterectomy alone was successful for the treatment of stage I disease of PSTT.

  15. Analysis of laparoscopic port site complications: A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somu Karthik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The rate of port site complications following conventional laparoscopic surgery is about 21 per 100,000 cases. It has shown a proportional rise with increase in the size of the port site incision and trocar. Although rare, complications that occur at the port site include infection, bleeding, and port site hernia. Aims: To determine the morbidity associated with ports at the site of their insertion in laparoscopic surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. Settings and Design: Prospective descriptive study. Materials and Methods: In the present descriptive study, a total of 570 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgeries for various ailments between August 2009 and July 2011 at our institute were observed for port site complications prospectively and the complications were reviewed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. The statistical software, namely, SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data. Results: Of the 570 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, 17 (3% had developed complications specifically related to the port site during a minimum follow-up of three months; port site infection (PSI was the most frequent (n = 10, 1.8%, followed by port site bleeding (n = 4, 0.7%, omentum-related complications (n = 2; 0.35%, and port site metastasis (n = 1, 0.175%. Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgeries are associated with minimal port site complications. Complications are related to the increased number of ports. Umbilical port involvement is the commonest. Most complications are manageable with minimal morbidity, and can be further minimized with meticulous surgical technique during entry and exit.

  16. Analysis of laparoscopic port site complications: A descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Somu; Augustine, Alfred Joseph; Shibumon, Mundunadackal Madhavan; Pai, Manohar Varadaraya

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: The rate of port site complications following conventional laparoscopic surgery is about 21 per 100,000 cases. It has shown a proportional rise with increase in the size of the port site incision and trocar. Although rare, complications that occur at the port site include infection, bleeding, and port site hernia. AIMS: To determine the morbidity associated with ports at the site of their insertion in laparoscopic surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present descriptive study, a total of 570 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgeries for various ailments between August 2009 and July 2011 at our institute were observed for port site complications prospectively and the complications were reviewed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. The statistical software, namely, SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data. RESULTS: Of the 570 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, 17 (3%) had developed complications specifically related to the port site during a minimum follow-up of three months; port site infection (PSI) was the most frequent (n = 10, 1.8%), followed by port site bleeding (n = 4, 0.7%), omentum-related complications (n = 2; 0.35%), and port site metastasis (n = 1, 0.175%). CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic surgeries are associated with minimal port site complications. Complications are related to the increased number of ports. Umbilical port involvement is the commonest. Most complications are manageable with minimal morbidity, and can be further minimized with meticulous surgical technique during entry and exit. PMID:23741110

  17. Site Study Plan for land use, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Land Use Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of characterization of the site; seismic survey rights-of-way and transportation and utility corridors, the vicinity, the region, future land use, and monitoring land-use change. Aerial photography will be used to characterize the site, seismic rows and transportation and utility corridors, and the vicinity. The resulting land-use maps and overlays will then be verified in the field. Interviews with farm managers and local experts will provide additional information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) and satellite imagery will be used to characterize the region, monitor land-use change, and provide information to assist with the future land use study. The site study plan describes the study design and rationale, the filed data collection procedures and equipment, the data analysis methods and application of results, the data management strategy, the schedule of field activities, the personnel requirements and management of the study, and the study's quality assurance program. The directives and requirements that drive these studies are derived from the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 51 refs; 6 figs; 3 tabs

  18. Real-time single-molecule tethered particle motion experiments reveal the kinetics and mechanisms of Cre-mediated site-specific recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hsiu-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine family recombinases (YRs) are widely utilized in genome engineering systems because they can easily direct DNA rearrangement. Cre recombinases, one of the most commonly used types of YRs, catalyze site-specific recombination between two loxP sites without the need for high-energy cofactors, other accessory proteins or a specific DNA target sequence between the loxP sites. Previous structural, analytical ultracentrifuge and electrophoretic analyses have provided details of the reaction kinetics and mechanisms of Cre recombinase activity; whether there are reaction intermediates or side pathways involved has been left unaddressed. Using tethered particle motion (TPM), the Cre-mediated site-specific recombination process has been delineated, from beginning to end, at the single-molecule level, including the formation of abortive complexes and wayward complexes blocking inactive nucleoprotein complexes from entering the recombination process. Reversibility in the strand-cleavage/-ligation process and the formation of a thermally stable Holliday junction intermediate were observed within the Cre-mediated site-specific recombination process. Rate constants for each elementary step, which explain the overall reaction outcomes under various conditions, were determined. Taking the findings of this study together, they demonstrate the potential of single-molecule methodology as an alternative approach for exploring reaction mechanisms in detail. PMID:22467208

  19. Selective alkane activation with single-site atoms on amorphous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Adam S.; Schweitzer, Neil M.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Hu, Bo

    2015-11-24

    The present invention relates generally to catalysts and methods for use in olefin production. More particularly, the present invention relates to novel amorphously supported single-center, Lewis acid metal ions and use of the same as catalysts.

  20. Single-site Lennard-Jones models via polynomial chaos surrogates of Monte Carlo molecular simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim; Siripatana, Adil; Sun, Shuyu; Knio, Omar; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In this work, two Polynomial Chaos (PC) surrogates were generated to reproduce Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation results of the canonical (single-phase) and the NVT-Gibbs (two-phase) ensembles for a system of normalized structureless Lennard

  1. A Single-hole stone anchor from Kottapatnam: Early historic port site of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Rao, K.P.; Kumari, S.; Imsong, O.; Vanlalhruaitluangi, V.

    of Kottapatnam and this is the first stone anchor reported from Andhra coast. In this paper the single hole stone anchor has been detailed along with its probable period and the trade contacts of Kottapatnam as a port...

  2. Real-Time Visualization of Active Species in a Single-Site Metal–Organic Framework Photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sizhuo [Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, United States; Pattengale, Brian [Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, United States; Lee, Sungsik [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60349, United States; Huang, Jier [Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, United States

    2018-02-06

    In this work, we report a new single-site photocatalyst (Co-Ru-UIO- 67(bpy)) based on a metal-organic framework platform with incorporated molecular photosensitizer and catalyst. We show that this catalyst not only demonstrates exceptional activity for light-driven H2 production but also can be recycled without loss of activity. Using the combination of optical transient absorption spectroscopy and in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we not only captured the key CoI intermediate species formed after ultrafast charge transfer from the incorporated photosensitizer but also identified the rate-limiting step in the catalytic cycle, providing insight into the catalysis mechanism of these single-site metal-organic framework photocatalysts.

  3. Site Study Plan for laboratory soil mechanics, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This Site Study Plan for laboratory soil mechanics describes the laboratory testing to be conducted on soil samples collected as part of the characterization of the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. This study provides for measurements of index, mechanical, thermal, hydrologic, chemical, and mineral properties of soils from boring throughout the site. Samples will be taken from Playa Borings/Trenching, Transportation/Utilities Foundation Borings, Repository Surface Facilities Design Foundation Borings, and Exploratory Shaft Facilities Design Foundation Borings. Data from the laboratory tests will be used for soil strata characterization, design of foundations for surface structures, design of transportation facilities and utility structures, design of impoundments, design of shaft lining, design of the shaft freeze wall, shaft permitting, performance assessment calculations, and other program requirements. A tentative testing schedule and milestone log are given. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that appropriate documentation is maintained. 18 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Site Study Plan for salt, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Salt Site Study Plan (SSP) describes a program for characterizing the existing salt environment in the site vicinity. A step-by-step approach is described which proceeds from published data and planned theoretical studies, to planned laboratory studies, and finally to planned field studies, to provide the necessary data to meet program requirements contained in the Salt Repository Project - Requirements Document (SRP-RD). The plan also draws on the results of other SSP's for certain data; for example, soil salinity data are to be provided under the Soils SSP. The salt studies consist of evaluation of control and mitigation measures, salt monitoring studies, emission factors development, air models development and validation, and risk assessment. For each study, its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data; schedule of activities; organization of personnel and sample management; and quality assurance requirements are described. 90 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Laparoendoscopic single-site repair of bladder rupture using a home-made single-port device: initial experience of treatment for a traumatic intraperitoneal bladder rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Yong; Kang, Dong Hyuk; Lee, Seung Wook

    2012-06-01

    We report our initial experience with a laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) repair of a bladder rupture using a home-made single-port device. A 37-year-old man presented to the emergency department with complaints of voiding difficulty and gross hematuria after blunt trauma. Cystography and computed tomography revealed an intraperitoneal bladder rupture. The patient underwent LESS repair of a bladder rupture using the Alexis wound retractor, which was inserted through the umbilical incision. A home-made single-port device was made by fixing 6½ surgical gloves to the outer rim of the retractor and securing the glove finger to the end of 3 trocars with a tie. Using the flexible laparoscopic instruments and rigid instruments, LESS surgery was performed using a procedure similar to conventional laparoscopic surgery. The patient did not have any voiding problem after removal of the urethral Foley catheter on the 10th postoperative day. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of LESS repair of a traumatic bladder rupture using a home-made single-port device in the literature.

  6. Binding and Translocation of Termination Factor Rho Studied at the Single-Molecule Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslover, Daniel J.; Fazal, Furqan M.; Mooney, Rachel A.; Landick, Robert; Block, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Rho termination factor is an essential hexameric helicase responsible for terminating 20–50% of all mRNA synthesis in E. coli. We used single- molecule force spectroscopy to investigate Rho-RNA binding interactions at the Rho- utilization (rut) site of the ? tR1 terminator. Our results are consistent with Rho complexes adopting two states, one that binds 57 ±2 nucleotides of RNA across all six of the Rho primary binding sites, and another that binds 85 ±2 nucleotides at the six primary sites plus a single secondary site situated at the center of the hexamer. The single-molecule data serve to establish that Rho translocates 5′-to-3′ towards RNA polymerase (RNAP) by a tethered-tracking mechanism, looping out the intervening RNA between the rut site and RNAP. These findings lead to a general model for Rho binding and translocation, and establish a novel experimental approach that should facilitate additional single- molecule studies of RNA-binding proteins. PMID:22885804

  7. Ionic Exchange of Metal-Organic Frameworks to Access Single Nickel Sites for Efficient Electroreduction of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changming; Dai, Xinyao; Yao, Tao; Chen, Wenxing; Wang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Jing; Yang, Jian; Wei, Shiqiang; Wu, Yuen; Li, Yadong

    2017-06-21

    Single-atom catalysts often exhibit unexpected catalytic activity for many important chemical reactions because of their unique electronic and geometric structures with respect to their bulk counterparts. Herein we adopt metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to assist the preparation of a catalyst containing single Ni sites for efficient electroreduction of CO 2 . The synthesis is based on ionic exchange between Zn nodes and adsorbed Ni ions within the cavities of the MOF. This single-atom catalyst exhibited an excellent turnover frequency for electroreduction of CO 2 (5273 h -1 ), with a Faradaic efficiency for CO production of over 71.9% and a current density of 10.48 mA cm -2 at an overpotential of 0.89 V. Our findings present some guidelines for the rational design and accurate modulation of nanostructured catalysts at the atomic scale.

  8. Comparison of different sets of instruments for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in a surgical simulator with novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Shi, Long-Qing; Wang, Jing-Min; Jiang, Xiao-Hua; Ji, Zhen-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Given the parallel entry of working instruments through a single incision in laparoendoscopic single-site surgery, loss of triangulation in the abdominal cavity and counteracting movements of the instruments are inevitable obstacles. Some specially designed devices have emerged to ameliorate these challenges. Twenty-four novice participants were randomized into four groups using assigned instruments, conventional straight instruments, single-curved instruments, double-curved instruments and articulating instruments, respectively, to perform two basic tasks (peg transferring and pattern cutting) 14 times in a modified simulator. A test of the tasks and a resection of the intestine segment of a rat were performed. The task scores and evaluation of intraoperative skills during the resection of the intestine segment were recorded. The instrument of modified National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) was completed. The task scores of the groups using single-curved instruments and articulating instruments were better than the other two groups on the simulator tasks, consistent with the evaluation of intraoperative skills during the resection of intestine segment. As the proficiency with the instruments increased, the task scores improved, as demonstrated by the learning curve. The workload measured by the modified NASA-TLX tool demonstrated that the groups using articulating instruments and double-curved instruments had a heavier workload in most of the categories compared with the other two groups. Single-curved and articulating instruments are more effective than conventional straight and double-curved devices, and are favourable in laparoendoscopic single-site surgery for novice learners. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  9. Status report on geochemical field results from Atlantic study sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.S.; Thomson, J.; Hydes, D.J.; Colley, S.

    1983-01-01

    This report summarises the results of preliminary geochemical investigations at three North Atlantic study areas. The two eastern sites, on the Cape Verde abyssal plain (CV2) and east of Great Meteor Seamount (GME) were visited during 1982. The results presented are preliminary. Studies in the western Atlantic, close to the Nares Abyssal Plain study site are more detailed and are presented in a separate paper. The report shows for the first time the relative redox status of the three sites. The differences are unexpectedly large, the most reduced cores being recovered at GME and the most oxidised at CV2. The sporadic nature of Recent sediment accumulation at these sites is also emphasised. In order to place these preliminary results in context their relevance to the production of mathematical system models is discussed in a closing section. The necessity for such models to rest on sound foundations of geochemical understanding is noted. Suggestions on future research priorities are offered for discussion. (author)

  10. Site-Based Services for Residents of Single-Room Occupancy Hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Melanie

    1997-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of an innovative site-based service program, the Growth and Achievement Program (GAP). Results show that GAP clients had significantly higher gain scores than did the comparison group and were less likely to rely on public financial assistance as their primary source of income. (RJM)

  11. Site study plan for ecology, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Ecology Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of studies which include surveys for endangered, threatened, and candidate species; vegetation characterization, including mapping and cover typing, plant succession, wetlands description, and preexisting stresses; and wildlife community characterization, including availability and quality of habitats and descriptions of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, and invertebrate populations. The plan for each study describes the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule and personnel requirements, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document (SRP-RD). 83 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Single lump breast surface stress assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairavan, R.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Kirtsaeng, S.; Sakuntasathien, S.; Paitong, P.; Alcain, J. B.; Lai, S. L.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancers diagnosed among women around the world. Simulation approach has been utilized to study, characterize and improvise detection methods for breast cancer. However, minimal simulation work has been done to evaluate the surface stress of the breast with lumps. Thus, in this work, simulation analysis was utilized to evaluate and assess the breast surface stress due to the presence of a lump within the internal structure of the breast. The simulation was conducted using the Elmer software. Simulation results have confirmed that the presence of a lump within the breast causes stress on the skin surface of the breast.

  13. Analysis of local symmetry and impurity location of Cu2+ ions doped C8H11KO8 single crystal through EPR technique for site I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheela, K. Juliet; Subbulakshmi, N.; Subramanian, P.

    2018-04-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies have been investigated on Cu2+ ion incorporated into the single crystals of potassium succinate-succinic acid (KSSA) at room temperature. Two magnetically in-equivalent Cu2+ sites in the lattice are identified, among them site I has been reported. The spin Hamiltonian parameters are determined with the fitting of spectra to rhombic symmetry crystalline field. The co-ordination of the Cu2+ ion in this molecule is a distorted dodecahedron. From the calculated gxx, gyy, gzz and Axx, Ayy, Azz and their directional cosines values, location of site I impurity ion Cu2+ could be identified as a substituitional one. Also the ground state wave function of the impurity ion was found to be d2z.

  14. Geology Data Package for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, Steve P.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2007-01-01

    This data package discusses the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms and the geologic history of the area. The focus of this report is to provide the most recent geologic information available for the SST farms. This report builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  15. Site Study Plan for Aesthetics, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Aesthetic Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of identification of the visually affected area; determination of scenic quality, visual sensitivity, and visual management classes of the site and vicinity; and analysis of the level of visual contrast that would be created by the project. Field ratings of scenic quality, visual sensitivity, and visual contrast will be supplemented by a public perception survey designed to incorporate the views of the public. This plan describes the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule for proposed activities, and quality assurance program. This study will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, SRPO Requirement Document (SRP-RD). 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Feasibility study for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoff, A.H. [US Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States). Region IX; Costan, G.P.; Montgomery, M.S.; White, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The United Heckathom Superfund Site in Richmond, California, was used to formulate pesticides from approximately 1947 to 1966. Soils at the site and sediments in the harbor were contaminated with various chlorinated pesticides, primarily DDT, as a result of these activities. The US Environmental Protection Agency listed the site on the Superfund National Priorities List in 1990. This document is part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study phase of the Superfund response, which will provide the basis for selection of a final remedy that will protect human health and the environment and achieve compliance with federal and state envirorunental laws.

  17. Feasibility study for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lincoff, A.H.

    1994-07-01

    The United Heckathom Superfund Site in Richmond, California, was used to formulate pesticides from approximately 1947 to 1966. Soils at the site and sediments in the harbor were contaminated with various chlorinated pesticides, primarily DDT, as a result of these activities. The US Environmental Protection Agency listed the site on the Superfund National Priorities List in 1990. This document is part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study phase of the Superfund response, which will provide the basis for selection of a final remedy that will protect human health and the environment and achieve compliance with federal and state envirorunental laws

  18. Experimental study of inclusive single hadron production by neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G.

    1979-01-01

    A study of inclusive single hadron production by neutrinos performed as part of an experiment studying neutrino proton interactions using BEBC filled with hydrogen is reported. Emphasis is given to questions related to factorization and scaling deviations in fragmentation functions

  19. Multiple nucleophilic elbows leading to multiple active sites in a single module esterase from Sorangium cellulosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udatha, D.B.R.K. Gupta; Madsen, Karina Marie; Panagiotou, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic residues in carbohydrate esterase enzyme families constitute a highly conserved triad: serine, histidine and aspartic acid. This catalytic triad is generally located in a very sharp turn of the protein backbone structure, called the nucleophilic elbow and identified by the consensus...... sequence GXSXG. An esterase from Sorangium cellulosum Soce56 that contains five nucleophilic elbows was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the function of each nucleophilic elbowed site was characterized. In order to elucidate the function of each nucleophilic elbow, site directed mutagenesis....... To our knowledge, this is the first report presenting the role of multiple nucleophilic elbows in the catalytic promiscuity of an esterase. Further structural analysis at protein unit level indicates the new evolutionary trajectories in emerging promiscuous esterases....

  20. Single-Sex Classrooms and Reading Achievement: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Sandra; Denny, George

    2012-01-01

    Gendered schooling is growing in the United States, but little research exists on single-sex classes in public elementary schools. This study sought to find out if single-sex classes in two elementary schools made a difference in boys' reading gains in 2008-2009, as judged by scores on the state's annual literacy test. In one school, boys in the…

  1. Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery for the Treatment of Benign Adnexal Disease: A Prospective Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Fagotti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To validate feasibility, efficacy, and safeness of laparoscopic treatment of benign adnexal diseases through a single transumbilical access (LESS in a prospective series of patients. Methods. A prospective clinical trial including 30 women has been conducted at the Division of Gynecology of Catholic University of Sacred Hearth of Rome. Patients underwent different laparoscopic procedures by LESS utilizing a multiport trocar and conventional straight laparoscopic instrumentation. Intra and perioperative outcome has been reported. Results. Ten mono/bilateral adnexectomies and 20 cystectomies have been performed by LESS approach. Laparoscopic procedures were completed through a single access in 28 cases (93.4%. No major intra- or postoperative complications were observed. Mean hospital stay was 1.3 days. Conclusions. LESS approach is feasible to treat benign adnexal disease with a very low conversion rate and no early or late complications. More clinical data are needed to confirm these advantages compared to standard laparoscopic technique.

  2. Assessment of single-shell tank residual-liquid issues at Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, K.S.; Stout, L.A.; Napier, B.A.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Landstrom, D.K.

    1983-06-01

    This report provides an assessment of the overall effectiveness and implications of jet pumping the interstitial liquids (IL) from single-shell tanks at Hanford. The jet-pumping program, currently in progress at Hanford, involves the planned removal of IL contained in 89 of the 149 single-shell tanks and its transfer to double-shell tanks after volume reduction by evaporation. The purpose of this report is to estimate the public and worker doses associated with (1) terminating pumping immediately, (2) pumping to a 100,000-gal limit per tank, (3) pumping to a 50,000-gal limit per tank, and (4) pumping to the maximum practical liquid removal level of 30,000 gal. Assessment of the cost-effectiveness of these various levels of pumping in minimizing any undue health and safety risks to the public or worker is also presented

  3. Characterization of Solids in Residual Wastes from Single-Shell Tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA - 9277

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Arey, Bruce W.; Heald, Steve M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Solid-phase characterization methods have been used in an ongoing study of residual wastes (i.e., waste remaining after final retrieval operations) from the underground single-shell storage tanks 241-C-103, 241-C-106, 241-C-202, 241-C-203, and 241-S-112 at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. The results of studies completed to date show significant variability in the compositions of those residual wastes and the compositions, morphologies, and crystallinities of the individual phases that make up these wastes. These differences undoubtedly result from the various waste types stored and transferred in and out each tank and the sluicing and retrieval operations used for waste retrieval. Our studies indicate that these residual wastes are chemically-complex assemblages of crystalline and amorphous solids that contain contaminants as discrete phases and/or co-precipitated within oxide phases. Depending on the specific tank, various solids (e.g., gibbsite; boehmite; dawsonite; cancrinite; Fe oxides such as hematite, goethite, and maghemite; rhodochrosite; lindbergite; whewellite; nitratine; and numerous amorphous or poorly crystalline phases) have been identified by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in residual wastes studied to date. Our studies also show that contact of residual wastes with Ca(OH)2- and CaCO3-saturated aqueous solutions, which were used as surrogates for the compositions of pore-fluid leachants derived from young and aged cements respectively, may alter the compositions of solid phases present in the contacted wastes. Fe oxides/hydroxides have been identified in all residual wastes studied to date. They occur in these wastes as discrete particles, particles intergrown within a matrix of other phases, and surface coatings on other particles or particle aggregates. These Fe oxides/hydroxides typically contain trace concentrations of other transition metals, such Cr, Mn

  4. Second Information Technology in Education Study: SITES 2006 Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Ralph, Ed.; Pelgrum, Willem J., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) has been conducting comparative studies for 50 years. SITES 2006 is the fifth wave of surveys related to information and communication technology (ICT), a wave that IEA started with its Computers in Education Study (two studies with data collection in 1989 and 1992),…

  5. Single-stranded γPNAs for in vivo site-specific genome editing via Watson-Crick recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahal, Raman; Quijano, Elias; McNeer, Nicole A; Liu, Yanfeng; Bhunia, Dinesh C; Lopez-Giraldez, Francesco; Fields, Rachel J; Saltzman, William M; Ly, Danith H; Glazer, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) facilitate gene editing by stimulating recombination of donor DNAs within genomic DNA via site-specific formation of altered helical structures that further stimulate DNA repair. However, PNAs designed for triplex formation are sequence restricted to homopurine sites. Herein we describe a novel strategy where next generation single-stranded gamma PNAs (γPNAs) containing miniPEG substitutions at the gamma position can target genomic DNA in mouse bone marrow at mixed-sequence sites to induce targeted gene editing. In addition to enhanced binding, γPNAs confer increased solubility and improved formulation into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles for efficient intracellular delivery. Single-stranded γPNAs induce targeted gene editing at frequencies of 0.8% in mouse bone marrow cells treated ex vivo and 0.1% in vivo via IV injection, without detectable toxicity. These results suggest that γPNAs may provide a new tool for induced gene editing based on Watson-Crick recognition without sequence restriction.

  6. Siting study for small platform-mounted industrial energy reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    Utilizing an existing 313 MW(t) ship propulsion reactor design, a concept has been formulated for a floating platform-mounted nuclear plant and an evaluation has been made to determine reductions in construction time and cost achievable by repetitive platform construction in a shipyard. Concepts and estimates are presented for siting platform-mounted nuclear plants at the location of industrial facilities where the nuclear plants would furnish industrial process heat and/or electrical power. The representative industrial site designated for this study is considered typical of sites that might be used along the extensive network of navigable canals adjacent to the ocean and is similar to potential sites along the inland waterways of the United States

  7. Single Molecule Study of DNA Organization and Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Botao

    We have studied five projects related to DNA organization and recombination using mainly single molecule force-spectroscopy and statistical tools. First, HU is one of the most abundant DNA-organizing proteins in bacterial chromosomes and participates in gene regulation. We report experiments that study the dependence of DNA condensation by HU on force, salt and HU concentration. A first important result is that at physiological salt levels, HU only bends DNA, resolving a previous paradox of why a chromosome-compacting protein should have a DNA-stiffening function. A second major result is quantitative demonstration of strong dependencies of HU-DNA dissociation on both salt concentration and force. Second, we have used a thermodynamic Maxwell relation to count proteins driven off large DNAs by tension, an effect important to understanding DNA organization. Our results compare well with estimates of numbers of proteins HU and Fis in previous studies. We have also shown that a semi-flexible polymer model describes our HU experimental data well. The force-dependent binding suggests mechano-chemical mechanisms for gene regulation. Third, the elusive role of protein H1 in chromatin has been clarified with purified H1 and Xenopus extracts. We find that H1 compacts DNA by both bending and looping. Addition of H1 enhances chromatin formation and maintains the plasticity of the chromatin. Fourth, the topology and mechanics of DNA twisting are critical to DNA organization and recombination. We have systematically measured DNA extension as a function of linking number density from 0.08 to -2 with holding forces from 0.2 to 2.4 pN. Unlike previous proposals, the DNA extension decreases with negative linking number. Finally, DNA recombination is a dynamic process starting from enzyme-DNA binding. We report that the Int-DBD domain of lambda integrase binds to DNA without compaction at low Int-DBD concentration. High concentration of Int-DBD loops DNA below a threshold force

  8. Preliminary recommendations on the design of the characterization program for the Hanford Site single-shell tanks: A system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Peffers, M.S.; Hwang, S.T.

    1991-11-01

    The work described in this volume was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide preliminary recommendations on data quality objectives (DQOs) to support the Waste Characterization Plan (WCP) and closure decisions for the Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs). The WCP describes the first of a two-phase characterization program that will obtain information to assess and implement disposal options for SSTs. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the current operating contractor on the Hanford Site. The preliminary DQOs contained in this volume deal with the analysis of SST wastes in support of the WCP and final closure decisions. These DQOs include information on significant contributors and detection limit goals (DLGs) for SST analytes based on public health risk

  9. Thermophysical Properties of the Phoenix Mars Landing Site Study Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzig, N. E.; Mellon, M. T.; Golombek, M. P.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2006-03-01

    Analysis of Phoenix Mars study regions places 4 of 5 in a previously-identified duricrust-dominated thermophysical unit which also contains the Viking and Spirit landing sites. Extrapolation of lander-observed properties to the study regions may be complicated by surface heterogeneity.

  10. Identification of single-shell tank in-tank hardware obstructions to retrieval at Hanford Site Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, R.A.

    1994-10-01

    Two retrieval technologies, one of which uses robot-deployed end effectors, will be demonstrated on the first single-shell tank (SST) waste to be retrieved at the Hanford Site. A significant impediment to the success of this technology in completing the Hanford retrieval mission is the presence of unique tank contents called in-tank hardware (ITH). In-tank hardware includes installed and discarded equipment and various other materials introduced into the tank. This paper identifies those items of ITH that will most influence retrieval operations in the arm-based demonstration project and in follow-on tank operations within the SST farms

  11. Repeated detection of European bat lyssavirus type 2 in dead bats found at a single roost site in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Ashley C; Johnson, N; Voller, K; Hicks, D; Nunez, A; Hartley, M; Fooks, A R

    2009-01-01

    In August 2007, European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) was isolated from a Daubenton's bat found at Stokesay Castle. In September 2008, another bat from the same vicinity of Stokesay Castle also tested positive for EBLV-2. This is the first occurrence of repeated detection of EBLV-2 from a single site. Here, we report the detection of low levels of viral RNA in various bat organs by qRT-PCR and detection of viral antigen by immunohistochemistry. We also report sequence data from both cases and compare data with those derived from other EBLV-2 isolations in the UK.

  12. Single visit root canal treatment: A prospective study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... periodontitis were included in the study. ... Conclusion: Single visit RCT is a viable treatment option for teeth having irreversible pulpitis or apical periodontitis ... been previously root treated, required surgical endodontic.

  13. An economic study of the site of Marcoule; Etude economique du site de Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duprat, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The study of this site of the Marcoule Center shows that its regional economical influence is limited to the buying power distributed among its personnel. This entails distortions between first this supplementary buying power and the overall markets within the possible Marcoule influence zone, and secondly the concentration on Bagnols-sur-Ceze and this town's normal extension possibilities. (author) [French] L'etude du site de Marcoule demontre que son influence economique se limite, pour la region, au pouvoir d'achat distribue a son personnel. Ceci entraine une disproportion d'une part entre ce pouvoir d'achat supplementaire et l'ensemble des marches contenus dans l'aire d'influence possible de Marcoule, d'autre part entre la concentration realisee a Bagnole-sur-Ceze et la capacite d'extension normale de cette agglomeration. (auteur)

  14. Using Single-Protein Tracking to Study Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orré, Thomas; Mehidi, Amine; Massou, Sophie; Rossier, Olivier; Giannone, Grégory

    2018-01-01

    To get a complete understanding of cell migration, it is critical to study its orchestration at the molecular level. Since the recent developments in single-molecule imaging, it is now possible to study molecular phenomena at the single-molecule level inside living cells. In this chapter, we describe how such approaches have been and can be used to decipher molecular mechanisms involved in cell migration.

  15. Useful Bicistronic Reporter System for Studying Poly(A Site-Defining cis Elements and Regulation of Alternative Polyadenylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyuan Deng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between polyadenylation (pA and various biological, behavioral, and pathological events of eukaryotes underlines the need to develop in vivo polyadenylation assay methods for characterization of the cis-acting elements, trans-acting factors and environmental stimuli that affect polyadenylation efficiency and/or relative usage of two alternative polyadenylation (APA sites. The current protein-based CAT or luciferase reporter systems can measure the polyadenylation efficiency of a single pA site or candidate cis element but not the choice of two APA sites. To address this issue, we developed a set of four new bicistronic reporter vectors that harbor either two luciferase or fluorescence protein open reading frames connected with one Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES. Transfection of single or dual insertion constructs of these vectors into mammalian cells demonstrated that they could be utilized not only to quantify the strength of a single candidate pA site or cis element, but also to accurately measure the relative usage of two APA sites at both the mRNA (qRT-PCR and protein levels. This represents the first reporter system that can study polyadenylation efficiency of a single pA site or element and regulation of two APA sites at both the mRNA and protein levels.

  16. Experimental study of single event burnout and single event gate rupture in power MOSFETs and IGBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Benqi; Wang Yanping; Geng Bin

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to determine the single event burnout and single event gate rupture sensitivities in power MOSFETs and IGBT which were exposed to heavy ions from 252 Cf source. The test method, test results, a description of observed burnout current waveforms and a discussion of a possible failure mechanism were presented. Current measurements have been performed with a specially designed circuit. The test results include the observed dependence upon applied drain or gate to source bias and versus with external capacitors and limited resistors

  17. Site Study Plan for soils, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Soils Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of a soil characterization survey, impact monitoring of soils, predisturbance soil salinity survey, and a reclamation suitability study. This information will be used to plan for soil stripping, stockpiling, and replacement; reclamation of soils; determining predisturbance chemical and physical characteristics of the soils; including salinity levels; and monitoring for changes in chemical and physical characteristics of the soil. The SSP describes for each study the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and the quality assurance program. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 75 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Comparative Study of Phase Transformation in Single-Crystal Germanium during Single and Cyclic Nanoindentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Kosai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal germanium is a semiconductor material which shows complicated phase transformation under high pressure. In this study, new insight into the phase transformation of diamond-cubic germanium (dc-Ge was attempted by controlled cyclic nanoindentation combined with Raman spectroscopic analysis. Phase transformation from dc-Ge to rhombohedral phase (r8-Ge was experimentally confirmed for both single and cyclic nanoindentation under high loading/unloading rates. However, compared to single indentation, double cyclic indentation with a low holding load between the cycles caused more frequent phase transformation events. Double cyclic indentation caused more stress in Ge than single indentation and increased the possibility of phase transformation. With increase in the holding load, the number of phase transformation events decreased and finally became less than that under single indentation. This phenomenon was possibly caused by defect nucleation and shear accumulation during the holding process, which were promoted by a high holding load. The defect nucleation suppressed the phase transformation from dc-Ge to r8-Ge, and shear accumulation led to another phase transformation pathway, respectively. A high holding load promoted these two phenomena, and thus decreased the possibility of phase transformation from dc-Ge to r8-Ge.

  19. Site specific study for possible ongoing salt dome movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoms, R.L.; Manning, T.A.; Paille, L.K.; Gehle, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    U.S. Gulf Coast salt domes, among other geologic structures, currently are being considered for storage of commercial radioactive wastes. A major concern with dome storage of long lived radioactive wastes lies with the possible tectonic movement of the host dome. Any ongoing movement of a salt dome can be monitored with a site specific complementary system of field instrumentation and finite element modelling. Field instrumentation and accompanying finite element analyses for a study dome in northwest Louisiana are described. Site specific data and early experience associated with tiltmeters over the dome are presented. Also, recommendations are made for modifications and extensions of the field instrumentation and finite element modelling appropriate to the specific site under study

  20. Site study plan for intermediate hydrology clusters tests wells Deaf Smith County Site, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    To characterize the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic characteristics of intermediate-depth formations at the proposed Deaf Smith County, Texas, repository site, wells called Intermediate Hydrology clusters will test the Dewey Lake, Alibates, Salado, Yates, Upper and Lower Seven Rivers, and Queen Grayburg Formations. Sixteen wells will be installed at six locations. One location will have four wills, two locations will have three wells, and three locations will have two wells for a total of 16 wells. Testing of the formations is to proceed from the bottom up, with 2-day pumping tests at the less permeable formations. Tracer tests and tests for verticall hydraulic properties will be designed and performed after other hydrologic tests are completed. After testing, selected wells are to be completed as single or possibly dual monitoring wells to observe water-level trends. To develop a hydrogeologic testing plan, the response of each formation to potential testing procedures was evaluated using design values and an assumend range for hydraulic parameters. These evaluations indicate that hydraulic properties of a sandy zone of the Dockum, the lower Sever Rivers, and possibly the Alibates and Queen/Grayburg can be determined by pumping tests. Standard of shut-in slug tests must be conducted in the remaining formations. Tests of very long duration would be required to determine the verticla properties of less permeable formations. Tracer tests would also require weeks or months. 61 figs., 34 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Energy-conserving site-design case study, Radisson, New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Radisson is a 2,950-acre new community currently being developed by the New York State Urban Development Corporation and located in central New York, 12 miles north-west of Syracuse. Case-study sites selected for this project are a 95-acre residential site and the 51-acre Town Center of the new community. Development on the Residential Site is a low-density (2.8 dwelling units/acre) mixture of single-family, townhouse and multi-family units. Development on the Town Center site is a mixture of small-scale commercial use (144,000 sq. ft.) and 330+ multi-family dwelling units. Energy-conserving plans developed for both sites have focused on passive measures to reduce energy use for space heating. Utility-system options have been identified for both sites, but require further study as to feasibility and cost. This report summarizes energy savings and cost differentials due to passive measures incorporated in both the residential and Town Center Plans. The future implementation schedule, also discussed, summarizes the procedures an schedule required for implementation of the passive measures, as well as further study required for the development of utility-system options. 4 tables.

  2. Robotic-assisted laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (R-LESS) in urology: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, E; Sanchez-Salas, R; Ercolani, M; Forgues, A; Rozet, F; Galiano, M; Cathelineau, X

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to provide an evidence-based analysis of the current status and future perspectives of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (R-LESS). A PubMed search has been performed for all relevant urological literature regarding natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS). All clinical and investigative reports for robotic LESS and NOTES procedures in the urological literature have been considered. A significant number of clinical urological procedures have been successfully completed utilizing R-LESS procedures. The available experience is limited to referral centers, where the case volume is sufficient to help overcome the challenges and learning curve of LESS surgery. The robotic interface remains the best fit for LESS procedures but its mode of use continues to evolve in attempts to improve surgical technique. We stand today at the dawn of R-LESS surgery, but this approach may well become the standard of care in the near future. Further technological development is needed to allow widespread adoption of the technique.

  3. Isospecific propylene polymerization with in situ generated bis(phenoxy-amine)zirconium and hafnium single site catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makio, Haruyuki; Prasad, Aitha Vishwa; Terao, Hiroshi; Saito, Junji; Fujita, Terunori

    2013-07-07

    Bis(phenoxy-imine) Zr and Hf complexes were activated with (i)Bu3Al or (i)Bu2AlH in conjunction with Ph3CB(C6F5)4 and tested as catalysts for propylene polymerization with emphasis on the enantioselectivity of the isospecific species and the single site polymerization characteristics. The isoselective species was identified as the in situ generated bis(phenoxy-amine) complex whose isoselectivity was sensitive to subtle changes in ligand structure. By employing specific substituents at certain key positions the isotacticity reached an extremely high level comparable to high-end commercial isotactic polypropylenes (Tm > 160 °C). Single site polymerization characteristics depended upon the efficiency and selectivity of the in situ imine reduction which is sensitive to the substituent on the imine nitrogen and the reaction conditions. By using (i)Bu2AlH as a reducing agent, quantitative imine reduction can be achieved with a stoichiometric amount of the reducing agent. This lower alkylaluminum loading is beneficial for the catalyst and significantly enhances the polymerization activity and the molecular weight of the resultant polymer.

  4. Alkali-labile sites and post-irradiation effects in single-stranded DNA induced by H radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, M.V.M.; Heuvel, N. van; Woldhuis, J.; Loman, H.

    1978-01-01

    Single-stranded phiX174 DNA in aqueous solutions has been irradiated in the absence of oxygen, under conditions in which H radicals react with the DNA. It was shown that H radical reactions result in breaks, which contribute approximately 10 per cent inactivation. Further, two types of alkali-labile sites were formed. One was lethal and gave rise to single-strand breaks by alkali and was most probably identical with post-irradiation heat damage and contributed about 33 per cent to the inactivation mentioned above. The other consisted of non-lethal damage, partly dihydropyrimidine derivatives, and was converted to lethal damage by alkali. This followed from experiments in which the DNA was treated with osmium-tetroxide, which oxidized thymine to 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine. Treatment with alkali of this DNA gave the same temperature dependence as found for the non-lethal alkali-labile sites in irradiated DNA. A similar temperature dependence was found for dihydrothymine and irradiated pyrimidines with alkali. (author)

  5. An economic study of the site of Marcoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprat, H.

    1964-01-01

    The study of this site of the Marcoule Center shows that its regional economical influence is limited to the buying power distributed among its personnel. This entails distortions between first this supplementary buying power and the overall markets within the possible Marcoule influence zone, and secondly the concentration on Bagnols-sur-Ceze and this town's normal extension possibilities. (author) [fr

  6. The Agincourt demographic and health study - site description ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Agincourt demographic and health study - site description, baseline findings and implications. Stephen M Tollman, Kobus Herbst, Michel Garenne, John S.S. Gear, KathJeen Kahn. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  7. Parameters of importance to determine in geoscientific site studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Almen, K.E.; Ericsson, L.O.; Karlsson, Fred; Stroem, A.; Fredriksson, Anders; Stanfors, R.

    1996-12-01

    This report identifies and describes parameters, that may be determined in a site characterization study, for performing functional and safety analyses of a deep rock repository for radioactive wastes. The report discusses data needs for rock engineering and for description of other environmental aspects. It is intended that the report be used as a basis for formulating the criteria of acceptance in evaluating a candidate site. The report describes how different parameters influence the safety function, and how they are evaluated in practice. The logical order of performing measurements, due to the need of in-data and influence on other measurements is also discussed. 65 refs

  8. Safety aspects of geological studies around nuclear installations sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, J.

    1988-01-01

    The experience of geological studies of about forty french nuclear sites allows to set out the objectives, the phases and the geographic extensions of workings to be realized for confirming a site. The data to be collected for the safety analysis are specified; they concern the local and regional geology, the geotechnical characteristics and the essential elements for evaluating the hazards related to the soil liquefaction, the surface fracturing and in some cases the volcanic risks. It is necessary to follow up the geology during the installation construction and life. 8 refs. (F.M.)

  9. Study on Site Conditions Based on Topographic Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Wang, X.; Yuan, X.; Chen, M.; Dou, A.

    2018-04-01

    The travel-time averaged shear-wave velocity to a depth of 30m (Vs30) below the Earth's surface is widely used to classify sites in many building codes. Vs30 is also used to estimate site classification in recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs), and the distribution of Vs30 has been mapped in a region or country. An alternative method has recently been proposed for evaluating global seismic site conditions or Vs30, from the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) DEMs (digital elevation models). The basic premise of the method is that the topographic slope can be used as a reliable proxy for Vs30 in the absence of geologically and geotechnically based site-condition maps through correlations between Vs30 measurements and topographic gradient. Here, we use different resolutions (3 arcsec, 30 arcsec) DEM data to get Vs30 data separately, analyze and compare the difference of Vs30 data and site conditions obtained from different resolution DEM data. Shandong Province in eastern China and Sichuan Province in Western China are studied respectively. It is found that the higher resolution data is better at defining spatial topographic features than the 30c data, but less improvement in its correlation with Vs30.

  10. STUDY ON SITE CONDITIONS BASED ON TOPOGRAPHIC SLOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The travel-time averaged shear-wave velocity to a depth of 30m (Vs30 below the Earth’s surface is widely used to classify sites in many building codes. Vs30 is also used to estimate site classification in recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs, and the distribution of Vs30 has been mapped in a region or country. An alternative method has recently been proposed for evaluating global seismic site conditions or Vs30, from the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEMs (digital elevation models. The basic premise of the method is that the topographic slope can be used as a reliable proxy for Vs30 in the absence of geologically and geotechnically based site-condition maps through correlations between Vs30 measurements and topographic gradient. Here, we use different resolutions (3 arcsec, 30 arcsec DEM data to get Vs30 data separately, analyze and compare the difference of Vs30 data and site conditions obtained from different resolution DEM data. Shandong Province in eastern China and Sichuan Province in Western China are studied respectively. It is found that the higher resolution data is better at defining spatial topographic features than the 30c data, but less improvement in its correlation with Vs30.

  11. Radiotracers for per studies of neurotransmitter binding sites: Design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Neurotransmitter binding sites, such as receptors, neuronal uptake systems, and vesicular uptake systems, are important targets for new radiopharmaceutical design. Selection of potential radioligands can be guided by in vitro laboratory data including such characteristics as selectivity and affinity for specific binding sites. However, development of PET radiotracers for use in vivo must include considerations of in vivo pharmacokinetics and metabolism. Introduction of potential radioligands is further narrowed by the demands of the radiochemical synthesis, which must produce radioligands of high chemical and radiochemical purity and of high specific activity. This paper will review examples of previous and current attempts by radiopharmaceutical chemists to meet these demands for new positron emitter-labeled radioligands for PET studies of a wide array of neurotransmitter binding sites

  12. Single-Site Active Iron-Based Bifunctional Oxygen Catalyst for a Compressible and Rechargeable Zinc-Air Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Longtao; Chen, Shengmei; Pei, Zengxia; Huang, Yan; Liang, Guojin; Mo, Funian; Yang, Qi; Su, Jun; Gao, Yihua; Zapien, Juan Antonio; Zhi, Chunyi

    2018-02-27

    The exploitation of a high-efficient, low-cost, and stable non-noble-metal-based catalyst with oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) simultaneously, as air electrode material for a rechargeable zinc-air battery is significantly crucial. Meanwhile, the compressible flexibility of a battery is the prerequisite of wearable or/and portable electronics. Herein, we present a strategy via single-site dispersion of an Fe-N x species on a two-dimensional (2D) highly graphitic porous nitrogen-doped carbon layer to implement superior catalytic activity toward ORR/OER (with a half-wave potential of 0.86 V for ORR and an overpotential of 390 mV at 10 mA·cm -2 for OER) in an alkaline medium. Furthermore, an elastic polyacrylamide hydrogel based electrolyte with the capability to retain great elasticity even under a highly corrosive alkaline environment is utilized to develop a solid-state compressible and rechargeable zinc-air battery. The creatively developed battery has a low charge-discharge voltage gap (0.78 V at 5 mA·cm -2 ) and large power density (118 mW·cm -2 ). It could be compressed up to 54% strain and bent up to 90° without charge/discharge performance and output power degradation. Our results reveal that single-site dispersion of catalytic active sites on a porous support for a bifunctional oxygen catalyst as cathode integrating a specially designed elastic electrolyte is a feasible strategy for fabricating efficient compressible and rechargeable zinc-air batteries, which could enlighten the design and development of other functional electronic devices.

  13. Wildlife studies on the Hanford site: 1994 Highlights report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, L.L. [ed.

    1995-04-01

    The purposes of the project are to monitor and report trends in wildlife populations; conduct surveys to identify, record, and map populations of threatened, endangered, and sensitive plant and animal species; and cooperate with Washington State and federal and private agencies to help ensure the protection afforded by law to native species and their habitats. Census data and results of surveys and special study topics are shared freely among cooperating agencies. Special studies are also conducted as needed to provide additional information that may be required to assess, protect, or manage wildlife resources at Hanford. This report describes highlights of wildlife studies on the Site in 1994. Redd counts of fall chinook salmon in the Hanford Reach suggest that harvest restrictions directed at protecting Snake River salmon may have helped Columbia River stocks as well. The 1994 count (5619) was nearly double that of 1993 and about 63% of the 1989 high of approximately 9000. A habitat map showing major vegetation and land use cover types for the Hanford Site was completed in 1993. During 1994, stochastic simulation was used to estimate shrub characteristics (height, density, and canopy cover) across the previously mapped Hanford landscape. The information provided will be available for use in determining habitat quality for sensitive wildlife species. Mapping Site locations of plant species of concern continued during 1994. Additional sensitive plant species data from surveys conducted by TNC were archived. The 10 nesting pairs of ferruginous hawks that used the Hanford Site in 1993 represented approximately 25% of the Washington State population.

  14. Wildlife studies on the Hanford site: 1994 Highlights report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.

    1995-04-01

    The purposes of the project are to monitor and report trends in wildlife populations; conduct surveys to identify, record, and map populations of threatened, endangered, and sensitive plant and animal species; and cooperate with Washington State and federal and private agencies to help ensure the protection afforded by law to native species and their habitats. Census data and results of surveys and special study topics are shared freely among cooperating agencies. Special studies are also conducted as needed to provide additional information that may be required to assess, protect, or manage wildlife resources at Hanford. This report describes highlights of wildlife studies on the Site in 1994. Redd counts of fall chinook salmon in the Hanford Reach suggest that harvest restrictions directed at protecting Snake River salmon may have helped Columbia River stocks as well. The 1994 count (5619) was nearly double that of 1993 and about 63% of the 1989 high of approximately 9000. A habitat map showing major vegetation and land use cover types for the Hanford Site was completed in 1993. During 1994, stochastic simulation was used to estimate shrub characteristics (height, density, and canopy cover) across the previously mapped Hanford landscape. The information provided will be available for use in determining habitat quality for sensitive wildlife species. Mapping Site locations of plant species of concern continued during 1994. Additional sensitive plant species data from surveys conducted by TNC were archived. The 10 nesting pairs of ferruginous hawks that used the Hanford Site in 1993 represented approximately 25% of the Washington State population

  15. Study of the surface chemistry and morphology of single walled carbon nanotube-magnetite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez-Linares, F.; Uwakweh, O.N.C.; Lopez, N.; Chavez, E.; Polanco, R.; Morant, C.; Sanz, J.M.; Elizalde, E.; Neira, C.; Nieto, S.; Roque-Malherbe, R.

    2011-01-01

    The study of the morphologies of the single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), magnetite nanoparticles (MNP), and the composite based on them was carried with combined X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). These techniques together with thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and diffuse reflectance infrared transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) confirmed the production of pure single phases, and that the composite material consisted of MNP attached to the outer surface of the SWCNT. The Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) research showed the presence of a large quantity of Lewis acid sites in the highly dispersed magnetite particles supported on the SWCNT outer surface. The DRIFTS carbon dioxide adsorption study of the composites revealed significant adsorption of carbon dioxide, fundamentally in the Lewis acid sites. Then, the Lewis acid sites were observed to be catalytically active. Further, the electron exchange between the Lewis acid sites and the basic or amphoteric adsorbed molecules could influence the magnetic properties of the magnetite. Consequently, together with this first ever use of MS in the study of Lewis acid sites, this investigation revealed the potential of the composites for catalytic and sensors applications. -- Graphical abstract: A large amount of Lewis acid sites were found in the highly dispersed magnetite which is supported on the SWCNT outer surface. Display Omitted Research highlights: → The obtained materials were completely characterized with XRD, Raman and SEM-TEM. → DRIFT, TGA and adsorption of the composites allowed understand the material formation. → This is the first report of a study of Lewis sites by Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  16. Positron annihilation lifetime and photoluminescence studies on single crystalline ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, A [Department of Physics, Bangabasi Morning College, 19 Rajkumar Chakraborty Sarani, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Chakrabarti, Mahuya [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Ray, S K [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India); Bhowmick, D; Sanyal, D, E-mail: dirtha@vecc.gov.in [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2011-04-20

    The room temperature positron annihilation lifetime for single crystalline ZnO has been measured as 164 {+-} 1 ps. The single component lifetime value is very close to but higher than the theoretically predicted value of {approx} 154 ps. Photoluminescence study (at 10 K) indicates the presence of hydrogen and other defects, mainly acceptor related, in the crystal. Defects related to a lower open volume than zinc vacancies, presumably a complex with two hydrogen atoms, are the major trapping sites in the sample. The bulk positron lifetime in ZnO is expected to be a little less than 164 ps.

  17. Positron annihilation lifetime and photoluminescence studies on single crystalline ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A.; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Ray, S. K.; Bhowmick, D.; Sanyal, D.

    2011-04-01

    The room temperature positron annihilation lifetime for single crystalline ZnO has been measured as 164 ± 1 ps. The single component lifetime value is very close to but higher than the theoretically predicted value of ~ 154 ps. Photoluminescence study (at 10 K) indicates the presence of hydrogen and other defects, mainly acceptor related, in the crystal. Defects related to a lower open volume than zinc vacancies, presumably a complex with two hydrogen atoms, are the major trapping sites in the sample. The bulk positron lifetime in ZnO is expected to be a little less than 164 ps.

  18. Positron annihilation lifetime and photoluminescence studies on single crystalline ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, A; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Ray, S K; Bhowmick, D; Sanyal, D

    2011-01-01

    The room temperature positron annihilation lifetime for single crystalline ZnO has been measured as 164 ± 1 ps. The single component lifetime value is very close to but higher than the theoretically predicted value of ∼ 154 ps. Photoluminescence study (at 10 K) indicates the presence of hydrogen and other defects, mainly acceptor related, in the crystal. Defects related to a lower open volume than zinc vacancies, presumably a complex with two hydrogen atoms, are the major trapping sites in the sample. The bulk positron lifetime in ZnO is expected to be a little less than 164 ps.

  19. Quantifying siting difficulty: a case study of US transmission line siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajjhala, S.P. [Resources for the Future, Washington DC (United States); Fischbeck, P.S. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Departments of Social and Decision Sciences and Engineering and Public Policy

    2007-01-15

    The worldwide demand for new energy infrastructures has been paralleled in recent years by the increasing difficulty of siting major facilities. Siting difficulty is the subject of widespread discussion, but because of the complexity of the problem, potential solutions are not obvious or well understood. This paper presents a two-step policy-level framework that first develops an empirical measure of siting difficulty and then qualitatively assesses its major causes. The approach is based on the creation and aggregation of four siting indicators that are independent of the common causes and localized effects of siting problems. The proposed framework is demonstrated for the case of US transmission line siting. Results of the analyses reveal significant variations in state siting difficulty and industry experts' perceptions of its dominant causes, with implications for the long-term success of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) and knowledge transfer among siting professionals in the deregulated industry. (author)

  20. Single case studies as a means for developing psychological theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsov, Anatoliy; Romashchuk, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The Socratic function of single case studies (SCSs) is described in its relation to the problem of scientific theory development. Contrary to the traditional point of view, the single case study is not a demonstration or verification of theoretical concepts, but a method of their generation and opportunity for analysis of their interrelations. Considering the case study from the perspective of the Socratic function brings to light important conclusions about the ecological validity of theory development. The essential features of the Socratic function are illustrated using the example of the famous Romantic Essays of Alexandr Luria. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Construction Site Workers’ Awareness on Using Safety Equipment: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulang N. Md

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction sector is an important sector and contributed significantly to national development. However, this sector poses higher risk to accident. This is due to fact that construction site can be considered as a dangerous zone to workers and to the public. Due to the variety of cases occurs on site, the contractor will usually have to pay the cost related to accidents in the form of higher insurance premium. Despite various measures, accidents still occur at construction sites. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE is one of the important means to protect the wearer from hazards in the workplace. Since this equipment is the last frontier of the wearer from worksite hazards, it is important to select it based on the job scope and the intended protection. Therefore, this study was formulated to find out the level of knowledge and awareness of construction workers on PPE usage. It was also important to know what make the workers would want or do not want to use the PPE. It was found in this study that the level of awareness and knowledge among workers on the proper use of PPE is moderate. Construction sites accident can be further be reduced with proper implementation of PPE voluntarily by all workers.

  2. Reactive sites influence in PMMA oligomers reactivity: a DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, C. V.; Vásquez, S. R.; Flores, N.; García, L.; Rico, J. L.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we present a theoretical study of methyl methacrylate (MMA) living anionic polymerization. The study was addressed to understanding two important experimental observations made for Michael Szwarc in 1956. The unexpected effect of reactive sites concentration in the propagation rate, and the self-killer behavior of MMA (deactivating of living anionic polymerization). The theoretical calculations were performed by density functional theory (DFT) to obtain the frontier molecular orbitals values. These values were used to calculate and analyze the chemical interaction descriptors in DFT-Koopmans’ theorem. As a result, it was observed that the longest chain-length species (related with low concentration of reactive sites) exhibit the highest reactivity (behavior associated with the increase of the propagation rate). The improvement in this reactivity was attributed to the crosslinking produced in the polymethyl methacrylate chains. Meanwhile, the self-killer behavior was associated with the intermolecular forces present in the reactive sites. This behavior was associated to an obstruction in solvation, since the active sites remained active through all propagation species. The theoretical results were in good agreement with the Szwarc experiments.

  3. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghong; Shiffman, Dov; Oberbauer, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common type of genetic variants in the human genome. SNPs are known to modify susceptibility to complex diseases. We describe and discuss methods used to identify SNPs associated with disease in case-control studies. An outline on study population selection, sample collection and genotyping platforms is presented, complemented by SNP selection, data preprocessing and analysis.

  4. Single Crystal Synthesis and STM Studies of High Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Alfonso

    1997-01-01

    This is a final report for the work initiated in September of 1994 under the grant NAG8-1085 - NASA/OMU, on the fabrication of bulk and single crystal synthesis, specific heat measuring and STM studies of high temperature superconductors. Efforts were made to fabricate bulk and single crystals of mercury based superconducting material. A systematic thermal analysis on the precursors for the corresponding oxides and carbonates were carried out to synthesized bulk samples. Bulk material was used as seed in an attempt to grow single crystals by a two-step self flux process. On the other hand bulk samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility, We studied the specific heat behavior in the range from 80 to 300 K. Some preliminary attempts were made to study the atomic morphology of our samples. As part of our efforts we built an ac susceptibility apparatus for measuring the transition temperature of our sintered samples.

  5. Rayleigh scattering from single-site polysylane adsorbed on silicon: Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, Christianus M.J.

    1986-01-01

    An ordered set of dipoles with mutual interaction in the close vicinity of a dielectric surface is studied. The solution of that particular theoretical problem is given rigorously both for the static and dynamic case. It can serve as a description of the polysylane molecules formed at the surface of

  6. Totally extraperitoneal (TEP) bilateral hernioplasty using the Single Site® robotic da Vinci platform (DV-SS TEP): description of the technique and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestari, A; Galli, A C; Sangalli, M N; Zanoni, M; Ferrari, M; Roviaro, G

    2017-06-01

    Laparoendoscopic single site totally extraperitoneal (TEP) hernia repair showed to be a feasible alternative to conventional laparoscopic hernia repair; nevertheless single site surgery, with the loss of instruments triangulation can be a demanding procedure. To overcome those hurdles, the Single Site® (SS) platform of the da Vinci (DV) Si robotic system enables to perform surgical procedures through a 25-mm skin incision, with a stable 3D vision and restoring an adequate triangulation of the surgical instruments. We present in details the technique and the preliminary results of DV-SS TEP, to our knowledge the first cases reported in literature. In March 2016, three consecutive male patients (mean age 46.6 years-mean BMI 25.3) with bilateral symptomatic inguinal hernia were submitted to DV-SS TEP in our institutions. Feasibility, codification of the technique, operative time and perioperative outcomes were recorded. All the procedures were completed as scheduled, with no conversion to other techniques. Mean operative time was 98.6 min, ranging between 155 and 55 min, reflecting the learning curve of the operating room team on this new procedure. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were experienced and all the patients were discharged within 24 h after surgery. Patients reported satisfactory postoperative course, with no recurrence of inguinal hernia and satisfaction in cosmetic result at 6-month follow-up. DV-SS TEP inguinal hernia repair showed to be feasible and effective surgical option for bilateral groin hernia repair. Patients' outcome was uneventful, with optimal cosmetic results. Further studies comparing this innovative technique to TEP or LESS TEP should be promoted.

  7. Site study plan for exploratory shaft monitoring wells, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Preliminary Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As part of site characterization studies, two exploratory shafts will be constructed at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. Twelve wells at five locations have been proposed to monitor potential impacts of shaft construction on water-bearing zones in the Ogallala Formation and the Dockum Group. In addition, tests have been proposed to determine the hydraulic properties of the water-bearing zones for use in design and construction of the shafts. Samples of the Blackwater Draw Formation, Ogallala Formation, and Dockum Group will be obtained during construction of these wells. Visual indentification, laboratory testing, and in situ testing will yield data necessary for Exploratory Shaft Facility design and construction. This activity provides the earliest data on the Blackwater Drew Formation, Ogallala Formation, and Dockum Group near the exploratory shaft locations. Drilling and hydrologic testing are scheduled prior to other subsurface activity at the Exploratory Shaft Facility to establish ground-water baseline conditions. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established Salt Repository Project procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 45 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Geophysical study of the Peinan Archaeological Site, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lun-Tao; Lee, Kun-Hsiu; Yeh, Chang-Keng; Hwang, Yan-Tsong; Chien, Jeng-Ming

    2013-02-01

    The Peinan archaeological site is the most intact Neolithic village with slate coffin burial complexes in Taiwan. However, the area that potentially contains significant ancient remains is covered by dense vegetation. No reliable data show the distribution of the ancient village, and no geophysical investigation has been performed at this site. To evaluate various geophysical methods under the geological setting and surface condition of the site, the physical properties of the remains were measured and four geophysical methods involving magnetic, electromagnetic (EM), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) were tested along three parallel profiles. The results imply that the EM and magnetic methods are much cost-effective and suitable for investigating the entire area. GPR and ERT methods can provide high resolution subsurface image, which are much suitable for subsequently detail investigation. The EM and magnetic surveys were thus conducted over the entire Peinan Cultural Park to understand the distribution of the ancient building remains at the Peinan site. The results of this study were verified by subsequent excavations, which indicate that the EM survey was successful in delineating the majority of the ancient village because the basements of building are highly resistive in comparison to the background sediment. The results of this investigation suggest that the ancient village was broadly distributed over the eastern part of the Peinan Culture Park and extended to the southeast.

  9. Behavior-based safety on construction sites: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Rafiq M

    2014-09-01

    This work presents the results of a case study and describes an important area within the field of construction safety management, namely behavior-based safety (BBS). This paper adopts and develops a management approach for safety improvements in construction site environments. A rigorous behavioral safety system and its intervention program was implemented and deployed on target construction sites. After taking a few weeks of safety behavior measurements, the project management team implemented the designed intervention and measurements were taken. Goal-setting sessions were arranged on-site with workers' participation to set realistic and attainable targets of performance. Safety performance measurements continued and the levels of performance and the targets were presented on feedback charts. Supervisors were asked to give workers recognition and praise when they acted safely or improved critical behaviors. Observers were requested to have discussions with workers, visit the site, distribute training materials to workers, and provide feedback to crews and display charts. They were required to talk to operatives in the presence of line managers. It was necessary to develop awareness and understanding of what was being measured. In the process, operatives learned how to act safely when conducting site tasks using the designed checklists. Current weekly scores were discussed in the weekly safety meetings and other operational site meetings with emphasis on how to achieve set targets. The reliability of the safety performance measures taken by the company's observers was monitored. A clear increase in safety performance level was achieved across all categories: personal protective equipment; housekeeping; access to heights; plant and equipment, and scaffolding. The research reveals that scores of safety performance at one project improved from 86% (at the end of 3rd week) to 92.9% during the 9th week. The results of intervention demonstrated large decreases in

  10. Site-specific ligation of anthracene-1,8-dicarboxylates to an Mn12 core: a route to the controlled functionalisation of single-molecule magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchioni, Mirko; Cornia, Andrea; Fabretti, Antonio C; Zobbi, Laura; Bonacchi, Daniele; Caneschi, Andrea; Chastanet, Guillaume; Gatteschi, Dante; Sessoli, Roberta

    2004-11-21

    A novel single-molecule magnet of the Mn12 family, [Mn12O12(O2CC6H5)8(L)4(H2O)4].8CH2Cl2, has been synthesised by site-specific ligand exchange using a tailor-made dicarboxylate (L2-), which leads to selective occupation of axial binding sites.

  11. Clean Chlorination of Silica Surfaces by a Single-site Substitution Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Maity, Niladri

    2018-02-12

    A chlorination method for the selective substitution of well-defined isolated silanol groups of the silica surface has been developed using the catalytic Appel reaction. Spectroscopic analysis, complemented by elemental microanalysis studies, reveals that a quantitative chlorination could be achieved with highly dehydroxylated silica materials that exclusively possess non-hydrogen bonded silanol groups. The employed method did not leave any carbon or phosphorous residue on the silica surface and can be regarded as a promising tool for the future functionalization of metal oxide surfaces.

  12. Clean Chlorination of Silica Surfaces by a Single-site Substitution Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Maity, Niladri; Barman, Samir; Abou-Hamad, Edy; D'Elia, Valerio; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2018-01-01

    A chlorination method for the selective substitution of well-defined isolated silanol groups of the silica surface has been developed using the catalytic Appel reaction. Spectroscopic analysis, complemented by elemental microanalysis studies, reveals that a quantitative chlorination could be achieved with highly dehydroxylated silica materials that exclusively possess non-hydrogen bonded silanol groups. The employed method did not leave any carbon or phosphorous residue on the silica surface and can be regarded as a promising tool for the future functionalization of metal oxide surfaces.

  13. Site characterization and validation - equipment design and techniques used in single borehole hydraulic testing, simulated drift experiment and crosshole testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, D.C.; Sehlstedt, M.

    1991-10-01

    This report describes the equipment and techniques used to investigate the variation of hydrogeological parameters within a fractured crystalline rock mass. The testing program was performed during stage 3 of the site characterization and validation programme at the Stripa mine in Sweden. This programme used a multidisciplinary approach, combining geophysical, geological and hydrogeological methods, to determine how groundwater moved through the rock mass. The hydrogeological work package involved three components. Firstly, novel single borehole techniques (focused packer testing) were used to determine the distribution of hydraulic conductivity and head along individual boreholes. Secondly, water was abstracted from boreholes which were drilled to simulate a tunnel (simulated drift experiment). Locations and magnitudes of flows were measured together with pressure responses at various points in the SCV rock mass. Thirdly, small scale crosshole tests, involving detailed interference testing, were used to determine the variability of hydrogeological parameters within previously identified, significant flow zones. (au)

  14. Single-cell technologies to study the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proserpio, Valentina; Mahata, Bidesh

    2016-02-01

    The immune system is composed of a variety of cells that act in a coordinated fashion to protect the organism against a multitude of different pathogens. The great variability of existing pathogens corresponds to a similar high heterogeneity of the immune cells. The study of individual immune cells, the fundamental unit of immunity, has recently transformed from a qualitative microscopic imaging to a nearly complete quantitative transcriptomic analysis. This shift has been driven by the rapid development of multiple single-cell technologies. These new advances are expected to boost the detection of less frequent cell types and transient or intermediate cell states. They will highlight the individuality of each single cell and greatly expand the resolution of current available classifications and differentiation trajectories. In this review we discuss the recent advancement and application of single-cell technologies, their limitations and future applications to study the immune system. © 2015 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Pediatric Emergency Department Suicidal Patients: Two-Site Evaluation of Suicide Ideators, Single Attempters, and Repeat Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Baraff, Larry J.; Berk, Michele; Grob, Charles; Devich-Navarro, Mona; Suddath, Robert; Piacentini, John; Tang, Lingqi

    2008-01-01

    The study examines ideators, single attempters, and repeats attempters of suicide to clarify optimal strategies for emergency department management and risk assessment to help them in reducing youth suicide and suicide attempts. Depression was found to be a strong predictor of suicide/suicide attempts along with substance use, externalizing…

  16. A Study of Social Networking Sites for Learners of Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusako Ota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Social Networking Sites (SNSs such as “Facebook” and “MySpace” have been used by many people from different countries around the world, and they have recently been applied to second language (L2 learning, both inside and outside classrooms. A number of researchers have investigated the utility of SNSs, and some language researchers have studied the use of SNSs for L2 learning in language classrooms. However, the study of the usage of SNSs for L2 learning outside the classroom has not yet been studied thoroughly, despite the fact that many communities and groups exist for users who are interested in learning L2 on such sites. This article examines the nature and extent of SNS communities available specifically for L2 learners of Japanese, and describes the usage which is being made of these communities in particular on the SNSs, “mixi” and “Facebook”. Furthermore, the beneficial aspects of using such sites for L2 learning will be discussed.

  17. Robustness of high-fidelity Rydberg gates with single-site addressability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerz, Michael H.; Halperin, Eli J.; Aytac, Jon M.; Koch, Christiane P.; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2014-09-01

    Controlled-phase (cphase) gates can be realized with trapped neutral atoms by making use of the Rydberg blockade. Achieving the ultrahigh fidelities required for quantum computation with such Rydberg gates, however, is compromised by experimental inaccuracies in pulse amplitudes and timings, as well as by stray fields that cause fluctuations of the Rydberg levels. We report here a comparative study of analytic and numerical pulse sequences for the Rydberg cphase gate that specifically examines the robustness of the gate fidelity with respect to such experimental perturbations. Analytical pulse sequences of both simultaneous and stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) are found to be at best moderately robust under these perturbations. In contrast, optimal control theory is seen to allow generation of numerical pulses that are inherently robust within a predefined tolerance window. The resulting numerical pulse shapes display simple modulation patterns and can be rationalized in terms of an interference between distinct two-photon Rydberg excitation pathways. Pulses of such low complexity should be experimentally feasible, allowing gate fidelities of order 99.90-99.99% to be achievable under realistic experimental conditions.

  18. SITE: a methodology for assessment of energy facility siting patterns. Regional studies program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigerio, N.A.; Habegger, L.J.; King, R.F.; Hoover, L.J.; Clark, N.A.; Cobian, J.M.

    1975-08-01

    The timely development of the nation's energy production capacity in a manner that minimizes potential adverse local and regional impacts associated with energy facilities requires the use of sophisticated techniques for evaluation of siting alternatives and fuel cycle options. This report is a documentation of the computerized SITE methodology that has been developed for evaluating health, environmental, and socioeconomic impacts related to utilization of alternate sites for energy production within a region of interest. The cost, impact, and attribute vectors, which are generated and displayed on density maps, can be used in a multiparameter overlay process to identify preferable siting areas. The assessment of clustered facilities in energy centers is also possible within the SITE analysis framework. An application of the SITE methodology to Northern Illinois is presented. Also included is a description of the ongoing extension of SITE for the accumulative evaluation of alternative regional energy siting patterns and fuel cycle options. An appendix provides documentation and user information for the SITE computer program

  19. Synthesis and room temperature single crystal EPR studies of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Hamiltonian parameters calculated from single crystal rotations are: g ... studies on two nickel complexes with SalX ligands (X = NH, NCH3) have shown the ..... here the positive sign is required for a shell that is less than half-filled and the ...

  20. Revisiting Single Case Studies in International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Verner; Jakobsen, Michael

    strategies when navigating a multinational organization? To answer this question we employ a phenomenological approach as a way of exploring the relationship between organizational changes and employers’ response towards them. We argue that single case studies provides us with the capability of providing...

  1. Single visit root canal treatment: A prospective study | Edionwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teeth having irreversible pulpitis, pulp necrosis or periapical periodontitis were included in the study. RCT and obturation was done at a single visit. The patients were monitored over 6 months. Results: Forty.five teeth were treated in 21 females and 24 males, aged 18.56 years (34.4+/.12.7). Preoperatively, pain was present ...

  2. Radionuclide migration studies at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The United States government routinely tests nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada. A significant amount of radioactive material exists underground at the NTS with no containers or engineered barriers to inhibit its subsequent migration. The Department of Energy has sponsored for many years a research program on radionuclide movement in the geologic media at this location. Goals of this research program are to measure the extent of movement of radionuclides away from underground explosion sites and to determine the mechanisms by which such movement occurs. This program has acquired significance in another aspect of nuclear waste management because of the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain at the NTS is being intensively studied as the possible site for a mined repository for high level nuclear waste. The NTS provides a unique setting for field studies concerning radionuclide migration; there is the potential for greatly increasing our knowledge of the behavior of radioactive materials in volcanogenic media. This review summarizes some of the significant findings made under this research program at the NTS and identifies reports in which the details of the research may be found. 36 refs., 4 figs

  3. Summary of 1990 eolian characterization studies, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaylord, D.R.; Stetler, L.D.; Smith, G.D. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Mars, R.W. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A study of eolian activity was initiated to improve understanding of past climate change and the likely effect of wind on engineered protective barriers at the Hanford Site. Eolian features from a Holocene sand dune field located in the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site were investigated using a variety of field and laboratory techniques including stratigraphic examinations of hand-dug pits, textural and compositional analyses of dune sand and potential source detritus, and air photo interpretations. These investigations were undertaken to evaluate the provenance and eolian dynamics of the sand dunes. Interpretations of sand dune migration using archival air photo stereopairs document a 20% reduction in the volume of active sand dunes (measured from an approximate 15-km{sup 2} test area) between 1948 and 1987. Changes in annual precipitation appear to have influenced active dune migration strongly.

  4. Photoluminescence studies of single InGaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are considered a promising material system for future optical devices and quantum computers. We have studied the low-temperature photoluminescence properties of single InGaAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs. The high spatial resolution required for resolving single dots...... to resolve luminescence lines from individual quantum dots, revealing an atomic-like spectrum of sharp transition lines. A parameter of fundamental importance is the intrinsic linewidth of these transitions. Using high-resolution spectroscopy we have determined the linewidth and investigated its dependence...... on temperature, which gives information about how the exciton confined to the quantum dot interacts with the surrounding lattice....

  5. The Study on Policy Options for Siting Hazardous Energy Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Oh [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-10-01

    The problem of site allocation on locally unwanted land uses related to energy utilities that extended most recently is becoming a new energy policy issue due to the improvement of national standard of living and livelihood quality. Residents do not generally agree on establishing the construction of public energy utilities in their village due to NIMBY syndrome while they basically agree to have them. These circumstances made a big problem against mass production of industry society and the improvement of the national welfare. Locally unwanted land use related to energy utilities includes waste incineration system, nuclear power plant, coal fired power plant, oil and Gas storage tank, briquette manufacturing plant and etc. Opportunity for SOC projects carried out by central and local government is lost because of the regional egoism. The site dispute between government and residents obstructs optimal energy supply to be necessary for industry growth and the national welfare. The main objective of this study is to propose the policy option for finding a solution after surveying theory and background of site troubles and dispute factors. Final results of this study propose a solution on structural and institutional dispute. The former introduces three kinds of approaches such as tradition, compensation and negotiation. The transition of an environmentally sound energy consumption pattern and the improvement of energy efficiency could be carried out by traditional approaches. To claim the damage and offer the accommodation facilities could be settled by compensational approaches. The establishment of regional decentralization on NIMBY facilities could be settled by negotiatory approaches through fair share criteria. The latter proposes 1) 'polluter pays principle', 2) internalization of social cost and benefit on air or water pollution, 3) the behind - the - scene negotiation in a bid to settle a site dispute, 4) and supporting system for peripheral areas

  6. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project exploratory studies facilities construction status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, J.N.; Leonard, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress to date on the construction planning and development of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF). The purpose of the ESF is to determine early site suitability and to characterize the subsurface of the Yucca Mountain site to assess its suitability for a potential high level nuclear waste repository. The present ESF configuration concept is for two main ramps to be excavated by tunnel boring machines (TBM) from the surface to the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff Formation. From the main ramps, slightly above Topopah Spring level, supplemental ramps will be penetrated to the Calico Hills formation below the potential repository. There will be exploratory development drifts driven on both levels with the Main Test Area being located on the Topopah Spring level, which is the level of the proposed repository. The Calico Hills formation lies below the Topopah Spring member and is expected to provide the main geo-hydrologic barrier between the potential repository and the underlying saturated zones in the Crater Flat Tuff

  7. [Paleoclimatology studies for Yucca Mountain site characterization]. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report consists of two separate papers: Fernley Basin studies; and Influence of sediment supply and climate change on late Quaternary eolian accumulation patterns in the Mojave Desert. The first study involved geologic mapping of late Quaternary sediments and lacustrine features combined with precise control of elevations and descriptions of sediments for each of the major sedimentary units. The second paper documents the response of a major eolian sediment transport system in the east-central Mojave Desert: that which feeds the Kelso Dune field. Information from geomorphic, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic studies of eolian deposits and landforms is combined with luminescence dating of these deposits to develop a chronology of periods of eolian deposition. Both studies are related to site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain and the forecasting of rainfall patterns possible for the high-level radioactive waste repository lifetime

  8. Thermal evaluation by infrared measurement of implant site preparation between single and gradual drilling in artificial bone blocks of different densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhlhenrich, S C; Abouridouane, M; Heussen, N; Hölzle, F; Klocke, F; Modabber, A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of bone density and drilling protocol on heat generation during implant bed preparation. Ten single and 10 gradual implant sites with diameters of 2.8, 3.5, and 4.2mm were prepared in four artificial bone blocks (density types I-IV; D1-D4). Drilling was done at constant speed (1500rpm) and with external irrigation (50ml/min); vertical speed was set at 2mm/s. An infrared camera was used for temperature measurements. Significantly higher temperatures for single drilling were found between 2.8-mm drills in D1 (P=0.0014) and D4 (P<0.0001) and between 3.5-mm drills in D3 (P=0.0087) and D4 (P<0.0001), as well as between 4.2-mm drills in D1 (P<0.0001) and D4 (P=0.0014). Low bone density led to a thermal decrease after single drilling and a thermal increase after gradual drilling. Burs with a large diameter always showed a higher temperature generation. In comparisons between 2.8- and 4.2-mm diameters for both single and gradual drills, significant differences (P<0.001) were noted for bone types II, III, and IV. Single drilling could generate more heat than traditional sequential drilling, and bone density, as well as drill diameter, influenced thermal increases. Particularly in lower-density bone, conventional sequential drilling seems to raise the temperature less. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ground Characterization Studies in Canakkale Pilot Site of LIQUEFACT Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcep, F.; Oztoprak, S.; Aysal, N.; Bozbey, I.; Tezel, O.; Ozer, C.; Sargin, S.; Bekin, E.; Almasraf, M.; Cengiz Cinku, M.; Ozdemir, K.

    2017-12-01

    The our aim is to outline the ground characterisation studies in Canakkale test site. Study is based on the EU H2020 LIQUEFACT project entitled "Liquefact: Assessment and mitigation of liquefaction potential across Europe: a holistic approach to protect structures / infrastructures for improved resilience to earthquake-induced liquefaction disasters". Objectives and extent of ground characterization for Canakkale test site includes pre-existing soil investigation studies and complementary field studies. There were several SPT and geophysical tests carried out in the study area. Within the context of the complementary tests, six (6) study areas in the test site were chosen and complementary tests were carried out in these areas. In these areas, additional boreholes were opened and SPT tests were performed. It was decided that additional CPT (CPTU and SCPT) and Marchetti Dilatometer (DMT) tests should be carried out within the scope of the complementary testing. Seismic refraction, MASW and micro tremor measurements had been carried out in pre-existing studies. Shear wave velocities obtained from MASW measurements were evaluated to the most rigorous level. These tests were downhole seismic, PS-logging, seismic refraction, 2D-ReMi, MASW, micro tremor (H/V Nakamura method), 2D resistivity and resonance acoustic profiling (RAP). RAP is a new technique which will be explained briefly in the relevant section. Dynamic soil properties had not been measured in pre-existing studies, therefore these properties were investigated within the scope of the complementary tests. Selection of specific experimental tests of the complementary campaign was based on cost-benefit considerations Within the context of complementary field studies, dynamic soil properties were measured using resonant column and cyclic direct shear tests. Several sieve analyses and Atterberg Limits tests which were documented in the pre-existing studies were evaluated. In the complementary study carried out

  10. The Violence Prevention Community Meeting: A Multi-Site Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Marilyn; Ridenour, Marilyn; Hendricks, Scott; Rierdan, Jill; Zeiss, Robert; Schmidt, Satu; Lovelace, Jeff; Amandus, Harlan

    2016-06-01

    The Violence Prevention Community Meeting (VPCM) is a specialized form of community meeting in which avoiding violence and promoting non-violent problem solving and interpersonal civility are focal points. A nationwide study to assess the VPCM as an effective intervention to reduce workplace violence was undertaken. Seven acute locked psychiatric units of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) throughout the United States participated in the study. All patients and all staff on the seven in-patient locked psychiatry units participated in the intervention (VPCM) or as a control (treatment as usual). The study was 21weeks at each site. The three time periods were pre-treatment weeks 1-3, treatment weeks 4-18, and post-treatment weeks 19-21. The VPCM was conducted during the treatment weeks. Overall rates of aggression declined by 0.6% (95% CI: -5.6%, 6.5%; nonsignificant) per week in the intervention hospitals and by 5.1% (95% CI: 0.4%, 9.6%; significant) per week for the control hospitals. Aggression decreased for both the intervention and control hospitals which could be due to enrollment in a research study and thus being more aware of their ability to address workplace violence at their site. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Recent progress in volcanism studies: Site characterization activities for the Yucca Mountain site characterization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Valentine, G.; Morley, R.; Perry, F.V.

    1992-01-01

    Significant progress has been made on volcanism studies over the past calendar year. There are a number of major highlights from this work. Geochronology data have been obtained for the Lathrop Wells center using a range of isotopic, radiogenic, and age-calibrated methods. Initial work is encouraging but still insufficient to resolve the age of the center with confidence. Geologic mapping of the Sleeping Butte volcanic centers was completed and a report issued on the geology and chronology data. Twenty shallow trenches have been constructed in volcanic units of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center. Results of detailed studies of the trenches support a polycyclic eruptive history. New soil data from the trenches continue to support a late Pleistocene or Holocene age for many of the volcanic units at the center. Geochemical data (trace element and isotopic analysis) show that the volcanic units of the Lathrop Wells center cannot be related to one another by fractional crystallization of a single magma batch, supporting a polycyclic model of volcanism. Structural models using existing data are used to evaluate the probability of magmatic disruption of a potential repository. Several permissive models have been developed but none lead to significant differences in calculating the disruption ratio. Work was initiated on the eruptive and subsurface effects of magmatic activity on a repository. (author)

  12. SSDOnt: An Ontology for Representing Single-Subject Design Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berges, Idoia; Bermúdez, Jesus; Illarramendi, Arantza

    2018-02-01

    Single-Subject Design is used in several areas such as education and biomedicine. However, no suited formal vocabulary exists for annotating the detailed configuration and the results of this type of research studies with the appropriate granularity for looking for information about them. Therefore, the search for those study designs relies heavily on a syntactical search on the abstract, keywords or full text of the publications about the study, which entails some limitations. To present SSDOnt, a specific purpose ontology for describing and annotating single-subject design studies, so that complex questions can be asked about them afterwards. The ontology was developed following the NeOn methodology. Once the requirements of the ontology were defined, a formal model was described in a Description Logic and later implemented in the ontology language OWL 2 DL. We show how the ontology provides a reference model with a suitable terminology for the annotation and searching of single-subject design studies and their main components, such as the phases, the intervention types, the outcomes and the results. Some mappings with terms of related ontologies have been established. We show as proof-of-concept that classes in the ontology can be easily extended to annotate more precise information about specific interventions and outcomes such as those related to autism. Moreover, we provide examples of some types of queries that can be posed to the ontology. SSDOnt has achieved the purpose of covering the descriptions of the domain of single-subject research studies. Schattauer GmbH.

  13. Optimizing CT angiography in patients with Fontan physiology: single-center experience of dual-site power injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, K.L.; Markham, L.W.; Mah, M.L.; Byrum, E.P.; Williams, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To identify adult patients with single-ventricle congenital heart disease and Fontan procedure palliation who have been misdiagnosed with or incompletely evaluated for pulmonary embolism. Additionally, this study was designed to demonstrate that simultaneous, dual-injection of contrast medium into an upper and lower extremity vein is superior to single-injection protocols for CT angiography (CTA) of the chest in this population. Materials and methods: Patients included in the study were retrospectively selected from the Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) database. Search criteria included history of Fontan palliation and available chest CT examination. Patients were evaluated for (1) type of congenital heart disease and prior operations;(2) indication for initial CT evaluation;(3) route of contrast medium administration for the initial CT examination and resulting diagnosis;(4) whether or not anticoagulation therapy was initiated; and (5) final diagnosis and treatment plan. Results: The query of the ACHD database resulted in 28 individuals or patients with Fontan palliation (superior and inferior venae cavae anastomosed to the pulmonary arteries). Of these, 19 patients with Fontan physiology underwent CTA of the pulmonary circulation, and 17 had suboptimal imaging studies. Unfortunately, seven of these 17 patients (41%) were started on anticoagulation therapy due to a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism that was later excluded. Conclusion: Patients with single-ventricle/Fontan physiology are at risk of thromboembolic disease. Therefore, studies evaluating their complex anatomy must be performed with the optimal imaging protocol to ensure diagnostic accuracy, which is best achieved with dual-injection of an upper and lower extremity central vein. - Highlights: • The adult congenital heart disease population is growing. • Many of these patients have single ventricle/Fontan physiology. • Patients with Fontan physiology are at increased risk for

  14. Comparison between magnetic anchoring and guidance system camera-assisted laparoendoscopic single-site surgery nephrectomy and conventional laparoendoscopic single-site surgery nephrectomy in a porcine model: focus on ergonomics and workload profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Woong Kyu; Tan, Yung K; Olweny, Ephrem O; Yin, Gang; Liu, Zhuo-Wei; Faddegon, Stephen; Scott, Daniel J; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A

    2013-04-01

    To compare surgeon-assessed ergonomic and workload demands of magnetic anchoring and guidance system (MAGS) laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) nephrectomy with conventional LESS nephrectomy in a porcine model. Participants included two expert and five novice surgeons who each performed bilateral LESS nephrectomy in two nonsurvival animals using either the MAGS camera or conventional laparoscope. Task difficulty and workload demands of the surgeon and camera driver were assessed using the validated National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire. Surgeons were also asked to score 6 parameters on a Likert scale (range 1=low/easy to 5=high/hard): procedure-associated workload, ergonomics, technical challenge, visualization, accidental events, and instrument handling. Each step of the nephrectomy was also timed and instrument clashing was quantified. Scores for each parameter on the Likert scale were significantly lower for MAGS-LESS nephrectomy. Mean number of internal and external clashes were significantly lower for the MAGS camera (pNASA-TLX workload ratings by the surgeon and camera driver showed that MAGS resulted in a significantly lower workload than the conventional laparoscope during LESS nephrectomy (p<0.05). The use of the MAGS camera during LESS nephrectomy lowers the task workload for both the surgeon and camera driver when compared to conventional laparoscope use. Subjectively, it appears to also improve surgeons' impressions of ergonomics and technical challenge. Pending approval for clinical use, further evaluation in the clinical setting is warranted.

  15. How Customer Facing Professionals Adapt to Changing Customer Needs in a Digital Environment: A Single Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative single case study explored how customer facing professionals (CFPs) adapt to changing customer needs in a digital environment. This study focuses on: (1) Changing customer needs; (2) Competencies needed in a digital environment; (3) How they learn; and (4) What factors help or hinder their success. The site is a global Human…

  16. Ecological studies of small mammals in a nuclear site on Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.; Moor, K.S.

    1978-01-01

    Ecological studies of small vertebrates in nuclear event sites in NTS began in spring 1977 with the establishment of a permanent live-trapping grid in Little Feller II. These study areas are located in Area 18, a relatively homogeneous area vegetatively and topographically. Most of the flora and fauna are typical of the Great Basin desert found in southern Nevada. Dominant vegetation includes Artemesia spp. and to a lesser extent Atriplex. Salsola is an abundant weed in areas that have been mechanically disturbed such as the vicinity of GZ. A 400-station live-trapping grid was established in Little Feller II, April 1977. Sixteen lines of live traps (25 traps per line, each trap 50 feet apart) comprise the 8.4 hectare grid encompassing GZ. Nine trapping periods have been completed to date totaling over 10,000 trap nights. Over 400 small vertebrates have been marked for permanent identification in the grid. Over 60 known residents (animals marked 3 months previously and recaptured in the same vicinity) have been collected and prepared for shipping; however, radioanalytical results were not available to include in this report. Both census and field note observations were used to develop an inventory of the vertebrates found in the study areas. Sufficient data have been generated from Little Feller II to estimate density of rodents. These data and comparative data from Area 5 (Mohave Desert), Area 11 (Transition), and Area 13 (Great Basin) are presented. It was readily apparent that rodents in general were more numerous in Little Feller II. In addition, Dipodomys ordii, a Great Basin species, was an important new addition to the rodent fauna

  17. Raman study of supported molybdenum disulfide single layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrer, William; Manciu, Felicia; Afanasiev, Pavel; Berhault, Gilles; Chianelli, Russell

    2008-10-01

    Owing to the increasing demand for clean transportation fuels, highly dispersed single layer transition metal sulfides such as MoS2-based catalysts play an important role in catalytic processes for upgrading and removing sulfur from heavy petroleum feed. In its crystalline bulk form, MoS2 is chemically rather inactive due to a strong tendency to form highly stacked layers, but, when dispersed as single-layer nanoclusters on a support, the MoS2 becomes catalytically active in the hydrogenolysis of sulphur and nitrogen from organic compounds (hydrotreating catalysis). In the present studies alumina-supported MoS2 samples were analyzed by confocal Raman spectroscopy. Evidence of peaks at 152 cm-1, 234 cm-1, and 336 cm-1, normally not seen in the Raman spectrum of the standard bulk crystal, confirms the formation of single layers of MoS2. Furthermore, the presence of the 383 cm-1 Raman line suggests the trigonal prismatic coordination of the formed MoS2 single layers. Depending on the sample preparation method, a restacking of MoS2 layers is also observed, mainly for ex-thiomolybdate samples sulfided at 550 C.

  18. Study of Biological Pigments by Single Specimen Derivative Spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jack M.

    1970-01-01

    The single specimen derivative (SSD) method provides an absolute absorption spectrum of a substance in the absence of a suitable reference. Both a reference and a measuring monochromatic beam pass through a single sample, and the specimen itself acts as its own reference. The two monochromatic beams maintain a fixed wavelength difference upon scanning, and the difference in absorbance of the two beams is determined. Thus, the resulting spectrum represents the first derivative of the conventional type absorption spectrum. Tissues and cell fractions have been examined at room and liquid N2 temperature and chromophoric molecules such as the mitochondrial cytochromes and blood pigments have been detectable in low concentrations. In the case of isolated cellular components, the observed effects of substrates and inhibitors confirm similar studies by conventional spectrophotometry. The extension of the SSD concept to the microscopic level has permitted the study of the tissue compartmentalization and function of cytochromes and other pigments within layered tissue. PMID:4392452

  19. Single particle studies of black liquor gasification under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K; Backman, R; Hupa, M; Backman, P; Ek, P; Hulden, S T; Kullberg, M; Sorvari, V

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide experimental data relevant to pressurized black liquor gasification concepts. Specifically, the following two goals will be achieved: Data on swelling, char yields and component release during pressurized pyrolysis of small samples of black liquor will be obtained. The reactivity and physical behavior of single black liquor droplets during simultaneous pyrolysis and gasification will be investigated. The structure and composition of black liquor char during formation and conversion will be studied. (orig.)

  20. A qualitative single case study of parallel processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2007-01-01

    Parallel process in psychotherapy and supervision is a phenomenon manifest in relationships and interactions, that originates in one setting and is reflected in another. This article presents an explorative single case study of parallel processes based on qualitative analyses of two successive...... randomly chosen psychotherapy sessions with a schizophrenic patient and the supervision session given in between. The author's analysis is verified by an independent examiner's analysis. Parallel processes are identified and described. Reflections on the dynamics of parallel processes and supervisory...

  1. New tools to study biophysical properties of single molecules and single cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio S. Rocha

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a review on two new tools to study biophysical properties of single molecules and single cells. A laser incident through a high numerical aperture microscope objective can trap small dielectric particles near the focus. This arrangement is named optical tweezers. This technique has the advantage to permit manipulation of a single individual object. We use optical tweezers to measure the entropic elasticity of a single DNA molecule and its interaction with the drug Psoralen. Optical tweezers are also used to hold a kidney cell MDCK away from the substrate to allow precise volume measurements of this single cell during an osmotic shock. This procedure allows us to obtain information about membrane water permeability and regulatory volume increase. Defocusing microscopy is a recent technique invented in our laboratory, which allows the observation of transparent objects, by simply defocusing the microscope in a controlled way. Our physical model of a defocused microscope shows that the image contrast observed in this case is proportional to the defocus distance and to the curvature of the transparent object. Defocusing microscopy is very useful to study motility and mechanical properties of cells. We show here the application of defocusing microscopy to measurements of macrophage surface fluctuations and their influence on phagocytosis.Apresentamos uma revisão de duas novas técnicas para estudar propriedades biofísicas de moléculas únicas e células únicas. Um laser incidindo em uma objetiva de microscópio de grande abertura numérica é capaz de aprisionar pequenas partículas dielétricas na região próxima ao foco. Este aparato é chamado de pinça óptica. Esta técnica tem a grande vantagem de permitir a manipulação de um objeto individual. Usamos a pinça óptica para medir a elasticidade entrópica de uma molécula única de DNA em sua interação com o fármaco Psoralen. A pinça óptica também é usada para segurar

  2. Modeling study on geological environment at Horonobe URL site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michito; Yamamoto, Hajime; Kumamoto, Sou; Fujiwara, Yasushi; Ono, Makoto

    2005-02-01

    The Horonobe underground research project has been operated by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute to study the geological environment of sedimentary rocks in deep underground. The objectives of this study are to develop a geological environment model, which incorporate the current findings and the data obtained through the geological, geophysical, and borehole investigations at Horonobe site, and to predict the hydrological and geochemical impacts caused by the URL shaft excavation to the surrounding area. A three-dimensional geological structure model was constructed, integrating a large-scale model (25km x 15km) and a high-resolution site-scale model (4km x 4km) that have been developed by JNC. The constructed model includes surface topography, geologic formations (such as Yuchi, Koetoi, Wakkanai, and Masuporo Formations), and two major faults (Ohomagari fault and N1 fault). In hydrogeological modeling, water-conductive fractures identified in Wakkanai Formation are modeled stochastically using EHCM (Equivalent Heterogeneous Continuum Model) approach, to represent hydraulic heterogeneity and anisotropy in the fractured rock mass. Numerical code EQUIV FLO (Shimo et al., 1996), which is a 3D unsaturated-saturated groundwater simulator capable of EHCM, was used to simulate the regional groundwater flow. We used the same model and the code to predict the transient hydrological changes caused by the shaft excavations. Geochemical data in the Horonobe site such as water chemistries, mineral compositions of rocks were collected and summarized into digital datasets. M3 (Multivariate, Mixing and Mass-balance) method developed by SKB (Laaksoharju et al., 1999) was used to identify waters of different origins, and to infer the mixing ratio of these end-members to reproduce each sample's chemistry. Thermodynamic code such as RHREEQC, GWB, and EQ3/6 were used to model chemical reactions that explain the present minerals and aqueous concentrations observed in the site

  3. BIOREMEDIATION TREATABILITY STUDIES OF CONTAMINATED SOILS AT WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioremediationis used frequently at sites contaminated with organic hazardous chemical where releases from processing vessels and the mismanagement of reagents and generated waste have contributed to significant impairment of the environment. At wood treater sites, process reagen...

  4. AFM studies on heavy ion irradiated YBCO single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhani, Archana; Marhas, M.K.; Saravanan, P.; Ganesan, V.; Srinivasan, R.; Kanjilal, D.; Mehta, G.K.; Elizabeth, Suja; Bhat, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is extensively used to characterise the surface morphology of high energy ion irradiated single crystals of high temperature superconductor - YBCO. Our earlier systematic studies on thin films of YBCO under high energy and heavy ion irradiation shows clear evidence of ion induced sputtering or erosion, even though the effect is more on the grain boundaries. These earlier results were supported by electrical resistance measurements. In order to understand more clearly, the nature of surface modification at these high energies, AFM studies were carried out on single crystals of YBCO. Single crystals were chosen in order to see the effect on crystallites alone without interference from grain boundaries. 200 MeV gold ions were used for investigation using the facilities available at Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi. The type of ion and the range of energies were chosen to meet the threshold for electronically mediated defect production. The results are in conformity with our earlier studies and will be described in detail in the context of electronic energy loss mediated sputtering or erosion. (author)

  5. On the simultaneous deployment of two single-particle mass spectrometers at an urban background and a roadside site during SAPUSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS provides size-resolved information on the chemical composition of single particles with high time resolution. Within SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies, continuous ATOFMS measurements of ambient particles were made simultaneously at two urban locations: urban background (UB site and roadside (RS site in the city of Barcelona (Spain from 17 September to 18 October 2010. Two different instrumental configurations were used: ATOFMS (TSI 3800 with a converging nozzle inlet (high efficiency at about 800–2000 nm at the UB site and ATOFMS (TSI 3800-100 with an aerodynamic lens inlet (high efficiency at about 300–700 nm at the RS site. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that two ATOFMS instruments have been deployed in the same field study. The different instrument configurations had an impact on the observed particle types at the two sites. Nevertheless, 10 particle types were detected at both locations, including local and regional elemental carbon (22.7–58.9 % of total particles, fresh and aged sea salt (1.0–14.6 %, local and regional nitrate-containing aerosols (3–11.6 %, local lead-containing metallic particles (0.1–0.2 %, and transported Fe-nitrate particles (0.8–2.5 %. The ATOFMS at the UB also characterized four particle types: calcium-containing dust (0.9 %, Saharan dust (1.3 %, vanadium-containing particles (0.9 %, and vegetative debris (1.7 %. By contrast, the high statistical counts of fine particles detected at the RS allowed identification of eight particle types. Four of these contained organic nitrogen of primary and secondary origin, which highlights the complex nature of the sources and processes that contribute to this aerosol chemical component. Aminium salts were found related to coarse sulfate-rich particle types, suggesting heterogeneous reaction mechanisms for their formation. The other four particle

  6. Study of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Two Sites in the Foothills of the Central Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupakheti, D.; Kang, S.; Cong, Z.; Rupakheti, M.; Tripathee, L.; Panday, A. K.; Holben, B.

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol possesses impacts on climate system and ecological environments, human health and agricultural productivity. The environment over Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau region are continuously degraded due to the transport of pollution from the foothills of the Himalayas; mostly the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). Thus, analysis of aerosol optical properties over two sites; Lumbini and Kathmandu (the southern slope of central Himalayas) using AERONET's CIMEL sun photometer were conducted in this study. Aerosol optical depth (AOD at 500 nm), angstrom exponent (α or AE), volume size distribution (VSD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (AP) were studied for 2013-2014 and the average AOD was found to be: 0.64 ± 0.41 (Lumbini) and 0.45 ± 0.30 (Kathmandu). The average AE was found to be: 1.25 ± 0.24 and 1.26 ± 0.18 respectively for two sites. The relation between AOD and AE was used to discriminate the aerosol types over these sites which indicated anthropogenic, mixed and biomass burning origin aerosol constituted the major aerosol types in Lumbini and Kathmandu. A clear bi-modal distribution of aerosol volume size was observed with highest volume concentration during the post-monsoon season in fine mode and pre-monsoon season in coarse mode (Lumbini) and highest value over both modes during pre-monsoon season in Kathmandu. The single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (AP) analyses suggested aerosols over the Himalayan foothills sites are dominated by absorbing and anthropogenic aerosols from urban and industrial activities and biomass burning. Long-term studies are essential to understand and characterize the nature of aerosol over this research gap zone.

  7. Structural Basis of Mec1-Ddc2-RPA Assembly and Activation on Single-Stranded DNA at Sites of Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ishan; Seeber, Andrew; Shimada, Kenji; Keusch, Jeremy J; Gut, Heinz; Gasser, Susan M

    2017-10-19

    Mec1-Ddc2 (ATR-ATRIP) is a key DNA-damage-sensing kinase that is recruited through the single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding replication protein A (RPA) to initiate the DNA damage checkpoint response. Activation of ATR-ATRIP in the absence of DNA damage is lethal. Therefore, it is important that damage-specific recruitment precedes kinase activation, which is achieved at least in part by Mec1-Ddc2 homodimerization. Here, we report a structural, biochemical, and functional characterization of the yeast Mec1-Ddc2-RPA assembly. High-resolution co-crystal structures of Ddc2-Rfa1 and Ddc2-Rfa1-t11 (K45E mutant) N termini and of the Ddc2 coiled-coil domain (CCD) provide insight into Mec1-Ddc2 homodimerization and damage-site targeting. Based on our structural and functional findings, we present a Mec1-Ddc2-RPA-ssDNA composite structural model. By way of validation, we show that RPA-dependent recruitment of Mec1-Ddc2 is crucial for maintaining its homodimeric state at ssDNA and that Ddc2's recruitment domain and CCD are important for Mec1-dependent survival of UV-light-induced DNA damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Seasonal variation of heavy metals in ambient air and precipitation at a single site in Washington, DC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaku, Samuel; Morris, Vernon; Raghavan, Dharmaraj; Hosten, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric samples of precipitation and ambient air were collected at a single site in Washington, DC, for 7 months (for ambient air samples) and 1 year (for wet deposition samples) and analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead. The ranges of heavy metal concentrations for 6-day wet deposition samples collected over the 1-year period were 0.20-1.3 μg/l, 0.060-5.1 μg/l, 0.062-4.6 μg/l and 0.11-3.2 μg/l for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead, respectively, with a precision better than 5% for more than 95% of the measurements. The ranges of heavy metal concentrations for the 6-day ambient air samples were 0.800-15.7 ng/m 3 , 1.50-30.0 ng/m 3 , 16.8-112 ng/m 3 , and 2.90-137 ng/m 3 for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead, respectively, with a precision better than 10%. The spread in the heavy metal concentration over the observation period suggests a high seasonal variability for heavy metal content in both ambient air and wet deposition samples. - High seasonal variability of heavy metals were observed in both ambient air and wet deposition samples

  9. Multicenter Experience with Nonischemic Multiport Laparoscopic and Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Partial Nephrectomy Utilizing Bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation Coagulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Bazzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate feasibility of multiport and laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS nonischemic laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (NI-LPN utilizing bipolar radiofrequency coagulator. Methods. Multicenter retrospective review of 60 patients (46 multiport/14 LESS undergoing NI-LPN between 4/2006 and 9/2009. Multiport and LESS NI-LPN utilized Habib 4X bipolar radiofrequency coagulator to form a hemostatic zone followed by nonischemic tumor excision and renorrhaphy. Demographics, tumor/perioperative characteristics, and outcomes were analyzed. Results. 59/60 (98.3% successfully underwent NI-LPN. Mean tumor size was 2.35 cm. Mean operative time was 160.0 minutes. Mean estimated blood loss was 131.4 mL. Preoperative/postoperative creatinine (mg/dL was 1.02/1.07 (=.471. All had negative margins. 12 (20% patients developed complications. 3 (5% developed urine leaks. No differences between multiport and LESS-PN were noted as regards demographics, tumor size, outcomes, and complications. Conclusion. Initial experience demonstrates that nonischemic multiport and LESS-PN is safe and efficacious, with excellent short-term preservation of renal function. Long-term data are needed to confirm oncological efficacy.

  10. CO Reduction to CH3OSiMe3: Electrophile-Promoted Hydride Migration at a Single Fe Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Meaghan M; Peters, Jonas C

    2017-02-22

    One of the major challenges associated with developing molecular Fischer-Tropsch catalysts is the design of systems that promote the formation of C-H bonds from H 2 and CO while also facilitating the release of the resulting CO-derived organic products. To this end, we describe the synthesis of reduced iron-hydride/carbonyl complexes that enable an electrophile-promoted hydride migration process, resulting in the reduction of coordinated CO to a siloxymethyl (L n Fe-CH 2 OSiMe 3 ) group. Intramolecular hydride-to-CO migrations are extremely rare, and to our knowledge the system described herein is the first example where such a process can be accessed from a thermally stable M(CO)(H) complex. Further addition of H 2 to L n Fe-CH 2 OSiMe 3 releases CH 3 OSiMe 3 , demonstrating net four-electron reduction of CO to CH 3 OSiMe 3 at a single Fe site.

  11. Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, A. L., E-mail: a.vasiliev56@gmail.com; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it possible to investigate any object, from parchment and wooden articles to pigments, tools, and objects of art. Studies by these methods have revealed that some articles were made by ancient masters using ancient “nanotechnologies”; hence, their comprehensive analysis calls for the latest achievements in the corresponding instrumental methods and sample preparation techniques.

  12. Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, A. L.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.

    2016-11-01

    The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it possible to investigate any object, from parchment and wooden articles to pigments, tools, and objects of art. Studies by these methods have revealed that some articles were made by ancient masters using ancient "nanotechnologies"; hence, their comprehensive analysis calls for the latest achievements in the corresponding instrumental methods and sample preparation techniques.

  13. Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, A. L.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.

    2016-01-01

    The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it possible to investigate any object, from parchment and wooden articles to pigments, tools, and objects of art. Studies by these methods have revealed that some articles were made by ancient masters using ancient “nanotechnologies”; hence, their comprehensive analysis calls for the latest achievements in the corresponding instrumental methods and sample preparation techniques.

  14. Case studies of community relations on DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program as models for Superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant, S.W.; Adler, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    Ever since the US Department of Energy (DOE) created its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974, there has been a community relations program. The community relations effort has grown as FUSRAP has grown. With 20 of 46 sites now cleaned up, considerable experience in working with FUSRAP stakeholders has been gained. Why not share that experience with others who labor on the Superfund sites? Many similarities exist between the Superfund sites and FUSRAP. FUSRAP is a large, multiple-site environmental restoration program. The challenges range from small sites requiring remedial actions measurable in weeks to major sites requiring the full remedial investigation/feasibility study process. The numerous Superfund sites throughout the United States offer the same diversity, both geographically and technically. But before DOE offers FUSRAP's community relations experience as a model, it needs to make clear that this will be a realistic model. As experiences are shared, DOE will certainly speak of the efforts that achieved its goals. But many of the problems that DOE encountered along the way will also be related. FUSRAP relies on a variety of one- and two-way communication techniques for involving stakeholders in the DOE decision-making process. Some of the techniques and experiences from the case studies are presented

  15. RESULTS CONCERNING PEDOLOGICAL STUDIES IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE FROM SLAVA RUSĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Pirnau

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of the elements, chemical processes and soil morphology, related to archaeo-zoological analysis of fauna material taken from the archaeological site of Slava Rusă, provides important information for understanding the evolution of the settlement, taking into account the close relationship between natural deposits, which include soil, and cultural features of the site. Thus, the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil are important in this context, because environmental factors that led to the formation of distinct soil, leaving traces in the morphology, are the same factors that influenced the morphology and the evolution of inhabited areas. This approach is useful if the environmental conditions that have affected the settlement have not been changed significantly over time, and, at the Slava Rusă, data regarding soil conditions suggest bioclimatic stability for a very long time. The soils are poorly evolved, texture is not differentiated, and calcium carbonates are present in the soil to depths of 3-4 m. All these features confirm that the current climate of the region remained unchanged, from the Neolithic to the present, climate underwent only insignificant oscillations.

  16. Bedrock neutralization study for the Bruin Lagoon Superfund Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patelunas, G.M.; Lenhardt, D.R.; Niece, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Bruin Lagoon site is located in Bruin Butler County, Pennsylvania, and is listed as No. 3 on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencies' National Priority List. The Lagoon contains waste petroleum tars, sulfuric acid, coal combustion ash, spent bauxite and other waste materials. This paper reports on the bedrock neutralization study, conducted to assess the feasibility of injecting caustic solutions into acid-contaminated bedrock beneath the lagoon. The site is underlain by a fine to medium grain quartz sandstone which is contaminated with acid to depths in excess of 30 feet. For this investigation, Nx-cores were obtained and pressure tests conducted to a depth of 30 feet below the top of rock. Leach tests were conducted on contaminated core sections using sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate solutions. A total of 12 core sections were exposed in 3-inch diameter test cylinders and permeated under a positive pressure of 25 to 50 psi. Measurements of leachate volume, temperature, pH, and hydraulic conductivity were recorded

  17. Hydrogeologic studies for CRNL's proposed shallow land burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killey, R.W.D.; Devgun, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    The first phase of conversion from storage to disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes at CRNL is focussed on solids with hazardous lifetimes less than 500 years. In order to use a facility buried above the water table and to achieve maximum use of radionuclide migration information from studies of existing facilities, the proposed site is located in sands above an active groundwater flow system. The selection of a permeable and geologically-simple slow system has allowed application of a wide variety of techniques for hydrogeologic evaluation of the site. Ground-probing radar in conjunction with continuously cored boreholes have provided stratigraphic data and sediments for testing. Field hydrogeologic testing has included a detailed network of piezometers for hydraulic head mapping and a series of borehole dilution tests. Measurements of contaminant sorption behaviour are also being made in the field to reduce variations in uncontrolled parameters. Mathematical models successfully simulate the real system in terms of groundwater flow. Simulations of reactive contaminant transport are more difficult, but the application of data from field tests of radionuclide migration behaviour and from existing contaminant plumes will, we believe, provide acceptably reliable predictions of the impact of failures in the engineered disposal structure

  18. Contaminated site investigation using nuclear technique: a case study of temporary transformer storage sites in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanu, J. K.

    2013-07-01

    Recent introduction of man-made toxic chemicals, and the massive relocation of natural materials to different environmental compartment like soil, ground water and atmosphere, has resulted in severe pressure on the self- cleansing capacity of recipient ecosystems. Various accomulated pollutants and contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are of much concern relative to both human and ecosystemm exposure and potential health impact. PCBs which are resistant to degradation and bioremediation accumulated in different niches of the biosphere. This significantly affects the ecological balances and cause adverse health effect on both human and the environment. Temporal transformer storage sites at four locations in Ghana (Tema, Temale, Bolgatanga and Wa) were investigated for PCB contamination using nuclear techniques. Analysis of soil samples from four temporal transformer storage sites revealed that the soil samples from Tema, Tamale, Bolgatanga and Wa were generally sandy with pH and EC ranging between 6.24 - 7.29 and 44.60 - 188.30 respectively. The PCB levels detected in the soil samples from the various locations varied considerably with mean ranging between 7.69 and 51.92 mg/kg. The highest mean PCB level was recorded at the Tema temporal transformer storage site (51.92 mg/kg), whilst the least mean level of 7.69 mg/kg was recorded at Wa storage site. At Tamale the individual levels range between 3.57 mg/kg and 38.70 mg/kg while at Bolgatanga it was 6.85 - 16.30 mg/kg and Wa, 6.08 - 14.70mg/kg. About 9% of soil samples from temporal transformer storage sites analysed had total PCBs concentrations above the 25mg/kg and 33 mg/kg level recommended by the Canadian Council of Ministers of environment (CCME) and EPA Ghana respectively for the protection of environment and human health. Generally, the Levels of PCBs in soil samples were found to decrease with increasing depth at all the temporal transformer storage sites. Results obtained using the EPA's L

  19. Tetragonal Lysozyme Interactions Studied by Site Directed Mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lisa; Karr, Laurel J.; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc

    1999-01-01

    A number of recent experimental and theoretical studies have indicated that tetragonal lysozyme crystal growth proceeds by the addition of aggregates, formed by reversible self association of the solute molecules in the bulk solution. Periodic bond chain and atomic force microscopy studies have indicated that the probable growth unit is at minimum a 43 tetramer, and most likely an octamer composed of two complete turns about the 43 axis. If these results are correct, then there are intermolecular interactions which are only formed in the solution and others only formed at the joining of the growth unit to the crystal surface. We have set out to study these interactions, and the correctness of this hypothesis, using site directed mutagenesis of specific amino acid residues involved in the different bonds. We had initially expressed wild type lysozyme in S. cervasiae with yields of approximately 5 mg/L, which were eventually raised to approximately 40 mg/L. We are now moving the expression to the Pichia system, with anticipated yields of 300 to (3)500 mg/L, comparable to what can be obtained from egg whites. An additional advantage of using recombinant protein is the greater genetic homogeneity of the material obtained and the absence of any other contaminating egg proteins. The first mutation experiments are TYR 23 (Registered) PHE or ALA and ASN 113 (Registered) ALA or ASP. Both TYR 23 and ASN 113 form part of the postulated dimerization intermolecular binding site which lead to the formation of the 43 helix. Tyrosine also participates in an intermolecular hydrogen bond with ARG 114. The results of these and subsequent experiments will be discussed.

  20. Marginal sites in for biomass production - case study sites in northern Greece. Obstacles and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiourtsis, Fotios; Keramitzis, Dimitris; Papatheodorou, Ioannis; Tsoulakaki, Dimitra; Gontzaridou, Marina; Lampetsou, Eugenia; Fragkiskakis, Nikitas; Gerwin, Werner; Repmann, Frank; Baumgarten, Wibke

    2017-04-01

    In 2016, D.A.M.T, the Hellenic Forest Service for northern Greece (Macedonia and Thrace Regions), with the support of BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg Reseach Center Landscape Development and Mining Landscapes experts and following common standard protocols of the SEEMLA project, established three plots, in the northeastern part of Greece, in Rodopi prefecture (main forest species for biomass production: Pinus Nigra, Pinus Brutia and Robinia Pseudacacia). Nearby productive ecosystems (including forests etc.) or successional sites will be used as references for estimating the potentials of MagL. Further existing plantations of energy crops on similar MagL, will be used to assess potential crop yields. These plots represent different types of marginal lands, they were specifically selected for SEEMLA purposes (reliable and sustainable exploitation of biomass) and are entirely different from other inventories, used for typical forest operations in Greece. The main differences are:  an intensively studied core area,  Soil Quality Rating (SQR) method measurements,  Soil Classification Maps - parameters estimation (land capability classes and landforms),  tightly spaced plantations (1,5 m x 1,5 m),  cropping systems,  shorter rotations and  the need for special forest management study. The combination of these requirements with the soil conditions of the area has created significant issues on plots establishment and accurate recording of supply chain stages. Main expected SEEMLA impacts are: • provide a substantial amount of EU energy needs from marginal/degraded land, • avoidance of land use conflicts by strengthening the ability to use MagL for biomass production for energy, • reduction of EU-wide greenhouse gas, • mitigation of conflicts regarding sustainability and biodiversity for the utilization of MagL for biomass production, • growth of plantations of bioenergy carriers from MagL at competitive costs, • expansion of economic opportunities

  1. Identification of a common single nucleotide polymorphism at the primer binding site of D2S1360 that causes heterozygote peak imbalance when using the Investigator HDplex Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Shota; Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Nishimura, Kazuma; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Saito, Kazuyuki

    2017-11-01

    Phenomena known as null alleles and peak imbalance can occur because of mutations in the primer binding sites used for DNA typing. In these cases, an accurate statistical evaluation of DNA typing is difficult. The estimated likelihood ratio is incorrectly calculated because of the null allele and allele dropout caused by mutation-induced peak imbalance. Although a number of studies have attempted to uncover examples of these phenomena, few reports are available on the human identification kit manufactured by Qiagen. In this study, 196 Japanese individuals who were heterozygous at D2S1360 were genotyped using an Investigator HDplex Kit with optimal amounts of DNA. A peak imbalance was frequently observed at the D2S1360 locus. We performed a sequencing analysis of the area surrounding the D2S1360 repeat motif to identify the cause for peak imbalance. A point mutation (G>A transition) 136 nucleotides upstream from the D2S1360 repeat motif was discovered in a number of samples. The allele frequency of the mutation was 0.0566 in the Japanese population. Therefore, human identification or kinship testing using the Investigator HDplex Kit requires caution because of the higher frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the primer binding site of D2S1360 locus in the Japanese population.

  2. Cell biochemistry studied by single-molecule imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashanov, G I; Nenasheva, T A; Peckham, M; Molloy, J E

    2006-11-01

    Over the last decade, there have been remarkable developments in live-cell imaging. We can now readily observe individual protein molecules within living cells and this should contribute to a systems level understanding of biological pathways. Direct observation of single fluorophores enables several types of molecular information to be gathered. Temporal and spatial trajectories enable diffusion constants and binding kinetics to be deduced, while analyses of fluorescence lifetime, intensity, polarization or spectra give chemical and conformational information about molecules in their cellular context. By recording the spatial trajectories of pairs of interacting molecules, formation of larger molecular complexes can be studied. In the future, multicolour and multiparameter imaging of single molecules in live cells will be a powerful analytical tool for systems biology. Here, we discuss measurements of single-molecule mobility and residency at the plasma membrane of live cells. Analysis of diffusional paths at the plasma membrane gives information about its physical properties and measurement of temporal trajectories enables rates of binding and dissociation to be derived. Meanwhile, close scrutiny of individual fluorophore trajectories enables ideas about molecular dimerization and oligomerization related to function to be tested directly.

  3. Tritium migration studies at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Weaver, M.O.

    1993-05-01

    Emanation of tritium from waste containers is a commonly known phenomenon. Release of tritium from buried waste packages was anticipated; therefore, a research program was developed to study both the rate of tritium release from buried containers and subsequent migration of tritium through soil. Migration of tritium away from low-level radioactive wastes buried in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site was studied. Four distinct disposal events were investigated. The oldest burial event studied was a 1976 emplacement of 3.5 million curies of tritium in a shallow land burial trench. In another event, 248 thousand curies of tritium was disposed of in an overpack emplaced 6 m below the floor of a low-level waste disposal pit. Measurement of the emanation rate of tritium out of 55 gallon drums to the overpack was studied, and an annual doubling of the emanation rate over a seven year period, ending in 1990, was found. In a third study, upward tritium migration in the soil, resulting in releases in the atmosphere were observed in a greater confinement disposal test. Releases of tritium to the atmosphere were found to be insignificant. The fourth event consisted of burial of 2.2 million curies of tritium in a greater confinement disposal operation. Emanation of tritium from the buried containers has been increasing since disposal, but no significant migration was found four years following backfilling of the disposal hole

  4. Study the active site of flavonoid applying radiation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jilan; Sun Gang; Zhang Fugen; He Yongke; Li Jiuqiang [Department of Technical Physics, Peking Univ., Beijing (China)

    2000-03-01

    Flavonoid are a large and important class of naturally occurring, low molecular weight benzo-{gamma}-pyrone derivatives which are reported to have a myriad of biological activities, but the study on the active sites of flavonoids is still ambiguous. In this paper, rutin, quercetin and baicalin have been selected as model compounds. It is well known that rutin is used in inhibiting arteriosclerosis and baicalin is antibacterial and antiviral. They have similar basic structure, but their medicinal properties are so different, why? As most flavonoids contain carbonyl group, which can capture electron effectively, we predict that flavonoids can capture electron to form radical anion. The formation of anion radical may have influence on the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The difference in the ability of forming anion radical may cause the difference in their medicinal effects. (author)

  5. Study the active site of flavonoid applying radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan; Sun Gang; Zhang Fugen; He Yongke; Li Jiuqiang

    2000-01-01

    Flavonoid are a large and important class of naturally occurring, low molecular weight benzo-γ-pyrone derivatives which are reported to have a myriad of biological activities, but the study on the active sites of flavonoids is still ambiguous. In this paper, rutin, quercetin and baicalin have been selected as model compounds. It is well known that rutin is used in inhibiting arteriosclerosis and baicalin is antibacterial and antiviral. They have similar basic structure, but their medicinal properties are so different, why? As most flavonoids contain carbonyl group, which can capture electron effectively, we predict that flavonoids can capture electron to form radical anion. The formation of anion radical may have influence on the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The difference in the ability of forming anion radical may cause the difference in their medicinal effects. (author)

  6. Nuclear Energy Center study. Phase II. Site suitability analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, W.S.; Sharp, J.M.; Benator, B.I.

    1978-06-01

    A site screening study was conducted to identify a site or sites for detailed, site-specific study as a nuclear energy center. Using technical criteria of water requirements, geotechnical constraints, and projected load center and transmission considerations as well as environmental and institutional considerations, five potential study sites in the State of South Carolina were identified, evaluated against established criteria, and ranked according to their acceptability as potential nuclear energy center study sites. Consideration of what is ''representative'' of a site as well as the ranking score was factored into site recommendations, since the site deemed easiest to license and permit may not be the most desirable site for future study of the technical and institutional feasibility and practicality of a specific site. The sites near Lake Hartwell and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) of the Department of Energy were selected as potential study sites after consideration of the above criteria. Because the Lake Hartwell site offers the opportunity to consider institutional issues which may be more representative of other possible NEC sites, it is recommended that the Lake Hartwell site be studied to establish the feasibility and practicality of the nuclear energy concept on a site-specific basis.

  7. Nuclear Energy Center study. Phase II. Site suitability analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, W.S.; Sharp, J.M.; Benator, B.I.

    1978-06-01

    A site screening study was conducted to identify a site or sites for detailed, site-specific study as a nuclear energy center. Using technical criteria of water requirements, geotechnical constraints, and projected load center and transmission considerations as well as environmental and institutional considerations, five potential study sites in the State of South Carolina were identified, evaluated against established criteria, and ranked according to their acceptability as potential nuclear energy center study sites. Consideration of what is ''representative'' of a site as well as the ranking score was factored into site recommendations, since the site deemed easiest to license and permit may not be the most desirable site for future study of the technical and institutional feasibility and practicality of a specific site. The sites near Lake Hartwell and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) of the Department of Energy were selected as potential study sites after consideration of the above criteria. Because the Lake Hartwell site offers the opportunity to consider institutional issues which may be more representative of other possible NEC sites, it is recommended that the Lake Hartwell site be studied to establish the feasibility and practicality of the nuclear energy concept on a site-specific basis

  8. Studying repair of a single protein-bound nick in vivo using the Flp-nick system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ida; Andersen, Anni Hangaard; Bjergbæk, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    The Flp-nick system is a simple in vivo system developed for studying the cellular responses to a protein-bound nick at a single genomic site in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Flp-nick system takes advantage of a mutant Flp recombinase that can introduce a nick at a specific Flp ...

  9. Construction Site Workers’ Awareness on Using Safety Equipment: Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ulang N. Md; Salim N. S.; Baharum F.; Agus Salim N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Construction sector is an important sector and contributed significantly to national development. However, this sector poses higher risk to accident. This is due to fact that construction site can be considered as a dangerous zone to workers and to the public. Due to the variety of cases occurs on site, the contractor will usually have to pay the cost related to accidents in the form of higher insurance premium. Despite various measures, accidents still occur at construction sites. Personal P...

  10. RECRUITMENT PROCESS IN MNC'S THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA SITES - A STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. B. L. Sairam Subramaniam; B. Naveen Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Many organizations are carrying out recruitment process by using social media networking sites. Social networking sites are used to facilitate and improve process of recruitment method in HR management. Social networking sites address the needs of employers and job-seekers via internetworking on electronic platform likes face book, twitter, LinkedIn, naukri.com, and monster.com which increase the speed of employment, reducing the cost of recruitment, huge availability of jobseekers and improv...

  11. The use of modern dressings in managing split-thickness skin graft donor sites: a single-centre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanavičius, M; Cepas, A; Kolaityte, V; Simoliuniene, R; Rimdeika, R

    2017-06-02

    To identify the most appropriate, most suitable and most efficient dressing for split-thickness skin graft (STSG) donor sites. Comparing the wound healing rate, pain severity and duration, as well as the dressing change frequency in four randomised patient groups. A single-centre non-blinded randomised controlled trial was carried out during 2010-2014. All patients treated for skin defects/lesions (due to burns, trauma or ulcers) using STSG were included in the study. All patients were randomly allocated in four different donor site treatment groups; polyurethane (PU group, Mepilex); polyurethane with silicone membrane (PUSM group; Mepilex border,); transparent, breathable film (TBF group; Mepitel film) and cotton gauze dressings (CG group) using Excel 2007. We evaluated: wound healing time, pain severity and duration, the frequency of dressing change, donor site re-epithelialisation, donor site complications (signs of inflammation or infection). Patients were assessed on postoperative days: 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21. After random allocation of study participants the number of patients in each group were: PU group n=25; PUSM group n=24; TBF group n=24; CG group n=25. The groups were homogenous according to gender, age, main pathology, donor site area and wound size. The STSG donor site healing time varied from 9 to 21 days. The mean healing time in the CG group was 14.76 days, whereas in the PU, PUSM, and TBF group it was significantly shorter; 12.25 days, 11.63 days and 10 days, respectively. Patients in the TBF group demonstrated the most rapid healing time with 66.7% of STSG donor sites healed by postoperative day 9. The pain duration interval in modern dressing groups (PU, PUSM and TBF groups) was 0-9 days, whereas it was 6-18 day in the CS group. Pain intensity mean on postoperative day 1 was 2.21 in the PU group; 1.67 in the PUSM group; 1.46 in the TBF group and 3.04 in the CG group. The average pain duration in Group PU, PUSM, and TBF was 4.08 days; 2

  12. Background complementary hydrogeochemical studies. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinowski, Birgitta E. (ed.)

    2008-08-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes of copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, uranium, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise

  13. Single Event Upset Studies Using the ATLAS SCT

    CERN Document Server

    Weidberg, A R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Single Event Upsets (SEU) are expected to occur during high luminosity running of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). The SEU cross sections were measured in pion beams with momenta in the range 200 to 465 MeV/c and proton test beams at 24 GeV/c but the extrapolation to LHC conditions is non-trivial because of the range of particle types and momenta. The SEUs studied occur in the \\emph{p-i-n} photodiode and the registers in the ABCD chip. Comparisons between predicted SEU rates and those measured from ATLAS data are presented. The implications for ATLAS operation are discussed.

  14. Single Event Upset Studies Using the ATLAS SCT

    CERN Document Server

    Dafinca, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Weidberg, A R

    2014-01-01

    Single Event Upsets (SEU) are expected to occur during high luminosity running of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). The SEU cross sections were measured in pion beams with momenta in the range 200 to 465 MeV/c and proton test beams at 24 GeV/c but the extrapolation to LHC conditions is non-trivial because of the range of particle types and momenta. The SEUs studied occur in the p-i-n photodiode and the registers in the ABCD chip. Comparisons between predicted SEU rates and those measured from ATLAS data are presented. The implications for ATLAS operation are discussed

  15. Single crystal NMR studies of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, C.H.; Durand, D.J.; Zax, D.B.; Slichter, C.P.; Rice, J.P.; Bukowski, E.D.; Ginsberg, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report Cu NMR studies in the normal state of a single crystal of the T/sub c/ = 90 K superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7/minus/δ/. The authors have measured the magnetic shift tensor, the electric field gradient tensor, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate tensor, and the time dependence and functional form of the transverse decay. From these data they obtain information about the charge state and magnetic state of the Cu atoms, and the existence and size of the electronic exchange coupling between spins of adjacent Cu atoms. 18 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. pLoc-mAnimal: predict subcellular localization of animal proteins with both single and multiple sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiang; Zhao, Shu-Guang; Lin, Wei-Zhong; Xiao, Xuan; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2017-11-15

    Cells are deemed the basic unit of life. However, many important functions of cells as well as their growth and reproduction are performed via the protein molecules located at their different organelles or locations. Facing explosive growth of protein sequences, we are challenged to develop fast and effective method to annotate their subcellular localization. However, this is by no means an easy task. Particularly, mounting evidences have indicated proteins have multi-label feature meaning that they may simultaneously exist at, or move between, two or more different subcellular location sites. Unfortunately, most of the existing computational methods can only be used to deal with the single-label proteins. Although the 'iLoc-Animal' predictor developed recently is quite powerful that can be used to deal with the animal proteins with multiple locations as well, its prediction quality needs to be improved, particularly in enhancing the absolute true rate and reducing the absolute false rate. Here we propose a new predictor called 'pLoc-mAnimal', which is superior to iLoc-Animal as shown by the compelling facts. When tested by the most rigorous cross-validation on the same high-quality benchmark dataset, the absolute true success rate achieved by the new predictor is 37% higher and the absolute false rate is four times lower in comparison with the state-of-the-art predictor. To maximize the convenience of most experimental scientists, a user-friendly web-server for the new predictor has been established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/pLoc-mAnimal/, by which users can easily get their desired results without the need to go through the complicated mathematics involved. xxiao@gordonlifescience.org or kcchou@gordonlifescience.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Computational/experimental studies of isolated, single component droplet combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryer, Frederick L.

    1993-01-01

    Isolated droplet combustion processes have been the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical investigations for nearly 40 years. The gross features of droplet burning are qualitatively embodied by simple theories and are relatively well understood. However, there remain significant aspects of droplet burning, particularly its dynamics, for which additional basic knowledge is needed for thorough interpretations and quantitative explanations of transient phenomena. Spherically-symmetric droplet combustion, which can only be approximated under conditions of both low Reynolds and Grashof numbers, represents the simplest geometrical configuration in which to study the coupled chemical/transport processes inherent within non-premixed flames. The research summarized here, concerns recent results on isolated, single component, droplet combustion under microgravity conditions, a program pursued jointly with F.A. Williams of the University of California, San Diego. The overall program involves developing and applying experimental methods to study the burning of isolated, single component droplets, in various atmospheres, primarily at atmospheric pressure and below, in both drop towers and aboard space-based platforms such as the Space Shuttle or Space Station. Both computational methods and asymptotic methods, the latter pursued mainly at UCSD, are used in developing the experimental test matrix, in analyzing results, and for extending theoretical understanding. Methanol, and the normal alkanes, n-heptane, and n-decane, have been selected as test fuels to study time-dependent droplet burning phenomena. The following sections summarizes the Princeton efforts on this program, describe work in progress, and briefly delineate future research directions.

  18. Direct Binding to Replication Protein A (RPA)-coated Single-stranded DNA Allows Recruitment of the ATR Activator TopBP1 to Sites of DNA Damage*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Julyana; Yan, Shan; Michael, W. Matthew

    2016-01-01

    A critical event for the ability of cells to tolerate DNA damage and replication stress is activation of the ATR kinase. ATR activation is dependent on the BRCT (BRCA1 C terminus) repeat-containing protein TopBP1. Previous work has shown that recruitment of TopBP1 to sites of DNA damage and stalled replication forks is necessary for downstream events in ATR activation; however, the mechanism for this recruitment was not known. Here, we use protein binding assays and functional studies in Xenopus egg extracts to show that TopBP1 makes a direct interaction, via its BRCT2 domain, with RPA-coated single-stranded DNA. We identify a point mutant that abrogates this interaction and show that this mutant fails to accumulate at sites of DNA damage and that the mutant cannot activate ATR. These data thus supply a mechanism for how the critical ATR activator, TopBP1, senses DNA damage and stalled replication forks to initiate assembly of checkpoint signaling complexes. PMID:27129245

  19. The content and design of Web sites : an empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, EKRE

    2000-01-01

    To support the emergence of a solid knowledge base for analyzing Web activity, we have developed a framework to analyze and categorize the capabilities of Web sites. This distinguishes content from design. Content refers to the information, features, or services that are offered in the Web site,

  20. Application of single photon ECT for dynamic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, T.; Ishii, Y.; Tamaki, N.

    1982-01-01

    Feasibility of dynamic study in a form of ECT using a rotating gamma camera was evaluated. Since it takes longer one around time sampling, application for the dynamic study is limited under following conditions; 1) physiological gated process, 2) slow clearance process, 3) physiological steady state process. The gated study was applicated for heart pumping action synchronized with ECG. The ECG gated heart ECT either of blood pool or myocardium was useful to reveal a subtle wall motion abnormalities in a tomographic plane, even when a planar imaging failed to reveal it. As for slow dynamic process of tracer, an excretion process of hepatobiliary agent, was subjected to be analyzed in order to calculate clearance rate at each pixel. As for steady state process, an ECT of regional celebral blood flow (rCBF) was investigated during continuous infusion into intracarotid artery. All of these technique were proved to have a clinical feasibility and to potentiate usefulness of the single photon ECT (SPECT)

  1. Testing single-grain quartz OSL methods using sediment samples with independent age control from the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Roches d'Abilly site, Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, Andrew Sean; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2016-01-01

    We present quartz single-grain dose distributions for four well-bleached and unmixed sediment samples with independent age control (22–48 ka), from the archaeologically important Bordes-Fitte rockshelter at Roches d'Abilly, France. This site has previously been dated using 14C AMS dating and stan...

  2. Production of propylene from 1-butene on highly active "bi-functional single active site" catalyst: Tungsten carbene-hydride supported on alumina

    KAUST Repository

    Mazoyer, Etienne; Szeto, Kaï Chung; Norsic, Sé bastien; Garron, Anthony; Basset, Jean-Marie; Nicholas, Christopher P.; Taoufik, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    1-Butene is transformed in a continuous flow reactor over tungsten hydrides precursor W-H/Al2O3, 1, giving a promising yield into propylene at 150 °C and different pressures. Tungsten carbene-hydride single active site operates as a "bi

  3. Coaching at the Building Site – A Feasibility Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Alsdorf, Morten; Sander, Dag

    2006-01-01

    successfully at a building site, in certain specific situations. The feeling of security is important for the focus persons at the building site and is best obtained in the open air. The way the leader acts towards the employee/focus person is decisive. Consciousness and responsibility is developed......Coaching has become widely used in business, and is well described. However it is rarely used in construction. This makes a contrast to the poor performance of site interaction, leading to a vast amount of reported cooperation and coordination problems. This paper investigates the feasibility...... observations in a building site operating with lean construction, where the managers did not use coaching consciously in their interaction with employees. 29 participant observations of five of the managers at the building site were carried out, at individual- and group meetings. Coaching can be used...

  4. Single dose toxicity and biodistribution studies of [18F] fluorocholine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Danielle C.; Santos, Priscilla F.; Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z.; Malamut, Carlos; Silva, Juliana B. da; Souza, Cristina M.; Campos, Liliane C.; Ferreira, Enio; Araujo, Marina R.; Cassali, Geovanni D.

    2013-01-01

    [ 18 F]Fluorocholine ( 18 FCH) is a valuable tool for non-invasive diagnosis using positron emission tomography (PET). This radiotracer has been proven to be highly effective in detecting recurrences and staging prostate cancer, diagnoses brain, breast, and esophageal tumors and also hepatocellular carcinoma. The higher uptake of fluorocholine by malignant tumors results from increased choline kinase activity due to accelerated cell multiplication and membrane formation. According to the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), radiopharmaceuticals have to be registered before commercialization. The aim of this work was to evaluate single dose toxicity and biodistribution of 18 FCH in mice, since preclinical safety studies are required for register. Experimental procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Use (CEUA-IPEN/SP). Single dose toxicity and biodistribution studies were conducted in Swiss mice. No signs of toxicity were observed during clinical trial. No changes in the parameters which were examined, such as: body weight, food consumption, clinical pathology parameters or lesions microscopic were noted. Biodistribution results indicated high physiological tracer uptake in kidney, liver and heart 30 min after injection. Lower activities were recorded in other organs/tissues: pancreas, intestine, spleen, bone, bladder, muscle, brain and blood. Initial preclinical investigations showed no toxic effects of 18 FCH at investigated doses and a biodistribution profile very similar to other reports in literature. This information is essential to support future human trials. (author)

  5. [Clinical retrospective control study of single-port laparoendoscopic and multi-port laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Wen, M K; Liu, H Y; Sun, D W; Lang, J H; Fan, Q B; Shi, H H

    2017-10-25

    Objective: To investigate clinical outcomes of laparoendoscopic single-site ovarian cystectomy compared with traditional multi-port laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy. Methods: Data of 81 patients with ovarian cystectomy from January 2016 to May 2017, the single-site group ( n= 40) and the multi-port group ( n= 41) in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were retrospectively collected. The outcomes of single-site and multi-port groups were analyzed and compared, including: postoperative fever, operation time, blood loss, hemoglobin change, surgical complications, postoperative pain score, postoperative analgesic requirements, body image scale and cosmetic score, length of hospital stay, postoperative total cost. Results: No complication was found in two groups. No difference was found in postoperative fever, blood loss, hemoglobin change, postoperative pain score, length of hospital stay, and total cost between the two groups (all P> 0.05). Operation time was (50±20) minutes in single-site group, and (40±15) minutes in multi-port group; postoperative analgesic requirements was 28%(11/40) in single-site group, and 7%(4/41) in multi-port group; cosmetic score was 22.6±2.6 in single-site group, and 17.3±2.6 in multi-port group; body image scale was 5.7±1.2 in single-site group, and 6.2±1.2 in multi-port group; these four clinical parameters were statistical differences (all P< 0.05). Conculsion: Laparoendoscopic single-site ovarian cystectomy is feasible and safe, although it could't relieve the postoperative pian, it do offer a higher cosmetic satisfaction.

  6. Design of an environmental site assessment template for open radioactive site contamination : a radioecological risk approach and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.

    2004-01-01

    To reduce redundancy, cost, and time, while at the same time ultimately increasing the effectiveness of the radioactive risk management process, a logical framework incorporating risk assessments (human cancer and environmental risks) into the environmental site assessment process was designed for radioactive open site contamination. Risk-based corrective action is becoming an increasingly more acceptable approach for the remediation of contaminated sites. In the past, cleanup goals were usually established without any regard to the risk involved, by mandating remediation goals based solely on maximum contamination levels. Now, a multi-stage environmental site assessment template has been developed on a radioecological approach. The template gives a framework for making environmentally sound decisions based on relevant regulations and guidelines. The first stage involves the comparison of the background screening activity level to the regulated activity level, the second stage involves the use of site-specific information to determine the risk involved with the contamination, and the third stage provides a remediation decision matrix based on results from the first two stages. This environmental site assessment template is unique because it incorporates the modified Canadian National Classification System for radioactive contaminated sites and two different types of risk assessments (human cancer risks and the newly designed ecological risk) into the decision making process. The template was used to assess a radiologically contaminated site at the Canadian Forces Base at Suffield (Alberta) as a case study, and it reaffirms the Department of National Defence's action as appropriate. This particular site is a Class 3, has an overall insignificant human cancer risk ( -6 ) and a low environmental risk, and conforms to all regulated guidelines. Currently, it is restricted and should be left as is, provided that the subsurface is not disturbed. (author)

  7. Toward a regional power plant siting method: AEC-Maryland regional siting factors study, FY 1974 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaffee, S.L.; Miller, C.A.

    1974-11-01

    The ''AEC-Maryland Regional Siting Factors Study'' examines the process of siting in a regional context. It is developing an analysis method to delineate candidate areas for siting of several power plant technology packages, including both fossil-fueled and nuclear options. Tools that are being used include simulation modeling, economic and demographic forecasting, spatial analysis, and computer graphics and numerical manipulation. The approach will describe the trade-offs incurred if a power plant is located in one candidate area rather than in another. In FY 1974, a suitability analysis method was developed which uses engineering and environmental parameters to define a level of environmental cost incurred if a segment of land is used to site a specific technology package. (U.S.)

  8. Technical procedures for implementation of aesthetics site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This chapter introduces the purpose and scope of the visually affected areas determination, as well as definitions, interfaces, and concurrent data needs. This procedure provides a method for determining the extent of visibility of the project. This area is identified as the visually affected area, and becomes the area within which all visual analysis is conducted. The visually affected area analysis of the Deaf Smith County site will involve identifying and mapping the visibility of all major proposed project features. Baseline analysis will be conducted within the overall visually affected area; impact assessment will be conducted within the visually affected area of each major project feature. This procedure presents the guidelines for determining the visually affected area will be in computer data base construction; viewshed modeling, and site visit and verification of results. Computer data base construction will involve digitizing topographic and project facility data from available data source. The extent of the visible area from each major project feature will then be plotted. Finally, these computer-generated visibility plots will be verified in the field

  9. Site study plan for Deep Hydronest Test Wells, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    Wells called Deep Hydronest Wells will be installed at six locations at the Deaf Smith County Site to characterize hydraulic parameters in the geologic column between the top of the San Andres Formation and the base of Pennsylvanian System. Three hydronests will be drilled during early stages of site characterization to provide data for performance assessment modeling. Four wells are proposed for each of these 3 nests. Results of drilling, testing, and preliminary modeling will direct drilling and testing activities at the last 3 nests. Two wells are proposed at each of the last 3 nests for a total of 18 wells. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which this program will operate. Drilling and hydrologic testing of the first Deep Hydronest will begin early in the Surface Investigation Program. Drilling and testing of the first three Deep Hydronests will require about 18 months. After 12 months of evaluating and analyzing data from the first three hydronests, the remaining three hydronests will be drilled during a 12-month period. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be used to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 36 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs

  10. EPR and optical absorption studies of paramagnetic molecular ion (VO2+) in Lithium Sodium Acid Phthalate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbulakshmi, N.; Kumar, M. Saravana; Sheela, K. Juliet; Krishnan, S. Radha; Shanmugam, V. M.; Subramanian, P.

    2017-12-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies of VO2+ ions as paramagnetic impurity in Lithium Sodium Acid Phthalate (LiNaP) single crystal have been done at room temperature on X-Band microwave frequency. The lattice parameter values are obtained for the chosen system from Single crystal X-ray diffraction study. Among the number of hyperfine lines in the EPR spectra only two sets are reported from EPR data. The principal values of g and A tensors are evaluated for the two different VO2+ sites I and II. They possess the crystalline field around the VO2+ as orthorhombic. Site II VO2+ ion is identified as substitutional in place of Na1 location and the other site I is identified as interstitial location. For both sites in LiNaP, VO2+ are identified in octahedral coordination with tetragonal distortion as seen from the spin Hamiltonian parameter values. The ground state of vanadyl ion in the LiNaP single crystal is dxy. Using optical absorption data the octahedral and tetragonal parameters are calculated. By correlating EPR and optical data, the molecular orbital bonding parameters have been discussed for both sites.

  11. Site study plan for regional hydrologic sampling and monitoring: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Regional Hydrologic Studies Plan is to describe those field activities required for completion of the objectives of hydrologic activities. Many of these activities are regional in scope and are designed to provide a framework for understanding the hydrologic setting of the site and the hydrologic processes that influence site characteristics. Site Study Plans (SSPs) define activates at and in the immediate vicinity of the site. The activities specified in the Regional Hydrologic Studies Plan are performed beyond the confines of the site because the hydrologic systems extend beyond the site boundaries, because pertinent data that bear on site suitability are available outside of the site, and because natural analogues exist outside of the site that allow analysis of processes that are expected to operate within the site. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. Savannah River Site: Canyons and associated facilities utilization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, D.; Dickenson, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company was asked by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to study options for utilization of Savannah River Site (SRS) Canyons and Associated Facilities to support existing and potential future material stabilization and/or disposition missions. This report is WSRC's response to that request. It includes: (1) A compilation of pending DOE material stabilization and/or disposition decisions involving utilization of SRS canyons and associated facilities, including discussion of quantities and expected availability of materials for which SRS handling and/or processing capability is a reasonable alternative under consideration. (2) A description of SRS canyons and associated facilities affected by pending DOE material stabilization and/or disposition decisions, including discussion of material handling and/or processing capabilities and capacities. (3) A comparative evaluation of three proposed scenarios for SRS canyon utilization with respect to startup and operating schedules; annual and life cycle costs; impacts on completion of commitments in the DOE Implementation Plan (IP) for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1; SRS ability to support alternatives under consideration in pending DOE materials stabilization and/or disposition decisions; and timing for potential transition to deactivation. (4) The sensitivity of the comparative evaluation of the three canyon utilization scenarios to the effect of the selection of other alternatives for individual stabilization missions or individual new missions. Briefings on the scope of this study have been presented to key representatives of several SRS public stakeholder groups. Briefings on the major conclusions from this study have been presented to WSRC Management, DOE-SR, EM-60, EM-1, and the DNFSB

  13. Savannah River Site reactor hardware design modification study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the merits of proposed design modifications to the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors. The evaluation was based on the responses calculated by the RELAP5 systems code to double-ended guillotine break loss-of-coolant-accidents (DEGB LOCAs). The three concepts evaluated were (a) elevated plenum inlet piping with a guard vessel and clamshell enclosures, (b) closure of both rotovalves in the affected loop, and (c) closure of the pump suction valve in the affected loop. Each concept included a fast reactor shutdown (to 65% power in 100 ms) and a 2-s ac pump trip. System recovery potential was evaluated for break locations at the pump suction, the pump discharge, and the plenum inlet. The code version used was RELAP5/MOD2.5 version 3d3, a preliminary version of RELAP5/MOD3. The model was a three-dimensional representation of the K-Reactor water plenum and moderator tank. It included explicit representations of all six loops, which were based on the configuration of L-Reactor. A combination of features is recommended to ensure liquid inventory recovery for all break locations. Valve closure design performance for a break location in the short section of piping between the reactor concrete shield and the pump suction valve would benefit from the clamshell enclosing that section of piping. 7 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Report of the Fermilab Committee for Site Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Holmes, Vic Kuchler et. al.

    2001-09-10

    Fermilab is the flagship laboratory of the U.S. high-energy physics program. The Fermilab accelerator complex has occupied the energy frontier nearly continuously since its construction in the early 1970s. It will remain at the frontier until the Large Hadron Collider at CERN begins operating in 2006-7. A healthy future for Fermilab will likely require construction of a new accelerator in the post-LHC era. The process of identifying, constructing and operating a future forefront facility will require the support of the world high-energy-physics community, the governments and funding agencies of many nations and the people of surrounding communities. This report explores options for construction of a new facility on or near the existing Fermilab site. We began the study that forms the basis of this report with the idea that Fermilab, and the surrounding area of northeastern Illinois, possesses attributes that make it an attractive candidate for a new accelerator construction project: excellent geology; a Fermilab staff and local contractors who are experienced in subsurface construction; abundant energy supplies; good access to transportation networks; the presence of local universities with strong interest and participation in the Fermilab research program; Fermilab's demonstrated ability to mount large accelerator construction projects and operate complex accelerator facilities; and a surrounding community that is largely supportive of Fermilab's presence. Our report largely confirms these perceptions.

  15. Report of the Fermilab Committee for Site Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steve, Holmes; Vic, Kuchler

    2001-01-01

    Fermilab is the flagship laboratory of the U.S. high-energy physics program. The Fermilab accelerator complex has occupied the energy frontier nearly continuously since its construction in the early 1970s. It will remain at the frontier until the Large Hadron Collider at CERN begins operating in 2006-7. A healthy future for Fermilab will likely require construction of a new accelerator in the post-LHC era. The process of identifying, constructing and operating a future forefront facility will require the support of the world high-energy-physics community, the governments and funding agencies of many nations and the people of surrounding communities. This report explores options for construction of a new facility on or near the existing Fermilab site. We began the study that forms the basis of this report with the idea that Fermilab, and the surrounding area of northeastern Illinois, possesses attributes that make it an attractive candidate for a new accelerator construction project: excellent geology; a Fermilab staff and local contractors who are experienced in subsurface construction; abundant energy supplies; good access to transportation networks; the presence of local universities with strong interest and participation in the Fermilab research program; Fermilab's demonstrated ability to mount large accelerator construction projects and operate complex accelerator facilities; and a surrounding community that is largely supportive of Fermilab's presence. Our report largely confirms these perceptions

  16. NREL Studies Wind Farm Aerodynamics to Improve Siting (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    NREL researchers have used high-tech instruments and high-performance computing to understand atmospheric turbulence and turbine wake behavior in order to improve wind turbine design and siting within wind farms.

  17. Ringhals Site Study 2013 - An assessment of the decommissioning cost for the Ringhals site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Tommy [Ringhals AB, Ringhals (Sweden); Norberg, Thomas [Solvina AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Knutsson, Andreas; Fors, Patrik; Sandebert, Camilla [Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-03-15

    This report presents the decommissioning cost for the Ringhals site as of 2013. The objective has been to make a best estimate of the costs within the uncertainties of a budgetary estimate. To achieve this, the decommissioning costs have been assessed with support from TLG Services Inc., utilizing their knowledge and experience from U.S. decommissioning projects incorporated in their cost estimation platform DECCER. The 2013 estimate has included the development of a Ringhals-specific cost estimation method that allows for successive improvement in the future. In-house experiences have been included and the method is based on the present decommissioning strategy according to Ringhals decommissioning plan. Two basic approaches have been used in the cost assessment; a bottom up approach to develop unit cost factors (UCF) for recurrent work; and a specific analogy approach for cost estimating special items. The basic, activity-dependent, costs have been complemented by period-dependent costs, derived, among other things, from SKB's newly developed reference planning and organizational model for a Swedish decommissioning project. Furthermore, collateral costs based on the experiences of Barsebaeck have been included. As a final point, all costs have been adjusted for industrial standard contingencies, as suggested by TLG, to achieve a best estimate. In order to make the cost intelligible a comprehensive description of the assumptions, boundary conditions and general basis of the estimate is included in this report. All costs have been reported both according to the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations published by OECD/NEA and according to the SKB developed EEF structure. Furthermore, common costs have been isolated to a theoretical unit 0 to make the cost for respective unit even more comparable on a national and international scale. The calculations show that the total cost for the decommissioning of the Ringhals

  18. Ringhals Site Study 2013 - An assessment of the decommissioning cost for the Ringhals site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, Tommy; Norberg, Thomas; Knutsson, Andreas; Fors, Patrik; Sandebert, Camilla

    2013-03-01

    This report presents the decommissioning cost for the Ringhals site as of 2013. The objective has been to make a best estimate of the costs within the uncertainties of a budgetary estimate. To achieve this, the decommissioning costs have been assessed with support from TLG Services Inc., utilizing their knowledge and experience from U.S. decommissioning projects incorporated in their cost estimation platform DECCER. The 2013 estimate has included the development of a Ringhals-specific cost estimation method that allows for successive improvement in the future. In-house experiences have been included and the method is based on the present decommissioning strategy according to Ringhals decommissioning plan. Two basic approaches have been used in the cost assessment; a bottom up approach to develop unit cost factors (UCF) for recurrent work; and a specific analogy approach for cost estimating special items. The basic, activity-dependent, costs have been complemented by period-dependent costs, derived, among other things, from SKB's newly developed reference planning and organizational model for a Swedish decommissioning project. Furthermore, collateral costs based on the experiences of Barsebaeck have been included. As a final point, all costs have been adjusted for industrial standard contingencies, as suggested by TLG, to achieve a best estimate. In order to make the cost intelligible a comprehensive description of the assumptions, boundary conditions and general basis of the estimate is included in this report. All costs have been reported both according to the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations published by OECD/NEA and according to the SKB developed EEF structure. Furthermore, common costs have been isolated to a theoretical unit 0 to make the cost for respective unit even more comparable on a national and international scale. The calculations show that the total cost for the decommissioning of the Ringhals site is

  19. Crystal plasticity study of single crystal tungsten by indentation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Weizhi

    2012-01-01

    Owing to its favorable material properties, tungsten (W) has been studied as a plasma-facing material in fusion reactors. Experiments on W heating in plasma sources and electron beam facilities have shown an intense micro-crack formation at the heated surface and sub-surface. The cracks go deep inside the irradiated sample, and often large distorted areas caused by local plastic deformation are present around the cracks. To interpret the crack-induced microscopic damage evolution process in W, one needs firstly to understand its plasticity on a single grain level, which is referred to as crystal plasticity. In this thesis, the crystal plasticity of single crystal tungsten (SCW) has been studied by spherical and Berkovich indentation tests and the finite element method with a crystal plasticity model. Appropriate values of the material parameters included in the crystal plasticity model are determined by fitting measured load-displacement curves and pile-up profiles with simulated counterparts for spherical indentation. The numerical simulations reveal excellent agreement with experiment. While the load-displacement curves and the deduced indentation hardness exhibit little sensitivity to the indented plane at small indentation depths, the orientation of slip directions within the crystals governs the development of deformation hillocks at the surface. It is found that several factors like friction, indentation depth, active slip systems, misoriented crystal orientation, misoriented sample surface and azimuthal orientation of the indenter can affect the indentation behavior of SCW. The Berkovich indentation test was also used to study the crystal plasticity of SCW after deuterium irradiation. The critical load (pop-in load) for triggering plastic deformation under the indenter is found to depend on the crystallographic orientation. The pop-in loads decrease dramatically after deuterium plasma irradiation for all three investigated crystallographic planes.

  20. A Case Study in the Mars Landing Site Selection for Science Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haingja Seo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a crucial matter to select a landing site for landers or rovers in planning the Mars exploration. The landing site must have not only a scientific value as a landing site, but also geographical features to lead a safe landing for Mars probes. In this regard, this study analyzed landing site of Mars probes and rovers in previous studies and discussed the adequacy of the landing site to scientific missions. Moreover, this study also examined domestic studies on the Mars. The frameworks of these studies will guide the selection of exploration sites and a landing site when sending Mars probe to the Mars through our own efforts. Additionally, this paper will be used as the preliminary data for selection of exploration site and a landing site.

  1. RPAS AND TLS TECNIQUES FOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY: THE CASE STUDY OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE OF ERACLEA MINOA (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lo Brutto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Digital documentation and 3D modelling of archaeological sites are important for understanding, definition and recognition of the values of the sites and of the archaeological finds. The most part of archaeological sites are outdoor location, but a cover to preserve the ruins protects often parts of the sites. The possibility to acquire data with different techniques and merge them by using a single reference system allows creating multi-parties models in which 3D representations of the individual objects can be inserted. The paper presents the results of a recent study carried out by Geomatics Laboratory of University of Palermo for the digital documentation and 3D modelling of Eraclea Minoa archaeological site. This site is located near Agrigento, in the south of Sicily (Italy and is one of the most famous ancient Greek colonies of Sicily. The paper presents the results of the integration of different data source to survey the Eraclea Minoa archaeological site. The application of two highly versatile recording systems, the TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning and the RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System, allowed the Eraclea Minoa site to be documented in high resolution and with high accuracy. The integration of the two techniques has demonstrated the possibility to obtain high quality and accurate 3D models in archaeological survey.

  2. Parametric study of single-axis acoustic levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.

    2001-08-06

    Remarkable enhancement of the single-axis acoustic levitation force is achieved by properly curving the surface and enlarging the section of the reflector so as to levitate high density material like tungsten ({rho}{sub s}=18.92g/cm{sup 3}). A two-cylinder model incorporating the boundary element method simulations is presented for systematic study of the relationship between levitation capabilities and geometric parameters. The model proves to be successful in predicting resonant modes and explaining deviation of the levitated samples near the reflector and driver. The dependence of levitation force on resonant mode, reflector section radius R{sub b} and curvature radius R is revealed and summarized, which agrees with the experiment in principle and suggests that a reflector with large R{sub b} and small R (when R{sub b}/{lambda}{>=}0.982) working under mode 1 assures better levitation capabilities. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Parametric study of single-axis acoustic levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.

    2001-01-01

    Remarkable enhancement of the single-axis acoustic levitation force is achieved by properly curving the surface and enlarging the section of the reflector so as to levitate high density material like tungsten (ρ s =18.92g/cm 3 ). A two-cylinder model incorporating the boundary element method simulations is presented for systematic study of the relationship between levitation capabilities and geometric parameters. The model proves to be successful in predicting resonant modes and explaining deviation of the levitated samples near the reflector and driver. The dependence of levitation force on resonant mode, reflector section radius R b and curvature radius R is revealed and summarized, which agrees with the experiment in principle and suggests that a reflector with large R b and small R (when R b /λ≥0.982) working under mode 1 assures better levitation capabilities. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  4. Comprehensive studies on irradiated single-crystal diamond sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegler, Martin [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Single-crystal diamond sensors are used as part of the Beam and Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity (BRIL) projects of the CMS experiment. Due to an upgrade of the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F) these diamond sensors are exchanged and the irradiated ones are now used for comprehensive studies. Current over voltage (IV), current over time (CT) and charge collection efficiency (CCE) measurements were performed for a better understanding of the radiation damage incurred during operation and to compensate in the future. The effect of illumination with various light sources on the charge collection efficiency was investigated and led to interesting results. Intensity and wavelength of the light were varied for deeper insight of polarization effects.

  5. Photoinduced surface voltage mapping study for large perovskite single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaojing; Liu, Yucheng; Gao, Fei; Yang, Zhou [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Liu, Shengzhong, E-mail: liusz@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, iChEM, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2016-05-02

    Using a series of illumination sources, including white light (tungsten-halogen lamp), 445-nm, 532-nm, 635-nm, and 730-nm lasers, the surface photovoltage (SPV) images were mapped for centimeter-sized CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbX{sub 3} (X = Cl, Br, I) perovskite single crystals using Kelvin probe force microscopy. The significant SPV signals were observed to be wavelength-dependent. We attribute the appreciable SPV to the built-in electric field in the space charge region. This study shines light into the understanding of photoinduced charge generation and separation processes at nanoscale to help advance the development of perovskite solar cells, optoelectronics, laser, photodetector, and light-emitting diode (LED).

  6. Fabrication and electronic transport studies of single nanocrystal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, David Louis [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-05-01

    Semiconductor and metallic nanocrystals exhibit interesting electronic transport behavior as a result of electrostatic and quantum mechanical confinement effects. These effects can be studied to learn about the nature of electronic states in these systems. This thesis describes several techniques for the electronic study of nanocrystals. The primary focus is the development of novel methods to attach leads to prefabricated nanocrystals. This is because, while nanocrystals can be readily synthesized from a variety of materials with excellent size control, means to make electrical contact to these nanocrystals are limited. The first approach that will be described uses scanning probe microscopy to first image and then electrically probe surfaces. It is found that electronic investigations of nanocrystals by this technique are complicated by tip-sample interactions and environmental factors such as salvation and capillary forces. Next, an atomic force microscope technique for the catalytic patterning of the surface of a self assembled monolayer is described. In principle, this nano-fabrication technique can be used to create electronic devices which are based upon complex arrangements of nanocrystals. Finally, the fabrication and electrical characterization of a nanocrystal-based single electron transistor is presented. This device is fabricated using a hybrid scheme which combines electron beam lithography and wet chemistry to bind single nanocrystals in tunneling contact between closely spaced metallic leads. In these devices, both Au and CdSe nanocrystals show Coulomb blockade effects with characteristic energies of several tens of meV. Additional structure is seen the transport behavior of CdSe nanocrystals as a result of its electronic structure.

  7. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: SOIL STABILIZATION PILOT STUDY, UNITED CHROME NPL SITE PILOT STUDY AND HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAM, UNITED CHROME NPL SITE PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is a project plan for a pilot study at the United Chrome NPL site, Corvallis, Oregon and includes the health and safety and quality assurance/quality control plans. The plan reports results of a bench-scale study of the treatment process as iieasured by the ...

  8. Effect of Chain Conformation on the Single-Molecule Melting Force in Polymer Single Crystals: Steered Molecular Dynamics Simulations Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Wenke

    2017-02-28

    Understanding the relationship between polymer chain conformation as well as the chain composition within the single crystal and the mechanical properties of the corresponding single polymer chain will facilitate the rational design of high performance polymer materials. Here three model systems of polymer single crystals, namely poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), polyethylene (PE), and nylon-66 (PA66) have been chosen to study the effects of chain conformation, helical (PEO) versus planar zigzag conformation (PE, PA66), and chain composition (PE versus PA66) on the mechanical properties of a single polymer chain. To do that, steered molecular dynamics simulations were performed on those polymer single crystals by pulling individual polymer chains out of the crystals. Our results show that the patterns of force-extension curve as well as the chain moving mode are closely related to the conformation of the polymer chain in the single crystal. In addition, hydrogen bonds can enhance greatly the force required to stretch the polymer chain out of the single crystal. The dynamic breaking and reformation of multivalent hydrogen bonds have been observed for the first time in PA66 at the single molecule level.

  9. 76 FR 81959 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Homelessness Prevention Study Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Information Collection: Comment Request; Homelessness Prevention Study Site Visits AGENCY: Office of the Chief.... This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Homelessness Prevention Study Site... of the Paperwork Reduction Act requirements associated with HUD's Homelessness Prevention Study Site...

  10. Geological site selection studies in Precambrian crystalline rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorela, P.

    1988-01-01

    In general geological investigations made since 1977 the Finnish crystalline bedrock has been determined to be suitable for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel. Regional investigations have been mainly based on already existing geological studies. Special attention has been paid on the international geological Finland as the Baltic Shield is stiff and stable and situated far outside the zones of volcanic and seismic activity. The present day crustal movements in Finland are related to landuplift process. Movements and possible faults in the bedrock follow fracture zones which devide the bedrock into mosaiclike blocks. As compared to small scale geological maps the bedrock blocks are often indicated as large granite rock formations which are less broken than the surrounding rocks, though the age of granite formations is at least 1500 millions of years. The large bedrock blocks (20-300 km 2 ) are divided to smaller units by different magnitudes of fractures and these smaller bedrock units (5-20 km 2 ) have been selected for further site selection investigations. At the first stage of investigations 327 suitable regional bedrock blocks have been identified on the basis of Landsat-1 winter and summer mosaics of Finland. After two years of investigations 134 investigation areas were selected inside 61 bedrock blocks and classified to four priority classes, the three first of which were redommended for further investigations. Geological criteries used in classification indicated clear differences between the classes one and three, however all classified areas are situated in large rather homogenous bedrock blocks and more exact three dimensional suitability errors may not be observed until deep bore holes have been made

  11. Site and feasibility studies of a first nuclear power plant in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righi, M.

    1988-11-01

    Basing on the estimated studies related to the evaluation of future needs of electrical energy, the launching of a nuclear power program in Morocco is confirmed necessary. A complete study of sites and feasibility has been carried out. Taking into account the site selection factors two sites: BIR ELHAR and SIDI BOULBRA have been kept as candidate sites. The evaluation of seismic and geotechnical risks of the power plant impact on the environment and risks related to human activities has led to privilege the SIDI BOULBRA site. The studies for confirming this site are summarized. 4 figs. (F.M.)

  12. Enhancement of Ag-Based Plasmonic Photocatalysis in Hydrogen Production from Ammonia Borane by the Assistance of Single-Site Ti-Oxide Moieties within a Silica Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Kuwahara, Yasutaka; Mori, Kohsuke; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2017-03-13

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have gained great attention owing to their interesting plasmonic properties and efficient catalysis under visible-light irradiation. In this study, an Ag-based plasmonic catalyst supported on mesoporous silica with isolated and tetrahedrally coordinated single-site Ti-oxide moieties, namely, Ag/Ti-SBA-15, was designed with the purpose of utilizing the broad spectral range of solar energy. The Ti-SBA-15 support allows the deposition of small Ag NPs with a narrow size distribution. The chemical structure, morphology, and optical properties of the prepared catalyst were characterized by techniques such as UV/Vis, FT extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field-emission SEM, TEM, and N 2 physisorption studies. The catalytic activity of Ag/Ti-SBA-15 in hydrogen production from ammonia borane by hydrolysis was significantly enhanced in comparison with Ag/SBA-15 without Ti-oxide moieties and Ag/TiO 2 /SBA-15 involving agglomerated TiO 2 , both in the dark and under light irradiation. Improved electron transfer under light irradiation caused by the creation of heterojunctions between Ag NPs and Ti-oxide moieties explains the results obtained in the present study. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Study on Quaternary ground siting of nuclear power plant, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokusho, Takaji; Nishi, Koichi; Honsho, Shizumitsu

    1991-01-01

    A seismic stability evaluation method for a nuclear power plant to be located on a Quaternary sandy/gravelly ground is discussed herein in terms of the geological and geotechnical survey, design earthquake motion evaluation and geotechnical seismic stability analyses. The geological and geotechnical exploration tunnel in the rock-foundation siting will be difficult in the Quaternary ground siting. Boring, geophysical surveys and soil samplings will play a major role in this case. The design earthquake input spectrum for this siting is proposed so as to take account the significant effect of longer period motion on the ground stability. Equivalent and non-linear analyses demonstrate the seismic stability of the foundation ground so long as the soil density is high. (author)

  14. Surgical site infections in Italian Hospitals: a prospective multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippolito Giuseppe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical site infections (SSI remain a major clinical problem in terms of morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs. Nearly 60% of SSI diagnosis occur in the postdischarge period. However, literature provides little information on risk factors associated to in-hospital and postdischarge SSI occurrence. A national prospective multicenter study was conducted with the aim of assessing the incidence of both in-hospital and postdisharge SSI, and the associated risk factors. Methods In 2002, a one-month, prospective national multicenter surveillance study was conducted in General and Gynecological units of 48 Italian hospitals. Case ascertainment of SSI was carried out using standardized surveillance methodology. To assess potential risk factors for SSI we used a conditional logistic regression model. We also reported the odds ratios of in-hospital and postdischarge SSI. Results SSI occurred in 241 (5.2% of 4,665 patients, of which 148 (61.4% during in-hospital, and 93 (38.6% during postdischarge period. Of 93 postdischarge SSI, sixty-two (66.7% and 31 (33.3% were detected through telephone interview and questionnaire survey, respectively. Higher SSI incidence rates were observed in colon surgery (18.9%, gastric surgery (13.6%, and appendectomy (8.6%. If considering risk factors for SSI, at multivariate analysis we found that emergency interventions, NNIS risk score, pre-operative hospital stay, and use of drains were significantly associated with SSI occurrence. Moreover, risk factors for total SSI were also associated to in-hospital SSI. Additionally, only NNIS, pre-operative hospital stay, use of drains, and antibiotic prophylaxis were associated with postdischarge SSI. Conclusion Our study provided information on risk factors for SSI in a large population in general surgery setting in Italy. Standardized postdischarge surveillance detected 38.6% of all SSI. We also compared risk factors for in-hospital and postdischarge SSI

  15. Site study plan for utilities and solid waste, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This site plan describes utilities and solid waste studies to be conducted during the characterization of the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project. After utilities and solid waste information needs derived from Federal, State, and local statutes and regulations and the project specifications are briefly described, the site study plan describes the study design and rationale, the field data collection procedures and equipment, and data analysis methods and application of results, the data management strategy, the schedule of field activities, the management of the study, and the study's quality assurance program. The field data collection activities are organized into programs to characterize electrical power, natural gas, communication, water, wastewater sludge, nonradiological solid waste, nonradiological hazardous waste, and low-level radiological waste. These programs include details for the collection of project needs, identification of utilities and solid waste disposal contractor capabilities, and verification of the obtained data. Utilities and solid waste field activities will begin approximately at the time of site access. Utilities and solid waste characterization will be completed within the first year of activity. 29 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Site-Specific ecological risk assessment. Case-study 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, John

    “Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutants”or in short “LIBERATION”. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific......The decision supporting and integrating assessment tool, TRIAD, is used site-specific on PAH- and heavy metal contaminated sites in Denmark. The various aspects of the TRIAD approach are used on a set of chemistry-, ecotoxicology- and ecology related data collected among others in the EU project...

  17. Spontaneous Ag-Nanoparticle Growth at Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Defect Sites: A Tool for In Situ Generation of SERS Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Maley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles were spontaneously formed on pristine and oxidized single-wall nanotubes. Nanoparticles were observed on carbon nanotubes with AFM, and the presence of Ag nanoparticles were confirmed by ESR experiments. Raman spectroscopy of the Ag-treated carbon nanotubes had a 4–10X enhancement of intensity compared to untreated carbon nanotubes. Ag nanoparticles formed at defect sites on the CNT surface, where free electrons located at the defect sites reduced Ag+ to Ag. A mechanism for the propagation of the nanoparticles is through a continual negative charge generation on the nanoparticle by electron transfer from doublet oxygen (O2−.

  18. Theoretical and experimental study of single particle tracking in extreme conditions: single photon imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajgfinger, T.

    2012-10-01

    This manuscript presents my thesis on the high frame rate (500 frames / second) single-photon detector electron-bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). The first section compares three ultra-sensitive detectors and their methods for improving photon sensitivity: the CMOS low noise (sCMOS), the electron-multiplying CCD (emCCD) with signal multiplication by pixel and the ebCMOS with amplification by applied electric field. The method developed to detect single photon impacts with intra-pixel resolution on the ebCMOS sensor is presented. The second section compares the localization accuracy of these detectors in extreme conditions of very low photon flux (<10 photons/frame). First the theoretical limit is calculated using the Cramer-Rao lower bound for significant parameter sets. An experimental comparison of the detectors is then described. The setup provides one or more point sources controlled in position, signal and background noise. The results allow a comparison of the experimental effectiveness, purity and localization accuracy. The last section describes two experiments with the ebCMOS camera. The first aims at tracking hundreds of quantum dots simultaneously at the Nanoptec center. The second focuses on the swimming of bacteria at the surface at the Joliot Curie Institute. The point sources tracking algorithm using single photons and the Kalman filter implementation developed for these experiments is also described. (author)

  19. Geochemical Processes Data Package for the Vadose Zone in the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Zachara, John M.; Dresel, P. Evan; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2007-09-28

    This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical process information available for the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tank farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility. Two companion reports to this one were recently published which discuss the geology of the farms (Reidel and Chamness 2007) and groundwater flow and contamination beneath the farms (Horton 2007).

  20. Single-Tooth Morse Taper Connection Implant Placed in Grafted Site of the Anterior Maxilla: Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Guido Mangano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to achieve aesthetically pleasing soft tissue contours in a severely compromised tooth in the anterior region of the maxilla. For a right-maxillary central incisor with localized advanced chronic periodontitis a tooth extraction followed by reconstructive procedures and delayed implant placement was proposed and accepted by the patient. Guided bone regeneration (GBR technique was employed, with a biphasic calcium-phosphate (BCP block graft placed in the extraction socket in conjunction with granules of the same material and a resorbable barrier membrane. After 6 months of healing, an implant was installed. The acrylic provisional restoration remained in situ for 3 months and then was substituted with the definitive crown. This ridge reconstruction technique enabled preserving both hard and soft tissues and counteracting vertical and horizontal bone resorption after tooth extraction and allowed for an ideal three-dimensional implant placement. Localized severe alveolar bone resorption of the anterior maxilla associated with chronic periodontal disease can be successfully treated by means of ridge reconstruction with GBR and delayed implant insertion; the placement of an early-loaded, Morse taper connection implant in the grafted site was effective to create an excellent clinical aesthetic result and to maintain it along time.

  1. Federated Search and the Library Web Site: A Study of Association of Research Libraries Member Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sarah C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how federated search engines are incorporated into the Web sites of libraries in the Association of Research Libraries. In 2009, information was gathered for each library in the Association of Research Libraries with a federated search engine. This included the name of the federated search service and…

  2. Segmenting the social networking sites users: An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, Efthymios; Alarcon-del-Amo, M.d.C.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of social networking sites (SNS) presents businesses and marketers with risks and challenges. Customers become sophisticated, empowered and increasingly involved in shaping of the marketing offer. Marketers are becoming aware of the threat of losing control over their message but also

  3. Nuclear energy center site survey: fuel cycle studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Background information for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey is presented in the following task areas: economics of integrated vs. dispersed nuclear fuel cycle facilities, plutonium fungibility, fuel cycle industry model, production controls and failure contingencies, environmental impact, waste management, emergency response capability, and feasibility evaluations

  4. Social Networking Sites in The Netherlands; an Explorative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios; Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Alarcon-del-Amo, Maria-del-Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The rampant growth of social networking has become an issue of attention and interest by commercial organizations. Based on a national sample this paper investigates the demographics, profiles and behavior of participants of Social Networking sites in The Netherlands. The paper provides a typology

  5. A Preliminary Case Study for Rectenna Sites in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, Y.; Collins, P.

    2004-12-01

    Electricity power generation using alternative energy sources in Indonesia has become an important policy. Until now, the contribution from alternative energy sources (especially from renewable energy sources) is very small, only about 1% of the total energy supply. It is expected that in the next 10 years this contribution will be raised to 20%. The development of renewable energy sources is primarily performed in remote areas, that are poor in infrastructure facilities. This is considered to be a good policy since there are many such remote areas in Indonesia that need development programs. The existence of Solar Power Satellite system will open a new horizon in alternative energy supply, including Indonesia, because of its higher efficiency compared to conventional terrestrial solar cells, with almost no influence from either climate or solar position. Like other countries in the world, Indonesia, although one of the largest mineral energy producers in the world (i.e. oil, coal, and natural gas), still gives attention to energy diversification programs, including solar energy utilization. SPS, being based on solar energy, could be a good choice. The Indonesian archipelago consists of thousands of islands (more than 13,000) and is the equatorial country with the longest equatorial extent (more than 5000 km). This condition is very good for energy reception from the SPS 2000 pilot plant since the energy transmitting system (spacetenna) will orbit above the equator. Along the equator there could be placed more than four receiving stations (rectenna), especially in remote areas. Thus, it is very important to consider the involvement of Indonesia in SPS energy reception research. This paper describes a preliminary study of the development possibilities in SPS energy reception in Indonesia. To define the rectenna sites and physical development aspect, this study considers some major aspects: environmental, technical, social, and economic aspects. Environmental aspects

  6. [Study on Tritium Content in Soil at Sites of Nuclear Explosions on the Territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonova, L V; Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O

    2015-01-01

    As a result of investigations carried out on the territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site, tritium was found in different environmental objects--surface and ground waters, vegetation, air environment, and snow cover. The analysis of the data obtained has shown that contamination of environmental objects at the Semipalatinsk Test Site with tritium is associated with the places where underground nuclear tests were performed. Since tritium can originate from an activation reaction and be trapped by pock particles during a test, it was decided to examine the soil in the sites where surface and excavation tests took place. It was found that the concentration of tritium in soil correlates with the concentration of europium. Probably, the concentration of tritium in the soil depends on the character and yield of the tests performed. Findings of the study have revealed that tritium can be found in soil in significant amounts not only in sites where underground nuclear tests took place but also in sites where surface and excavation nuclear tests were carried out.

  7. Site study plan for EDBH [Engineering Design Boreholes] seismic surveys, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, H.

    1987-12-01

    This site study plan describes seismic reflection surveys to run north-south and east-west across the Deaf Smith County site, and intersecting near the Engineering Design Boreholes (EDBH). Both conventional and shallow high-resolution surveys will be run. The field program has been designed to acquire subsurface geologic and stratigraphic data to address information/data needs resulting from Federal and State regulations and Repository program requirements. The data acquired by the conventional surveys will be common-depth- point, seismic reflection data optimized for reflection events that indicate geologic structure near the repository horizon. The data will also resolve the basement structure and shallow reflection events up to about the top of the evaporite sequence. Field acquisition includes a testing phase to check/select parameters and a production phase. The field data will be subjected immediately to conventional data processing and interpretation to determine if there are any anamolous structural for stratigraphic conditions that could affect the choice of the EDBH sites. After the EDBH's have been drilled and logged, including vertical seismic profiling, the data will be reprocessed and reinterpreted for detailed structural and stratigraphic information to guide shaft development. The shallow high-resulition seismic reflection lines will be run along the same alignments, but the lines will be shorter and limited to immediate vicinity of the EDBH sites. These lines are planned to detect faults or thick channel sands that may be present at the EDBH sites. 23 refs. , 7 figs., 5 tabs

  8. NMR studies of abasic sites in DNA duplexes: Deoxyadenosine stacks into the helix opposite acyclic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnik, M.W.; Chang, Chienneng; Johnson, F.; Grollman, A.P.; Patel, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proton and phosphorus NMR studies are reported for two complementary nonanucleotide duplexes containing acyclic abasic sites. The first duplex, d(C-A-T-G-A-G-T-A-C)·d(G-T-A-C-P-C-A-T-G), contains an acyclic propanyl moiety, P, located opposite a deoxyadenosine at the center of the helix (designated AP P 9-mer duplex). The second duplex, d(C-A-T-G-A-G-T-A-C-)·d(G-T-A-C-E-C-A-T-G), contains a similarly located acyclic ethanyl moiety, E (designated AP E 9-mer duplex). The ethanyl moiety is one carbon shorter than the natural carbon-phosphodiester backbone of a single nucleotide unit of DNA. The majority of the exchangeable and nonexchangeable base and sugar protons in both the AP P 9-mer and AP E 9-mer duplexes, including those at the abasic site, have been assigned by recording and analyzing two-dimensional phase-sensitive NOESY data sets in H 2 O and D 2 O solution between -5 and 5 degree C. These spectroscopic observations establish that A5 inserts into the helix opposite the abasic site (P14 and El14) and stacks between the flanking G4·C15 and G6·C13 Watson-Crick base pairs in both the AP P 9-mer and AP E 9-mer duplexes. Proton NMR parameters for the Ap P 9-mer and AP E 9-mer duplexes are similar to those reported previously. These proton NMR experiments demonstrate that the structures at abasic sites are very similar whether the five-membered ring is open or closed or whether the phosphodiester backbone is shortened by one carbon atom. Phosphorus spectra of the AP P 9-mer and AP E 9-mer duplexes (5 degree C) indicate that the backbone conformation is similarly perturbed at three phosphodiester backbone torsion angles

  9. Climate change research methods and its significance in the study of choosing candidate site in nuclear waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yong; Zhang Zhanshi

    2008-01-01

    A high-level nuclear waste is the inevitable product accompanies the development of the nuclear power station. How to dispose it properly has become focused by all over the world. Some of the important progresses have been achieved in the fields of site setting, performance assessment and underground laboratory recently. Palaeoclimate patter and the tendency of climate change are very important aspects for the site setting This paper discussed some of the important progresses on the disposal of unclear wastes, the influence of the climate change on the site setting and main methods such as lake sediments, marine sediment, loess, ancient soil and ice core deal with palaeoclimate and palaeo environment study. (authors)

  10. Towards observing the encounter of the T7 DNA replication fork with a lesion site at the Single molecule level

    KAUST Repository

    Shirbini, Afnan

    2017-01-01

    and established the T7 leading strand synthesis at the single molecule level. I also optimized various control experiments to remove any interference from the nonspecific interactions of the DNA with the surface. My work established the foundation to image

  11. A NEW FRAMEWORK FOR GEOSPATIAL SITE SELECTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AS DECISION RULES: A CASE STUDY ON LANDFILL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. M. Abujayyab

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly introduced the theory and framework of geospatial site selection (GSS and discussed the application and framework of artificial neural networks (ANNs. The related literature on the use of ANNs as decision rules in GSS is scarce from 2000 till 2015. As this study found, ANNs are not only adaptable to dynamic changes but also capable of improving the objectivity of acquisition in GSS, reducing time consumption, and providing high validation. ANNs make for a powerful tool for solving geospatial decision-making problems by enabling geospatial decision makers to implement their constraints and imprecise concepts. This tool offers a way to represent and handle uncertainty. Specifically, ANNs are decision rules implemented to enhance conventional GSS frameworks. The main assumption in implementing ANNs in GSS is that the current characteristics of existing sites are indicative of the degree of suitability of new locations with similar characteristics. GSS requires several input criteria that embody specific requirements and the desired site characteristics, which could contribute to geospatial sites. In this study, the proposed framework consists of four stages for implementing ANNs in GSS. A multilayer feed-forward network with a backpropagation algorithm was used to train the networks from prior sites to assess, generalize, and evaluate the outputs on the basis of the inputs for the new sites. Two metrics, namely, confusion matrix and receiver operating characteristic tests, were utilized to achieve high accuracy and validation. Results proved that ANNs provide reasonable and efficient results as an accurate and inexpensive quantitative technique for GSS.

  12. Redox-active on-surface polymerization of single-site divalent cations from pure metals by a ketone-functionalized phenanthroline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skomski, Daniel; Tempas, Christopher D.; Bukowski, Gregory S.; Smith, Kevin A.; Tait, Steven L., E-mail: tait@indiana.edu [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, 800 E. Kirkwood Ave., Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    Metallic iron, chromium, or platinum mixing with a ketone-functionalized phenanthroline ligand on a single crystal gold surface demonstrates redox activity to a well-defined oxidation state and assembly into thermally stable, one dimensional, polymeric chains. The diverging ligand geometry incorporates redox-active sub-units and bi-dentate binding sites. The gold surface provides a stable adsorption environment and directs growth of the polymeric chains, but is inert with regard to the redox chemistry. These systems are characterized by scanning tunnelling microscopy, non-contact atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The relative propensity of the metals to interact with the ketone group is examined, and it is found that Fe and Cr more readily complex the ligand than Pt. The formation and stabilization of well-defined transition metal single-sites at surfaces may open new routes to achieve higher selectivity in heterogeneous catalysts.

  13. Current Research at the Endeavour Ridge 2000 Integrated Studies Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, D. A.; Kelley, D. S.; Ridge 2000 Community, R.

    2004-12-01

    Integrated geophysical, geological, chemical, and biological studies are being conducted on the Endeavour segment with primary support from NSF, the W.M. Keck Foundation, and NSERC (Canada). The research includes a seismic network, physical and chemical sensors, high-precision mapping and time-series sampling. Several research expeditions have taken place at the Endeavour ISS in the past year. In June 2003, an NSF-sponsored cruise with R.V. al T.G.Thompson/ROV al Jason2 installed microbial incubators in drill-holes in the sides of active sulfide chimneys and sampled rocks, fluids, and microbes in the Mothra and Main Endeavour Field (MEF). In July 2003, with al Thompson/Jason2, an NSF-LEXEN project at Baby Bare on Endeavour east flank conducted sampling through seafloor-penetrating probes, plus time-series sampling of fluids, microbes, and rocks at the MEF. In September 2003, with al Thompson/ROV al ROPOS, the Keck Proto-Neptune project installed a seismic network consisting of 1 broadband and 7 short-period seismometers, installation of chemical/physical sensors and time-series samplers for chemistry and microbiology in the MEF and Clam Bed sites, collection of rocks, fluids, animals, and microbes. In May/June 2004, an NSF-sponsored al Atlantis/Alvin cruise recovered sulfide incubators installed in 2003, redeployed a sulfide incubator, mapped MEF and Mothra vent fields with high-resolution Imagenix sonar, sampled fluids from MEF, Mothra, and Clam Bed, recovered year-long time-series fluid and microbial samplers from MEF and Clam Bed, recovered and installed hot vent temperature-resistivity monitors, cleaned up the MEF and deployed new markers at major sulfide structures. In August 2004, there were two MBARI/Keck-sponsored cruises with R.V. al Western Flyer/ROV al Tiburon. The first cruise completed the seismic network with addition of two more broadband seismometers and serviced all 7 short-period seismometers. al Tiburon then performed microbial and chemical

  14. Developing methodology for description of biosphere evolution at Olkiluoto disposal site utilising forest studies at other land uplift sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikondn, A.T.K.; Afo, L.

    2004-01-01

    In Finland, Olkiluoto Island has been selected as the site for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, in addition to the existing repository for low and intermediate level waste. When creating biosphere models for safety assessments, local main features and processes need to be taken into account. A special characteristic of the site, as well as the coastal area of the Gulf of Bothnia in general, is the land uplift (6-9 mm/a). This continuously exposes new land to soil-formation processes and provides surfaces for colonization by plant communities. The forest vegetation succession on stony, fine-grained till soils starts from deciduous shoreline vegetation and ends in almost pure Norway spruce forests. This has enabled to study ecological and microbiological processes in soils and forests of different developmental stages, to monitor forest condition and the factors affecting it in sites locating close to each other. It has also made possible gradient studies of the succession of boreal mire ecosystems without a need to wait thousands of years. Applying a methodology described in the full paper, a descriptive model on the evolution of the biosphere will be established to indicate possible ecosystem distributions and main characteristics on the area on the basis of above-mentioned studies carried out by Finnish Forest Research Institute, and of results of the site investigations at Olkiluoto. In future, the evolution description will be used as a basis for selection of appropriate ecosystem modules and parameter values in the subsequent coupled assessment model systems. (author)

  15. Site Study Plan for meteorology/air quality, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Meteorological/Air Quality Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of continuous measurements of surface (10-meter) wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, dew point, pressure, and sensible heat flux (vertical). Air quality measurements will be limited to suspended particulate matter. After the first year of measurements, a 60-meter tower will be added to incorporate measurements needed for later modeling and dose calculations; these will include upper level winds, vertical temperature structure, and vertical wind speed. All of these measurements will be made at a site located within the 9-mi 2 site area but remote from the ESF. A second site, located near and downwind from the ESF, will monitor only particulate matter. The SSP describes the need for each study; its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data, schedule of field activities, organization of field personnel and sample management, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 38 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Second site escape of a T20-dependent HIV-1 variant by a single amino acid change in the CD4 binding region of the envelope glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkhout Ben

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously described the selection of a T20-dependent human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 variant in a patient on T20 therapy. The fusion inhibitor T20 targets the viral envelope (Env protein by blocking a conformational switch that is critical for viral entry into the host cell. T20-dependent viral entry is the result of 2 mutations in Env (GIA-SKY, creating a protein that undergoes a premature conformational switch, and the presence of T20 prevents this premature switch and rescues viral entry. In the present study, we performed 6 independent evolution experiments with the T20-dependent HIV-1 variant in the absence of T20, with the aim to identify second site compensatory changes, which may provide new mechanistic insights into Env function and the T20-dependence mechanism. Results Escape variants with improved replication capacity appeared within 42 days in 5 evolution cultures. Strikingly, 3 cultures revealed the same single amino acid change in the CD4 binding region of Env (glycine at position 431 substituted for arginine: G431R. This mutation was sufficient to abolish the T20-dependence phenotype and restore viral replication in the absence of T20. The GIA-SKY-G431R escape variant produces an Env protein that exhibits reduced syncytia formation and reduced cell-cell fusion activity. The escape variant was more sensitive to an antibody acting on an early gp41 intermediate, suggesting that the G431R mutation helps preserve a pre-fusion Env conformation, similar to T20 action. The escape variant was also less sensitive to soluble CD4, suggesting a reduced CD4 receptor affinity. Conclusion The forced evolution experiments indicate that the premature conformational switch of the T20-dependent HIV-1 Env variant (GIA-SKY can be corrected by a second site mutation in Env (GIA-SKY-G431R that affects the interaction with the CD4 receptor.

  17. Mortality in single fathers compared with single mothers and partnered parents: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Rahman, Farah; Vigod, Simone; Lau, Cindy; Cairney, John; Kurdyak, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Single parent families, including families headed by single fathers, are becoming increasingly common around the world. Previous evidence suggests that single parenthood is associated with adverse health outcomes and increased mortality; however, most studies have focused on single mothers, with little known about the health of single fathers. This study aimed to examine mortality in a large population-based sample of Canadian single fathers compared with single mothers and partnered fathers and mothers. We used a representative sample of 871 single fathers, 4590 single mothers, 16 341 partnered fathers, and 18 688 partnered mothers from the Canadian Community Health Survey (cycles 2001-12; earliest survey date: Sept 5, 2000; latest survey date: Dec 24, 2012). We anonymously linked survey participants to health administrative database records to ascertain health status at baseline and mortality from survey date up to Oct 28, 2016. We included individuals who were aged 15 years or older, living in a household with one or more biological or adopted child younger than 25 years, and living in Ontario, and we excluded those who left Ontario during the study period or had data discrepancies. Single parents were defined as those who were divorced, separated, widowed, or single, never-married, and non-cohabitating, and partnered parents were defined as those who were married or common-law partners. We investigated differences in mortality using Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical factors. Median follow-up was 11·10 years (IQR 7·36-13·54). Mortality in single fathers (5·8 per 1000 person-years) was three-times higher than rates in single mothers (1·74 per 1000 person-years) and partnered fathers (1·94 per 1000 person-years). Single fathers had a significantly higher adjusted risk of dying than both single mothers (hazard ratio [HR] 2·49, 95% CI 1·20-5·15; p=0·01) and partnered fathers (2·06, 1·11-3

  18. Wildlife studies on the Hanford Site: 1993 Highlights report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, L.L. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Wildlife Resources Monitoring Project was initiated by DOE to track the status of wildlife populations to determine whether Hanford operations affected them. The project continues to conduct a census of wildlife populations that are highly visible, economically or aesthetically important, and rare or otherwise considered sensitive. Examples of long-term data collected and maintained through the Wildlife Resources Monitoring Project include annual goose nesting surveys conducted on islands in the Hanford Reach, wintering bald eagle surveys, and fall Chinook salmon redd (nest) surveys. The report highlights activities related to salmon and mollusks on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River; describes efforts to map vegetation on the Site and efforts to survey species of concern; provides descriptions of shrub-steppe bird surveys, including bald eagles, Canada geese, and hawks; outlines efforts to monitor mule deer and elk populations on the Site; and describes development of a biological database management system.

  19. Study of a waste disposal site and it's groundwater contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The choice of an old borrow pit at Avu village in the outskirts of Owerri Urban as the permanent dump for wastes from Owerri Urban is evaluated in terms of the hydrogeology of the site. The depth to the groundwater table or the vadose zone is 9 – 9.5m; the texture of the soils shows fine attenuative materials that can inhibit ...

  20. Cooling water in the study of nuclear power plants sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The location of an electric power plant has its limitations as regards the availability of apt sites. The radiosanitary risk, seismic risk and the overload capacity of the ground can be generically enumerated, being the cooling water availability for an electric power plant a basic requirement. Diverse cooling systems may be employed but the aim must always be that thermal contamination in the immediate environment be the least possible. (Author) [es

  1. Site-resolved neutralization of slow singly and multiply charged ions during large-angle backscattering collisions with RbI(1 0 0)

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, F W; Vane, C R

    2003-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported of projectile neutralization during 120 deg. backscattering from RbI[1 0 0] of singly and multiply charged incident ions in the keV energy range. Scattered charge fractions are reported for 4.4 keV Ne sup 8 sup + and 4.2 keV F sup + normally incident on the ionic crystal. Collisions associated with scattering from a Rb or I site can be clearly distinguished for each scattered final charge state. Significant differences are observed in the intensities of the higher scattered charge states resulting from collisions with Rb and I sites. In contrast, at the target azimuth orientation of the present measurement, only minor differences in F sup - yield are observed for hard scattering from the two lattice sites.

  2. Site Study Plan for background environmental radioactivity, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Background Environmental Radioactivity Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of an initial radiological survey and a radiological sampling program. The field program includes measurement of direct radiation and collection and analysis of background radioactivity samples of air, precipitation, soil, water, milk, pasture grass, food crops, meat, poultry, game, and eggs. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project (SRP) Requirements Document. 50 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Surgical site infection in lumbar surgeries, pre and postoperative antibiotics and length of stay: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.U.; Janjua, M.B.; Hasan, S.; Shah, S.

    2009-01-01

    Postoperative wound infection also called as surgical site infection (SSI), is a trouble some complication of lumbar spine surgeries and they can be associated with serious morbidities, mortalities and increase resource utilization. With the improvement in diagnostic modalities, proper surgical techniques, antibiotic therapy and postoperative care, infectious complications can result in various compromises afterwards. The objective was to study the relation of surgical site infection in clean lumbar surgeries with the doses of antibiotics. This Retrospective study was conducted at Shifa International Hospital, from January 2006 to March 2008. Methods: Hundred post operated cases of lumber disc prolapse, lumbar stenosis or both studied retrospectively by tracing their operated data from hospital record section for the development of surgical site infection (SSI). The patients were divided into three groups depending upon whether they received single, three or more than three doses of antibiotics respectively. Complete data analyses and cross tabulation done with SPSS version 16. Result: Of 100 cases, only 6% had superficial surgical site infection; only 1 case with co morbidity of hypertension was detected. Twenty-one cases had single dose of antibiotic (Group-I), 59 cases had 3 doses (Group-II) and 20 cases received multiple doses (Group-III). There was no infection in Group-I. Only one patient in Group-II and 5 patients in Group-III developed superficial SSI. While 4 in Group-II, 3 in Group-III, and none of Group-I had >6 days length of stay (LOS). Conclusion The dose of antibiotic directly correlates with the surgical site infection in clean lumbar surgeries. When compared with multiple doses of antibiotics a single preoperative shot of antibiotic is equally effective for patients with SSI. (author)

  4. Innovations in Site Characterization Case Study: The Role of a Conceptual Site Model for Expedited Site Characterization Using the Triad Approach at the Poudre River Site, Fort Collins, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    This case study examines how systematic planning, an evolving conceptual site model (CSM), dynamic work strategies, and real time measurement technologies can be used to unravel complex contaminant distribution patterns...

  5. Cells deficient in PARP-1 show an accelerated accumulation of DNA single strand breaks, but not AP sites, over the PARP-1-proficient cells exposed to MMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachkowski, Brian F. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Tano, Keizo [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori (Japan); Afonin, Valeriy [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Elder, Rhoderick H. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Greater Manchester (United Kingdom); Takeda, Shunichi [Department of Radiation Genetics, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Watanabe, Masami [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori (Japan); Swenberg, James A. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Nakamura, Jun, E-mail: ynakamur@email.unc.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a base excision repair (BER) protein that binds to DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) and subsequently synthesizes and transfers poly(ADP-ribose) polymers to various nuclear proteins. Numerous biochemical studies have implicated PARP-1 as a modulator of BER; however, the role of PARP-1 in BER in living cells remains unclear partly due to lack of accurate quantitation of BER intermediates existing in cells. Since DT40 cells, chicken B lymphocytes, naturally lack PARP-2, DT40 cells allow for the investigation of the PARP-1 null phenotype without confounding by PARP-2. To test the hypothesis that PARP-1 is necessary for efficient BER during methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) exposure in vertebrate cells, intact DT40 cells and their isogenic PARP-1 null counterparts were challenged with different exposure scenarios for phenotypic characterization. With chronic exposure, PARP-1 null cells exhibited sensitivity to MMS but with an acute exposure did not accumulate base lesions or AP sites to a greater extent than wild-type cells. However, an increase in SSB content in PARP-1 null cell DNA, as indicated by glyoxal gel electrophoresis under neutral conditions, suggested the presence of BER intermediates. These data suggest that during exposure, PARP-1 impacts the stage of BER after excision of the deoxyribosephosphate moiety from the 5' end of DNA strand breaks by polymerase {beta}.

  6. Test Plan for the Demonstration of Geophysical Techniques for Single-Shell Tank Leak Detection at the Hanford Mock Tank Site: Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent; Gee, Glendon W.; Sweeney, Mark D.

    2001-07-31

    As part of the Leak Detection, Monitoring and Mitigation (LDMM) program conducted by CH2M HILL 105-A during FY 2001. These tests are being conducted to assess the applicability of these methods (Electrical Resistance Tomography [ERT], High Resolution Resistivity [HRR], Cross-Borehole Seismography [XBS], Cross-Borehole Radar [XBR], and Cross-Borehole Electromagnetic Induction [CEMI]) to the detection and measurement of Single Shell Tank (SST) leaks into the vadose zone during planned sluicing operations. The testing in FY 2001 will result in the selection of up to two methods for further testing in FY 2002. In parallel with the geophysical tests, a Partitioning Interwell Tracer Test (PITT) study will be conducted simultaneously at the Mock Tank to assess the effectiveness of this technology in detecting and quantifying tank leaks in the vadose zone. Preparatory and background work using Cone Penetrometer methods (CPT) will be conducted at the Mock Tank site and an adjacent test area to derive soil properties for groundtruthing purposes for all methods.

  7. Cells deficient in PARP-1 show an accelerated accumulation of DNA single strand breaks, but not AP sites, over the PARP-1-proficient cells exposed to MMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachkowski, Brian F; Tano, Keizo; Afonin, Valeriy; Elder, Rhoderick H; Takeda, Shunichi; Watanabe, Masami; Swenberg, James A; Nakamura, Jun

    2009-12-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a base excision repair (BER) protein that binds to DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) and subsequently synthesizes and transfers poly(ADP-ribose) polymers to various nuclear proteins. Numerous biochemical studies have implicated PARP-1 as a modulator of BER; however, the role of PARP-1 in BER in living cells remains unclear partly due to lack of accurate quantitation of BER intermediates existing in cells. Since DT40 cells, chicken B lymphocytes, naturally lack PARP-2, DT40 cells allow for the investigation of the PARP-1 null phenotype without confounding by PARP-2. To test the hypothesis that PARP-1 is necessary for efficient BER during methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) exposure in vertebrate cells, intact DT40 cells and their isogenic PARP-1 null counterparts were challenged with different exposure scenarios for phenotypic characterization. With chronic exposure, PARP-1 null cells exhibited sensitivity to MMS but with an acute exposure did not accumulate base lesions or AP sites to a greater extent than wild-type cells. However, an increase in SSB content in PARP-1 null cell DNA, as indicated by glyoxal gel electrophoresis under neutral conditions, suggested the presence of BER intermediates. These data suggest that during exposure, PARP-1 impacts the stage of BER after excision of the deoxyribosephosphate moiety from the 5' end of DNA strand breaks by polymerase beta.

  8. Single-charge craters excavated during subsurface high-explosive experiments at Big Black Test Site, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.R.; Bryan, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Single-charge and row-charge subsurface cratering experiments were performed to learn how close-spacing enhances single-crater dimensions. Our first experimental phase established cratering curves for 60-lb charges of the chemical explosive. For the second phase, to be described in a subsequent report, the Row-cratering experiments were designed and executed. This data report contains excavated dimensions and auxiliary data for the single-charge cratering experiments. The dimensions for the row-charge experiments will be in the other report. Significant changes in the soil's water content appeared to cause a variability in the excavated dimensions. This variability clouded the interpretation and application of the cratering curves obtained

  9. Survey package: Technical and contracting strategies for single-shell tank waste retrieval on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsower, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company is interested in innovative, commercially available or adaptable retrieval system equipment, concepts, and contracting strategies that will ad to existing Hanford Site technology and significantly reduce cost and/or risk from the baseline retrieval approach of sluicing (hydraulically mining) the waste from the SSTs onsite. The objective of this request is to gather information from industry to identify and summarize a suite of retrieval-related components, systems, and contracting approaches. This information will be used to ensure that WHC understands the various waste retrieval alternative approaches, their risks, and their application on the Hanford Site tanks for those occasions when sluicing is not sufficiently effective, appropriate, or cost-effective. An additional objective is to facilitate industry's understanding of the tank and site interface requirements for SST waste retrieval and the complex statutory, legal, regulatory, labor, and other institutional standards being applied to the Hanford Site. This effort will identify and summarize retrieval solutions by the end of September 1996 so that a clear basis for future retrieval program decisions can be established

  10. Groundwater hydrology study of the Ames Chemical Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickel, T.

    1996-01-01

    The Ames Laboratory Chemical Disposal Site is located in northwestern Ames, Iowa west of Squaw Creek. From 1957 to 1966, Ames Laboratory conducted research to develop processes to separate uranium and thorium from nuclear power fuel and to separate yttrium from neutron shielding sources. The wastes from these processes, which contained both hazardous and radiological components, were placed into nine burial pits. Metal drums, plywood boxes, and steel pails were used to store the wastes. Uranium was also burned on the ground surface of the site. Monitoring wells were placed around the waste burial pits. Groundwater testing in 1993 revealed elevated levels of Uranium 234, Uranium 238, beta and alpha radiation. The north side of the burial pit had elevated levels of volatile organic compounds. Samples in the East Ravine showed no volatile organics; however, they did contain elevated levels of radionuclides. These analytical results seem to indicate that the groundwater from the burial pit is flowing down hill and causing contamination in the East Ravine. Although there are many avenues for the contamination to spread, the focus of this project is to understand the hydrogeology of the East Ravine and to determine the path of groundwater flow down the East Ravine. The groundwater flow data along with other existing information will be used to assess the threat of chemical migration down the East Ravine and eventually off-site. The primary objectives of the project were as follows: define the geology of the East Ravine; conduct slug tests to determine the hydraulic conductivity of both oxidized and unoxidized till; develop a three-dimensional mathematical model using ModIME and MODFLOW to simulate groundwater flow in the East Ravine

  11. Residual herbicide study on selected Hanford Site roadsides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.L.; Kemp, C.J.; Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1993-08-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company routinely treats roadsides with herbicides to control undesirable plant growth. An experiment was conducted to test perennial grass germination in soils adjacent to roadways of the Hanford Site. The primary variable was the distance from the roadside. A simple germination test was executed in a controlled-environment chamber to determine the residual effects of these applications. As expected, the greatest herbicide activity was found directly adjacent to the roadway, approximately 0 to 20 ft (0 to 6.3 m) from the roadway.

  12. Uranium series disequilibrium studies at the Broubster analogue site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longworth, G.; Ivanovich, M.; Wilkins, M.A.

    1990-11-01

    Uranium series measurements at a natural analogue site at Broubster, Caithness have been used to investigate radionuclide migration over periods ranging from several hundred to 10 6 years. The measured values for the uranium concentration and activity values 234 U/ 238 U and 230 Th/ 234 U indicate that the geochemical system is more complicated than that originally proposed of uranium dispersion and water transport into a peat bog. There appears to be little thorium mobility although there is evidence for an appreciable fraction of thorium on the colloidal phase. (author)

  13. Uranium series disequilibrium studies at the Broubster analogue site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longworth, G.; Ivanovich, M.; Wilkins, M.A.

    1989-09-01

    Uranium series measurements at a natural analogue site at Broubster, Caithness have been used to investigate radionuclide migration over a period of several hundred to 10 6 years. The measured values for the uranium concentration and activity ratios 234 U/ 238 U and 230 Th/ 234 U indicate that the geochemical system is more complicated than that originally proposed of uranium dispersion and water transport into a peat bog. There appears to be little thorium mobility although there is evidence for an appreciable fraction of thorium on the colloidal phases. (author)

  14. Study of radionuclide contamination at the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemyev, O.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper the contamination technical areas of the former Semipalatinsk test site is discussed in details. It is concluded, that radioactive contamination of the Degelen technical area caused by underground nuclear tests is mainly retained within tunnels and cavities. Investigation showed that many tunnel portal areas here are contaminated by radioactive substances. Areas of significantly high contamination levels are also found at the Balapan technical area mainly around borehole sleeves. A serious source of radioactive contamination is tritium in used boreholes and high content of radionuclides produced due to the fission of nuclear device and activation of rocks at crater rim around the Atom lake

  15. A study of moult-site fidelity in Egyptian geese, Alopochen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about moult and moult-site fidelity of African waterfowl. Satellite telemetry and uniquely engraved colour-rings were used to study moult-site fidelity of Egyptian geese marked at two sites in South Africa – Barberspan in the summer-rainfall region and Strandfontein in the winter-rainfall region. Twelve Egyptian ...

  16. Photopicking : In Situ Approach for Site-Specific Attachment of Single Multiprotein Nanoparticles to Atomic Force Microscopy Tips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liashkovich, Ivan; Rosso, Gonzalo; Rangl, Martina; Ebner, Andreas; Hafezi, Wali; Kühn, Joachim; Schön, Peter; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Shahin, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Ligand–receptor interactions are fundamental in life sciences and include hormone–receptor, protein–protein, pathogen–host, and cell–cell interactions, among others. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) proved to be invaluable for scrutinizing ligand–receptor interactions at the single molecular level.

  17. Effect of connective tissue grafting on peri-implant tissue in single immediate implant sites : A RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderveld, Elise G; Meijer, Henny J A; den Hartog, Laurens; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M

    AimTo assess the effect of connective tissue grafting on the mid-buccal mucosal level (MBML) of immediately placed and provisionalized single implants in the maxillofacial aesthetic zone. Materials and methodsSixty patients with a failing tooth were provided with an immediately placed and

  18. Single gold nanoparticle plasmonic spectroscopy for study of chemical-dependent efflux function of single ABC transporters of single live Bacillus subtilis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Lauren M; Lee, Kerry J; Cherukuri, Pavan K; Huang, Tao; Songkiatisak, Preeyaporn; Warren, Seth; Xu, Xiao-Hong Nancy

    2018-03-26

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters serve as self-defense transport apparatus in many living organisms and they can selectively extrude a wide variety of substrates, leading to multidrug resistance (MDR). The detailed molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Single nanoparticle plasmonic spectroscopy highly depends upon their sizes, shapes, chemical and surface properties. In our previous studies, we have used the size-dependent plasmonic spectra of single silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to study the real-time efflux kinetics of the ABC (BmrA) transporter and MexAB-OprM transporter in single live cells (Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterium), respectively. In this study, we prepared and used purified, biocompatible and stable (non-aggregated) gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) (12.4 ± 0.9 nm) to study the efflux kinetics of single BmrA membrane transporters of single live Bacillus subtillis cells, aiming to probe chemical dependent efflux functions of BmrA transporters and their potential chemical sensing capability. Similar to those observed using Ag NPs, accumulation of the intracellular Au NPs in single live cells (WT and ΔBmrA) highly depends upon the cellular expression of BmrA and the NP concentration (0.7 and 1.4 nM). The lower accumulation of intracellular Au NPs in WT (normal expression of BmrA) than ΔBmrA (deletion of bmrA) indicates that BmrA extrudes the Au NPs out of the WT cells. The accumulation of Au NPs in the cells increases with NP concentration, suggesting that the Au NPs most likely passively diffuse into the cells, similar to antibiotics. The result demonstrates that such small Au NPs can serve as imaging probes to study the efflux function of the BmrA membrane transporter in single live cells. Furthermore, the dependence of the accumulation rate of intracellular Au NPs in single live cells upon the expression of BmrA and the concentration of the NPs is about twice higher than that of the same sized Ag NPs. This interesting finding

  19. Catalyst Architecture for Stable Single Atom Dispersion Enables Site-Specific Spectroscopic and Reactivity Measurements of CO Adsorbed to Pt Atoms, Oxidized Pt Clusters, and Metallic Pt Clusters on TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRita, Leo; Dai, Sheng; Lopez-Zepeda, Kimberly; Pham, Nicholas; Graham, George W; Pan, Xiaoqing; Christopher, Phillip

    2017-10-11

    Oxide-supported precious metal nanoparticles are widely used industrial catalysts. Due to expense and rarity, developing synthetic protocols that reduce precious metal nanoparticle size and stabilize dispersed species is essential. Supported atomically dispersed, single precious metal atoms represent the most efficient metal utilization geometry, although debate regarding the catalytic activity of supported single precious atom species has arisen from difficulty in synthesizing homogeneous and stable single atom dispersions, and a lack of site-specific characterization approaches. We propose a catalyst architecture and characterization approach to overcome these limitations, by depositing ∼1 precious metal atom per support particle and characterizing structures by correlating scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and CO probe molecule infrared spectroscopy. This is demonstrated for Pt supported on anatase TiO 2 . In these structures, isolated Pt atoms, Pt iso , remain stable through various conditions, and spectroscopic evidence suggests Pt iso species exist in homogeneous local environments. Comparing Pt iso to ∼1 nm preoxidized (Pt ox ) and prereduced (Pt metal ) Pt clusters on TiO 2 , we identify unique spectroscopic signatures of CO bound to each site and find CO adsorption energy is ordered: Pt iso ≪ Pt metal atoms bonded to TiO 2 and that Pt iso exhibits optimal reactivity because every atom is exposed for catalysis and forms an interfacial site with TiO 2 . This approach should be generally useful for studying the behavior of supported precious metal atoms.

  20. Web Site of King Faysal for Researches and Islamic Studies :Evaluative Case Study . 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Badi Aly al-Badi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study makes evaluation to the website of King Faisal Islamic Study & Research Center (KFISRC in relation to its site, advanced design, services rendered, public users and easy-to-search including its discharged duties; content, form and scope.The study aims to evaluate the website of KFISRC published in the Internet as well as the volume of its sample users, and to determine the motivations of use.The study was conducted on the Second Semester in 1426H. / 2005G. The researcher has relied in the evaluation case study on "on-line access" in the Internet; a matter which was imposed by the nature and objectives of the study and followed by an evaluation-analysis methodology based on the measures derived from Website & Information Resources Measures in the Internet. The information were gathered using the questionnaire forms which were distributed to a random sample of 15% of the society slide subject of the study totaling 1755 of post-graduate female students; i.e. Master degree; enrolled in Library & Information, Arabic Language and History Departments of Faculty of Arts & Humanities , King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah; and post-graduate female students; i.e. Master degree; enrolled in Faculty of Da'wa & Fundamentals of Religion, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, including male and female staff of KFISRC. The study has reached to the number of findings, mainly as follows:The volume of the users has reached to 40.7% of the sampling. One of the reasons of the decreasing percentage in the number of the site users of KFISRC is that 32.4% did not know about the existence of the site in the Internet; whereas, 24.1% of the sampling whose most important motivation to use the site is to know whether the resources searched by them would be available in the data-bases of the KFISRC or not

  1. Web Site of King Faysal for Researches and Islamic Studies :Evaluative Case Study . 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Badi Aly al-Badi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study makes evaluation to the website of King Faisal Islamic Study & Research Center (KFISRC in relation to its site, advanced design, services rendered, public users and easy-to-search including its discharged duties; content, form and scope.The study aims to evaluate the website of KFISRC published in the Internet as well as the volume of its sample users, and to determine the motivations of use.The study was conducted on the Second Semester in 1426H. / 2005G. The researcher has relied in the evaluation case study on "on-line access" in the Internet; a matter which was imposed by the nature and objectives of the study and followed by an evaluation-analysis methodology based on the measures derived from Website & Information Resources Measures in the Internet. The information were gathered using the questionnaire forms which were distributed to a random sample of 15% of the society slide subject of the study totaling 1755 of post-graduate female students; i.e. Master degree; enrolled in Library & Information, Arabic Language and History Departments of Faculty of Arts & Humanities , King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah; and post-graduate female students; i.e. Master degree; enrolled in Faculty of Da'wa & Fundamentals of Religion, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, including male and female staff of KFISRC. The study has reached to the number of findings, mainly as follows:The volume of the users has reached to 40.7% of the sampling. One of the reasons of the decreasing percentage in the number of the site users of KFISRC is that 32.4% did not know about the existence of the site in the Internet; whereas, 24.1% of the sampling whose most important motivation to use the site is to know whether the resources searched by them would be available in the data-bases of the KFISRC or not

  2. Establishing a reference rock site for the site effect study in and around the Kathmandu valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Mukunda; Adhikari, Lok Bijaya; Gautam, Umesh Prasad; Bollinger, Laurent; Hernandez, Bruno; Yokoi, Toshiaki; Hayashida, Takumi

    2016-05-01

    We propose a reference site for the site effect study in and around the Kathmandu valley, Nepal. The used data were the accelerograms recorded at two stations, DMG and KKA, and velocity seismograms co-recorded at the PKIN station during nine shallow local and regional earthquakes of local magnitude equal to or greater than 5.0. The DMG station is located on the thick sediments of the Kathmandu valley, whereas the others are rock sites. The KKA station is located on the granite and gneisses of the Shivapuri Lekh about 10 km northwest of the capital, and the PKIN station is in the tunnel of an old iron mine on the southern slope of the Phulchauki Hill about 15 km southeast. The spectral ratios of the ground motion records of the DMG station compared to those of the PKIN station, for all considered earthquakes, confirm that the DMG station has amplification ranging from 1 to 10 in the frequency range of 0.5-10 Hz, and spectral ratios of the KKA station referenced by the PKIN station show that the KKA station has significant amplification in the frequency range of 4-10 Hz and the peak value of the spectral ratio is at most over 25. Therefore, the site amplification in and around Kathmandu valley would be significantly underestimated in the frequency range from 4 to 10 Hz if the records of the KKA station were used as a proxy for input seismic motions to the sediment. Based on the above analysis, we propose that the PKIN station should be considered as a reliable reference site for the assessment of seismic hazards in and around the Kathmandu valley.

  3. Study of dopamine reactivity on platinum single crystal electrode surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumillas, Sara; Figueiredo, Marta C.; Climent, Víctor; Feliu, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine is the biological molecule responsible, among other functions, of the heart beat and blood pressure regulation. Its loss, in the human body, can result in serious diseases such as Parkinson's, schizophrenia or depression. Structurally, this molecule belongs to the group of catecholamines, together with epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). The hydroquinone moiety of the molecule can be easily oxidized to quinone, rendering the electrochemical methods a convenient approach for the development of dopamine biosensors. The reactivity of similar aromatic molecules, such as catechol and hydroquinone, at well-ordered platinum surfaces, has recently been investigated in our group. In this paper, we extend these studies to the structurally related molecule dopamine. The study has been performed in neutral pH, since this is closer to the natural conditions for these molecules in biological media. Cyclic voltammetry and in situ infra-red spectroscopy have been combined to extract information about the behavior of this molecule on well-defined platinum surfaces. Dopamine appears to be electrochemically active and reveals interesting adsorption phenomena at low potentials (0.15–0.25 V vs RHE), sensitive to the single crystal orientation. The adsorption of dopamine on these surfaces is very strong, taking place at much lower potentials than the electron transfer from solution species. Specifically, the voltammetry of Pt(1 1 1) and Pt(1 0 0) in dopamine solutions shows an oxidation peak at potentials close to the onset of hydrogen evolution, which is related to the desorption of hydrogen and the adsorption of dopamine. On the other hand, adsorption on Pt(1 1 0) is irreversible and the surface appears totally blocked. Spectroscopic results indicate that dopamine is adsorbed flat on the surface. At potentials higher than 0.6 V vs RHE the three basal planes show a common redox process. The initial formation of the quinone moiety is followed by a

  4. Excitonic Behavior of Rhodamine Dimers: A Single-Molecule Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernando Campos, J.; van der Schaaf, Martijn; van Dijk, E.M.H.P.; Sauer, Markus; Garcia Parajo, M.F.; van Hulst, N.F.

    2003-01-01

    The optical behavior of a dimer of tetramethylrhodamine-5-isothiocyanate has been investigated by means of single-molecule measurements. Bulk absorption and fluorescence spectra show the existence of two populations of the dimer molecule that exhibit distinct excitonic interactions (strong and weak

  5. Bulk study of a DyNiAl single crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prchal, J.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Javorský, P.; Honda, F.; Jurek, Karel

    272-276, - (2004), e419-e420 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/02/0943 Keywords : rare-earth * DyNiAl * magnetic anisotropy * single crystal Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2004

  6. Microbeam evolution: From single cell irradiation to preclinical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghita, Mihaela; Fernandez-Palomo, Cristian; Fukunaga, Hisanori

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This review follows the development of microbeam technology from the early days of single cell irradiations, to investigations of specific cellular mechanisms and to the development of new treatment modalities in vivo. A number of microbeam applications are discussed with a focus on prec...... to deliver radiotherapy using plane parallel microbeams, in Microbeam Radiotherapy (MRT)....

  7. The Reliability of Single Subject Statistics for Biofeedback Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, Frederick J.; And Others

    To test the usefulness of single subject statistical designs for biofeedback, three experiments were conducted comparing biofeedback to meditation, and to a compound stimulus recognition task. In a statistical sense, this experimental design is best described as one experiment with two replications. The apparatus for each of the three experiments…

  8. Heavy ion microbeam system for study of single event effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Tomihiro; Utsunomiya, Nobuhiro; Minehara, Eiichi; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Ohmura, Miyoshi; Kohno, Kazuhiro; Iwamoto, Eiji.

    1992-01-01

    A high-energy heavy ion microbeam system has been developed and installed on a beam line of a 3 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator mainly for analysis of basic mechanism of single event upset (SEU) of semiconductor devices in spacecraft. The SEU is now the most serious problem for highly reliable spacecraft electronics system with long space mission. However, the mechanism has not been understood on the basis of microscopic process of SEU. The SEU phenomena depends not only upon hitting particles, but also upon the hit position on the microcircuit. To observe the transient charge pulse from a SEU, a single ion particle must hit exactly the desired position of the microcircuit. Such an experiment requires the microbeam spot size within 1 μm, the beam positioning accuracy within ±1 μm, and single ion hitting. The microbeam system has been designed to meet the above technical requirements. The system is equipped with two lens systems: one to control the target beam current in a wide range down to extremely low current without any change of the beam optics, and the other to focus heavy ion beams within a spot size of 1 μm. The final goal is to hit a microscopic target area with a single 15 MeV nickel ion. The beam spot size has been evaluated by Gaussian fitting of secondary electron profiles with microbeam scanning across the fine Cu mesh. The single ion detection has been also tested to generate a trigger signal for closing beam shutter to prevent further hits. This paper outlines the new microbeam system and describes methods to realize these techniques. (author)

  9. Study on electroactive and electrocatalytic surfaces of single walled carbon nanotube-modified electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas-Torres, David [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. de Correos 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Huerta, Francisco [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell, 1. E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Montilla, Francisco, E-mail: francisco.montilla@ua.e [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. de Correos 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Morallon, Emilia [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. de Correos 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2011-02-01

    An investigation of the electrocatalysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrodes has been performed in this work. Nanotube-modified electrodes present a surface area much higher than the bare glassy carbon surfaces as determined by capacitance measurements. Several redox probes were selected for checking the reactivity of specific sites at the carbon nanotube surface. The presence of carbon nanotubes on the electrode improves the kinetics for all the reactions studied compared with the bare glassy carbon electrode with variations of the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant up to 5 orders of magnitude. The most important effects are observed for the benzoquinone/hydroquinone and ferrocene/ferricinium redox couples, which show a remarkable improvement of their electron transfer kinetics on SWCNT-modified electrodes, probably due to strong {pi}-{pi} interaction between the organic molecules and the walls of the carbon nanotubes. For many of the reactions studied, less than 1% of the nanotube-modified electrode surface is transferring charge to species in solution. This result suggests that only nanotube tips are active sites for the electron transfer in such cases. On the contrary, the electroactive surface for the reactions of ferrocene and quinone is higher indicating that the electron transfer is produced also from the nanotube walls.

  10. Study on electroactive and electrocatalytic surfaces of single walled carbon nanotube-modified electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas-Torres, David; Huerta, Francisco; Montilla, Francisco; Morallon, Emilia

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of the electrocatalysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrodes has been performed in this work. Nanotube-modified electrodes present a surface area much higher than the bare glassy carbon surfaces as determined by capacitance measurements. Several redox probes were selected for checking the reactivity of specific sites at the carbon nanotube surface. The presence of carbon nanotubes on the electrode improves the kinetics for all the reactions studied compared with the bare glassy carbon electrode with variations of the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant up to 5 orders of magnitude. The most important effects are observed for the benzoquinone/hydroquinone and ferrocene/ferricinium redox couples, which show a remarkable improvement of their electron transfer kinetics on SWCNT-modified electrodes, probably due to strong π-π interaction between the organic molecules and the walls of the carbon nanotubes. For many of the reactions studied, less than 1% of the nanotube-modified electrode surface is transferring charge to species in solution. This result suggests that only nanotube tips are active sites for the electron transfer in such cases. On the contrary, the electroactive surface for the reactions of ferrocene and quinone is higher indicating that the electron transfer is produced also from the nanotube walls.

  11. Site study plan for non-routine laboratory rock mechanics, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This Site Study Plan describes the non-routine rock mechanics and thermal properties laboratory testing program planned for the characterization of site-specific geologic materials for the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. The study design provides for measurements of index, mechanical, thermomechanical, thermal and special properties for the host salt, and where appropriate, for nonhost lithologies. The types of tests which will be conducted are constant stress (creep) tests, constant strain (stress relaxation) tests, constant strain-rate tests, constant stress-rate tests, cyclic loading tests, hollow cylinder tests, uniaxial and triaxial compression tests, direct tension tests, indirect (triaxial) shear tests, thermal property determinations (conductivity, specific heat, expansivity, and diffusivity), fracture healing tests, thermal decrepitation tests, moisture content determinations, and petrographic and micromechanics analyses. Tests will be conducted at confining pressures up to 30 MPa and temperatures up to 300/degree/C. These data are used to construct mathematical models for the phenomenology of salt deformation. The models are then used in finite-element codes to predict repository response. A tentative testing schedule and milestone log are given. The duration of the testing program is expected to be approximately 5 years. 44 refs., 13 figs., 13 tabs

  12. Introduction of a potent single-donor fibrin glue for vascular anastomosis: An animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rasti Ardakani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vascular anastomosis is considered as a difficult surgical procedure. Although different alternative methods have been tried to tackle these difficulties, none were found to be successful. Commercial fibrin glue has recently been used for vascular anastomosis. However, it did not gain popularity due to some limitations such as low tensile strength, rapid removal by the immune system, and risk of transmission of blood-borne viral infections. In this article, we presented a novel method for producing single-donor human fibrin glue and determined its success rate for vascular anastomosis in an animal model. Materials ans Methods : In this study, 3 mL of single-donor fibrin sealant was prepared from 150 mL of whole blood containing 50-70 mg/mL of fibrinogen. The study was performed on 10 dogs and 5 cats. After transection of the carotid artery, both ends were anastomosed by means of 3-4 sutures (Prolene 8-0. The suture line was then sealed with one layer of the new fibrin sealant. After 3-8 weeks, the site of anastomosis was evaluated angiographically and morphologically for healing and possible complications such as thrombosis or aneurysm. Results: In evaluations 3 weeks after the surgery, all arterial anastomoses were patent in dogs, but some degree of subintimal hyperplasia was noted. After 8 weeks, all anastomoses were patent and the degree of subintimal hyperplasia was decreased. In cats on the other hand, after 4 weeks, all anastomoses were patent and subintimal hyperplasia was absent. Conclusions: Single-donor fibrin glue was a quite reliable and practical alternative to minimize suturing and therefore operative time in our animal model. This sealant can easily be obtained from the patient′s whole blood. Its application in humans would require further studies.

  13. Microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the β-globin locus control region-hypersensitive Site 2: SPECIFICITY of Tunisian βs chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mustapha, Maha; Moumni, Imen; Zorai, Amine; Douzi, Kaïs; Ghanem, Abderraouf; Abbes, Salem

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of sickle cell disease severity is attributed to several cis acting factors, among them the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and (AT) rich region in the β-locus control region (β-LCR). This contains five DNase I hypersensitive sites (HS) located 6 to 22 kb upstream to the ϵ gene. The most important of these is the HS2 (5' β-LCR-HS2), characterized by the presence of three different SNPs and a microsatellite region known to be in association with β(S) chromosomes in various populations. The aim of this study was to present the molecular investigation of the 5' β-LCR-HS2 site in normal and sickle cell disease individuals in order to determine if there is any correlation or specificity between these molecular markers, the β(S) Tunisian chromosomes and phenotypical expression of sickle cell disease. One hundred and twenty-four chromosomes from Tunisian individuals (49 β(S) carriers and 13 normal individuals) were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing for the polymorphic short tandem microsatellite repeats (AT)(X)N(12)(AT)(Y) and the three SNPs (rs7119428, rs9736333 and rs60240093) of the 5' β-LCR-HS2. Twelve configurations of the microsatellite motif were found with an ancestral configuration elaborated by ClustalW software. Normal and mutated alleles were observed at the homozygous and heterozygous states for the three SNPs. Correlation between microsatellites and SNPs suggests that mutant SNP alleles were mainly associated, in the homozygous sickle cell disease phenotype, with the (AT)(8)N(12)GT(AT)(7) configuration, whereas, normal SNP alleles were associated with the (AT)(X)N(12)(AT)(11) configurations in normal β(A) chromosomes. The correlation of these various configurations with Hb F expression was also investigated. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed the correlation between the homozygous sickle cell disease phenotype, mutated SNP alleles and the Benin microsatellite configuration (AT)(8)N(12)GT

  14. Ultrasound-Guided Intermediate Site Greater Occipital Nerve Infiltration: A Technical Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipfel, Jonathan; Kastler, Adrian; Tatu, Laurent; Behr, Julien; Kechidi, Rachid; Kastler, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Two studies recently reported that computed tomography (CT) guided infiltration of the greater occipital nerve at its intermediate site allows a high efficacy rate with long-lasting pain relief following procedure in occipital neuralgia and in various craniofacial pain syndromes. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the technical feasibility and safety of ultrasound-guided intermediate site greater occipital nerve infiltration. Retrospective study. This study was conducted at the imaging department of a 1,409 bed university hospital. Local institutional review board approval was obtained and written consent was waived. In this retrospective study, 12 patients suffering from refractory occipital neuralgia or craniofacial pain syndromes were included between April and October 2014. They underwent a total of 21 ultrasound-guided infiltrations. Infiltration of the greater occipital nerve was performed at the intermediate site of the greater occipital nerve, at its first bend between obliqus capitis inferior and semispinalis capitis muscles with local anestetics and cortivazol. Technical success was defined as satisfactory diffusion of added iodinated contrast media in the fatty space between these muscles depicted on control CT scan. We also reported first data of immediate block test efficacy and initial clinical efficacy at 7 days, one month, and 3 months, defined by a decrease of at least 50% of visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Technical success rate was 95.24%. Patients suffered from right unilateral occipital neuralgia in 3 cases, left unilateral occipital neuralgia in 2 cases, bilateral occipital neuralgia in 2 cases, migraine in one case, cervicogenic headache in one case, tension-type headache in 2 cases, and cluster headache in one case. Block test efficacy was found in 93.3% (14/15) cases. Clinical efficacy was found in 80% of cases at 7 days, in 66.7% of cases at one month and in 60% of cases at 3 months. No major complications were noted. Some of the

  15. Increasing STEM Exposure in K–5 Schools Through MakerSpace Use: A Multi-Site Early Success Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Veronica Inez

    2017-01-01

    Using Brinkerhoff’s success case methodology, this multi-site case study examined early models of MakerSpace implementation in K–5 schools in a single district. Specifically, this study examined the early use of MakerSpaces as well as the supports and barriers affecting teacher use of these spaces. The study also examined curricular connections and MakerSpace use as a conduit for purveying instruction in the soon-to-be-implemented Next Generation Science Standards. The findings of this stud...

  16. Versatile single-molecule multi-color excitation and detection fluorescence setup for studying biomolecular dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Sobhy, M. A.; Elshenawy, M. M.; Takahashi, Masateru; Whitman, B. H.; Walter, N. G.; Hamdan, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence imaging is at the forefront of tools applied to study biomolecular dynamics both in vitro and in vivo. The ability of the single-molecule fluorescence microscope to conduct simultaneous multi-color excitation

  17. Integrated ground-water monitoring strategy for NRC-licensed facilities and sites: Case study applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, V.; Temples, T.; Hodges, R.; Dai, Z.; Watkins, D.; Imrich, J.

    2007-01-01

    This document discusses results of applying the Integrated Ground-Water Monitoring Strategy (the Strategy) to actual waste sites using existing field characterization and monitoring data. The Strategy is a systematic approach to dealing with complex sites. Application of such a systematic approach will reduce uncertainty associated with site analysis, and therefore uncertainty associated with management decisions about a site. The Strategy can be used to guide the development of a ground-water monitoring program or to review an existing one. The sites selected for study fall within a wide range of geologic and climatic settings, waste compositions, and site design characteristics and represent realistic cases that might be encountered by the NRC. No one case study illustrates a comprehensive application of the Strategy using all available site data. Rather, within each case study we focus on certain aspects of the Strategy, to illustrate concepts that can be applied generically to all sites. The test sites selected include:Charleston, South Carolina, Naval Weapons Station,Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York,The USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site in Nevada,Rocky Flats in Colorado,C-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, andThe Hanford 300 Area.A Data Analysis section provides examples of detailed data analysis of monitoring data.

  18. Single-port laparoscopic myomectomy using a new single-port transumbilical morcellation system: initial clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Wook; Park, Byung-Joon; Ro, Duck-Yeong; Kim, Tae-Eung

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of single-port laparoscopic myomectomy with transumbilical morcellation and suturing. Continuing prospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). University hospital. Fifteen patients who underwent single-port laparoscopic myomectomy between September 2008 and October 2009 to remove single or multiple uterine myomas, at least 1 in each patient measuring greater than 4 cm in diameter. All single-port laparoscopic myomectomy procedures were performed by a single surgeon (Dr. Y.W. Kim). Myomas were extracted transumbilically by cutting the myomas into smaller pieces with a knife or a conventional electromechanical morcellator. After making a single 1.5- to 2.0-cm umbilical incision, the single-port system, created with a wound retractor and a surgical glove, was inserted. All operations were performed using conventional rigid straight laparoscopic instruments. Laparoscopic suturing was performed in intramural myomas and some subserosal myomas. Patient mean (SD; range) age was 38.3 (5.6; 29-49) years. The number of myomas per patient was 1.6 (1.4; 1-6). The diameter of the largest myomas was 6.1 (1.5; 4.2-9.6) cm. In 4 patients, only a knife was required for transumbilical extraction of myomas, and in 11 patients, transumbilical morcellation with an electromechanical morcellator with or without a knife was used. Transumbilical drainage tubes were inserted into the pelvic cavity in 11 of 15 patients. Operative time was 96.7 (33.8; 35-150) minutes. The decrease in postoperative hemoglobin concentration was 1.8 (1.2; 0.4-3.6) g/dL. During the operations, no patients required blood transfusion. No patients developed postoperative fever. Neither bowel injury nor urinary tract injury occurred in any patient. The postoperative hospital stay was 3.1 (0.8; 2-4) days. Single-port transumbilical morcellation using a conventional electromechanical morcellator with or without a knife is feasible. Single-port laparoscopic myomectomy is an

  19. S-process studies using single and pulsed neutron exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, H.

    The formation of heavy elements by slow neutron capture (s-process) is investigated. A pulsed neutron irradiation leading to an exponential exposure distribution is dominant for nuclei from A = 90 to 200. For the isotopes from iron to zirconium an additional 'weak' s-process component must be superimposed. Calculations using a single or another pulsed neutron exposure for this component have been carried out in order to reproduce the abundance pattern of the s-only and s-process dominant isotopes. For the adjustment of these calculations to the empirical values, the inclusion of new capture cross section data on Se76 and Y89 and the consideration of the branchings at Ni63, Se79, and Kr85 was important. The combination of an s-process with a single and a pulsed neutron exposure yielded a better representation of empirical abundances than a two component pulsed s-process.

  20. S-process studies using single and pulsed neutron exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, H.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of heavy elements by slow neutron capture (s-process) is investigated. A pulsed neutron irradiation leading to an exponential exposure distribution is dominant for nuclei from A=90 to 200. For the isotopes from iron to zirconium an additional ''weak'' s-process component must be superimposed. Calculations using a single or another pulsed neutron exposure for this component have been carried out in order to reproduce the abundance pattern of the s-only and s-process dominant isotopes. For the adjustment of these calculations to the empirical values, including new capture cross section data on Se76 and Y89 and the consideration of the branchings at Ni63, Se79, and Kr85 was important. The combination of a s-process with a single and a pulsed neutron exposure yielded a better representation of empirical abundances than a two component pulsed s-process

  1. Site Selection Strategy of Single-Frequency Tuned R-APF for Background Harmonic Voltage Damping in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Zeng, Jian; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    , and analyze the harmonic voltage propagation caused by the background harmonic voltage in power systems. Then, a new strategy is proposed for the site selection of resistive active power filter to damp the background harmonic voltage in power systems. Experiments have been performed to verify the theoretical......Series resonance between capacitance and line inductance may magnify background harmonic voltage and worsen the harmonic voltage distortion in power systems. To solve this problem, in this paper, the transmission line theory is used to set up the distributed parameter model of power system feeders...

  2. Risk management study for the retired Hanford Site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.A.; Shultz, M.V.; Taylor, W.E.

    1993-04-01

    Risk from retired surplus facilities has always been assumed to be low at the Hanford Site as the facilities are inactive and have few potentials for causing an offsite hazardous material release. However,the fatal accident that occurred in the spring of 1992 in which an employee fell through a deteriorated roof at the 105-F Reactor Building has raised the possibility that retired facilities represent a greater risk than was originally assumed. Therefore, Westinghouse Hanford Company and the US Department of Energy management have determined that facility risk management strategies and programmatic plans should be reevaluated to assure risks are identified and appropriate corrective action plans are developed. To evaluate risk management strategies, accurate risk information about the current and projected condition of the facilities must be developed. This work procedure has been created to address the development of accurate and timely risk information. By using the evaluation results in this procedure, it will be possible to create a prioritized baseline for managing facility risk until all retired surplus facilities are demolished

  3. Single- and Multi-Date Crop Identification Using PROBA-V 100 and 300 m S1 Products on Zlatia Test Site, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Roumenina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of crops is of vital importance for food and environmental security in a global and European context. The main goal of this study was to assess the crop mapping performance provided by the 100 m spatial resolution of PROBA-V compared to coarser resolution data (e.g., PROBA-V at 300 m for a 2250 km2 test site in Bulgaria. The focus was on winter and summer crop mapping with three to five classes. For classification, single- and multi-date spectral data were used as well as NDVI time series. Our results demonstrate that crop identification using 100 m PROBA-V data performed significantly better in all experiments compared to the PROBA-V 300 m data. PROBA-V multispectral imagery, acquired in spring (March was the most appropriate for winter crop identification, while satellite data acquired in summer (July was superior for summer crop identification. The classification accuracy from PROBA-V 100 m compared to PROBA-V 300 m was improved by 5.8% to 14.8% depending on crop type. Stacked multi-date satellite images with three to four images gave overall classification accuracies of 74%–77% (PROBA-V 100 m data and 66%–70% (PROBA-V 300 m data with four classes (wheat, rapeseed, maize, and sunflower. This demonstrates that three to four image acquisitions, well distributed over the growing season, capture most of the spectral and temporal variability in our test site. Regarding the PROBA-V NDVI time series, useful results were only obtained if crops were grouped into two broader crop type classes (summer and winter crops. Mapping accuracies decreased significantly when mapping more classes. Again, a positive impact of the increased spatial resolution was noted. Together, the findings demonstrate the positive effect of the 100 m resolution PROBA-V data compared to the 300 m for crop mapping. This has important implications for future data provision and strengthens the arguments for a second generation of this mission originally designed

  4. Preliminary studies on trace element contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in India and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusa, T.; Kunito, T.; Nakashima, E.; Minh, T. B.; Tanabe, S.; Subramanian, A.; Viet, P. H.

    2003-05-01

    The disposal of wastes in dumping sites has increasingly caused concem about adverse health effects on the populations living nearby. However, no investigation has been conducted yet on contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in Asian developing countries. In this study, concentrations of 11 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb and Pb) were detennined in scalp hair from the population living nearby and in soil from dumping sites and control sites of India and Vietnam. Soil samples in dumping site in India showed significantly higher concentrations of some trace elements than soils in control site, whereas this trend was not notable in Vietnam. This is probably due to the fact that the wastes were covered with the soil in the dumping site of Vietnam. Cadmium concentrations in some hair samples of people living near dumping site in India and Vietnam exceeded the level associated with learning disorder in children. Levels of most of the trace elements in hair were significantly higher in dumping site than those in control site in India and Vietnam, suggesting direct or indirect exposure to those elements from dumping wastes. To our knowledge, this is the first study of trace element contamination in dumping sites in India and Vietnam.

  5. Fusion of Geophysical Images in the Study of Archaeological Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamitrou, A. A.; Petrou, M.; Tsokas, G. N.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents results from different fusion techniques between geophysical images from different modalities in order to combine them into one image with higher information content than the two original images independently. The resultant image will be useful for the detection and mapping of buried archaeological relics. The examined archaeological area is situated in Kampana site (NE Greece) near the ancient theater of Maronia city. Archaeological excavations revealed an ancient theater, an aristocratic house and the temple of the ancient Greek God Dionysus. Numerous ceramic objects found in the broader area indicated the probability of the existence of buried urban structure. In order to accurately locate and map the latter, geophysical measurements performed with the use of the magnetic method (vertical gradient of the magnetic field) and of the electrical method (apparent resistivity). We performed a semi-stochastic pixel based registration method between the geophysical images in order to fine register them by correcting their local spatial offsets produced by the use of hand held devices. After this procedure we applied to the registered images three different fusion approaches. Image fusion is a relatively new technique that not only allows integration of different information sources, but also takes advantage of the spatial and spectral resolution as well as the orientation characteristics of each image. We have used three different fusion techniques, fusion with mean values, with wavelets by enhancing selected frequency bands and curvelets giving emphasis at specific bands and angles (according the expecting orientation of the relics). In all three cases the fused images gave significantly better results than each of the original geophysical images separately. The comparison of the results of the three different approaches showed that the fusion with the use of curvelets, giving emphasis at the features' orientation, seems to give the best fused image

  6. Transport properties of PrxOs4Sb12 single crystals with high Pr-site filling fraction grown under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kenya; Namiki, Takahiro; Saito, Takashi; Tatsuoka, Sho; Imamura, Atsushi; Kuwahara, Keitaro; Aoki, Yuji; Sato, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    We have succeeded in growing Pr x Os 4 Sb 12 single crystals under ∼4GPa with high Pr-site filling fraction x. The electrical resistance measurements clearly show that the superconducting (SC) transition is sharper and the onset temperatures is lower in the single crystal samples grown under high pressure compared to that of the sample grown under ambient pressure. These results suggest that the double SC transition ascribed to sample inhomogeneity is suppressed in the sample grown under high pressure. The change of 4f-electron crystalline electric field energy splitting between the Γ 1 ground state and the Γ 4 (2) first excited state in the sample made under high pressure is proposed as one of the possible origins of the suppression of the double SC transition.

  7. Production of propylene from 1-butene on highly active "bi-functional single active site" catalyst: Tungsten carbene-hydride supported on alumina

    KAUST Repository

    Mazoyer, Etienne

    2011-12-02

    1-Butene is transformed in a continuous flow reactor over tungsten hydrides precursor W-H/Al2O3, 1, giving a promising yield into propylene at 150 °C and different pressures. Tungsten carbene-hydride single active site operates as a "bi-functional catalyst" through 1-butene isomerization on W-hydride and 1-butene/2-butenes cross-metathesis on W-carbene. This active moiety is generated in situ at the initiation steps by insertion of 1-butene on tungsten hydrides precursor W-H/Al2O3, 1 followed by α-H and β-H abstraction. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Pre test parametric studies on single compartment vented enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pavan K.; Gera, B.; Singh, R.K.; Vaze, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a proper design fire scenario is a challenging task and essential component for conducting fire safety design of buildings. A design fire scenario is a qualitative description of a fire with time identifying key events that characterize the fire (ignition, growth, flashover, fully-developed, and decay stages of fire). Proper fire safety design requires the appropriate selection of design fires against which the performance of the building is evaluated. The selection of the design fires directly impacts all aspects of fire safety performance, including the structural fire resistance, compartmentation against fire spread, egress systems, manual or automatic detection systems, suppression systems, and smoke control. The parameters affecting design fires include, the type, amount and arrangement of combustible materials, the ventilation conditions (air supply conditions, door/window open), and size of the compartment of fire origin. A design fire is a quantitative description of the characteristics of a fire, such as heat release rate (HRR), size of fire and its rate of spread, yield of products of combustion, and hot gas temperatures. Design fires are based on fire scenarios that replicate real fires. Six Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations were conducted in order to investigate the effect of fire load on fire dynamics in a) iso corner fire configuration b) IIT Delhi single compartment of a size of 5.0 m long, 5.0 m wide and 5.0 m high with doorway opening of 1m x 3m with centre fire of size 0.5 m x 0.5m. These types of simulation are carried out for deciding about the instrumentation scheme, safety aspect, and optimization of proposed experiments for National Fire Test Facility as pretest calculations. The simulations results are summarized in various identified applied parameter which are useful in terms of understanding the complex fire dynamics, validating the numerical tolls against experiments and using them (in form of values

  9. Identification of Site Selection Factors in the U.S. Franchise Restaurant Industry: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kunsoon

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and rank the importance of the site selection factors that influence the U.S. franchise restaurant industry as well as rank the confidence level of the experts. To identify the site selection factors, this study sought assistance and support from restaurant professionals. The Delphi technique was used to elicit the opinions of a panel of experts regarding the site selection factors. The panel was composed of restaurant professionals of restaurant c...

  10. Webs sites of women`s studies universitary centers in spain: selection and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de Torres Ramírez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available After a brief introduction about the level of development of Women’s Studies in Spain and a list of their parent university institutions, Women’s Studies Web sites are assessed by measuring their usability. The aim is to improve use and accessibility of existing Web sites and, above all, provide encouragement and a model to follow by future Web sites in this area.

  11. Metadata in Arabic Libraries' Web Sites in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : An Applied Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain A.Hady

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An Applied study aims at analyzes the metadata of Arabic Libraries' Web Sites in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, it begins with a methodological introduction, then the study analyzes the web sites using Meta Tag Analyzer software, it included the following web sites : Library of Alexandria, Egyptian Libraries, Egyptian National, King Fahd National Library, King Abdel Aziz Public Library, and Mubarak Public Library.

  12. Positron annihilation spectroscopic study of hydrothermal grown n-type zinc oxide single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, C.W.; Zhang, Z.D.; Zhou, T.J.; Ling, C.C.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W. [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Postfach 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopic (CDBS) measurements were carried out to study the defects in two hydrothermal (HT) grown ZnO single crystal samples (HT1 and HT2) obtained from two companies. Single component model could offer good fittings to the room temperature spectra of HT1 and HT2, with the positron lifetimes equal to 199 ps and 181 ps respectively. These two lifetime components were associated with saturated positron trapping into two V{sub Zn}-related defects with different microstructures. The positron lifetimes of HT1 was found to be temperature independent. For the HT2 sample, the positron lifetime remained unchanged with T>200 K and decreased with decreasing temperature as T<200 K. This could be explained by the presence of an additional positron trap having similar electronic environment to that of the delocalized state and competing in trapping positrons with the 181 ps component at low temperatures. Positron-electron autocorrelation function, which was the fingerprint of the annihilation site, was extracted from the CDBS spectrum. The obtained autocorrelation functions of HT1 and HT2 at room temperature, and HT2 at 50 K had features consistent with the above postulates that the 181 ps and the 199 ps components had distinct microstructures and the low temperature positron trap existed in HT2. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Laparo-Endoscopic Single-Site Surgery for Radical and Cytoreductive Nephrectomy, Renal Vein Thrombectomy, and Partial Nephrectomy: A Prospective Pilot Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ithaar H. Derweesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS may diminish morbidity of laparoscopic surgery. We prospectively evaluated feasibility and outcomes of LESS-Radical Nephrectomy (LESS-RN and Partial Nephrectomy (LESS-PN. Methods. 10 patients underwent LESS-RN (6 and LESS-PN (4 between 2/2009-5/2009. LESS-RN included 2 with renal vein thrombectomy, one of which was also cytoreductive. Transperitoneal LESS access was obtained by periumbilical incision. Patient/tumor characteristics, oncologic, and quality of life (QoL outcomes were analyzed. Results. 3 Men/7 Women (mean age 58.7 years, median follow-up 9.8 months underwent LESS. 9/10 cases were completed successfully. All had negative margins. Mean operative time was 161 minutes, estimated blood loss was 125 mL, and incision size was 4.4 cm. Median tumor size for LESS-RN and -PN was 5.0 and 1.7 cm (=.045. Median LESS-PN ischemia time was 24 minutes; mean preoperative/postoperative creatinine were 0.7/0.8 mg/dL (=.19. Mean pain score at discharge was 1.3. Mean preoperative, 3-, and 6-month postoperative SF-36 QoL Score was 73.8, 74.4 and 77.1 (=.222. All patients are currently alive. Conclusions. LESS-RN, renal vein thrombectomy, and PN are technically feasible and safe while maintaining adherence to oncologic principles, with excellent QoL preservation and low discharge pain scores. Further study is requisite.

  14. A Synthetic Single-Site Fe Nitrogenase: High Turnover, Freeze-Quench (57)Fe Mössbauer Data, and a Hydride Resting State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Trevor J; Thompson, Niklas B; Peters, Jonas C

    2016-04-27

    The mechanisms of the few known molecular nitrogen-fixing systems, including nitrogenase enzymes, are of much interest but are not fully understood. We recently reported that Fe-N2 complexes of tetradentate P3(E) ligands (E = B, C) generate catalytic yields of NH3 under an atmosphere of N2 with acid and reductant at low temperatures. Here we show that these Fe catalysts are unexpectedly robust and retain activity after multiple reloadings. Nearly an order of magnitude improvement in yield of NH3 for each Fe catalyst has been realized (up to 64 equiv of NH3 produced per Fe for P3(B) and up to 47 equiv for P3(C)) by increasing acid/reductant loading with highly purified acid. Cyclic voltammetry shows the apparent onset of catalysis at the P3(B)Fe-N2/P3(B)Fe-N2(-) couple and controlled-potential electrolysis of P3(B)Fe(+) at -45 °C demonstrates that electrolytic N2 reduction to NH3 is feasible. Kinetic studies reveal first-order rate dependence on Fe catalyst concentration (P3(B)), consistent with a single-site catalyst model. An isostructural system (P3(Si)) is shown to be appreciably more selective for hydrogen evolution. In situ freeze-quench Mössbauer spectroscopy during turnover reveals an iron-borohydrido-hydride complex as a likely resting state of the P3(B)Fe catalyst system. We postulate that hydrogen-evolving reaction activity may prevent iron hydride formation from poisoning the P3(B)Fe system. This idea may be important to consider in the design of synthetic nitrogenases and may also have broader significance given that intermediate metal hydrides and hydrogen evolution may play a key role in biological nitrogen fixation.

  15. Revealing Ligand Binding Sites and Quantifying Subunit Variants of Noncovalent Protein Complexes in a Single Native Top-Down FTICR MS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huilin; Wongkongkathep, Piriya; Van Orden, Steve L.; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Loo, Joseph A.

    2014-12-01

    "Native" mass spectrometry (MS) has been proven to be increasingly useful for structural biology studies of macromolecular assemblies. Using horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (hADH) and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (yADH) as examples, we demonstrate that rich information can be obtained in a single native top-down MS experiment using Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (FTICR MS). Beyond measuring the molecular weights of the protein complexes, isotopic mass resolution was achieved for yeast ADH tetramer (147 kDa) with an average resolving power of 412,700 at m/z 5466 in absorption mode, and the mass reflects that each subunit binds to two zinc atoms. The N-terminal 89 amino acid residues were sequenced in a top-down electron capture dissociation (ECD) experiment, along with the identifications of the zinc binding site at Cys46 and a point mutation (V58T). With the combination of various activation/dissociation techniques, including ECD, in-source dissociation (ISD), collisionally activated dissociation (CAD), and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD), 40% of the yADH sequence was derived directly from the native tetramer complex. For hADH, native top-down ECD-MS shows that both E and S subunits are present in the hADH sample, with a relative ratio of 4:1. Native top-down ISD of the hADH dimer shows that each subunit (E and S chains) binds not only to two zinc atoms, but also the NAD/NADH ligand, with a higher NAD/NADH binding preference for the S chain relative to the E chain. In total, 32% sequence coverage was achieved for both E and S chains.

  16. Single thrombopoietin dose alleviates hematopoietic stem cells intrinsic short- and long-term ionizing radiation damage. In vivo identification of anatomical cell expansion sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronik-Le Roux, Diana; Nicola, Marie-Anne; Vaigot, Pierre; Nurden, Paquita

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are essential for maintaining the integrity of complex and long-lived organisms. HSC, which are self-renewing, reconstitute the hematopoietic system through out life and facilitate long-term repopulation of myeloablated recipients. We have previously demonstrated that when mice are exposed to sublethal doses of ionizing radiation, subsets of the stem/progenitor compartment are affected. In this study we examine the role of thrombopoietin (TPO) on the regenerative capacities of HSC after irradiation and report the first demonstration of efficacy of a single injection of TPO shortly after in vivo exposure to ionizing radiation for reducing HSC injury and improving their functional outcome. Our results demonstrate that TPO treatment not only reduced the number of apoptotic cells but also induced a significant modification of their intrinsic characteristics. These findings were supported by transplantation assays with long-term HSC that were irradiated or unirradiated, TPO treated or untreated, in CD45.1/CD45.2 systems and by using luciferase-labeled HSC for direct bioluminescence imaging in living animals. Of particular importance, our data demonstrate the skull to be a highly favorable site for the TPO-induced emergence of hematopoietic cells after irradiation, suggesting a TPO-mediated relationship of primitive hematopoietic cells to an anatomical component. Together, the data presented here: provide novel findings about aspects of TPO action on stem cells, open new areas of investigation for therapeutic options in patients who are treated with radiation therapy, and show that early administration of a clinically suitable TPO-agonist counteracts the previously observed adverse effects.

  17. Channeling effect studies in V3Si single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, O.

    1978-01-01

    Angular scans through the [100] and [110] channeling directions in V 3 Si have been performed using elastically scattered He ions for the V-rows and the 28 Si(d,p 8 ) 29 Si reaction for the Si-rows. The amplitude of thermal vibration perpendicular to the V-chains was found to be larger than that at 45 0 to them. The Si atoms however vibrate isotropically. The use of multi-row potentials instead of single-row potentials leads to better overall agreement between measured and calculated critical angles. (Auth.)

  18. A Cohort Study of Preoperative Single Dose Versus Four Doses of Antibiotics for Patients With Non-Complicated Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah H. Al Janaby

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To Test the efficacy of single preoperative dose of Cefotaxime 1gm and Metronidazole 500mg in reducing the surgical site infections (SSIs after open appendectomy in patients with non-complicated appendicitis (NCA Place and Duration of Study: Al Hilla General Teaching Hospital, Babel Governorate-Iraq, from January 2013 to January 2014. Patients & Methods: 100 patients, who underwent appendectomy for NCA and fulfilled the selection criteria, were randomized into two groups. The patients in group A received a single dose of pre-operative antibiotics (Cefotaxime sodium and metronidazole, while the group B patients received three more dose of the same antibiotics postoperatively. Patients of both groups were followed-up for 30 days to assess the postoperative infective complications. Results: Group A had 48, while group B comprised of 52 patients. The groups were comparable in the baseline characteristics. Statistically, P value in rates of SSIs between both the groups was 0.9182. None of the patients developed intra-abdominal collection. Conclusion: Single dose of pre-operative antibiotics (Cefotaxime and metronidazole was sufficient in reducing the SSIs after appendectomy for NPA. Postoperative antibiotics did not add an appreciable clinical benefit in these patients. Key words: Preoperative antibiotics, Appendectomy, Surgical site infection, Non-complicated appendicitis Abbreviations: SSI: Surgical Site Infection, NCA: non-complicated appendicitis CDC Center of Disease Control.

  19. Technical procedures for implementation of acoustics site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The purpose and scope of the technical procedure for processing data from the tethered meteorological system are covered. Definitions, interfaces, and concurrent data needs are also addressed. This technical procedure describes how to control, organize, verify, and archive tethered meteorological system data. These data will be received at the processing location from the field measurement location and are part of the characterization of the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas for the salt repository program. These measurements will be made in support of the sound propagation study and are a result of environmental data requirements for acoustics. 6 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Surface Passivation for Single-molecule Protein Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandradoss, Stanley D.; Haagsma, Anna C.; Lee, Young Kwang; Hwang, Jae-Ho; Nam, Jwa-Min; Joo, Chirlmin

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy has proven to be instrumental in understanding a wide range of biological phenomena at the nanoscale. Important examples of what this technique can yield to biological sciences are the mechanistic insights on protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions. When interactions of proteins are probed at the single-molecule level, the proteins or their substrates are often immobilized on a glass surface, which allows for a long-term observation. This immobilization scheme may introduce unwanted surface artifacts. Therefore, it is essential to passivate the glass surface to make it inert. Surface coating using polyethylene glycol (PEG) stands out for its high performance in preventing proteins from non-specifically interacting with a glass surface. However, the polymer coating procedure is difficult, due to the complication arising from a series of surface treatments and the stringent requirement that a surface needs to be free of any fluorescent molecules at the end of the procedure. Here, we provide a robust protocol with step-by-step instructions. It covers surface cleaning including piranha etching, surface functionalization with amine groups, and finally PEG coating. To obtain a high density of a PEG layer, we introduce a new strategy of treating the surface with PEG molecules over two rounds, which remarkably improves the quality of passivation. We provide representative results as well as practical advice for each critical step so that anyone can achieve the high quality surface passivation. PMID:24797261

  1. Radionuclide disequilibria studies for investigating the integrity of potential nuclear waste disposal sites: subseabed studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.; Thomas, C.W.; Petersen, M.R.; Perkins, R.W.

    1981-09-01

    This study of subseabed sediments indicates that natural radionuclides can be employed to define past long-term migration rates and thereby evaluate the integrity of potential disposal sites in ocean sediments. The study revealed the following conclusions: (1) the sedimentation rate of both the long and short cores collected in the North Pacific is 2.5 mm/1000 yr or 2.5 m/m.yr in the upper 3 meters; (2) the sedimentation rate has been rather constant over the last one million years; and (3) slow diffusive processes dominate within the sediment. Reworking of the sediment by physical processes or organisms is not observed

  2. Central repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (ALMA) conceptual design, siting and safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellbert, N.; Haeggblom, H.; Cederstroem, M.; Lundgren, T.

    1980-07-01

    A generic design, siting and safety study of a proposed repository for low- and intermediate-level waste has been made. Special emphasis has been placed on safety characterostics. The conceptual design and the generic site, on which the study is based, are realistically chosen in accordance with present construction techniques and the existing geohydrological conditions in Sweden. (Auth.)

  3. Site specific transfer factor studies for Kaiga region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakara, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Radioecology Laboratory of University Science Instrumentation Centre, Mangalore University is engaged in frontline research studies on different aspects of environmental radioactivity and radiation protection for the last 20 years. Extensive studies have been carried out on radiation levels, radionuclides distribution, and transfer of radionuclides through terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric pathways in the environment of West Coast of India including the Kaiga nuclear power plant. The baseline studies on radioactivity levels around Kaiga region was carried out well before the nuclear power plant became operational and the data generated under these studies are considered to be highly valuable for future impact assessments. The nuclear power plant became operational in the year 1999 and since then this laboratory is involved in radiological impact assessment studies around the nuclear power plant. Detailed Kaiga specific studies are now ongoing to estimate the transfer factors and transfer coefficients for radionuclides for different pathways, such as, (i) soil to rice (ii) soil to different types of vegetables (iii) water/sediment to fish (iv) soil to grass (v) grass to cow milk and (vi) milk to child. For these studies, rice and vegetable fields were developed very close to the nuclear power plant in Kaiga to study the transfer of radionuclides. The water required for this field was drawn from coolant water discharge canal of the power plant. Rice and different types of vegetables were grown in the experimental fields in different seasons of the year and the uptake of radionuclides was studied. For a comparative study, rice and vegetables were also collected from the fields of farmers of nearby villages and analysed. The transfer of artificial radionuclides through pathway involving cow milk was also studied in detail. A grass field was developed and cows were adopted specifically for this study. The cows were allowed to graze freely in this grass field

  4. Site qualification studies of the UCG-SDB at North Knobs, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.E.; Krajewski, S.A.; Ahner, P.F.; Avasthi, J.M.; Dolde, M.E.; Greenman, C.A.; Miranda, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    The site qualification program for the North Knobs UCG site near Rawlins, Wyoming has been completed. This site will be the location for the field tests of Underground Coal Gasification of Steeply Dipping Beds undertaken by Gulf Research and Development Company for DOE in a cost shared contract. Site characterization included a comprehensive geotechnical analysis along with vegetation, historical, and archeological studies. The G coal seam chosen for these tests is a subbituminous B coal with a true seam thickness of 22 feet and has thin coal benches above and below the main seam. The water table is at 90 feet below the surface. Hydrologic studies have defined the seam as an aquiclude (non-aquifer). The site is deemed restorable to regulatory requirements. Evaluation of this site indicates total acceptability for the three-test program planned by GR and DC.

  5. Study of single-nucleon spectroscopic characteristics in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhusupova, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    Single-nucleon characteristics of 1 p-shell nuclei are investigated in the thesis. These characteristics are necessary for describing nuclear processes leaded to separation of target nuclei or to addition of one nucleon to it. Multi-particle shell model and three-body cluster model (for 6 L i and 9 Be) are used. It is shown that shell model explains well spectroscopic S-factors for stripping and pick-up reactions of nucleon. Three body α2 N-model reproduces well S-factors and momentum distribution extracted from (e, e p) reactions for separation of proton from ground state of 6 L i nucleus accompanied by appearance of ground and high exited states of 5 He nucleolus. The classification and explanation for small value nucleon partial widths for high lying states for odd nuclei 1 p-shell with isospin T=3/2 are given. (author)

  6. Single-cell technologies in molecular marine studies

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2015-01-24

    Middle Eastern countries are experiencing a renaissance, with heavy investment in both in infrastructure and science. King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) is a new and modern university in Saudi Arabia. At the Computational Bioscience Research Center (CBRC) we are working on exploring the Red Sea and beyond, collaborating with Japanese and other research centers. We are using the environment to collect and analyze the microorganisms present. The platform being established at CBRC allows to process samples in a pipeline. The pipeline components consist of sample collection, processing and sequencing, following the in silico analysis, determining the gene functions, identifying the organisms. The genomes of microorganisms of interest are targeted modified by genome editing technology such as CRISPR and desired properties are selected by single cell instrumentation. The final output is to identify valuable microorganisms with production of bio-energy, nutrients, the food and fine chemicals.

  7. Single Molecule Study of Photoconversion and Spectral Heterogeneities of Fluorophores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Zhiyu

    of conformational changes and dynamics. The photophysical properties of organic dyes directly determine the quality of the experiments. So the better understanding of the photophysical properties of organic dyes, the better we are able to design the experiments and interpret the data, especially in single molecule...... important criteria for a good fluorophore. Improving the photostability of organic dyes by designing the structure is always a difficult task for organic chemists. It requires a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of the photobleaching behavior of fluorophores. It is the aim of this work...... to understand the mechanisms of photobleaching behaviors of organic dyes, terrylene diimide (TDI) and amino-trioxatriangulenium dye (A3-TOTA+). Photobleaching is usually seen as permanent loss of fluorescence. In this work, we show that organic fluorophores can be converted into another chemical compound after...

  8. Groundwater quality assessment plan for single-shell tank waste management Area U at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-01-01

    Waste Management Area U (WMA U) includes the U Tank Farm, is currently regulated under RCRA interim-status regulations, and is scheduled for closure probably post-2030. Groundwater monitoring has been under an evaluation program that compared general contaminant indicator parameters from downgradient wells to background values established from upgradient wells. One of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in one downgradient well triggering a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The objective of the first phase of this assessment program is to determine whether the increased concentrations of nitrate and chromium in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Based on the results of the first determination, if WMA U is not the source of contamination, then the site will revert to detection monitoring. If WMA U is the source, then a second part of the groundwater quality assessment plan will be prepared to define the rate and extent of migration of contaminants in the groundwater and their concentrations

  9. A single acidic residue can guide binding site selection but does not govern QacR cationic-drug affinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate M Peters

    Full Text Available Structures of the multidrug-binding repressor protein QacR with monovalent and bivalent cationic drugs revealed that the carboxylate side-chains of E90 and E120 were proximal to the positively charged nitrogens of the ligands ethidium, malachite green and rhodamine 6G, and therefore may contribute to drug neutralization and binding affinity. Here, we report structural, biochemical and in vivo effects of substituting these glutamate residues. Unexpectedly, substitutions had little impact on ligand affinity or in vivo induction capabilities. Structures of QacR(E90Q and QacR(E120Q with ethidium or malachite green took similar global conformations that differed significantly from all previously described QacR-drug complexes but still prohibited binding to cognate DNA. Strikingly, the QacR(E90Q-rhodamine 6G complex revealed two mutually exclusive rhodamine 6G binding sites. Despite multiple structural changes, all drug binding was essentially isoenergetic. Thus, these data strongly suggest that rather than contributing significantly to ligand binding affinity, the role of acidic residues lining the QacR multidrug-binding pocket is primarily to attract and guide cationic drugs to the "best available" positions within the pocket that elicit QacR induction.

  10. Single-molecule studies of the Im7 folding landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Sara D; Gell, Christopher; Smith, D Alastair; Radford, Sheena E; Brockwell, David J

    2010-04-23

    Under appropriate conditions, the four-helical Im7 (immunity protein 7) folds from an ensemble of unfolded conformers to a highly compact native state via an on-pathway intermediate. Here, we investigate the unfolded, intermediate, and native states populated during folding using diffusion single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer by measuring the efficiency of energy transfer (or proximity or P ratio) between pairs of fluorophores introduced into the side chains of cysteine residues placed in the center of helices 1 and 4, 1 and 3, or 2 and 4. We show that while the native states of each variant give rise to a single narrow distribution with high P values, the distributions of the intermediates trapped at equilibrium (denoted I(eqm)) are fitted by two Gaussian distributions. Modulation of the folding conditions from those that stabilize the intermediate to those that destabilize the intermediate enabled the distribution of lower P value to be assigned to the population of the unfolded ensemble in equilibrium with the intermediate state. The reduced stability of the I(eqm) variants allowed analysis of the effect of denaturant concentration on the compaction and breadth of the unfolded state ensemble to be quantified from 0 to 6 M urea. Significant compaction is observed as the concentration of urea is decreased in both the presence and absence of sodium sulfate, as previously reported for a variety of proteins. In the presence of Na(2)SO(4) in 0 M urea, the P value of the unfolded state ensemble approaches that of the native state. Concurrent with compaction, the ensemble displays increased peak width of P values, possibly reflecting a reduction in the rate of conformational exchange among iso-energetic unfolded, but compact conformations. The results provide new insights into the initial stages of folding of Im7 and suggest that the unfolded state is highly conformationally constrained at the outset of folding. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. On-site detection of Phytophthora spp.—single-stranded target DNA as the limiting factor to improve on-chip hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenkbier, Lydia; Pollok, Sibyll; Popp, Jürgen; Weber, Karina; König, Stephan; Wagner, Stefan; Werres, Sabine; Weber, Jörg; Hentschel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We report on a lab-on-a-chip approach for on-site detection of Phytophthora species that allows visual signal readout. The results demonstrate the significance of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) generation in terms of improving the intensity of the hybridization signal and to improve the reliability of the method. Conventional PCR with subsequent heat denaturation, sodium hydroxide-based denaturation, lambda exonuclease digestion and two asymmetric PCR methods were investigated for the species P. fragariae, P. kernoviae, and P. ramorum. The positioning of the capture probe within the amplified yeast GTP-binding protein (YPT1) target DNA was also of interest because it significantly influences the intensity of the signal. Statistical tests were used to validate the impact of the ssDNA generation methods and the capture-target probe position. The single-stranded target DNA generated by Linear-After-The-Exponential PCR (LATE-PCR) was found to produce signal intensities comparable to post-PCR exonuclease treatment. The LATE-PCR is the best method for the on-site detection of Phytophthora because the enzymatic digestion after PCR is more laborious and time-consuming. (author)

  12. The Influence of Heritage Sites as Filming Locations on Tourists’ Decisions to Visit Sites and Their Perceptions of Them. Case Study: Game of Thrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Bowyer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the authors’ master thesis and addresses the effects of World Heritage Sites and heritage sites which are used as filming locations on visitor perceptions of a site and their decision to visit a site. Film-induced tourism is becoming increasingly popular and it is important to assess its impacts on World Heritage Sites and heritage sites used as locations. The integration of the different aspects of heritage and filming at a site including elements and the communication between all the different parties involved are also addressed. The case study used is the popular television series Game of Thrones focusing on various locations in Northern Ireland and Dubrovnik, Croatia. The paper aims to provide a starting platform for future research on heritage sites used as filming locations and the possible impacts that this may have.

  13. A study plan for determining recharge rates at the Hanford Site using environmental tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.M.; Szercsody, J.E.; Phillips, S.J.

    1991-02-01

    This report presents a study plan for estimating recharge at the Hanford Site using environmental tracers. Past operations at the Hanford Site have led to both soil and groundwater contamination, and recharge is one of the primary mechanisms for transporting contaminants through the vadose zone and into the groundwater. An alternative to using fixed lysimeters for determining recharge rates in the vadose zone is to use environmental tracers. Tracers that have been used to study water movement in the vadose zone include total chloride, 36 Cl, 3 H, and 2 H/ 18 O. Atmospheric levels of 36 Cl and 3 H increased during nuclear bomb testing in the Pacific, and the resulting ''bomb pulse'' or peak concentration can be measured in the soil profile. Locally, past operations at the Hanford Site have resulted in the atmospheric release of numerous chemical and isotopic tracers, including nitrate, 129 I, and 99 Tc. Seven study sites on the Hanford Site have been selected, in two primary soil types that are believed to represent the extremes in recharge, the Quincy sand and the Warden silt loam. An additional background study site upwind of the Hanford facilities has been chosen at the Yakima Firing Center. Six tracer techniques (total chloride, 36 Cl, 3 H, nitrate, 129 I, and 99 Tc) will be tested on at least one site in the Quincy sand, one site in the Warden silt loam, and the background site, to determine which combination of tracers works best for a given soil type. In subsequent years, additional sites will be investigated. The use of environmental tracers is perhaps the only cost-effective method for estimating the spatial variability of recharge at a site as large as Hanford. The tracer techniques used at Hanford have wide applicability at other arid sites. 166 refs., 41 figs., 16 tabs

  14. Radiological Control Technician: Phase 1, Site academic training study guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This volume is a study guide for training Radiological Control Technicians. Provided herein are support materials for learning radiological documentation, communication systems, counting errors and statistics, dosimetry, contamination control, airborne sampling program methods, respiratory protection, radiological source control, environmental monitoring, access control and work area setup, radiological work coverage, shipment and receipt for radioactive material, radiological incidents and emergencies, personnel decontamination, first aid, radiation survey instrumentation, contamination monitoring, air sampling, and counting room equipment

  15. A New Theoretical Approach to Single-Molecule Fluorescence Optical Studies of RNA Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xinghai; Shan Guangcun; Bao Shuying

    2011-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy in condensed phases has many important chemical and biological applications. The single-molecule fluorescence measurements contain information about conformational dynamics on a vast range of time scales. Based on the data analysis protocols methodology proposed by X. Sunney Xie, the theoretical study here mainly focuses on the single-molecule studies of single RNA with interconversions among different conformational states, to with a single FRET pair attached. We obtain analytical expressions for fluorescence lifetime correlation functions that relate changes in fluorescence lifetime to the distance-dependent FRET mechanism within the context of the Smoluchowski diffusion model. The present work establishes useful guideline for the single-molecule studies of biomolecules to reveal the complicated folding dynamics of single RNA molecules at nanometer scale.

  16. RCRA Assessment Plan for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area S-SX at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.J.; Johnson, V.G.

    1999-01-01

    A groundwater quality assessment plan was prepared for waste management area S-SX at the Hanford Site. Groundwater monitoring is conducted at this facility in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Part 265, Subpart F [and by reference of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-400(3)]. The facility was placed in assessment groundwater monitoring program status after elevated waste constituents and indicator parameter measurements (i.e., chromium, technetium-99 and specific conductance) in downgradient monitoring wells were observed and confirmed. A first determination, as allowed under 40 CFR 265.93(d), provides the owner/operator of a facility an opportunity to demonstrate that the regulated unit is not the source of groundwater contamination. Based on results of the first determination it was concluded that multiple source locations in the waste management area could account for observed spatial and temporal groundwater contamination patterns. Consequently, a continued investigation is required. This plan, developed using the data quality objectives process, is intended to comply with the continued investigation requirement. Accordingly, the primary purpose of the present plan is to determine the rate and extent of dangerous waste (hexavalent chromium and nitrate) and radioactive constituents (e.g., technetium-99) in groundwater and to determine their concentrations in groundwater beneath waste management area S-SX. Comments and concerns expressed by the Washington State Department of Ecology on the initial waste management area S-SX assessment report were addressed in the descriptive narrative of this plan as well as in the planned activities. Comment disposition is documented in a separate addendum to this plan

  17. Silica-supported, single-site titanium catalysts for olefin epoxidation. A molecular precursor strategy for control of catalyst structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarupatrakorn, Jonggol; Don Tilley, T

    2002-07-17

    A molecular precursor approach involving simple grafting procedures was used to produce site-isolated titanium-supported epoxidation catalysts of high activity and selectivity. The tris(tert-butoxy)siloxy titanium complexes Ti[OSi(O(t)Bu)(3)](4) (TiSi4), ((i)PrO)Ti[OSi(O(t)Bu)(3)](3) (TiSi3), and ((t)BuO)(3)TiOSi(O(t)Bu)(3) (TiSi) react with the hydroxyl groups of amorphous Aerosil, mesoporous MCM-41, and SBA-15 via loss of HO(t)Bu and/or HOSi(O(t)Bu)(3) and introduction of titanium species onto the silica surface. Powder X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, infrared, and diffuse reflectance ultraviolet spectroscopies were used to investigate the structures and chemical natures of the surface-bound titanium species. The titanium species exist mainly in isolated, tetrahedral coordination environments. Increasing the number of siloxide ligands in the molecular precursor decreases the amount of titanium that can be introduced this way, but also enhances the catalytic activity and selectivity for the epoxidation of cyclohexene with cumene hydroperoxide as oxidant. In addition, the high surface area mesoporous silicas (MCM-41 and SBA-15) are more effective than amorphous silica as supports for these catalysts. Supporting TiSi3 on the SBA-15 affords highly active cyclohexene epoxidation catalysts (0.25-1.77 wt % Ti loading) that provide turnover frequencies (TOFs) of 500-1500 h(-1) after 1 h (TOFs are reduced by about half after calcination). These results demonstrate that oxygen-rich siloxide complexes of titanium are useful as precursors to supported epoxidation catalysts.

  18. A multicenter reproducibility study of single-voxel {sup 1}H-MRS of the medial temporal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeber, Frank; Block, Wolfgang; Guer, Okan; Schild, Hans H. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Freymann, Nikolaus; Heun, Reinhard; Jessen, Frank [University of Bonn, Department of Psychiatry, Bonn (Germany); Kucinski, Thomas [University of Hamburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Hammen, Thilo [University of Erlangen, Department of Psychiatry, Erlangen (Germany); Ende, Gabriele [Central Institute of Mental Health, NMR Research in Psychiatry, Mannheim (Germany); Pilatus, Ulrich [University of Frankfurt, Department of Neuroradiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Hampel, Harald [University of Munich, Department of Psychiatry, Munich (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) has provided evidence for a reduction of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in cerebral disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease. Within the {sup 1}H-MRS study of the German Research Network on Dementia, we determined the multicenter reproducibility of single-voxel {sup 1}H-MRS of the MTL. At five sites with 1.5T MR systems, single-voxel {sup 1}H spectra from the MTL of an identical healthy subject were measured. The same subject was also examined at one of the sites five times to assess intracenter stability. The protocol included water-suppressed spectra with TE 272 ms and TE 30 ms and unsuppressed spectra for absolute quantification of metabolite concentrations. The intracenter reproducibility of absolute NAA concentration, expressed as coefficient of variation (CV), was 1.8%. CV for the concentrations of creatine (Cr), choline (C