WorldWideScience

Sample records for single site observations

  1. Analytic observations for the d=1+ 1 bridge site (or single-step) deposition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.W.; Kang, H.C.

    1991-01-01

    Some exact results for a reversible version of the d=1+1 bridge site (or single-step) deposition model are presented. Exact steady-state properties are determined directly for finite systems with various mean slopes. These show explicitly how the asymptotic growth velocity and fluctuations are quenched as the slope approaches its maximum allowed value. Next, exact hierarchial equations for the dynamics are presented. For the special case of ''equilibrium growth,'' these are analyzed exactly at the pair-correlation level directly for an infinite system. This provided further insight into asymptotic scaling behavior. Finally, the above hierarchy is compared with one generated from a discrete form of the Kardar--Parisi--Zhang equations. Some differences are described

  2. Towards observing the encounter of the T7 DNA replication fork with a lesion site at the Single molecule level

    KAUST Repository

    Shirbini, Afnan

    2017-05-01

    Single-molecule DNA flow-stretching assays have been a powerful approach to study various aspects on the mechanism of DNA replication for more than a decade. This technique depends on flow-induced force on a bead attached to a surface-tethered DNA. The difference in the elastic property between double-strand DNA (long) and single-strand DNA (short) at low regime force allows the observation of the beads motion when the dsDNA is converted to ssDNA by the replisome machinery during DNA replication. Here, I aim to develop an assay to track in real-time the encounter of the bacteriophage T7 replisome with abasic lesion site inserted on the leading strand template. I optimized methods to construct the DNA substrate that contains the abasic site and established the T7 leading strand synthesis at the single molecule level. I also optimized various control experiments to remove any interference from the nonspecific interactions of the DNA with the surface. My work established the foundation to image the encounter of the T7 replisome with abasic site and to characterize how the interactions between the helicase and the polymerase could influence the polymerase proofreading ability and its direct bypass of this highly common DNA damage type.

  3. Laproendoscopic single site oesophageal diverticulectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnusamy Palanivelu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiphrenic divericula are uncommon disorders of the lower oesophagus, which are symptomatic in only 15-20% of cases. The optimum treatment modality for such cases remains an oesophageal diverticulectomy with long myotomy with or without an antireflux operation. Recently, this is increasingly being done through the laparoscopic approach. Here we describe the first reported case of oesophageal diverticulectomy through the laparoendoscopic single site approach. A 57-year-old man presented to us with 6 months history of dysphagia and regurgitation. Patient was investigated with upper gastrointestinal (UGI endoscopy, barium swallow, CECT chest and abdomen, oesophageal manometry and 24 hour pH study. He was diagnosed to have lower oesophageal diverticulum with mildly elevated pressure readings in manometric studies with normal peristalsis. Based on his symptoms, he was taken up for surgery. A laparoscopic transhiatal oesophageal diverticulectomy with myotomy was done through laparoendoscopic single site technique. The procedure lasted 160 min. There was no intraoperative complication. Gastrograffin study was done on postoperative day 2 following which he was started on liquids. He made an uneventful recovery and was discharged on fourth day. He remained asymptomatic on follow up. Oesophageal diverticulectomy is possible through laparoendoscopic single site approach if necessary expertise is available.

  4. Prevalence of obesity and the effect on length of mechanical ventilation and length of stay in intensive care patients: A single site observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Diane M; Bharat, Chrianna; Paterson, Timothy

    2017-05-01

    To provide a snapshot of the prevalence of abnormal body mass index (BMI) in a sample of intensive care unit (ICU) patients; to identify if any medical specialty was associated with abnormal BMI and to explore associations between BMI and ICU-related outcomes. Obesity is an escalating public health issue across developed nations but there is little data pertaining to critically ill patients who require care that is expensive. Retrospective observational audit of 735 adult patients (median age 58 years) admitted to the Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital 23 bed tertiary ICU between November 2012 and June 2014. Primary outcome measure was patient BMI: underweight (obese (30-39.99kg/m 2 ) or extreme obese (40kg/m 2 or above). Other measures included gender, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score, admission specialty, length of mechanical ventilation (MV), length of stay (LOS) and mortality. Compared to the general population there was a higher proportion of obese patients within the cohort with the majority of patients overweight (33.9%) or obese (36.5%) and median BMI of 27.9 (IQR 7.9). There were no significant differences between specialties for BMI (p=0.103) and abnormal BMI was not found to impact negatively on mortality (ICU, p=0.373; hospital, p=0.330). Normal BMI patients had shorter length of MV than other BMI categories and the impact of BMI on ICU LOS was dependent on length of MV. Overweight patients ventilated for five days or more had a shorter LOS, and extremely obese non-ventilated patients had a longer LOS, compared to normal weight patients. Although the obesity-disease relationship is increasingly complex and data presented reflects categorical BMI for patients admitted to a single ICU site it may be important to consider the cost implications of caring for this cohort especially with regard to MV and LOS. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Robotic single-site pelvic lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, Saverio; Nozza, Arrigo; Del Pezzo, Chiara; Mereu, Liliana

    2014-09-01

    To examine the feasibility of performing pelvic lymphadenectomy with robotic single site approach. Recent papers described the feasibility of robotic-single site hysterectomy [1-3] for benign and malign pathologies but only with the development of new single site 5mm instruments as the bipolar forceps, robotic single site platform can be safely utilized also for lymphadenectomy. A 65 year-old, multiparous patient with a body mass index of 22.5 and diagnosed with well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium underwent a robotic single-site peritoneal washing, total hysterectomy, bilateral adnexectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. The procedure was performed using the da Vinci Si Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) through a single 2,5 cm umbilical incision, with a multi-channel system and two single site robotic 5mm instruments. A 3-dimensional, HD 8.5mm endoscope and a 5mm accessory instrument were also utilized. Type I lymphonodes dissection for external iliac and obturator regions was performed [4]. Total operative time was 210 min; incision, trocar placement and docking time occurring in 12 min. Total console time was 183 min, estimated blood loss was 50 ml, no intra-operative or post-operative complications occurred. Hospital discharge occurred on post operative day 2 and total number of lymphnodes removed was 33. Difficulties in term of instrument's clashing and awkward motions have been encountered. Robotic single-site pelvic lymphadenectomy using bipolar forceps and monopolar hook is feasible. New developments are needed to improve surgical ergonomics and additional studies should be performed to explore possible benefits of this procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Conversion of a beta-strand to an alpha-helix induced by a single-site mutation observed in the crystal structure of Fis mutant Pro26Ala.

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, W. Z.; Ko, T. P.; Corselli, L.; Johnson, R. C.; Yuan, H. S.

    1998-01-01

    The conversion from an alpha-helix to a beta-strand has received extensive attention since this structural change may induce many amyloidogenic proteins to self-assemble into fibrils and cause fatal diseases. Here we report the conversion of a peptide segment from a beta-strand to an alpha-helix by a single-site mutation as observed in the crystal structure of Fis mutant Pro26Ala determined at 2.0 A resolution. Pro26 in Fis occurs at the point where a flexible extended beta-hairpin arm leaves...

  7. Single-site neural tube closure in human embryos revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Bernadette S; Driessen, Stan; Boukens, Bastiaan J D; van den Hoff, Maurice J B; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-10-01

    Since the multi-site closure theory was first proposed in 1991 as explanation for the preferential localizations of neural tube defects, the closure of the neural tube has been debated. Although the multi-site closure theory is much cited in clinical literature, single-site closure is most apparent in literature concerning embryology. Inspired by Victor Hamburgers (1900-2001) statement that "our real teacher has been and still is the embryo, who is, incidentally, the only teacher who is always right", we decided to critically review both theories of neural tube closure. To verify the theories of closure, we studied serial histological sections of 10 mouse embryos between 8.5 and 9.5 days of gestation and 18 human embryos of the Carnegie collection between Carnegie stage 9 (19-21 days) and 13 (28-32 days). Neural tube closure was histologically defined by the neuroepithelial remodeling of the two adjoining neural fold tips in the midline. We did not observe multiple fusion sites in neither mouse nor human embryos. A meta-analysis of case reports on neural tube defects showed that defects can occur at any level of the neural axis. Our data indicate that the human neural tube fuses at a single site and, therefore, we propose to reinstate the single-site closure theory for neural tube closure. We showed that neural tube defects are not restricted to a specific location, thereby refuting the reasoning underlying the multi-site closure theory. Clin. Anat. 30:988-999, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Observation of Single Top Quark Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Cecilia E.; /Illinois U., Chicago

    2009-09-01

    The author reports on the observation of electroweak production of single top quarks in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 Tev using 2.3 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector at the fermilab Tevatron Collider. Using events containing an isolated electron or muon, missing transverse energy, two, three or four jets, with one or two of them identified as originating from the fragmentation of a b quark, the measured cross section for the process p{bar p} {yields} tb + X, tqb + X is 3.94 {+-} 0.88 pb (for a top quark mass of 170 GeV). the probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 2.5 x 10{sup -7}, corresponding to a 5.0 standard deviation significance. Using the same dataset, the measured cross sections for the t- and the s-channel processes when determined simultaneously with no assumption on their relative production rate are 3.14{sub -0.80}{sup +0.94} pb and 1.05 {+-} 0.81 pb respectively, consistent with standard model expectations. The measured t-channel cross section has a significance of 4.8 standard deviations, representing the first evidence for the production of an individual single top process to be detected.

  9. Observation of Single Top Quark Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinson, Ann; /UC, Riverside; Junk, Tom R.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The field of experimental particle physics has become more sophisticated over time, as fewer, larger experimental collaborations search for small signals in samples with large components of background. The search for and the observation of electroweak single top quark production by the CDF and D0 collaborations at Fermilab's Tevatron collider are an example of an elaborate effort to measure the rate of a very rare process in the presence of large backgrounds and to learn about the properties of the top quark's weak interaction. We present here the techniques used to make this groundbreaking measurement and the interpretation of the results in the context of the Standard Model.

  10. Oxygen reduction and evolution at single-metal active sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calle-Vallejo, F.; Martínez, J.I.; García Lastra, Juan Maria

    2013-01-01

    overpotentials and is made of precious materials. A possible solution is the use of non-noble electrocatalysts with single-metal active sites. Here, on the basis of DFT calculations of adsorbed intermediates and a thermodynamic analysis, we compare the oxygen reduction (ORR) and evolution (OER) activities...... of functionalized graphitic materials and gas-phase porphyrins with late transition metals. We find that both kinds of materials follow approximately the same activity trends, and active sites with transition metals from groups 7 to 9 may be good ORR and OER electrocatalysts. However, spin analyses show more...... flexibility in the possible oxidation states of the metal atoms in solid electrocatalysts, while in porphyrins they must be +2. These observations reveal that the catalytic activity of these materials is mainly due to nearest-neighbor interactions. Based on this, we propose that this class of electrocatalysts...

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program on Reducing the Incidence Rate of Healthcare-Associated Clostridium difficile Infection: A Non-Randomized, Stepped Wedge, Single-Site, Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio DiDiodato

    Full Text Available The incidence rate of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA-CDI is estimated at 1 in 100 patients. Antibiotic exposure is the most consistently reported risk factor for HA-CDI. Strategies to reduce the risk of HA-CDI have focused on reducing antibiotic utilization. Prospective audit and feedback is a commonly used antimicrobial stewardship intervention (ASi. The impact of this ASi on risk of HA-CDI is equivocal. This study examines the effectiveness of a prospective audit and feedback ASi on reducing the risk of HA-CDI.Single-site, 339 bed community-hospital in Barrie, Ontario, Canada. Primary outcome is HA-CDI incidence rate. Daily prospective and audit ASi is the exposure variable. ASi implemented across 6 wards in a non-randomized, stepped wedge design. Criteria for ASi; any intravenous antibiotic use for ≥ 48 hrs, any oral fluoroquinolone or oral second generation cephalosporin use for ≥ 48 hrs, or any antimicrobial use for ≥ 5 days. HA-CDI cases and model covariates were aggregated by ward, year and month starting September 2008 and ending February 2016. Multi-level mixed effect negative binomial regression analysis was used to model the primary outcome, with intercept and slope coefficients for ward-level random effects estimated. Other covariates tested for inclusion in the final model were derived from previously published risk factors. Deviance residuals were used to assess the model's goodness-of-fit.The dataset included 486 observation periods, of which 350 were control periods and 136 were intervention periods. After accounting for all other model covariates, the estimated overall ASi incidence rate ratio (IRR was 0.48 (95% 0.30, 0.79. The ASi effect was independent of antimicrobial utilization. The ASi did not seem to reduce the risk of Clostridium difficile infection on the surgery wards (IRR 0.87, 95% CI 0.45, 1.69 compared to the medicine wards (IRR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28, 0.63. The ward-level burden of

  12. Homogeneity of Surface Sites in Supported Single-Site Metal Catalysts: Assessment with Band Widths of Metal Carbonyl Infrared Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adam S; Fang, Chia-Yu; Gates, Bruce C

    2016-10-06

    Determining and controlling the uniformity of isolated metal sites on surfaces of supports are central goals in investigations of single-site catalysts because well-defined species provide opportunities for fundamental understanding of the surface sites. CO is a useful probe of surface metal sites, often reacting with them to form metal carbonyls, the infrared spectra of which provide insights into the nature of the sites and the metal-support interface. Metals bonded to various support surface sites give broad bands in the spectra, and when narrow bands are observed, they indicate a high degree of uniformity of the metal sites. Much recent work on single-site catalysts has been done with supports that are inherently nonuniform, giving supported metal species that are therefore nonuniform. Herein we summarize values of ν CO data characterizing supported iridium gem-dicarbonyls, showing that the most nearly uniform of them are those supported on zeolites and the least uniform are those supported on metal oxides. Guided by ν CO data of supported iridium gem-dicarbonyls, we have determined new, general synthesis methods to maximize the degree of uniformity of iridium species on zeolites and on MgO. We report results for a zeolite HY-supported iridium gem-dicarbonyl with full width at half-maximum values of only 4.6 and 5.2 cm -1 characterizing the symmetric and asymmetric CO stretches and implying that this is the most nearly uniform supported single-site metal catalyst.

  13. Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Shiprock, New Mexico. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Site is one of the first documents for developing an approach for achieving ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies Shiprock site information to a regulatory compliance framework, which identifies strategies for meeting ground water compliance at the site. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA ground water programmatic environmental impact statement

  14. On multi-site damage identification using single-site training data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthorpe, R. J.; Manson, G.; Worden, K.

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for developing multi-site damage location systems for engineering structures that can be trained using single-site damaged state data only. The methodology involves training a sequence of binary classifiers based upon single-site damage data and combining the developed classifiers into a robust multi-class damage locator. In this way, the multi-site damage identification problem may be decomposed into a sequence of binary decisions. In this paper Support Vector Classifiers are adopted as the means of making these binary decisions. The proposed methodology represents an advancement on the state of the art in the field of multi-site damage identification which require either: (1) full damaged state data from single- and multi-site damage cases or (2) the development of a physics-based model to make multi-site model predictions. The potential benefit of the proposed methodology is that a significantly reduced number of recorded damage states may be required in order to train a multi-site damage locator without recourse to physics-based model predictions. In this paper it is first demonstrated that Support Vector Classification represents an appropriate approach to the multi-site damage location problem, with methods for combining binary classifiers discussed. Next, the proposed methodology is demonstrated and evaluated through application to a real engineering structure - a Piper Tomahawk trainer aircraft wing - with its performance compared to classifiers trained using the full damaged-state dataset.

  15. First observed roost site of Vervain Hummingbird (mellisuga minima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.B. Hamel

    2012-01-01

    An observation of a roost site of a male Vervain Hummingbird in the Dominican Republic on 7 November 2010 is the first for this species. The bird chose an entirely exposed position on a very thin twig,

  16. First case of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site radical prostatectomy with single-site VesPa platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattevi, D; Luciani, L G; Vattovani, V; Chiodini, S; Puglisi, M; Malossini, G

    2017-07-07

    This study aimed at reporting our first experience with robotic laparoendoscopic single-site radical prostatectomy (R-LESS-RP) with single-site VesPa platform (Intuitive Surgical Inc.). A 68-year-old-man presenting with a cT1c adenocarcinoma Gleason Score 3 + 4 = 7 in 4/12 bilateral cores underwent a transperitoneal robotic LESS-RP with a single-site Vespa platform. Initial PSA, prostate weight, and body mass index (BMI) were 4.4 ng/ml, 45 g, and 25, respectively. Instruments and camera cross within the Single-Site port; the da Vinci System software detects and reassigns the user's hands with the instruments position. The single-site port is inserted through a 2-cm intraumbilical incision. The robotic 8.5 mm scope and two surgical curved instruments (fenestrated bipolar forceps and cautery hook) are introduced through the ports and used for most of the procedure, whereas a wristed needle driver on the right hand is used for the reconstructive steps. An additional 12 mm port (Air Seal, SurgiQuest) is placed in a midline between the umbilicus and the right iliac spine in order to facilitate table assistance during surgery and to place a drain at the end of the procedure.Operative time and blood loss were 300 min and 400 mL, respectively. The postoperative course was uneventful. The drain and the catheter were removed on days 1 and 6, respectively. The patient experienced a temporary mild stress incontinence (one pad at sixth month) and erectile dysfunction.Our first robotic laparoendoscopic single-site radical prostatectomy (R-LESS-RP) with the single-site VesPa platform was associated with acceptable operative times and perioperative outcome. This procedure is feasible without complications, provided that a proper patient selection has occurred. Limited movements together with the lack of the fourth robotic arm require a considerable expertise in robotic surgery. Some tricks can help overcome technical limitations. The Robotic LESS-RP reduces in some

  17. Single-site robotic cholecystectomy: efficiency and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzad, Francis A; Corne, Louis M; Brown, Thomas C; Fagin, Randy S; Hebert, April E; Kaczmarek, Charles A; Pack, Angie N; Payne, Thomas N

    2013-09-01

    Single-incision surgery has gained in popularity, and the recent development of specialized robotic and laparoscopic instruments may remove some of the ergonomic and technical difficulties associated with this approach. However, questions of cost and efficiency remain. We prospectively collected perioperative outcome and efficiency (operative time, case volume) data for our single-site robotic cholecystectomy cases and retrospectively reviewed data for our single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases. There were no differences in patient characteristics or perioperative outcomes between the robotic (n = 20) and laparoscopic (n = 10) groups; operative times were equivalent (84.6 vs 85.5 min; p = 0.8737) and blood loss and complications were minimal. There was a higher robotic case volume, with an average of two robotic cases (range 1-4)/day vs one/day for laparoscopic cases (range 1-1; p = 0.0306). Streamlined instrument costs were essentially equivalent. Robotic single-site cholecystectomy is a safe, cost-effective alternative to single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a robot-existing model. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Direct partial oxidation of methane via single-site chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Norskov, Jens

    Methane (CH4), the cheapest source of hydrocarbons, is a difficult-to-store and hard-to-convert chemical, due to strong and isotropic C-H bonds. Having a selective and efficient method to partially oxidize methane into more useful chemicals including methanol, formaldehyde and alkenes has long been an open challenge for catalysis community. The main challenge is selectivity: if a catalytic material interacts strongly with methane, sufficient to break one C-H bond, it breaks all other bonds of the derivative molecules, as well. This leads to over-oxidization to CO2. Here using density functional theory (DFT) modelings, we discuss the possibility of using defective (vacancy rich) 2-d materials e.g., MoS2 to effectively trap single transition metal atoms; thereby, creating a single-site chemistry to enhance the selectivity of methane oxidation process. A single-site chemistry leads to competition between intermediates and products for limited active sites. Our strategy is to use this as an effective means to block unwanted reaction pathways leading to over-oxidization. United States department of energy.

  19. Intramolecular electron transfer in single-site-mutated azurins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Skov, L K; Pascher, T

    1993-01-01

    . Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 6968-6972]. The RSSR- radical produced in the above reaction was reoxidized in a slower intramolecular electron-transfer process (30-70 s-1 at 298 K) concomitant with a further reduction of the Cu(II) ion. The temperature dependence of the latter rates was determined...... and used to derive information on the possible effects of the mutations. The substitution of residue Phe114, situated on the opposite side of Cu relative to the disulfide, by Ala resulted in a rate increase by a factor of almost 2. By assuming that this effect is only due to an increase in driving force......Single-site mutants of the blue, single-copper protein, azurin, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were reduced by CO2- radicals in pulse radiolysis experiments. The single disulfide group was reduced directly by CO2- with rates similar to those of the native protein [Farver, O., & Pecht, I. (1989) Proc...

  20. 'Single' v. 'panel' appointed forensic mental observations: Is the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome and psychiatric morbidity of the forensic mental observation referrals, in the two legally created groups of detainees awaiting trial – the 'singles', representing the minor violent and non-violent offenders evaluated by a single-state appointed psychiatrist, v. the 'panels', representing the ...

  1. Hanford Site Welding Program Successfully Providing A Single Site Function For Use By Multiple Contractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) recently restructured its Hanford work scope, awarding two new contracts over the past several months for a total of three contracts to manage the sites cleanup efforts. DOE-RL met with key contractor personnel prior to and during contract transition to ensure site welding activities had appropriate oversight and maintained code compliance. The transition also provided an opportunity to establish a single site-wide function that would provide welding and materials engineering services to the Hanford site contractors: CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC); Mission Support Alliance (MSA); Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS); and Washington Closure Hanford (WCH). Over the years, multiple and separate welding programs (amongst the several contractors) existed at the Hanford site leading to inefficiencies resulting from duplication of administrative efforts, maintenance of welding procedures, welder performance certifications, etc. The new, single program eliminates these inefficiencies. The new program, co-managed by two of the sites' new contractors, the CHPRC ('owner' of the program and responsible for construction welding services) and the MSA (provides maintenance welding services), provides more than just the traditional construction and maintenance welding services. Also provided, are welding engineering, specialty welding development/qualification for the closure of radioactive materials containers and materials evaluation/failure analysis. The following describes the new Hanford site welding program.

  2. Laparoendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy in a pregnant patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Ranjan Behera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Feasibility and safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy during pregnancy for patients with symptomatic or complicated gallstone disease is well established. Laparoendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy (LESS-chole is a new modality in which the entire surgery is undertaken via a transumbilical incision. We describe a 33-year-old patient who underwent a LESS-chole in the 20 th week of pregnancy for gallstone disease complicated by episodes of obstructive jaundice and acute pancreatitis. This is the first reported case of LESS-chole performed using conventional laparoscopic instruments. The technical aspects as well as the various perioperative measures utilized to undertake this procedure safely are outlined.

  3. Observational and Cult Sites in Pre-Christian Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonia, Irakli; Jijelava, Badri; Gigauri, G.; Houston, Gordon

    In this chapter, we describe ancient cult and observational sites in Georgia together with cultural traditions that have astronomical significance from various parts of the country. In particular, we present the results of an archaeoastronomical investigation of the Shaori complex, and consider its possible role as an ancient "solar station" with cult significance.

  4. Olefin polymerization from single site catalysts confined within porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasi, Rajeswari M.

    Single Site Catalysts (SSCs) have been utilized for olefin polymerization. Altering the metal-ligand architecture in the SSCs, polyolefin properties can be enhanced in a rational manner. This influence of the ligands in the SSC on the property of polyolefins prepared can be referred to as the primary ligand influence. Extending this understanding and subsequent control of the metal-ligand framework to the interaction of SSCs within organic and inorganic supports is vital for the synthesis of polyolefins with tailored properties. The motivation behind this thesis was to explore the support influence on the reactivity of the SSC tethered to a support matrix during ethylene homo and copolymerization. In order to address this question of the support influence on the final polyolefin properties, synthetic routes to covalently bind SSCs on different matrices have been explored. Two distinct supported SSCs have been used to prepare branched polyethylenes. Branched polyethylenes can be prepared by either copolymerization (ethylene and alpha-olefin) or oligomerization/copolymerization processes (ethylene and in situ generated alpha-olefin). Synthetic routes to prepare precursor catalysts to Constrained Geometry Catalysts (CGCs) by silyl elimination chemistry have been developed (Chapter 2). Efficient synthetic protocols to assemble CGCs on aminomethylpolysytrene matrices (Chapter 3) and amine-functionalized mesoporous silica (Chapter 4) are also reported. These supported catalysts, with appropriate cocatalysts have been used to prepare ethylene homo and copolymers, the polymer thermal properties and microstructures were analyzed by various analytical techniques. Branched polyethylenes (LLDPE) can be prepared by copolymerization chemistry. It has been observed is that the influence of the support is seen in the production of lower crystalline forms of high density polyethylene (HDPE, 20--50% crystalline), while homogeneous polymerization of analogous soluble CGCs afford HDPE

  5. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this initial site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Grand Junction, Colorado. This SOWP is one of the first UMTRA Ground Water Project documents developed to select a compliance strategy that meets the UMTRA ground water standards (40 CFR Part 192, as amended by 60 FR 2854) for the Grand Junction site. This SOWP applies information about the Grand Junction site to the compliance strategy selection framework developed in the UMTRA Ground Water Project draft programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This risk-based, decision-making framework identifies the decision logic for selecting compliance strategies that could be used to meet the ground water standards. The DOE goal is to use the observational method to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. Based on an evaluation of the site characterization and risk assessment data available for the preparation of this SOWP, DOE proposes that the most likely compliance strategy for the Grand Junction site is no remediation based on the application of supplemental standards. This proposed strategy is based on a conceptual site model that indicates site-related contamination is confined to a limited-use aquifer as defined in the ground water standards

  6. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Grand Junction, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this initial site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Grand Junction, Colorado. This SOWP is one of the first UMTRA Ground Water Project documents developed to select a compliance strategy that meets the UMTRA ground water standards (40 CFR Part 192, as amended by 60 FR 2854) for the Grand Junction site. This SOWP applies information about the Grand Junction site to the compliance strategy selection framework developed in the UMTRA Ground Water Project draft programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This risk-based, decision-making framework identifies the decision logic for selecting compliance strategies that could be used to meet the ground water standards. The DOE goal is to use the observational method to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. Based on an evaluation of the site characterization and risk assessment data available for the preparation of this SOWP, DOE proposes that the most likely compliance strategy for the Grand Junction site is no remediation based on the application of supplemental standards. This proposed strategy is based on a conceptual site model that indicates site-related contamination is confined to a limited-use aquifer as defined in the ground water standards.

  7. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Falls City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Produced by the US Department of Energy (DOE), this site observational work plan (SOWP) will be used to determine site-specific activities to comply with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at this Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The purpose of the SOWP is to recommend a site-specific ground water compliance strategy at the Falls City UMTRA Project site. The Falls City SOWP presents a comprehensive summary of site hydrogeological data, delineates a conceptual model of the aquifer system, and discusses the origins of milling-related ground water contamination. It also defines the magnitude of ground water contamination, potential environmental and health risks associated with ground water contamination and data gaps, and targets a proposed compliance strategy

  8. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Falls City, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Produced by the US Department of Energy (DOE), this site observational work plan (SOWP) will be used to determine site-specific activities to comply with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at this Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The purpose of the SOWP is to recommend a site-specific ground water compliance strategy at the Falls City UMTRA Project site. The Falls City SOWP presents a comprehensive summary of site hydrogeological data, delineates a conceptual model of the aquifer system, and discusses the origins of milling-related ground water contamination. It also defines the magnitude of ground water contamination, potential environmental and health risks associated with ground water contamination and data gaps, and targets a proposed compliance strategy.

  9. Compactly supported linearised observables in single-field inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fröob, Markus B.; Higuchi, Atsushi; Hack, Thomas-Paul

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the gauge-invariant observables constructed by smearing the graviton and inflaton fields by compactly supported tensors at linear order in general single-field inflation. These observables correspond to gauge-invariant quantities that can be measured locally. In particular, we show that these observables are equivalent to (smeared) local gauge-invariant observables such as the linearised Weyl tensor, which have better infrared properties than the graviton and inflaton fields. Special cases include the equivalence between the compactly supported gauge-invariant graviton observable and the smeared linearised Weyl tensor in Minkowski and de Sitter spaces. Our results indicate that the infrared divergences in the tensor and scalar perturbations in single-field inflation have the same status as in de Sitter space and are both a gauge artefact, in a certain technical sense, at tree level.

  10. Compactly supported linearised observables in single-field inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fröob, Markus B.; Higuchi, Atsushi [Department of Mathematics, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Hack, Thomas-Paul, E-mail: mbf503@york.ac.uk, E-mail: thomas-paul.hack@itp.uni-leipzig.de, E-mail: atsushi.higuchi@york.ac.uk [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Brüderstraße 16, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the gauge-invariant observables constructed by smearing the graviton and inflaton fields by compactly supported tensors at linear order in general single-field inflation. These observables correspond to gauge-invariant quantities that can be measured locally. In particular, we show that these observables are equivalent to (smeared) local gauge-invariant observables such as the linearised Weyl tensor, which have better infrared properties than the graviton and inflaton fields. Special cases include the equivalence between the compactly supported gauge-invariant graviton observable and the smeared linearised Weyl tensor in Minkowski and de Sitter spaces. Our results indicate that the infrared divergences in the tensor and scalar perturbations in single-field inflation have the same status as in de Sitter space and are both a gauge artefact, in a certain technical sense, at tree level.

  11. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This site observational work plan (SOWP) is one of the first Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project documents developed to select a compliance strategy that meets the UMTRA ground water standards for the Grand Junction site. This SOWP applies information about the Grand Junction site to the compliance strategy selection framework developed in the UMTRA Ground Water Project draft programmatic environmental impact statement. This risk-based, decision-making framework identifies the decision logic for selecting compliance strategies that could be used to meet the ground water standards. The US Department of Energy (DOE) goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. Based on an evaluation of the site characterization and risk assessment data available for the preparation of this SOWP, DOE proposes that the most likely compliance strategy for the Grand Junction site is no remediation with the application of supplemental standards. This proposed strategy is based on a conceptual site model that indicates site-related contamination is confined to a limited-use aquifer as defined in the ground water standards. The conceptual model demonstrates that the uranium processing-related contamination at the site has affected the unconfined alluvial aquifer, but not the deeper confined aquifer

  12. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Grand Junction, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This site observational work plan (SOWP) is one of the first Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project documents developed to select a compliance strategy that meets the UMTRA ground water standards for the Grand Junction site. This SOWP applies information about the Grand Junction site to the compliance strategy selection framework developed in the UMTRA Ground Water Project draft programmatic environmental impact statement. This risk-based, decision-making framework identifies the decision logic for selecting compliance strategies that could be used to meet the ground water standards. The US Department of Energy (DOE) goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. Based on an evaluation of the site characterization and risk assessment data available for the preparation of this SOWP, DOE proposes that the most likely compliance strategy for the Grand Junction site is no remediation with the application of supplemental standards. This proposed strategy is based on a conceptual site model that indicates site-related contamination is confined to a limited-use aquifer as defined in the ground water standards. The conceptual model demonstrates that the uranium processing-related contamination at the site has affected the unconfined alluvial aquifer, but not the deeper confined aquifer.

  13. Transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery versus conventional laparoscopy for the resection of retroperitoneal paragangliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weifeng; Li, Hanzhong; Ji, Zhigang; Yan, Weigang; Zhang, Yushi; Zhang, Xuebin; Li, Qian

    2015-09-01

    To compare transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery with conventional laparoscopy for the resection of retroperitoneal paragangliomas. In the present case-control study, we compared 11 transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery procedures with 22 conventional laparoscopy procedures carried out to treat retroperitoneal paragangliomas between June 2004 and October 2013 at Peking Union Medical Hospital, Beijing, China. Operative time, estimated intraoperative blood loss, blood transfusions, intraoperative hypertension, intraoperative hypotension, highest intraoperative systolic blood pressure, lowest intraoperative systolic blood pressure, postoperative fatigue time, postoperative systematic inflammation reaction syndrome, 24-h postoperative visual analog scale scores, postoperative hospital stay duration, and postoperative complications were recorded and analyzed. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics. All surgical procedures were successfully completed in both groups. Minor complications occurred in one case in the laparoendoscopic single-site surgery group and in two cases in the conventional laparoscopy group. In the laparoendoscopic single-site surgery group, the operative time was longer than that in the conventional laparoscopy group (P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in terms of intraoperative hypertension, intraoperative hypotension, highest intraoperative systolic blood pressure, lowest intraoperative systolic blood pressure, estimated blood loss, postoperative fatigue time, postoperative hospital stay or systematic inflammation reaction syndrome between the two groups. The 24-h postoperative visual analog scale score was lower in the laparoendoscopic single-site surgery group (P = 0.002). No recurrence or metastases were observed over the duration of the postoperative follow up. In properly selected patients, transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery is a feasible, safe and effective

  14. Overview of Submm Single Dish: From Observations to Useful Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanke, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Observing with single dish telescopes at submillimetre wavelengths adds a number of challenges. The Earth's atmosphere not only absorbs the sky signal with varying amounts as a function of frequency and weather conditions, but it also emits a signal that is many orders of magnitude brighter than the astronomical signal one is interested in. Additional challenges come in the calibration and removal of certain instrumental effects. I will give an overview of present and planned submillimetre telescopes, instrument types, and observing strategies.

  15. 'Single' v. 'panel' appointed forensic mental observations: Is the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-01

    Nov 1, 2013 ... prisoners – detainees awaiting trial – whom they felt would be most representative and least restricted in terms of violence and mental illness. This is comparable to the current study, in that all referrals for forensic observation in South Africa (SA), whether single or panel, are for detainees awaiting trial.

  16. Wegner Estimates for Sign-Changing Single Site Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselić, Ivan

    2010-12-01

    We study Anderson and alloy-type random Schrödinger operators on ℓ2(ℤ d ) and L 2(ℝ d ). Wegner estimates are bounds on the average number of eigenvalues in an energy interval of finite box restrictions of these types of operators. For a certain class of models we prove a Wegner estimate which is linear in the volume of the box and the length of the considered energy interval. The single site potential of the Anderson/alloy-type model does not need to have fixed sign, but it needs be of a generalised step function form. The result implies the Lipschitz continuity of the integrated density of states.

  17. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action(UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1996). The DOE's goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will be evaluated in the site-specific environmental assessment to determine potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholders a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology

  18. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action(UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1996). The DOE`s goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will be evaluated in the site-specific environmental assessment to determine potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholders a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology.

  19. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1995). The DOE's goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will assess potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholder a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information available for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology

  20. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1995). The DOE`s goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will assess potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholder a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information available for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology.

  1. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Spook, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Spook, Wyoming, site observational work plan proposes site-specific activities to achieve compliance with Subpart B of 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) of the final US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water protection standards 60 FR 2854 (1995) at this Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This draft SOWP presents a comprehensive summary of existing site characterization data, a conceptual site model of the nature and extent of ground water contamination, exposure pathways, and potential impact to human health and the environment. Section 2.0 describes the requirements for meeting ground water standards at UMTRA Project sites. Section 3.0 defines past and current conditions, describes potential environmental and human health risks, and provides site-specific data that supports the selection of a proposed ground water compliance strategy. Section 4.0 provides the justification for selecting the proposed ground water compliance strategy based on the framework defined in the ground water programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS).

  2. Laparoendoscopic single-site adnexal surgery: Preliminary Indian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha Balusamy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS is an emerging technique in gynaecology. The proposed advantages of the LESS include better cosmesis and reduction in pain. We report our preliminary experience with LESS in the treatment of adnexal pathology. Materials and Methods: After a preoperative workup, LESS was offered to 37 patients between July 2009 and April 2015. All the procedures were carried out through a 2–2.5 cm transumbilical incision using conventional laparoscopic instruments. A single-incision, multiport (SIMP approach (utilising one 7 mm and two 5 mm ports was used in 27 patients and a homemade glove port (HMGP was utilised in ten patients. All the specimens were extracted after placement in a plastic bag or inside the glove port avoiding contact with the wound. Umbilical fascial incisions were meticulously closed with non-absorbable sutures. Results: Two patients with a history of previous abdominal surgery required omental adhesiolysis. Seventeen patients with breast cancer underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, ten had ovarian cystectomy (6 had cystadenoma, 2 had endometriotic cysts and 2 had dermoid cyst, six had excision of paraovarian cysts (one along with partial salpingectomy and four with ruptured ectopic pregnancy underwent salpingectomy. LESS was completed in all but one patient, who required insertion of an additional 5 mm port. There were no intra- or post-operative complications. Conclusions: Our experience confirms the feasibility and safety of LESS in a variety of benign adnexal pathology. Both the SIMP and HMGP approaches seem comparable. Performing LESS without the use of specialised access ports or instruments makes it cost effective and suitable for wider application.

  3. Lidar observations at prioritized sites for GOSAT validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, O.; Morino, I.; Sakai, T.; Izumi, T.; Nagai, T.; Shibata, T.; Hiroshi, O.; Arai, K.; Liley, B.; Bagtasa, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) measures the Short Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) spectra of sunlight reflected by the earth surface and atmosphere. The column-averaged dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane (XCO2 and XCH4, hereafter GOSAT data) retrieved from the TANSO-FTS SWIR spectra could be influenced by aerosol and cirrus could particles. To investigate their influences on the GOSAT data, we deployed two-wavelength (532 and 1064 nm) polarization lidar systems at the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) sites of Lauder in New Zealand, Tsukuba, Saga and Rikubetsu in Japan as prioritized validation sites. Vertical profiles of particle backscattering coefficients, backscatter wavelength exponent and total depolarization ratio were obtained by these lidar systems. Based on these physical parameters, we found that the particles had influence on GOSAT XCO2 at Tsukuba and Saga. These lidars detected increases in stratospheric aerosols by the volcanic eruptions of Sarychev Peak, Puyehue-Cordon Caulle, Nabro and Calbuco during 2009 through 2015, which might impact on GOSAT XCO2. Furthermore, we developed an improved version of lidar for validation of GOSAT-2 which will be launched in 2018. The improved lidar can measure the particle extinction-to-backscatter ratio and water vapor mixing ratio profiles up to 5 km in nighttime using N2 and H2O Raman scattering besides above-mentioned physical parameters. This lidar will be installed at Burgos in Philippines with a TCCON FTS in early 2017. We present the observational results of particles and their influences on the GOSAT data.

  4. Representativeness of the ground observational sites and up-scaling of the point soil moisture measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinlei; Wen, Jun; Tian, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Soil moisture plays an increasingly important role in the cycle of energy-water exchange, climate change, and hydrologic processes. It is usually measured at a point site, but regional soil moisture is essential for validating remote sensing products and numerical modeling results. In the study reported in this paper, the minimal number of required sites (NRS) for establishing a research observational network and the representative single sites for regional soil moisture estimation are discussed using the soil moisture data derived from the ;Maqu soil moisture observational network; (101°40‧-102°40‧E, 33°30‧-35°45‧N), which is supported by Chinese Academy of Science. Furthermore, the best up-scaling method suitable for this network has been studied by evaluating four commonly used up-scaling methods. The results showed that (1) Under a given accuracy requirement R ⩾ 0.99, RMSD ⩽ 0.02 m3/m3, NRS at both 5 and 10 cm depth is 10. (2) Representativeness of the sites has been validated by time stability analysis (TSA), time sliding correlation analysis (TSCA) and optimal combination of sites (OCS). NST01 is the most representative site at 5 cm depth for the first two methods; NST07 and NST02 are the most representative sites at 10 cm depth. The optimum combination sites at 5 cm depth are NST01, NST02, and NST07. NST05, NST08, and NST13 are the best group at 10 cm depth. (3) Linear fitting, compared with other three methods, is the best up-scaling method for all types of representative sites obtained above, and linear regression equations between a single site and regional soil moisture are established hereafter. ;Single site; obtained by OCS has the greatest up-scaling effect, and TSCA takes the second place. (4) Linear fitting equations show good practicability in estimating the variation of regional soil moisture from July 3, 2013 to July 3, 2014, when a large number of observed soil moisture data are lost.

  5. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Riverton, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Riverton, Wyoming, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Site is the first document for the UMTRA Ground Water Project to address site-specific activities to meet compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed ground water standards (52 FR 36000 (1987)). In support of the activities the regulatory framework and drivers are presented along with a discussion of the relationship of this SOWP to other UMTRA Ground Water Project programmatic documents. A combination of the two compliance strategies that will be recommended for this site are no remediation with the application of alternate concentration levels (ACL) and natural flushing in conjunction with institutional controls. ACLs are to be applied to constituents that occur at concentrations above background levels but which are essential nutrients and occur within nutritional ranges and/or have very low toxicity and high dietary intake rates compared to the levels detected in the ground water. The essential premise of natural flushing is that ground water movement and natural attenuation processes will reduce the detected contamination to background levels within 1 00 years. These two recommended compliance strategies were evaluated by applying Riverton site-specific data to the compliance framework developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement. There are three aquifers beneath the site: a surficial unconfined aquifer, a middle semiconfined aquifer, and a deeper confined aquifer. The milling-related contamination at the site has affected both the surficial and semiconfined aquifers, although the leaky shale aquifers separating these units limits the downward migration of contamination into the semiconfined aquifer. A shale aquitard separates the semiconfined aquifer from the underlying confined aquifer which has not been contaminated by milling-related constituents

  6. Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Ground water compliance for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, including the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, site, is governed by the Uranium Mills Tailings Radiation Control Act (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings (40 CFR Part 192; 60 FR 2854). The EPA standards describe specific conditions for which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) may apply for supplemental standards for contaminated ground water rather than meeting background levels or numerical standards. To achieve compliance with Subpart A of the EPA standards the residual radioactive materials are currently being consolidated on the site by the DOE in a disposal cell, isolating them from direct human or ecological contact and further dispersion into the environment. Completion of the disposal cell is scheduled for early 1995. An environmental assessment and a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) were completed in 1987. Concurrence with the UMTRA Surface Project Ambrosia Lake remedial action plan (RAP) was granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and state of New Mexico in 1990. The DOE deferred compliance with Subpart B of the EPA standards in the Surface Project RAP. This site observational work plan (SOWP) is the first document to address ground water compliance under Subpart B at the Ambrosia Lake site. The Ambrosia Lake UMTRA Project site is within the Grants Mineral Belt and was one of numerous uranium mills supplied by many local mines. Ground water contamination at the site occurred as a result of uranium mill operations. Contamination of ground water resulted from discharge of waste water, infiltration of water through the tailings pile, hydraulic placement of mill tailings in nearby mines, and water pumped from mine shafts.

  7. Port site infiltration of local anesthetic after laparoendoscopic single site surgery for benign adnexal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Shim, Seung-Hyuk; Dong, Meari; Lee, Hyojin; Hwang, Han Sung; Kwon, Han Sung; Lee, Sun Joo; Lee, Ji Young; Sohn, In Sook; Kim, Soo-Nyung; Kang, Soon-Beom

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether local bupivacaine injection into the incision site after gynecologic laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS) improves postoperative pain. This prospective cohort study included consecutive 158 patients who had LESS for benign adnexal disease from March 2013 to December 2015. Chronologically, 82 patients (March 2013 to August 2014) received no bupivacaine (group 1) and 76 (August 2014 to December 2015) received a bupivacaine block (group 2). For group 2, 10 mL 0.25% bupivacaine was injected into the 20 mm-incision site through all preperitoneal layers after LESS completion. Primary outcome is postoperative pain score using the visual analog scale (VAS). There was no difference in clinicopathological characteristics between the groups. Operating time (expressed as median [range], 92 [55-222] vs. 100 [50-185] minutes, P =0.137) and estimated blood loss (50 [30-1,500] vs. 125 [30-1,000] mL, P =0.482) were similar between the groups. Post-surgical VAS pain scores after 3 hours (3.5 [2-6] vs. 3.5 [2-5], P =0.478), 6 to 8 hours (3.5 [2-6] vs. 3 [1-8], P =0.478), and 16 to 24 hours (3 [2-4] vs. 3 [1-7], P =0.664) did not differ between groups. Bupivacaine injection into the trocar site did not improve postoperative pain after LESS. Randomized trials are needed to evaluate the benefits of local bupivacaine anesthetic for postoperative pain reduction.

  8. Single-site robotic surgery in gynecologic cancer: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Ha-Na; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Yoo-Young; Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the feasibility of single-site robotic surgery for benign gynecologic tumors and early stage gynecologic cancers. Methods In this single institution, prospective analysis, we analyzed six patients who had undergone single-site robotic surgery between December 2013 and August 2014. Surgery was performed using the da Vinci Si Surgical System. Patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results Single-site robotic surgery was performed successfully in all si...

  9. Uncovering the single top: observation of electroweak top quark production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Jorge Armando [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The top quark is generally produced in quark and anti-quark pairs. However, the Standard Model also predicts the production of only one top quark which is mediated by the electroweak interaction, known as 'Single Top'. Single Top quark production is important because it provides a unique and direct way to measure the CKM matrix element Vtb, and can be used to explore physics possibilities beyond the Standard Model predictions. This dissertation presents the results of the observation of Single Top using 2.3 fb-1 of Data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The analysis includes the Single Top muon+jets and electron+jets final states and employs Boosted Decision Tress as a method to separate the signal from the background. The resulting Single Top cross section measurement is: (1) σ(p$\\bar{p}$→ tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.74-0.74+0.95 pb, where the errors include both statistical and systematic uncertainties. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is p = 1.9 x 10-6. This corresponds to a standard deviation Gaussian equivalence of 4.6. When combining this result with two other analysis methods, the resulting cross section measurement is: (2) σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.94 ± 0.88 pb, and the corresponding measurement significance is 5.0 standard deviations.

  10. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Site is the initial document for developing site-specific activities to achieve regulatory compliance in the UMTRA Ground Water Project. The regulatory framework used to select the proposed ground water compliance strategies is presented along with a discussion of the relationship of this SOWP to other UMTRA Ground Water Project programmatic documents. The Shiprock site consists of two, interconnected hydrogeologic systems: the terrace system and the floodplain system. Separate compliance strategies are proposed for these two systems. The compliance strategy for the terrace aquifer is no remediation with the application of supplemental standards based on classification of the terrace aquifer as having Class III (limited-use) ground water. The compliance strategy for the floodplain aquifer is active remediation using a subsurface biological barrier. These strategies were selected by applying site-specific data to the compliance framework developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) (DOE, 1994a). The site conceptual model indicates that milling-related contamination has impacted the ground water in the terrace and floodplain aquifers. Ground water occurs in both aquifers in alluvium and in fractures in the underlying Cretaceous age Mancos Shale. A mound of ground water related to fluids from the milling operations is thought to exist in the terrace aquifer below the area where settling ponds were in use during the mill operations. Most of the water occurring in the floodplain aquifer is from recharge from the San Juan River

  11. Induction of prophage lambda by chlorinated organics: Detection of some single-species/single-site carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, D.M.; Brooks, H.G. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-eight chlorinated organic compounds were evaluated for their ability to induce DNA damage using the Microscreen prophage-induction assay in Escherichia coli. Comparison of the performance characteristics of the prophage-induction and Salmonella assays to rodent carcinogenicity assays showed that the prophage-induction assay had a somewhat higher specificity than did the Salmonella assay (70% vs. 50%); sensitivity, concordance, and positive and negative predictivity were similar for the two microbial assays. The Microscreen prophage-induction assay failed to detect eight carcinogens, perhaps due to toxicity or other unknown factors; five of these eight carcinogens were detected by the Salmonella assay. However, the prophage-induction assay did detect six carcinogens that were not detected by the Salmonella assay, and five of these were single-species, single-site carcinogens, mostly mouse liver carcinogens. Some of these carcinogens, such as the chloroethanes, produce free radicals, which may be the basis for their carcinogenicity and ability to induce prophage. The prophage-induction (or other SOS) assay may be useful in identifying some genotoxic chlorinated carcinogens that induce DNA damage that do not revert the standard Salmonella tester strains.

  12. Radiation damage in dielectric and semiconductor single crystals (direct observation)

    CERN Document Server

    Adawi, M A; Varichenko, V S; Zaitsev, A M

    1998-01-01

    The surfaces of boron-doped synthetic and natural diamonds have been investigated by using the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) and the scanning electronic microscope (SEM) before and after irradiating the samples with sup 4 sup 0 Ar (25 MeV), sup 8 sup 4 Kr (210 MeV) and sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 Xe (124 MeV) ions. The structures observed after irradiation showed craters with diameters ranging from 3 nm up to 20 nm, which could be interpreted as single ion tracks and multiple hits of ions at the nearest positions of the surface. In the case of argon ion irradiation, the surface was found to be completely amorphous, but after xenon irradiation one could see parts of surface without amorphism. This can be explained by the influence of high inelastic energy losses. The energy and temperature criteria of crater formation as a result of heavy ion irradiation are introduced.

  13. Insertion site assessment of peripherally inserted central catheters: Inter-observer agreement between nurses and inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Northfield, Sarah; Larsen, Emily N; Marsh, Nicole; Rickard, Claire M; Chan, Raymond J

    2018-03-01

    Many patients are discharged from hospital with a peripherally inserted central catheter in place. Monitoring the peripherally inserted central catheter insertion site for clinical and research purposes is important for identifying complications, but the extent to which patients can reliably report the condition of their catheter insertion site is uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the inter-observer agreement between nurses and patients when assessing a peripherally inserted central catheter site. The study was based on inpatients who were enrolled in a single-centre, randomised controlled trial comparing four different dressing and securement devices for peripherally inserted central catheter sites. A seven-item peripherally inserted central catheter site assessment tool, containing questions about the condition of the dressing and the insertion site, was developed. Assessment was conducted once by the research nurse and, within a few minutes, independently by the patient. Proportions of agreement and Cohen's kappa were calculated. In total, 73 patients agreed to participate. Overall, percentage agreement ranged from 83% to 100% (kappa = .65-.82). For important clinical signs (redness, swelling, ooze, pus and tracking), there were high levels of percentage agreement (99%-100%). The high level of agreement between nurse/patient pairs make the instrument useful for assessing peripherally inserted central catheter-associated signs of localised infection, allergic or irritant dermatitis or dressing dislodgement in a community setting.

  14. Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery (LESS for a Large Ovarian Tumour: First Clinical Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Dong Chua

    2011-01-01

    Main Outcome Measure(s. Conversion to standard laparoscopic technique or laparotomy, estimated blood loss, operative time , extent of scarring, occurrence of intra- and perioperative surgical complications, technical adequacy, and clinical outcome. Result(s. No conversion to standard laparoscopic technique or laparotomy, and no intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed. Total operative time was 99 minutes. The patient was discharged home on postoperative day one. Conclusion(s. Laparoendoscopic single-site bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy of a large ovarian tumour is feasible with standard laparoscopic instruments. It is safe and effective, with good results in terms of excellent cosmesis and minimal postoperative pain.

  15. Variability in solar irradiance observed at two contrasting Antarctic sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Boyan H.; Láska, Kamil; Vitale, Vito; Lanconelli, Christian; Lupi, Angelo; Mazzola, Mauro; Budíková, Marie

    2016-05-01

    The features of erythemally weighted (EW) and short-wave downwelling (SWD) solar irradiances, observed during the spring-summer months of 2007-2011 at Johann Gregor Mendel (63°48‧S, 57°53‧W, 7 m a.s.l.) and Dome Concordia (75°06‧S, 123°21‧E, 3233 m a.s.l.) stations, placed at the Antarctic coastal region and on the interior plateau respectively, have been analysed and compared to each other. The EW and SWD spectral components have been presented by the corresponding daily integrated values and were examined taking into account the different geographic positions and different environmental conditions at both sites. The results indicate that at Mendel station the surface solar irradiance is strongly affected by the changes in the cloud cover, aerosols and albedo that cause a decrease in EW between 20% and 35%, and from 0% to 50% in SWD component, which contributions are slightly lower than the seasonal SWD variations evaluated to be about 71%. On the contrary, the changes in the cloud cover features at Concordia station produce only a 5% reduction of the solar irradiance, whilst the seasonal oscillations of 94% turn out to be the predominant mode. The present analysis leads to the conclusion that the variations in the ozone column cause an average decrease of about 46% in EW irradiance with respect to the value found in the case of minimum ozone content at each of the stations. In addition, the ratio between EW and SWD spectral components can be used to achieve a realistic assessment of the radiation amplification factor that quantifies the relationship between the atmospheric ozone and the surface UV irradiance.

  16. Microscopic observations during longitudinal compression loading of single pulp fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving B. Sachs

    1986-01-01

    Paperboard components (linerboard adn corrugating medium) fail in edgewise compression because of failure of single fibers, as well as fiber-to-fiber bonds. While fiber-to-fiber-bond failure has been studied extensively, little is known about the longitudinal compression failure of a single fiber. In this study, surface alterations on single loblolly pine kraft pulp...

  17. New Developments in Robotics and Single-site Gynecologic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Catherine A

    2017-06-01

    Within the last 10 years there have been significant advances in minimal-access surgery. Although no emerging technology has demonstrated improved outcomes or fewer complications than standard laparoscopy, the introduction of the robotic surgical platform has significantly lowered abdominal hysterectomy rates. While operative time and cost were higher in robotic-assisted procedures when the technology was first introduced, newer studies demonstrate equivalent or improved robotic surgical efficiency with increased experience. Single-port hysterectomy has not improved postoperative pain or subjective cosmetic results. Emerging platforms with flexible, articulating instruments may increase the uptake of single-port procedures including natural orifice transluminal endoscopic cases.

  18. Entrapped Single Tungstate Site in Zeolite for Cooperative Catalysis of Olefin Metathesis with Brønsted Acid Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pu; Ye, Lin; Sun, Zhenyu; Lo, Benedict T W; Woodcock, Harry; Huang, Chen; Tang, Chiu; Kirkland, Angus I; Mei, Donghai; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2018-04-16

    Industrial olefin metathesis catalysts generally suffer from low reaction rates and require harsh reaction conditions for moderate activities. This is due to their inability to prevent metathesis active sites (MAS) from aggregation and their intrinsic poor adsorption and activation of olefin molecules. Here, isolated tungstate species as single molecular MAS is immobilized inside zeolite pores by Brønsted acid sites (BAS) on the inner surface. It is demonstrated for the first time that unoccupied BAS in atomic proximity to MAS enhance olefin adsorption and greatly facilitate the formation of metallocycle intermediates in a stereospecific manner. Thus, effective cooperative catalysis takes place over the BAS-MAS pair. In consequence, for the cross-metathesis of ethene and trans-2-butene to propene, under the same mild reaction conditions, the propene production rate over WOx/USY is ca. 7,300 times that over the industrial WO3/SiO2 based catalyst. A propene yield up to 79% (80% selectivity) without observable deactivation was obtained over WOx/USY for a wide range of reaction conditions.

  19. Seasonal Variability of Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo at Biomass Burning Sites in Southern Africa and Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Mukelabai, M. M.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.; Schafer, J. S.; Slutsker, I.

    2002-05-01

    Monitoring of the optical properties of primarily biomass burning aerosols in Mongu, Zambia was initiated in 1995, when an AERONET sun/sky radiometer site was established at the Mongu airport. For the biomass burning season months (July-November), we present monthly means of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol size distributions, and refractive indices from almucantar sky scan retrievals utilizing the algorithm of Dubovik and King (2000). The monthly mean single scattering albedo at 440 nm in Mongu was found to increase significantly from July (0.845) to October (0.93). The slope of the spectral dependence of aerosol single scattering albedo with wavelength decreased as SSA increased from July to October. However, there was no significant change in particle size in either the dominant accumulation or secondary coarse modes during these months. Similarly, seasonal SSA retrievals for Etosha Pan, Namibia also show increasing values through the burning season in 2000. We also analyze the seasonality of SSA for sites in biomass burning regions of Amazonia. We show maps of satellite detected fire counts which indicate that the regions of primary biomass burning shift significantly from July to October. Possible reasons for the seasonal changes in observed SSA include differences in aging to due transport speed and distance from source regions, differences in biomass fuel types in different regions (fraction of woody biomass versus grasses), and differences in fuel moisture content (October is the beginning of the rainy season on both continents).

  20. Moving scanning emitter tracking by a single observer using time of interception: Observability analysis and algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei ZHANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The target motion analysis (TMA for a moving scanning emitter with known fixed scan rate by a single observer using the time of interception (TOI measurements only is investigated in this paper. By transforming the TOI of multiple scan cycles into the direction difference of arrival (DDOA model, the observability analysis for the TMA problem is performed. Some necessary conditions for uniquely identifying the scanning emitter trajectory are obtained. This paper also proposes a weighted instrumental variable (WIV estimator for the scanning emitter TMA, which does not require any initial solution guess and is closed-form and computationally attractive. More importantly, simulations show that the proposed algorithm can provide estimation mean square error close to the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB at moderate noise levels with significantly lower estimation bias than the conventional pseudo-linear least square (PLS estimator.

  1. Single-site robotic cholecystectomy (SSRC) versus single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC): comparison of learning curves. First European experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinoglio, Giuseppe; Lenti, Luca Matteo; Maglione, Valeria; Lucido, Francesco Saverio; Priora, Fabio; Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Grosso, Federica; Quarati, Raul

    2012-06-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is an emerging procedure developed to decrease parietal trauma and improve cosmetic results. However, many technical constraints, such as lack of triangulation, instrument collisions, and cross-handing, hamper this approach. Using a robotic platform may overcome these problems and enable more precise surgical actions by increasing freedom of movement and by restoring intuitive instrument control. We retrospectively collected, under institutional review board approval, data on the first 25 patients who underwent single-site robotic cholecystectomies (SSRC) at our center. Patients enrolled in this study underwent SSRC for symptomatic biliary gallstones or polyposis. Exclusion criteria were: BMI > 33; acute cholecystitis; previous upper abdominal surgery; ASA > II; and age >80 and <18 years. All procedures were performed with the da Vinci Si Surgical System and a dedicated SSRC kit (Intuitive). After discharge, patients were followed for 2 months. These SSRC cases were compared to our first 25 single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomies (SILC) and with the literature. There were no differences in patient characteristics between groups (gender, P = 0.4404; age, P = 0.7423; BMI, P = 0.5699), and there were no conversions or major complications in either cohort. Operative time was significantly longer for the SILC group compared with SSRC (83.2 vs. 62.7 min, P = 0.0006), and SSRC operative times did not change significantly along the series. The majority of patients in each group were discharged within 24 h, with an average length of hospital stay of 1.2 days for the SILC group and 1.1 days for the SSRC group (P = 0.2854). No wound complications (infection, incisional hernia) were observed in the SSRC group and in the SILC. Our preliminary experience shows that SSRC is safe, can easily be learned, and performed in a reproducible manner and is faster than SILC.

  2. Seasonal Trend of Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo at Biomass Burning Sites in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Ward, D.; Mukelabai, M. M.; Piketh, S.; Hyer, E. J.; Dubovik, O.; Sinyuk, A.; Schafer, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Smirnov, A.; Slutsker, I.

    2011-12-01

    A database of the optical properties of primarily biomass burning aerosols in Mongu, Zambia from multi-year monitoring at an AERONET sun-sky radiometer site was examined. For the biomass burning season months (July-November), we investigate the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol size distributions, and refractive indices from almucantar sky scan retrievals utilizing the algorithm of Dubovik and King (2000). The monthly mean single scattering albedo at 440 nm in Mongu was found to increase significantly from ~0.84 in July to ~0.93 in November (from 0.78 to 0.90 at 675 nm in these same months). There was no significant change in particle size, in either the dominant accumulation or secondary coarse modes during these months, nor any significant trend in the Angstrom Exponent (440-870 nm; r2=0.02). A significant downward seasonal trend in imaginary refractive index (r2=0.43) suggests a trend of decreasing black carbon content in the aerosol composition as the burning season progresses. Similarly, seasonal SSA retrievals for both the Etosha Pan, Namibia and Skukuza, South Africa AERONET sites also show increasing single scattering albedo values through the burning season. We show maps of satellite detected fire counts, which indicate that the regions of primary biomass burning in southern Africa shift significantly from July to October. Possible reasons for the seasonal changes in observed SSA include differences in biomass fuel types in different regions and seasons (fraction of woody biomass versus grasses), agricultural practices (Chitemene: in which woody fuels are burned at the end of the dry season), differences in fuel moisture content (as mid-October is the typical beginning of the rainy season) and differences in aging due to transport speed and distance from varying source regions. We also analyze the seasonality of SSA for sites in biomass burning regions of southern Amazonia, where no significant seasonal trend in SSA was detected.

  3. Performance analysis of high frequency single-site-location antenna arrays using numerical electromagnetic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiantarelli, Harry T.

    1990-09-01

    Electronic support measures (ESM) systems play an increasingly important role in modern warfare and can influence the outcome of a military engagement. The application of ESM can be extended to anti-guerrilla and anti-drug operations where law enforcement agencies can exploit the fact that their presence is inducing the outlaw to depend more on radio communications to coordinate their activities. When a propagation path of no more than one reflection at the ionosphere (1-hop) can be assumed, position of an HF emitter can be determined by a single observing site using vertical triangulation, provided that the height of the ionosphere at the point where the radio wave is reflected, can be determined. This technique is known as high frequency direction finding single-site-location (HFDF SSL). This thesis analyzes the HFDF SSL error in measuring the direction of arrival of the signal, how this error is generated by the antenna array and its effect on emitter location. The characteristics of the two antenna arrays used by a specific HFDF SSL system that implements the phase-interferometer techniques were studied using electromagnetic modeling.

  4. Site-directed zebrafish transgenesis into single landing sites with the phiC31 integrase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosimann, Christian; Puller, Ann-Christin; Lawson, Katy L; Tschopp, Patrick; Amsterdam, Adam; Zon, Leonard I

    2013-08-01

    Linear DNA-based and Tol2-mediated transgenesis are powerful tools for the generation of transgenic zebrafish. However, the integration of multiple copies or transgenes at random genomic locations complicates comparative transgene analysis and makes long-term transgene stability unpredictable with variable expression. Targeted, site-directed transgene integration into pre-determined genomic loci can circumvent these issues. The phiC31 integrase catalyzes the unidirectional recombination reaction between heterotypic attP and attB sites and is an efficient platform for site-directed transgenesis. We report the implementation of the phiC31 integrase-mediated attP/attB recombination for site-directed zebrafish transgenics of attB-containing transgene vectors into single genomic attP landing sites. We generated Tol2-based single-insertion attP transgenic lines and established their performance in phiC31 integrase-catalyzed integration of an attB-containing transgene vector. We found stable germline transmission into the next generation of an attB reporter transgene in 34% of all tested animals. We further characterized two functional attP landing site lines and determined their genomic location. Our experiments also demonstrate tissue-specific transgene applications as well as long-term stability of phiC31-mediated transgenes. Our results establish phiC31 integrase-controlled site-directed transgenesis into single, genomic attP sites as space-, time-, and labor-efficient zebrafish transgenesis technique. The described reagents are available for distribution to the zebrafish community. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Observations of Aerosol Optical Properties over 15 AERONET Sites in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J. D.; Lagrosas, N.; Uy, S. N.; Holben, B. N.; Dorado, S.; Tobias, V., Jr.; Anh, N. X.; Po-Hsiung, L.; Janjai, S.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Liew, S. C.; Lim, H. S.; Lestari, P.

    2014-12-01

    Mean column-integrated optical properties from ground sun photometers of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) are studied to provide an overview of the characteristics of aerosols over the region as part of the 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7-SEAS) mission. The 15 AERONET sites with the most available level 2 data products are selected from Thailand (Chiang Mai, Mukdahan, Songkhla and Silpakorn University), Malaysia (University Sains Malaysia), Laos (Vientiane), Vietnam (Bac Giang, Bac Lieu and Nha Trang), Taiwan (National Cheng Kung University and Central Weather Bureau Taipei), Singapore, Indonesia (Bandung) and the Philippines (Manila Observatory and Notre Dame of Marbel University). For all 15 sites, high angstrom exponent values (α>1) have been observed. Chiang Mai and USM have the highest mean Angstrom exponent indicating the dominance of fine particles that can be ascribed to biomass burning and urbanization. Sites with the lowest Angstrom exponent values include Bac Lieu (α=1.047) and Manila Observatory (α=1.021). From the average lognormal size distribution curves, Songkhla and NDMU show the smallest annual variation in the fine mode region, indicating the observed fine aerosols are local to the sites. The rest of the sites show high variation which could be due to large scale forcings (e.g., monsoons and biomass burnings) that affect aerosol properties in these sites. Both high and low single scattering albedo at 440 nm (ω0440) values are found in sites located in major urban areas. Silpakorn University, Manila Observatory and Vientiane have all mean ω0440 0.94. The discrepancy in ω0 suggests different types of major emission sources present in urban areas. The absorptivity of urban aerosols can vary depending on the strength of traffic emissions, types of fuel combusted and automobile engines used, and the effect of biomass burning aerosols during the dry season. High aerosol optical depth values (τa550 > 0.4) are mainly found over inland sites

  6. SEM-induced shrinkage and site-selective modification of single-crystal silicon nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Wang, Yifan; Deng, Tao; Liu, Zewen

    2017-07-01

    Solid-state nanopores with feature sizes around 5 nm play a critical role in bio-sensing fields, especially in single molecule detection and sequencing of DNA, RNA and proteins. In this paper we present a systematic study on shrinkage and site-selective modification of single-crystal silicon nanopores with a conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM). Square nanopores with measurable sizes as small as 8 nm × 8 nm and rectangle nanopores with feature sizes (the smaller one between length and width) down to 5 nm have been obtained, using the SEM-induced shrinkage technique. The analysis of energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and the recovery of the pore size and morphology reveal that the grown material along with the edge of the nanopore is the result of deposition of hydrocarbon compounds, without structural damage during the shrinking process. A simplified model for pore shrinkage has been developed based on observation of the cross-sectional morphology of the shrunk nanopore. The main factors impacting on the task of controllably shrinking the nanopores, such as the accelerating voltage, spot size, scanned area of e-beam, and the initial pore size have been discussed. It is found that single-crystal silicon nanopores shrink linearly with time under localized irradiation by SEM e-beam in all cases, and the pore shrinkage rate is inversely proportional to the initial equivalent diameter of the pore under the same e-beam conditions.

  7. Immediate loading of single SLA implants: drilling vs. osteotomes for the preparation of the implant site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Andreas; Nyengaard, Jens R; Lang, Niklaus P; Karring, Thorkild

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate whether or not preparation of the implant site with osteotomes instead of drilling may improve peri-implant bone density and/or osseointegration, and whether or not this further improves the predictability of immediate loading of SLA implants. The second, third, and fourth premolars were extracted in both sides of the mandible in six dogs, and after at least 3 months four SLA implants were inserted into each side of the jaw. In three animals, the implant sites were prepared by means of osteotomes, while standard stepwise drilling was used in the remaining animals. In each side of the jaw, two non-adjacent implants were restored with single crowns 4 days after installation, while the remaining two implants were left without crowns to serve as non-loaded controls. After 2, 4, or 12 weeks of loading, specimens including the implants and surrounding tissues were obtained and processed for histologic analysis of undecalcified sections. All implants placed with osteotomes were lost (five before delivery of the crowns and the rest during the first week after loading). None of the conventionally inserted implants, however, was lost, and histomorphometrical analysis revealed similar soft- and hard peri-implant tissue characteristics at immediately loaded and non-loaded implants at all observation times. Average bone-to-implant contact was 59-72% at immediately loaded implants vs. 60-63% at non-loaded ones. Preparation of the implant site by means of osteotomes had a deleterious effect on osseointegration, while immediate loading of single, free-standing, SLA implants following a conventional surgical protocol did not jeopardize their osseointegration.

  8. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Riverton, Wyoming. Revision 3/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    Ground water compliance for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, including the Riverton, Wyoming, site, is governed by the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act and the US Environmental Protection Agency's Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings. The compliance strategy proposed for this site is natural flushing in conjunction with institutional controls. The essential premise of natural flushing is that ground water movement and natural attenuation processes will reduce the detected contamination to background levels or alternate concentration limits that do not pose a risk to human health or the environment within 100 years. This document contains the following sections. Section 2.0 of this SOWP describes the requirements for meeting standards at UMTRA Project sites. Section 3.0 provides site-specific data and the related conceptual model. Section 4.0 provides the justification for the recommended ground water compliance strategy for the Riverton site. Section 5.0 provides the justification and process for collection and assessment of additional required data. Section 6.0 provides a list of the references cited. The appendixes include data on monitor wells and lithography, ground water, surface water, and sediment quality

  9. Observation and simulation of ethane at 23 FTIR sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, W. M. J.; Mahieu, E.; Franco, B.; Pozzer, A.; Taraborrelli, D.; Prignon, M.; Servais, C. P.; De Maziere, M.; Vigouroux, C.; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Sufa, G.; Mellqvist, J.; Blumenstock, T.; Hase, F.; Schneider, M.; Sussmann, R.; Nagahama, T.; Sudo, K.; Hannigan, J. W.; Ortega, I.; Morino, I.; Nakajima, H.; Smale, D.; Makarova, M.; Poberovsky, A.; Murata, I.; Grutter de la Mora, M.; Guarin, C. A.; Stremme, W.; Té, Y.; Jeseck, P.; Notholt, J.; Palm, M.; Conway, S. A.; Lutsch, E.; Strong, K.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Jones, N. B.; Paton-Walsh, C.; Friedrich, M.; Smeekes, S.

    2017-12-01

    Ethane is the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) in the Earth atmosphere. Its main sources are of anthropogenic origin, with globally 62% from leakage during production and transport of natural gas, 20% from biofuel combustion and 18% from biomass burning. In the Southern hemisphere, anthropogenic emissions are lower which makes biomass burning emissions a more significant source. The main removal process is oxidation by the hydroxyl radical (OH), leading to a mean atmospheric lifetime of 2 months. Until recently, a prolonged decrease of its abundance has been documented, at rates of -1 to -2.7%/yr, with global emissions dropping from 14 to 11 Tg/yr over 1984-2010 owing to successful measures reducing fugitive emissions from its fossil fuel sources. However, subsequent investigations have reported on an upturn in the ethane trend, characterized by a sharp rise from about 2009 onwards. The ethane increase is attributed to the oil and natural gas production boom in North America, although significant changes in OH could also be at play. In the present contribution, we report the trend of ethane at 23 ground-based Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) sites spanning the 80ºN to 79ºS latitude range. Over 2010-2015, a significant ethane rise of 3-5%/yr is determined for most sites in the Northern Hemisphere, while for the Southern hemisphere the rates of changes are not significant at the 2-sigma uncertainty level . Dedicated model simulations by EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry; 1.8×1.8 degrees) implementing various emission scenarios are included in order to support data interpretation. The usual underestimation of the NMHCs emissions in the main inventories is confirmed here for RCP85 (Representative Concentration Pathway Database v8.5). Scaling them by 1.5 is needed to capture the background levels of atmospheric ethane. Moreover, additional and significant emissions ( 7 Tg over 2009-2015) are needed to capture the ethane rise in the Northern

  10. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The requirements for ground water compliance for Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, including the Tuba City, Arizona, site, are found in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act; Subparts B and C of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings (40 CFR 192 (1994)), and the associated proposed 1987 standards (52 FR 36000). During the surface remedial action, an estimated 1,400,000 cubic yards (yd 3 ) (1,100,000 cubic meters [m 3 ]) of uranium mill tailings and other contaminated materials were consolidated and stabilized in place in an unlined disposal cell covering 50 acres (20 hectares). The surface remedial action was completed in April 1990. Ground water beneath the Tuba City site was contaminated by subsurface migration of water from uranium ore processing activities. The main source of contaminants was water from the tailings piles that began in 1956 when the mill opened and ended in 1966 when the mill closed. 800,000 tons (725,000 tonnes) of uranium ore were processed onsite over a 10-year period. The wet tailings remaining after processing were placed as a slurry in three piles at the site. Water from these tailings then seeped into the ground and migrated downward to the ground water. The Tuba City site is currently in a post-stabilization, prelicensing status. The site is expected to remain in this status until licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for long-term surveillance and maintenance. The preliminary ground water compliance strategy at the Tuba City site is active remediation-specific technology to be evaluated is in situ bioremediation. This selection was made because of the potential ability of bioremediation to reduce concentrations to lower levels than a conventional extraction system and to minimize disturbance of the water resource

  11. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Spook, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Ground water in the uppermost aquifer beneath and downgradient from the Spook site was contaminated by uranium-processing activities that occurred from 1962 until 1966. Contamination from the tailings pile and the acid pond (including uranium, selenium, nitrate, and radium-226 and -228) leached into the subsurface by infiltration and migrated into ground water, forming a plume extending approximately 2,500 feet (ft) (760 meters [m]) downgradient from the site. The surface remedial action at the Spook site under Subpart A of 40 CFR Part 192 consisted of stabilizing the uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials in a disposal cell in the bottom of the Spook open-pit mine and covering the cell with overburden material. The ground water protection strategy was supplemental standards based on Class 3 ground water in the uppermost aquifer because of widespread ambient contamination. The proposed ground water protection strategy to comply with Subpart B of 40 CFR Part 192 at the Spook site is to perform no remediation. This strategy is based on ground water in the uppermost aquifer (also the zone of contamination) being classified as Class 3, which allows the application of supplemental standards. Class 3 ground water beneath the Spook site is neither a current nor a potential source of drinking water because of widespread, ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using treatment methods reasonably employed in public water supply systems

  12. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Spook, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    Ground water in the uppermost aquifer beneath and downgradient from the Spook site was contaminated by uranium-processing activities that occurred from 1962 until 1966. Contamination from the tailings pile and the acid pond (including uranium, selenium, nitrate, and radium-226 and -228) leached into the subsurface by infiltration and migrated into ground water, forming a plume extending approximately 2,500 feet (ft) (760 meters [m]) downgradient from the site. The surface remedial action at the Spook site under Subpart A of 40 CFR Part 192 consisted of stabilizing the uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials in a disposal cell in the bottom of the Spook open-pit mine and covering the cell with overburden material. The ground water protection strategy was supplemental standards based on Class 3 ground water in the uppermost aquifer because of widespread ambient contamination. The proposed ground water protection strategy to comply with Subpart B of 40 CFR Part 192 at the Spook site is to perform no remediation. This strategy is based on ground water in the uppermost aquifer (also the zone of contamination) being classified as Class 3, which allows the application of supplemental standards. Class 3 ground water beneath the Spook site is neither a current nor a potential source of drinking water because of widespread, ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using treatment methods reasonably employed in public water supply systems.

  13. Observations at the Mars Pathfinder site: Do they provide "unequivocal" evidence of catastrophic flooding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M.G.; Kargel, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    After Mars Pathfinder landed at the mouth of Ares Vallis, a large channel that drains into the Chryse Planitia basin, the mission reports unanimously supported the interpretation that the lander site is the locus of catastrophic flooding by noting that all aspects of the scene are consistent with this interpretation. However, alternatives cannot be ruled out by any site observations, as all aspects of the scene are equally consistent with other interpretations of origin, namely, ice and mass-flow processes subsequently modified by wind erosion. The authors discuss alternative explanations for the geologic history of the channel based on a regional view of the circum-Chryse channels from Viking images (our best broad-scale information to date) and the local view from the recent Pathfinder landing site. Mega-indicators of channel origin, the regional geomorphology, geology, and planetary climatic conditions, taken together suggest some combination of flood, mass flow, glacial, and eolian processes. The macro-indicators of channel origin (sedimentologic) are also not indicative of one process of emplacement, either as single criteria or taken cumulatively. Finally, the micro-indicators of channel origin (geochemical and mineralogic composition) do not provide very tight constraints on the deposits' possible origins other than that water was in some way involved.

  14. Transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site donor nephrectomy: Without the use of a single port access device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Dubey

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions : Transumbilical LESS-DN can be cost-effectively performed using conventional laparoscopy instruments and without the need for a single port access device. Warm ischemia times with this technique are comparable with that during conventional multiport laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

  15. MMS Observations of Vorticity Near Sites of Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, W. R.; Giles, B. L.; Avanov, L. A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Dorelli, J.; Gershman, D. J.; Mackler, D. A.; Moore, T. E.; Pollock, C. J.; Schiff, C.; Shuster, J. R.; Viñas, A. F.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    With highly capable plasma instruments on four spacecraft flown in tetrahedral formation, it is possible for MMS investigators to approximate spatial derivatives of the plasma parameters observed. Here, we examine vorticity of the electron and ion components of the plasma computed from the curl of velocity as measured by the Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI). Vorticity of magnetospheric plasma has not previously been studied on scales of tens-of-km to less than 10 km, which are the typical inter-spacecraft separations for MMS. Nor has it been explored on time scales of 30 ms for electrons and 150 ms for ions, which are the burst data rates for the FPI spectrometers. Review of observations from the magnetopause and magnetotail phases of the mission finds increases in vorticity associated with near encounters with the electron diffusion region, with nearby regions of measurable current, and with elevated electron and ion temperatures. These are suggestive of a possible role for turbulence in magnetic reconnection. In this presentation we provide an assessment of the quality of these measurements and discuss their potential significance.

  16. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Falls City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    During surface remedial action, an estimated 7.0 million tons (6.4 million tonnes) of uranium mill tailings and other contaminated materials were consolidated and stabilized on the Falls City site. The ground water protection strategy at the Falls City disposal site for the UMTRA Surface Project (Subpart A of 40 CFR Part 192 (1994)) was an application for supplemental standards, based on Class III (limited use) ground water in the uppermost aquifer. This water is not a current or potential source of drinking water. Ground water from the uppermost aquifer (ground water from the Deweesville/Conquista Members and the Dilworth Member) contains widespread ambient contamination resulting from naturally occurring conditions and from the effects of human activity not related to uranium milling operations (uranium exploration and mining activities). The ground water cannot be effectively cleaned up for drinking or other beneficial purposes using treatment methods reasonably employed by public water supply systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Texas concurred with the ground water protection strategy for the disposal site in September 1992. Surface remedial action in accord with Subpart A was completed in April 1994. The proposed ground water compliance strategy (Subpart B of 40 CFR Part 192 (1994)) at the Falls City site is to perform no remedial action based on application for supplemental standards because the ground water in the uppermost aquifer is classified as Class III ground water. Class III ground water includes ground water that is not a current or potential source of drinking water because of widespread, ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using treatment methods reasonably employed by public water supply systems (40 CFR section 192.11 (e) (1994)). Although supplemental standards are being applied, the potential use of ground water in the site vicinity will be protected

  17. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The requirements for ground water compliance for Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, including the Tuba City, Arizona, site, are found in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act; Subparts B and C of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings (40 CFR 192 (1994)), and the associated proposed 1987 standards (52 FR 36000). During the surface remedial action, an estimated 1,400,000 cubic yards (yd 3 ) (1,100,000 cubic meters [m 3 ]) of uranium mill tailings and other contaminated materials were consolidated and stabilized in place in an unlined disposal cell covering 50 acres (20 hectares). The surface remedial action was completed in April 1990. Ground water beneath the Tuba City site was contaminated by subsurface migration of water from uranium ore processing activities. The main source of contaminants was water from the tailings piles that began in 1956 when the mill opened and ended in 1966 when the mill closed. A total of 800,000 tons (725,000 tonnes) of uranium ore were processed onsite over a 10-year period. Two processes were used to refine the ore: an acid leach process and a sodium carbonate alkaline process. Water from these tailings then seeped into the ground and migrated downward to the ground water. The Tuba City site is currently in a post-stabilization, prelicensing status. The preliminary ground water compliance strategy at the Tuba City site is active remediation. The specific technology to be evaluated is in situ bioremediation. This selection was made because of the potential ability of bioremediation to reduce concentrations to lower levels than a conventional extraction system and to minimize disturbance of the water resource

  18. Retrieving 4-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structure from surface observations and profiles over a single station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Zhaoxia [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Most routine measurements from climate study facilities, such as the Department of Energy’s ARM SGP site, come from individual sites over a long period of time. While single-station data are very useful for many studies, it is challenging to obtain 3-dimensional spatial structures of atmospheric boundary layers that include prominent signatures of deep convection from these data. The principal objective of this project is to create realistic estimates of high-resolution (~ 1km × 1km horizontal grids) atmospheric boundary layer structure and the characteristics of precipitating convection. These characteristics include updraft and downdraft cumulus mass fluxes and cold pool properties over a region the size of a GCM grid column from analyses that assimilate surface mesonet observations of wind, temperature, and water vapor mixing ratio and available profiling data from single or multiple surface stations. The ultimate goal of the project is to enhance our understanding of the properties of mesoscale convective systems and also to improve their representation in analysis and numerical simulations. During the proposed period (09/15/2011–09/14/2014) and the no-cost extension period (09/15/2014–09/14/2015), significant accomplishments have been achieved relating to the stated goals. Efforts have been extended to various research and applications. Results have been published in professional journals and presented in related science team meetings and conferences. These are summarized in the report.

  19. Editorial : A Single Observation can Change a Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Shyam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical and other scientific literature follow a peculiar repetitive pattern in their (revolution. They begin with an a concept (or a case which forces us to think and deliberate on it. Be it the famous ‘Apple fall’ leading to proposal of gravity or unexpected growth of mould leading to discovery of Penicillin. Such happenings occur and define a turning point, which further ramify into organized studies and data accumulation. As argued by Thomas S Khun in his book “The Structure of Scientific Revolution” the ‘development-by-accumulation’ model of science is interrupted by episodic accelerations which are sparked by individual observations or thought process [1]. Such observations and deliberations (or anomalies are, what we can define as the ‘Epitome of Case Reports’.

  20. Single-site Lennard-Jones models via polynomial chaos surrogates of Monte Carlo molecular simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim

    2016-06-01

    In this work, two Polynomial Chaos (PC) surrogates were generated to reproduce Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation results of the canonical (single-phase) and the NVT-Gibbs (two-phase) ensembles for a system of normalized structureless Lennard-Jones (LJ) particles. The main advantage of such surrogates, once generated, is the capability of accurately computing the needed thermodynamic quantities in a few seconds, thus efficiently replacing the computationally expensive MC molecular simulations. Benefiting from the tremendous computational time reduction, the PC surrogates were used to conduct large-scale optimization in order to propose single-site LJ models for several simple molecules. Experimental data, a set of supercritical isotherms, and part of the two-phase envelope, of several pure components were used for tuning the LJ parameters (ε, σ). Based on the conducted optimization, excellent fit was obtained for different noble gases (Ar, Kr, and Xe) and other small molecules (CH4, N2, and CO). On the other hand, due to the simplicity of the LJ model used, dramatic deviations between simulation and experimental data were observed, especially in the two-phase region, for more complex molecules such as CO2 and C2 H6.

  1. Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Plus One-Port Donor Nephrectomy: Analysis of 169 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyuk Jin; Choi, Sae Woong; Kim, Kang Sup; Park, Yong Hyun; Bae, Woong Jin; Hong, Sung-Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Kim, Sae Woong; Hwang, Tae-Kon

    2015-08-01

    To present our experience with laparoendoscopic single-site plus one-port donor nephrectomy (LESSOP-DN) and compare the outcomes with laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN). Prospectively collected data from 169 consecutive LESSOP-DNs and 83 LDNs performed by a single surgeon in the same time period were analyzed retrospectively. No differences in mean operative time (136 versus 130 minutes; P=.15), warm ischemia time (3.4 versus 3.5 minutes; P=.42), blood loss (50 versus 45 mL; P=.41), transfusion rates (0 versus 1 case), hospital stay (4.0 versus 3.9 days; P=.48), or overall complication rate (12.0% versus 7.7%; P=.25) were observed between the LDN and LESSOP-DN groups. The LESSOP-DN group had a shorter time to return to 100% recovery (39 versus 74 days; Pa smaller surgical incision (5.5 versus 8.2 cm; Pgroup. Renal function of the recipient based on estimated glomerular filtration rate at 1 and 3 months was similar between the groups. Health-related quality of life (QOL) was significantly higher in the LESSOP-DN group in four domains of the health survey than in the LDN group. LESSOP-DN might be associated with smaller surgical incision, improved cosmetic satisfaction, less time to recovery, less analgesic requirement, improved donor QOL, and equivalent recipient graft function.

  2. Metal–organic and covalent organic frameworks as single-site catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, S. M. J.; Bavykina, A.; Hajek, J.; Garcia, H.; Olivos-Suarez, A. I.; Sepúlveda-Escribano, A.; Vimont, A.; Clet, G.; Bazin, P.; Kapteijn, F.

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneous single-site catalysts consist of isolated, well-defined, active sites that are spatially separated in a given solid and, ideally, structurally identical. In this review, the potential of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs) as platforms for the development of heterogeneous single-site catalysts is reviewed thoroughly. In the first part of this article, synthetic strategies and progress in the implementation of such sites in these two classes of materials are discussed. Because these solids are excellent playgrounds to allow a better understanding of catalytic functions, we highlight the most important recent advances in the modelling and spectroscopic characterization of single-site catalysts based on these materials. Finally, we discuss the potential of MOFs as materials in which several single-site catalytic functions can be combined within one framework along with their potential as powerful enzyme-mimicking materials. The review is wrapped up with our personal vision on future research directions. PMID:28338128

  3. NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX 2002/03): Local scale observation site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janet Hardy; Robert Davis; Yeohoon Koh; Don Cline; Kelly Elder; Richard Armstrong; Hans-Peter Marshall; Thomas Painter; Gilles Castres Saint-Martin; Roger DeRoo; Kamal Sarabandi; Tobias Graf; Toshio Koike; Kyle McDonald

    2008-01-01

    The local scale observation site (LSOS) is the smallest study site (0.8 ha) of the 2002/03 Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) and is located within the Fraser mesocell study area. It was the most intensively measured site of the CLPX, and measurements here had the greatest temporal component of all CLPX sites. Measurements made at the LSOS were designed to produce a...

  4. Single-Site Palladium(II) Catalyst for Oxidative Heck Reaction: Catalytic Performance and Kinetic Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hui; Li, Mengyang; Zhang, Guanghui; Gallagher, James R.; Huang, Zhiliang; Sun, Yu; Luo, Zhong; Chen, Hongzhong; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Zou, Ruqiang; Lei, Aiwen; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The development of organometallic single-site catalysts (SSCs) has inspired the designs of new heterogeneous catalysts with high efficiency. Nevertheless, the application of SSCs in certain modern organic reactions, such as C-C bond formation reactions, has still been less investigated. In this study, a single-site Pd(II) catalyst was developed, where 2,2'-bipyridine-grafted periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) was employed as the support of a Pd(II) complex. The overall performance of the single-site Pd(II) catalyst in the oxidative Heck reaction was then investigated. The investigation results show that the catalyst displays over 99% selectivity for the product formation with high reaction yield. Kinetic profiles further confirm its high catalytic efficiency, showing that the rate constant is nearly 40 times higher than that for the free Pd(II) salt. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that the catalyst has remarkable lifetime and recyclability.

  5. Observations from the Williams Tower measurement site during TexAQS 2000: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, D.; Brechtel, F.; Zelenyuk, A.; Doskey, P.; Spicer, C.; Joseph, D.; Berkowitz, C.; Alexander, M.; Cowin, J.; Weinstein-Lloyd, J.; Baumann, K.

    2002-12-01

    The Williams Tower measurement site operated during TexAQS 2000 provided a unique sampling opportunity making it possible to study the meteorological and chemical day-night evolution of the planetary boundary layer. The skyscraper measurements were made from the 62nd floor of Williams Tower located in uptown Houston. Teams of scientists from six organizations set up 20 instruments for sampling 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Participant groups included Battelle's Columbus Operations, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, State University of New York at Old Westbury, Georgia Institute of Technology, University of California at Davis, and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission. The measurement systems filled two rooms; one room was used primarily for gas-phase measurements of O3, NO/NOy, PAN, SO2, CO, CH2O, HNO3, HONO, H2O2, and organic peroxide. Temperature, pressure and moisture were also monitored. The measurements in the 2nd room focused on aerosol characterization some of which used new techniques. Aerosol size distribution was obtained using two scanning differential mobility analyzers. Aerosol bulk composition was obtained using time resolved filter sampling. Single particle size and composition was measured using a sampler that provides atomic composition using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersed X-ray analysis, and real-time single particle time of flight mass spectrometer. This paper will present the overview of the tower observations made at the height of 830 feet above the ground in the context of results from aircraft and other surface site observations. The data provide a rather complete suite of gas and aerosol measurements which makes it possible to characterize the Houston air west of the major emission sources. The elevated measurement site also makes it possible to investigate the chemistry within and above the nocturnal boundary layer. Results from box

  6. Well-defined silica supported aluminum hydride: another step towards the utopian single site dream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werghi, Baraa; Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa; Sofack-Kreutzer, Julien; Jedidi, Abdesslem; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Cavallo, Luigi; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-10-01

    processes occur by opening of a strained siloxane bridge, Si-O-Si but with two different mechanisms, showing that the reality of "single site" catalyst may be an utopia: DFT calculations indicate that isobutyl transfer occurs via a simple metathesis between the Al-isobutyl and O-Si bonds, while hydride transfer occurs via a two steps mechanism, the first one is a β-H elimination to Al with elimination of isobutene, whereas the second is a metathesis step between the formed Al-H bond and a O-Si bond. Thermal treatment of 1a (at 250 °C) under high vacuum (10 -5 mbar) generates Al-H through a β-H elimination of isobutyl fragment. These supported well-defined Al-H which are highly stable with time, are tetra, penta and octa coordinated as demonstrated by IR and 27 Al- 1 H J-HMQC NMR spectroscopy. All these observations indicate that surfaces atoms around the site of grafting play a considerable role in the reactivity of a single site system.

  7. Use of single-well tracer dilution tests to evaluate LNAPL flux at seven field sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Nicholas; Sale, Tom; Smith, Tim; Lyverse, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Petroleum liquids, referred to as light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs), are commonly found beneath petroleum facilities. Concerns with LNAPLs include migration into clean soils, migration beyond property boundaries, and discharges to surface water. Single-well tracer dilution techniques were used to measure LNAPL fluxes through 50 wells at 7 field sites. A hydrophobic tracer was mixed into LNAPL in a well. Intensities of fluorescence associated with the tracer were measured over time using a spectrometer and a fiber optic cable. LNAPL fluxes were estimated using observed changes in the tracer concentrations over time. Measured LNAPL fluxes range from 0.006 to 2.6 m/year with a mean and median of 0.15 and 0.064 m/year, respectively. Measured LNAPL fluxes are two to four orders of magnitude smaller than a common groundwater flux of 30 m/year. Relationships between LNAPL fluxes and possible governing parameters were evaluated. Observed LNAPL fluxes are largely independent of LNAPL thickness in wells. Natural losses of LNAPL through dissolution, evaporation, and subsequent biodegradation, were estimated using a simple mass balance, measured LNAPL fluxes in wells, and an assumed stable LNAPL extent. The mean and median of the calculated loss rates were found to be 24.0 and 5.0 m3/ha/year, respectively. Mean and median losses are similar to values reported by others. Coupling observed LNAPL fluxes to observed rates of natural LNAPL depletion suggests that natural losses of LNAPL may be an important parameter controlling the overall extent of LNAPL bodies.

  8. Comparative study of hybrid laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) partial nephrectomy and conventional multiport laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, C; Esquinas, C; Meilán, E; García-Tello, A; Arance, I; Angulo, J C

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the surgical and oncological outcomes of hybrid laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) in partial nephrectomy with reusable components compared with multiport laparoscopy. Hybrid LESS technique with auxiliary 3.5mm trocar (n=20) was compared with conventional multiport laparoscopy (n=26) by a prospective, paired, nonrandomized, and comparative study in partially nephrectomized patients. Follow-up average was 31±18.6 months. In one case, LESS was converted to laparoscopy. No differences were found regarding age, sex, body mass index, laterality, localization, tumor size or use of double J stent. Dominance of Loop-I (P=0.09) and benign histology (P=0.05) were observed in the LESS group. Neither there were differences regarding operating time, ischemia time, use of hemostatic materials, estimated blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin levels, transfusion or other complications. In any case, to extend the skin incision for specimen extraction was not necessary. Drainage time (P=0.006) and hospital stay (P=0.003) were better in LESS patients. Concerning complications, no significant differences were observed according Clavien-Dindo scale. In laparoscopic group one patient died of pulmonary embolism after hospital discharge. No positive margins were observed in any case. During follow-up neither tumor recurrence nor disease progression were observed. Regarding surgical outcomes, partial nephrectomy by LESS technique does not imply improvements, excepting shorter hospital stay, probably due to accurate surgical hemostasis and/or selection of cases. No surgical and oncological risks are involved, as well as no improvement in ischemia time, blood loss or transfusion rate. We find no significant difference in cosmetic outcomes. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Single particle characterization of black carbon aerosols at a tropospheric alpine site in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Flynn, M.; Gysel, M.; Targino, A.; Crawford, I.; Bower, K.; Choularton, T.; Jurányi, Z.; Steinbacher, M.; Hüglin, C.; Curtius, J.; Kampus, M.; Petzold, A.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Coe, H.

    2010-08-01

    The refractory black carbon (rBC) mass, size distribution (190-720 nm) and mixing state in sub-micron aerosols were characterized from late February to March 2007 using a single particle incandescence method at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch (JFJ), Switzerland (46.33° N, 7.59° E, 3580 m a.s.l.). JFJ is a ground based location, which is at times exposed to continental free tropospheric air. A median mass absorption coefficient (MAC) of 10.2±3.2 m2 g-1 at λ=630 nm was derived by comparing single particle incandescence measurements of black carbon mass with continuous measurements of absorption coefficient. This value is comparable with other estimates at this location. The aerosols measured at the site were mostly well mixed and aged during transportation via the free troposphere. Pollutant sources were traced by air mass back trajectories, trace gases concentrations and the mass loading of rBC. In southeasterly wind directions, mixed or convective weather types provided the potential to vent polluted boundary layer air from the southern Alpine area and industrial northern Italy, delivering enhanced rBC mass loading and CN concentrations to the JFJ. The aerosol loadings at this site were also significantly influenced by precipitation, which led to the removal of rBC from the atmosphere. Precipitation events were shown to remove about 65% of the rBC mass from the free tropospheric background reducing the mean loading from 13±5 ng m-3 to 6±2 ng m-3(corrected to standard temperature and pressure). Overall, 40±15% of the observed rBC particles within the detectable size range were mixed with large amounts of non-refractory materials present as a thick coating. The growth of particle size into the accumulation mode was positively linked with the degree of rBC mixing, suggesting the important role of condensable materials in increasing particle size and leading to enhanced internal mixing of these materials with rBC. It is the first time that BC mass

  10. Observation of Quantum Jumps of a Single Quantum Dot Spin Using Submicrosecond Single-Shot Optical Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delteil, Aymeric; Gao, Wei-bo; Fallahi, Parisa; Miguel-Sanchez, Javier; Imamoǧlu, Atac

    2014-03-01

    Single-shot readout of individual qubits is typically the slowest process among the elementary single- and two-qubit operations required for quantum information processing. Here, we use resonance fluorescence from a single-electron charged quantum dot to read out the spin-qubit state in 800 nanoseconds with a fidelity exceeding 80%. Observation of the spin evolution on longer time scales reveals quantum jumps of the spin state: we use the experimentally determined waiting-time distribution to characterize the quantum jumps.

  11. Understanding the role of aluminum-based activators in single site iron catalysts for ethylene oligomerization.

    OpenAIRE

    Boudene , Zoubeyr; Boudier , Adrien; Breuil , Pierre-Alain; Olivier-Bourbigou , Hélène; Raybaud , Pascal; Toulhoat , Hervé; De Bruin , Theodorus

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In a combined experimental and theoretical study, the activation process of a single site ethylene oligomerization catalyst with aluminum-based activators has been studied. The results put forward a plausible deactivation reaction path of the catalyst for trimethylaluminum, while for methylaluminoxane and a novel phenoxyaluminum-based activator, the experimental catalyst's activity correlates with the energy barrier for the ethylene insertion.

  12. Evidence that adaptation in Drosophila is not limited by mutation at single sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia Karasov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation in eukaryotes is generally assumed to be mutation-limited because of small effective population sizes. This view is difficult to reconcile, however, with the observation that adaptation to anthropogenic changes, such as the introduction of pesticides, can occur very rapidly. Here we investigate adaptation at a key insecticide resistance locus (Ace in Drosophila melanogaster and show that multiple simple and complex resistance alleles evolved quickly and repeatedly within individual populations. Our results imply that the current effective population size of modern D. melanogaster populations is likely to be substantially larger (> or = 100-fold than commonly believed. This discrepancy arises because estimates of the effective population size are generally derived from levels of standing variation and thus reveal long-term population dynamics dominated by sharp--even if infrequent--bottlenecks. The short-term effective population sizes relevant for strong adaptation, on the other hand, might be much closer to census population sizes. Adaptation in Drosophila may therefore not be limited by waiting for mutations at single sites, and complex adaptive alleles can be generated quickly without fixation of intermediate states. Adaptive events should also commonly involve the simultaneous rise in frequency of independently generated adaptive mutations. These so-called soft sweeps have very distinct effects on the linked neutral polymorphisms compared to the standard hard sweeps in mutation-limited scenarios. Methods for the mapping of adaptive mutations or association mapping of evolutionarily relevant mutations may thus need to be reconsidered.

  13. A comparative study of multiport versus laparoendoscopic single-site adrenalectomy for benign adrenal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Victor Chia-Hsiang; Tsai, Yao-Chou; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Li, Tin Chou; Ho, Chen-Hsun; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Tai, Huai-Ching; Yu, Hong-Jeng

    2012-04-01

    The safety and feasibility of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) adrenalectomy for benign adrenal lesions was proved in early clinical series. However, the advantages of LESS over multiport laparoscopic adrenalectomy still are under investigation. Since October 2009, the authors have prospectively performed LESS retroperitoneal adrenalectomy for 21 consecutive patients with benign adrenal tumors (LESS group). Another 28 patients with benign adrenal tumors were prospectively collected between June 2006 and October 2009 and served as a multiport laparoscopic adrenalectomy group. The patients' demographic data, operating time, estimated blood loss, peri- and postoperative complications, and short-term outcome were collected for further analysis. The demographic data were comparable between the two groups in terms of the patient age, gender, body mass index (BMI), laterality, diagnosis, and resected specimen weight. No major complication or mortality occurred in either group. Neither group had any conversions. No differences were observed between the two groups in terms of intraoperative hemodynamic status or peri- or postoperative complications. The LESS patients had quicker resumption of oral intake (0.18 vs 1 day; p benign adrenal tumors. In addition, LESS adrenalectomy provides short-term convalescence advantages over multiport laparoscopic adrenalectomy.

  14. SINGLE-DOSE CEFAZOLIN PROPHYLAXIS IN ELECTIVE LSCS- A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannasseril Antony Kunjamma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Surgical site infections are the most common nosocomial infections. Postoperative complications, especially surgical site infections can double the length of time a patient stays in hospital and increase the cost of healthcare. Antibiotic prophylaxis before surgery has evolved over last twenty years and is definitely valuable to reduce postoperative wound infection. Obstetric surgeries are considered as clean contaminated wounds where antibiotic prophylaxis has proven beneficial in preventing postoperative complications, antibiotic resistance and economic burden. But, in countries like India, even a large group of obstetricians are reluctant to follow it. Hence, this study was conducted. The aim of the study is to study the effectiveness of single-dose cefazolin prophylaxis in preventing postoperative complications in patients undergoing elective cesarean compared to postoperative antibiotics. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective observational study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical College, Kottayam, from January 2014-December 2014. After obtaining permission from the hospital ethical committee for research, hundred patients undergoing elective cesarean in our hospital were selected for the study using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria of which fifty patients received injection cefazolin 2g intravenously one hour before surgery. Remaining fifty patients who were matched for age, parity and body mass index were given cefotaxime and metronidazole pre and postoperatively. All these patients were followed up postoperatively for complications, antibiotic change and duration of hospital stay. Statistical analysis done using suitable software. RESULTS Complications were comparable in those receiving prophylactic cefazolin and those receiving postoperative antibiotics. Both groups required antibiotic change for complications. Patients requiring prolonged hospital stay was comparable in both the

  15. Well-Defined Silica Supported Aluminum Hydride: Another Step Towards the Utopian Single Site Dream?

    KAUST Repository

    Werghi, Baraa

    2015-07-17

    Reaction of triisobutylaluminum with SBA15700 at room temperature occurs by two parallel pathways involving either silanol or siloxane bridges. It leads to the formation of a well-defined bipodal [(≡SiO)2Al-CH2CH(CH3)2] 1a, silicon isobutyl [≡Si-CH2CH(CH3)2] 1b and a silicon hydride [≡Si-H] 1c. Their structural identity was characterized by FT-IR and advance solid-state NMR spectroscopies (1H, 13C, 29Si, 27Al and 2D multiple quantum), elemental and gas phase analysis, and DFT calculations. The reaction involves the formation of a highly reactive monopodal intermediate: [≡SiO-Al-[CH2CH(CH3)2]2], with evolution of isobutane. This intermediate undergoes two parallel routes: Transfer of either one isobutyl fragment or of one hydride to an adjacent silicon atom. Both processes occur by opening of a strained siloxane bridge, ≡Si-O-Si≡ but with two different mechanisms, showing that the reality of “single site” catalyst may be an utopia: DFT calculations indicate that isobutyl transfer occurs via a simple metathesis between the Al-isobutyl and O-Si bonds, while hydride transfer occurs via a two steps mechanism, the first one is a ß-H elimination to Al with elimination of isobutene, whereas the second is a metathesis step between the formed Al-H bond and a O-Si bond. Thermal treatment of 1a (at 250 °C) under high vacuum (10-5 mbar) generates Al-H through a ß-H elimination of isobutyl fragment. These supported well-defined Al-H which are highly stable with time, are tetra, penta and octa coordinated as demonstrated by IR and 27Al–1H J-HMQC NMR spectroscopy. All these observations indicate that surfaces atoms around the site of grafting play a considerable role in the reactivity of a single site system.

  16. CLPX-Ground: Sub-Canopy Energetics at the Local Scale Observation Site (LSOS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of solar and longwave radiation data from beneath two pine canopies (one uniform, one discontinuous) at the Local Scale Observation Site...

  17. CLPX-Ground: Sub-Canopy Energetics at the Local Scale Observation Site (LSOS), Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of solar and longwave radiation data from beneath two pine canopies (one uniform, one discontinuous) at the Local Scale Observation Site...

  18. Great Lakes Daily Ice Observations at NOAA Water Level Gauge Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains daily visual ice observations taken yearly from 1 November to 30 April at NOAA/National Ocean Service water level gauge sites in the Great...

  19. Great Lakes Daily Ice Observations at NOAA Water Level Gauge Sites, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains daily visual ice observations taken yearly from 1 November to 30 April at NOAA/National Ocean Service water level gauge sites in the Great...

  20. Joint Meteorological Statistics of Observing Sites for the Event Horizon Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lope Córdova Rosado, Rodrigo Eduardo; Doeleman, Sheperd; Paine, Scott; Johnson, Michael; Event Horizon Telescope (EHT)

    2018-01-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) aims to resolve the general relativistic shadow of Sgr A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy, via Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) measurements with a multinational array of radio observatories. In order to optimize the scheduling of future observations, we have developed tools to model the atmospheric opacity at each EHT site using the past 10 years of Global Forecast System (GFS) data describing the atmospheric state. These tools allow us to determine the ideal observing windows for EHT observations and to assess the suitability and impact of new EHT sites. We describe our modeling framework, compare our models to in-situ measurements at EHT sites, and discuss the implications of weather limitations for planned extensions of the EHT to higher frequencies, as well as additional sites and observation windows.

  1. Observation of skin thermal inertia distribution during reactive hyperaemia using a single-hood measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M; Togawa, T

    2001-02-01

    An attempt was made to image the thermal inertia (defined as the square root of the product of thermal conductivity, specific heat and density) of the skin to observe the distribution of blood in the skin during post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia in normal healthy volunteers. The method was based on the ability to calculate thermal inertia by successive thermographic measurements of the skin after stepwise change in ambient radiation temperature surrounding the skin area. The stepwise change was achieved within 0.1 s through a single hood. Experimentation on the undisturbed volar forearm of normal subjects at the same site showed that the measurements thus achieved were reproducible. The thermal inertia values of forearm skin in normal subjects were scattered throughout the range 1.1 x 10(3) to 1.7 x 10(3) W s(1/2) m(-2) K(-1). Experiments on forearm skin subjected to arterial cuff occlusion indicated that thermal inertia can be detected at a low level of blood perfusion. A linear relationship was observed between thermal inertia and blood perfusion measured by laser Doppler imager before and during blood flow occlusion. During reactive hyperaemia, the thermal inertia image exhibited a non-uniform island-shaped pattern of distribution over the forearm, suggesting that, after release from occlusion, recovery of blood flow is non-uniform.

  2. China radiometric calibration sites ground-based automatic observing systems for CAL/VAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Xin; Rong, Zhiguo; Zhang, Lijun; Hu, Xiuqing; Ba, Xiutian

    2015-10-01

    A brand-new field observing station has been built up in the China radiometric calibration sites (CRCS) of Dunhuang Gobi for CAL/VAL, include house, observing field, power supply, tower crane, et al. Many automatic observation instruments designed and manufactured by Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanical Chinese Academy of Sciences were deployed in CRCS Dunhuang Site and introduced deeply in this paper. Followed with the finishing of the basic constructions of the field observing station, it will be an open field test and exchange platform for sharing of test data, research and infrastructure, promote exchanges and cooperation between the relevant disciplines and units.

  3. Ali Observatory in Tibet: a unique northern site for future CMB ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meng

    2015-08-01

    Ground-based CMB observations have been performed at the South Pole and the Atacama desert in Chile. However, a significant fraction of the sky can not be observed from just these two sites. For a full sky coverage from the ground in the future, a northern site for CMB observation, in particular CMB polarization, is required. Besides the long-thought site in Greenland, the high altitude Tibet plateau provides another opportunity. I will describe the Ali Observatory in Tibet, located at N32°19', E80°01', as a potential site for ground-based CMB observations. The new site is located on almost 5100m mountain, near Gar town, where is an excellent site for both infrared and submillimeter observations. Study with the long-term database of ground weather stations and archival satellite data has been performed. The site has enough relative height on the plateau and is accessible by car. The Shiquanhe town is 40 mins away by driving, and a recently opened airport with 40 mins driving, the site also has road excess, electricity, and optical fiber with fast internet. Preliminary measurement of the Precipitable Water Vapor is ~one quarter less than 0.5mm per year and the long term monitoring is under development. In addition, surrounding higher sites are also available and could be further developed if necessary. Ali provides unique northern sky coverage and together with the South Pole and the Atacama desert, future CMB observations will be able to cover the full sky from ground.

  4. Ligand-tailored single-site silica supported titanium catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and towards cyanosilylation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yani; Yu, Bo; Yang, Jindou; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    A successive anchoring of Ti(NMe 2 ) 4 , cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on silica was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The silica, monitored by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FT-IR), was pretreated at different temperatures (200, 500 and 800 °C). The ligand tailored silica-supported titanium complexes were characterized by in-situ FT-IR, 13 C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface titanium species are single sited. The catalytic activity of the ligand tailored single-site silica supported titanium complexes was evaluated by a cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the dehydroxylation temperatures of silica and the configuration of the ligands. - Graphical abstract: The ligand-tailored silica supported “single site” titanium complexes were synthesized by SOMC strategy and fully characterized. Their catalytic activity were evaluated by benzaldehyde silylcyanation. - Highlights: • Single-site silica supported Ti active species was prepared by SOMC technique. • O-donor ligand tailored Ti surface species was synthesized. • The surface species was characterized by XPS, 13 C CP-MAS NMR, XANES etc. • Catalytic activity of the Ti active species in silylcyanation reaction was evaluated

  5. All-sky-imaging capabilities for ionospheric space weather research using geomagnetic conjugate point observing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinis, C.; Baumgardner, J.; Wroten, J.; Mendillo, M.

    2018-04-01

    Optical signatures of ionospheric disturbances exist at all latitudes on Earth-the most well known case being visible aurora at high latitudes. Sub-visual emissions occur equatorward of the auroral zones that also indicate periods and locations of severe Space Weather effects. These fall into three magnetic latitude domains in each hemisphere: (1) sub-auroral latitudes ∼40-60°, (2) mid-latitudes (20-40°) and (3) equatorial-to-low latitudes (0-20°). Boston University has established a network of all-sky-imagers (ASIs) with sites at opposite ends of the same geomagnetic field lines in each hemisphere-called geomagnetic conjugate points. Our ASIs are autonomous instruments that operate in mini-observatories situated at four conjugate pairs in North and South America, plus one pair linking Europe and South Africa. In this paper, we describe instrument design, data-taking protocols, data transfer and archiving issues, image processing, science objectives and early results for each latitude domain. This unique capability addresses how a single source of disturbance is transformed into similar or different effects based on the unique "receptor" conditions (seasonal effects) found in each hemisphere. Applying optical conjugate point observations to Space Weather problems offers a new diagnostic approach for understanding the global system response functions operating in the Earth's upper atmosphere.

  6. Site-specific labeling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomes for single-molecule manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Alexey; Puglisi, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    Site-specific labeling of Escherichia coli ribosomes has allowed application of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and force methods to probe the mechanism of translation. To apply these approaches to eukaryotic translation, eukaryotic ribosomes must be specifically labeled with fluorescent labels and molecular handles. Here, we describe preparation and labeling of the small and large yeast ribosomal subunits. Phylogenetically variable hairpin loops in ribosomal RNA are mutated to allow hybridization of oligonucleotides to mutant ribosomes. We demonstrate specific labeling of the ribosomal subunits, and their use in single-molecule fluorescence and force experiments. PMID:20501598

  7. Sites of termination of in vitro DNA synthesis on psoralen phototreated single-stranded templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piette, J.; Hearst, J.

    1985-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA has been photochemically induced to react with 4'-hydroxymethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (HMT) and used as substrate for DNA replication with E. coli DNA polymerase I large fragment. By using the dideoxy sequencing procedure, it is possible to map the termination sites on the template photoreacted with HMT. These sites occur at the nucleotides preceding each thymine residue (and a few cytosine residues), emphasizing the fact that in a single-stranded stretch of DNA, HMT reacts with each thymine residue without any specificity regarding the flanking base sequence of the thymine residues. In addition, termination of DNA synthesis due to psoralen-adducted thymine is not influenced by the efficiency of the 3'-5' exonuclease proof-reading activity of the DNA polymerase. (author)

  8. Single-Site Tetracoordinated Aluminum Hydride Supported on Mesoporous Silica. From Dream to Reality!

    KAUST Repository

    Werghi, Baraa

    2016-09-26

    The reaction of mesoporous silica (SBA15) dehydroxylated at 700 °C with diisobutylaluminum hydride, i-Bu2AlH, gives after thermal treatment a single-site tetrahedral aluminum hydride with high selectivity. The starting aluminum isobutyl and the final aluminum hydride have been fully characterized by FT-IR, advanced SS NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, multiple quanta (MQ) 2D 1H-1H, and 27Al), and elemental analysis, while DFT calculations provide a rationalization of the occurring reactivity. Trimeric i-Bu2AlH reacts selectively with surface silanols without affecting the siloxane bridges. Its analogous hydride catalyzes ethylene polymerization. Indeed, catalytic tests show that this single aluminum hydride site is active in the production of a high-density polyethylene (HDPE). © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  9. An In Vitro Single-Primer Site-Directed Mutagenesis Method for Use in Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanchao; Zhang, Likui

    2017-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis is a powerful method to introduce mutation(s) into DNA sequences. A number of methods have been developed over the years with a main goal being to create a high number of mutant genes. The single-mutagenic primer method for site-directed mutagenesis is the most direct method that yields mutant genes in about 25-50 % of transformants in a robust, low-cost reaction. The supercompetent XL10-Gold bacteria used in the Stratagene protocol carry a phage, which may be a problem for some applications; however, in our single-mutagenic primer method the supercompetent bacteria are not needed. A thermostable DNA polymerase with high fidelity and processivity, such as Phusion DNA polymerase, is required for our optimized procedure to avoid extra mutation(s) and enhance mutagenic efficiency.

  10. Single-site catalyst promoters accelerate metal-catalyzed nitroarene hydrogenation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Liang

    2018-04-04

    Atomically dispersed supported metal catalysts are drawing wide attention because of the opportunities they offer for new catalytic properties combined with efficient use of the metals. We extend this class of materials to catalysts that incorporate atomically dispersed metal atoms as promoters. The catalysts are used for the challenging nitroarene hydrogenation and found to have both high activity and selectivity. The promoters are single-site Sn on TiO2 supports that incorporate metal nanoparticle catalysts. Represented as M/Sn-TiO2 (M = Au, Ru, Pt, Ni), these catalysts decidedly outperform the unpromoted supported metals, even for hydrogenation of nitroarenes substituted with various reducible groups. The high activity and selectivity of these catalysts result from the creation of oxygen vacancies on the TiO2 surface by single-site Sn, which leads to efficient, selective activation of the nitro group coupled with a reaction involving hydrogen atoms activated on metal nanoparticles.

  11. Minimal invasive single-site surgery in colorectal procedures: Current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Michele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimally invasive single-site (MISS surgery has recently been applied to colorectal surgery. We aimed to assess the current state of the art and the adequacy of preliminary oncological results. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature using Pubmed, Medline, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. Keywords used were "Single Port" or "Single-Incision" or "LaparoEndoscopic Single Site" or "SILS™" and "Colon" or "Colorectal" and "Surgery". Results: Twenty-nine articles on colorectal MISS surgery have been published from July 2008 to July 2010, presenting data on 149 patients. One study reported analgesic requirement. The final incision length ranged from 2.5 to 8 cm. Only two studies reported fascial incision length. There were two port site hernias in a series of 13 patients (15.38%. Two "fully laparoscopic" MISS procedures with preparation and achievement of the anastomosis completely intracorporeally are reported. Future site of ileostomy was used as the sole access for the procedures in three studies. Lymph node harvesting, resection margins and length of specimen were sufficient in oncological cases. Conclusions: MISS colorectal surgery is a challenging procedure that seems to be safe and feasible, but the existing clinical evidence is limited. In selected cases, and especially when an ileostomy is planned, colorectal surgery may be an ideal indication for MISS surgery leading to a no-scar surgery. Despite preliminary oncological results showing the feasibility of MISS surgery, we want to stress the need to standardize the technique and carefully evaluate its application in oncosurgery under ethical committee control.

  12. Theoretical study of catalytic mechanism for single-site water oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiangsong; Hu, Xiangqian; Concepcion, Javier J; Chen, Zuofeng; Liu, Shubin; Meyer, Thomas J; Yang, Weitao

    2012-09-25

    Water oxidation is a linchpin in solar fuels formation, and catalysis by single-site ruthenium complexes has generated significant interest in this area. Combining several theoretical tools, we have studied the entire catalytic cycle of water oxidation for a single-site catalyst starting with [Ru(II)(tpy)(bpm)(OH(2))](2+) (i.e., [Ru(II)-OH(2)](2+); tpy is 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and bpm is 2,2'-bypyrimidine) as a representative example of a new class of single-site catalysts. The redox potentials and pK(a) calculations for the first two proton-coupled electron transfers (PCETs) from [Ru(II)-OH(2)](2+) to [Ru(IV) = O](2+) and the following electron-transfer process to [Ru(V) = O](3+) suggest that these processes can proceed readily in acidic or weakly basic conditions. The subsequent water splitting process involves two water molecules, [Ru(V) = O](3+) to generate [Ru(III)-OOH](2+), and H(3)O(+) with a low activation barrier (~10 kcal/mol). After the key O-O bond forming step in the single-site Ru catalysis, another PECT process oxidizes [Ru(III)-OOH](2+) to [Ru(IV)-OO](2+) when the pH is lower than 3.7. Two possible forms of [Ru(IV)-OO](2+), open and closed, can exist and interconvert with a low activation barrier (catalytic cycle. This understanding is helpful in the design of new catalysts for water oxidation.

  13. Well-defined single-site monohydride silica-supported zirconium from azazirconacyclopropane

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Bilel

    2015-01-13

    The silica-supported azazirconacyclopropane ≡SiOZr(HNMe2)(η2-NMeCH2)(NMe2) (1) leads exclusively under hydrogenolysis conditions (H2, 150°C) to the single-site monopodal monohydride silica-supported zirconium species ≡SiOZr(HNMe2)(NMe2)2H (2). Reactivity studies by contacting compound 2 with ethylene, hydrogen/ethylene, propene, or hydrogen/propene, at a temperature of 200°C revealed alkene hydrogenation.

  14. Evaluation of a Single-Beam Sonar System to Map Seagrass at Two Sites in Northern Puget Sound, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Lacy, Jessica R.; Finlayson, David P.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seagrass at two sites in northern Puget Sound, Possession Point and nearby Browns Bay, was mapped using both a single-beam sonar and underwater video camera. The acoustic and underwater video data were compared to evaluate the accuracy of acoustic estimates of seagrass cover. The accuracy of the acoustic method was calculated for three classifications of seagrass observed in underwater video: bare (no seagrass), patchy seagrass, and continuous seagrass. Acoustic and underwater video methods agreed in 92 percent and 74 percent of observations made in bare and continuous areas, respectively. However, in patchy seagrass, the agreement between acoustic and underwater video was poor (43 percent). The poor agreement between the two methods in areas with patchy seagrass is likely because the two instruments were not precisely colocated. The distribution of seagrass at the two sites differed both in overall percent vegetated and in the distribution of percent cover versus depth. On the basis of acoustic data, seagrass inhabited 0.29 km2 (19 percent of total area) at Possession Point and 0.043 km2 (5 percent of total area) at the Browns Bay study site. The depth distribution at the two sites was markedly different. Whereas the majority of seagrass at Possession Point occurred between -0.5 and -1.5 m MLLW, most seagrass at Browns Bay occurred at a greater depth, between -2.25 and -3.5 m MLLW. Further investigation of the anthropogenic and natural factors causing these differences in distribution is needed.

  15. Candidate reagents and procedures for the dissolution of Hanford Site single-shell tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; Kupfer, M.J.

    1991-10-01

    At least some of the waste in the 149 single-shell tanks (SST) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will be retrieved, treated, and disposed of. Although the importance of devising efficient and cost-effective sludge dissolution procedures has long been recognized, a concerted bench-scale effort to devise and test such procedures with actual solids representative of those in Hanford Site SSTs has not been performed. Reagents that might be used, either individually or serially, to dissolve sludges include HNO 3 , HNO 3 -oxalic acid, and HNO 3 -HF. This report consolidates and updates perspectives and recommendations concerning reagents and procedures for dissolving Hanford Site SST and selected double-shell tank (DST) sludges. The principal objectives of this report are as follows: (1) Compile and review existing experimental data on dissolution of actual Hanford Site SST and DST sludges. (2) Further inform Hanford Site engineers and scientists concerning the utility of combinations of thermally unstable complexants (TUCS) reagents and various reducing agents for dissolving SST and DST sludges. (This latter technology has recently been explored at the Argonne National Laboratory.) (3) Provide guidance in laying out a comprehensive experimental program to develop technology for dissolving all types of Hanford Site SST and DST sludges. 6 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  16. Surface structural-chemical characterization of a single-site d0 heterogeneous arene hydrogenation catalyst having 100% active sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Linda A.; Guo, Neng; Motta, Alessandro; Delferro, Massimiliano; Fragalà, Ignazio L.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Marks, Tobin J.

    2013-01-01

    Structural characterization of the catalytically significant sites on solid catalyst surfaces is frequently tenuous because their fraction, among all sites, typically is quite low. Here we report the combined application of solid-state 13C-cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-CPMAS-NMR) spectroscopy, density functional theory (DFT), and Zr X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to characterize the adsorption products and surface chemistry of the precatalysts (η5-C5H5)2ZrR2 (R = H, CH3) and [η5-C5(CH3)5]Zr(CH3)3 adsorbed on Brønsted superacidic sulfated alumina (AlS). The latter complex is exceptionally active for benzene hydrogenation, with ∼100% of the Zr sites catalytically significant as determined by kinetic poisoning experiments. The 13C-CPMAS-NMR, DFT, and XAS data indicate formation of organozirconium cations having a largely electrostatic [η5-C5(CH3)5]Zr(CH3)2+···AlS− interaction with greatly elongated Zr···OAlS distances of ∼2.35(2) Å. The catalytic benzene hydrogenation cycle is stepwise understandable by DFT, and proceeds via turnover-limiting H2 delivery to surface [η5-C5(CH3)5]ZrH2(benzene)+···AlS− species, observable by solid-state NMR and XAS. PMID:23269836

  17. Housing retention in single-site housing first for chronically homeless individuals with severe alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Susan E; Malone, Daniel K; Clifasefi, Seema L

    2013-12-01

    We studied housing retention and its predictors in the single-site Housing First model. Participants (n = 111) were chronically homeless people with severe alcohol problems who lived in a single-site Housing First program and participated in a larger nonrandomized controlled trial (2005-2008) conducted in Seattle, Washington. At baseline, participants responded to self-report questionnaires assessing demographic, illness burden, alcohol and other drug use, and psychiatric variables. Housing status was recorded over 2 years. Participants were interested in housing, although a sizable minority did not believe they would be able to maintain abstinence-based housing. Only 23% of participants returned to homelessness during the 2-year follow-up. Commonly cited risk factors--alcohol and other drug use, illness burden, psychiatric symptoms, and homelessness history--did not predict resumed homelessness. Active drinkers were more likely to stay in this housing project than nondrinkers. We found that single-site Housing First programming fills a gap in housing options for chronically homeless people with severe alcohol problems.

  18. Single-Site Heterogeneous Catalysts: Innovations, Advantages, and Future Potential in Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Robert; Thomas, John Meurig

    The advantages that flow from the availability of single-site heterogeneous catalysts are many. They facilitate the determination of the kinetics and mechanism of catalytic turnover and render accessible the energetics of various intermediates. More importantly, it is possible to prepare soluble molecular fragments that circumscribe the single site, thus enabling a direct comparison to be made between the catalytic performance of the same active site when functioning as a heterogeneous or a homogeneous catalyst. Our approach adopts the principles and practices of solid-state chemistry, augmented by lessons derived from enzymology, as well as computational chemistry. We have succeeded in designing a range of new catalysts to effect, inter alia, shape-selective, regioselective, bifunctional, and enantioselective catalytic conversions. In particular, large fractions of these catalysts are ideally suited for the era of clean technology in which single-step and/or solvent-free processes abound, and in which benign oxidants such as air or oxygen and inexpensive nanoporous materials are employed.

  19. Housing Retention in Single-Site Housing First for Chronically Homeless Individuals With Severe Alcohol Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Daniel K.; Clifasefi, Seema L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We studied housing retention and its predictors in the single-site Housing First model. Methods. Participants (n = 111) were chronically homeless people with severe alcohol problems who lived in a single-site Housing First program and participated in a larger nonrandomized controlled trial (2005–2008) conducted in Seattle, Washington. At baseline, participants responded to self-report questionnaires assessing demographic, illness burden, alcohol and other drug use, and psychiatric variables. Housing status was recorded over 2 years. Results. Participants were interested in housing, although a sizable minority did not believe they would be able to maintain abstinence-based housing. Only 23% of participants returned to homelessness during the 2-year follow-up. Commonly cited risk factors—alcohol and other drug use, illness burden, psychiatric symptoms, and homelessness history—did not predict resumed homelessness. Active drinkers were more likely to stay in this housing project than nondrinkers. Conclusions. We found that single-site Housing First programming fills a gap in housing options for chronically homeless people with severe alcohol problems. PMID:24148063

  20. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X.; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C.; Lin, Wenbin (UC)

    2016-08-30

    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C–H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.

  1. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-08-30

    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C-H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.

  2. Sintering-resistant Single-Site Nickel Catalyst Supported by Metal-Organic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhanyong; Schweitzer, Neil; League, Aaron; Bernales Candia, Sandra Varinia; Peters, Aaron; Getsoian, Andrew G.; Wang, Timothy; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John L.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Gagliardi, Laura; Hupp, Joseph; Farha, Omar

    2016-02-17

    Developing supported single-site catalysts is an important goal in heterogeneous catalysis, since the well-defined active sites afford opportunities for detailed mechanistic studies, thereby facilitating the design of improved catalysts. We present herein a method for installing Ni ions uniformly and precisely on the node of a Zr-based MOF, NU-1000, in high density and large quantity (denoted as Ni-AIM) using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a metal–organic framework (MOF) (AIM). Ni-AIM is demonstrated to be an efficient gas-phase hydrogenation catalyst upon activation. The structure of the active sites in Ni-AIM is proposed, revealing its single-site nature. More importantly, due to the organic linker used to construct the MOF support, the Ni ions stay isolated throughout the hydrogenation catalysis, in accord with its long-term stability. A quantum chemical characterization of the catalyst and the catalytic process complements the experimental results. With validation of computational modeling protocols, we further targeted ethylene oligomerization catalysis by Ni-AIM guided by theoretical prediction. Given the generality of the AIM methodology, this emerging class of materials should prove ripe for the discovery of new catalysts for the transformation of volatile substrates.

  3. Sintering-Resistant Single-Site Nickel Catalyst Supported by Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanyong; Schweitzer, Neil M; League, Aaron B; Bernales, Varinia; Peters, Aaron W; Getsoian, Andrew Bean; Wang, Timothy C; Miller, Jeffrey T; Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John L; Lercher, Johannes A; Cramer, Christopher J; Gagliardi, Laura; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2016-02-17

    Developing supported single-site catalysts is an important goal in heterogeneous catalysis since the well-defined active sites afford opportunities for detailed mechanistic studies, thereby facilitating the design of improved catalysts. We present herein a method for installing Ni ions uniformly and precisely on the node of a Zr-based metal-organic framework (MOF), NU-1000, in high density and large quantity (denoted as Ni-AIM) using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a MOF (AIM). Ni-AIM is demonstrated to be an efficient gas-phase hydrogenation catalyst upon activation. The structure of the active sites in Ni-AIM is proposed, revealing its single-site nature. More importantly, due to the organic linker used to construct the MOF support, the Ni ions stay isolated throughout the hydrogenation catalysis, in accord with its long-term stability. A quantum chemical characterization of the catalyst and the catalytic process complements the experimental results. With validation of computational modeling protocols, we further targeted ethylene oligomerization catalysis by Ni-AIM guided by theoretical prediction. Given the generality of the AIM methodology, this emerging class of materials should prove ripe for the discovery of new catalysts for the transformation of volatile substrates.

  4. Single-Base Pair Genome Editing in Human Cells by Using Site-Specific Endonucleases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ochiai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with human diseases or phenotypes. However, causal relationships between most SNPs and the associated disease have not been established, owing to technical challenges such as unavailability of suitable cell lines. Recently, efficient editing of a single base pair in the genome was achieved using programmable site-specific nucleases. This technique enables experimental confirmation of the causality between SNPs and disease, and is potentially valuable in clinical applications. In this review, I introduce the molecular basis and describe examples of single-base pair editing in human cells. I also discuss the challenges associated with the technique, as well as possible solutions.

  5. Site-Specific SERS Assay for Survivin Protein Dimer: From Ensemble Experiments to Correlative Single-Particle Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissler, Jörg; Bäcker, Sandra; Feis, Alessandro; Knauer, Shirley K; Schlücker, Sebastian

    2017-08-01

    An assay for Survivin, a small dimeric protein which functions as modulator of apoptosis and cell division and serves as a promising diagnostic biomarker for different types of cancer, is presented. The assay is based on switching on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) upon incubation of the Survivin protein dimer with Raman reporter-labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNP). Site-specificity is achieved by complexation of nickel-chelated N-nitrilo-triacetic acid (Ni-NTA) anchors on the particle surface by multiple histidines (His 6 -tag) attached to each C-terminus of the centrosymmetric protein dimer. Correlative single-particle analysis using light sheet laser microscopy enables the simultaneous observation of both elastic and inelastic light scattering from the same sample volume. Thereby, the SERS-inactive AuNP-protein monomers can be directly discriminated from the SERS-active AuNP-protein dimers/oligomers. This information, i.e. the percentage of SERS-active AuNP in colloidal suspension, is not accessible from conventional SERS experiments due to ensemble averaging. The presented correlative single-particle approach paves the way for quantitative site-specific SERS assays in which site-specific protein recognition by small chemical and in particular supramolecular ligands can be tested. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Variation of Static-PPP Positioning Accuracy Using GPS-Single Frequency Observations (Aswan, Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ashraf

    2017-06-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a technique used for position computation with a high accuracy using only one GNSS receiver. It depends on highly accurate satellite position and clock data rather than broadcast ephemeries. PPP precision varies based on positioning technique (static or kinematic), observations type (single or dual frequency) and the duration of collected observations. PPP-(dual frequency receivers) offers comparable accuracy to differential GPS. PPP-single frequency receivers has many applications such as infrastructure, hydrography and precision agriculture. PPP using low cost GPS single-frequency receivers is an area of great interest for millions of users in developing countries such as Egypt. This research presents a study for the variability of single frequency static GPS-PPP precision based on different observation durations.

  7. Ligand-tailored single-site silica supported titanium catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and towards cyanosilylation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yani; Yu, Bo; Yang, Jindou; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang, E-mail: gfzhang@snnu.edu.cn; Gao, Ziwei, E-mail: zwgao@snnu.edu.cn

    2015-01-15

    A successive anchoring of Ti(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4}, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on silica was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The silica, monitored by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FT-IR), was pretreated at different temperatures (200, 500 and 800 °C). The ligand tailored silica-supported titanium complexes were characterized by in-situ FT-IR, {sup 13}C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface titanium species are single sited. The catalytic activity of the ligand tailored single-site silica supported titanium complexes was evaluated by a cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the dehydroxylation temperatures of silica and the configuration of the ligands. - Graphical abstract: The ligand-tailored silica supported “single site” titanium complexes were synthesized by SOMC strategy and fully characterized. Their catalytic activity were evaluated by benzaldehyde silylcyanation. - Highlights: • Single-site silica supported Ti active species was prepared by SOMC technique. • O-donor ligand tailored Ti surface species was synthesized. • The surface species was characterized by XPS, {sup 13}C CP-MAS NMR, XANES etc. • Catalytic activity of the Ti active species in silylcyanation reaction was evaluated.

  8. Clinical evaluation of implant survival based on size and site of placement: A retrospective study of immediate implants at single rooted teeth sites

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalingam, Sundar; Al-Hindi, Maryam; Al-Eid, Raniah Abdullah; Nooh, Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This retrospective clinical study sought to evaluate the survival of immediate implants placed at maxillary and mandibular single-rooted tooth extraction sites and to determine the relationship among implant size, placement site, and implant survival. Methods: Between January 2010 and June 2011, 85 patients (33 males, 52 females; mean age: 45 years) underwent immediate implant placement after extraction of single-rooted teeth. All implants were restored between 12 and 14 weeks ...

  9. Principal component analysis of reference sites used for calibration and validation of Earth observation satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Joaquin; Ferrero, Alejandro; Woolliams, Emma; Greenwell, Claire; Bialek, Agnieszka; Hernanz, Luisa; Pons, Alicia

    2018-02-01

    Determining reflectance factor and its variability across reference sites for Earth observation satellites is a problem involving large amounts of data and measurement time. Principal component analysis (PCA) may be used to simplify this problem by reducing the size of the data and by highlighting spectral features that could be related to physical phenomena. This work presents the results obtained in applying PCA to two reference sites for calibration and validation of Earth observation satellites located at La Crau (France) and Gobabeb (Namibia), respectively.

  10. Novel reference site approach to prototyping, calibrating, and validating Earth observation data and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaepman, M. E.; Morsdorf, F.; Leiterer, R.; Pfeifer, N.; Hollaus, M.; Disney, M.; Lewis, P.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.; Brazile, J.; Koetz, B.

    2012-12-01

    Much of global change is driven by feedback mechanisms taking place at spatial and temporal scales that are smaller than those currently incorporated in models. This severely limits our ability to predict, mitigate and adapt to environmental change at local and regional scales. Ideally, global modelling, reference sites and data will gradually converge to spatial and temporal scales where processes at their characteristic length scale can be compared, Ultimately; scale invariant observations and products would be the goal. But because of the inherent nature of a changing environment, spatio-temporal homogeneity of reference sites will remain a main concern. Globally distributed sites with naturally changing homogeneity and biome cover are of fundamental importance to understand potential bias errors in retrieval algorithms, amongst other benefits. We propose a new site concept using a highly detailed description of vegetation based on terrestrial and airborne laser scanning, extensive optical properties measurements as well as airborne imaging spectrometer data acquisition in combination with both, 1D and 3D radiative transfer models. Effects of horizontal and vertical heterogeneities and asymmetrical structure of vegetation and high temporal dynamics can be simulated and used in algorithm development, calibration and validation procedures. The approach allows comparison with heritage algorithms and products, and will support estimates of scale invariance for all spatial, spectral, and temporal dimensions. The site design is further using standards, allowing stage 1 & 2 validation according to CEOS/LPV (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites/ Land Product Validation Subgroup) recommendations as well as supporting the Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO) of the ESA/CEOS Cal/Val initiative. We demonstrate feasibility of the approach using the 'Laegeren' site (temperate deciduous forest, with dominant beech trees; 47°28'42.0" N; 8°21'51.8" E

  11. Single site porphyrine-like structures advantages over metals for selective electrochemical CO2 reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Alexander; Ju, Wen; Varela, Ana Sofia

    2017-01-01

    the competing Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER). The single metal site in a porphyrine-like structure requires an ontop site binding of hydrogen, compared to the hollow site binding of hydrogen on a metal catalyst surface. The difference in binding site structure gives a fundamental energy-shift in the scaling......Currently, no catalysts are completely selective for the electrochemical CO2 Reduction Reaction (CO2RR). Based on trends in density functional theory calculations of reaction intermediates we find that the single metal site in a porphyrine-like structure has a simple advantage of limiting...

  12. A stable rhodium single-site catalyst encapsulated within dendritic mesoporous nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Yang, Dali; Wen, Jianguo; Filatov, Alexander S; Liu, Yuzi; Lei, Aiwen; Lin, Xiao-Min

    2018-01-18

    Catalysis plays an essential role in the modern chemical industry. However, it still remains a great challenge to improve the efficiency of many heterogeneous catalysts based on a per metal atom basis. Single-site catalysts (SsCs) with isolated metal atoms/ions anchored to the supports are thus highly desirable, providing an innovative solution towards highly efficient usage of precious metal atoms in heterogeneous catalysts. Creating SsCs with high metal loading proves to be challenging because, without robust anchoring, atoms tend to diffuse to form large aggregates during catalytic reactions. We report a facile ligand exchange method to anchor a single-site Rh catalyst inside the individual channels of three-dimensional dendritic mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSNSs). The short porous channels inside MSNSs provide an easy access of reactants and the strong binding of the ligand prevents the aggregation of catalyst sites. The as-synthesized Rh 1 @MSNS-NH 2 catalyst shows excellent activity, stability and reusability in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The same catalyst shows high regioselectivity in the hydrosilylation of terminal alkynes to yield α-vinylsilanes through the Markovnikov addition.

  13. Reactivity of a Carbon-Supported Single-Site Molybdenum Dioxo Catalyst for Biodiesel Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouat, Aidan R.; Lohr, Tracy L.; Wegener, Evan C.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Delferro, Massimiliano; Stair, Peter C.; Marks, Tobin J.

    2016-08-23

    A single-site molybdenum dioxo catalyst, (Oc)2Mo(=O)2@C, was prepared via direct grafting of MoO2Cl2(dme) (dme = 1,2-dimethoxyethane) on high-surface- area activated carbon. The physicochemical and chemical properties of this catalyst were fully characterized by N2 physisorption, ICP-AES/OES, PXRD, STEM, XPS, XAS, temperature-programmed reduction with H2 (TPR-H2), and temperature-programmed NH3 desorption (TPD-NH3). The single-site nature of the Mo species is corroborated by XPS and TPR-H2 data, and it exhibits the lowest reported MoOx Tmax of reduction reported to date, suggesting a highly reactive MoVI center. (Oc)2Mo(=O)2@C catalyzes the transesterification of a variety of esters and triglycerides with ethanol, exhibiting high activity at moderate temperatures (60-90 °C) and with negligible deactivation. (Oc)2Mo(=O)2@C is resistant to water and can be recycled at least three times with no loss of activity. The transesterification reaction is determined experimentally to be first order in [ethanol] and first order in [Mo] with ΔH = 10.5(8) kcal mol-1 and ΔS = -32(2) eu. The low energy of activation is consistent with the moderate conditions needed to achieve rapid turnover. This highly active carbon-supported single-site molybdenum dioxo species is thus an efficient, robust, and lowcost catalyst with significant potential for transesterification processes.

  14. Direct in situ observations of single Fe atom catalytic processes and anomalous diffusion at graphene edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiong; Deng, Qingming; Avdoshenko, Stanislav M.; Fu, Lei; Eckert, Jürgen; Rümmeli, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Single-atom catalysts are of great interest because of their high efficiency. In the case of chemically deposited sp2 carbon, the implementation of a single transition metal atom for growth can provide crucial insight into the formation mechanisms of graphene and carbon nanotubes. This knowledge is particularly important if we are to overcome fabrication difficulties in these materials and fully take advantage of their distinct band structures and physical properties. In this work, we present atomically resolved transmission EM in situ investigations of single Fe atoms at graphene edges. Our in situ observations show individual iron atoms diffusing along an edge either removing or adding carbon atoms (viz., catalytic action). The experimental observations of the catalytic behavior of a single Fe atom are in excellent agreement with supporting theoretical studies. In addition, the kinetics of Fe atoms at graphene edges are shown to exhibit anomalous diffusion, which again, is in agreement with our theoretical investigations. PMID:25331874

  15. Observations on flowering plants in north central Florida that might serve as nectar sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observations were made on the seasonal phenology of flowering plants along SR24 between Gainesville and Cedar Key, FL, for a period of 1 yr. The objective was to document the seasonality, species composition and relative abundance of flowering plants that might be available as nectar sites for mosq...

  16. Left Transperitoneal Adrenalectomy with a Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery Combined Technique: Initial Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Sumino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS is a step toward the development of minimally invasive surgery. It is initially difficult for surgeons with limited experience to perform the surgery. We describe two cases of left adrenalectomy with a LESS combined with the addition of an accessory port. After a 2.5-cm skin incision was made at the level of the paraumbilicus to insert the primary 12-mm trocar for the laparoscope, a 5-mm nonbladed trocar was placed through the skin incision side-by-side with the primary trocar. A second 3-mm nonbladed trocar was then placed along the anterior axillary line; a multichannel trocar was not used as a single port. Both adrenalectomies were completed successfully. In patients with a minor adrenal tumor, a combined technique using LESS and an additional port is easier than LESS alone and may, therefore, be a bridge between the conventional laparoscopic approach and LESS.

  17. Ligand-tailored single-site silica supported titanium catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and towards cyanosilylation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yani; Yu, Bo; Yang, Jindou; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    A successive anchoring of Ti(NMe2)4, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1‧-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on silica was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The silica, monitored by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FT-IR), was pretreated at different temperatures (200, 500 and 800 °C). The ligand tailored silica-supported titanium complexes were characterized by in-situ FT-IR, 13C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface titanium species are single sited. The catalytic activity of the ligand tailored single-site silica supported titanium complexes was evaluated by a cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the dehydroxylation temperatures of silica and the configuration of the ligands.

  18. Iodine monoxide at a clean marine coastal site: observations of high frequency variations and inhomogeneous distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Commane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The first in situ point observations of iodine monoxide (IO at a clean marine site were made using a laser-induced fluorescence instrument deployed at Mace Head, Ireland in August 2007. IO mixing ratios of up to 49.8 pptv (equivalent to pmol mol−1; 1 s average were observed at day-time low tide, well in excess of previous observed spatially-averaged maxima. A strong anti-correlation of IO mixing ratios with tide height was evident and the high time resolution of the observations showed IO peaked in the hour after low tide. The temporal delay in peak IO compared to low tide has not been observed previously but coincides with the time of peak aerosol number previously observed at Mace Head.

    A long path-differential optical absorption spectroscopy instrument (with a 2 × 6.8 km folded path across Roundstone Bay was also based at the site for 3 days during the point measurement observation period. Both instruments show similar temporal trends but the point measurements of IO are a factor of ~6–10 times greater than the spatially averaged IO mixing ratios, providing direct empirical evidence of the presence of inhomogeneities in the IO mixing ratio near the intertidal region.

  19. Single-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts. Synthesis, characterization and toward cyanosilylation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wei; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ligand-modified signal-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts were synthesized by SOMC method and characterized by a variety of techniques. The zirconium surface complexes show high catalytic efficiency for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Highlights: • Some Zr active species have been anchored on the surface of SBA-15 by SOMC technique. • The structures of the Zr species have been characterized by a variety of techniques. • The anchored Zr species are single-sited surface complexes. • The Zr surface complexes are catalytic active for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Abstract: A successive anchoring of Zr(NMe 2 ) 4 , cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on dehydroxylated SBA-15 pretreated at 500 °C for 16 h (SBA-15 -500 ) was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The dehydoxylation of SBA-15 was monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situ FT-IR). The ligand-modified SBA-15 -500 supported zirconium complexes were characterized by in situ FT-IR, 13 C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MAS) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface zirconium species are single-sited. The catalytic activity of these complexes was evaluated by cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the structure of surface species and the configuration of the ligands

  20. Single-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts. Synthesis, characterization and toward cyanosilylation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang, E-mail: gfzhang@snnu.edu.cn; Gao, Ziwei, E-mail: zwgao@snnu.edu.cn

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Ligand-modified signal-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts were synthesized by SOMC method and characterized by a variety of techniques. The zirconium surface complexes show high catalytic efficiency for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Highlights: • Some Zr active species have been anchored on the surface of SBA-15 by SOMC technique. • The structures of the Zr species have been characterized by a variety of techniques. • The anchored Zr species are single-sited surface complexes. • The Zr surface complexes are catalytic active for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Abstract: A successive anchoring of Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4}, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on dehydroxylated SBA-15 pretreated at 500 °C for 16 h (SBA-15{sub -500}) was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The dehydoxylation of SBA-15 was monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situ FT-IR). The ligand-modified SBA-15{sub -500} supported zirconium complexes were characterized by in situ FT-IR, {sup 13}C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MAS) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface zirconium species are single-sited. The catalytic activity of these complexes was evaluated by cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the structure of surface species and the configuration of the ligands.

  1. Ground state properties of a spin chain within Heisenberg model with a single lacking spin site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mebrouki, M.

    2011-01-01

    The ground state and first excited state energies of an antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain with and without a single lacking spin site are computed using exact diagonalization method, within the Heisenberg model. In order to keep both parts of a spin chain with a lacking site connected, next nearest neighbors interactions are then introduced. Also, the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) method is used, to investigate ground state energies of large system sizes; which permits us to inquire about the effect of large system sizes on energies. Other quantum quantities such as fidelity and correlation functions are also studied and compared in both cases. - Research highlights: → In this paper we compute ground state and first excited state energies of a spin chain with and without a lacking spin site. The next nearest neighbors are introduced with the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-half. → Exact diagonalization is used for small systems, where DMRG method is used to compute energies for large systems. Other quantities like quantum fidelity and correlation are also computed. → Results are presented in figures with comments. → E 0 /N is computed in a function of N for several values of J 2 and for both systems. First excited energies are also investigated.

  2. Compact teleoperated laparoendoscopic single-site robotic surgical system: Kinematics, control, and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Lowry, Oran Jacob; Okamoto, Steele; Pedram, Sahba Aghajani; Woo, Russell; Berkelman, Peter

    2017-12-01

    To date a variety of teleoperated surgical robotic systems have been developed to improve a surgeon's ability to perform demanding single-port procedures. However typical large systems are bulky, expensive, and afford limited angular motion, while smaller designs suffer complications arising from limited motion range, speed, and force generation. This work was to develop and validate a simple, compact, low cost single site teleoperated laparoendoscopic surgical robotic system, with demonstrated capability to carry out basic surgical procedures. This system builds upon previous work done at the University of Hawaii at Manoa and includes instrument and endoscope manipulators as well as compact articulated instruments designed to overcome single incision geometry complications. A robotic endoscope holder was used for the base, with an added support frame for teleoperated manipulators and instruments fabricated mostly from 3D printed parts. Kinematics and control methods were formulated for the novel manipulator configuration. Trajectory following results from an optical motion tracker and sample task performance results are presented. Results indicate that the system has successfully met the goal of basic surgical functionality while minimizing physical size, complexity, and cost. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG): Recent developments and a prospective observing site for robotic telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyaprak, C.; Yerli, S. K.; Keskin, O.

    2016-12-01

    This document (Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG) is the new observatory of Turkey with the optical and near-infrared largest telescope (4 m class) and its robust observing site infrastructure. This national project consists of three phases with DAG (Telescope, Enclosure, Buildings and Infrastructures), FPI (Focal Plane Instruments and Adaptive Optics) and MCP (Mirror Coating Plant) and is supported by the Ministry of Development of Turkey. The tenders of telescope and enclosure have been made and almost all the infrastructure (roads, geological and atmospherical surveys, electricity, fiber optics, cable car, water, generator, etc.) of DAG site (Erzurum/Turkey, 3,170 m altitude) have been completed. This poster is about the recent developments of DAG and about the future possible collaborations for various robotic telescopes which can be set up in DAG site.

  4. Observation of self-pulsing in singly resonant optical second-harmonic generation with competing nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Lodahl, Peter; Mamaev, Alexander V.

    2002-01-01

    We predict and experimentally observe temporal self-pulsing in singly resonant intracavity second-harmonic generation under conditions of simultaneous parametric oscillation. The threshold for self-pulsing as a function of cavity tuning and phase mismatch are found from analysis of a three-compon...

  5. Observation and applications of single-electron charge signals in the XENON100 experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aprile, E.; et al., [Unknown; Alfonsi, M.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    The XENON100 dark matter experiment uses liquid xenon in a time projection chamber (TPC) to measure xenon nuclear recoils resulting from the scattering of dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). In this paper, we report the observation of single-electron charge signals which are

  6. A comparison of single- and multi-site calibration and validation: a case study of SWAT in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianwen; Shen, Zhenyao; Yan, Tiezhu

    2017-09-01

    An essential task in evaluating global water resource and pollution problems is to obtain the optimum set of parameters in hydrological models through calibration and validation. For a large-scale watershed, single-site calibration and validation may ignore spatial heterogeneity and may not meet the needs of the entire watershed. The goal of this study is to apply a multi-site calibration and validation of the Soil andWater Assessment Tool (SWAT), using the observed flow data at three monitoring sites within the Baihe watershed of the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China. Our results indicate that the multi-site calibration parameter values are more reasonable than those obtained from single-site calibrations. These results are mainly due to significant differences in the topographic factors over the large-scale area, human activities and climate variability. The multi-site method involves the division of the large watershed into smaller watersheds, and applying the calibrated parameters of the multi-site calibration to the entire watershed. It was anticipated that this case study could provide experience of multi-site calibration in a large-scale basin, and provide a good foundation for the simulation of other pollutants in followup work in the Miyun Reservoir watershed and other similar large areas.

  7. Intraoperative endoscopic observation of sclerotomy site after cannula removal for 23-gauge vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikichi T

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taiichi Hikichi, Hirokuni Kitamei, Shoko Kosaka, Shoko Shioya, Kimitaka Takami Ohtsuka Eye Hospital, Sapporo, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of vitreous incarceration in sclerotomy after cannula removal during 23-gauge vitrectomy. Methods: Thirty-seven eyes underwent 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy. Oblique sclerotomies were made parallel to the limbus and tangentially to the sclera. Once past the trocar sleeve, the angle was changed to 90 degrees perpendicular to the surface and the trocar and cannula inserted. Vitreous gel was removed until the intraocular edge of the infusion cannula was free from the gel. The cannula was extracted with insertion of a light probe. The sclerotomy site was evaluated endoscopically through another cannula in 32 eyes; in five eyes, another infusion tube was inserted into the cannula to maintain intraocular pressure, the original infusion was removed, and the sclerotomy site observed. Results: No vitreous incarceration occurred in 30 (94% eyes when one cannula was removed with insertion of a light probe, and minimal incarceration occurred in two (6% eyes. No incarceration occurred in five eyes with observation of the infusion site. Conclusion: The incidence of vitreous incarceration is low when a light probe or vitreous cutter is inserted. Inserting the light probe through the cannula during its removal and creating an oblique sclerotomy may reduce vitreous incarceration. Keywords: cannula, endoscopy, sclerotomy site, trocar, 23-gauge vitrectomy

  8. Spectroscopic characterization of a green copper site in a single-domain cupredoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Magali; Biaso, Frédéric; Castelle, Cindy J; Bauzan, Marielle; Chaspoul, Florence; Lojou, Elisabeth; Sciara, Giuliano; Caffarri, Stefano; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Ilbert, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Cupredoxins are widespread copper-binding proteins, mainly involved in electron transfer pathways. They display a typical rigid greek key motif consisting of an eight stranded β-sandwich. A fascinating feature of cupredoxins is the natural diversity of their copper center geometry. These geometry variations give rise to drastic changes in their color, such as blue, green, red or purple. Based on several spectroscopic and structural analyses, a connection between the geometry of their copper-binding site and their color has been proposed. However, little is known about the relationship between such diversity of copper center geometry in cupredoxins and possible implications for function. This has been difficult to assess, as only a few naturally occurring green and red copper sites have been described so far. We report herein the spectrocopic characterization of a novel kind of single domain cupredoxin of green color, involved in a respiratory pathway of the acidophilic organism Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization coupled to bioinformatics analysis reveal the existence of some unusual features for this novel member of the green cupredoxin sub-family. This protein has the highest redox potential reported to date for a green-type cupredoxin. It has a constrained green copper site insensitive to pH or temperature variations. It is a green-type cupredoxin found for the first time in a respiratory pathway. These unique properties might be explained by a region of unknown function never found in other cupredoxins, and by an unusual length of the loop between the second and the fourth copper ligands. These discoveries will impact our knowledge on non-engineered green copper sites, whose involvement in respiratory chains seems more widespread than initially thought.

  9. Spectroscopic characterization of a green copper site in a single-domain cupredoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Roger

    Full Text Available Cupredoxins are widespread copper-binding proteins, mainly involved in electron transfer pathways. They display a typical rigid greek key motif consisting of an eight stranded β-sandwich. A fascinating feature of cupredoxins is the natural diversity of their copper center geometry. These geometry variations give rise to drastic changes in their color, such as blue, green, red or purple. Based on several spectroscopic and structural analyses, a connection between the geometry of their copper-binding site and their color has been proposed. However, little is known about the relationship between such diversity of copper center geometry in cupredoxins and possible implications for function. This has been difficult to assess, as only a few naturally occurring green and red copper sites have been described so far. We report herein the spectrocopic characterization of a novel kind of single domain cupredoxin of green color, involved in a respiratory pathway of the acidophilic organism Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization coupled to bioinformatics analysis reveal the existence of some unusual features for this novel member of the green cupredoxin sub-family. This protein has the highest redox potential reported to date for a green-type cupredoxin. It has a constrained green copper site insensitive to pH or temperature variations. It is a green-type cupredoxin found for the first time in a respiratory pathway. These unique properties might be explained by a region of unknown function never found in other cupredoxins, and by an unusual length of the loop between the second and the fourth copper ligands. These discoveries will impact our knowledge on non-engineered green copper sites, whose involvement in respiratory chains seems more widespread than initially thought.

  10. Catalysis by Design: Well-Defined Single-Site Heterogeneous Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Pelletier, Jeremie

    2016-03-09

    ConspectusHeterogeneous catalysis, a field important industrially and scientifically, is increasingly seeking and refining strategies to render itself more predictable. The main issue is due to the nature and the population of catalytically active sites. Their number is generally low to very low, their "acid strengths" or " redox properties" are not homogeneous, and the material may display related yet inactive sites on the same material. In many heterogeneous catalysts, the discovery of a structure-activity reationship is at best challenging. One possible solution is to generate single-site catalysts in which most, if not all, of the sites are structurally identical. Within this context and using the right tools, the catalyst structure can be designed and well-defined, to reach a molecular understanding. It is then feasible to understand the structure-activity relationship and to develop predictable heterogeneous catalysis. Single-site well-defined heterogeneous catalysts can be prepared using concepts and tools of surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC). This approach operates by reacting organometallic compounds with surfaces of highly divided oxides (or of metal nanoparticles). This strategy has a solid track record to reveal structure-activity relationship to the extent that it is becoming now quite predictable. Almost all elements of the periodical table have been grafted on surfaces of oxides (from simple oxides such as silica or alumina to more sophisticated materials regarding composition or porosity).Considering catalytic hydrocarbon transformations, heterogeneous catalysis outcome may now be predicted based on existing mechanistic proposals and the rules of molecular chemistry (organometallic, organic) associated with some concepts of surface sciences. A thorough characterization of the grafted metal centers must be carried out using tools spanning from molecular organometallic or surface chemistry. By selection of the metal, its ligand set, and the

  11. Catalysis by Design: Well-Defined Single-Site Heterogeneous Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jérémie D A; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-04-19

    Heterogeneous catalysis, a field important industrially and scientifically, is increasingly seeking and refining strategies to render itself more predictable. The main issue is due to the nature and the population of catalytically active sites. Their number is generally low to very low, their "acid strengths" or " redox properties" are not homogeneous, and the material may display related yet inactive sites on the same material. In many heterogeneous catalysts, the discovery of a structure-activity reationship is at best challenging. One possible solution is to generate single-site catalysts in which most, if not all, of the sites are structurally identical. Within this context and using the right tools, the catalyst structure can be designed and well-defined, to reach a molecular understanding. It is then feasible to understand the structure-activity relationship and to develop predictable heterogeneous catalysis. Single-site well-defined heterogeneous catalysts can be prepared using concepts and tools of surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC). This approach operates by reacting organometallic compounds with surfaces of highly divided oxides (or of metal nanoparticles). This strategy has a solid track record to reveal structure-activity relationship to the extent that it is becoming now quite predictable. Almost all elements of the periodical table have been grafted on surfaces of oxides (from simple oxides such as silica or alumina to more sophisticated materials regarding composition or porosity). Considering catalytic hydrocarbon transformations, heterogeneous catalysis outcome may now be predicted based on existing mechanistic proposals and the rules of molecular chemistry (organometallic, organic) associated with some concepts of surface sciences. A thorough characterization of the grafted metal centers must be carried out using tools spanning from molecular organometallic or surface chemistry. By selection of the metal, its ligand set, and the support taken

  12. Single-site ventricular pacing via the coronary sinus in patients with tricuspid valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noheria, Amit; van Zyl, Martin; Scott, Luis R; Srivathsan, Komandoor; Madhavan, Malini; Asirvatham, Samuel J; McLeod, Christopher J

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate coronary sinus single-site (CSSS) left ventricular pacing in adult patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) when traditional right ventricular lead implantation is not feasible or is contraindicated. We performed a retrospective analysis of 23 patients with tricuspid valve surgery/disease who received a CSSS ventricular pacing lead to avoid crossing the tricuspid valve. Two matched control populations were obtained from patients receiving (i) conventional right ventricular single-site (RVSS) leads and (ii) coronary sinus leads for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CSCRT). Main outcomes of interest were lead stability, electrical lead parameters and change in LVEF during long-term follow-up. Successful CSSS pacing was accomplished in all 23 patients without any procedural complications. During the 5.3 ± 2.8-year follow-up 22/23 (95.7%) leads were functional with stable pacing and sensing parameters, and 1/23 (4.3%) was extracted for unrelated reasons. Compared to CSSS leads, the lead revision/abandonment was similar with RVSS leads (Hazard ratio (HR) 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03, 22.0), but was higher with CSCRT leads (HR 7.41, 95% CI 1.30, 139.0). There was no difference in change in LVEF between CSSS and RVSS groups (-2.4 ± 11.0 vs. 1.5 ± 12.8, P = 0.76), but LVEF improved in CSCRT group (11.2 ± 16.5%, P = 0.002). Fluoroscopy times were longer during implantation of CSSS compared to RVSS leads (25.6 ± 24.6 min vs. 12.3 ± 18.6 min, P = 0.049). In patients with normal LVEF, single-site ventricular pacing via the coronary sinus is a feasible, safe and reliable alternative to right ventricular pacing. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. An extended set-value observer for position estimation using single range measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcal, Jose; Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.

    the observability of the system is briefly discussed and an extended set-valued observer is presented, with some discussion about the effect of the measurements noise on the final solution. This observer estimates bounds in the errors assuming that the exogenous signals are bounded, providing a safe region......The ability of estimating the position of an underwater vehicle from single range measurements is important in applications where one transducer marks an important geographical point, when there is a limitation in the size or cost of the vehicle, or when there is a failure in a system...

  14. Siting analysis and risk assessment for small single-purpose heating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarjanne, R.

    1979-04-01

    Two alternative sites both 10km away from the centre of Helsinki are considered for reactor unit sizes of 400mw and 800mw. The risks associated with a small single-purpose heating reactor is evaluated for normal operation and accident conditions. The evaluation for accident condition is performed for three characteristics accidents. Three pathways are considered in the calculation of the radiation exposure: direct external gamma dose from the release plume, direct gamma radiation from deposited activity on the ground and dose due to inhalation. The risks are compared with the risks from alternative conventional fossil fuelled district heat production methods. The results show that the heating reactor alternative causes an unsignificant risk, which is far less than the risk caused by the fossil-fuelled alternatives

  15. Management of gallbladder duplication using a single-site robotic-assisted approach: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Melanie Adams; Kaplin, Aviva Wallace; Kushnir, Leon; Montero-Pearson, Per

    2016-06-01

    Gallbladder duplication is a rare congenital anomaly. Here, we describe a 29-year-old female who presents with classic symptoms of biliary colic. A duplicated gallbladder was recognized on preoperative ultrasound. This case report reviews a single-site robotic-assisted cholecystectomy with a cystic duct duplication. The patient underwent the surgery without complication. Due to the aberrant anatomy of the cystic triangle, it was decided to mobilize the gallbladder in a dome-down fashion. True gallbladder duplication can be categorized according to cystic duct orientation based on Boyden's classification. Preoperative diagnosis is essential to prevent surgical complications. A laparoscopic approach can be carried out safely in the hands of a skilled surgeon. This case report shows that the robotic-assisted surgical approach is a viable and safe alternative.

  16. Patients' perceptions of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery: the cosmetic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkar, Farhaad C; Ross, Sharona B; Sperry, Steffanie; Vice, Michelle; Luberice, Kenneth; Donn, Natalie; Morton, Connor; Hernandez, Jonathan M; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2012-11-01

    Laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery can be performed without apparent scarring, while maintaining the salutary benefits of conventional laparoscopic surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare patients' preoperative and postoperative perceptions of LESS surgery. Before and after undergoing LESS surgery, 120 patients were given questionnaires; their responses were assimilated and analyzed. Of 120 patients, 62% were female (age, 52 ± 16.6 y), and 54% had prior abdominal surgery. Preoperatively, women and older patients reported heightened appearance dissatisfaction. Preoperatively, most patients would not accept more risk, pain, surgery/recovery times, and/or costs than associated with standard laparoscopy. Postoperatively, patients reported increased satisfaction in their overall and abdominal region appearance. Satisfaction was noted by 92%; satisfaction was related significantly to scar appearance and cosmesis. Preoperatively, patients were most concerned with safety; postoperatively, patients' concerns shifted to cosmetic outcome. LESS surgery provides an opportunity for improved patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Observation of prompt single muon production by 400 GeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, K.W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The observation of prompt single muon production from 400 GeV protons interacting in an iron target is reported. The experiment used a variable-density calorimeter made of iron plates and plastic scintillator as a target, followed by a large-acceptance muon identifier and an iron toroidal spectrometer. Single muon and dimuon events were separated with good efficiency using the muon identifier, and the rate of prompt single muons was measured by varying the density of the target-calorimeter, thereby changing the relative rate of prompt and non-prompt single muon production. Prompt single muon signals were observed in two different kinematic regions-p/sub μ/ 1 GeV/c and 10 GeV/c 0.5 GeV/c. Approximate equality was found between the prompt lμ - and prompt lμ - signal in the high p region (in the high p 1 region, only positive muons were accepted by the trigger). The observed cross section in both regions was approx. 70 nb/nucleon, assuming linear A dependence for the production of the prompt muons. Hadronic production of charmed particles was the most likely source of the prompt muons; other possible sources could not account for the large rates observed. Three different models for charm production-uncorrelated D production, correlated DD production, and diffractive production of Λ/sub c/ - D pairs-are compared to the data and used to calculate cross sections. Within the DD model, the range of kinematic parameters allowed by the data is determined and the corresponding range of cross sections is 20 to 70 μb/nucleon. The results of this experiment are compared with other experimental results and with theoretical predictions of charm production

  18. Insufficient joint forces of first-generation articulating instruments for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang Wook; Kim, Sung Hoon; Kim, Hyung Tae; Jeong, Seong Jin; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun

    2013-10-01

    The current articulating instruments used in laparoendoscopic single-site surgery do not appear to provide the joint forces required. Thus, we measured the joint forces of first-generation articulating laparoscopic instruments. To compare these forces with those necessary in the surgical context, we evaluated the forces sufficient to produce secure surgical ties in an animal model. The articulating instruments tested were Laparo-Angle (Cambridge Endoscopic Devices Inc, Framingham, MA), RealHand (Novare Surgical Systems Inc, Cupertino, CA), and Roticulator (Covidien Inc, Mansfield, MA). For each, we measured the angle between the end-effector and the shaft in proportion to the articulating force using a push-pull gauge. Two fixed-position configurations of the instruments were predetermined: the neutral and the fully articulated positions. The forces required to secure surgical ties for the ureter, renal artery, and renal vein were evaluated using kidneys harvested from a female pig. The bending forces required to bend from the neutral position to 30° were 5.6 ± 1.2 and 4.7 ± 1.0 N with the Laparo-Angle and RealHand, respectively. Furthermore, the slippage forces in the fully articulated state were 1.8 ± 0.3, 1.6 ± 0.2, and 1.5 ± 0.2 N in the above order. In contrast, the mean forces to produce surgical ties of the ureter, renal artery, and renal vein were 14.5 ± 2.3, 11.5 ± 0.8, and 10.3 ± 2.3 N, respectively. The joint forces of first-generation articulating instruments for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery are not sufficient to meet the usual operative needs. Improved articulating instruments with greater articulating forces should be developed.

  19. Conservative site-specific and single-copy transgenesis in human LINE-1 elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaya Chandra, Shree Harsha; Makhija, Harshyaa; Peter, Sabrina; Myint Wai, Cho Mar; Li, Jinming; Zhu, Jindong; Ren, Zhonglu; D'Alcontres, Martina Stagno; Siau, Jia Wei; Chee, Sharon; Ghadessy, Farid John; Dröge, Peter

    2016-04-07

    Genome engineering of human cells plays an important role in biotechnology and molecular medicine. In particular, insertions of functional multi-transgene cassettes into suitable endogenous sequences will lead to novel applications. Although several tools have been exploited in this context, safety issues such as cytotoxicity, insertional mutagenesis and off-target cleavage together with limitations in cargo size/expression often compromise utility. Phage λ integrase (Int) is a transgenesis tool that mediates conservative site-specific integration of 48 kb DNA into a safe harbor site of the bacterial genome. Here, we show that an Int variant precisely recombines large episomes into a sequence, term edattH4X, found in 1000 human Long INterspersed Elements-1 (LINE-1). We demonstrate single-copy transgenesis through attH4X-targeting in various cell lines including hESCs, with the flexibility of selecting clones according to transgene performance and downstream applications. This is exemplified with pluripotency reporter cassettes and constitutively expressed payloads that remain functional in LINE1-targeted hESCs and differentiated progenies. Furthermore, LINE-1 targeting does not induce DNA damage-response or chromosomal aberrations, and neither global nor localized endogenous gene expression is substantially affected. Hence, this simple transgene addition tool should become particularly useful for applications that require engineering of the human genome with multi-transgenes. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Mechanisms behind low-cloud optical depth response to temperature in ARM site observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Christopher; Zhang, Yunyan; Klein, Stephen; Zelinka, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Most state-of-the-art climate models predict the cloud optical depth increases with warming in the mid- and high-latitudes. Proposed mechanisms exist in the literature to support this increase in cloud optical depth, and the cloud processes driving the negative cloud feedback have been identified in several climate models. However, recent studies find that this negative cloud feedback in the mid- and high-latitudes is likely overestimated in climate models. For example, an analysis of satellite retrievals suggests that the optical depth of low-level clouds decreases with warming. Less attention has been placed on understanding the cloud processes that drive cloud optical depth changes in observations. In this study, we use ground-based observations from three mid- and high-latitude sites, managed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, to determine the mechanisms that drive cloud changes at those sites. We test whether there is evidence in the observations that support three mechanisms that have been proposed to drive a cloud optical depth response to warming. We test a) whether cloud liquid water content increases with warming following changes in the adiabatic lapse rate of the saturated water vapor, as determined by the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship, b) whether the change in phase-partitioning of clouds due to warming increase the optical depth by changing the cloud optical and microphysical properties and processes, and c) whether warming leads to a thinning of clouds by enhancing the drying efficiency of cloud top mixing. We find that although increases in cloud liquid content with warming is consistent with the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship at the one oceanic site, they do not hold over the two continental sites. We also find that the liquid-ice partitioning of total cloud water differs between sites and find evidence that increasing ice fraction leads to clouds with lower LWP. We also test whether the

  1. Important considerations related to the construction of observation wells in radiation facilities sites: A review research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S. A.; Salem, W. M.; Atta, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    Observation wells in radiation facility sites are considered the main sources of the required subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic data. They are the most important means to detect the radioactive and/or chemical contaminants within the ground water. Also, they are used to observe the groundwater level fluctuations and perform the different aquifer tests to understand the hydraulic properties of aquifers and the behavior of contaminants transportation. This research reviews the necessary considerations and available techniques for constructing the observation wells properly. The review process depends on the international guidelines presented in the literature and the field experience. The proper well completion is essential for the well efficiency and longevity. Three main important topics are considered and discussed briefly in this review. They are the preliminary considerations, the drilling program and the well protection procedures. The preliminary considerations included are the collection of the available geologic and hydrogeologic data and information, selection of drilling method and the legal requirements. The drilling program comprises the site preparation, drilling processes, sampling, well logging, well design, casing components and materials, gravel pack and well development. The well protection procedures include well grout, concrete slab and others requirements. Observation wells should be constructed to a high standard and should be properly maintained and protected to ensure ongoing and reliable data collection

  2. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in gynaecology: A new frontier in minimally invasive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fader Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Review Objective: To review the recent developments and published literature on laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS surgery in gynaecology. Recent Findings: Minimally invasive surgery has become a standard of care for the treatment of many benign and malignant gynaecological conditions. Recent advances in conventional laparoscopy and robotic-assisted surgery have favorably impacted the entire spectrum of gynaecological surgery. With the goal of improving morbidity and cosmesis, continued efforts towards refinement of laparoscopic techniques have lead to minimization of size and number of ports required for these procedures. LESS surgery is a recently proposed surgical term used to describe various techniques that aim at performing laparoscopic surgery through a single, small-skin incision concealed within the umbilicus. In the last 5 years, there has been a surge in the developments in surgical technology and techniques for LESS surgery, which have resulted in a significant increase in utilisation of LESS across many surgical subspecialties. Recently published outcomes data demonstrate feasibility, safety and reproducibility for LESS in gynaecology. The contemporary LESS literature, extent of gynaecological procedures utilising these techniques and limitations of current technology will be reviewed in this manuscript. Conclusions: LESS surgery represents the newest frontier in minimally invasive surgery. Comparative data and prospective trials are necessary in order to determine the clinical impact of LESS in treatment of gynaecological conditions.

  3. Single-molecule three-color FRET with both negligible spectral overlap and long observation time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghwa Lee

    Full Text Available Full understanding of complex biological interactions frequently requires multi-color detection capability in doing single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET experiments. Existing single-molecule three-color FRET techniques, however, suffer from severe photobleaching of Alexa 488, or its alternative dyes, and have been limitedly used for kinetics studies. In this work, we developed a single-molecule three-color FRET technique based on the Cy3-Cy5-Cy7 dye trio, thus providing enhanced observation time and improved data quality. Because the absorption spectra of three fluorophores are well separated, real-time monitoring of three FRET efficiencies was possible by incorporating the alternating laser excitation (ALEX technique both in confocal microscopy and in total-internal-reflection fluorescence (TIRF microscopy.

  4. Naked eye observations for morning twilight at different sites in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Hassan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Twilight observations were carried out in the period between 1984 and 1987 in different seasons at different sites of Egypt (Baharia, Matrouh, Kottamia and Aswan through a cooperation project between Dar El-Iftaa’ and the Egyptian Academy of Scientific Research and Technology. Naked eye observations of the first light of the dawn were done in parallel to the photoelectric measurements of the twilight phenomena. The depression of the sun below the horizon corresponding to the first light was calculated from the time of observations. Our estimates show that the normal eye can just discriminate the dawn (the first white light thread at a depression of 14.7° with a maximum value of 15.08° and a minimum value of 12.01°. This result agrees with result obtained by our previous photoelectric measurements.

  5. Naked eye observations for morning twilight at different sites in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, A. H.; Abdel-Hadi, Yasser A.; Issa, I. A.; Hassanin, N. Y.

    2014-06-01

    Twilight observations were carried out in the period between 1984 and 1987 in different seasons at different sites of Egypt (Baharia, Matrouh, Kottamia and Aswan) through a cooperation project between Dar El-Iftaa’ and the Egyptian Academy of Scientific Research and Technology. Naked eye observations of the first light of the dawn were done in parallel to the photoelectric measurements of the twilight phenomena. The depression of the sun below the horizon corresponding to the first light was calculated from the time of observations. Our estimates show that the normal eye can just discriminate the dawn (the first white light thread) at a depression of 14.7° with a maximum value of 15.08° and a minimum value of 12.01°. This result agrees with result obtained by our previous photoelectric measurements.

  6. Feasibility of Observing and Characterizing Single Ion Strikes in Microelectronic Components.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bufford, Daniel Charles [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The transient degradation of semiconductor device performance under irradiation has long been an issue of concern. A single high-energy charged particle can degrade or permanently destroy the microelectronic component, potentially altering the course or function of the systems. Disruption of the the crystalline structure through the introduction of quasi-stable defect structures can change properties from semiconductor to conductor. Typically, the initial defect formation phase is followed by a recovery phase in which defect-defect or defect-dopant interactions modify the characteristics of the damaged structure. In this LDRD Express, in-situ ion irradiation transmission microscopy (TEM) in-situ TEM experiments combined with atomistic simulations have been conducted to determine the feasibility of imaging and characterizing the defect structure resulting from a single cascade in silicon. In-situ TEM experiments have been conducted to demonstrate that a single ion strike can be observed in Si thin films with nanometer resolution in real time using the in-situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope (I3TEM). Parallel to this experimental effort, ion implantation has been numerically simulated using Molecular Dynamics (MD). This numerical framework provides detailed predictions of the damage and follow the evolution of the damage during the first nanoseconds. The experimental results demonstrate that single ion strike can be observed in prototypical semiconductors.

  7. Feasibility of Observing and Characterizing Single Ion Strikes in Microelectronic Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Bufford, Daniel Charles

    2015-01-01

    The transient degradation of semiconductor device performance under irradiation has long been an issue of concern. A single high-energy charged particle can degrade or permanently destroy the microelectronic component, potentially altering the course or function of the systems. Disruption of the the crystalline structure through the introduction of quasi-stable defect structures can change properties from semiconductor to conductor. Typically, the initial defect formation phase is followed by a recovery phase in which defect-defect or defect-dopant interactions modify the characteristics of the damaged structure. In this LDRD Express, in-situ ion irradiation transmission microscopy (TEM) in-situ TEM experiments combined with atomistic simulations have been conducted to determine the feasibility of imaging and characterizing the defect structure resulting from a single cascade in silicon. In-situ TEM experiments have been conducted to demonstrate that a single ion strike can be observed in Si thin films with nanometer resolution in real time using the in-situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope (I 3 TEM). Parallel to this experimental effort, ion implantation has been numerically simulated using Molecular Dynamics (MD). This numerical framework provides detailed predictions of the damage and follow the evolution of the damage during the first nanoseconds. The experimental results demonstrate that single ion strike can be observed in prototypical semiconductors.

  8. Long-term halocarbon observations from a coastal and an inland site in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A. D.; Harris, N. R. P.; Ashfold, M. J.; Gostlow, B.; Warwick, N. J.; O'Brien, L. M.; Beardmore, E. J.; Nadzir, M. S. M.; Phang, S. M.; Samah, A. A.; Ong, S.; Ung, H. E.; Peng, L. K.; Yong, S. E.; Mohamad, M.; Pyle, J. A.

    2014-08-01

    Short-lived halocarbons are believed to have important sources in the tropics, where rapid vertical transport could provide a significant source to the stratosphere. In this study, quasi-continuous measurements of short-lived halocarbons are reported for two tropical sites in Sabah (Malaysian Borneo), one coastal and one inland (rainforest). We present the observations for C2Cl4, CHBr3, CH2Br2* (actually ~80% CH2Br2 and ~20% CHBrCl2) and CH3I from November 2008 to January 2010 made using our μDirac gas chromatographs with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). We focus on the first 15 months of observations, showing over one annual cycle for each compound and therefore adding significantly to the few limited-duration observational studies that have been conducted thus far in southeast Asia. The main feature in the C2Cl4 behaviour at both sites is its annual cycle, with the winter months being influenced by northerly flow with higher concentrations, typical of the Northern Hemisphere, and with the summer months influenced by southerly flow and lower concentrations representative of the Southern Hemisphere. No such clear annual cycle is seen for CHBr3, CH2Br2* or CH3I. The baseline values for CHBr3 and CH2Br2* are similar at the coastal (overall median: CHBr3 1.7 ppt, CH2Br2* 1.4 ppt) and inland sites (CHBr3 1.6 ppt, CH2Br2* 1.1 ppt), but periods with elevated values are seen at the coast (overall 95th percentile: CHBr3 4.4 ppt, CH2Br2ast 1.9 ppt), presumably resulting from the stronger influence of coastal emissions. Overall median bromine values from [CHBr3 × 3] + [CH2Br2* × 2] are 8.0 ppt at the coast and 6.8 ppt inland. The median values reported here are largely consistent with other limited tropical data and imply that southeast Asia generally is not, as has been suggested, a hot spot for emissions of these compounds. These baseline values are consistent with the most recent emissions found for southeast Asia using the p-TOMCAT (Toulouse Off-line Model of

  9. Interactions between C and Cu atoms in single-layer graphene: direct observation and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Emi; Hashimoto, Ayako; Kaneko, Tomoaki; Tajima, Nobuo; Ohno, Takahisa; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2016-01-07

    Metal doping into the graphene lattice has been studied recently to develop novel nanoelectronic devices and to gain an understanding of the catalytic activities of metals in nanocarbon structures. Here we report the direct observation of interactions between Cu atoms and single-layer graphene by transmission electron microscopy. We document stable configurations of Cu atoms in the graphene sheet and unique transformations of graphene promoted by Cu atoms. First-principles calculations based on density functional theory reveal a reduction of energy barrier that caused rotation of C-C bonds near Cu atoms. We discuss two driving forces, electron irradiation and in situ heating, and conclude that the observed transformations were mainly promoted by electron irradiation. Our results suggest that individual Cu atoms can promote reconstruction of single-layer graphene.

  10. Single-shot observation of growing streamers using an ultrafast camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, E; Kato, S; Furutani, H; Sasaki, A; Kishimoto, Y; Takada, K; Matsumura, S; Sasaki, H

    2011-01-01

    A recently developed ultrafast camera that can acquire 10 8 frames per second was used to investigate positive streamer discharge. It enabled single-shot evaluation of streamer evolution without the need to consider shot-to-shot reproducibility. This camera was used to investigate streamers in argon. Growing branches, the transition when a streamer forms a return stroke, and related phenomena were clearly observed. (fast track communication)

  11. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for long-term observations of geosphere and biosphere after completed site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    The site investigation at Forsmark was terminated the last of June, 2007. Hundreds of investigations have been conducted during a period of more than five years. Monitoring of a number of geoscientific parameters and biological objects has been one important part of the site investigation programme. Monitoring is defined as recurrent measurements of the same parameters/objects, so that time series are generated. Long-term monitoring of for example weather parameters, surface water discharge in brooks, and the groundwater head in a large number of boreholes has been conducted during the site investigations. Furthermore, repeated sampling of precipitation, surface water and groundwater in soil and rock for hydrochemical analyses has been carried out, and the groundwater flow in isolated borehole sections has been measured several times. Besides, some biological objects, for example rare bird species, have been invented each year of the site investigation. The measured parameters and the invented objects are characterized by a certain degree of time dependent variability, which is also site-specific. The aim of the monitoring is primarily to establish the 'undisturbed' conditions, the so called 'baseline'. If a deep repository is sited at Forsmark, many site-specific conditions will change, due to natural causes as well as to the construction works. Knowledge about the undisturbed conditions strengthens the ability to reveal and quantify such changes and to distinguish natural changes from those caused by the human activities. Another object of monitoring is to, by the study of the variability pattern of the monitored parameters, elevate the knowledge about the underlying, often complex causes governing the variations. In this way the description of site-specific conditions may be more precise and the prospects of modelling important processes are improved. After completion of the site investigations, a period of about two years will follow, when

  12. Multi-Sensor Observations of Earthquake Related Atmospheric Signals over Major Geohazard Validation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Davindenko, D.; Hattori, K.; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, P.

    2012-01-01

    We are conducting a scientific validation study involving multi-sensor observations in our investigation of phenomena preceding major earthquakes. Our approach is based on a systematic analysis of several atmospheric and environmental parameters, which we found, are associated with the earthquakes, namely: thermal infrared radiation, outgoing long-wavelength radiation, ionospheric electron density, and atmospheric temperature and humidity. For first time we applied this approach to selected GEOSS sites prone to earthquakes or volcanoes. This provides a new opportunity to cross validate our results with the dense networks of in-situ and space measurements. We investigated two different seismic aspects, first the sites with recent large earthquakes, viz.- Tohoku-oki (M9, 2011, Japan) and Emilia region (M5.9, 2012,N. Italy). Our retrospective analysis of satellite data has shown the presence of anomalies in the atmosphere. Second, we did a retrospective analysis to check the re-occurrence of similar anomalous behavior in atmosphere/ionosphere over three regions with distinct geological settings and high seismicity: Taiwan, Japan and Kamchatka, which include 40 major earthquakes (M>5.9) for the period of 2005-2009. We found anomalous behavior before all of these events with no false negatives; false positives were less then 10%. Our initial results suggest that multi-instrument space-borne and ground observations show a systematic appearance of atmospheric anomalies near the epicentral area that could be explained by a coupling between the observed physical parameters and earthquake preparation processes.

  13. Spontaneous Ag-Nanoparticle Growth at Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Defect Sites: A Tool for In Situ Generation of SERS Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Maley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles were spontaneously formed on pristine and oxidized single-wall nanotubes. Nanoparticles were observed on carbon nanotubes with AFM, and the presence of Ag nanoparticles were confirmed by ESR experiments. Raman spectroscopy of the Ag-treated carbon nanotubes had a 4–10X enhancement of intensity compared to untreated carbon nanotubes. Ag nanoparticles formed at defect sites on the CNT surface, where free electrons located at the defect sites reduced Ag+ to Ag. A mechanism for the propagation of the nanoparticles is through a continual negative charge generation on the nanoparticle by electron transfer from doublet oxygen (O2−.

  14. Transient spectral hole burning observed on the single-molecule level in terrylene-doped biphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pärs, M.; Palm, V.; Kikas, J.

    2014-01-01

    We use the method of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to analyze the single-molecule (SM) spectroscopy data earlier recorded for a special type of terrylene SM impurity center (referred as “spectrally confined unstable molecule”, SCM) in an incommensurate single crystal of biphenyl. The SCM's SM line seems to be chaotically jumping around within a broad “spectral envelope” and was first considered being subject to a peculiar spectral diffusion behavior. However, our correlation analysis reveals that all the features observed for SCM at 1.8 K are consistent with an assumption that this SM center participates in a process of reversible (transient) spectral hole burning (THB) earlier observed for terrylene-doped polycrystalline biphenyl. No observations of THB processes on SM level have been so far reported for this impurity system, partially due to a low concentration of relevant impurity centers. Another reason making searching for such centers experimentally challenging is an unusual SM line behavior: the photoinduced transition to a metastable “dark state” leads to the SM line saturational broadening, which is much stronger than the triplet broadening. Hence required prolonged observation is often prevented by an SM act of persistent spectral hole burning. - Highlights: • SCM—special type of terrylene single-molecule center in incommensurate biphenyl. • An unusually stable SCM was investigated during several hours at T=1.8 K. • SCM undergoes photoinduced transitions to an unknown metastable “dark state” (DS). • The long DS lifetime causes strong saturational broadening of SCM spectral line. • SCM participates in an earlier observed process of transient hole burning

  15. Ethnology in the metropole: Robert Knox, Robert Gordon Latham and local sites of observational training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sera-Shriar, Efram

    2011-12-01

    Anthropologists have traditionally separated the history of their discipline into two main diverging methodological paradigms: nineteenth-century armchair theorizing, and twentieth-century field-based research. But this tradition obscures both the complexity of the observational practices of early nineteenth-century researchers and the high degree of continuity between these practices and the techniques that came later. While historians have long since abandoned the notion that nineteenth-century ethnologists and anthropologists were merely 'armchair' theorists, this paper shows that there is still much to learn once one asks more insistently what the observational practices of early researchers were actually like. By way of bringing out this complexity and continuity, this essay re-examines the work of two well-known British ethnologists, Robert Knox, and Robert Gordon Latham; looking in particular at their methods of observing, analysing and representing different racial groups. In the work of each figure, early training in natural history, anatomy and physiology can be seen to have influenced their observational practices when it came to identifying and classifying human varieties. Moreover, in both cases, Knox and Latham developed locally-based observational training sites. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Deriving surface soil moisture from reflected GNSS signal observations from a grassland site in southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work assesses the estimation of surface volumetric soil moisture (VSM using the global navigation satellite system interferometric reflectometry (GNSS-IR technique. Year-round observations were acquired from a grassland site in southwestern France using an antenna consecutively placed at two contrasting heights above the ground surface (3.3 and 29.4 m. The VSM retrievals are compared with two independent reference datasets: in situ observations of soil moisture, and numerical simulations of soil moisture and vegetation biomass from the ISBA (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere land surface model. Scaled VSM estimates can be retrieved throughout the year removing vegetation effects by the separation of growth and senescence periods and by the filtering of the GNSS-IR observations that are most affected by vegetation. Antenna height has no significant impact on the quality of VSM estimates. Comparisons between the VSM GNSS-IR retrievals and the in situ VSM observations at a depth of 5 cm show good agreement (R2 =  0.86 and RMSE  =  0.04 m3 m−3. It is shown that the signal is sensitive to the grass litter water content and that this effect triggers differences between VSM retrievals and in situ VSM observations at depths of 1 and 5 cm, especially during light rainfall events.

  17. Deriving surface soil moisture from reflected GNSS signal observations from a grassland site in southwestern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sibo; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Darrozes, José; Roussel, Nicolas; Frappart, Frédéric; Bouhours, Gilles

    2018-03-01

    This work assesses the estimation of surface volumetric soil moisture (VSM) using the global navigation satellite system interferometric reflectometry (GNSS-IR) technique. Year-round observations were acquired from a grassland site in southwestern France using an antenna consecutively placed at two contrasting heights above the ground surface (3.3 and 29.4 m). The VSM retrievals are compared with two independent reference datasets: in situ observations of soil moisture, and numerical simulations of soil moisture and vegetation biomass from the ISBA (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere) land surface model. Scaled VSM estimates can be retrieved throughout the year removing vegetation effects by the separation of growth and senescence periods and by the filtering of the GNSS-IR observations that are most affected by vegetation. Antenna height has no significant impact on the quality of VSM estimates. Comparisons between the VSM GNSS-IR retrievals and the in situ VSM observations at a depth of 5 cm show good agreement (R2 = 0.86 and RMSE = 0.04 m3 m-3). It is shown that the signal is sensitive to the grass litter water content and that this effect triggers differences between VSM retrievals and in situ VSM observations at depths of 1 and 5 cm, especially during light rainfall events.

  18. Observed response of vulnerable forest ecosystems to ongoing site condition changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidló, András; Gulyás, Krisztina; Gálos, Borbála; Horváth, Adrienn

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades, several symptoms of drought damages have been observed in the Hungarian forests (e.g. sparse canopy, leaf drop, top drying, fungal diseases). Forest responses are also influenced by other factors beyond climate (e.g. available water content, soil conditions, biotic damages, adaptive capacity, etc.). Our aim was to prepare a complex analysis of the change of all site conditions, that could lead to the observed health status decline of the forest tree species. For a case study region in Hungary (Keszthely Mountains, near to Lake Balaton) precipitation and temperature tendencies as well as the frequency of extreme dry summers have been determined for the period 1961-2100. Soil conditions have been investigated in 9 profiles and soil mapping analysis has been carried out including 100 sites with hand soil auger. For the investigation of the water-balance we used the modified Thornthwaite-type monthly model and determined water stress when the relative extractable water (REW) decreased below 40% (Granier et al., 1999). In the last 30 years three severe droughts have been detected when duration of extremely dry and hot periods exceeded 3-4 years. Not only orographic and microclimate conditions but also soil types show a large diversity within a relatively small distance in the case study area. On rendzina with shallow topsoil layer thickness, low water holding capacity, black pine was planted. Brown earth with medium and brown forest soils with deep topsoil layer thickness is favourable for oak (sessile or Turkey) and beech. These microscale differences between the three site condition types resulted different available water contents quantified by the modified Thornthwaite-type monthly water-balance model. Our results show the different sensitivity of the studied sites to water stress. It means that the local scale orographic and soil conditions can enhance the projected drought risk of the region. However, the favourable microclimatic effects of

  19. Laparo-endoscopic single-site (LESS) cholecystectomy with epidural vs. general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sharona B; Mangar, Devanand; Karlnoski, Rachel; Camporesi, Enrico; Downes, Katheryne; Luberice, Kenneth; Haines, Krista; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2013-05-01

    Laparo-endoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery involves a single umbilical incision, lending itself to epidural anesthesia. This prospective, randomized study was undertaken to evaluate epidural anesthesia for patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy, to assess the feasibility, and to analyze all intraoperative and postoperative complications. The secondary objectives were to determine differences in postoperative pain and time until PACU discharge-to-home readiness between patients. With institutional review board approval, 20 patients with chronic cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, and/or biliary dyskinesia were randomized to receive spinal epidural anesthesia (n = 10) or general anesthesia (n = 10). Postoperative pain at rest was recorded in the PACU every 10 min, and at rest and walking at discharge using the visual analog scale (VAS). Operative time and time until PACU discharge-to-home readiness were recorded. Results are expressed as mean ± SD. Patient age, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and body mass index were similar. There were no additional ports/incisions, conversions to "open" operations, or conversions to general anesthesia. There were no differences in operative duration. Time until postanesthesia care unit discharge-to-home ready was not significantly different. The most common postoperative adverse event was urinary retention (1 epidural and 3 general anesthesia patients). Resting postoperative VAS pain score at discharge was 4.7 ± 2.5 vs. 2.2 ± 1.6 (p = 0.02, general versus epidural anesthesia respectively); the stressed VAS pain score at discharge was 6.1 ± 2.3 vs. 3.1 ± 2.8 (p = 0.02, general versus epidural anesthesia respectively). LESS cholecystectomy with epidural anesthesia was completed with no operative or anesthetic conversions, and less postoperative pain at discharge. Epidural anesthesia appears to be a preferable alternative to general anesthesia for patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy.

  20. Stability of detectability over 17 years at a single site and other lizard detection comparisons from Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Dean-Bradley, Kathryn; Campbell, Earl W.; Fritts, Thomas H.; Lardner, Bjorn; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Reed, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    To obtain quantitative information about population dynamics from counts of animals, the per capita detectabilities of each species must remain constant over the course of monitoring. We characterized lizard detection constancy for four species over 17 yr from a single site in northern Guam, a relatively benign situation because detection was relatively easy and we were able to hold constant the site, habitat type, species, season, and sampling method. We monitored two species of diurnal terrestrial skinks (Carlia ailanpalai [Curious Skink], Emoia caeruleocauda [Pacific Bluetailed Skink]) using glueboards placed on the ground in the shade for 3 h on rainless mornings, yielding 10,286 skink captures. We additionally monitored two species of nocturnal arboreal geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus [Common House Gecko]; Lepidodactylus lugubris [Mourning Gecko]) on the basis of 15,212 sightings. We compared these count samples to a series of complete censuses we conducted from four or more total removal plots (everything removed to mineral soil) totaling 400 m2(about 1% of study site) in each of the years 1995, 1999, and 2012, providing time-stamped quantification of detectability for each species. Unfortunately, the actual population trajectories taken by the four species were masked by unexplained variation in detectability. This observation of debilitating latent variability in lizard detectability under nearly ideal conditions undercuts our trust in population estimation techniques that fail to quantify venue-specific detectability, rely on pooled detection probability estimates, or assume that modulation in predefined environmental covariates suffices for estimating detectability.

  1. Observation of the distorted form of Pd-porphin in single site spectra at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starukhin, Aleksander; Kruk, Mikalai; Czerwieniec, Rafal

    2008-01-01

    Highly resolved phosphorescence and excitation of phosphorescence spectra for palladium porphin (PdP) in polycrystalline Shpol'skii matrices at liquid helium temperatures were recorded. Two non-interactive forms of PdP in the ground state have been identified. The energy splitting between the two forms amount up to 78 cm -1 for PdP in an n-octane at 4.2 K. The short-wavelength spectral form is attributed to the structure, where the central Pd(II) ion is in plane of the porphyrin macrocycle, while the long-wavelength form is associated with the nonplanar saddle-type conformation of the PdP. The frequencies of the normal vibrations in the ground electronic state have been measured separately for both forms and the differences in the normal modes of two macrocycle conformations are discussed. The set of temperature activated bands in phosphorescence spectra were found. Analysis of phosphorescence spectra at elevated temperatures and excitation of phosphorescence spectra under direct excitation in the S 0 →T 1 channel make possible the value of zero-field splitting of quasi-degenerate T 1,2 state for two forms to be determined. The splitting value in n-octane matrix amount to 40 and 57 cm -1 for planar and nonplanar conformations of PdP, respectively

  2. Observation of surface superconductivity and paramagnetic Meissner effect in a spherical single crystal of Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Pradip; Tomy, C.V.; Takeya, H.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Grover, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    We report the observation of surface superconductivity as well as paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME), along with peak effect phenomena (PE) in ac and dc magnetization measurements in a high purity spherical single crystal of niobium. We study how the surface superconductivity and the PME evolve over the field (H) and the temperature (T) phase-space. We observe from our data that the magnitude of the PME progressively weakens as the temperature is decreased or magnetic field is increased. A vortex phase diagram is constructed by marking the onset positions of the PE (H p on ), the upper critical field (H c2 ) and the surface critical field (H c3 ). Unlike a previous report which shows the existence of a multi-critical point in the phase diagram of a Nb crystal, where H p , H c2 and H c3 lines meet, we do not observe a multi-critical point in our weak pinning crystal. (author)

  3. Neutron-induced single event upsets in static RAMs observed at 10 KM flight altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, J.; Becher, P. E.; Fynbo, P. B.; Raaby, P.; Schultz, J.

    1993-04-01

    Neutron induced single event upsets (SEUs) in static memory devices (SRAMs) have so far been seen only in laboratory environments. We report observations of 14 neutron induced SEUs at commercial aircraft flight altitudes. The observed SEU rate at 10 km flight altitude based on exposure of 160 standard 256 Kbit CMOS SRAMs is 4.8 x 10 exp -8 upsets/bit/day. In the laboratory 117 SRAMs of two different brands were irradiated with fast neutrons from a Pu-Be source. A total of 176 SEUs have been observed, among these are two SEU pairs. The upset rates from the laboratory tests are compared to those found in the airborne SRAMs.

  4. Transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site radical prostatectomy and cystectomy with the aid of a transurethral port: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian; Zhu, Qingyi; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Qingling; Wei, Yunfei

    2018-01-01

    To describe the surgical technique and report early outcomes of transurethral assisted laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) radical prostatectomy (RP) and LESS radical cystectomy (RC) in a single institution. Between December 2014 and March 2016, a total of 114 LESS RPs and RCs were performed, comprising 68 LESS RPs, 38 LESS RCs with cutaneous ureterostomy (CU) and eight LESS RCs with orthotopic ileal neobladder (OIN). Access was achieved via a single-port, with four channels placed through a transumblical incision. After the apex of prostate was separated from the urethra, a self-developed port ('Zhu's port') was inserted through the urethra to facilitate resection of prostate and urethrovesical anastomosis. The peri-operative and postoperative data were collected and analysed retrospectively. Patients were followed up postoperatively for evidence of long-term side effects. All the procedures were completed successfully. No conversion to conventional laparoscopic surgery was necessary. For LESS RP, the average operating time was 152 min. Estimated blood loss was 117 mL. The mean hospital stay was 16.4 days after surgery. For LESS RC with CU and LESS RC with OIN, the mean operating times were 215 and 328 min, mean estimated blood loss was 175 and 252 mL, and mean hospital stay was 9.4 and 18.2 days, respectively. Six patients required blood transfusion (5.26%). Intra-operative complications occurred in two patients (1.75%), and postoperative complications in nine (7.89%). Fourteen out of 68 (20.6%) patients who underwent LESS RP had positive surgical margins. Follow-up ranged from 10 to 30.6 months. In the prostate cancer cases, good urinary control was observed in 35.3%, 97.1% and 100% of patients at 1, 6 and 12 months after the operation, respectively, while biochemical recurrence was observed in 11.8% patients. In the bladder cancer cases, two patients had local recurrence and two patients had distant metastasis. Our results showed that LESS RP and LESS RC

  5. Regulatory Closure Options for the Residue in the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, J.R.; Shyr, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    Liquid, mixed, high-level radioactive waste (HLW) has been stored in 149 single-shell tanks (SSTS) located in tank farms on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The DOE is developing technologies to retrieve as much remaining HLW as technically possible prior to physically closing the tank farms. In support of the Hanford Tanks Initiative, Sandia National Laboratories has addressed the requirements for the regulatory closure of the radioactive component of any SST residue that may remain after physical closure. There is significant uncertainty about the end state of each of the 149 SSTS; that is, the nature and amount of wastes remaining in the SSTS after retrieval is uncertain. As a means of proceeding in the face of these uncertainties, this report links possible end-states with associated closure options. Requirements for disposal of HLW and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) are reviewed in detail. Incidental waste, which is radioactive waste produced incidental to the further processing of HLW, is then discussed. If the low activity waste (LAW) fraction from the further processing of HLW is determined to be incidental waste, then DOE can dispose of that incidental waste onsite without a license from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions (NRC). The NRC has proposed three Incidental Waste Criteria for determining if a LAW fraction is incidental waste. One of the three Criteria is that the LAW fraction should not exceed the NRC's Class C limits

  6. Single house on-site grey water treatment using a submerged membrane bioreactor for toilet flushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, M S; Markakis, N; Petousi, I; Manios, T

    2016-05-01

    Wastewater recycling has been and continues to be practiced all over the world for a variety of reasons including: increasing water availability, combating water shortages and drought, and supporting environmental and public health protection. Nowadays, one of the most interesting issues for wastewater recycling is the on-site treatment and reuse of grey water. During this study the efficiency of a compact Submerged Membrane Bioreactor (SMBR) system to treat real grey water in a single house in Crete, Greece, was examined. In the study, grey water was collected from a bathtub, shower and washing machine containing significant amounts of organic matter and pathogens. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in the system was approximately 87%. Total suspended solids (TSS) were reduced from 95mgL(-1) in the influent to 8mgL(-1) in the effluent. The efficiency of the system to reduce anionic surfactants was about 80%. Fecal and total coliforms decreased significantly using the SMBR system due to rejection, by the membrane, used in the study. Overall, the SMBR treatment produces average effluent values that would satisfy international guidelines for indoor reuse applications such as toilet flushing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Single-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts. Synthesis, characterization and toward cyanosilylation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    A successive anchoring of Zr(NMe2)4, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1‧-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on dehydroxylated SBA-15 pretreated at 500 °C for 16 h (SBA-15-500) was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The dehydoxylation of SBA-15 was monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situ FT-IR). The ligand-modified SBA-15-500 supported zirconium complexes were characterized by in situ FT-IR, 13C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MAS) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface zirconium species are single-sited. The catalytic activity of these complexes was evaluated by cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the structure of surface species and the configuration of the ligands.

  8. Single-site Green function of the Dirac equation for full-potential electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordt, Pascal

    2012-05-30

    I present an elaborated analytical examination of the Green function of an electron scattered at a single-site potential, for both the Schroedinger and the Dirac equation, followed by an efficient numerical solution, in both cases for potentials of arbitrary shape without an atomic sphere approximation. A numerically stable way to calculate the corresponding regular and irregular wave functions and the Green function is via the angular Lippmann-Schwinger integral equations. These are solved based on an expansion in Chebyshev polynomials and their recursion relations, allowing to rewrite the Lippmann-Schwinger equations into a system of algebraic linear equations. Gonzales et al. developed this method for the Schroedinger equation, where it gives a much higher accuracy compared to previous perturbation methods, with only modest increase in computational effort. In order to apply it to the Dirac equation, I developed relativistic Lippmann-Schwinger equations, based on a decomposition of the potential matrix into spin spherical harmonics, exploiting certain properties of this matrix. The resulting method was embedded into a Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker code for density functional calculations. As an example, the method is applied by calculating phase shifts and the Mott scattering of a tungsten impurity. (orig.)

  9. Defining the learning curve of laparoendoscopic single-site Heller myotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sharona B; Luberice, Kenneth; Kurian, Tony J; Paul, Harold; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2013-08-01

    Initial outcomes suggest laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication provides safe, efficacious, and cosmetically superior outcomes relative to conventional laparoscopy. This study was undertaken to define the learning curve of LESS Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication. One hundred patients underwent LESS Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication. Symptom frequency and severity were scored using a Likert scale (0 = never/not bothersome to 10 = always/very bothersome). Symptom resolution, additional trocars, and complications were compared among patient quartiles. Median data are presented. Preoperative frequency/severity scores were: dysphagia = 10/8 and regurgitation = 8/7. Additional trocars were placed in 12 patients (10%), of whom all were in the first two quartiles. Esophagotomy/gastrotomy occurred in three patients. Postoperative complications occurred in 9 per cent. No conversions to "open" operations occurred. Length of stay was 1 day. Postoperative frequency/severity scores were: dysphagia = 2/0 and regurgitation = 0/0; scores were less than before myotomy (P learning curve of LESS Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication is short and safe, because proficiency is quickly attained.

  10. Regulatory Closure Options for the Residue in the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.R. Shyr, L.J.

    1998-10-05

    Liquid, mixed, high-level radioactive waste (HLW) has been stored in 149 single-shell tanks (SSTS) located in tank farms on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The DOE is developing technologies to retrieve as much remaining HLW as technically possible prior to physically closing the tank farms. In support of the Hanford Tanks Initiative, Sandia National Laboratories has addressed the requirements for the regulatory closure of the radioactive component of any SST residue that may remain after physical closure. There is significant uncertainty about the end state of each of the 149 SSTS; that is, the nature and amount of wastes remaining in the SSTS after retrieval is uncertain. As a means of proceeding in the face of these uncertainties, this report links possible end-states with associated closure options. Requirements for disposal of HLW and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) are reviewed in detail. Incidental waste, which is radioactive waste produced incidental to the further processing of HLW, is then discussed. If the low activity waste (LAW) fraction from the further processing of HLW is determined to be incidental waste, then DOE can dispose of that incidental waste onsite without a license from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions (NRC). The NRC has proposed three Incidental Waste Criteria for determining if a LAW fraction is incidental waste. One of the three Criteria is that the LAW fraction should not exceed the NRC's Class C limits.

  11. Single top quarks at the Tevatron and observation of the s-channel production mode

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The presentation gives an overview of single-top-quark production at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The talk covers measurements of the total s+t channel production cross section and the extraction of the CKM matrix element |V_tb|. Furthermore, separate analyses of the s-channel and t-channel production modes are discussed. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb-1 per experiment and represent in most cases the full Run-II dataset. Through a combination of the CDF and D0 measurements the first observation of single-top-quark production in the s-channel is claimed. This is particularly highlighted in the seminar.

  12. Seasonal variation of heavy metals in ambient air and precipitation at a single site in Washington, DC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaku, Samuel; Morris, Vernon; Raghavan, Dharmaraj; Hosten, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric samples of precipitation and ambient air were collected at a single site in Washington, DC, for 7 months (for ambient air samples) and 1 year (for wet deposition samples) and analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead. The ranges of heavy metal concentrations for 6-day wet deposition samples collected over the 1-year period were 0.20-1.3 μg/l, 0.060-5.1 μg/l, 0.062-4.6 μg/l and 0.11-3.2 μg/l for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead, respectively, with a precision better than 5% for more than 95% of the measurements. The ranges of heavy metal concentrations for the 6-day ambient air samples were 0.800-15.7 ng/m 3 , 1.50-30.0 ng/m 3 , 16.8-112 ng/m 3 , and 2.90-137 ng/m 3 for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead, respectively, with a precision better than 10%. The spread in the heavy metal concentration over the observation period suggests a high seasonal variability for heavy metal content in both ambient air and wet deposition samples. - High seasonal variability of heavy metals were observed in both ambient air and wet deposition samples

  13. Observation of quantum state collapse and revival due to the single-photon Kerr effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchmair, Gerhard; Vlastakis, Brian; Leghtas, Zaki; Nigg, Simon E; Paik, Hanhee; Ginossar, Eran; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J

    2013-03-14

    To create and manipulate non-classical states of light for quantum information protocols, a strong, nonlinear interaction at the single-photon level is required. One approach to the generation of suitable interactions is to couple photons to atoms, as in the strong coupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamic systems. In these systems, however, the quantum state of the light is only indirectly controlled by manipulating the atoms. A direct photon-photon interaction occurs in so-called Kerr media, which typically induce only weak nonlinearity at the cost of significant loss. So far, it has not been possible to reach the single-photon Kerr regime, in which the interaction strength between individual photons exceeds the loss rate. Here, using a three-dimensional circuit quantum electrodynamic architecture, we engineer an artificial Kerr medium that enters this regime and allows the observation of new quantum effects. We realize a gedanken experiment in which the collapse and revival of a coherent state can be observed. This time evolution is a consequence of the quantization of the light field in the cavity and the nonlinear interaction between individual photons. During the evolution, non-classical superpositions of coherent states (that is, multi-component 'Schrödinger cat' states) are formed. We visualize this evolution by measuring the Husimi Q function and confirm the non-classical properties of these transient states by cavity state tomography. The ability to create and manipulate superpositions of coherent states in such a high-quality-factor photon mode opens perspectives for combining the physics of continuous variables with superconducting circuits. The single-photon Kerr effect could be used in quantum non-demolition measurement of photons, single-photon generation, autonomous quantum feedback schemes and quantum logic operations.

  14. Lightning stroke distance estimation from single station observation and validation with WWLLN data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ramachandran

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple technique to estimate the distance of the lightning strikes d with a single VLF electromagnetic wave receiver at a single station is described. The technique is based on the recording of oscillatory waveforms of the electric fields of sferics. Even though the process of estimating d using the waveform is a rather classical one, a novel and simple procedure for finding d is proposed in this paper. The procedure adopted provides two independent estimates of the distance of the stroke. The accuracy of measurements has been improved by employing high speed (333 ns sampling rate signal processing techniques. GPS time is used as the reference time, which enables us to compare the calculated distances of the lightning strikes, by both methods, with those calculated from the data obtained by the World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN, which uses a multi-station technique. The estimated distances of the lightning strikes (77, whose times correlated, ranged from ~3000–16 250 km. When dd compared with those calculated with the multi-station lightning location system is ~4.7%, while for all the strokes it was ~8.8%. One of the lightnings which was recorded by WWLLN, whose field pattern was recorded and the spectrogram of the sferic was also recorded at the site, is analyzed in detail. The deviations in d calculated from the field pattern and from the arrival time of the sferic were 3.2% and 1.5%, respectively, compared to d calculated from the WWLLN location. FFT analysis of the waveform showed that only a narrow band of frequencies is received at the site, which is confirmed by the intensity of the corresponding sferic in the spectrogram.

  15. Site-selective substitutional doping with atomic precision on stepped Al (111) surface by single-atom manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang; Zhang, Jinhu; Dong, Guofeng; Shao, Hezhu; Ning, Bo-Yuan; Zhao, Li; Ning, Xi-Jing; Zhuang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In fabrication of nano- and quantum devices, it is sometimes critical to position individual dopants at certain sites precisely to obtain the specific or enhanced functionalities. With first-principles simulations, we propose a method for substitutional doping of individual atom at a certain position on a stepped metal surface by single-atom manipulation. A selected atom at the step of Al (111) surface could be extracted vertically with an Al trimer-apex tip, and then the dopant atom will be positioned to this site. The details of the entire process including potential energy curves are given, which suggests the reliability of the proposed single-atom doping method.

  16. Characterization of single grain by observing magnetic ejection and rotation in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeda, Chiaki

    A simple and nondestructive method to perform material identification on a single particle is desired in various fields of material science that is concerned with nano-sized particles. We propose a method of identification based on magnetization data, which is obtained from field-induced translation and rotation in microgravity [1]. Material identification is possible from magnetization data because an intrinsic value of susceptibility and anisotropy is assigned to every material according to a data book that compiles the published values [2]. Preliminary ob-servation on free translational motion due to repulsive field-gradient force was reported for mm-sized crystal of corundum [1] and other oxides. Rotational oscillation was observed for various diamagnetic single-crystals in homogeneous field [2]. In order to examine the capability of the above-mentioned material characterization, translation and rotation motion was observed for sub-millimeter-sized quartz, calcite and forsterite in microgravity condition (MGLAB, Japan, duration: 4.5s). It is expected from motional equations that the 2 motions are independent to mass of particles, In a given field distribution, acceleration of translation is expected to be uniquely determined from intrinsic susceptibility of sample. The above properties are exam-ined in the present work by varying experimental parameters. It is noted that observation of the above two motions in microgravity serve as a useful method to detect magnetization of single small particles, be cause the system is free of both sample holder and mass measure-ment. It is expected that magnetization can be measured on a isolated small sample down to nano-level, in condition that motion of the sample is observable. For both susceptibility and anisotropy, range of observed values using microgravity cover the range of compiled published values [2]. Hence material identification is possible for solid material in general. Diamagnetic magnetization and its

  17. Observation of negative differential resistance and single-electron tunneling in electromigrated break junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Yutaka; Ueda, Rieko; Kubota, Tohru; Kamikado, Toshiya; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi; Nagase, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    We observed a negative differential resistance (NDR) along with single-electron tunneling (SET) in the electron transport of electromigrated break junctions with metal-free tetraphenylporphyrin (H 2 BSTBPP) at a temperature of 11 K. The NDR strongly depended on the applied gate voltages, and appeared only in the electron tunneling region of the Coulomb diamond. We could explain the mechanism of this new type of electron transport by a model assuming a molecular Coulomb island and local density of states of the source and the drain electrodes

  18. Effects of donepezil on behavioural manifestations of thalamic infarction: a single case observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eRiveros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the effect of donepezil for the treatment of cognitive and behavioural disorders associated with thalamic lesions in a 45 years old male who suffered an infarct in the left thalamus. Background: Recent studies suggest that donepezil may improve executive functions impairments due to subcortical ischemic lesionsMethod: The crossover effects of donepezil were analyzed in a single case of thalamic infarction with cognitive and behavioural alterations. Results: Significant behavioural modifications related to improved performances in executive functions were observed with the treatment. Conclusions: The results suggest that donepezil may have significant effect on executive functions that can alter behavioural outcomes after thalamic infarctions

  19. Observation and Characterization of Fragile Organometallic Molecules Encapsulated in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ogawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermally fragile tris(η5-cyclopentadienylerbium (ErCp3 molecules are encapsulated in single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs with high yield. We realized the encapsulation of ErCp3 with high filling ratio by using high quality SWCNTs at an optimized temperature under higher vacuum. Structure determination based on high-resolution transmission electron microscope observations together with the image simulations reveals the presence of almost free rotation of each ErCp3 molecule in SWCNTs. The encapsulation is also confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Trivalent character of Er ions (i.e., Er3+ is confirmed by X-ray absorption spectrum.

  20. ORCHIDEE-CNP: Site-Scale Evaluation against Observations from a Soil Formation Chronosequence in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, D. S.; Vuichard, N.; Maignan, F.; Jornet-Puig, A.; Sardans, J.; Peng, S.; Sun, Y.; Kvakić, M.; Guimberteau, M.; Guenet, B.; Zaehle, S.; Penuelas, J.; Jannssens, I.; Ciais, P.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface models rarely incorporate the terrestrial phosphorus cycle and its interactions with the carbon cycle, despite the extensive scientific debate about the importance of nitrogen and phosphorus supply for future land carbon uptake. We describe a representation of the terrestrial phosphorus cycle for the land surface model ORCHIDEE, and evaluate it with data from nutrient manipulation experiments along a soil formation chronosequence in Hawaii. ORCHIDEE accounts for influence of nutritional state of vegetation on tissue nutrient concentrations, photosynthesis, plant growth, biomass allocation, biochemical (phosphatase-mediated) mineralization and biological nitrogen fixation. Changes in nutrient content (quality) of litter affect the carbon use efficiency of decomposition and in return the nutrient availability to vegetation. The model explicitly accounts for root zone depletion of phosphorus as a function of root phosphorus uptake and phosphorus transport from soil to the root surface. The model captures the observed differences in the foliage stoichiometry of vegetation between an early (300yr) and a late stage (4.1 Myr) of soil development. The contrasting sensitivities of net primary productivity to the addition of either nitrogen, phosphorus or both among sites are in general reproduced by the model. As observed, the model simulates a preferential stimulation of leaf level productivity when nitrogen stress is alleviated, while leaf level productivity and leaf area index are stimulated equally when phosphorus stress is alleviated. The nutrient use efficiencies in the model are lower as observed primarily due to biases in the nutrient content and turnover of woody biomass.

  1. Direct radiative feedback due to biogenic secondary organic aerosol estimated from boreal forest site observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lihavainen, Heikki; Asmi, Eija; Aaltonen, Veijo; Makkonen, Ulla; Kerminen, Veli-Matti

    2015-01-01

    We used more than five years of continuous aerosol measurements to estimate the direct radiative feedback parameter associated with the formation of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) at a remote continental site at the edge of the boreal forest zone in Northern Finland. Our upper-limit estimate for this feedback parameter during the summer period (ambient temperatures above 10 °C) was −97 ± 66 mW m −2 K −1 (mean ± STD) when using measurements of the aerosol optical depth (f AOD ) and −63 ± 40 mW m −2 K −1 when using measurements of the ‘dry’ aerosol scattering coefficient at the ground level (f σ ). Here STD represents the variability in f caused by the observed variability in the quantities used to derive the value of f. Compared with our measurement site, the magnitude of the direct radiative feedback associated with BSOA is expected to be larger in warmer continental regions with more abundant biogenic emissions, and even larger in regions where biogenic emissions are mixed with anthropogenic pollution. (letter)

  2. Extending single molecule fluorescence observation time by amplitude-modulated excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisley, Lydia; Chang, Wei-Shun; Cooper, David; Mansur, Andrea P.; Landes, Christy F.

    2013-09-01

    We present a hardware-based method that can improve single molecule fluorophore observation time by up to 1500% and super-localization by 47% for the experimental conditions used. The excitation was modulated using an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) synchronized to the data acquisition and inherent data conversion time of the detector. The observation time and precision in super-localization of four commonly used fluorophores were compared under modulated and traditional continuous excitation, including direct total internal reflectance excitation of Alexa 555 and Cy3, non-radiative Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) excited Cy5, and direct epi-fluorescence wide field excitation of Rhodamine 6G. The proposed amplitude-modulated excitation does not perturb the chemical makeup of the system or sacrifice signal and is compatible with multiple types of fluorophores. Amplitude-modulated excitation has practical applications for any fluorescent study utilizing an instrumental setup with time-delayed detectors.

  3. Extending single molecule fluorescence observation time by amplitude-modulated excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisley, Lydia; Chang, Wei-Shun; Cooper, David; Mansur, Andrea P; Landes, Christy F

    2013-01-01

    We present a hardware-based method that can improve single molecule fluorophore observation time by up to 1500% and super-localization by 47% for the experimental conditions used. The excitation was modulated using an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) synchronized to the data acquisition and inherent data conversion time of the detector. The observation time and precision in super-localization of four commonly used fluorophores were compared under modulated and traditional continuous excitation, including direct total internal reflectance excitation of Alexa 555 and Cy3, non-radiative Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) excited Cy5, and direct epi-fluorescence wide field excitation of Rhodamine 6G. The proposed amplitude-modulated excitation does not perturb the chemical makeup of the system or sacrifice signal and is compatible with multiple types of fluorophores. Amplitude-modulated excitation has practical applications for any fluorescent study utilizing an instrumental setup with time-delayed detectors. (technical note)

  4. A Rotor Flux and Speed Observer for Sensorless Single-Phase Induction Motor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Caruso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is usual to find single-phase induction motor (SPIM in several house, office, shopping, farm, and industry applications, which are become each time more sophisticated and requiring the development of efficient alternatives to improve the operational performance of this machine. Although the rotor flux and rotational speed are essential variables in order to optimize the operation of a SPIM, the use of conventional sensors to measure them is not a viable option. Thus, the adoption of sensorless strategies is the more reasonable proposal for these cases. This paper presents a rotor flux and rotational speed observer for sensorless applications involving SPIMs. Computer simulations and the experimental results are used to verify the performance of the proposed observer.

  5. Atomic force microscope observation of branching in single transcript molecules derived from human cardiac muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jason; Hsueh, Carlin; Mishra, Bud; Gimzewski, James K.

    2008-09-01

    We have used an atomic force microscope to examine a clinically derived sample of single-molecule gene transcripts, in the form of double-stranded cDNA, (c: complementary) obtained from human cardiac muscle without the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. We observed a log-normal distribution of transcript sizes, with most molecules being in the range of 0.4-7.0 kilobase pairs (kb) or 130-2300 nm in contour length, in accordance with the expected distribution of mRNA (m: messenger) sizes in mammalian cells. We observed novel branching structures not previously known to exist in cDNA, and which could have profound negative effects on traditional analysis of cDNA samples through cloning, PCR and DNA sequencing.

  6. Direct observation of liquid-like behavior of a single Au grain boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Gilberto; Ponce, Arturo; Velázquez-Salazar, J Jesús; José-Yacamán, Miguel

    2013-07-21

    Behavior of matter at the nanoscale differs from that of the bulk due to confinement and surface effects. Here, we report a direct observation of liquid-like behavior of a single grain boundary formed by cold-welding Au nanoparticles, 40 nm in size, by mechanical manipulation in situ TEM. The grain boundary rotates almost freely due to the free surfaces and can rotate about 90 degrees. The grain boundary sustains more stress than the bulk, confirming a strong bonding between the nanoparticles. Moreover, this technique allows the measurement of the surface diffusion coefficient from experimental observations, which we compute for the Au nanoparticles. This methodology can be used for any metal, oxide, semiconductor or combination of them.

  7. Effect of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein on reverse transcriptase pause sites revealed by single molecule microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouonang, A.; Przybilla, F.; Godet, J.; Sharma, K. K.; Restlé, T.; de Rocquigny, H.; Darlix, J.-L.; Kenfack, C.; Didier, P.; Mély, Y.

    2013-02-01

    During reverse transcription, the HIV-1 RNA is converted by the reverse transcriptase (RT) into proviral DNA. RT is assisted by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid (NCp7) protein that notably increases the ability of RT to synthesize DNA through pause sites. Using single molecule FRET, we monitored the NCp7 effect on the binding of RT to nucleic acid sequences corresponding to two different pause sites. NCp7 was found to modify the distribution of RT orientations on the oligonucleotides and decrease the residence time of RT on one of the pause sites. These results give direct insight into the NCp7 molecular mechanism in reverse transcription.

  8. Correlation between predicted and observed levels of airborne tritium at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory site boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeken, C.L.; Silver, W.J.; Toy, A.J.; White, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    At the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, a computer code based on the Gaussian plume model is used to estimate radiation doses from routine or accidental release of airborne radioactive material. Routine releases of tritium have been used as a test of the overall uncertainty associated with these estimates. The ration of concentration to release rate at distances from the two principal release points to each of six site boundary sampling locations has been calcuated using local meteorological data. The concentration of airborne tritiated water vapor is continuously measured at the six sampling stations as part of the Laboratory's environmental monitoring program. Comparison of predicted with observed annual tritiated water concentrations in 1978 showed an average ratio of 2.6 with a range of from 0.97 to 5.8

  9. Observations on Faults and Associated Permeability Structures in Hydrogeologic Units at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, Lance B.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Haugstad, Dawn N.; Huckins-Gang, Heather E.; Townsend, Margaret J.

    2009-03-30

    Observational data on Nevada Test Site (NTS) faults were gathered from a variety of sources, including surface and tunnel exposures, core samples, geophysical logs, and down-hole cameras. These data show that NTS fault characteristics and fault zone permeability structures are similar to those of faults studied in other regions. Faults at the NTS form complex and heterogeneous fault zones with flow properties that vary in both space and time. Flow property variability within fault zones can be broken down into four major components that allow for the development of a simplified, first approximation model of NTS fault zones. This conceptual model can be used as a general guide during development and evaluation of groundwater flow and contaminate transport models at the NTS.

  10. Post-caesarean section surgical site infections at a Tanzanian tertiary hospital: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardo, P; Gentilotti, E; Nguhuni, B; Vairo, F; Chaula, Z; Nicastri, E; Nassoro, M M; Bevilacqua, N; Ismail, A; Savoldi, A; Zumla, A; Ippolito, G

    2016-08-01

    Few data are available on the determinants and characteristics of post-caesarean section (CS) surgical site infections (SSIs) in resource-limited settings. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study to evaluate the rates, determinants, and microbiological characteristics of post-CS SSI at the Dodoma Regional Referral Hospital (DRRH) Gynaecology and Obstetrics Department in Tanzania. Spanning a three-month period, all pregnant women who underwent CS were enrolled and followed up for 30 days. SSI following CS occurred in 224 (48%) women. Only 10 (2.1%) women received pre-incision antibiotic prophylaxis. Urgent intervention is needed to prevent and control infections and contain the rising rate of post-CS SSI at the DRRH. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Testing initiatives increase rates of HIV diagnosis in primary care and community settings: an observational single-centre cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prini Mahendran

    Full Text Available The primary objective was to examine trends in new HIV diagnoses in a UK area of high HIV prevalence between 2000 and 2012 with respect to site of diagnosis and stage of HIV infection.Single-centre observational cohort study.An outpatient HIV department in a secondary care UK hospital.1359 HIV-infected adults.Demographic information (age, gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation, site of initial HIV diagnosis (Routine settings such as HIV/GUM clinics versus Non-Routine settings such as primary care and community venues, stage of HIV infection, CD4 count and seroconversion symptoms were collated for each participant.There was a significant increase in the proportion of new HIV diagnoses made in Non-Routine settings (from 27.0% in 2000 to 58.8% in 2012; p<0.001. Overall there was a decrease in the rate of late diagnosis from 50.7% to 32.9% (p=0.001. Diagnosis of recent infection increased from 23.0% to 47.1% (p=0.001. Of those with recent infection, significantly more patients were likely to report symptoms consistent with a seroconversion illness over the 13 years (17.6% to 65.0%; p<0.001.This is the first study, we believe, to demonstrate significant improvements in HIV diagnosis and a shift in diagnosis of HIV from HIV/GUM settings to primary practice and community settings due to multiple initiatives.

  12. Contaminant Release from Residual Waste in Single Shell Tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA - 9276

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Determinations of elemental and solid-phase compositions, and contaminant release studies have been applied in an ongoing study of residual tank wastes (i.e., waste remaining after final retrieval operations) from five of 149 underground single-shell storage tanks (241-C-103, 241-C-106, 241-C-202, 241-C-203, and 241-S-112) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. This work is being conducted to support performance assessments that will be required to evaluate long-term health and safety risks associated with tank site closure. The results of studies completed to date show significant variability in the compositions, solid phase properties, and contaminant release characteristics from these residual tank wastes. This variability is the result of differences in waste chemistry/composition of wastes produced from several different spent fuel reprocessing schemes, subsequent waste reprocessing to remove certain target constituents, tank farm operations that concentrated wastes and mixed wastes between tanks, and differences in retrieval processes used to remove the wastes from the tanks. Release models were developed based upon results of chemical characterization of the bulk residual waste, solid-phase characterization (see companion paper 9277 by Krupka et al.), leaching and extraction experiments, and geochemical modeling. In most cases empirical release models were required to describe contaminant release from these wastes. Release of contaminants from residual waste was frequently found to be controlled by the solubility of phases that could not be identified and/or for which thermodynamic data and/or dissolution rates have not been measured. For example, significant fractions of Tc-99, I-129, and Cr appear to be coprecipitated at trace concentrations in metal oxide phases that could not be identified unambiguously. In the case of U release from tank 241-C-103 residual waste, geochemical calculations indicated that leachate

  13. Real-time single-molecule tethered particle motion experiments reveal the kinetics and mechanisms of Cre-mediated site-specific recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hsiu-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine family recombinases (YRs) are widely utilized in genome engineering systems because they can easily direct DNA rearrangement. Cre recombinases, one of the most commonly used types of YRs, catalyze site-specific recombination between two loxP sites without the need for high-energy cofactors, other accessory proteins or a specific DNA target sequence between the loxP sites. Previous structural, analytical ultracentrifuge and electrophoretic analyses have provided details of the reaction kinetics and mechanisms of Cre recombinase activity; whether there are reaction intermediates or side pathways involved has been left unaddressed. Using tethered particle motion (TPM), the Cre-mediated site-specific recombination process has been delineated, from beginning to end, at the single-molecule level, including the formation of abortive complexes and wayward complexes blocking inactive nucleoprotein complexes from entering the recombination process. Reversibility in the strand-cleavage/-ligation process and the formation of a thermally stable Holliday junction intermediate were observed within the Cre-mediated site-specific recombination process. Rate constants for each elementary step, which explain the overall reaction outcomes under various conditions, were determined. Taking the findings of this study together, they demonstrate the potential of single-molecule methodology as an alternative approach for exploring reaction mechanisms in detail. PMID:22467208

  14. Organization of DNA partners and strand exchange mechanisms during Flp site-specific recombination analyzed by difference topology, single molecule FRET and single molecule TPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chien-Hui; Liu, Yen-Ting; Savva, Christos G; Rowley, Paul A; Cannon, Brian; Fan, Hsiu-Fang; Russell, Rick; Holzenburg, Andreas; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2014-02-20

    Flp site-specific recombination between two target sites (FRTs) harboring non-homology within the strand exchange region does not yield stable recombinant products. In negatively supercoiled plasmids containing head-to-tail sites, the reaction produces a series of knots with odd-numbered crossings. When the sites are in head-to-head orientation, the knot products contain even-numbered crossings. Both types of knots retain parental DNA configuration. By carrying out Flp recombination after first assembling the topologically well defined Tn3 resolvase synapse, it is possible to determine whether these knots arise by a processive or a dissociative mechanism. The nearly exclusive products from head-to-head and head-to-tail oriented "non-homologous" FRT partners are a 4-noded knot and a 5-noded knot, respectively. The corresponding products from a pair of native (homologous) FRT sites are a 3-noded knot and a 4-noded catenane, respectively. These results are consistent with non-homology-induced two rounds of dissociative recombination by Flp, the first to generate reciprocal recombinants containing non-complementary base pairs and the second to produce parental molecules with restored base pairing. Single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) analysis of geometrically restricted FRTs, together with single molecule tethered particle motion (smTPM) assays of unconstrained FRTs, suggests that the sites are preferentially synapsed in an anti-parallel fashion. This selectivity in synapse geometry occurs prior to the chemical steps of recombination, signifying early commitment to a productive reaction path. The cumulative topological, smFRET and smTPM results have implications for the relative orientation of DNA partners and the directionality of strand exchange during recombination mediated by tyrosine site-specific recombinases. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Observation and Analysis of Particle Nucleation at a Forest Site in Southeastern US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viney Aneja

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the characteristics of new particle formation at a forest site in southeastern US. Particle size distributions above a Loblolly pine plantation were measured between November 2005 and September 2007 and analyzed by event type and frequency, as well as in relation to meteorological and atmospheric chemical conditions. Nucleation events occurred on 69% of classifiable observation days. Nucleation frequency was highest in spring. The highest daily nucleation (class A and B events frequency (81% was observed in April. The average total particle number concentration on nucleation days was 8,684 cm−3 (10 < Dp < 250 nm and 3,991 cm−3 (10 < Dp < 25 nm with a mode diameter of 28 nm with corresponding values on non-nucleation days of 2,143 cm−3, 655 cm−3, and 44.5 nm, respectively. The annual average growth rate during nucleation events was 2.7 ± 0.3 nm·h−1. Higher growth rates were observed during summer months with highest rates observed in May (5.0 ± 3.6 nm·h−1. Winter months were associated with lower growth rates, the lowest occurring in February (1.2 ± 2.2 nm·h−1. Consistent with other studies, nucleation events were more likely to occur on days with higher radiative flux and lower relative humidity compared to non-nucleation days. The daily minimum in the condensation sink, which typically occurred 2 to 3 h after sunrise, was a good indicator of the timing of nucleation onset. The intensity of the event, indicated by the total particle number concentration, was well correlated with photo-synthetically active radiation, used here as a surrogate for total global radiation, and relative humidity. Even though the role of biogenic VOC in the initial nuclei formation is not understood from this study, the relationships with chemical precursors and secondary aerosol products associated with nucleation, coupled with diurnal boundary layer dynamics and seasonal meteorological patterns, suggest that H2SO4 and biogenic

  16. Single-site robotic cholecystectomy and robotics training: should we start in the junior years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayabe, Reed I; Parrish, Aaron B; Dauphine, Christine E; Hari, Danielle M; Ozao-Choy, Junko J

    2018-04-01

    It has become increasingly important to expose surgical residents to robotic surgery as its applications continue to expand. Single-site robotic cholecystectomy (SSRC) is an excellent introductory case to robotics. Resident involvement in SSRC is known to be feasible. Here, we sought to determine whether it is safe to introduce SSRC to junior residents. A total of 98 SSRC cases were performed by general surgery residents between August 2015 and August 2016. Cases were divided into groups based on resident level: second- and third-years (juniors) versus fourth- and fifth-years (seniors). Patient age, gender, race, body mass index, and comorbidities were recorded. The number of prior laparoscopic cholecystectomies completed by participating residents was noted. Outcomes including operative time, console time, rate of conversion to open cholecystectomy, and complication rate were compared between groups. Juniors performed 54 SSRC cases, whereas seniors performed 44. There were no significant differences in patient age, gender, race, body mass index, or comorbidities between the two groups. Juniors had less experience with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There was no significant difference in mean operative time (92.7 min versus 98.0 min, P = 0.254), console time (48.7 min versus 50.8 min, P = 0.639), or complication rate (3.7% versus 2.3%, P = 0.68) between juniors and seniors. SSRC is an excellent way to introduce general surgery residents to robotics. This study shows that with attending supervision, SSRC is feasible and safe for both junior and senior residents with very low complication rates and no adverse effect on operative time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantifying the cognitive cost of laparo-endoscopic single-site surgeries: Gaze-based indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Ruiz-Rabelo, Juan Francisco; Rieiro, Héctor; Sanchez Carrion, Jose M; Catena, Andrés

    2017-11-01

    Despite the growing interest concerning the laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) procedure, LESS presents multiple difficulties and challenges that are likely to increase the surgeon's cognitive cost, in terms of both cognitive load and performance. Nevertheless, there is currently no objective index capable of assessing the surgeon cognitive cost while performing LESS. We assessed if gaze-based indices might offer unique and unbiased measures to quantify LESS complexity and its cognitive cost. We expect that the assessment of surgeon's cognitive cost to improve patient safety by measuring fitness-for-duty and reducing surgeons overload. Using a wearable eye tracker device, we measured gaze entropy and velocity of surgical trainees and attending surgeons during two surgical procedures (LESS vs. multiport laparoscopy surgery [MPS]). None of the participants had previous experience with LESS. They performed two exercises with different complexity levels (Low: Pattern Cut vs. High: Peg Transfer). We also collected performance and subjective data. LESS caused higher cognitive demand than MPS, as indicated by increased gaze entropy in both surgical trainees and attending surgeons (exploration pattern became more random). Furthermore, gaze velocity was higher (exploration pattern became more rapid) for the LESS procedure independently of the surgeon's expertise. Perceived task complexity and laparoscopic accuracy confirmed gaze-based results. Gaze-based indices have great potential as objective and non-intrusive measures to assess surgeons' cognitive cost and fitness-for-duty. Furthermore, gaze-based indices might play a relevant role in defining future guidelines on surgeons' examinations to mark their achievements during the entire training (e.g. analyzing surgical learning curves). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Origin and variability in volatile organic compounds observed at an Eastern Mediterranean background site (Cyprus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec, Cécile; Sauvage, Stéphane; Gros, Valérie; Sciare, Jean; Pikridas, Michael; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Salameh, Thérèse; Leonardis, Thierry; Gaudion, Vincent; Depelchin, Laurence; Fronval, Isabelle; Sarda-Esteve, Roland; Baisnée, Dominique; Bonsang, Bernard; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Locoge, Nadine

    2017-09-01

    or from more distant emission zones (i.e., the south coast of Turkey); and a last factor (36 %) associated with regional background pollution (air masses transported both from the Western and Eastern Mediterranean regions). One of the two biogenic and the regional background factors were found to be the largest contributors to the VOC concentrations observed at our sampling site. Finally, a combined analysis of VOC PMF factors with source-apportioned organic aerosols (OAs) helped to better distinguish between anthropogenic and biogenic influences on the aerosol and gas phase compositions. The highest OA concentrations were observed when the site was influenced by air masses rich in semi-volatile OA (less oxidized aerosols) originating from the southwest of Asia, in contrast with OA factor contributions associated with the remaining source regions. A reinforcement of secondary OA formation also occurred due to the intense oxidation of biogenic precursors.

  19. Site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies to liposomes enhances photosensitizer uptake and photodynamic therapy efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekgaarden, M.; van Vught, R.; Oliveira, S.; Roovers, R. C.; van Bergen En Henegouwen, P. M. P.; Pieters, R. J.; van Gulik, T. M.; Breukink, E.; Heger, M.

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy for therapy-resistant cancers will greatly benefit from targeted delivery of tumor photosensitizing agents. In this study, a strategy for the site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies onto liposomes containing the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine was developed and

  20. Site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies to liposomes enhances photosensitizer uptake and photodynamic therapy efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekgaarden, M; van Vught, R; Oliveira, S; Roovers, R C; van Bergen en Henegouwen, P M P; Pieters, R J; Van Gulik, T M; Breukink, E; Heger, M

    2016-03-28

    Photodynamic therapy for therapy-resistant cancers will greatly benefit from targeted delivery of tumor photosensitizing agents. In this study, a strategy for the site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies onto liposomes containing the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine was developed and tested.

  1. Immediate Loading of Anterior Single Tooth Implants Placed in Healed Sites : Five-Year Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Laurens; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Stellingsma, Kees; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the 5-year outcome of immediate loading with that of conventional loading for anterior single-tooth implants placed in healed sites. It was hypothesized that immediate loading is not inferior to conventional loading. Materials and Methods: A total of 62

  2. Developing Vs30 site-condition maps by combining observations with geologic and topographic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E.M.; Wald, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite obvious limitations as a proxy for site amplification, the use of time-averaged shear-wave velocity over the top 30 m (VS30) remains widely practiced, most notably through its use as an explanatory variable in ground motion prediction equations (and thus hazard maps and ShakeMaps, among other applications). As such, we are developing an improved strategy for producing VS30 maps given the common observational constraints. Using the abundant VS30 measurements in Taiwan, we compare alternative mapping methods that combine topographic slope, surface geology, and spatial correlation structure. The different VS30 mapping algorithms are distinguished by the way that slope and geology are combined to define a spatial model of VS30. We consider the globally applicable slope-only model as a baseline to which we compare two methods of combining both slope and geology. For both hybrid approaches, we model spatial correlation structure of the residuals using the kriging-with-a-trend technique, which brings the map into closer agreement with the observations. Cross validation indicates that we can reduce the uncertainty of the VS30 map by up to 16% relative to the slope-only approach.

  3. A Single Active Site Mutation in the Pikromycin Thioesterase Generates a More Effective Macrocyclization Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Aaron A; Hansen, Douglas A; Shende, Vikram V; Furan, Lawrence R; Houk, K N; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Sherman, David H

    2017-09-27

    Macrolactonization of natural product analogs presents a significant challenge to both biosynthetic assembly and synthetic chemistry. In the preceding paper , we identified a thioesterase (TE) domain catalytic bottleneck processing unnatural substrates in the pikromycin (Pik) system, preventing the formation of epimerized macrolactones. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations showing the epimerized hexaketide was accommodated within the Pik TE active site; however, intrinsic conformational preferences of the substrate resulted in predominately unproductive conformations, in agreement with the observed hydrolysis. Accordingly, we engineered the stereoselective Pik TE to yield a variant (TE S148C ) with improved reaction kinetics and gain-of-function processing of an unnatural, epimerized hexaketide. Quantum mechanical comparison of model TE S148C and TE WT reaction coordinate diagrams revealed a change in mechanism from a stepwise addition-elimination (TE WT ) to a lower energy concerted acyl substitution (TE S148C ), accounting for the gain-of-function and improved reaction kinetics. Finally, we introduced the S148C mutation into a polyketide synthase module (PikAIII-TE) to impart increased substrate flexibility, enabling the production of diastereomeric macrolactones.

  4. Laparoendoscopic Single-site Surgery (LESS) for Prophylactic Salpingo-oophorectomy Improves Cosmetic Satisfaction Compared to Standard Laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miailhe, Gregoire; Dauchy, Sarah; Bentivegna, Enrica; Gouy, Sebastien; Charles, Cecile; Delaloge, Suzette; Morice, Philippe; Uzan, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Less invasive prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (PBSO) may diminish the general consequences of surgery for BRCA mutation carriers. The objective of the present study was to compare the psychological impact and satisfaction following minimal-invasive laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) versus that observed with the standard procedure. This prospective longitudinal study was proposed to all consecutive patients who underwent ambulatory PBSO between January 2012 and January 2014 at our Center. The psychological impact and esthetic satisfaction were prospectively studied. Patients rated their satisfaction using the 4-grade Likert scale. Their emotional state and postoperative pain were explored respectively with validated questionnaires (IES-R, PANAS) and the Verbal Numerical Rating Scale (VNRS). Operative outcomes were also analyzed. Twenty patients underwent LESS PBSO and 10 patients had the standard laparoscopic (SL) PBSO. The mean satisfaction scores were significantly higher in the LESS group one month and six months after surgery. Both groups reported a reduction of intrusive thoughts and negative affects after surgery. Postoperative pain and operative outcomes were similar. A significant improvement of cosmetic satisfaction after LESS compared to SL could help patients accept PBSO. The emotional impact of PBSO is not modified by ambulatory LESS. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Aquarius L-band scatterometer and radiometer observations over a Tibetan Plateau site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; van der Velde, Rogier; Su, Zhongbo; Wen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the impact of freeze-thaw, soil moisture and vegetation on L-band backscatter and emission is studied using Aquarius scatterometer/radiometer measurements collected from August 2011 to May 2013 over the northeastern part of the Tibetan Plateau. The study area is the Maqu region that holds a regional-scale monitoring network consisting of twenty soil moisture/temperature stations, which is selected as one of the core international Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) sites for NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. Comparisons of Aquarius scatterometer/radiometer measurements with soil moisture recorded by capacitance probes installed at a 5-cm soil depth illustrate that (i) L-band microwave observations are also sensitive to the amount of liquid water in soil below freezing point, and (ii) the sensitivity of Aquarius observations over the Maqu area dissipates above soil moisture contents of 0.3 m3 m-3. Further effects of vegetation become directly noticeable only within passive microwave observations at moisture levels larger than 0.4 m3 m-3. The impact of vegetation is studied in more detail through analysis of the Radar Vegetation Index (RVI). Although seasonal variability is captured, the dynamic range of the RVI is insufficient for a meaningful signal-to-noise. Further vegetation optical depth (τ) is estimated using the τ-ω concept by reconstructing the Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) derived from Aquarius radiometer data. Peaks in the τ estimates are noted in the months January/February and July/August. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of τ is a measure for the frost depth when temperatures are below freezing point whereas the behavior of τ in the warm season is in line with the vegetation dynamics.

  6. Association between etiology and lesion site in ischemic brainstem infarcts: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran G

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gozde Baran,1 Tugce Ozdemir Gultekin,2 Oguz Baran,3 Cigdem Deniz,3 Salim Katar,3 Gulsen Babacan Yildiz,2 Talip Asil2 1Department of Neurology, Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Research and Training Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Bezmialem Vakif University, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Istanbul Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Background and purpose: To assess the anatomical distribution of the ischemic strokes of the brainstem, the effect of anatomical distribution on clinical features and prognosis, and the association between etiology and anatomical involvement.Methods: A retrospective search of the patient database of our institution was performed for a total of 227 patients who were admitted to the Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty of Bezmialem Vakif University between January 2012 and September 2014. Patients with adequate diagnostic data and 3-month follow-up visit were included in the study.Results: Twenty-one (9%, 136 (60%, and 65 (29% patients had an infarction only at the mesencephalon, pons, and medulla, respectively. However, a single patient (0.5% had an infarction both at the mesencephalon and pons, 3 (1.5% at the pons and medulla, and 1 (0.5% at the mesencephalon, pons, and medulla. While anterior involvement was more common in the mesencephalon and pons, posterior and lateral involvement occurred more frequently in the medulla. Large arterial atherothrombosis was the predominant cause of the strokes in all anatomical sites, particularly in infarcts involving the pons. Cardioembolic events were more common in patients with mesencephalic infarcts. Also, ischemia due to dissection was more common in infarctions involving the medulla, especially the lateral medulla. In subjects with simultaneous infarcts at other sites in addition to the brainstem, there was a significantly higher co-occurrence of medullary infarcts with cerebellar infarcts, mesencephalic infarcts with posterior cerebral artery infarcts, and pons

  7. The Total Carbon Column Observing Network site description for Lauder, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David F.; Sherlock, Vanessa; Robinson, John; Deutscher, Nicholas M.; Connor, Brian; Shiona, Hisako

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we describe the retrievals of atmospheric trace gases from near-infrared, high-resolution solar absorption spectroscopy measurements at the Lauder atmospheric research station in New Zealand and submitted to the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) archive. The Lauder site (45.034° S, 169.68° E, 370 m a.s.l.) is located within a sparsely populated region of the South Island of New Zealand and is sheltered from the prevailing wind direction by the Southern Alps, which gives the site a high number of clear-sky days and an air mass that is largely unmodified by regional anthropogenic sources. The Lauder TCCON archive consists of data from two instruments: a Bruker IFS 120HR from June 2004 to February 2010 and a Bruker IFS 125HR from February 2010 to present. The bias between the two instruments is assessed to be 0.068 % for CO2. Since measurements using the IFS 125HR began, the SD about the hourly mean has been better than 0.1 % for 96.81 % of CO2 column retrievals. The retrievals have been calibrated against in situ airborne measurements to correct for biases and provide traceability to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) scales with an accuracy of 0.1 % for CO2. The Lauder TCCON time series of retrieved dry-air mole fractions of CO2, CH4, N2O, HF, H2O, HDO and CO are available from the TCCON data archive. The DOIs arehttps://doi.org/10.14291/tccon.ggg2014.lauder01.R0/1149293 for the IFS 120HR datahttps://doi.org/10.14291/tccon.ggg2014.lauder02.R0/1149298 for the IFS 125HR data.

  8. Single atom image observation by means of scanning transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoda, Tsutomu; Todokoro, Hideo; Nomura, Setsuo

    1977-01-01

    In a scanning transmission electron microscope, electrons emitted from the ion source are finely focused to a spot on a specimen, and scanned with the deflection coil. The electrons transmitted through the specimen are detected by the scintillate, and converted to image signals with the photomultiplier, and the image is obtained on the cathode ray tube. The Hitachi scanning transmission electron microscope employs a field emission type electron gun, thus it can focus the electron beam to 0.3 nm diameter. In the microscope, elastically scattered electrons are captured by a doughnut shaped detector, while the electrons transmitted through the specimen without colliding with atoms and the non-elastically scattered electrons which has lost a part of their energy due to the ionization or excitation of atoms are detected by the energy analyzer installed at the bottom of the microscope. Though single atom image observation requires the fixation of the atoms to be marked on a support, the problem is how to discriminate the aimed atoms from the atoms of the support. The most sensitive method is the dark-field method which uses the difference of elastically scattered electron intensity as the signal. Thorium and iodine atom images have been successfully observed as the trials to prove the feasibility of observation of heavy atoms with the scanning transmission electron microscope. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. DBS Electrodes With Single Disconnected Contacts: Long-Term Observation and Implications for the Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, Niels; Jusciute, Egle; Quindt, Regina; Lindlau, Alexandra; Nolden, Brit Meike; Daryaeitabar, Mohammadreza; Karbe, Hans

    2018-04-27

    To evaluate the long-term course of quadripolar DBS electrodes with disconnected single contacts that cannot be used for DBS. Quadripolar electrodes with open circuits of single contacts or monopolar impedances >6500 Ω were identified from a cohort of 2082 electrodes from 1044 patients with variable movement disorders. The long-term course was analyzed from follow-up data. Disconnected contacts were found in 58 electrodes (2.8%) from 49 patients (4.7%). The dysfunction was restricted to one contact in 51 electrodes (87.9%), two contacts in 5 electrodes (8.6%), three contacts in 2 electrodes (3.4%). Onset was related to surgery (implantation, impulse generator replacement, or other surgical revision) in 34 electrodes (58.6%), trauma in 2 electrodes, undetermined in 11 electrodes, and occurred spontaneously after previous normal measurements in 11 electrodes (19.0%). Repeated measurements at follow-ups of ≥3 months were available in 39 electrodes. In 16 electrodes (41.0%) abnormal impedances persisted constantly during observations up to 11½ years (47 ± 35 months, median 41 months). In 21 electrodes (53.8%) abnormal impedances remained restricted to the initial contact(s) but varied considerably between measurements during up to six years (39 ± 18 months, median 38 months). Only two electrodes (5.1%) with initially one disconnected contact developed a disconnection of a second contact. Disconnections of single contacts occur with increasing cumulative incidence during long-term DBS. Surgery is the main causative risk factor. In the majority of electrodes, the dysfunction remains restricted to the initial contact(s). © 2018 International Neuromodulation Society.

  10. Ex-vivo training model for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommu Sashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS has recently been applied successfully in the performance of a host of surgical procedures. Preliminary consensus from the experts is that this mode of surgery is technically challenging and requires expertise. The transition from trainee to practicing surgeon, especially in complex procedures with challenging learning curves, takes time and mentor-guided nurturing. However, the trainee needs to use platforms of training to gain the skills that are deemed necessary for undertaking the live human case. Objective: This article aims to demonstrate a step-by-step means of how to acquire the necessary instrumentation and build a training model for practicing steeplechase exercises in LESS for urological surgeons and trainees. The tool built as a result of this could set the platform for performance of basic and advanced skills uptake using conventional, bent and articulated instruments. A preliminary construct validity of the platform was conducted. Materials and Methods: A box model was fitted with an R-Port™ and camera. Articulated and conventional instruments were used to demonstrate basic exercises (e.g. glove pattern cutting, loop stacking and suturing and advanced exercises (e.g. pyeloplasty. The validation included medical students (M, final year laparoscopic fellows (F and experienced consultant laparoscopic surgeons (C with at least 50 LESS cases experience in total, were tested on eight basic skill tasks (S including manipulation of the flexible cystoscope (S1, hand eye coordination (S2, cutting with flexible scissors (S3, grasping with flexible needle holders (S4, two-handed maneuvers (S5, object translocation (S6, cross hand suturing with flexible instruments (S7 and conduction of an ex-vivo pyeloplasty. Results: The successful application of the box model was demonstrated by trainee based exercises. The cost of the kit with circulated materials was less than £150 (Pounds Sterling

  11. Accurate single-observer passive coherent location estimation based on TDOA and DOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of target position estimation with a single-observer passive coherent location (PCL system. An approach that combines angle with time difference of arrival (ATDOA is used to estimate the location of a target. Compared with the TDOA-only method which needs two steps, the proposed method estimates the target position more directly. The constrained total least squares (CTLS technique is applied in this approach. It achieves the Cramer–Rao lower bound (CRLB when the parameter measurements are subject to small Gaussian-distributed errors. Performance analysis and the CRLB of this approach are also studied. Theory verifies that the ATDOA method gets a lower CRLB than the TDOA-only method with the same TDOA measuring error. It can also be seen that the position of the target affects estimating precision. At the same time, the locations of transmitters affect the precision and its gradient direction. Compared with the TDOA, the ATDOA method can obtain more precise target position estimation. Furthermore, the proposed method accomplishes target position estimation with a single transmitter, while the TDOA-only method needs at least four transmitters to get the target position. Furthermore, the transmitters’ position errors also affect precision of estimation regularly.

  12. Clinical evaluation of implant survival based on size and site of placement: A retrospective study of immediate implants at single rooted teeth sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Sundar; Al-Hindi, Maryam; Al-Eid, Raniah Abdullah; Nooh, Nasser

    2015-04-01

    This retrospective clinical study sought to evaluate the survival of immediate implants placed at maxillary and mandibular single-rooted tooth extraction sites and to determine the relationship among implant size, placement site, and implant survival. Between January 2010 and June 2011, 85 patients (33 males, 52 females; mean age: 45 years) underwent immediate implant placement after extraction of single-rooted teeth. All implants were restored between 12 and 14 weeks after implant placement. The implant survival and its relationship with implant size and implantation site were evaluated by odds ratios (ORs). Implants were placed at the following sites: upper central incisor (UCI, n = 35), upper lateral incisor (ULI, n = 27), upper second premolar (U2ndP, n = 36), lower incisor (LI, n = 53), and lower premolar (LP, n = 22). Implants of the following sizes were used: 5 × 10 mm (n = 24), 5 × 8 mm (n = 21), 4.3 × 10 mm (n = 77), 4.3 × 8 mm (n = 36), 3.5 × 10 mm (n = 12), and 3.5 × 8 mm (n = 3). After a mean follow-up time of 47 months, the overall implant survival rate was 96%. Survival rate was highest at the LI site (98.1%) and lowest at the ULI site (92.6%). All of the 5-mm implants survived (100%), as did most of the 4.3 × 10 mm implants (96.1%). Implants of 4.3 × 8 mm and 3.5 × 10 mm were the least successful (91.7%). Mandibular implants had a better survival rate (97.3%) than maxillary implants (94.9%). There was no significant OR of increased survival for any particular implant size or site. Immediate implant placement in fresh extraction sockets can give predictable clinical outcomes, regardless of the implant size and site of placement.

  13. Experimental Observation of a Generalized Thouless Pump with a Single Spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenchao; Zhou, Longwen; Zhang, Qi; Li, Min; Cheng, Chunyang; Geng, Jianpei; Rong, Xing; Shi, Fazhan; Gong, Jiangbin; Du, Jiangfeng

    2018-03-01

    Adiabatic cyclic modulation of a one-dimensional periodic potential will result in quantized charge transport, which is termed the Thouless pump. In contrast to the original Thouless pump restricted by the topology of the energy band, here we experimentally observe a generalized Thouless pump that can be extensively and continuously controlled. The extraordinary features of the new pump originate from interband coherence in nonequilibrium initial states, and this fact indicates that a quantum superposition of different eigenstates individually undergoing quantum adiabatic following can also be an important ingredient unavailable in classical physics. The quantum simulation of this generalized Thouless pump in a two-band insulator is achieved by applying delicate control fields to a single spin in diamond. The experimental results demonstrate all principal characteristics of the generalized Thouless pump. Because the pumping in our system is most pronounced around a band-touching point, this work also suggests an alternative means to detect quantum or topological phase transitions.

  14. Thermal field emission observation of single-crystal LaB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, H.; Harada, K.; Shimizu, R.

    1990-01-01

    TFE (thermal field emission) properties of LaB 6 left-angle 100 right-angle and left-angle 310 right-angle single crystals were investigated by emission pattern observation. It was found that field evaporation with the tip temperature held at ∼1500 degree C is very useful to get a clean pattern of fourfold symmetry. Each of four bright spots in the clean pattern was presumed to correspond to left-angle 310 right-angle emission. It is proposed, as the most appropriate operating condition, to use the left-angle 310 right-angle LaB 6 tip at a temperature ∼1000 degree C in vacuum of 10 -9 Torr region, promising a new TF emitter of high brightness and stability for practical use

  15. Single-molecule observation of helix staggering, sliding, and coiled coil misfolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhiqun; Gao, Ying; Sirinakis, George; Guo, Honglian; Zhang, Yongli

    2012-01-01

    The biological functions of coiled coils generally depend on efficient folding and perfect pairing of their α-helices. Dynamic changes in the helical registry that lead to staggered helices have only been proposed for a few special systems and not found in generic coiled coils. Here, we report our observations of multiple staggered helical structures of two canonical coiled coils. The partially folded structures are formed predominantly by coiled coil misfolding and occasionally by helix sliding. Using high-resolution optical tweezers, we characterized their energies and transition kinetics at a single-molecule level. The staggered states occur less than 2% of the time and about 0.1% of the time at zero force. We conclude that dynamic changes in helical registry may be a general property of coiled coils. Our findings should have broad and unique implications in functions and dysfunctions of proteins containing coiled coils. PMID:22451899

  16. DNA deformability changes of single base pair mutants within CDE binding sites in S. Cerevisiae centromere DNA correlate with measured chromosomal loss rates and CDE binding site symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Kenneth A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The centromeres in yeast (S. cerevisiae are organized by short DNA sequences (125 bp on each chromosome consisting of 2 conserved elements: CDEI and CDEIII spaced by a CDEII region. CDEI and CDEIII are critical sequence specific protein binding sites necessary for correct centromere formation and following assembly with proteins, are positioned near each other on a specialized nucleosome. Hegemann et al. BioEssays 1993, 15: 451–460 reported single base DNA mutants within the critical CDEI and CDEIII binding sites on the centromere of chromosome 6 and quantitated centromere loss of function, which they measured as loss rates for the different chromosome 6 mutants during cell division. Olson et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998, 95: 11163–11168 reported the use of protein-DNA crystallography data to produce a DNA dinucleotide protein deformability energetic scale (PD-scale that describes local DNA deformability by sequence specific binding proteins. We have used the PD-scale to investigate the DNA sequence dependence of the yeast chromosome 6 mutants' loss rate data. Each single base mutant changes 2 PD-scale values at that changed base position relative to the wild type. In this study, we have utilized these mutants to demonstrate a correlation between the change in DNA deformability of the CDEI and CDEIII core sites and the overall experimentally measured chromosome loss rates of the chromosome 6 mutants. Results In the CDE I and CDEIII core binding regions an increase in the magnitude of change in deformability of chromosome 6 single base mutants with respect to the wild type correlates to an increase in the measured chromosome loss rate. These correlations were found to be significant relative to 105 Monte Carlo randomizations of the dinucleotide PD-scale applied to the same calculation. A net loss of deformability also tends to increase the loss rate. Binding site position specific, 4 data-point correlations were also

  17. Single-Site Active Cobalt-Based Photocatalyst with a Long Carrier Lifetime for Spontaneous Overall Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Cao, Linlin; Cheng, Weiren; Cao, Yuanjie; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhang, Wei; Mou, Xiaoli; Jin, Lili; Zheng, Xusheng; Che, Wei; Liu, Qinghua; Yao, Tao; Wei, Shiqiang

    2017-08-01

    An active and stable photocatalyst to directly split water is desirable for solar-energy conversion. However, it is difficult to accomplish overall water splitting without sacrificial electron donors. Herein, we demonstrate a strategy via constructing a single site to simultaneously promote charge separation and catalytic activity for robust overall water splitting. A single Co 1 -P 4 site confined on g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets was prepared by a facile phosphidation method, and identified by electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. This coordinatively unsaturated Co site can effectively suppress charge recombination and prolong carrier lifetime by about 20 times relative to pristine g-C 3 N 4 , and boost water molecular adsorption and activation for oxygen evolution. This single-site photocatalyst exhibits steady and high water splitting activity with H 2 evolution rate up to 410.3 μmol h -1  g -1 , and quantum efficiency as high as 2.2 % at 500 nm. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Microstructural observations on hydrothermal veins of Site U1414, IODP Expedition 344 (CRISP 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstätter, Jennifer; Kurz, Walter; Rogowitz, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The erosive active margin offshore Osa Peninsula (Costa Rica) is characterized by the subducting Cocos Plate with its topographic height, the aseismic Cocos Ridge, which has lifted the seismogenic zone in the reach of scientific drilling. To understand the processes occurring in the subducting Cocos Plate in the vicinity to the Middle America Trench, we investigated microstructures in hydrothermal veins, transecting the lithified sediments and the igneous basement of IODP Hole U-1414A. Mechanical e-twinning occurred mainly in the blocky calcite veins in the lithified sediments, rather than in the fibrous calcite veins within the Cocos Ridge basalt. The differential stress, obtained from two different piezometers, indicate mean differential stresses of approximately 53 and 82 MPa. The majority of the twins show a significant thickness (up to 120 µm), straight twin boundaries and are indicative for deformation temperatures between 150 to 300°C. The presence of additional deformation structures, such as undulose extinction and subgrain boundaries, indicates intracrystalline-plastic deformation by dislocation creep. The comparison of the EBSD data from two samples within the lithified sedimentary unit indicates diverse deformation temperatures. Variation in subgrain size observed for the different samples can be related to local variations in differential stress. The results of different microstructural observations showed, that the deformational history of Site 344-U1414 is characterized by distinct tectonic phases, occurring during the movement of the Cocos Ridge from its location of origin (the Galapagos hotspot) to the convergent margin offshore Costa Rica. The causes for these changes in deformation mechanisms in the studied rocks are ascribed to magmatic advection resulting in an increase of temperature and decrease of critical resolved shear stresses, as well as the bending of the Cocos plate adjacent to the Middle American trench.

  19. Observations of alkylamines at a costal site in the East Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzitzikalaki, Evaggelia; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Hellén, Heidi; Hakola, Hannele; Kalivitis, Nikolaos; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Amines are reactive volatile base in the atmosphere and play a key role in new particle formation. Due to their height reactivity, concentration measurements are scare and mostly concentrated within short period of time. The present study provided the first long- term measurements of alkylamines in the Eastern Mediterranean. Measurements took place at a remote coastal site on the north east side of the island of Crete at the Finokalia monitoring station of the University of Crete (finokalia.chemistry.uoc.gr; 35°20΄N, 25°40΄E, 250m a.s.l.) from January 2013 to December 2015. The samples were collected in glass fiber filters impregnated with phosphoric acid that trap gas-phase amines as salt. Samples were subsequently transported to the lab where they were stored in refrigeration until the analysis that took place in a Liquid Chromatography Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (TSQ Quantum, Thermo Finnigan). The alkylamines that were detected were ethylamine (EA), dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), propylamine (PA), diethylamine (DEA) and triethylamine (TEA). DMA & EA and TMA & PA were handled as pairs as they couldn't be separated. The most abundant amines were found to be DMA & EA, whereas BA and TMA were under the detection limits. The highest concentrations for DMA & EA and DEA were observed during summer, while for TMA & PA no clear annual cycle was found. The results are analyzed together with observations of new particle formation at the Finokalia station to estimate possible links of alkylamines to the formation of atmospheric particles in the area. This work has been partially supported by the European FP7 collaborative project BACCHUS (Impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding).

  20. Origin and variability in volatile organic compounds observed at an Eastern Mediterranean background site (Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Debevec

    2017-09-01

    as being either of local origin or from more distant emission zones (i.e., the south coast of Turkey; and a last factor (36 % associated with regional background pollution (air masses transported both from the Western and Eastern Mediterranean regions. One of the two biogenic and the regional background factors were found to be the largest contributors to the VOC concentrations observed at our sampling site. Finally, a combined analysis of VOC PMF factors with source-apportioned organic aerosols (OAs helped to better distinguish between anthropogenic and biogenic influences on the aerosol and gas phase compositions. The highest OA concentrations were observed when the site was influenced by air masses rich in semi-volatile OA (less oxidized aerosols originating from the southwest of Asia, in contrast with OA factor contributions associated with the remaining source regions. A reinforcement of secondary OA formation also occurred due to the intense oxidation of biogenic precursors.

  1. Observation of Electroweak Single Top-Quark Production with the CDF II Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueck, Jan [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (Germany)

    2009-07-24

    The standard model of elementary particle physics (SM) predicts, besides the top-quark pair production via the strong interaction, also the electroweak production of single top-quarks [19]. Up to now, the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton-collider is the only place to produce and study top quarks emerging from hadron-hadron-collisions. Top quarks were directly observed in 1995 during the Tevatron Run I at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.8 TeV simultaneously by the CDF and D0 Collaborations via the strong production of top-quark pairs. Run II of the Tevatron data taking period started 2001 at √s = 1.96 TeV after a five year upgrade of the Tevatron accelerator complex and of both experiments. One main component of its physics program is the determination of the properties of the top quark including its electroweak production. Even though Run II is still ongoing, the study of the top quark is already a successful endeavor, confirmed by dozens of publications from both Tevatron experiments. A comprehensive review of top-quark physics can be found in reference. The reasons for searching for single top-quark production are compelling. As the electroweak top-quark production proceeds via a Wtb vertex, it provides the unique opportunity of the direct measurement of the CKM matrix element |Vtb|, which is expected to be |Vtb| ~ 1 in the SM. Significant deviations from unity could be an indication of a fourth quark generation, a production mode via flavor-changing neutral currents, and other new phenomena, respectively. There are two dominating electroweak top-quark production modes at the Fermilab Tevatron: the t-channel exchange of a virtual W boson striking a b quark and the s-channel production of a timelike W boson via the fusion of two quarks. In proton-antiproton-collisions the third electroweak production mode, the associated Wt production of an on-shell W boson in conjunction with a top quark has a comparatively negligible small

  2. The Contribution of Earth Observation Technologies to Monitoring Strategies of Cultural Landscapes and Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, B.

    2017-08-01

    Coupling of Climate change effects with management and protection of cultural and natural heritage has been brought to the attention of policy makers since several years. On the worldwide level, UNESCO has identified several phenomena as the major geo-hazards possibly induced by climate change and their possible hazardous impact to natural and cultural heritage: Hurricane, storms; Sea-level rise; Erosion; Flooding; Rainfall increase; Drought; Desertification and Rise in temperature. The same document further referrers to satellite Remote Sensing (EO) as one of the valuable tools, useful for development of "professional monitoring strategies". More recently, other studies have highlighted on the impact of climate change effects on tourism, an economic sector related to build environment and traditionally linked to heritage. The results suggest that, in case of emergency the concrete threat could be given by the hazardous event itself; in case of ordinary administration, however, the threat seems to be a "hazardous attitude" towards cultural assets that could lead to inadequate maintenance and thus to a risk of an improper management of cultural heritage sites. This paper aims to illustrate potential benefits that advancements of Earth Observation technologies can bring to the domain of monitoring landscape heritage and to the management strategies, including practices of preventive maintenance. The attempt here is to raise awareness on the importance of integrating satellite remote sensing imagery and the deriving products with other geospatial information (even geo-referenced historic maps) for a more complete insight on the environmental dynamics of landscapes.

  3. A breeding site model for regional, dynamical malaria simulations evaluated using in situ temporary ponds observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest O. Asare

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Daily observations of potential mosquito developmental habitats in a suburb of Kumasi in central Ghana reveal a strong variability in their water persistence times, which ranged between 11 and 81 days. The persistence of the ponds was strongly tied with rainfall, location and size of the puddles. A simple power-law relationship is found to fit the relationship between the average pond depth and area well. A prognostic water balance model is derived that describes the temporal evolution of the pond area and depth, incorporating the power-law geometrical relation. Pond area increases in response to rainfall, while evaporation and infiltration act as sink terms. Based on a range of evaluation metrics, the prognostic model is judged to provide a good representation of the pond coverage evolution at most sites. Finally, we demonstrate that the prognostic equation can be generalised and equally applied to a grid-cell to derive a fractional pond coverage, and thus can be implemented in spatially distributed models for relevant vector- borne diseases such as malaria.

  4. Dynamic observation of biomechanic properties of sciatic nerve at the suture site in rats following repairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Baoguo; Zhang, Peixun; Yan, Jiazhi; Zhang, Hongbo

    2008-01-01

    To observe the biomechanic properties of the sciatic nerve at the suture site following repairing in rats. The right sciatic nerves of 40 white Sprague-Dawley 300~350 gm rats were exposed, cut and then repaired with 10-0 nylon sutures with four stitches, laced in the epineurium 0, 1, 3, and 6 weeks after operation, the tensile strength of the sciatic nerves were measured, and the data analyzed statistically. The load elongation curves for both the normal unoperated and operated nerves had similar shape. There were significant differences between the tensile strength of the 0th and the 1st, 3rd, and 6th weeks (P < 0.01). No significant difference was found among the 1st, 3rd, and 6th weeks. The tensile strength of the injured nerves recovered 48% of the normal nerve in the 1st week and 54% in 6 weeks after repairing. It may be concluded that the injured nerves can acquire mostly tensile strength stability in 1 week quickly and can maintain this relative tensile strength stability in 6 weeks.

  5. A breeding site model for regional, dynamical malaria simulations evaluated using in situ temporary ponds observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Ernest O; Tompkins, Adrian M; Amekudzi, Leonard K; Ermert, Volker

    2016-03-31

    Daily observations of potential mosquito developmental habitats in a suburb of Kumasi in central Ghana reveal a strong variability in their water persistence times, which ranged between 11 and 81 days. The persistence of the ponds was strongly tied with rainfall, location and size of the puddles. A simple power-law relationship is found to fit the relationship between the average pond depth and area well. A prognostic water balance model is derived that describes the temporal evolution of the pond area and depth, incorporating the power-law geometrical relation. Pond area increases in response to rainfall, while evaporation and infiltration act as sink terms. Based on a range of evaluation metrics, the prognostic model is judged to provide a good representation of the pond coverage evolution at most sites. Finally, we demonstrate that the prognostic equation can be generalised and equally applied to a grid-cell to derive a fractional pond coverage, and thus can be implemented in spatially distributed models for relevant vector- borne diseases such as malaria.

  6. Prospective observational study of single- or multi-compartment pressure ulcer prevention cushions: PRESCAROH project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaume, S; Marty, M; Colin, D

    2017-09-02

    In patients with reduced mobility, specialised pressure-relieving supports (mattresses, beds and cushions) are widely used to reduce or relieve the interface pressure between the skin and support surfaces to prevent incidence of pressure ulcers (PUs). The primary objective of these two observational studies was to assess the incidence of PUs in patients at high risk of PUs, seated in a wheelchair using a single- or multi-compartment air cushion. The level of patient satisfaction with the comfort and the views of the care team that used the air cushions were considered as secondary objectives. The PRESCAROH project was two prospective observational studies conducted in patients free of PUs at baseline and at high risk of PUs (Braden score ≤13 or ≤16 for people with spinal cord injury). Patients had to spend more than eight hours a day in a wheelchair and use either a single-compartment air cushion (patient without asymmetry of support) for the first study or a multi-compartment air cushion (patient with asymmetry of support) for the second study. The primary end point was the percentage of patients in whom a PU (sacrum and/or ischium) developed over a 35-day period. The analysis was performed on the full-analysis set (FAS) of patients included with at least a second assessment. We recruited 152 patients, 78 seated on a single-compartment air cushion (SiCAC group) and 74 on a multi-compartment air cushion (MuCAC group), in the two independent studies. All patients were included in the FAS (n=152). Most patients had spinal cord injuries. The average time spent sitting was 10.2 (standard deviation (SD): 2.3) hours a day in the SiCAC group and 9.1 (SD: 1.9) hours a day in the MuCAC group. In the SiCAC group, 6.4% (5/78) of patients dropped out of the study (one patient because of pulmonary infection and four patients for cushion installation problems). In the MuCAC group, 8.1% (6/74) of patients dropped out of the study (three patients because of adverse events not

  7. Bis(benzimidazole)amine vanadium catalysts for olefin polymerisation and co-polymerisation: thermally robust, single-site catalysts activated by simple alkylaluminium reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Atanas K; Gibson, Vernon C; Zaher, Damien; Elsegood, Mark R J; Dale, Sophie H

    2004-09-07

    Vanadium complexes containing bis(benzimidazole)amine ligands, upon activation by simple alkylaluminium reagents, give unusually robust, single-site, catalysts for olefin polymerisation/co-polymerisation.

  8. Patterns and plasticity in RNA-protein interactions enable recruitment of multiple proteins through a single site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Cary T.; Porter, Douglas F.; Qiu, Chen; Campbell, Zachary T.; Hall, Traci M. Tanaka; Wickens, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    mRNA control hinges on the specificity and affinity of proteins for their RNA binding sites. Regulatory proteins must bind their own sites and reject even closely related noncognate sites. In the PUF [Pumilio and fem-3 binding factor (FBF)] family of RNA binding proteins, individual proteins discriminate differences in the length and sequence of binding sites, allowing each PUF to bind a distinct battery of mRNAs. Here, we show that despite these differences, the pattern of RNA interactions is conserved among PUF proteins: the two ends of the PUF protein make critical contacts with the two ends of the RNA sites. Despite this conserved “two-handed” pattern of recognition, the RNA sequence is flexible. Among the binding sites of yeast Puf4p, RNA sequence dictates the pattern in which RNA bases are flipped away from the binding surface of the protein. Small differences in RNA sequence allow new modes of control, recruiting Puf5p in addition to Puf4p to a single site. This embedded information adds a new layer of biological meaning to the connections between RNA targets and PUF proteins. PMID:22467831

  9. Synthesis of a molecularly defined single-active site heterogeneous catalyst for selective oxidation of N-heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujing; Pang, Shaofeng; Wei, Zhihong; Jiao, Haijun; Dai, Xingchao; Wang, Hongli; Shi, Feng

    2018-04-13

    Generally, a homogeneous catalyst exhibits good activity and defined active sites but it is difficult to recycle. Meanwhile, a heterogeneous catalyst can easily be reused but its active site is difficult to reveal. It is interesting to bridge the gap between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis via controllable construction of a heterogeneous catalyst containing defined active sites. Here, we report that a molecularly defined, single-active site heterogeneous catalyst has been designed and prepared via the oxidative polymerization of maleimide derivatives. These polymaleimide derivatives can be active catalysts for the selective oxidation of heterocyclic compounds to quinoline and indole via the recycling of -C=O and -C-OH groups, which was confirmed by tracing the reaction with GC-MS using maleimide as the catalyst and by FT-IR analysis with polymaleimide as the catalyst. These results might promote the development of heterogeneous catalysts with molecularly defined single active sites exhibiting a comparable activity to homogeneous catalysts.

  10. Observation of the production of a W boson in association with a single charm quark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Chou, J P; Chokheli, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Eusebi, R; Farrington, S; Fernández Ramos, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Funakoshi, Y; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kim, Y J; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lipeles, E; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Martínez, M; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parker, W; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Prokoshin, F; Pranko, A; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Ranjan, N; Redondo Fernández, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Riddick, T; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Sorin, V; Song, H; Stancari, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vernieri, C; Vidal, M; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2013-02-15

    The first observation of the production of a W boson with a single charm quark (c) jet in pp[over ¯] collisions at √s=1.96  TeV is reported. The analysis uses data corresponding to 4.3  fb(-1), recorded with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Charm quark candidates are selected through the identification of an electron or muon from charm-hadron semileptonic decay within a hadronic jet, and a Wc signal is observed with a significance of 5.7 standard deviations. The production cross section σ(Wc)(p(Tc)>20  GeV/c,|η(c)|quark-mixing matrix element V(cs) is derived, |V(cs)|=1.08±0.16 along with a lower limit of |V(cs)|>0.71 at the 95% confidence level, assuming that the Wc production through c to s quark coupling is dominant.

  11. Single-molecule observations of RNA-RNA kissing interactions in a DNA nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yosuke; Endo, Masayuki; Suzuki, Yuki; Hidaka, Kumi; Durand, Guillaume; Dausse, Eric; Toulmé, Jean-Jacques; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    RNA molecules uniquely form a complex through specific hairpin loops, called a kissing complex. The kissing complex is widely investigated and used for the construction of RNA nanostructures. Molecular switches have also been created by combining a kissing loop and a ligand-binding aptamer to control the interactions of RNA molecules. In this study, we incorporated two kinds of RNA molecules into a DNA origami structure and used atomic force microscopy to observe their ligand-responsive interactions at the single-molecule level. We used a designed RNA aptamer called GTPswitch, which has a guanosine triphosphate (GTP) responsive domain and can bind to the target RNA hairpin named Aptakiss in the presence of GTP. We observed shape changes of the DNA/RNA strands in the DNA origami, which are induced by the GTPswitch, into two different shapes in the absence and presence of GTP, respectively. We also found that the switching function in the nanospace could be improved by using a cover strand over the kissing loop of the GTPswitch or by deleting one base from this kissing loop. These newly designed ligand-responsive aptamers can be used for the controlled assembly of the various DNA and RNA nanostructures.

  12. Sensitivity of wetland methane emissions to model assumptions: application and model testing against site observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Meng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Methane emissions from natural wetlands and rice paddies constitute a large proportion of atmospheric methane, but the magnitude and year-to-year variation of these methane sources are still unpredictable. Here we describe and evaluate the integration of a methane biogeochemical model (CLM4Me; Riley et al., 2011 into the Community Land Model 4.0 (CLM4CN in order to better explain spatial and temporal variations in methane emissions. We test new functions for soil pH and redox potential that impact microbial methane production in soils. We also constrain aerenchyma in plants in always-inundated areas in order to better represent wetland vegetation. Satellite inundated fraction is explicitly prescribed in the model, because there are large differences between simulated fractional inundation and satellite observations, and thus we do not use CLM4-simulated hydrology to predict inundated areas. A rice paddy module is also incorporated into the model, where the fraction of land used for rice production is explicitly prescribed. The model is evaluated at the site level with vegetation cover and water table prescribed from measurements. Explicit site level evaluations of simulated methane emissions are quite different than evaluating the grid-cell averaged emissions against available measurements. Using a baseline set of parameter values, our model-estimated average global wetland emissions for the period 1993–2004 were 256 Tg CH4 yr−1 (including the soil sink and rice paddy emissions in the year 2000 were 42 Tg CH4 yr−1. Tropical wetlands contributed 201 Tg CH4 yr−1, or 78% of the global wetland flux. Northern latitude (>50 N systems contributed 12 Tg CH4 yr−1. However, sensitivity studies show a large range (150–346 Tg CH4 yr−1 in predicted global methane emissions (excluding emissions from rice paddies. The large range is

  13. Direct observation of backbone planarization via side-chain alignment in single bulky-substituted polythiophenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithel, Dominic; Simine, Lena; Pickel, Sebastian; Schötz, Konstantin; Panzer, Fabian; Baderschneider, Sebastian; Schiefer, Daniel; Lohwasser, Ruth; Köhler, Jürgen; Thelakkat, Mukundan; Sommer, Michael; Köhler, Anna; Rossky, Peter J.; Hildner, Richard

    2018-03-01

    The backbone conformation of conjugated polymers affects, to a large extent, their optical and electronic properties. The usually flexible substituents provide solubility and influence the packing behavior of conjugated polymers in films or in bad solvents. However, the role of the side chains in determining and potentially controlling the backbone conformation, and thus the optical and electronic properties on the single polymer level, is currently under debate. Here, we investigate directly the impact of the side chains by studying the bulky-substituted poly(3-(2,5-dioctylphenyl)thiophene) (PDOPT) and the common poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), both with a defined molecular weight and high regioregularity, using low-temperature single-chain photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and quantum-classical simulations. Surprisingly, the optical transition energy of PDOPT is significantly (˜2,000 cm‑1 or 0.25 eV) red-shifted relative to P3HT despite a higher static and dynamic disorder in the former. We ascribe this red shift to a side-chain induced backbone planarization in PDOPT, supported by temperature-dependent ensemble PL spectroscopy. Our atomistic simulations reveal that the bulkier 2,5-dioctylphenyl side chains of PDOPT adopt a clear secondary helical structural motif and thus protect conjugation, i.e., enforce backbone planarity, whereas, for P3HT, this is not the case. These different degrees of planarity in both thiophenes do not result in different conjugation lengths, which we found to be similar. It is rather the stronger electronic coupling between the repeating units in the more planar PDOPT which gives rise to the observed spectral red shift as well as to a reduced calculated electron‑hole polarization.

  14. Prospective observation of CAD/CAM titanium ceramic single crowns: a three-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckler, Arne F; Lee, Heeje; Stadler, Anke; Setz, Jürgen M

    2009-11-01

    Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) titanium ceramic restorations were developed with the potential for replacing expensive, high noble metal ceramic restorations. However, there is a lack of information about the clinical performance of CAD/CAM titanium ceramic single crowns. The purpose of this study was to evaluate CAD/CAM titanium ceramic single crowns after 3 years in function. A total of 41 crowns were fabricated for 21 patients. The titanium copings were CAD/CAM milled (Everest CAD/CAM system) with an even thickness of 0.5 mm, and low-fusing veneering porcelain (Vita Titanium Porcelain) was added incrementally. The crowns were cemented using zinc phosphate cement after confirming that there were no mechanical and biological complications. The patients were recalled at 12, 24, and 36 months after cementation to examine the presence of any complications and measure periodontal parameters such as probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and plaque index (PI). The success and survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. The success rate of CAD/CAM titanium ceramic crowns with regard to mechanical complications was 82.3% (95% confidence interval: 71.2% to 95.1%). The cumulative survival rate of the crowns was 94.9% (95% confidence interval: 88.3% to 100%) after 3 years. No biological complications were observed. At the end of the follow up, PD was 2.93 mm, percentile of surface with BOP was 29.2, and PI was 0.31. The clinical performances of the CAD/CAM titanium ceramic crowns for 3 years were acceptable, with no biologic complications and a high cumulative survival rate.

  15. Obtaining Global Picture From Single Point Observations by Combining Data Assimilation and Machine Learning Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shprits, Y.; Zhelavskaya, I. S.; Kellerman, A. C.; Spasojevic, M.; Kondrashov, D. A.; Ghil, M.; Aseev, N.; Castillo Tibocha, A. M.; Cervantes Villa, J. S.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing volume of satellite measurements requires deployment of new tools that can utilize such vast amount of data. Satellite measurements are usually limited to a single location in space, which complicates the data analysis geared towards reproducing the global state of the space environment. In this study we show how measurements can be combined by means of data assimilation and how machine learning can help analyze large amounts of data and can help develop global models that are trained on single point measurement. Data Assimilation: Manual analysis of the satellite measurements is a challenging task, while automated analysis is complicated by the fact that measurements are given at various locations in space, have different instrumental errors, and often vary by orders of magnitude. We show results of the long term reanalysis of radiation belt measurements along with fully operational real-time predictions using data assimilative VERB code. Machine Learning: We present application of the machine learning tools for the analysis of NASA Van Allen Probes upper-hybrid frequency measurements. Using the obtained data set we train a new global predictive neural network. The results for the Van Allen Probes based neural network are compared with historical IMAGE satellite observations. We also show examples of predictions of geomagnetic indices using neural networks. Combination of machine learning and data assimilation: We discuss how data assimilation tools and machine learning tools can be combine so that physics-based insight into the dynamics of the particular system can be combined with empirical knowledge of it's non-linear behavior.

  16. Selective alkane activation with single-site atoms on amorphous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Adam S.; Schweitzer, Neil M.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Hu, Bo

    2015-11-24

    The present invention relates generally to catalysts and methods for use in olefin production. More particularly, the present invention relates to novel amorphously supported single-center, Lewis acid metal ions and use of the same as catalysts.

  17. Clinical Appliance of Laparo-Endoscopic Single-Site Surgery (LESS) in Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liatsikos, Evangelos; Kyriazis, Iason; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Do, Minh; Anja, Anja; Rigopoulos, Christos; Al-Aown, Abdulrahman; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2010-04-01

    Laparoscopy has gained a place in everyday surgical routine as an alternative surgical approach that decreases morbidity and postoperative hospitalization. Single port laparoscopic surgery has been introduced as a further development of laparoscopy. The feasibility and safety of single port laparoscopy is under extensive evaluation in specialized laparoscopic centers. Nevertheless, wide acceptance of the technique requires adequate documentation of the advantages of the approach over conventional laparoscopy and further refinement of surgical instrumentation to overcome intraoperative ergonomic problems.

  18. Compact Single Site Resolution Cold Atom Experiment for Adiabatic Quantum Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Specifically, we will design and construct a set of compact single atom traps with integrated optics, suitable for heralded entanglement and loophole...technical development is to achieve fast loading and qubit manipulation in the single- atom traps, which will enable our scientific investigation. The...goal of our scientific investigation is to demonstrate high fidelity and fast atom - atom entanglement between physically 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4

  19. Characterization of the corrosion behavior of the carbon steel liner in Hanford Site single-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Schwenk, E.B.; Danielson, M.J.

    1994-06-01

    Six safety initiatives have been identified for accelerating the resolution of waste tank safety issues and closure of unreviewed safety questions. Safety Initiative 5 is to reduce safety and environmental risk from tank leaks. Item d of Safety Initiative 5 is to complete corrosion studies of single-shell tanks to determine failure mechanisms and corrosion control options to minimize further degradation by June 1994. This report has been prepared to fulfill Safety Initiative 5, Item d. The corrosion mechanisms that apply to Hanford Site single-shell tanks are stress corrosion cracking, pitting/crevice corrosion, uniform corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, and microbiologically influenced corrosion. The corrosion data relevant to the single-shell tanks dates back three decades, when results were obtained from in-situ corrosion coupons in a few single-shell tanks. Since that time there have been intertank transfers, evaporation, and chemical alterations of the waste. These activities have changed the character and the present composition of the waste is not well characterized. All conclusions and recommendations are made in the absence of relevant laboratory experimental data and tank inspection data. The report attempts to identify the failure mechanisms by a literature survey of carbon steel data in environments similar to the single-shell tank wastes, and by a review of the work performed at the Savannah River Site where similar wastes are stored in similar carbon steel tanks. Based on these surveys, and in the absence of data specific to Hanford single-shell tanks, it may be concluded that the single-shell tanks identified as leakers failed primarily by stress corrosion cracking due to the presence of high nitrate/low hydroxide wastes and residual stresses. In addition, some failures may be attributed to pitting under crevices in low hydroxide locations

  20. Real-Time Visualization of Active Species in a Single-Site Metal–Organic Framework Photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sizhuo [Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, United States; Pattengale, Brian [Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, United States; Lee, Sungsik [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60349, United States; Huang, Jier [Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, United States

    2018-02-06

    In this work, we report a new single-site photocatalyst (Co-Ru-UIO- 67(bpy)) based on a metal-organic framework platform with incorporated molecular photosensitizer and catalyst. We show that this catalyst not only demonstrates exceptional activity for light-driven H2 production but also can be recycled without loss of activity. Using the combination of optical transient absorption spectroscopy and in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we not only captured the key CoI intermediate species formed after ultrafast charge transfer from the incorporated photosensitizer but also identified the rate-limiting step in the catalytic cycle, providing insight into the catalysis mechanism of these single-site metal-organic framework photocatalysts.

  1. Meteorologically-adjusted trend analysis of surface observed ozone at three monitoring sites in Delhi, India: 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, J.; Farooqui, Z.; Guttikunda, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that meteorological parameters have significant impact on surface ozone concentrations. Therefore it is important to remove the effects of meteorology on ozone concentrations to correctly estimate long-term trends in ozone levels due to the alterations in precursor emissions. This is important for the development of effectual control strategies. In this study surface observed ozone trends in New Delhi are analyzed using Komogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter, US EPA ozone adjustment due to weather approach and the classification and regression tree method. The statistical models are applied to the ozone data at three observational sites in New Delhi metropolitan areas, 1) Income Tax Office (ITO) 2) Sirifort and 3) Delhi College of Engineering (DCE). The ITO site is located adjacent to a traffic crossing, Sirifort is an urban site and the DCE site is located in a residential area. The ITO site is also influenced by local industrial emissions. DCE has higher ozone levels than the other two sites. It was found that ITO has lowest ozone concentrations amongst the three sites due to ozone titrating due to industrial and on-road mobile NOx emissions. The statistical methods employed can assess ozone trends at these sites with a high degree of confidence and the results can be used to gauge the effectiveness of control strategies on surface ozone levels in New Delhi.

  2. Observations of fluorescent and biological aerosol at a high-altitude site in central France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gabey

    2013-08-01

    mass spectra recorded using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS; Aerodyne Inc. suggests that aerosol reaching the site at night was more aged than that during the day, indicative of sampling the residual layer at night. Supplementary meteorological data and previous work also show that PdD lies in the residual layer/free troposphere at night, and this is thought to cause the observed diurnal cycles in organic-type and fluorescent aerosol particles. Based on the observed disparity between bacteria and fluorescent particle concentrations, fluorescent non-PBA is likely to be important in the WIBS-3 data and the surprisingly high fluorescent concentration in the residual layer/free troposphere raises questions about a ubiquitous background in continental air during the summer.

  3. THE CONTRIBUTION OF EARTH OBSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES TO MONITORING STRATEGIES OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES AND SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cuca

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coupling of Climate change effects with management and protection of cultural and natural heritage has been brought to the attention of policy makers since several years. On the worldwide level, UNESCO has identified several phenomena as the major geo-hazards possibly induced by climate change and their possible hazardous impact to natural and cultural heritage: Hurricane, storms; Sea-level rise; Erosion; Flooding; Rainfall increase; Drought; Desertification and Rise in temperature. The same document further referrers to satellite Remote Sensing (EO as one of the valuable tools, useful for development of “professional monitoring strategies”. More recently, other studies have highlighted on the impact of climate change effects on tourism, an economic sector related to build environment and traditionally linked to heritage. The results suggest that, in case of emergency the concrete threat could be given by the hazardous event itself; in case of ordinary administration, however, the threat seems to be a “hazardous attitude” towards cultural assets that could lead to inadequate maintenance and thus to a risk of an improper management of cultural heritage sites. This paper aims to illustrate potential benefits that advancements of Earth Observation technologies can bring to the domain of monitoring landscape heritage and to the management strategies, including practices of preventive maintenance. The attempt here is to raise awareness on the importance of integrating satellite remote sensing imagery and the deriving products with other geospatial information (even geo-referenced historic maps for a more complete insight on the environmental dynamics of landscapes.

  4. Highly efficient one-step conversion of cyclohexane to adipic acid using single-site heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Robert; Thomas, John Meurig; Xu, Mingcan; Harris, Kenneth D M; Greenhill-Hooper, Michael; Quill, Kieran

    2006-01-28

    A solid source of 'active' oxygen (acetylperoxyborate, APB), when dissolved in aqueous solution in the presence of a single-site microporous catalyst containing redox centres (Fe(III)AlPO-31, Mn(III)AlPO-5, Fe(III)AlPO-5), converts cyclohexane with high efficiency (ca. 88%) and exceptionally high selectivity (ca. 81%) to adipic acid at 383 K; this procedure is also effective in converting styrene to styrene oxide and -pinene and (+)-limonene to their corresponding epoxides.

  5. Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery (LESS) for Excision of a Seminal Vesicle Cyst Associated with Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Ki Don; Choi, Kyung Hwa; Yang, Seung Choul; Jang, Won Sik; Jang, Ji Young; Han, Woong Kyu

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) for a symptomatic left seminal vesicular cyst and ipsilateral renal agenesis. A 49-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of severe irritation upon voiding and intractable, recurrent hematospermia. A computed tomography scan showed a 68×41×38 mm sized left seminal vesicular cyst with ipsilateral renal agenesis. LESS was performed successfully to treat the seminal vesicle cyst. The total operative time was 125 minutes, and b...

  6. 1.55 µm emission from a single III-nitride top-down and site-controlled nanowire quantum disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiming; Yan, Changling; Qu, Yi

    2017-07-01

    InN/InGaN single quantum well (SQW) was fabricated on 100 nm GaN buffer layer which was deposited on GaN template by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). The In composition and the surface morphology were measured by x-ray diffusion (XRD) and atom force microscope (AFM), respectively. Afterwards, the sample was fabricated into site-controlled nanowires arrays by hot-embossing nano-imprint lithography (HE-NIL) and ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL). The nanowires were uniform along the c-axis and aligned periodically as presented by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The single nanowire showed disk-in-a-wire structure by high angle annular dark field (HAADF) and an In-rich or Ga deficient region was observed by energy dispersive x-ray spectrum (EDXS). The optical properties of the SQW film and single nanowire were measured using micro photoluminescence (µ-PL) spectroscopy. The stimulating light wavelength was 632.8 nm which was emitted from a He-Ne laser and the detector was a liquid nitrogen cooled InGaAs detector. A blue peak shift from the film material to the nanowire was observed. This was due to the quantum confinement Stark Effect. More importantly, the 1.55 µm emission was given from the single disk-in-a-wire structure at room temperature. We believe the arrays of such nanowires may be useful for quantum communication in the future.

  7. Design and Use of Nanostructured Single-Site Heterogeneous Catalysts for the Selective Transformation of Fine Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimiro Dal Santo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured single-site heterogeneous catalysts possess the advantages of classical solid catalysts, in terms of easy recovery and recycling, together with a defined tailored chemical and steric environment around the catalytically active metal site. The use of inorganic oxide supports with selected shape and porosity at a nanometric level may have a relevant impact on the regio- and stereochemistry of the catalytic reaction. Analogously, by choosing the optimal preparation techniques to obtain spatially isolated and well-characterised active sites, it is possible to achieve performances that are comparable to (or, in the most favourable cases, better than those obtained with homogeneous systems. Such catalysts are therefore particularly suitable for the transformation of highly-functionalised fine chemicals and some relevant examples where high chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity are crucial will be described.

  8. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the human serotonin transporter introduces a new site for N-linked glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Trine Nygaard; Plenge, Per; Bay, Tina

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin transporter (hSERT) is responsible for reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) from the synaptic cleft and is target for antidepressant medicine. Differential hSERT activity caused by genetic polymorphisms is believed to affect the risk of developing depression and, moreover, to affect...... the response to antidepressant therapy. The hSERT contains in the second extracellular loop (EL2) two sites for N-linked glycosylation that are critical for functional transporter expression. Here we examine a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in EL2 that gives rise to a potential third...... as compared to hSERT in both cell systems. The increase in expression was accompanied by corresponding significant increases in the number of [(3)H]citalopram binding sites and in the V(max) for [(3)H]5-HT uptake. Characterization of mutants carrying all possible combinations of glycosylation sites...

  9. Very late complications of cervical arthroplasty: results of 2 controlled randomized prospective studies from a single investigator site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Francis M; Babcock, Rebecca M; Hacker, Robert J

    2013-12-15

    Prospective, single-site, randomized, Food and Drug Administration-approved investigational device exemption clinical trials of 2 cervical arthroplasty (CA) devices. To evaluate complications with CA occurring more than 4 years after the surgical procedure in Food and Drug Administration clinical trials of the Bryan and Prestige LP arthroplasty devices. Reports of several randomized clinical studies have shown CA to be a safe and effective alternative to anterior cervical fusion in the treatment of degenerative cervical disc disorders. A majority include follow-up intervals of 4 years or less. Between 2002 and 2006, 94 patients were enrolled in Food and Drug Administration studies of the Bryan and Prestige LP cervical disc devices. Charts, imaging studies, and hospital records were reviewed for those who underwent arthroplasty and returned more than 4 years after their surgical procedure with neck-related pain or dysfunction. Excluding adjacent segment disease that occurred with a similar rate for patients who underwent fusion and arthroplasty, 5 patients, all treated with arthroplasty, returned for evaluation of neck and arm symptoms between 48 and 72 months after surgery. Four patients had peridevice vertebral body bone loss. One patient had posterior device migration and presented with myelopathy. Three required revision surgery and 2 were observed. Four patients maintained follow-up and reported stabilization or improvement in symptoms. Despite their similarities, CA and fusion are not equivalent procedures in this study in regard to very late complications. Similar to large joint arthroplasty, delayed device-related complications may occur with CA. These complications commenced well beyond the time frame for complications associated with more traditional cervical spine procedures. Both patients and surgeons should be aware of the potential for very late device-related complications occurring with CA and the need for revision surgery. 1.

  10. Consecutive Case Series of Healed Single-Molar Sites Immediately Restored with Wide-Diameter Implants: A 1-Year Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Antoun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To evaluate outcomes of wide-diameter (6 mm implants immediately provisionalized with cement-retained single crowns in posterior molar sites. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight consecutive patients received a total of 53 moderately rough-surface, 6 mm diameter implants in healed sites. All implants were immediately provisionalized with a cement-retained provisional crown. Final prosthesis with cement-retained porcelain fused to metal crowns was delivered 3–6 months later. Patients were followed up for 1 year. Outcome measures were implant failures and success rate, complications, marginal bone levels, bone level changes, papilla index, bleeding on probing, and inflammation. Results. One patient was lost to follow-up. At one year, the implant survival and success rate were 98.1%. The mean marginal bone loss after 1 year was −0.17±1.84 mm. Ideal papilla score was recorded at 83.8% of the sites. More than 95.6% of the sites showed no bleeding or inflammation. No procedure-related or device-related adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Wide-diameter (6 mm implants can safely and successfully replace single posterior molars. Longer follow-up studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term success of these implants.

  11. Consecutive Case Series of Healed Single-Molar Sites Immediately Restored with Wide-Diameter Implants: A 1-Year Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherfane, Pierre; Sojod, Bouchra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To evaluate outcomes of wide-diameter (6 mm) implants immediately provisionalized with cement-retained single crowns in posterior molar sites. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight consecutive patients received a total of 53 moderately rough-surface, 6 mm diameter implants in healed sites. All implants were immediately provisionalized with a cement-retained provisional crown. Final prosthesis with cement-retained porcelain fused to metal crowns was delivered 3–6 months later. Patients were followed up for 1 year. Outcome measures were implant failures and success rate, complications, marginal bone levels, bone level changes, papilla index, bleeding on probing, and inflammation. Results. One patient was lost to follow-up. At one year, the implant survival and success rate were 98.1%. The mean marginal bone loss after 1 year was −0.17 ± 1.84 mm. Ideal papilla score was recorded at 83.8% of the sites. More than 95.6% of the sites showed no bleeding or inflammation. No procedure-related or device-related adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Wide-diameter (6 mm) implants can safely and successfully replace single posterior molars. Longer follow-up studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term success of these implants. PMID:27195008

  12. Observations of Martian surface winds at the Viking Lander 1 site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.R.; Leovy, C.B.; Tillman, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Partial failure of the wind instrumentation on the Viking Lander 1 (VL1) in the Martian subtropics (22.5 degree N) has limited previous analyses of meteorological data for this site. The authors describe a method for reconstructing surface winds using data from the partially failed sensor and present and analyze a time series of wind, pressure, and temperature at the site covering 350 Mars days (sols). At the beginning of the mission during early summer, winds were controlled by regional topography, but they soon underwent a transition to a regime controlled by the Hadley circulation. Diurnal and semidiurnal wind oscillations and synoptic variations have been analyzed and compared with the corresponding variations at the Viking Lander 2 middle latitude site (48 degree N). Diurnal wind oscillations were controlled primarily by regional topography and boundary layer forcing, although a global mode may have been influencing them during two brief episodes. Semidiurnal wind oscillations were controlled by the westward propagating semidiurnal tide from sol 210 onward. Comparison of the synoptic variations at the two sites suggests that the same eastward propagating wave trains were present at both sites, at least following the first 1977 great dust storm, but discordant inferred zonal wave numbers and phase speeds at the two sites cast doubt on the zonal wave numbers deduced from analyses of combined wind and pressure data, particularly at the VL1 site where the signal to noise ratio of the dominant synoptic waves is relatively small

  13. NACP Site: Tower Meteorology, Flux Observations with Uncertainty, and Ancillary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains meteorological, carbon cycle flux, phenology, and ancillary data measured at 47 eddy covariance flux tower sites across North...

  14. CLPX-Ground: Snow Measurements at the Local Scale Observation Site (LSOS), Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set presents snow depth, snow water equivalence (SWE), snow wetness data, and snow pit data from two pine sites and a small clearing at the Local Scale...

  15. NACP Site: Tower Meteorology, Flux Observations with Uncertainty, and Ancillary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains meteorological, carbon cycle flux, phenology, and ancillary data measured at 47 eddy covariance flux tower sites across North America. The...

  16. CLPX-Ground: Snow Measurements at the Local Scale Observation Site (LSOS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set presents snow depth, snow water equivalence (SWE), snow wetness data, and snow pit data from two pine sites and a small clearing at the Local Scale...

  17. Site-Based Services for Residents of Single-Room Occupancy Hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Melanie

    1997-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of an innovative site-based service program, the Growth and Achievement Program (GAP). Results show that GAP clients had significantly higher gain scores than did the comparison group and were less likely to rely on public financial assistance as their primary source of income. (RJM)

  18. Observation of s-Channel Single Top Quark Production at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremonesi, Matteo [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    Testing the Standard Model (SM) and looking for new phenomena have been the focus of generations of particle physicists in the last decades. Following this spirit, this thesis presents two searches. The first is the search for single top quark production from the exchange of an s-channel virtual W boson using events with an imbalance in the total transverse energy, b-tagged jets, and no identified leptons. Assuming the electroweak production of top quarks of mass 172.5 GeV/c2 in the s-channel, a cross section of 1.12+0.61 -0.57 (stat+syst) pb, with a significance of 1.9 standard deviations, is measured. This measurement is combined with the result obtained from events with an imbalance in total transverse momentum, b-tagged jets, and exactly one identified lepton, yielding a cross section of 1.36+0.37 -0.322 (stat+syst) pb, with a significance of 4.2 standard deviations. The first observation of single-top-quark production in the s channel through the combination of the CDF and D0 measurements is also reported. The measured cross section is σs = 1.29+0.26 -0.244 pb. The probability of observing a statistical fluctuation of the background to a cross section of the observed size or larger is 1.8 10-10, corresponding to a significance of 6.3 standard deviation. The second is the search for W'-like resonances decaying to tb. No significant excess above the SM prediction is found. Using a benchmark W' → tb left-right symmetric model, 95% C.L. mass-dependent upper limits are placed on the W0 boson production cross section times branching ratio to tb. Assuming a W' boson with SM-like couplings and allowed (forbidden) decay to leptons, W' → tb is excluded with 95% C.L. for W' boson masses below 860 (880) GeV/c2. Relaxing the hypothesis on SM-like couplings, we exclude W' boson coupling strength values as a function of the W' boson mass

  19. Suicidal single gunshot injury to the head: differences in site of entrance wound and direction of the bullet path between right- and left-handed--an autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Slobodan; Zivković, Vladimir; Babić, Dragan; Juković, Fehim

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the anatomical site of a gunshot entrance wound and the direction of the bullet path between right- and left-handed subjects who committed a suicide by a single gunshot injury to the head. The retrospective autopsy study was performed for a 10-year period, and it included selected cases of single suicidal gunshot head injury, committed by handguns. We considered only contact or near-contact wounds. The sample included 479 deceased, with average age 47.1 ± 19.1 years (range, 12-89 years): 432 males and 47 females, with 317 right-handed, 25 left-handed, and 137 subjects with unknown dominant hand. In our observed sample, most cases involved the right temple as the site of entrance gunshot wound (about 67%), followed by the mouth (16%), forehead (7%), left temple (6%), submental (2%), and parietal region (1%). The left temple, right temple, and forehead were the sites of the gunshot entrance wounds, which were the best predictors of the handedness of the deceased (Spearman ρ = 0.149, P = 0.006). Our study showed that the direction of the bullet intracranial path in cases of suicide was even a more potent predictor of the handedness of the deceased (Spearman ρ = 0.263, P = 0.000; Wald = 149.503, P = 0.000).

  20. Robot-assisted single-site compared with laparoscopic single-incision cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder disease: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochola, Lukasz Filip; Soll, Christopher; Zehnder, Adrian; Wyss, Roland; Herzog, Pascal; Breitenstein, Stefan

    2017-02-09

    Recent advances in robotic technology suggest that the utilization of the da Vinci Single-Site™ platform for cholecystectomy is safe, feasible and results in a shorter learning curve compared to conventional single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Moreover, the robot-assisted technology has been shown to reduce the surgeon's stress load compared to standard single-incision laparoscopy in an experimental setup, suggesting an important advantage of the da Vinci platform. However, the above-mentioned observations are based solely on case series, case reports and experimental data, as high-quality clinical trials to demonstrate the benefits of the da Vinci Single-Site™ cholecystectomy have not been performed to date. This study addresses the question whether robot-assisted Single-Site™ cholecystectomy provides significant benefits over single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy in terms of surgeon's stress load, while matching the standards of the conventional single-incision approach with regard to peri- and postoperative outcomes. It is designed as a single centre, single-blinded randomized controlled trial, which compares both surgical approaches with the primary endpoint surgeon's physical and mental stress load at the time of surgery. In addition, the study aims to assess secondary endpoints such as operating time, conversion rates, additional trocar placement, intra-operative blood loss, length of hospital stay, costs of procedure, health-related quality of life, cosmesis and complications. Patients as well as ward staff are blinded until the 1 st postoperative year. Sample size calculation based on the results of a previously published experimental setup utilizing an estimated effect size of surgeon's comfort of 0.8 (power of 0.8, alpha-error level of 0.05, error margin of 10-15%) resulted in a number of 30 randomized patients per arm. The study is the first randomized controlled trial that compares the da Vinci Single Site™ platform to

  1. Single-port access laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection through the colostomy site: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Morten; Bulut, O

    2012-01-01

    Single-port access (SPA) laparoscopic surgery is emerging as an alternative to conventional laparoscopic and open surgery, although its benefits still have to be determined. We present the case of a 87-year-old woman who underwent abdominoperineal resection (APR) with SPA. The abdominal part...

  2. Geology Data Package for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, Steve P.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2007-01-01

    This data package discusses the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms and the geologic history of the area. The focus of this report is to provide the most recent geologic information available for the SST farms. This report builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  3. Light absorption and morphological properties of soot-containing aerosols observed at an East Asian outflow site, Noto Peninsula, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ueda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The coating of black carbon (BC with inorganic salts and organic compounds can enhance the magnitude of light absorption by BC. To elucidate the enhancement of light absorption of aged BC particles and its relation to the mixing state and morphology of individual particles, we conducted observations of particles at an Asian outflow site in Noto Peninsula, Japan, in the spring of 2013. Absorption and scattering coefficients at 405, 532, and 781 nm and mass concentrations/mixing states of refractory BC in PM2.5 were measured using a three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer and a single-particle soot photometer (SP2, respectively, after passage through a thermodenuder (TD maintained at 300 or 400 °C or a bypass line maintained at room temperature (25 °C. The average enhancement factor of BC light absorption due to coating was estimated by comparing absorption coefficients at 781 nm for particles that with and without passing through the TD at 300 °C and was found to be 1.22. The largest enhancements (> 1.30 were observed under high absorption coefficient periods when the air mass was long-range transported from urban areas in China. Aerosol samples were also analyzed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. The morphological features and mixing states of soot-containing particles of four samples collected during the high absorption events were analyzed by comparing microphotographs before and after the evaporation of beam-sensitive materials by irradiation with a high-density electron beam. The majority of the soot in all samples was found as mixed particles with sulfate-containing spherules or as clusters of such spherules. For samples showing high enhancement (> 1.30 of BC light absorption, the TEM showed that the internally mixed soot-containing particles tended to have a more spherical shape and to be thickly coated. The SP2 measurements also suggested that the

  4. Light absorption and morphological properties of soot-containing aerosols observed at an East Asian outflow site, Noto Peninsula, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Sayako; Nakayama, Tomoki; Taketani, Fumikazu; Adachi, Kouji; Matsuki, Atsushi; Iwamoto, Yoko; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Matsumi, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    The coating of black carbon (BC) with inorganic salts and organic compounds can enhance the magnitude of light absorption by BC. To elucidate the enhancement of light absorption of aged BC particles and its relation to the mixing state and morphology of individual particles, we conducted observations of particles at an Asian outflow site in Noto Peninsula, Japan, in the spring of 2013. Absorption and scattering coefficients at 405, 532, and 781 nm and mass concentrations/mixing states of refractory BC in PM2.5 were measured using a three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer and a single-particle soot photometer (SP2), respectively, after passage through a thermodenuder (TD) maintained at 300 or 400 °C or a bypass line maintained at room temperature (25 °C). The average enhancement factor of BC light absorption due to coating was estimated by comparing absorption coefficients at 781 nm for particles that with and without passing through the TD at 300 °C and was found to be 1.22. The largest enhancements (> 1.30) were observed under high absorption coefficient periods when the air mass was long-range transported from urban areas in China. Aerosol samples were also analyzed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. The morphological features and mixing states of soot-containing particles of four samples collected during the high absorption events were analyzed by comparing microphotographs before and after the evaporation of beam-sensitive materials by irradiation with a high-density electron beam. The majority of the soot in all samples was found as mixed particles with sulfate-containing spherules or as clusters of such spherules. For samples showing high enhancement (> 1.30) of BC light absorption, the TEM showed that the internally mixed soot-containing particles tended to have a more spherical shape and to be thickly coated. The SP2 measurements also suggested that the proportion of thickly coated

  5. Multiple nucleophilic elbows leading to multiple active sites in a single module esterase from Sorangium cellulosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udatha, D.B.R.K. Gupta; Madsen, Karina Marie; Panagiotou, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic residues in carbohydrate esterase enzyme families constitute a highly conserved triad: serine, histidine and aspartic acid. This catalytic triad is generally located in a very sharp turn of the protein backbone structure, called the nucleophilic elbow and identified by the consensus...... sequence GXSXG. An esterase from Sorangium cellulosum Soce56 that contains five nucleophilic elbows was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the function of each nucleophilic elbowed site was characterized. In order to elucidate the function of each nucleophilic elbow, site directed mutagenesis....... To our knowledge, this is the first report presenting the role of multiple nucleophilic elbows in the catalytic promiscuity of an esterase. Further structural analysis at protein unit level indicates the new evolutionary trajectories in emerging promiscuous esterases....

  6. Site selective Cu2+ substitution in single crystal Fe3O4 biocompatible nanospheres by solvothermal reflux method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, A.; Krishnamoorthi, C.

    2017-09-01

    Transition metal cations distribution among tetrahedral and octahedral sites in Fe3O4 has profound influence on it properties. The cations distribution among these sites were influenced by crystal field stabilization energy (CFSE) of a substituent ion. It was reported that Cu2+ substitutes both Fe3+ in tetrahedral and Fe2+ in octahedral sites of magnetite though it has high CFSE for octahedral sites. Thus it promotes mixed (normal & inverse) spinel structure and hence the properties deviate from the prediction. Here we show that selective octahedral site substitution of Fe2+ by Cu2+ in single crystal Fe3O4 nanoparticles was possible by solvothermal reflux method at moderate temperatures (≈300 °C). It was attributed to reduced energy barrier for crystallization and high diffusion coefficient of the metal cations at moderate temperature in low viscous organic solvents mixture, at ambient pressure, compared to coprecipitation and solid state reaction protocols. In addition, effective removal of exothermic crystal lattice energy, released during nucleation and growth process, by natural gas bubbles formed in the reflux organic solvent mixture. This promotes effective diffusion of cations during the growth process and easy octahedral occupation by Cu2+ in Fe1-xCuxFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 & 0.6) single crystal nanospheres. The octahedral substitution was confirmed by reduction of crystal lattice parameter as well as ferromagnetic strength of octahedral sublattice with enhanced Cu2+ concentration. In addition, morphology, lattice vibrational frequency and electron excitation spectra of the nanospheres were studied. The Langevin function fit analysis reveals that superparamagnetic domain diameter were slightly less than the particle diameter obtained from TEM micrograph.

  7. Clinical and psychological repercussions of videolaparoscopic tubal ligation: observational, single cohort, retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Spadoto Dias

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Tubal ligation is one of the most commonly used contraceptive methods worldwide. Since the controversy over the potential effects of tubal sterilization still continues, this study aimed to evaluate the clinical and psychological repercussions of videolaparoscopic tubal ligation.DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational, single cohort, retrospective study, conducted in a tertiary public hospital.METHODS: A questionnaire was applied to 130 women aged 21-46 years who underwent videolaparoscopic tubal ligation by means of tubal ring insertion or bipolar electrocoagulation and sectioning, between January 1999 and December 2007. Menstrual cycle interval, intensity and duration of bleeding, premenstrual symptoms, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, noncyclic pelvic pain and degree of sexual satisfaction were assessed in this questionnaire. Each woman served as her own control, and comparisons were made between before and after the surgical procedure and between the two techniques used.RESULTS: The clinical and psychological repercussions were significant, with increases in bleeding (P = 0.001, premenstrual symptoms (P < 0.001, dysmenorrhea (P = 0.019 and noncyclic pelvic pain (P = 0.001; and reductions in the number of sexual intercourse occurrences per week (P = 0.001 and in libido (P = 0.001. Women aged ≤ 35 years at the time of sterilization were more likely to develop menstrual abnormalities. The bipolar electrocoagulation method showed greater clinical and psychological repercussions.CONCLUSION: Regardless of the technique used, videolaparoscopic tubal ligation had repercussions consisting of increased menstrual flow and premenstrual symptoms, especially in women aged ≤ 35 years, and also had a negative influence on sexual activity.

  8. Critical hand ischemia treatment via orbital atherectomy-A single center observational retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahro, Abdul; Igyarto, Zsuzsanna; Martinsen, Brad

    2017-03-01

    Critical hand ischemia (CHI) can be devastating and may result in amputation. Distal vessel calcification has been shown to be a major factor in causing CHI. Atherectomy in the upper extremities is not typically considered due to the small anatomy; however, the Diamondback 360° Peripheral Orbital Atherectomy System (OAS) (Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.) can access treatment areas with a reference vessel diameter of 1.5mm. A retrospective, observational, single center (Merit Health Center, Jackson, MS) analysis of 11 CHI patients with calcific disease of the radial artery treated with orbital atherectomy (OAS) was completed. Demographics and procedural to 30-day outcomes were assessed. All patients had good blood flow to the hand after intervention and none experienced complications during or immediately post-procedure. At 30-days the freedom from revascularization and amputation was 100%, and all the wounds were healed. The following important principles were followed during the use of OAS for CHI: (1) ACT was therapeutic (~250s); (2) Gentle wire manipulation; (3) Utilization of a small OAS crown (1.25mm); (4) Aggressive vasodilator use-given through the exchange catheter; (5) Angioplasty balloon was matched to the size of the vessel and long and low pressure inflations were completed. Critical hand ischemia can be treated with endovascular techniques. Obtaining good outflow to the fingers is critical for wound healing and preventing amputation. Orbital atherectomy is a useful tool in preparing vessels for balloon angioplasty; particularly in cases where calcification is present. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The synergistic use of models and observations: understanding the mechanisms behind observed biomass dynamics at 14 Amazonian field sites and the implications for future biomass change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, N. M.; Galbraith, D.; Christoffersen, B. J.; Imbuzeiro, H. A.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Malhi, Y.; Saleska, S. R.; Costa, M. H.; Phillips, O.; Andrade, A.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazonian rainforests play a vital role in global water, energy and carbon cycling. The sensitivity of this system to natural and anthropogenic disturbances therefore has important implications for the global climate. Some global models have predicted large-scale forest dieback and the savannization of Amazonia over the next century [Meehl et al., 2007]. While several studies have demonstrated the sensitivity of dynamic global vegetation models to changes in temperature, precipitation, and dry season length [e.g. Galbraith et al., 2010; Good et al., 2011], the ability of these models to accurately reproduce ecosystem dynamics of present-day transitional or low biomass tropical forests has not been demonstrated. A model-data intercomparison was conducted with four state-of-the-art terrestrial ecosystem models to evaluate the ability of these models to accurately represent structure, function, and long-term biomass dynamics over a range of Amazonian ecosystems. Each modeling group conducted a series of simulations for 14 sites including mature forest, transitional forest, savannah, and agricultural/pasture sites. All models were run using standard physical parameters and the same initialization procedure. Model results were compared against forest inventory and dendrometer data in addition to flux tower measurements. While the models compared well against field observations for the mature forest sites, significant differences were observed between predicted and measured ecosystem structure and dynamics for the transitional forest and savannah sites. The length of the dry season and soil sand content were good predictors of model performance. In addition, for the big leaf models, model performance was highest for sites dominated by late successional trees and lowest for sites with predominantly early and mid-successional trees. This study provides insight into tropical forest function and sensitivity to environmental conditions that will aid in predictions of the

  10. Inference of a Probabilistic Boolean Network from a Single Observed Temporal Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Yu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The inference of gene regulatory networks is a key issue for genomic signal processing. This paper addresses the inference of probabilistic Boolean networks (PBNs from observed temporal sequences of network states. Since a PBN is composed of a finite number of Boolean networks, a basic observation is that the characteristics of a single Boolean network without perturbation may be determined by its pairwise transitions. Because the network function is fixed and there are no perturbations, a given state will always be followed by a unique state at the succeeding time point. Thus, a transition counting matrix compiled over a data sequence will be sparse and contain only one entry per line. If the network also has perturbations, with small perturbation probability, then the transition counting matrix would have some insignificant nonzero entries replacing some (or all of the zeros. If a data sequence is sufficiently long to adequately populate the matrix, then determination of the functions and inputs underlying the model is straightforward. The difficulty comes when the transition counting matrix consists of data derived from more than one Boolean network. We address the PBN inference procedure in several steps: (1 separate the data sequence into “pure” subsequences corresponding to constituent Boolean networks; (2 given a subsequence, infer a Boolean network; and (3 infer the probabilities of perturbation, the probability of there being a switch between constituent Boolean networks, and the selection probabilities governing which network is to be selected given a switch. Capturing the full dynamic behavior of probabilistic Boolean networks, be they binary or multivalued, will require the use of temporal data, and a great deal of it. This should not be surprising given the complexity of the model and the number of parameters, both transitional and static, that must be estimated. In addition to providing an inference algorithm

  11. Inference of a Probabilistic Boolean Network from a Single Observed Temporal Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yufei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The inference of gene regulatory networks is a key issue for genomic signal processing. This paper addresses the inference of probabilistic Boolean networks (PBNs from observed temporal sequences of network states. Since a PBN is composed of a finite number of Boolean networks, a basic observation is that the characteristics of a single Boolean network without perturbation may be determined by its pairwise transitions. Because the network function is fixed and there are no perturbations, a given state will always be followed by a unique state at the succeeding time point. Thus, a transition counting matrix compiled over a data sequence will be sparse and contain only one entry per line. If the network also has perturbations, with small perturbation probability, then the transition counting matrix would have some insignificant nonzero entries replacing some (or all of the zeros. If a data sequence is sufficiently long to adequately populate the matrix, then determination of the functions and inputs underlying the model is straightforward. The difficulty comes when the transition counting matrix consists of data derived from more than one Boolean network. We address the PBN inference procedure in several steps: (1 separate the data sequence into "pure" subsequences corresponding to constituent Boolean networks; (2 given a subsequence, infer a Boolean network; and (3 infer the probabilities of perturbation, the probability of there being a switch between constituent Boolean networks, and the selection probabilities governing which network is to be selected given a switch. Capturing the full dynamic behavior of probabilistic Boolean networks, be they binary or multivalued, will require the use of temporal data, and a great deal of it. This should not be surprising given the complexity of the model and the number of parameters, both transitional and static, that must be estimated. In addition to providing an inference algorithm, this paper

  12. Single-nucleotide mutation matrix: a new model for predicting the NF-κB DNA binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenxin; Gao, Jing; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Jinke

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we established a single nucleotide mutation matrix (SNMM) model based on the relative binding affinities of NF-κB p50 homodimer to a wild-type binding site (GGGACTTTCC) and its all single-nucleotide mutants detected with the double-stranded DNA microarray. We evaluated this model by scoring different groups of 10-bp DNA sequences with this model and analyzing the correlations between the scores and the relative binding affinities detected with three wet experiments, including the electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA), the protein-binding microarray (PBM) and the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment-sequencing (SELEX-Seq). The results revealed that the SNMM scores were strongly correlated with the detected binding affinities. We also scored the DNA sequences with other three models, including the principal coordinate (PC) model, the position weight matrix scoring algorithm (PWMSA) model and the Match model, and analyzed the correlations between the scores and the detected binding affinities. In comparison with these models, the SNMM model achieved reliable results. We finally determined 0.747 as the optimal threshold for predicting the NF-κB DNA-binding sites with the SNMM model. The SNMM model thus provides a new alternative model for scoring the relative binding affinities of NF-κB to the 10-bp DNA sequences and predicting the NF-κB DNA-binding sites.

  13. A single iron site confined in a graphene matrix for the catalytic oxidation of benzene at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dehui; Chen, Xiaoqi; Yu, Liang; Wu, Xing; Liu, Qingfei; Liu, Yun; Yang, Huaixin; Tian, Huanfang; Hu, Yongfeng; Du, Peipei; Si, Rui; Wang, Junhu; Cui, Xiaoju; Li, Haobo; Xiao, Jianping; Xu, Tao; Deng, Jiao; Yang, Fan; Duchesne, Paul N; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Jigang; Sun, Litao; Li, Jianqi; Pan, Xiulian; Bao, Xinhe

    2015-12-01

    Coordinatively unsaturated (CUS) iron sites are highly active in catalytic oxidation reactions; however, maintaining the CUS structure of iron during heterogeneous catalytic reactions is a great challenge. Here, we report a strategy to stabilize single-atom CUS iron sites by embedding highly dispersed FeN4 centers in the graphene matrix. The atomic structure of FeN4 centers in graphene was revealed for the first time by combining high-resolution transmission electron microscopy/high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. These confined single-atom iron sites exhibit high performance in the direct catalytic oxidation of benzene to phenol at room temperature, with a conversion of 23.4% and a yield of 18.7%, and can even proceed efficiently at 0°C with a phenol yield of 8.3% after 24 hours. Both experimental measurements and density functional theory calculations indicate that the formation of the Fe═O intermediate structure is a key step to promoting the conversion of benzene to phenol. These findings could pave the way toward highly efficient nonprecious catalysts for low-temperature oxidation reactions in heterogeneous catalysis and electrocatalysis.

  14. Treatment of surgical site infections (SSI) IN patients with peripheral arterial disease : an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Slegt, Jasper; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; de Groot, Hans G W; van der Laan, Lijckle

    INTRODUCTION: The management of surgical site infections (SSI's) in vascular surgery has been challenging over the years. To assess the outcomes associated with the various strategies, we performed a review of all SSI's after elective vascular procedures in patients with moderate to severe

  15. Single cobalt sites in mesoporous N-doped carbon matrix for selective catalytic hydrogenation of nitroarenes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaohui

    2017-11-20

    A supported cobalt catalyst with atomically dispersed Co-Nx sites (3.5 wt% Co) in a mesoporous N-doped carbon matrix (named Co@mesoNC) is synthesized by hydrolysis of tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) in a Zn/Co bimetallic zeolitic imidazolate framework (BIMZIF(Co,Zn)), followed by high-temperature pyrolysis and SiO2 leaching. A combination of TEM, XRD XPS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies confirm the absence of cobalt nanoparticles and indicate that these highly dispersed cobalt species are present in the form of Co-Nx. The exclusive formation of Co-Nx sites in the carbon matrix is attributed to the presence of a large amount of Zn and N in the BIMZIF precursor together with the presence of SiO2 in the pore space of this framework, extending the initial spatial distance between cobalt atoms and thereby impeding their agglomeration. The presence of SiO2 during high-temperature pyrolysis is proven crucial to create mesoporosity and a high BET area and pore volume in the N-doped carbon support (1780 m2 g−1, 1.54 cm3 g−1). This heterogeneous Co@mesoNC catalyst displays high activity and selectivity (>99%) for the selective hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline at mild conditions (0.5–3 MPa, 343–383 K). When more challenging substrates (functionalized nitroarenes) are hydrogenated, the catalyst Co@mesoNC displays an excellent chemoselectivity to the corresponding substituted anilines.The presence of mesoporosity improves mass transport of reactants and/or products and the accessibility of the active Co-Nx sites, and greatly reduces deactivation due to fouling.

  16. Nano-optical observation of cascade switching in a parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, Robert M.; Tanner, Michael G.; Casaburi, Alessandro; Hadfield, Robert H.; Webster, Mark G.; San Emeterio Alvarez, Lara; Jiang, Weitao; Barber, Zoe H.; Warburton, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The device physics of parallel-wire superconducting nanowire single photon detectors is based on a cascade process. Using nano-optical techniques and a parallel wire device with spatially separate pixels, we explicitly demonstrate the single- and multi-photon triggering regimes. We develop a model for describing efficiency of a detector operating in the arm-trigger regime. We investigate the timing response of the detector when illuminating a single pixel and two pixels. We see a change in the active area of the detector between the two regimes and find the two-pixel trigger regime to have a faster timing response than the one-pixel regime

  17. [Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in gynecology: the situation in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabischong, B; Compan, C; Savary, D; Bourdel, N; Canis, M; Mage, G; Botchorishvili, R

    2013-09-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a recent technic of minimally invasive surgery that arouses a growing interest due to its potential benefits in terms of pain and cosmetic. However, in gynecology as well as in other surgical specialties, preliminary results seem to be controversial. Its feasibility and interest by comparison with conventional laparoscopy (CL) have not been confirmed by randomized multicenter studies. Compare in gynecological surgery, feasibility and surgical outcomes (conversion rate and complications, postoperative pain, duration of surgery, length of hospital stay, appearance and cost) between SILS and CL. For this, a review of the literature from a PUBMED and Medline databases was conducted. The clinical cases and series with fewer than 10 patients were excluded. Eligible data were compared and analyzed. A total of 46 studies including five prospective randomized were studied in gynecology. Conversion rates and complications appear identical to those of the CL. The learning curve is also comparable. The technique is not standardized and some ergonomic problems are described. Operating time and duration of hospitalization seems to be comparable. The postoperative pain assessment found conflicting results. The cosmetic results are in favor of the single incision laparoscopy. Finally, the cost is higher. According to the literature, the single incision laparoscopy seems feasible and safe, with better cosmetic results. But the cost is increased and associated with no benefit in terms of pain, operating time and duration of hospitalization. Beyond cosmetics results, further randomized studies are needed to identify a possible benefit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Single species victory in a two-site, two-species model of population dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jack; Sander, Len; Kessler, David

    2008-03-01

    We study the behavior of two species, differentiated only by their dispersal rates in an environment providing heterogeneous growth rates. Previous deterministic studies have shown that the slower-dispersal species always drives the faster species to extinction, while stochastic studies show that the opposite case can occur given small enough population and spatial heterogeneity. Other models of similar systems demonstrate the existence of an optimum dispersal rate, suggesting that distinguishing the species as faster or slower is insufficient. We here study the interface of these models for a small spatial system and determine the conditions of stability for a single species outcome.

  19. Control of dry season evapotranspiration over the Amazonian forest as inferred from observations at a southern Amazon forest site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negrón Juárez, R.I.; Hodnett, M.G.; Fu, R.; Goulden, M.L.; Randow, von C.

    2007-01-01

    The extent to which soil water storage can support an average dry season evapotranspiration (ET) is investigated using observations from the Rebio Jarú site for the period of 2000 to 2002. During the dry season, when total rainfall is less than 100 mm, the soil moisture storage available to root

  20. Preliminary recommendations on the design of the characterization program for the Hanford Site single-shell tanks: A system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, J.W.; Peffers, M.S.; Hwang, S.T.

    1991-11-01

    The work described in this volume was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide preliminary recommendations on data quality objectives (DQOs) to support the Waste Characterization Plan (WCP) and closure decisions for the Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs). The WCP describes the first of a two-phase characterization program that will obtain information to assess and implement disposal options for SSTs. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the current operating contractor on the Hanford Site. The preliminary DQOs contained in this volume deal with the analysis of SST wastes in support of the WCP and final closure decisions. These DQOs include information on significant contributors and detection limit goals (DLGs) for SST analytes based on public health risk.

  1. Bone-level implants placed in the anterior maxilla: an open-label, single-arm observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, EnFeng; Hei, Wei-Hong; Park, Jong-Chul; Pang, KangMi; Kim, Sun Kyung; Kim, Bongju; Kim, Soung-Min; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed marginal bone remodeling and soft tissue esthetics after the loading of single bone-level implants in the anterior maxilla. Methods An open, single-arm observational clinical trial with 3 years of follow-up was performed, including 22 implants. The patients presented with a single tooth gap in the anterior maxilla (tooth positions 14–24), with natural or restored adjacent teeth. An implant was placed at least 8 weeks post-extraction and healed submerged for 6 weeks...

  2. Organometallic synthesis, reactivity and catalysis in the solid state using well-defined single-site species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Sebastian D.; Weller, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Acting as a bridge between the heterogeneous and homogeneous realms, the use of discrete, well-defined, solid-state organometallic complexes for synthesis and catalysis is a remarkably undeveloped field. Here, we present a review of this topic, focusing on describing the key transformations that can be observed at a transition-metal centre, as well as the use of well-defined organometallic complexes in the solid state as catalysts. There is a particular focus upon gas–solid reactivity/catalysis and single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations. PMID:25666064

  3. Numerical solution of the relativistic single-site scattering problem for the Coulomb and the Mathieu potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilhufe, Matthias; Achilles, Steven; Köbis, Markus Arthur; Arnold, Martin; Mertig, Ingrid; Hergert, Wolfram; Ernst, Arthur

    2015-11-01

    For a reliable fully-relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green function method, an accurate solution of the underlying single-site scattering problem is necessary. We present an extensive discussion on numerical solutions of the related differential equations by means of standard methods for a direct solution and by means of integral equations. Our implementation is tested and exemplarily demonstrated for a spherically symmetric treatment of a Coulomb potential and for a Mathieu potential to cover the full-potential implementation. For the Coulomb potential we include an analytic discussion of the asymptotic behaviour of irregular scattering solutions close to the origin (r\\ll 1 ).

  4. A Single-Site Iron(III-Salan Catalyst for Converting COS to Sulfur-Containing Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge-Ge Gu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An iron(III complex of tetradentate N,N′-disubstituted bis(aminophenoxide (designated as salan, a saturated version of the corresponding salen ligand with a sterically hindered organic base anchored on the ligand framework, can selectively mediate the conversion of carbonyl sulfide to sulfur-containing polymers by the copolymerization with epoxides. This single-site catalyst exhibits broad substrate scope, and the resultant copolymers have completely alternating structures. In addition, this catalyst is efficient in producing diblock copolymers, suggesting a living polymerization nature.

  5. Screened Coulomb interactions in metallic alloys. II. Screening beyond the single-site and atomic-sphere approximations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Simak, S.I.; Korzhavyi, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    -electron potential and energy. In the case of a random alloy such interactions can be accounted for only by lifting the atomic-sphere and single-site approximations, in order to include the polarization due to local environment effects. Nevertheless, a simple parametrization of the screened Coulomb interactions......A quantitative description of the configurational part of the total energy of metallic alloys with substantial atomic size difference cannot be achieved in the atomic-sphere approximation: It needs to be corrected at least for the multipole-moment interactions in the Madelung part of the one...

  6. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) for excision of a seminal vesicle cyst associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ki Don; Choi, Kyung Hwa; Yang, Seung Choul; Jang, Won Sik; Jang, Ji Young; Han, Woong Kyu

    2011-06-01

    We report a case of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) for a symptomatic left seminal vesicular cyst and ipsilateral renal agenesis. A 49-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of severe irritation upon voiding and intractable, recurrent hematospermia. A computed tomography scan showed a 68×41×38 mm sized left seminal vesicular cyst with ipsilateral renal agenesis. LESS was performed successfully to treat the seminal vesicle cyst. The total operative time was 125 minutes, and blood loss was minimal. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the second postoperative day.

  7. Identification of single-shell tank in-tank hardware obstructions to retrieval at Hanford Site Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, R.A.

    1994-10-01

    Two retrieval technologies, one of which uses robot-deployed end effectors, will be demonstrated on the first single-shell tank (SST) waste to be retrieved at the Hanford Site. A significant impediment to the success of this technology in completing the Hanford retrieval mission is the presence of unique tank contents called in-tank hardware (ITH). In-tank hardware includes installed and discarded equipment and various other materials introduced into the tank. This paper identifies those items of ITH that will most influence retrieval operations in the arm-based demonstration project and in follow-on tank operations within the SST farms

  8. Observations concerning the quinol oxidation site of the cytochrome bc{sub 1} complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Edward A.; Huang, Li-Shar

    2003-09-07

    A direct hydrogen bond between ubiquinone/quinol bound at the QO site and a cluster-ligand histidine of the iron-sulfur protein (ISP) is described as a major determining factor explaining much experimental data on position of the ISP ectodomain, EPR lineshape and midpoint potential of the iron-sulfur cluster, and the mechanism of the bifurcated electron transfer from ubiquinol to the high and low potential chains of the bc1 complex.

  9. Sunscreen use and failures--on site observations on a sun-holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Datta, Pameli; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2013-01-01

    With this observation study we aimed to determine how and when sunscreen was used. 20 sun seekers were observed during a one-week sun holiday in Hurghada, Egypt. The sunscreen application thickness was related to part of body, time outdoors, exposure to ultraviolet radiation and to sunburning. Skin...

  10. Complex atmospheric-lithospheric observations of acoustic emission at «Karymshina» site in Kamchatka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larionov Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of complex observations of acoustic emission in the near surface rocks and in the atmosphere by the ground surface are described. The instrumentations for the observations are a laser strainmeter-interferometer and a microbarometer installed close to each other. It was shown that during the increase of deformation rate in the near surface rocks, increase of acoustic emission intensity in the atmosphere by the ground surface is registered. The effect of meteorological factors on the observation results is evaluated.

  11. A 10-Year Climatology of Cloud Cover and Vertical Distribution Derived from Both Surface and GOES Observations Over the DOE ARM SGP Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Baike; Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, P.; Khaiyer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of a decade of ARM radar-lidar and GOES observations at the SGP site reveal that 0.5 and 4-hr averages of the surface cloud fraction correspond closely to 0.5deg and 2.5deg averages of GOES cloudiness, respectively. The long-term averaged surface and GOES cloud fractions agree to within 0.5%. Cloud frequency increases and cloud amount decreases as the temporal and spatial averaging scales increase. Clouds occurred most often during winter and spring. Single-layered clouds account for 61.5% of the total cloud frequency. There are distinct bimodal vertical distributions of clouds with a lower peak around 1 km and an upper one that varies from 7.5 to 10.8 km between winter and summer, respectively. The frequency of occurrence for nighttime GOES high-cloud tops agree well with the surface observations, but are underestimated during the day.

  12. Hanford site water table changes 1950-1980: data observations and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, D.A.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Black, G.D.; Young, M.A.

    1986-04-01

    The basalt formations underlying the Hanford site are being considered for characterization and evaluation as a deep geologic repository for defense and commercial radioactive wastes. To understand the hydrology of the Hanford area, we need to know if the ground-water system is in steady state and what impact a change in surface stress from artificial recharge may have on the underlying basalt aquifers. Researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory are supporting efforts to understand these issues by illustrating how changes in wastewater disposal activities at the Hanford site have altered the configuration of the water table surface with time. The objective of this work was to determine the magnitude and direction of changes in the elevation of the water table across the Hanford site from 1950 to 1980. Plots of the magnitudes of water-level changes occurring over 5-year intervals from 1950 through 1980 are presented. The water-level changes that occurred during each 5-year interval are related to water discharges from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities or other discharge sources. The plots of water-level changes show large water-level increases in the vicinity of the Separations Area (200 East and 200 West) from 1950 to 1960; the rate of increase of water-level changes grows more slowly from 1960 to 1970, while the areal extent of the mounding continues to expand. Only small changes occur from 1970 to 1980; during this time period, the unconfined system appears to be in approximate equilibrium with the sources. Based on previous experience, it is believed that an increase in ground-water mounding will begin to appear near the 200 East Area B Pond as a result of the increased discharges from the restart of PUREX in 1983

  13. The alveolar process following single-tooth extraction: a study of maxillary incisor and premolar sites in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Mônica; Lindhe, Jan; Araújo, Mauricio G

    2016-07-01

    The present investigation was performed to determine some dimensional alterations that occur in the alveolar process of the incisor and premolar sites of the maxilla following tooth removal. Computer-assisted cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were obtained from the maxilla using an iCAT unit, and involved edentulous and contralateral tooth sites. For each site included in the study, parasagittal and axial reconstructions, 1 mm apart, were made and measurements of different variables (cross-sectional area, height, and width) performed. The study involved 69 subjects and disclosed that the cross-sectional area and the height and width of the alveolar process of the lateral incisor site were the smallest and those of the second premolar the largest. All parameters had been significantly reduced after the completion of the ≥1 year of healing. Thus, the overall (i) cross-sectional area was reduced from 99.1 to 65.0 mm(2) , (ii) the height from 11.5 to 9.5 mm, and (iii) the width from 8.5 to 3.2 mm (marginal 1/3(rd) ), 8.9 to 4.8 mm (middle portion), and 9.0 to 5.7 mm (apical portion). The removal of single tooth caused marked hard tissue diminution. The loss of hard tissue was most pronounced in the buccal and marginal portions of the edentulous ridge that in most sites had acquired a triangular shape. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich

    2014-06-20

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1-2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs.

  15. National Marine Sanctuaries as Sentinel Sites for a Demonstration Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Karger, F. E.; Chavez, F.; Gittings, S.; Doney, S. C.; Kavanaugh, M.; Montes, E.; Breitbart, M.; Kirkpatrick, B. A.; Anderson, D. M.; Tartt, M.

    2016-02-01

    The U.S. Federal government (NOAA and NASA), academic researchers, and private partners are implementing a Demonstration Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) to monitor changes in marine biodiversity within two US National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS): Florida Keys and Monterey Bay. The overarching goal is to observe and understand life, from microbes to whales, in different coastal and continental shelf habitats. The specific objectives are to 1) Establish a protocol for MBON information to dynamically update Sanctuary status and trends reports; 2) Define an efficient set of observations required for implementing a useful MBON; 3) Develop technology for biodiversity assessments including emerging environmental DNA (eDNA) and remote sensing to coordinate with classical sampling; 4) Integrate and synthesize information in coordination with other MBON projects, the Smithsonian Institution's Tennenbaum Marine Observatories Network (TMON), the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), the international Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network(GEO BON), and the UNESCO-IOC Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS); and 5) Understand the linkages between marine biodiversity, ecosystem processes, and the social-economic context of a region. Pilot projects have been implemented within the Florida Keys and Monterey Bay NMS. Limited observations will be collected at the Flower Garden Banks NMS. These encompass a range of marine environments, including deep sea, continental shelves, and coastal habitats including estuaries, wetlands, and coral reefs. The program will use novel eDNA techniques and ongoing observations to evaluate diversity. Multidisciplinary remote sensing will be used to evaluate dynamic 'seascapes'. The MBON will facilitate and enable regional biodiversity assessments, and contributes to addressing U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 14 to conserve and sustainably use marine resources.

  16. Isospecific propylene polymerization with in situ generated bis(phenoxy-amine)zirconium and hafnium single site catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makio, Haruyuki; Prasad, Aitha Vishwa; Terao, Hiroshi; Saito, Junji; Fujita, Terunori

    2013-07-07

    Bis(phenoxy-imine) Zr and Hf complexes were activated with (i)Bu3Al or (i)Bu2AlH in conjunction with Ph3CB(C6F5)4 and tested as catalysts for propylene polymerization with emphasis on the enantioselectivity of the isospecific species and the single site polymerization characteristics. The isoselective species was identified as the in situ generated bis(phenoxy-amine) complex whose isoselectivity was sensitive to subtle changes in ligand structure. By employing specific substituents at certain key positions the isotacticity reached an extremely high level comparable to high-end commercial isotactic polypropylenes (Tm > 160 °C). Single site polymerization characteristics depended upon the efficiency and selectivity of the in situ imine reduction which is sensitive to the substituent on the imine nitrogen and the reaction conditions. By using (i)Bu2AlH as a reducing agent, quantitative imine reduction can be achieved with a stoichiometric amount of the reducing agent. This lower alkylaluminum loading is beneficial for the catalyst and significantly enhances the polymerization activity and the molecular weight of the resultant polymer.

  17. Robotic-assisted laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (R-LESS) in urology: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, E; Sanchez-Salas, R; Ercolani, M; Forgues, A; Rozet, F; Galiano, M; Cathelineau, X

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to provide an evidence-based analysis of the current status and future perspectives of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (R-LESS). A PubMed search has been performed for all relevant urological literature regarding natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS). All clinical and investigative reports for robotic LESS and NOTES procedures in the urological literature have been considered. A significant number of clinical urological procedures have been successfully completed utilizing R-LESS procedures. The available experience is limited to referral centers, where the case volume is sufficient to help overcome the challenges and learning curve of LESS surgery. The robotic interface remains the best fit for LESS procedures but its mode of use continues to evolve in attempts to improve surgical technique. We stand today at the dawn of R-LESS surgery, but this approach may well become the standard of care in the near future. Further technological development is needed to allow widespread adoption of the technique.

  18. Safety and Efficacy of Single-site Phacotrabeculectomy With Mitomicin C Using Nylon and Polyglactin Suture for Scleral Tunnel Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaya, Lingam; David, Rathini L

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of polyglactin use along with nylon suture in scleral tunnel closure after single-site phacotrabeculectomy. This retrospective case series included 139 eyes of 139 patients who had scleral tunnel closure with 1 polyglactin and 1 nylon suture after single-site phacotrabeculectomy with a low dose of mitomycin C between 2002 and 2005. The intraocular pressure (IOP), the visual acuity, the number of glaucoma medications, postoperative complications, and interventions were the outcomes measured. The majority of them had primary open-angle glaucoma (93 eyes, 67%), 93 eyes (67%) had severe glaucomatous optic neuropathy, and 77 eyes (55.3%) had severe visual-field loss. The IOP decreased from a mean preoperative value of 18.1±5.3 mm Hg on a mean number of 1.8±0.8 glaucoma medications to mean IOPs of 13.3±4.6, 14.0±4.3, and 11.8±3.9 mm Hg on a mean number of 0.2±0.6, 0.3±0.7, 0.5±1.0 glaucoma medications (PNylon suturelysis with laser was performed in 16 eyes (11.5%). The technique used here seems to be effective in controlling the IOP and has very minimal associated complications.

  19. Cosmetic outcomes of laparoendoscopic single-site hysterectomy compared with multi-port surgery: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Taejong; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Im-Ryung; Hahm, Tae Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2013-01-01

    To compare cosmetic satisfaction with laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) compared with multi-port surgery. Randomized controlled trial (Canadian Task Force classification I). University hospital. Twenty women who underwent laparoscopically-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) via LESS or multi-port surgery. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery or multi-port surgery. Cosmetic satisfaction was assessed using the Body Image Questionnaire at baseline and at 1, 4, and 24 weeks after surgery. Of the 20 LESS procedures, 1 was converted to multi-port surgery because of severe adhesions, and 1 woman assigned to undergo multi-port surgery was lost to follow-up. The 2 surgery groups did not differ in clinical demographic data and surgical results or postoperative pain scores at 12, 24, and 36 hours. Compared with the multi-port group, the LESS group reported significantly higher cosmetic satisfaction at 1, 4, and 24 weeks after surgery (p surgery, LESS is not only a feasible approach with comparable operative outcomes but also has an advantage insofar as cosmetic outcome. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Alkali-labile sites and post-irradiation effects in single-stranded DNA induced by H radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, M.V.M.; Heuvel, N. van; Woldhuis, J.; Loman, H.

    1978-01-01

    Single-stranded phiX174 DNA in aqueous solutions has been irradiated in the absence of oxygen, under conditions in which H radicals react with the DNA. It was shown that H radical reactions result in breaks, which contribute approximately 10 per cent inactivation. Further, two types of alkali-labile sites were formed. One was lethal and gave rise to single-strand breaks by alkali and was most probably identical with post-irradiation heat damage and contributed about 33 per cent to the inactivation mentioned above. The other consisted of non-lethal damage, partly dihydropyrimidine derivatives, and was converted to lethal damage by alkali. This followed from experiments in which the DNA was treated with osmium-tetroxide, which oxidized thymine to 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine. Treatment with alkali of this DNA gave the same temperature dependence as found for the non-lethal alkali-labile sites in irradiated DNA. A similar temperature dependence was found for dihydrothymine and irradiated pyrimidines with alkali. (author)

  1. Design and evaluation of a variable stiffness manual operating platform for laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Li, Xuejie; Wang, Jianchen; Xing, Yuan; Wang, Shuxin; Ren, Xiangyun

    2017-12-01

    Most of the existing robotic platforms for LESS have workspace and load capacity weaknesses, because of the limitation of one single incision. We have developed a LESS manual operating platform of which the stiffness of the insertion tube is controllable. The system included two dexterous tool manipulators, a stereo-vision module and a variable stiffness insertion tube (VSIT), which was designed using phase-change material (mixed indium, gallium and stannum). Experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the VSIT were set up. Peg transfer tasks and trajectory tracking tasks were conducted to assess the initial performance of the overall system. The experimental results for stiffness characteristic suggested that the rigidity of the VSIT with a straight-forward pose was considerably increased by about four times in the rigid mode. Peg transfer tasks and trajectory tracking tasks were performed successfully with an average time of 97 s and 52 s, respectively. The experimental results for stiffness characteristic showed that the manual operating platform had great promise for solving large workspace, high manipulation force and stability problems in LESS. The tool manipulators had the ability to achieve basic operations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Observations on Forced Colony Emigration in Parachartergus fraternus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Epiponini: New Nest Site Marked with Sprayed Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Mateus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cases of colony emigration induced by removal of nest envelope and combs and a single one by manipulation are described. The disturbance was followed by defensive patterns, buzz running, and adult dispersion. An odor trail created by abdomen dragging, probably depositing venom or Dufour's gland secretions, connected the original nest to the newly selected nesting place and guided the emigration. The substrate of the selected nesting place is intensely sprayed with venom prior to emigration, and this chemical cue marked the emigration end point. The colony moves to the new site in a diffuse cloud with no temporary clusters formed along the odor trail. At the original nest, scouts performed rapid gaster dragging and intense mouth contacts stimulating inactive individuals to depart. Males were unable to follow the swarm. Individual scouts switched between different behavioral tasks before and after colony emigration. Pulp collected from the old nest was reused at the new nest site.

  3. PMSE and wind profiles from observations above EISCAT Tromsø site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ingrid; Nozawa, Satonori; Haeggstroem, Ingemar; Tjulin, Anders; Dalin, Peter; Hall, Chris; Anyairo, Charles; Rostami, Sina

    2017-04-01

    One of the processes that are linked to the entry of cosmic dust in atmosphere is the formation of Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE). PMSE are strong radar echoes that are observed in the polar summer mesosphere. They are caused by spatial variations in the plasma refractive index which arise in the presence of electrically charged ice particles. The ice particles that are linked to PMSE are often below the optically observable size range and are assumed to form by water ice condensing onto meteoric smoke particles at around 80 to 90 km altitude. The atmosphere at PMSE altitude is influenced by solar radiative forcing from above and gravity waves from below, and while ionization is small, it is highly variable due to a number of different processes. A straightforward quantitative description of the physics leading to PMSE formation is at present still missing. With one of the first tri-static PMSE observations with the EISCAT VHF radar we found signs of wind shear in PMSE. The observations suggest that the PMSE contains sublayers that move in different directions horizontally, and this points to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability possibly playing a role in PMSE process. We compare the EISCAT observations to wind observations carried with other radar at the same location and discuss implications for future observations. We acknowledge Chris Meek and Alan Manson who provided MF radar data. EISCAT is an international association supported by research organizations in Norway (NFR), Sweden (VR), Finland (SA), Japan (NIPR and STEL), China (CRIPR), and the United Kingdom (NERC); data are available under http://www. eiscat.se/madrigal/.

  4. Observation of Frenkel and charge transfer excitons in pentacene single crystals using spectroscopic generalized ellipsometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Dongchen; Su, Haibin; Bastjan, M.; Jurchescu, O. D.; Palstra, T. M.; Wee, Andrew T. S.; Ruebhausen, M.; Rusydi, A.; Rübhausen, M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the emerging and admixture of Frenkel and charge transfer (CT) excitons near the absorption onset in pentacene single crystals. Using high energy-resolution spectroscopic generalized ellipsometry with in-plane polarization dependence, the excitonic nature of three lowest lying

  5. Direct observation of spin-injection in tyrosinate-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsoufis, Theodoros; Ampoumogli, Asem; Gournis, Dimitrios; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Jankovic, Lubos; Christoforidis, Konstantinos C.; Deligiannakis, Yiannis; Mavrandonakis, Andreas; Froudakis, George E.; Maccallini, Enrico; Rudolf, Petra; Mateo-Alonso, Aurelio; Prato, Maurizio

    In this work, we report on the interaction of a tyrosinate radical with single wall carbon nanotubes (CNT). The tyrosinate radical was formed from tyrosine (ester) by Fenton's reagent and, reacted in situ with carbon nanotubes resulting in novel tyrosinated carbon nanotube derivatives. The covalent

  6. Procedural Sensitivities of Effect Sizes for Single-Case Designs with Directly Observed Behavioral Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustejovsky, James E.

    2018-01-01

    A wide variety of effect size indices have been proposed for quantifying the magnitude of treatment effects in single-case designs. Commonly used measures include parametric indices such as the standardized mean difference, as well as non-overlap measures such as the percentage of non-overlapping data, improvement rate difference, and non-overlap…

  7. Exploring both sequence detection and restriction endonuclease cleavage kinetics by recognition site via single-molecule microfluidic trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weilin; Muller, Susan J

    2011-02-07

    We demonstrate the feasibility of a single-molecule microfluidic approach to both sequence detection and obtaining kinetic information for restriction endonucleases on dsDNA. In this method, a microfluidic stagnation point flow is designed to trap, hold, and linearize double-stranded (ds) genomic DNA to which a restriction endonuclease has been pre-bound sequence-specifically. By introducing the cofactor magnesium, we determine the binding location of the enzyme by the cleavage process of dsDNA as in optical restriction mapping, however here the DNA need not be immobilized on a surface. We note that no special labeling of the enzyme is required, which makes it simpler than our previous scheme using stagnation point flows for sequence detection. Our accuracy in determining the location of the recognition site is comparable to or better than other single molecule techniques due to the fidelity with which we can control the linearization of the DNA molecules. In addition, since the cleavage process can be followed in real time, information about the cleavage kinetics, and subtle differences in binding and cleavage frequencies among the recognition sites, may also be obtained. Data for the five recognition sites for the type II restriction endonuclease EcoRI on λ-DNA are presented as a model system. While the roles of the varying fluid velocity and tension along the chain backbone on the measured kinetics remain to be determined, we believe this new method holds promise for a broad range of studies of DNA-protein interactions, including the kinetics of other DNA cleavage processes, the dissociation of a restriction enzyme from the cleaved substrate, and other macromolecular cleavage processes.

  8. Single-Site Active Iron-Based Bifunctional Oxygen Catalyst for a Compressible and Rechargeable Zinc-Air Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Longtao; Chen, Shengmei; Pei, Zengxia; Huang, Yan; Liang, Guojin; Mo, Funian; Yang, Qi; Su, Jun; Gao, Yihua; Zapien, Juan Antonio; Zhi, Chunyi

    2018-02-27

    The exploitation of a high-efficient, low-cost, and stable non-noble-metal-based catalyst with oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) simultaneously, as air electrode material for a rechargeable zinc-air battery is significantly crucial. Meanwhile, the compressible flexibility of a battery is the prerequisite of wearable or/and portable electronics. Herein, we present a strategy via single-site dispersion of an Fe-N x species on a two-dimensional (2D) highly graphitic porous nitrogen-doped carbon layer to implement superior catalytic activity toward ORR/OER (with a half-wave potential of 0.86 V for ORR and an overpotential of 390 mV at 10 mA·cm -2 for OER) in an alkaline medium. Furthermore, an elastic polyacrylamide hydrogel based electrolyte with the capability to retain great elasticity even under a highly corrosive alkaline environment is utilized to develop a solid-state compressible and rechargeable zinc-air battery. The creatively developed battery has a low charge-discharge voltage gap (0.78 V at 5 mA·cm -2 ) and large power density (118 mW·cm -2 ). It could be compressed up to 54% strain and bent up to 90° without charge/discharge performance and output power degradation. Our results reveal that single-site dispersion of catalytic active sites on a porous support for a bifunctional oxygen catalyst as cathode integrating a specially designed elastic electrolyte is a feasible strategy for fabricating efficient compressible and rechargeable zinc-air batteries, which could enlighten the design and development of other functional electronic devices.

  9. Early Australian experience in robotic sleeve gastrectomy: a single site series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Candice D; Ghusn, Michael A

    2017-05-01

    The use of robotic platforms in bariatric surgery has recently gained relevance. With an increased use of this technology come concerns regarding learning curve effects during the initial implementation phase. The sleeve gastrectomy though may represent an ideal training procedure for introducing the robot into bariatric surgical practice. The present review of the first 10 consecutive robotic sleeve gastrectomy procedures performed in an Australian bariatric programme by a single surgeon describes the evolution of the technique, learning curve and initial patient outcomes. Between 2014 and 2015, robotic sleeve gastrectomies were performed as primary and revisional procedures by a consistent surgeon-assistant team. Technique evolution and theatre set-up were documented. Patient demographics, operative time (robot docking and total operation time), additional operative procedures performed, operative and post-operative complications at 1, 3 and 6 months post-procedure and weight loss achieved at 6 months were retrospectively reviewed from a prospectively maintained database. Ten robotic sleeve gastrectomies were performed without significant operative complications. One patient was treated as an outpatient with oral antibiotics for a superficial wound infection. The median total operative time was 123 min (interquartile range (IQR) 108.8-142.5), with a median incision to docking time of 19 min (IQR 15.0-31.8). Length of stay in hospital was 2-3 days. Median excess weight loss achieved at 6 months was 50% (IQR 33.9-66.5). This study describes a method of safely introducing the da Vinci robot into bariatric surgical practice. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  10. In situ observations of the isotopic composition of methane at the Cabauw tall tower site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High-precision analyses of the isotopic composition of methane in ambient air can potentially be used to discriminate between different source categories. Due to the complexity of isotope ratio measurements, such analyses have generally been performed in the laboratory on air samples collected in the field. This poses a limitation on the temporal resolution at which the isotopic composition can be monitored with reasonable logistical effort. Here we present the performance of a dual isotope ratio mass spectrometric system (IRMS and a quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS-based technique for in situ analysis of the isotopic composition of methane under field conditions. Both systems were deployed at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR in the Netherlands and performed in situ, high-frequency (approx. hourly measurements for a period of more than 5 months. The IRMS and QCLAS instruments were in excellent agreement with a slight systematic offset of (+0.25 ± 0.04 ‰ for δ13C and (−4.3 ± 0.4 ‰ for δD. This was corrected for, yielding a combined dataset with more than 2500 measurements of both δ13C and δD. The high-precision and high-temporal-resolution dataset not only reveals the overwhelming contribution of isotopically depleted agricultural CH4 emissions from ruminants at the Cabauw site but also allows the identification of specific events with elevated contributions from more enriched sources such as natural gas and landfills. The final dataset was compared to model calculations using the global model TM5 and the mesoscale model FLEXPART-COSMO. The results of both models agree better with the measurements when the TNO-MACC emission inventory is used in the models than when the EDGAR inventory is used. This suggests that high-resolution isotope measurements have the potential to further constrain the methane budget when they are performed at multiple sites that are representative for

  11. In-situ observations of the isotopic composition of methane at the Cabauw tall tower site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röckmann, Thomas; Eyer, Simon; van der Veen, Carina; E Popa, Maria; Tuzson, Béla; Monteil, Guillaume; Houweling, Sander; Harris, Eliza; Brunner, Dominik; Fischer, Hubertus; Zazzeri, Giulia; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan G.; Brand, Willi A.; Necki, Jaroslav M.; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    High precision analyses of the isotopic composition of methane in ambient air can potentially be used to discriminate between different source categories. Due to the complexity of isotope ratio measurements, such analyses have generally been performed in the laboratory on air samples collected in the field. This poses a limitation on the temporal resolution at which the isotopic composition can be monitored with reasonable logistical effort. Here we present the performance of a dual isotope ratio mass spectrometric system (IRMS) and a quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS) based technique for in-situ analysis of the isotopic composition of methane under field conditions. Both systems were deployed at the Cabauw experimental site for atmospheric research (CESAR) in the Netherlands and performed in-situ, high-frequency (approx. hourly) measurements for a period of more than 5 months. The IRMS and QCLAS instruments were in excellent agreement with a slight systematic offset of +0.05 ± 0.03 ‰ for δ13C-CH4 and -3.6 ± 0.4 ‰ for δD-CH4. This was corrected for, yielding a combined dataset with more than 2500 measurements of both δ13C and δD. The high precision and temporal resolution dataset does not only reveal the overwhelming contribution of isotopically depleted agricultural CH4 emissions from ruminants at the Cabauw site, but also allows the identification of specific events with elevated contributions from more enriched sources such as natural gas and landfills. The final dataset was compared to model calculations using the global model TM5 and the mesoscale model FLEXPART-COSMO. The results of both models agree better with the measurements when the TNO-MACC emission inventory is used in the models than when the EDGAR inventory is used. This suggests that high-resolution isotope measurements have the potential to further constrain the methane budget, when they are performed at multiple sites that are representative for the entire European

  12. Esthetic Evaluation of Anterior Single-Tooth Implants with Different Abutment Designs - Patients' Satisfaction Compared to Dentists' Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, Ratnadeep; Gresnigt, Marco M M; Mahesh, Kavita; Dilbaghi, Anjali; Cune, Marco S

    Purpose: To correlate patients' satisfaction and dentists' observations regarding two abutment designs used for single crowns in the esthetic zone: a divergent one (control) and a curved one (experimental), with special emphasis on muco-gingival esthetics. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six patients

  13. On-site inspection for the radionuclide observables of an underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty an on-site inspection (OSI) may be undertaken to identify signatures from a potential nuclear explosion. This includes the measurement of 17 particulate radionuclides ( 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 99 Mo, 99m Tc, 103 Ru, 106 Rh, 132 Te, 131 I, 132 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 140 La, 141 Ce, 144 Ce, 144 Pr, 147 Nd). This research provides an assessment of the potential to detect these radionuclides during an OSI within 1 week to 2 years after a nuclear explosion at two locations. A model has been developed that simulates the underground detonation of a 1 kT 235 U nuclear weapon with 1 % venting. This indicates a requirement to minimise the time since detonation with accurate determination of the test location. (author)

  14. Ophthalmology on social networking sites: an observational study of Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micieli, Jonathan A; Tsui, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    The use of social media in ophthalmology remains largely unknown. Our aim was to evaluate the extent and involvement of ophthalmology journals, professional associations, trade publications, and patient advocacy and fundraising groups on social networking sites. An archived list of 107 ophthalmology journals from SCImago, trade publications, professional ophthalmology associations, and patient advocacy organizations were searched for their presence on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Activity and popularity of each account was quantified by using the number of "likes" on Facebook, the number of followers on Twitter, and members on LinkedIn. Of the 107 journals ranked by SCImago, 21.5% were present on Facebook and 18.7% were present on Twitter. Journal of Community Eye Health was the most popular on Facebook and JAMA Ophthalmology was most popular on Twitter. Among the 133 members of the International Council of Ophthalmology, 17.3% were present on Facebook, 12.8% were present on Twitter, and 7.5% were present on LinkedIn. The most popular on Facebook was the International Council of Ophthalmology, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology was most popular on Twitter and LinkedIn. Patient advocacy organizations were more popular on all sites compared with journals, professional association, and trade publications. Among the top ten most popular pages in each category, patient advocacy groups were most active followed by trade publications, professional associations, and journals. Patient advocacy groups lead the way in social networking followed by professional organizations and journals. Although some journals use social media, most have yet to engage its full potential and maximize the number of potential interested individuals.

  15. Ophthalmology on social networking sites: an observational study of Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micieli JA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan A Micieli,1 Edmund Tsui2 1Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Surgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, USA Background: The use of social media in ophthalmology remains largely unknown. Our aim was to evaluate the extent and involvement of ophthalmology journals, professional associations, trade publications, and patient advocacy and fundraising groups on social networking sites. Methods: An archived list of 107 ophthalmology journals from SCImago, trade publications, professional ophthalmology associations, and patient advocacy organizations were searched for their presence on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Activity and popularity of each account was quantified by using the number of “likes” on Facebook, the number of followers on Twitter, and members on LinkedIn. Results: Of the 107 journals ranked by SCImago, 21.5% were present on Facebook and 18.7% were present on Twitter. Journal of Community Eye Health was the most popular on Facebook and JAMA Ophthalmology was most popular on Twitter. Among the 133 members of the International Council of Ophthalmology, 17.3% were present on Facebook, 12.8% were present on Twitter, and 7.5% were present on LinkedIn. The most popular on Facebook was the International Council of Ophthalmology, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology was most popular on Twitter and LinkedIn. Patient advocacy organizations were more popular on all sites compared with journals, professional association, and trade publications. Among the top ten most popular pages in each category, patient advocacy groups were most active followed by trade publications, professional associations, and journals. Conclusion: Patient advocacy groups lead the way in social networking followed by professional organizations and journals. Although some journals use social media, most have yet to engage its full potential and maximize the number of

  16. National Marine Sanctuaries as Sentinel Sites for a Demonstration Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, F.; Montes, E.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gittings, S.; Canonico, G.; Kavanaugh, M.; Iken, K.; Miller, R. J.; Duffy, J. E.; Miloslavich, P.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Federal government (NOAA, NASA, BOEM, and the Smithsonian Institution), academic researchers, and private partners in the U.S. and around the world are working on the design and implementation of a Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON). The program is being coordinated internationally with the Group on Earth Observations (GEO BON) and two key Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) programs, namely the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS). The goal is to monitor changes in marine biodiversity within various geographic settings. In the U.S., demonstration projects include four National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS): Florida Keys, Monterey Bay, Flower Garden Banks, and Channel Islands. The Smithsonian is implementing several programs around the world under the Marine Global Earth Observatory (MarineGEO) partnership, directed by the Smithsonian's Tennenbaum Marine Observatories Network (TMON). The overarching goal is to observe and understand life, from microbes to whales, in different coastal and continental shelf habitats, and its role in maintaining resilient ecosystems. The project also seeks to determine biodiversity baselines in these ecosystems based on time-series observations to assess changes in populations and overall biodiversity over time. Efforts are being made to engage with various countries in the Americas to participate in an MBON Pole to Pole in the Americas initiative proposed by Mexico. We are looking to have other regions organized to conduct similar planning efforts. The present MBON pilot projects encompass a range of marine environments, including deep sea, continental shelves, and coastal habitats including estuaries, wetlands, and coral reefs. The MBON will facilitate and enable regional biodiversity assessments, and contributes to addressing several U.N. Sustainable Development Goals to conserve and sustainably use marine resources, and provide a means for countries

  17. Light absorption and morphological properties of soot-containing aerosols observed at an East Asian outflow site, Noto Peninsula, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ueda; S. Ueda; T. Nakayama; T. Nakayama; F. Taketani; K. Adachi; A. Matsuki; Y. Iwamoto; Y. Iwamoto; Y. Sadanaga; Y. Matsumi; Y. Matsumi

    2016-01-01

    The coating of black carbon (BC) with inorganic salts and organic compounds can enhance the magnitude of light absorption by BC. To elucidate the enhancement of light absorption of aged BC particles and its relation to the mixing state and morphology of individual particles, we conducted observations of particles at an Asian outflow site in Noto Peninsula, Japan, in the spring of 2013. Absorption and scattering coefficients at 405, 532, and 781 nm and mass concentrations/mix...

  18. Light absorption and morphological properties of soot-containing aerosols observed at an East Asian outflow site, Noto Peninsula, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ueda; T. Nakayama; F. Taketani; K. Adachi; A. Matsuki; Y. Iwamoto; Y. Sadanaga; Y. Matsumi

    2015-01-01

    The coating of black carbon (BC) with inorganic salts and organic compounds can enhance the magnitude of light absorption by BC. To elucidate the enhancement of light absorption of aged BC particles and its relation to the mixing state and morphology of individual particles, we conducted observations of particles at an Asian outflow site in Noto Peninsula, Japan, in the spring of 2013. Absorption and scattering coefficients at 405, 532, and 781 nm and mass concentrations/mix...

  19. Photochemical modeling of glyoxal at a rural site: observations and analysis from BEARPEX 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Huisman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present roughly one month of high time-resolution, direct, in situ measurements of gas-phase glyoxal acquired during the BEARPEX 2007 field campaign. The research site, located on a ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada mountains, is strongly influenced by biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs; thus this data adds to the few existing measurements of glyoxal in BVOC-dominated areas. The short lifetime of glyoxal of ~1 h, the fact that glyoxal mixing ratios are much higher during high temperature periods, and the results of a photochemical model demonstrate that glyoxal is strongly influenced by BVOC precursors during high temperature periods.

    A zero-dimensional box model using near-explicit chemistry from the Leeds Master Chemical Mechanism v3.1 was used to investigate the processes controlling glyoxal chemistry during BEARPEX 2007. The model showed that MBO is the most important glyoxal precursor (~67 %, followed by isoprene (~26 % and methylchavicol (~6 %, a precursor previously not commonly considered for glyoxal production. The model calculated a noon lifetime for glyoxal of ~0.9 h, making glyoxal well suited as a local tracer of VOC oxidation in a forested rural environment; however, the modeled glyoxal mixing ratios over-predicted measured glyoxal by a factor 2 to 5. Loss of glyoxal to aerosol was not found to be significant, likely as a result of the very dry conditions, and could not explain the over-prediction. Although several parameters, such as an approximation for advection, were found to improve the model measurement discrepancy, reduction in OH was by far the most effective. Reducing model OH concentrations to half the measured values decreased the glyoxal over-prediction from a factor of 2.4 to 1.1, as well as the overprediction of HO2 from a factor of 1.64 to 1.14. Our analysis has shown that glyoxal is particularly sensitive to OH concentration compared to other BVOC oxidation products. This

  20. A breeding site model for regional, dynamical malaria simulations evaluated using in situ temporary ponds observations

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest O. Asare; Adrian M. Tompkins; Leonard K. Amekudzi; Volker Ermert

    2016-01-01

    Daily observations of potential mosquito developmental habitats in a suburb of Kumasi in central Ghana reveal a strong variability in their water persistence times, which ranged between 11 and 81 days. The persistence of the ponds was strongly tied with rainfall, location and size of the puddles. A simple power-law relationship is found to fit the relationship between the average pond depth and area well. A prognostic water balance model is derived that describes the temporal evolution of the...

  1. Archaeoseismology in Algeria: observed damages related to probable past earthquakes on archaeological remains on Roman sites (Tel Atlas of Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumane, Kahina; Ayadi, Abdelhakim

    2017-04-01

    The seismological catalogue for Algeria exhibits significant lack for the period before 1365. Some attempts led to retrieve ancient earthquakes evidenced by historical documents and achieves. Archaeoseismology allows a study of earthquakes that have affected archaeological sites, based on the analysis of damage observed on remains. We have focused on the Antiquity period that include Roman, Vandal and Byzantine period from B.C 146 to A.D. 533. This will contribute significantly to the understanding of seismic hazard of the Tell Atlas region known as an earthquake prone area. The Tell Atlas (Algeria) experienced during its history many disastrous earthquakes their impacts are graved on landscape and archaeological monuments. On Roman sites such, Lambaesis (Lambèse), Thamugadi (Timgad) Thibilis (Salaoua Announa) or Thevest (Tebessa), damage were observed on monuments and remains related to seismic events following strong shacking or other ground deformation (subsidence, landslide). Examples of observed damage and disorders on several Roman sites are presented as a contribution to Archaeoseismology in Algeria based on effects of earthquakes on ancient structures and monuments. Keywords : Archaeoseismology. Lambaesis. Drop columns. Aspecelium. Ancient earthquakes

  2. Ovarian Suspension With Adjustable Sutures: An Easy and Helpful Technique for Facilitating Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Gynecologic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Hu; Chen, Li-Ru; Seow, Kok-Min

    2015-01-01

    To describe a method of ovarian suspension with adjustable sutures (OSAS) for facilitating laparoendoscopic single-site gynecologic surgery (LESS) and to investigate the effect of OSAS on LESS. Prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification: II-2). University teaching hospital. One hundred seventy-eight patients with benign 5- to 15-cm cystic ovarian tumors who underwent LESS with OSAS (suspension group, n = 90) and without OSAS (control group, n = 88). For patients who underwent OSAS (suspension group), 1 end of double-head straight needles with a polypropylene suture was inserted into the pelvic cavity through the abdominal skin to penetrate the cyst or ovarian parenchyma and puncture outside the abdominal skin. After cutting off the needles, both sides of the remaining suture were held together by a clamp, without knotting, so that the manipulator could "lift," "loosen," or "fix" the stitches to adjust the tension. The average time to create OSAS was 2.9 min. For the suspension and control groups, the average blood loss was 81.4 and 131.8 mL (p < .001), and the operative time was 42.0 and 61.3 min (p < .001), respectively. There were no significant differences in the incidence of complications (5.6% vs 9.1%; p = .365), but there were significant differences in conversions to standard non-single-site laparoscopy (5.6% vs 15.9%; p = .025) and laparotomy (1.1% vs 6.8%; p = .040). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the ratios of conversion to standard non-single-site laparoscopy (odds ratio [OR], 0.126; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.311-0.508) and laparotomy (OR, 0.032; 95% CI, 0.002-0.479) were much lower in the suspension group; the risk of complications was comparable (OR, 0.346; 95% CI, 0.085-1.403). OSAS is an easy, safe, and feasible method that offers advantages during LESS. Although routine use of OSAS is not necessary, OSAS can be considered during LESS to facilitate the surgery. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Diffusion, capture and recycling of SCAR/WAVE and Arp2/3 complexes observed in cells by single-molecule imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millius, Arthur; Watanabe, Naoki; Weiner, Orion D.

    2012-01-01

    The SCAR/WAVE complex drives lamellipodium formation by enhancing actin nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex. Phosphoinositides and Rac activate the SCAR/WAVE complex, but how SCAR/WAVE and Arp2/3 complexes converge at sites of nucleation is unknown. We analyzed the single-molecule dynamics of WAVE2 and p40 (subunits of the SCAR/WAVE and Arp2/3 complexes, respectively) in XTC cells. We observed lateral diffusion of both proteins and captured the transition of p40 from diffusion to network incorporation. These results suggest that a diffusive 2D search facilitates binding of the Arp2/3 complex to actin filaments necessary for nucleation. After nucleation, the Arp2/3 complex integrates into the actin network and undergoes retrograde flow, which results in its broad distribution throughout the lamellipodium. By contrast, the SCAR/WAVE complex is more restricted to the cell periphery. However, with single-molecule imaging, we also observed WAVE2 molecules undergoing retrograde motion. WAVE2 and p40 have nearly identical speeds, lifetimes and sites of network incorporation. Inhibition of actin retrograde flow does not prevent WAVE2 association and disassociation with the membrane but does inhibit WAVE2 removal from the actin cortex. Our results suggest that membrane binding and diffusion expedites the recruitment of nucleation factors to a nucleation site independent of actin assembly, but after network incorporation, ongoing actin polymerization facilitates recycling of SCAR/WAVE and Arp2/3 complexes. PMID:22349699

  4. Improvement of the Positioning Accuracy of a Single Frequency Receiver using Observables of the Dual GPS Reference Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Kyu Choi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of civil and commercial applications, the Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS that provides the positioning, navigation, and timing information affects to our life. In order to meet all the requirements of civilian user, new positioning technology with the accuracy of 10cm level has been applied and the positioning accuracy is getting improved. In this study, dual coverage(DAEJ, SUWN GPS measurements were applied to improve the positioning accuracy for GPS L1 single frequency users. We processed some GPS data obtained from the distributed test sites in the wide area over Korea Peninsula. As a result, the combined solution output using dual coverage showed more improved positioning accuracy than that of single coverage.

  5. Imatinib (Gleevec@) conformations observed in single crystals, protein-Imatinib co-crystals and molecular dynamics: Implications for drug selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golzarroshan, B.; Siddegowda, M. S.; Li, Hong qi; Yathirajan, H. S.; Narayana, B.; Rathore, R. S.

    2012-06-01

    Structure and dynamics of the Leukemia drug, Imatinib, were examined using X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics studies. Comparison of conformations observed in single crystals with several reported co-crystals of protein-drug complexes suggests existence of two conserved conformations of Imatinib, extended and compact (or folded), corresponding to two binding modes of interaction with the receptor. Furthermore, these conformations are conserved throughout a dynamics simulation. The present study attempts to draw a parallel on conformations and binding patterns of interactions, obtained from small-molecule single-crystal and macromolecule co-crystal studies, and provides structural insights for understanding the high selectivity of this drug molecule.

  6. Large-Eddy Simulation of Shallow Cumulus over Land: A Composite Case Based on ARM Long-Term Observations at Its Southern Great Plains Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yunyan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Klein, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Chandra, Arunchandra S. [Division of Meteorology and Physical Oceanography, University of Miami, Miami, Florida; Kollias, Pavlos [School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York; Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Tang, Shuaiqi [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    2017-10-01

    Based on long-term observations by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program at its Southern Great Plains site, a new composite case of continental shallow cumulus (ShCu) convection is constructed for large-eddy simulations (LES) and single-column models. The case represents a typical daytime nonprecipitating ShCu whose formation and dissipation are driven by the local atmospheric conditions and land surface forcing and are not influenced by synoptic weather events. The case includes early morning initial profiles of temperature and moisture with a residual layer; diurnally varying sensible and latent heat fluxes, which represent a domain average over different land surface types; simplified large-scale horizontal advective tendencies and subsidence; and horizontal winds with prevailing direction and average speed. Observed composite cloud statistics are provided for model evaluation. The observed diurnal cycle is well reproduced by LES; however, the cloud amount, liquid water path, and shortwave radiative effect are generally underestimated. LES are compared between simulations with an all-or-nothing bulk microphysics and a spectral bin microphysics. The latter shows improved agreement with observations in the total cloud cover and the amount of clouds with depths greater than 300 m. When compared with radar retrievals of in-cloud air motion, LES produce comparable downdraft vertical velocities, but a larger updraft area, velocity, and updraft mass flux. Both observations and LES show a significantly larger in-cloud downdraft fraction and downdraft mass flux than marine ShCu.

  7. Wegner estimate and localization for alloy-type models with sign-changing exponentially decaying single-site potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Karsten; Peyerimhoff, Norbert; Tautenhahn, Martin; Veselić, Ivan

    2015-05-01

    We study Schrödinger operators on L2(ℝd) and ℓ2(ℤd) with a random potential of alloy-type. The single-site potential is assumed to be exponentially decaying but not necessarily of fixed sign. In the continuum setting, we require a generalized step-function shape. Wegner estimates are bounds on the average number of eigenvalues in an energy interval of finite box restrictions of these types of operators. In the described situation, a Wegner estimate, which is polynomial in the volume of the box and linear in the size of the energy interval, holds. We apply the established Wegner estimate as an ingredient for a localization proof via multiscale analysis.

  8. Current status and future perspectives in laparoendoscopic single-site and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic urological surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autorino, Riccardo; Stein, Robert J; Lima, Estevão; Damiano, Rocco; Khanna, Rakesh; Haber, Georges-Pascal; White, Michael A; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2010-05-01

    Objective of this study is to provide an evidence-based analysis of the current status and future perspectives of scarless urological surgery. A PubMed search has been performed for all relevant urological literature regarding natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS). In addition, experience with LESS and NOTES at our own institution has been considered. All clinical and investigative reports for LESS and NOTES procedures in the urological literature have been considered. A wide variety of clinical procedures in urology have been successfully completed by using LESS techniques. Thus far, experience with NOTES has largely been investigational, although early clinical reports are emerging. Further development of instrumentation and platforms is necessary for both techniques to become more widely adopted throughout the urological community.

  9. The use of expanding ports in laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery may cause more pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dressler, Jannie; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analyses on the clinical outcome after laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) versus conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS) have not revealed any major differences in postoperative pain between the two procedures. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the difference...... for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on LESS versus CLS for general abdominal procedures. Weighted mean difference (WMD) and Odds ratios (OR) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: A total of 29 RCTs with 2999 procedures were included. Pain (VAS 0-10) 6 h after surgery was significantly...... in LESSex procedures compared to CLS, OR = 1.94 (1.03-3.63). CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis indirectly indicates that the type of access device that is used for an abdominal LESS procedure may contribute to the development of early postoperative pain as the use of a non-expanding model was associated...

  10. Real-time observation of conformational switching in single conjugated polymer chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopala-Carmona, Francisco; Fronk, Stephanie; Bazan, Guillermo C; Samuel, Ifor D W; Penedo, J Carlos

    2018-02-01

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) are an important class of organic semiconductors that combine novel optoelectronic properties with simple processing from organic solvents. It is important to study CP conformation in solution to understand the physics of these materials and because it affects the properties of solution-processed films. Single-molecule techniques are unique in their ability to extract information on a chain-to-chain basis; however, in the context of CPs, technical challenges have limited their general application to host matrices or semiliquid environments that constrain the conformational dynamics of the polymer. We introduce a conceptually different methodology that enables measurements in organic solvents using the single-end anchoring of polymer chains to avoid diffusion while preserving polymer flexibility. We explore the effect of organic solvents and show that, in addition to chain-to-chain conformational heterogeneity, collapsed and extended polymer segments can coexist within the same chain. The technique enables real-time solvent-exchange measurements, which show that anchored CP chains respond to sudden changes in solvent conditions on a subsecond time scale. Our results give an unprecedented glimpse into the mechanism of solvent-induced reorganization of CPs and can be expected to lead to a new range of techniques to investigate and conformationally manipulate CPs.

  11. Reduction of bradykinesia of finger movements by a single session of action observation in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosin, Elisa; Bove, Marco; Ruggeri, Piero; Avanzino, Laura; Abbruzzese, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Action observation influences motor performance in healthy subjects and persons with motor impairments. To understand the effects of action observation on the spontaneous rate of finger movements in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Participants, 20 with PD and 14 healthy controls, were randomly divided into 2 groups. Those in the VIDEO group watched video clips showing repetitive finger movements paced at 3 Hz, whereas those in the ACOUSTIC group listened to an acoustic cue paced at 3 Hz. All participants performed a finger sequence at their spontaneous pace at different intervals (before, at the end of, 45 minutes after, and 2 days after training); 8 participants with PD were recruited for a sham intervention, watching a 6-minute video representing a static hand. Finally, 10 patients participated in the same protocol used for the VIDEO group but were tested in the on and off medication states. Both VIDEO and ACOUSTIC training increased the spontaneous rate in all participants. VIDEO intervention showed a greater effect over time, improving the spontaneous rate and reducing the intertapping interval to a larger extent than ACOUSTIC 45 minutes and 2 days after training. Action observation significantly influenced movement rate in on and off conditions, but 45 minutes after training, the effect was still present only in the on condition. No effect was observed after sham intervention. These findings suggest that the dopaminergic state contributes to the effects of action observation, and this training may be a promising approach in the rehabilitation of bradykinesia in PD.

  12. Perception of color emotions for single colors in red-green defective observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiko; Inoue, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that inherited red-green color deficiency, which involves both the protan and deutan deficiency types, is common in men. For red-green defective observers, some reddish colors appear desaturated and brownish, unlike those seen by normal observers. Despite its prevalence, few studies have investigated the effects that red-green color deficiency has on the psychological properties of colors (color emotions). The current study investigated the influence of red-green color deficiency on the following six color emotions: cleanliness, freshness, hardness, preference, warmth, and weight. Specifically, this study aimed to: (1) reveal differences between normal and red-green defective observers in rating patterns of six color emotions; (2) examine differences in color emotions related to the three cardinal channels in human color vision; and (3) explore relationships between color emotions and color naming behavior. Thirteen men and 10 women with normal vision and 13 men who were red-green defective performed both a color naming task and an emotion rating task with 32 colors from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP). Results revealed noticeable differences in the cleanliness and hardness ratings between the normal vision observers, particularly in women, and red-green defective observers, which appeared mainly for colors in the orange to cyan range, and in the preference and warmth ratings for colors with cyan and purple hues. Similarly, naming errors also mainly occurred in the cyan colors. A regression analysis that included the three cone-contrasts (i.e., red-green, blue-yellow, and luminance) as predictors significantly accounted for variability in color emotion ratings for the red-green defective observers as much as the normal individuals. Expressly, for warmth ratings, the weight of the red-green opponent channel was significantly lower in color defective observers than in normal participants. In addition, the analyses for individual warmth ratings in

  13. Perception of color emotions for single colors in red-green defective observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Sato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that inherited red-green color deficiency, which involves both the protan and deutan deficiency types, is common in men. For red-green defective observers, some reddish colors appear desaturated and brownish, unlike those seen by normal observers. Despite its prevalence, few studies have investigated the effects that red-green color deficiency has on the psychological properties of colors (color emotions. The current study investigated the influence of red-green color deficiency on the following six color emotions: cleanliness, freshness, hardness, preference, warmth, and weight. Specifically, this study aimed to: (1 reveal differences between normal and red-green defective observers in rating patterns of six color emotions; (2 examine differences in color emotions related to the three cardinal channels in human color vision; and (3 explore relationships between color emotions and color naming behavior. Thirteen men and 10 women with normal vision and 13 men who were red-green defective performed both a color naming task and an emotion rating task with 32 colors from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP. Results revealed noticeable differences in the cleanliness and hardness ratings between the normal vision observers, particularly in women, and red-green defective observers, which appeared mainly for colors in the orange to cyan range, and in the preference and warmth ratings for colors with cyan and purple hues. Similarly, naming errors also mainly occurred in the cyan colors. A regression analysis that included the three cone-contrasts (i.e., red-green, blue-yellow, and luminance as predictors significantly accounted for variability in color emotion ratings for the red-green defective observers as much as the normal individuals. Expressly, for warmth ratings, the weight of the red-green opponent channel was significantly lower in color defective observers than in normal participants. In addition, the analyses for individual warmth

  14. Synthesis and Activity of A Single Active Site N-doped Electro-catalyst for Oxygen Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayati, Maryam; Scott, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen doped carbon materials are promising oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts which could potentially replace platinum. However, despite extensive studies, their active sites are still controversial and their impact on overall ORR remains obscure. Herein, we present a method for preparation of a single active site catalyst based on cycling an iron-inserted N-doped carbon catalyst in a wide potential window firstly in sulfuric acid and later in alkaline solution to study the contribution of the remaining one active group in overall activity. Following preparation of the metal-inserted N-doped carbon catalyst (MINC), its morphology was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the electro-catalytic behavior was investigated by employing linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) using a rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE). XPS revealed that graphitic nitrogen was the only remaining active nitrogen-containing group after elimination the pyridinic and pyrrolic groups and also iron nano-materials removal confirmed from auger peak of Fe LMMa and poisoning reaction with cyanide. The C1 s XPS region data showed an increase in the oxygen reduction intermediate C-OH peak, after the reaction, which indicates electrocatalytic activity of the graphitic carbon. Electrochemical studies revealed no significant changes in limiting current, a small increase in H 2 O 2 production and 47 mV shift in half wave potential for degraded catalyst which is in line with previous theoretical calculations.

  15. Changing epidemiology of AA amyloidosis: clinical observations over 25 years at a single national referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Thirusha; Pinney, Jennifer H; Gilbertson, Janet A; Hutt, David F; Rowczenio, Dorota M; Mahmood, Shameem; Sachchithanantham, Sajitha; Fontana, Marianna; Youngstein, Taryn; Quarta, Candida C; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D; Gillmore, Julian D; Hawkins, Philip N; Lachmann, Helen J

    2017-09-01

    Systemic AA amyloidosis is a serious complication of chronic inflammation; however, there are relatively few published data on its incidence. We investigated the changing epidemiology of AA amyloidosis over a 25-year period at a single national referral centre. We conducted a retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with AA amyloidosis who had attended the centre between 1990 and 2014 inclusive. Six hundred and twenty-five patients were studied in three cohorts: C1: 1990-1997; C2: 1998-2006; C3: 2007-2014. Mean age at presentation increased from 46 in C1 to 56 in C3 (p AA amyloidosis over a quarter of a century, reflecting advances in therapeutics and overall management of complex chronic disease in an ageing population. AA amyloidosis of uncertain aetiology presents an emerging major problem. Newer techniques such as next-generation sequencing may aid diagnosis and effective treatment, thereby improving overall survival.

  16. Hot water epilepsy: Phenotype and single photon emission computed tomography observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the anatomical correlates of reflex hot water epilepsy (HWE using multimodality investigations viz. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, electroencephalography (EEG, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. Five men (mean age: 27.0 ΁ 5.8 years with HWE were subjected to MRI of brain, video-EEG studies, and SPECT scan. These were correlated with phenotypic presentations. Seizures could be precipitated in three patients with pouring of hot water over the head and semiology of seizures was suggestive of temporal lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT showed hyperperfusion in: left medial temporal - one, left lateral temporal - one, and right parietal - one. Interictal SPECT was normal in all five patients and did not help in localization. MRI and interictal EEG was normal in all the patients. The clinical and SPECT studies suggested temporal lobe as the seizure onset zone in some of the patients with HWE.

  17. Observing the state of balance with a single upper-body sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte ePaiman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of falls is an urgent challenge in our aging society. For wearable devices that actively prevent falls or mitigate their consequences, a critical prerequisite is knowledge on the user's current state of balance. To keep such wearable systems practical and to achieve high acceptance, only very limited sensor instrumentation is possible, often restricted to inertial measurement units at waist level. We propose to augment this limited sensor information by combining it with additional knowledge on human gait, in the form of an observer concept. The observer contains a combination of validated concepts to model human gait: A spring-loaded inverted pendulum model with articulated upper body, where foot placement and stance leg are controlled via the extrapolated center of mass (XCoM and the virtual pivot point (VPP, respectively. State estimation is performed via an Additive Unscented Kalman Filter (Additive UKF. We investigated sensitivity of the proposed concept to model uncertainties, and we evaluated observer performance with real data from human subjects walking on a treadmill. Data was collected from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU placed near the subject's center of mass (CoM, and observer estimates were compared to the ground truth as obtained via infrared motion capture. We found that the root mean squared deviation did not exceed 13cm on position, 22cm/s on velocity (0.56m/s-1.35m/s, 1.2degrees on orientation and 17degrees/s on angular velocity.

  18. Field computation of winds-aloft velocities from single theodolite pilot balloon observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill C. Ryan

    1976-01-01

    The ability to determine wind speeds and directions in the first few thousand meters of the atmosphere is important in many forestry operations such as smolce management, aircraft seeding and spraying, prescribed burning, and wildfire suppression. A hand-held electronic calculator can be used to compute winds aloft as balloon observations are taken. Calculations can...

  19. Direct observation of enzymes replicating DNA using a single-molecule DNA stretching assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulczyk, A.W.; Tanner, N.A.; Loparo, J.J.; Richardson, C.C.; Oijen, A.M. van

    2010-01-01

    We describe a method for observing real time replication of individual DNA molecules mediated by proteins of the bacteriophage replication system. Linearized lambda DNA is modified to have a biotin on the end of one strand, and a digoxigenin moiety on the other end of the same strand. The

  20. Seismic network at the Olkiluoto site and microearthquake observations in 2002-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M.

    2014-05-01

    This report describes the structure and operation of Posiva's seismic network after the comprehensive upgrade performed in 2013 and presents a summary of its micro-earthquake observations in 2002 - 2013. Excavation of the underground rock characterisation facility called ONKALO started in 2004. Before that, in February 2002, Posiva Oy established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto. The number of seismic stations has increased gradually and communication, hardware and software have developed in over ten years. The upgrade in 2013 included data transmission, the equipment in several seismic stations, the server responsible for the data processing in Olkiluoto and software applied in operation and analysis of observations. After the upgrade Posiva's permanent seismic network consists of 17 seismic stations and 21 triaxial sensors. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas, of which the larger one, the seismic semi-regional area, includes the Olkiluoto island and its surroundings. The aim is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale inside that area. All the expected excavation induced events are assumed to occur inside the smaller target area, the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km x 2 km x 2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the construction of the ONKALO.In the beginning the network monitored tectonic earthquakes in order to characterise the undisturbed baseline of seismicity in Olkiluoto. After August 2004, the network also monitored excavation induced seismicity. The first three excavation induced earthquakes were recorded in September 2005. At the moment the total number of excavation induced earthquakes is 17. During the same time about 10 000 excavation blasts were located. The

  1. Multi-institutional Experience in Laparoendoscopic Single-site Surgery (LESS): For Major Extirpative and Reconstructive Procedures in Pediatric Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, Ronak A; Long, Christopher J; Shukla, Aseem R; Kirsch, Andrew J; Perez-Brayfield, Marcos; Srinivasan, Arun K

    2016-02-01

    To review peri-procedural outcomes from a large, multi-institutional series of pediatric urology patients treated with laparaendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) for major extirpative and reconstructive procedures. Consecutive LESS cases between January 2011 and May 2014 from three free-standing pediatric referral centers were reviewed. Data include age, sex, operative time, blood loss, length of stay, and complications according to the modified Clavien-Dindo classification. Hasson technique was used for peritoneal entry, GelPOINT advanced access platform was inserted, and standard 5mm laparoscopic instruments were used. Fifty-nine patients (median age 5 years, 4 months-17 years) met inclusion criteria: 29 nephrectomies, 9 nephroureterectomies, 3 bilateral nephrectomies, 5 heminephrectomies, 5 renal cyst decortications, 3 bilateral gonadectomies, 2 Malone antegrade continence enema, 2 calyceal diverticulectomy, and 1 ovarian detorsion with cystectomy. Median operative times for each case type were comparable to published experiences with traditional laparoscopy. Overall mean and median length of stay was 36.2 hours and 1 day, respectively. There were two complications: port site hernia requiring surgical repair (Clavien IIIb) and a superficial port site infection that resolved with antibiotics (Clavien II). Cosmetic outcomes were subjectively well received by patients and their parents. Operative time was significantly shorter between the first half of the experience and the second half (102 vs 70 minutes, P  <  .05). LESS approach can be broadly applied across many major extirpative and reconstructive procedures within pediatric urology. Our series advances our field's utilization of this technique and its safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Single-dish and VLBI observations of Cygnus X-3 during the 2016 giant flare episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egron, E.; Pellizzoni, A.; Giroletti, M.; Righini, S.; Stagni, M.; Orlati, A.; Migoni, C.; Melis, A.; Concu, R.; Barbas, L.; Buttaccio, S.; Cassaro, P.; De Vicente, P.; Gawroński, M. P.; Lindqvist, M.; Maccaferri, G.; Stanghellini, C.; Wolak, P.; Yang, J.; Navarrini, A.; Loru, S.; Pilia, M.; Bachetti, M.; Iacolina, M. N.; Buttu, M.; Corbel, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Markoff, S.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Kalemci, E.; Belloni, T.; Grinberg, V.; Marongiu, M.; Vargiu, G. P.; Trois, A.

    2017-11-01

    In 2016 September, the microquasar Cygnus X-3 underwent a giant radio flare, which was monitored for 6 d with the Medicina Radio Astronomical Station and the Sardinia Radio Telescope. Long observations were performed in order to follow the evolution of the flare on an hourly scale, covering six frequency ranges from 1.5 to 25.6 GHz. The radio emission reached a maximum of 13.2 ± 0.7 Jy at 7.2 GHz and 10 ± 1 Jy at 18.6 GHz. Rapid flux variations were observed at high radio frequencies at the peak of the flare, together with rapid evolution of the spectral index: α steepened from 0.3 to 0.6 (with Sν ∝ ν-α) within 5 h. This is the first time that such fast variations are observed, giving support to the evolution from optically thick to optically thin plasmons in expansion moving outward from the core. Based on the Italian network (Noto, Medicina and SRT) and extended to the European antennas (Torun, Yebes, Onsala), very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations were triggered at 22 GHz on five different occasions, four times prior to the giant flare, and once during its decay phase. Flux variations of 2 h duration were recorded during the first session. They correspond to a mini-flare that occurred close to the core 10 d before the onset of the giant flare. From the latest VLBI observation we infer that 4 d after the flare peak the jet emission was extended over 30 mas.

  3. Soil moisture inversion from aircraft passive microwave observations during SMEX04 using a single-frequency algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, J Y; Li, Z; Chen, Q; Bi, H Y

    2014-01-01

    Soil moisture plays a key role in global water cycles. In the study, soil moisture retrievals from airborne microwave radiometer observations using a single-frequency algorithm were presented. The algorithm is based on a simplified radiative transfer (tau-omega) model and the influence of both the roughness and vegetation is combined into a single parameter in the algorithm. The microwave polarization difference index (MPDI) is used to eliminate the effects of temperature. Then soil moisture is obtained through a nonlinear iterative procedure by making the absolute value of the differences between the simulated and observed MPDI minimum. The algorithm was validated with aircraft passive microwave data from the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) at the Arizona during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2004 (SMEX04). The results show that the soil moisture retrieved by the algorithm is in good agreement with ground measurements with a small bias and an overall accuracy of 0.037m 3 m −3

  4. Two-year concurrent observation of isoprene at 20 sites over China: comparison with MEGAN-REAM model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Yang, W.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, Z.; Lyu, S.; Yu, J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Isoprene, the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted from plants, directly and indirectly affects atmospheric photochemistry and radiative forcing, yet narrowing its emission uncertainties is a continuous challenge. Comparison of observed and modelled isoprene on large spatiotemporal scales would help recognize factors that control isoprene variability, systematic field observation data are however quite lacking. Here we collected ambient air samples with 1 L silonite-treated stainless steel canisters simultaneously at 20 sites over China on every Wednesday at approximately 14:00 pm Beijing time from 2012 to 2014, and analyzed isoprene mixing ratios by preconcentrator-GC-MSD/FID. Observed isoprene mixing ratios were also compared with that simulated by coupling MEGAN 2.0 (Guenther et al., 2006) with a 3-D Regional chEmical trAnsport Model (REAM) (Zhang et al., 2017). Similar seasonal variations between observation and model simulation were obtained for most of sampling sites, but overall the average isoprene mixing ratios during growing months (May to October) was 0.37 ± 0.08 ppbv from model simulation, about 32% lower than that of 0.54 ± 0.20 ppbv based on ground-based observation, and this discrepancy was particularly significant in north China during wintertime. Further investigation demonstrated that emission of biogenic isoprene in northwest China might be underestimated and non-biogenic emission, such burning biomass/biofuel, might contribute to the elevated levels of isoprene during winter time. The observation-based empirical formulas for changing isoprene emission with solar radiation and temperature were also derived for different regions of China.

  5. Multiple new-particle growth pathways observed at the US DOE Southern Great Plains field site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Hodshire

    2016-07-01

    observed differing growth pathways, while also predicting that ELVOCs contribute more to growth than organic salt formation. However, most MABNAG model simulations tend to underpredict the observed growth rates between 10 and 20 nm in diameter; this underprediction may come from neglecting the contributions to growth from semi-to-low-volatility species or accretion reactions. Our results suggest that in addition to sulfuric acid, ELVOCs are also very important for growth in this rural setting. We discuss the limitations of our study that arise from not accounting for semi- and low-volatility organics, as well as nitrogen-containing species beyond ammonia and amines in the model. Quantitatively understanding the overall budget, evolution, and thermodynamic properties of lower-volatility organics in the atmosphere will be essential for improving global aerosol models.

  6. Polarization Observables T and F in single π0- and η-Photoproduction off quasi-free Nucleons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strub Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Single π0- and η-photoproduction off a transversally polarized d-butanol target has been measured with circularly polarized bremsstrahlung photons generated by the MAMI-C electron microtron. With the nearly 4π acceptance of the combined Crystal Ball/TAPS setup the double polarization observable F and the target asymmetry T can be extracted for the first time for polarized, quasi-free neutrons over a wide energy and angular range.

  7. Direct Atomic Force Microscopy Observation of DNA Tile Crystal Growth at the Single-Molecule Level

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Constantine G.; Hariadi, Rizal F.; Winfree, Erik

    2012-01-01

    While the theoretical implications of models of DNA tile self-assembly have been extensively researched and such models have been used to design DNA tile systems for use in experiments, there has been little research testing the fundamental assumptions of those models. In this paper, we use direct observation of individual tile attachments and detachments of two DNA tile systems on a mica surface imaged with an atomic force microscope (AFM) to compile statistics of tile attachments and detach...

  8. Efficient cleavage of single and clustered AP site lesions within mono-nucleosome templates by CHO-K1 nuclear extract contrasts with retardation of incision by purified APE1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Laura J.; Menoni, Hervé; Angelov, Dimitar; Lomax, Martine E.; O’Neill, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Clustered DNA damage is a unique characteristic of radiation-induced DNA damage and the formation of these sites poses a serious challenge to the cell’s repair machinery. Within a cell DNA is compacted, with nucleosomes being the first order of higher level structure. However, few data are reported on the efficiency of clustered-lesion processing within nucleosomal DNA templates. Here, we show retardation of cleavage of a single AP site by purified APE1 when contained in nucleosomal DNA, compared to cleavage of an AP site in non-nucleosomal DNA. This retardation seen in nucleosomal DNA was alleviated by incubation with CHO-K1 nuclear extract. When clustered DNA damage sites containing bistranded AP sites were present in nucleosomal DNA, efficient cleavage of the AP sites was observed after treatment with nuclear extract. The resultant DSB formation led to DNA dissociating from the histone core and nucleosomal dispersion. Clustered damaged sites containing bistranded AP site/8-oxoG residues showed no retardation of cleavage of the AP site but retardation of 8-oxoG excision, compared to isolated lesions, thus DSB formation was not seen. An increased understanding of processing of clustered DNA damage in a nucleosomal environment may lead to new strategies to enhance the cytotoxic effects of radiotherapeutics. PMID:26439176

  9. Initial Observations and Activities of Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) at the Gale Field Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aileen Yingst, R.; Edgett, Kenneth; MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    delivered to the rover's observation tray exhibited at least four distinct grain types, including clear, translucent crystal fragments.

  10. Direct observation of plasticity and quantitative hardness measurements in single crystal cyclotrimethylene trinitramine by nanoindention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Kyle J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hooks, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bahr, David F [WSU

    2008-01-01

    Investigation of deformation beginning with elasticity and continuing through the elastic-plastic transition to incipient cracking has been conducted for (210), (021), and (001) oriented single crystals of the explosive cyclotrimethylene trinitramine, commonly known as 'RDX' Instrumented indentation was performed with a conical tip over a range of loads. The resulting load-depth data exhibited distinct, reproducible, orientation dependent load excursions demonstrating elastic-plastic transitions. Indent impressions were imaged by scanning probe microscopy. Impressions on the (210) and (001) planes showed deformation pileup features associated with zone axes of slip planes. Clearly discernable slip traces were evident on the (210) plane. The (021) indentations produced significant material pile-up surrounding the impression, but did not contain discrete features associable with specific zone axes. All of the orientations exhibited cracking thresholds at very low loads. The reduced moduli were anisotropic and the hardness's were isotropic indicating limited plasticity. Maximum shear stresses estimated from a Hertzian model, at load excursions, were within a factor of 10 of published shear moduli indicating deformation initiated near the theoretical yield strength presumably by homogeneous nucleation of dislocations. The material strength parameters and apparent deformation pathways inferred from this work are compared to historical microhardness testing and interpretation of anisotropic hardness in which ambiguity of results can be attributed to the effects of cracking and simultaneous slip on multiple systems.

  11. Direct atomic force microscopy observation of DNA tile crystal growth at the single-molecule level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Constantine G; Hariadi, Rizal F; Winfree, Erik

    2012-06-27

    While the theoretical implications of models of DNA tile self-assembly have been extensively researched and such models have been used to design DNA tile systems for use in experiments, there has been little research testing the fundamental assumptions of those models. In this paper, we use direct observation of individual tile attachments and detachments of two DNA tile systems on a mica surface imaged with an atomic force microscope (AFM) to compile statistics of tile attachments and detachments. We show that these statistics fit the widely used kinetic Tile Assembly Model and demonstrate AFM movies as a viable technique for directly investigating DNA tile systems during growth rather than after assembly.

  12. High-resolution Spectroscopic Observations of Single Red Giants in Three Open Clusters: NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Suárez, V. J.; Sales Silva, J. V.; Katime Santrich, O. J.; Drake, N. A.; Pereira, C. B.

    2018-02-01

    Single stars in open clusters with known distances are important targets in constraining the nucleosynthesis process since their ages and luminosities are also known. In this work, we analyze a sample of 29 single red giants of the open clusters NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822 using high-resolution spectroscopy. We obtained atmospheric parameters, abundances of the elements C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Si, Ti, Ni, Cr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd, as well as radial and rotational velocities. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium atmospheric models of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. Rotational velocities and light-element abundances were derived using spectral synthesis. Based on our analysis of the single red giants in these three open clusters, we could compare, for the first time, their abundance pattern with that of the binary stars of the same clusters previously studied. Our results show that the abundances of both single and binary stars of the open clusters NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822 do not have significant differences. For the elements created by the s-process, we observed that the open clusters NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822 also follow the trend already raised in the literature that young clusters have higher s-process element abundances than older clusters. Finally, we observed that the three clusters of our sample exhibit a trend in the [Y/Mg]-age relation, which may indicate the ability of the [Y/Mg] ratio to be used as a clock for the giants. Based on the observations made with the 2.2 m telescope at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) under an agreement with Observatório Nacional and under an agreement between Observatório Nacional and Max-Planck Institute für Astronomie.

  13. On the simultaneous deployment of two single-particle mass spectrometers at an urban background and a roadside site during SAPUSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, David C. S.; McGillicuddy, Eoin J.; Esser-Gietl, Johanna K.; Harrison, Roy M.; Wenger, John C.

    2016-08-01

    The aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) provides size-resolved information on the chemical composition of single particles with high time resolution. Within SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies), continuous ATOFMS measurements of ambient particles were made simultaneously at two urban locations: urban background (UB) site and roadside (RS) site in the city of Barcelona (Spain) from 17 September to 18 October 2010. Two different instrumental configurations were used: ATOFMS (TSI 3800) with a converging nozzle inlet (high efficiency at about 800-2000 nm) at the UB site and ATOFMS (TSI 3800-100) with an aerodynamic lens inlet (high efficiency at about 300-700 nm) at the RS site. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that two ATOFMS instruments have been deployed in the same field study. The different instrument configurations had an impact on the observed particle types at the two sites. Nevertheless, 10 particle types were detected at both locations, including local and regional elemental carbon (22.7-58.9 % of total particles), fresh and aged sea salt (1.0-14.6 %), local and regional nitrate-containing aerosols (3-11.6 %), local lead-containing metallic particles (0.1-0.2 %), and transported Fe-nitrate particles (0.8-2.5 %). The ATOFMS at the UB also characterized four particle types: calcium-containing dust (0.9 %), Saharan dust (1.3 %), vanadium-containing particles (0.9 %), and vegetative debris (1.7 %). By contrast, the high statistical counts of fine particles detected at the RS allowed identification of eight particle types. Four of these contained organic nitrogen of primary and secondary origin, which highlights the complex nature of the sources and processes that contribute to this aerosol chemical component. Aminium salts were found related to coarse sulfate-rich particle types, suggesting heterogeneous reaction mechanisms for their formation. The other four particle types mainly containing organic carbon were

  14. Microphysical Properties of Single and Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds Derived from AERI Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2003-06-01

    A novel new approach to retrieve cloud microphysical properties from mixed-phase clouds is presented. This algorithm retrieves cloud optical depth, ice fraction, and the effective size of the water and ice particles from ground-based, high-resolution infrared radiance observations. The theoretical basis is that the absorption coefficient of ice is stronger than that of liquid water from 10-13 mm, whereas liquid water is more absorbing than ice from 16-25 um. However, due to strong absorption in the rotational water vapor absorption band, the 16-25 um spectral region becomes opaque for significant water vapor burdens (i.e., for precipitable water vapor amounts over approximately 1 cm). The Arctic is characterized by its dry and cold atmosphere, as well as a preponderance of mixed-phase clouds, and thus this approach is applicable to Arctic clouds. Since this approach uses infrared observations, cloud properties are retrieved at night and during the long polar wintertime period. The analysis of the cloud properties retrieved during a 7 month period during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) experiment demonstrates many interesting features. These results show a dependence of the optical depth on cloud phase, differences in the mode radius of the water droplets in liquid-only and mid-phase clouds, a lack of temperature dependence in the ice fraction for temperatures above 240 K, seasonal trends in the optical depth with the clouds being thinner in winter and becoming more optically thick in the late spring, and a seasonal trend in the effective size of the water droplets in liquid-only and mixed-phase clouds that is most likely related to aerosol concentration.

  15. Measure the Propagation of a Halo CME and Its Driven Shock with the Observations from a Single Perspective at Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lei; Feng, Li; Liu, Siming [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 210008 Nanjing (China); Inhester, Bernd [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Zhao, Xinhua, E-mail: lfeng@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: inhester@mps.mpg.de [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-02-01

    We present a detailed study of an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection (full-halo CME) event that happened on 2011 February 15, making use of white-light observations by three coronagraphs and radio observations by Wind /WAVES. We applied three different methods to reconstruct the propagation direction and traveling distance of the CME and its driven shock. We measured the kinematics of the CME leading edge from white-light images observed by Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO ) A and B , tracked the CME-driven shock using the frequency drift observed by Wind /WAVES together with an interplanetary density model, and obtained the equivalent scattering centers of the CME by the polarization ratio (PR) method. For the first time, we applied the PR method to different features distinguished from LASCO/C2 polarimetric observations and calculated their projections onto white-light images observed by STEREO-A and STEREO-B . By combining the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) forward modeling with the PR method, we proposed a new GCS-PR method to derive 3D parameters of a CME observed from a single perspective at Earth. Comparisons between different methods show a good degree of consistence in the derived 3D results.

  16. Plantar calcaneal enthesophytes: new observations regarding sites of origin based on radiographic, MR imaging, anatomic, and paleopathologic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, M.R.; Chung, C.B.; Mendes, L.; Mohana-Borges, A.; Trudell, D.; Resnick, D. [Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA 92161 (United States)

    2003-01-01

    To determine the relationship between sites of calcaneal plantar enthesophytes and surrounding fascial and soft tissue structures using routine radiography, MR imaging, and data derived from cadaveric and paleopathologic specimens.Design and patients. Two observers analyzed the MR imaging studies of 40 ankles in 38 patients (35 males, 3 females; mean age 48.3 years) with plantar calcaneal enthesophytes that were selected from all the ankle MR examinations performed during the past year. Data derived from these MR examinations were the following: the size of the enthesophyte; its location in relation to the plantar fascia (PF) and flexor muscles; and the thickness and signal of the PF. The corresponding radiographs of the ankles were evaluated at a different time by the same observers for the presence or absence of plantar enthesophytes and, when present, their measurements. A third observer reviewed all the discordant observations of MR imaging and radiographic examinations. Two observers analyzed 22 calcaneal specimens with plantar enthesophytes at an anthropology museum to determine the orientation of each plantar enthesophyte. MR imaging of a cadaveric foot with a plantar enthesophyte with subsequent sagittal sectioning was performed to provide further anatomic understanding.Results. With regard to MR imaging, the mean size of the plantar enthesophytes was 4.41 mm (SD 2.4). Twenty (50%) enthesophytes were located above the PF, 16 (40%) between the fascia and abductor digiti minimi, flexor digitorum brevis and abductor hallucis muscles, and only one (3%) was located within the PF. In three (8%) cases the location was not determined. The size of enthesophytes seen with MR imaging and radiographs was highly correlated (P<0.01). The interobserver agreement for all measurements was good (Pearson >0.8, kappa >0.9). Eleven of the 22 bone specimens had plantar enthesophytes oriented in the direction of the abductor digiti minimi and 11 oriented in the direction of the

  17. Plantar calcaneal enthesophytes: new observations regarding sites of origin based on radiographic, MR imaging, anatomic, and paleopathologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, M.R.; Chung, C.B.; Mendes, L.; Mohana-Borges, A.; Trudell, D.; Resnick, D.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the relationship between sites of calcaneal plantar enthesophytes and surrounding fascial and soft tissue structures using routine radiography, MR imaging, and data derived from cadaveric and paleopathologic specimens.Design and patients. Two observers analyzed the MR imaging studies of 40 ankles in 38 patients (35 males, 3 females; mean age 48.3 years) with plantar calcaneal enthesophytes that were selected from all the ankle MR examinations performed during the past year. Data derived from these MR examinations were the following: the size of the enthesophyte; its location in relation to the plantar fascia (PF) and flexor muscles; and the thickness and signal of the PF. The corresponding radiographs of the ankles were evaluated at a different time by the same observers for the presence or absence of plantar enthesophytes and, when present, their measurements. A third observer reviewed all the discordant observations of MR imaging and radiographic examinations. Two observers analyzed 22 calcaneal specimens with plantar enthesophytes at an anthropology museum to determine the orientation of each plantar enthesophyte. MR imaging of a cadaveric foot with a plantar enthesophyte with subsequent sagittal sectioning was performed to provide further anatomic understanding.Results. With regard to MR imaging, the mean size of the plantar enthesophytes was 4.41 mm (SD 2.4). Twenty (50%) enthesophytes were located above the PF, 16 (40%) between the fascia and abductor digiti minimi, flexor digitorum brevis and abductor hallucis muscles, and only one (3%) was located within the PF. In three (8%) cases the location was not determined. The size of enthesophytes seen with MR imaging and radiographs was highly correlated (P 0.8, kappa >0.9). Eleven of the 22 bone specimens had plantar enthesophytes oriented in the direction of the abductor digiti minimi and 11 oriented in the direction of the flexor digitorum brevis and PF. The cadaveric sections revealed different

  18. Assessing hospital disaster preparedness: a comparison of an on-site survey, directly observed drill performance, and video analysis of teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Amy H; Langford, Vinette; Lewis, Roger J

    2008-09-01

    There is currently no validated method for assessing hospital disaster preparedness. We determine the degree of correlation between the results of 3 methods for assessing hospital disaster preparedness: administration of an on-site survey, drill observation using a structured evaluation tool, and video analysis of team performance in the hospital incident command center. This was a prospective, observational study conducted during a regional disaster drill, comparing the results from an on-site survey, a structured disaster drill evaluation tool, and a video analysis of teamwork, performed at 6 911-receiving hospitals in Los Angeles County, CA. The on-site survey was conducted separately from the drill and assessed hospital disaster plan structure, vendor agreements, modes of communication, medical and surgical supplies, involvement of law enforcement, mutual aid agreements with other facilities, drills and training, surge capacity, decontamination capability, and pharmaceutical stockpiles. The drill evaluation tool, developed by Johns Hopkins University under contract from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, was used to assess various aspects of drill performance, such as the availability of the hospital disaster plan, the geographic configuration of the incident command center, whether drill participants were identifiable, whether the noise level interfered with effective communication, and how often key information (eg, number of available staffed floor, intensive care, and isolation beds; number of arriving victims; expected triage level of victims; number of potential discharges) was received by the incident command center. Teamwork behaviors in the incident command center were quantitatively assessed, using the MedTeams analysis of the video recordings obtained during the disaster drill. Spearman rank correlations of the results between pair-wise groupings of the 3 assessment methods were calculated. The 3 evaluation methods demonstrated

  19. Observation of single artificial atom optical bi-stability and its application to single-shot readout in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Luyan; Ginossar, Eran; Guy, Mikhael; Reed, Matthew; Paik, Hanhee; Bishop, Lev S.; Sears, Adam; Petrenko, Andrei; Brecht, Teresa; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, Steven; Schoelkopf, Robert

    2012-02-01

    The high power transient behavior of superconducting qubit-cavity systems has recently been used to perform high fidelity readout of transmon qubits [1]. We show that in the steady state, the system exhibits a bi-stable behavior that can be observed on the single-shot level, with the cavity state switching stochastically between dim and bright states. The switching times are shown to be long compared to the cavity and qubit lifetimes. Some features of the bi-stability can be explained by mean field theory, while its switching dynamics is studied with large scale simulations. Understanding these dynamics will be crucial for studying the transient response, an essential aspect of the qubit readout. We will discuss progress on optimizing readout by shaping the measurement pulse. [4pt] [1] M. D. Reed, L. DiCarlo, B. R. Johnson, L. Sun, D. I. Schuster, L. Frunzio, and R. J. Schoelkopf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173601 (2010)

  20. Prevailing practices in airway management: a prospective single-centre observational study of endotracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Geraldine Pei Chin; Kannan, Anusha; Koh, Kwong Fah; Venkatesan, Kumaresh; Seet, Edwin

    2018-03-01

    Airway management during anaesthesia has potential difficulties and risks. We aimed to investigate the utility of routine airway assessment for predicting difficult tracheal intubation, review the prevailing practice of videolaryngoscope use amongst anaesthetists in a teaching hospital and determine the incidence of intraoperative and postoperative airway-related complications. A prospective observational study of 1,654 patients undergoing general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation over a seven-month period was performed. Data regarding airway and anaesthetic management was collected and analysed. Videolaryngoscopes were used as the first-choice equipment in 60.5% of the cohort. The incidence of difficult intubation was 2.1%, of which 45.7% of cases were unanticipated. The sensitivity of airway assessment was 54.3%, with a positive predictive value of 8.1%. When difficult intubation was anticipated, more videolaryngoscopes were used as the first equipment of choice compared to the Macintosh laryngoscope (p < 0.001). In the Macintosh group, more patients required a change of airway equipment (p = 0.015), but the number of intubation attempts was similar (p = 0.293). The incidence of intraoperative (p = 0.920) and postoperative complications (p = 0.380) were similar in both groups. Using the current predictors of difficult intubation, half of the difficult airways we encountered were unanticipated. Videolaryngoscopes were preferred when difficulty was anticipated and were also used in routine tracheal intubation. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  1. Observation of terahertz-radiation-induced ionization in a single nano island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Minah; Kang, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hyo-Suk; Hyong Cho, Joon; Choi, Jaebin; Min Jhon, Young; Lee, Seok; Hun Kim, Jae; Lee, Taikjin; Park, Q-Han; Kim, Chulki

    2015-05-22

    Terahertz (THz) electromagnetic wave has been widely used as a spectroscopic probe to detect the collective vibrational mode in vast molecular systems and investigate dielectric properties of various materials. Recent technological advances in generating intense THz radiation and the emergence of THz plasmonics operating with nanoscale structures have opened up new pathways toward THz applications. Here, we present a new opportunity in engineering the state of matter at the atomic scale using THz wave and a metallic nanostructure. We show that a medium strength THz radiation of 22 kV/cm can induce ionization of ambient carbon atoms through interaction with a metallic nanostructure. The prepared structure, made of a nano slot antenna and a nano island located at the center, acts as a nanogap capacitor and enhances the local electric field by two orders of magnitudes thereby causing the ionization of ambient carbon atoms. Ionization and accumulation of carbon atoms are also observed through the change of the resonant condition of the nano slot antenna and the shift of the characteristic mode in the spectrum of the transmitted THz waves.

  2. A comparative study of standard versus laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) totally extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Huai-Ching; Lin, Chia-Da; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chueh, Shih-Chieh Jeff; Tsai, Yao-Chou; Yang, Stephen Shei-Dei

    2011-09-01

    Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair has been around since the 1990s. A novel surgical approach known as laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) has been developed to reduce the port-related morbidities and improve the cosmetic outcomes of laparoscopic surgery, including totally extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of the LESS TEP technique for inguinal hernia repair and compare the outcomes with the standard TEP approach. Between January and May 2009, 54 consecutive healthy patients (48 men and 6 women) underwent LESS TEP inguinal hernia repair at our institute. All procedures were performed using our homemade single port for simultaneous passage of the laparoscope and instruments. The perioperative data, including patient age, sex, body mass index (BMI), hernia characteristics, operative time, complications, length of hospital stay, return to normal activity, pain score, and cosmetic result, were prospectively collected. All LESS TEP procedures were completed successfully without conversion to standard laparoscopic or open surgery. A total of 98 LESS TEP hernia repairs were performed in 54 patients and compared with 152 standard TEP operations. The mean operative time was significantly shorter in the standard TEP series (61.8 ± 26.0 vs. 70.9 ± 23.8 min, p = 0.04). Other perioperative parameters, including the length of hospital stay, time until return to full activity, complication rate, pain score, and cosmetic result, were all comparable between the two techniques. Our short-term experience with LESS TEP inguinal hernia repair has shown that in experienced hands, inguinal hernia repair via the LESS TEP technique is as safe as the standard TEP technique. However, based on our evidence, we currently believe that the LESS TEP technique is not an efficacious surgical alternative to the standard TEP technique for inguinal hernias.

  3. Observation of prompt single muons and of missing energy associated with $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ pairs produced in hadronic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bodek, A.; Bartlett, J.F.; Brown, K.W.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Siskind, E.J.; Diamant-Berger, A.; Dishaw, J.P.; Faessler, M.; Liu, J.K.; Merritt, F.S.; Wojcicki, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    In a study of interactions of 400 GeV protons in a totally absorbing iron calorimeter the authors report two observations indicating the hadronic production of heavy short-lived weakly decaying particles. First they have observed a prompt muon signal in the region .8

    observed mu /sup +/ mu /sup -/ pairs associated with a significant amount of missing energy indicative of final state neutrinos. Interpreting these data as production of DD pairs followed by single or double muonic decays leads to a model dependent estimate of total production cross-section of order 15 mu b. (14 refs).

  4. Analysis of the GPS Observations of the Site Survey at Sheshan 25-m Radio Telescope in August 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Cheng, Z. Y.; Li, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The processing of the GPS observations of the site survey at Sheshan 25-m radio telescope in August 2008 is reported. Because each session in this survey is only about six hours, not allowing the subdaily high frequency variations in the station coordinates to be reasonably smoothed, and because there are serious cycle slips in the observations and a large volume of data would be rejected during the software automatic adjustment of slips, the ordinary solution settings of GAMIT needed to be adjusted by loosening the constraints in the a priori coordinates to 10 m, adopting the "quick" mode in the solution iteration, and combining Cview manual operation with GAMIT automatic fixing of cycle slips. The resulting coordinates of the local control polygon in ITRF2005 are then compared with conventional geodetic results. Due to large rotations and translations in the two sets of coordinates (geocentric versus quasi-topocentric), the seven transformation parameters cannot be solved for directly. With various trial solutions it is shown that with a partial pre-removal of the large parameters, high precision transformation parameters can be obtained with post-fit residuals at the millimeter level. This analysis is necessary to prepare the follow-on site and transformation survey of the VLBI and SLR telescopes at Sheshan

  5. Occurrence of blowing snow events at an alpine site over a 10-year period: Observations and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vionnet, V.; Guyomarc'h, G.; Naaim Bouvet, F.; Martin, E.; Durand, Y.; Bellot, H.; Bel, C.; Puglièse, P.

    2013-05-01

    Blowing snow events control the evolution of the snow pack in mountainous areas and cause inhomogeneous snow distribution. The goal of this study is to identify the main features of blowing snow events at an alpine site and assess the ability of the detailed snowpack model Crocus to reproduce the occurrence of these events in a 1D configuration. We created a database of blowing snow events observed over 10 years at our experimental site. Occurrences of blowing snow events were divided into cases with and without concurrent falling snow. Overall, snow transport is observed during 10.5% of the time in winter and occurs with concurrent falling snow 37.3% of the time. Wind speed and snow age control the frequency of occurrence. Model results illustrate the necessity of taking the wind-dependence of falling snow grain characteristics into account to simulate periods of snow transport and mass fluxes satisfactorily during those periods. The high rate of false alarms produced by the model is investigated in detail for winter 2010/2011 using measurements from snow particle counters.

  6. Assessment of the Spectral Stability of Libya 4, Libya 1, and Mauritania 2 Sites Using Earth Observing One Hyperion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Chander, Gyanesh; Qu, John J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to formulate a methodology to assess the spectral stability of the Libya 4, Libya 1, and Mauritania 2 pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) using Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion sensor. All the available Hyperion collections, downloaded from the Earth Explorer website, were utilized for the three PICS. In each site, a reference spectrum is selected at a specific day in the vicinity of the region of interest (ROI) defined by Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). A series of ROIs are predefined in the along-track direction with 196 spectral top-of-atmosphere reflectance values in each ROI. Based on the reference ROI spectrum, the spectral stability of these ROIs is evaluated by average deviations (ADs) and spectral angle mapper (SAM) methods in the specific ranges of time and geo-spatial locations. Time and ROI location-dependent SAM and AD results are very stable within +/- 2 deg and +/-1.7% of 1sigma standard deviations. Consequently, the Libya 4, Mauritania 2, and Libya 1 CEOS selected PICS are spectrally stable targets within the time and spatial swath ranges of the Hyperion collections.

  7. Observing Site Histories

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Detailed reports prepared for the Midwestern Regional Climate Center under the auspices of the Climate Database Modernization Program. The goal of each report is to...

  8. Patients with infective endocarditis: Five-year observation from a single reference center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbek, Józefa; Majewski, Michał; Michalak-Kolarz, Marta; Gąsior, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious and, if untreated, usually fatal disease. Diagnosing IE is often considered to be one of the most difficult medical conditions because of the heterogeneous and ambiguous clinical presentation. The purpose of this study was to investigate diagnostic and therapeutic management in a non-selected group of patients with IE. A total of 45 patients consecutively admitted to the Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice (mean age 53.6 ±18 years; 13 females) with IE between 2009 and 2013 were evaluated. Echocardiography, blood cultures and laboratory tests were performed on every patient upon admission. An analysis of the diagnostic and therapeutic management was performed. Most frequent predisposing factors were: a history of heart valve replacement and/or repair (40%), dental caries (17.8%) and bicuspid aortic valve (17.8%). The majority of patients were admitted from another hospital (91.1%). Fever (92%) and symptoms of heart failure (80%) were the most common manifestations. Abnormalities in ECG occured in 91.2% of patients. Echocardiography was highly sensitive (>90%) in detecting endocardial changes. Staphylococcal etiology was the most common (33.3%). Surgery procedures were necessary in 62.2% of patients. Arrhythmias (91.1%) and acute heart failure (57.8%) were the most commonly observed complications, although 24.4% of subjects had neurological disorders. The patients studied were burdened with a number of factors predisposing to IE. The diagnosis of IE can be a difficult challenge. Particular attention should be paid to the care of oral hygiene and treatment of dental diseases in order to reduce the risk of IE developing.

  9. An evaluation of single-site statistical downscaling techniques in terms of indices of climate extremes for the Midwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, M.; Oji, R.; Cannon, A. J.; Ghavidel, Y.; Massah Bavani, A.

    2015-04-01

    Seven single-site statistical downscaling methods for daily temperature and precipitation, including four deterministic algorithms [analog model (ANM), quantile mapping with delta method extrapolation (QMD), cumulative distribution function transform (CDFt), and model-based recursive partitioning (MOB)] and three stochastic algorithms [generalized linear model (GLM), Conditional Density Estimation Network Creation and Evaluation (CaDENCE), and Statistical Downscaling Model-Decision Centric (SDSM-DC] are evaluated at nine stations located in the mountainous region of Iran's Midwest. The methods are of widely varying complexity, with input requirements that range from single-point predictors of temperature and precipitation to multivariate synoptic-scale fields. The period 1981-2000 is used for model calibration and 2001-2010 for validation, with performance assessed in terms of 27 Climate Extremes Indices (CLIMDEX). The sensitivity of the methods to large-scale anomalies and their ability to replicate the observed data distribution in the validation period are separately tested for each index by Pearson correlation and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) tests, respectively. Combined tests are used to assess overall model performances. MOB performed best, passing 14.5 % (49.6 %) of the combined (single) tests, respectively, followed by SDSM, CaDENCE, and GLM [14.5 % (46.5 %), 13.2 % (47.1 %), and 12.8 % (43.2 %), respectively], and then by QMD, CDFt, and ANM [7 % (45.7 %), 4.9 % (45.3 %), and 1.6 % (37.9 %), respectively]. Correlation tests were passed less frequently than KS tests. All methods downscaled temperature indices better than precipitation indices. Some indices, notably R20, R25, SDII, CWD, and TNx, were not successfully simulated by any of the methods. Model performance varied widely across the study region.

  10. Atmospheric mercury concentrations observed at ground-based monitoring sites globally distributed in the framework of the GMOS network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sprovieri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of data of ambient mercury (Hg on a global scale to assess its emission, transport, atmospheric chemistry, and deposition processes is vital to understanding the impact of Hg pollution on the environment. The Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project was funded by the European Commission (http://www.gmos.eu and started in November 2010 with the overall goal to develop a coordinated global observing system to monitor Hg on a global scale, including a large network of ground-based monitoring stations, ad hoc periodic oceanographic cruises and measurement flights in the lower and upper troposphere as well as in the lower stratosphere. To date, more than 40 ground-based monitoring sites constitute the global network covering many regions where little to no observational data were available before GMOS. This work presents atmospheric Hg concentrations recorded worldwide in the framework of the GMOS project (2010–2015, analyzing Hg measurement results in terms of temporal trends, seasonality and comparability within the network. Major findings highlighted in this paper include a clear gradient of Hg concentrations between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, confirming that the gradient observed is mostly driven by local and regional sources, which can be anthropogenic, natural or a combination of both.

  11. [Clinical observation on repairing of wounds of skin graft donor site with acellular tissue engineering dermal matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xue-wen; Wang, Jia-han; Wang, Ying; Liu, Liang; Wu, Qi; Ma, Jun

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of acellular tissue engineering dermal matrix (ATDM) in repairing wounds of skin graft donor site. Sixty patients with burn or chronic wounds hospitalized from January 2011 to April 2012 received autologous skin grafting. One wound [with size larger than 55 cm(2), and thickness of (0.33 ± 0.03) mm] out of multiple skin graft donor sites of every patient was selected, and it was divided into two parts in accordance with self-control principle. A part of wound close to the wound edge with diameter of 5 cm was taken as trial area (treated with ATDM), and the remaining wound was taken as control area (treated with vaseline gauze) according to the random number table. Blood and urine routine, liver and kidney function, and levels of IgG and IgM in blood of patients were measured one day before operation and on the 1st day after wound healing. Vital signs of patients were recorded on the operation day and the wound healing day. Gross condition of the wounds was observed during dressing change. Wound healing time was recorded. The healed wound was observed histologically. Data were processed with Log rank test or t test. Leucocyte count was lowered on the 1st day after wound healing [(7.1 ± 1.2)×10(9)/L] as compared with that one day before operation [(10.1 ± 1.5)×10(9)/L, t = -12.10, P wound healing, or in vital signs (including body temperature, pulse, respiration, systolic pressure, and diastolic pressure) between the operation day and the wound healing day (with t values from -1.43 to 1.88, P values all above 0.05). No adverse effects such as abnormal exudation, itching, redness and swelling, and exanthema were observed in the wound. The median wound healing time in trial area was 12 d (95% confidence interval: 11 - 13 d), which was significantly shorter than that in control area [17 d (95% confidence interval: 16 - 18 d), χ(2) = 24.9, P wound of trial area was closer to the normal skin than that of control area in the shape and

  12. Highly Stereoselective Heterogeneous Diene Polymerization by Co-MFU-4l: A Single-Site Catalyst Prepared by Cation Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Romain J-C; Comito, Robert J; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Guanghui; Rieth, Adam J; Hendon, Christopher H; Miller, Jeffrey T; Dincă, Mircea

    2017-09-13

    Molecular catalysts offer tremendous advantages for stereoselective polymerization because their activity and selectivity can be optimized and understood mechanistically using the familiar tools of organometallic chemistry. Yet, this exquisite control over selectivity comes at an operational price that is generally not justifiable for the large-scale manufacture of polyfolefins. In this report, we identify Co-MFU-4l, prepared by cation exchange in a metal-organic framework, as a solid catalyst for the polymerization of 1,3-butadiene with high stereoselectivity (>99% 1,4-cis). To our knowledge, this is the highest stereoselectivity achieved with a heterogeneous catalyst for this transformation. The polymer's low polydispersity (PDI ≈ 2) and the catalyst's ready recovery and low leaching indicate that our material is a structurally resilient single-site heterogeneous catalyst. Further characterization of Co-MFU-4l by X-ray absorption spectroscopy provided evidence for discrete, tris-pyrazolylborate-like coordination of Co(II). With this information, we identify a soluble cobalt complex that mimics the structure and reactivity of Co-MFU-4l, thus providing a well-defined platform for studying the catalytic mechanism in the solution phase. This work underscores the capacity for small molecule-like tunability and mechanistic tractability available to transition metal catalysis in metal-organic frameworks.

  13. The role of benzodiazepines in breathlessness: a single site, open label pilot of sustained release morphine together with clonazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allcroft, Peter; Margitanovic, Vera; Greene, Aine; Agar, Meera R; Clark, Katherine; Abernethy, Amy P; Currow, David C

    2013-07-01

    Breathlessness at rest or on minimal exertion despite optimal treatment of underlying cause(s) is distressing and prevalent. Opioids can reduce the intensity of chronic refractory breathlessness and an anxiolytic may be of benefit. This pilot aimed to determine the safety and feasibility of conducting a phase III study on the intensity of breathlessness by adding regular benzodiazepine to low-dose opioid. This is a single site, open label phase II study of the addition of regular clonazepam 0.5 mg nocte orally to Kapanol(R) 10 mg (sustained release morphine sulphate) orally mane together with docusate/sennosides in people with modified Medical Research Council Scale ≥2. Breathlessness intensity on day four was the efficacy outcome. Participants could extend for another 10 days if they achieved >15% reduction over their own baseline breathlessness intensity. Eleven people had trial medication (eight males, median age 78 years (68 to 89); all had COPD; median Karnofsky 70 (50 to 80); six were on long-term home oxygen. Ten people completed day four. One person withdrew because of unsteadiness on day four. Five participants reached the 15% reduction, but only three went on to the extension study, all completing without toxicity. This study was safe, feasible and there appears to be a group who derive benefits comparable to titrated opioids. Given the widespread use of benzodiazepines for the symptomatic treatment of chronic refractory breathlessness and its poor evidence base, there is justification for a definitive phase III study.

  14. The effectiveness of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) compared with conventional laparoscopic surgery for ectopic pregnancy with hemoperitoneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juseok; Na, Yong Jin; Song, Yong Jung; Choi, Ook Hwan; Lee, Sun Kyung; Kim, Hwi Gon

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of conventional laparoscopic surgery and laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) in the surgical treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy. A total of 156 patients were diagnosed with ectopic pregnancies by ultrasonography and serum β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG) levels at Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital from January 2009 through December 2013. We excluded 28 patients who only received medical treatment, 15 patients who underwent surgery by laparotomy for severe hypovolemic shock, and 30 patients who presented with less than 1 L of hemoperitoneum. Of the 83 patients with massive hemoperitoneum, 38 patients had LESS performed while the remaining 45 patients underwent conventional laparoscopic surgery. In this study, there were no statistically significant differences in clinical outcomes in either surgical method except for operative time. Operative time of LESS was significantly shorter than conventional surgery for patients with more than 500 mL of hemoperitoneum. LESS is a safe and feasible surgical approach in the treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy. At the same time, LESS has been shown to be more effective than conventional laparoscopic surgery in handling massive hemoperitoneum of more than 1 L, which is a common complication of ectopic pregnancy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Comparative study of multiport laparoscopy and umbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery with reusable platform for treating renal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantada, C; García-Tello, A; Esquinas, C; Moraga, A; Redondo, C; Angulo, J C

    Umbilical laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery is an increasingly used modality for treating renal masses. We present a prospective comparison between LESS renal surgery and conventional laparoscopy. A comparative paired study was conducted that evaluated the surgical results and complications of patients with renal neoplasia treated with LESS surgery (n=49) or multiport laparoscopy (n=53). The LESS approach was performed with reusable material placed in the navel and double-rotation curved instruments. An additional 3.5-mm port was employed in 69.4% of the cases. We assessed demographic data, the type of technique (nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and nephroureterectomy), surgical time, blood loss, haemoglobin, need for transfusion, number and severity of complications (Clavien-Dindo), hospital stay, histological data and prognosis. There were no differences in follow-up, age, sex, body mass index, preoperative haemoglobin levels or type of surgery. Conversion occurred in 2 cases (1 in each group). The surgical time was equivalent (P=.6). Intraoperative transfusion (P=.03) and blood loss (Plaparoscopy (P=.0013). Umbilical LESS surgery with reusable platform enables various surgical techniques to be performed when treating renal masses, with time consumption and safety comparable to conventional laparoscopy. The LESS approach is advantageous in terms of blood loss and hospital stay. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Torsion of a Subserosal Myoma Managed by Gasless Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Myomectomy with In-Bag Manual Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Takeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute torsion of a subserosal myoma is a rare surgical emergency that is infrequently diagnosed preoperatively. Furthermore, laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS myomectomy with in-bag tissue extraction for the management of this disorder has not yet been described. A 43-year-old, gravida 1, para 1 woman was referred to our department due to a solid pelvic mass associated with persistent abdominal pain. A pedunculated subserosal myoma with torsion was strongly suspected based on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Emergency LESS surgery showed that the subserosal myoma arising from the posterior uterine wall torted at its pedicle in the cul-de-sac. The twisted myoma node was excised by coagulation and cut using a LigaSure Atlas, followed by in-bag manual morcellation and extraction through an umbilical wound. The present case report emphasizes that LESS myomectomy with in-bag tissue extraction is a feasible minimally invasive surgical option for the management of subserosal myoma with torsion after a precise imaging-based diagnostic evaluation.

  17. Observing the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA): Fast-Scan Single-Dish Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. M.; Iwai, K.; Phillips, N. M.; Hills, R. E.; Hirota, A.; Yagoubov, P.; Siringo, G.; Shimojo, M.; Bastian, T. S.; Hales, A. S.; Sawada, T.; Asayama, S.; Sugimoto, M.; Marson, R. G.; Kawasaki, W.; Muller, E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Brajša, R.; Skokić, I.; Bárta, M.; Kim, S.; Remijan, A. J.; de Gregorio, I.; Corder, S. A.; Hudson, H. S.; Loukitcheva, M.; Chen, B.; De Pontieu, B.; Fleishmann, G. D.; Gary, D. E.; Kobelski, A.; Wedemeyer, S.; Yan, Y.

    2017-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) radio telescope has commenced science observations of the Sun starting in late 2016. Since the Sun is much larger than the field of view of individual ALMA dishes, the ALMA interferometer is unable to measure the background level of solar emission when observing the solar disk. The absolute temperature scale is a critical measurement for much of ALMA solar science, including the understanding of energy transfer through the solar atmosphere, the properties of prominences, and the study of shock heating in the chromosphere. In order to provide an absolute temperature scale, ALMA solar observing will take advantage of the remarkable fast-scanning capabilities of the ALMA 12 m dishes to make single-dish maps of the full Sun. This article reports on the results of an extensive commissioning effort to optimize the mapping procedure, and it describes the nature of the resulting data. Amplitude calibration is discussed in detail: a path that uses the two loads in the ALMA calibration system as well as sky measurements is described and applied to commissioning data. Inspection of a large number of single-dish datasets shows significant variation in the resulting temperatures, and based on the temperature distributions, we derive quiet-Sun values at disk center of 7300 K at λ = 3 mm and 5900 K at λ = 1.3 mm. These values have statistical uncertainties of about 100 K, but systematic uncertainties in the temperature scale that may be significantly larger. Example images are presented from two periods with very different levels of solar activity. At a resolution of about 25'', the 1.3 mm wavelength images show temperatures on the disk that vary over about a 2000 K range. Active regions and plages are among the hotter features, while a large sunspot umbra shows up as a depression, and filament channels are relatively cool. Prominences above the solar limb are a common feature of the single-dish images.

  18. First observation of two-electron one-photon transitions in single-photon K-shell double ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoszowska, J; Dousse, J-Cl; Szlachetko, J; Kayser, Y; Cao, W; Jagodziński, P; Kavčič, M; Nowak, S H

    2011-07-29

    Experimental evidence for the correlated two-electron one-photon transitions (1s(-2)→2s(-1)2p(-1)) following single-photon K-shell double ionization is reported. The double K-shell vacancy states in solid Mg, Al, and Si were produced by means of monochromatized synchrotron radiation, and the two-electron one-photon radiative transitions were observed by using a wavelength dispersive spectrometer. The two-electron one-photon transition energies and the branching ratios of the radiative one-electron to two-electron transitions were determined and compared to available perturbation theory predictions and configuration interaction calculations.

  19. Validity and inter-rater reliability of medio-lateral knee motion observed during a single-limb mini squat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Bennell, Kim L; Hunt, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    , such as the medio-lateral knee motion may also be important. The aim was to validate an observational clinical test of assessing the medio-lateral knee motion, using a three-dimensional (3-D) motion analysis system. In addition, the inter-rater reliability was evaluated.......Muscle function may influence the risk of knee injury and outcomes following injury. Clinical tests, such as a single-limb mini squat, resemble conditions of daily life and are easy to administer. Fewer squats per 30 seconds indicate poorer function. However, the quality of movement...

  20. Magneto-optical observation of macrovortices in Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2Ox single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanskii, A. A.; Gurevich, A.; Pashitski, A. E.; Cai, X. Y.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    1996-03-01

    Magneto-optical imaging of flux penetration in Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2Ox single crystals revealed localized domains of enhanced magnetic field H(x,y) having the opposite circulation of magnetization currents as compared to bulk currents. The positions of such macrovortices strongly depend on temperature and magnetic pre-history, rather than on the material defect structure. The macrovortex structure was observed in the temperature range 10KHp and H

  1. Testing single-grain quartz OSL methods using sediment samples with independent age control from the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Roches d'Abilly site, Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, Andrew Sean; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2016-01-01

    We present quartz single-grain dose distributions for four well-bleached and unmixed sediment samples with independent age control (22–48 ka), from the archaeologically important Bordes-Fitte rockshelter at Roches d'Abilly, France. This site has previously been dated using 14C AMS dating and stan......We present quartz single-grain dose distributions for four well-bleached and unmixed sediment samples with independent age control (22–48 ka), from the archaeologically important Bordes-Fitte rockshelter at Roches d'Abilly, France. This site has previously been dated using 14C AMS dating...

  2. [Analysis of Single Particle Aging and Mixing State at an Agriculture Site (Quzhou) in the North China Plain in Summer Using a Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zi-long; Zeng, Li-mm; Dong, I-Iua-Bin; Li, Mei; Zhu, Tong

    2016-04-15

    To characterize the size distribution and chemical ompsitins f abiet prtices t a agicuturesit intheNorh o Chinese Plain, a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was deployed from June 30 to July 8, 2013. A total of 230,152 particles in the size range of 0.2-2.0 pm were chemically analyzed with both positive and negative ion spectra. The results revealed that aerosol could he classified into eight dominant groups, including elemental carbon (EC, 55.5%), organic carbon (OC, 10.7%), alkalis (Na-K, 17.4%), other metals (1.7%), Fe-rich (6.3%), Pb-rich (3.1%), dust (4.8%), and other (0.8%). The observed eight types of particles contained secondary components such as 46NO2-, 62NO3-, 96SO3-, 96SO4-, 97HSO4-, showing that they probably went through different aging processes. The analysis of particle size distribution showed that 700-800 nm was the peak value of all particles, and that dust and Fe particles were mainly in the coarse size range. EC particles subtype group research revealed EC particles tended to be aging with the above mentioned secondary ions and eventually led to a particle type conversion from EC to the less aging ECN and the more serious aging ECS, the diurnal variation of which was obviously negatively correlated, and there was a possibility of forming OC/EC mixture with the adsorption of secondary organic matter on EC surface.

  3. Observations of fine particulate nitrated phenols in four sites in northern China: concentrations, source apportionment, and secondary formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Filter samples of fine particulate matters were collected at four sites in northern China (urban, rural, and mountain in summer and winter, and the contents of nine nitrated phenols were quantified in the laboratory with the use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. During the sampling periods, the concentrations of particulate nitrated phenols exhibited distinct temporal and spatial variation. On average, the total concentration of particulate nitrated phenols in urban Jinan in the wintertime reached 48.4 ng m−3, and those in the summertime were 9.8, 5.7, 5.9, and 2.5 ng m−3 in urban Jinan, rural Yucheng and Wangdu, and Mt. Tai, respectively. The elevated concentrations of nitrated phenols in wintertime and in urban areas demonstrate the apparent influences of anthropogenic sources. The positive matrix factorization receptor model was then applied to determine the origins of particulate nitrated phenols in northern China. The five major source factors were traffic, coal combustion, biomass burning, secondary formation, and aged coal combustion plume. Among them, coal combustion played a vital role, especially at the urban site in the wintertime, with a contribution of around 55 %. In the summertime, the observed nitrated phenols were highly influenced by aged coal combustion plumes at all of the sampling sites. Meanwhile, in remote areas, contributions from secondary formation were significant. Further correlation analysis indicates that nitrosalicylic acids were produced mostly from secondary formation that was dominated by NO2 nitration.

  4. Observation of associated production of a single top quark and W boson at 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081004

    2013-01-01

    The observation of the associated production of a single top quark and W boson using 12.2 fb$^{-1}$ of pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV with the CMS experiment is presented. A multivariate analysis based on kinematic variables was used to discriminate signal from the dominant ttbar background. The observed signal has a significance of 6.0 $\\sigma$ and a cross section of $23.9^{+5.7}_{-5.6}$ pb. A cut and count cross check analysis was also carried out, finding a signal with a significance of 3.6 sigma and a cross section of $33.9^{+8.6}_{-8.6}$ pb. The results are in agreement with the standard model expectation of $22.2\\pm0.6\\pm1.4$ pb.

  5. Selective observation of the Cu(I)-amicyanin metal site by paramagnetic NMR on partially oxidised samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, Jesus; Kalverda, Arnout P.; Canters, Gerard W.

    1997-01-01

    The relaxation enhancement caused by paramagnetic copper(II) is used to observe selectively the metal site of copper(I)-amicyanin by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The paramagnetic effect is communicated to the diamagnetic protein through the electron self-exchange reaction in partially oxidised samples, and can be used for the selective detection of protons around the metal. Relaxation-selective NMR pulse sequences, like super-WEFT and WEFT-NOESY, are used to achieve the desired selection of the signals. The spectra obtained show well-resolved signals corresponding to protons within a radius of∼7 A from the metal, including almost all protons from the coordinated residues. A significant increase in resolution as well as selection of the most relevant part of the protein (close to the active centre) are the principal advantages of this technique, which can be used to obtain specific information about the metal site in blue copper proteins, to assist in the assignment of their NMR spectra and to determine functional properties like the electron self-exchange rate

  6. [Dynamic observation of the biomechanic properties of sciatic nerve at the suture site in rats following repairing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jia-zhi; Jiang, Bao-guo; Zhao, Fu-qiang; Wei, Guang-ru; Shang, Yong-gang; Zhang, Pei-xun; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Hong-bo

    2005-06-15

    To observe the biomechanic properties of sciatic nerve at the suture site in rats following repairing. The right sciatic nerves of 40 white Sprague-Dawley 300-350 gm rats were exposed, cut and then repaired with 10-0 nylon sutures, laced in the epineurium. 0, 1, 3, 6 weeks after operation, the tensile strength of the sciatic nerves were measured, the data analyzed statistically. The load-elongation curves for both the normal unoperated and operated nerves had the similar shape. The tensile strength of the 0 week was significant difference to 1, 3 and 6 weeks (P < 0.01). No significant difference was found among 1, 3 and 6 weeks. The tensile strength of the injured nerves are recovered in the first week and resistant in 6 weeks after repairing.

  7. Stallion Site, San Marcial, New Mexico. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A, C through F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-21

    DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) I 9j06 STALLI0N SITE si 61-73 6Y IINIII rATIMA "al VIM t ALL o ATHER ALL CLAI 4L.S.T.) SPE mmvm (K IS...64in69 z1i,73 VAR____ (ALL WEATHER hO20 (KNYS) 1.3 4.6 7-10 11.16 17.21 22.2 28V.2-3 34. 40 41.04 48-5 a:56 % WIND( DIN. slim 241 2 .1 6___ Il I VIM ~m...ARANCM EAIEHMDT3 ITACIUSAP AIR WIAT41R SIRVICEIIAC 11061_. STALLION StTE NM bla 3 w7l ____ STATION STATION MAMA mIoo MONTH C CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE

  8. A new single-moment microphysics scheme for cloud-resolving models using observed dependence of ice concentration on temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairoutdinov, M.

    2015-12-01

    The representation of microphysics, especially ice microphysics, remains one of the major uncertainties in cloud-resolving models (CRMs). Most of the cloud schemes use the so-called bulk microphysics approach, in which a few moments of such distributions are used as the prognostic variables. The System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM) is the CRM that employs two such schemes. The single-moment scheme, which uses only mass for each of the water phases, and the two-moment scheme, which adds the particle concentration for each of the hydrometeor category. Of the two, the single-moment scheme is much more computationally efficient as it uses only two prognostic microphysics variables compared to ten variables used by the two-moment scheme. The efficiency comes from a rather considerable oversimplification of the microphysical processes. For instance, only a sum of the liquid and icy cloud water is predicted with the temperature used to diagnose the mixing ratios of different hydrometeors. The main motivation for using such simplified microphysics has been computational efficiency, especially in the applications of SAM as the super-parameterization in global climate models. Recently, we have extended the single-moment microphysics by adding only one additional prognostic variable, which has, nevertheless, allowed us to separate the cloud ice from liquid water. We made use of some of the recent observations of ice microphysics collected at various parts of the world to parameterize several aspects of ice microphysics that have not been explicitly represented before in our sing-moment scheme. For example, we use the observed broad dependence of ice concentration on temperature to diagnose the ice concentration in addition to prognostic mass. Also, there is no artificial separation between the pristine ice and snow, often used by bulk models. Instead we prescribed the ice size spectrum as the gamma distribution, with the distribution shape parameter controlled by the

  9. What Factors Coordinate the Optimal Position of a Single Monitoring Well Down Gradient of a Hazardous Site?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, F.; Nowak, W.

    2013-12-01

    Drinking-water well catchments include many sources for potential contaminations like gas stations, roads, or fields used for agriculture. Additionally, there are many contaminated sites that need to be monitored inside and outside drinking water catchments. Finding optimal positions of monitoring wells for such purposes is challenging because there are various parameters (and their uncertainties) that influence the reliability and optimality of a suggested monitoring location. For example, there may be uncertainty in the exact position of the contamination, in the source volume, in the direction of the velocity field which can vary in angle and absolute value, and in other parameters that describe, e.g., dispersion and decay. Many national regulations and UN guidelines suggest monitoring as measure of risk control, but make no statements how to asses or design monitoring under the fact of uncertainty. To obtain optimal positions of monitoring wells, a large body of recent studies uses formal optimization approaches. Our goal is to obtain a better system understanding at a fundamental process level for the one-on-one situation of a single monitoring well for a single monitoring target. This knowledge can be used for a better understanding of the optimization results in complex situations, and also to better guide and restrict optimization procedures by newly obtained export knowledge. In order to obtain fundamental statements regardless of specific simulation settings, we use an analytical model based on the 2D steady-state advection-dispersion equation to predict contaminant transport from the monitoring target. Monte Carlo simulation techniques are applied to represent parametric uncertainty. Thus, we can obtain maps of contaminant detection probability for all possible placements of the monitoring well. The optimal position is defined by the highest detection probability. First findings show that uncertainty in the spill location pushes the optimal monitoring

  10. Bone-level implants placed in the anterior maxilla: an open-label, single-arm observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, EnFeng; Hei, Wei-Hong; Park, Jong-Chul; Pang, KangMi; Kim, Sun Kyung; Kim, Bongju; Kim, Soung-Min; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2017-10-01

    This study assessed marginal bone remodeling and soft tissue esthetics after the loading of single bone-level implants in the anterior maxilla. An open, single-arm observational clinical trial with 3 years of follow-up was performed, including 22 implants. The patients presented with a single tooth gap in the anterior maxilla (tooth positions 14-24), with natural or restored adjacent teeth. An implant was placed at least 8 weeks post-extraction and healed submerged for 6 weeks. After the second-stage operation, a fixed provisional prosthesis was provided. The final restoration was placed 6 months after the provisional restoration. The time of the provisional crown connection was considered to be the baseline in this study. Esthetic parameters and the marginal bone level were assessed at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. All implants were well integrated in the bone. A statistically significant increase was found in the mean implant stability quotient between the time of the provisional prosthesis and the time of the final prosthesis. Most implants (95.5%) revealed marginal bone resorption (implant (4.5%) showed a change of 2.12 mm from baseline to 36 months (mean 0.07±0.48 mm), while the crestal bone level decreased significantly, from 2.34±0.93 mm at baseline to 1.70±1.10 mm at 36 months. The facial gingival margin and papilla were stable and the esthetic scores indicated high patient and dentist satisfaction. Platform-switching bone-level implants placed in maxillary single-tooth gaps resulted in successful osseointegration with minimal marginal bone resorption. The peri-implant soft tissue was also esthetically satisfying and stable.

  11. Bone-level implants placed in the anterior maxilla: an open-label, single-arm observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed marginal bone remodeling and soft tissue esthetics after the loading of single bone-level implants in the anterior maxilla. Methods An open, single-arm observational clinical trial with 3 years of follow-up was performed, including 22 implants. The patients presented with a single tooth gap in the anterior maxilla (tooth positions 14–24), with natural or restored adjacent teeth. An implant was placed at least 8 weeks post-extraction and healed submerged for 6 weeks. After the second-stage operation, a fixed provisional prosthesis was provided. The final restoration was placed 6 months after the provisional restoration. The time of the provisional crown connection was considered to be the baseline in this study. Esthetic parameters and the marginal bone level were assessed at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Results All implants were well integrated in the bone. A statistically significant increase was found in the mean implant stability quotient between the time of the provisional prosthesis and the time of the final prosthesis. Most implants (95.5%) revealed marginal bone resorption (<0.5 mm), and just 1 implant (4.5%) showed a change of 2.12 mm from baseline to 36 months (mean 0.07±0.48 mm), while the crestal bone level decreased significantly, from 2.34±0.93 mm at baseline to 1.70±1.10 mm at 36 months. The facial gingival margin and papilla were stable and the esthetic scores indicated high patient and dentist satisfaction. Conclusions Platform-switching bone-level implants placed in maxillary single-tooth gaps resulted in successful osseointegration with minimal marginal bone resorption. The peri-implant soft tissue was also esthetically satisfying and stable. PMID:29093988

  12. Observing pure effects of counter-rotating terms without ultrastrong coupling: A single photon can simultaneously excite two qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Miranowicz, Adam; Li, Hong-Rong; Nori, Franco

    2017-12-01

    The coherent process that a single photon simultaneously excites two qubits has recently been theoretically predicted by Garziano et al. [L. Garziano, V. Macrì, R. Stassi, O. Di Stefano, F. Nori, and S. Savasta, One Photon Can Simultaneously Excite two or More Atoms, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 043601 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.043601]. We propose a different approach to observe a similar dynamical process based on a superconducting quantum circuit, where two coupled flux qubits longitudinally interact with the same resonator. We show that this simultaneous excitation of two qubits (assuming that the sum of their transition frequencies is close to the cavity frequency) is related to the counter-rotating terms in the dipole-dipole coupling between two qubits, and the standard rotating-wave approximation is not valid here. By numerically simulating the adiabatic Landau-Zener transition and Rabi-oscillation effects, we clearly verify that the energy of a single photon can excite two qubits via higher-order transitions induced by the longitudinal couplings and the counter-rotating terms. Compared with previous studies, the coherent dynamics in our system only involves one intermediate state and, thus, exhibits a much faster rate. We also find transition paths which can interfere. Finally, by discussing how to control the two longitudinal-coupling strengths, we find a method to observe both constructive and destructive interference phenomena in our system.

  13. Observation of an unusual electronically distorted semiquinone radical of PCB metabolites in the active site of prostaglandin H synthase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangpradit, Orarat; Moman, Edelmiro; Nolan, Kevin B; Buettner, Garry R; Robertson, Larry W; Luthe, Gregor

    2010-12-01

    The activation of the metabolites of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into highly reactive radicals is of fundamental importance. We found that human recombinant prostaglandin H synthase-2 (hPGHS-2) biotransforms dihydroxy-PCBs, such as 4-chlorobiphenyl-2',5'-hydroquinone (4-CB-2',5'-H(2)Q), into semiquinone radicals via one-electron oxidation. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, we observed the formation of the symmetric quartet spectrum (1:3:3:1 by area) of 4-chlorobiphenyl-2',5'-semiquinone radical (4-CB-2',5'-SQ()(-)) from 4-CB-2',5'-H(2)Q. This spectrum changed to an asymmetric spectrum with time: the change can be explained as the overlap of two different semiquinone radical species. Hindered rotation of the 4-CB-2',5'-SQ()(-) appears not to be a major factor for the change in lineshape because increasing the viscosity of the medium with glycerol produced no significant change in lineshape. Introduction of a fluorine, which increases the steric hindrance for rotation of the dihydroxy-PCB studied, also produced no significant changes. An in silico molecular docking model of 4-CB-2',5'-H(2)Q in the peroxidase site of hPGHS-2 together with ab initio quantum mechanical studies indicate that the close proximity of a negatively charged carboxylic acid in the peroxidase active site may be responsible for the observed perturbation in the spectrum. This study provides new insights into the formation of semiquinones from PCB metabolites and underscores the potential role of PGHS-2 in the metabolic activation of PCBs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatially Extended and High-Velocity Dispersion Molecular Component in Spiral Galaxies: Single-Dish Versus Interferometric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian; Leroy, Adam; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Vogel, Stuart

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies of the molecular medium in nearby galaxies have provided mounting evidence that the molecular gas can exist in two phases: one that is clumpy and organized as molecular clouds and another one that is more diffuse. This last component has a higher velocity dispersion than the clumpy one. In order to investigate these two molecular components further, we compare the fluxes and line widths of CO in NGC 4736 and NGC 5055, two nearby spiral galaxies for which high-quality interferometric as well as single-dish data sets are available. Our analysis leads to two main results: (1) employing three different methods, we determine the flux recovery of the interferometer as compared to the single-dish to be within a range of 35%-74% for NGC 4736 and 81%-92% for NGC 5055, and (2) when focusing on high (S/N ≥ 5) lines of sight (LOSs), the single-dish line widths are larger by ˜(40 ± 20)% than the ones derived from interferometric data, which is in agreement with stacking all LOSs. These results point to a molecular gas component that is distributed over spatial scales larger than 30″(˜1 kpc), and is therefore filtered out by the interferometer. The available observations do not allow us to distinguish between a truly diffuse gas morphology and a uniform distribution of small clouds that are separated by less than the synthesized beam size (˜3″ or ˜100 pc), as they would both be invisible for the interferometer. This high velocity dispersion component has a dispersion similar to what is found in the atomic medium, as traced through observations of the H i line.

  15. Spatially extended and high-velocity dispersion molecular component in spiral galaxies: Single-dish versus interferometric observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Walter, Fabian; Schruba, Andreas; Leroy, Adam; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Vogel, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of the molecular medium in nearby galaxies have provided mounting evidence that the molecular gas can exist in two phases: one that is clumpy and organized as molecular clouds and another one that is more diffuse. This last component has a higher velocity dispersion than the clumpy one. In order to investigate these two molecular components further, we compare the fluxes and line widths of CO in NGC 4736 and NGC 5055, two nearby spiral galaxies for which high-quality interferometric as well as single-dish data sets are available. Our analysis leads to two main results: (1) employing three different methods, we determine the flux recovery of the interferometer as compared to the single-dish to be within a range of 35%–74% for NGC 4736 and 81%–92% for NGC 5055, and (2) when focusing on high (S/N ≥ 5) lines of sight (LOSs), the single-dish line widths are larger by ∼(40 ± 20)% than the ones derived from interferometric data, which is in agreement with stacking all LOSs. These results point to a molecular gas component that is distributed over spatial scales larger than 30″(∼1 kpc), and is therefore filtered out by the interferometer. The available observations do not allow us to distinguish between a truly diffuse gas morphology and a uniform distribution of small clouds that are separated by less than the synthesized beam size (∼3″ or ∼100 pc), as they would both be invisible for the interferometer. This high velocity dispersion component has a dispersion similar to what is found in the atomic medium, as traced through observations of the H i line.

  16. The role of safety analyses in site selection. Some personal observations based on the experience from the Swiss site selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuidema, Piet

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, the site selection process according to the ''Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories'' (BFE 2008) is underway since 2008. This process takes place in three stages. In stage 1 geological siting regions (six for the L/ILW repository and three for the HLW repository) have been identified, in stage 2 sites for the surface facilities have been identified for all siting regions in close co-operation with the sting regions and a narrowing down of the number of siting regions based on geological criteria will take place. In stage 3 the sites for a general license application are selected and the general license applications will be submitted which eventually will lead to the siting decision for both repository types. In the Swiss site selection process, safety has the highest priority. Many factors affect safety and thus a whole range of safety-related issues are considered in the identification and screening of siting possibilities. Besides dose calculations a range of quantitative and qualitative issues are considered. Dose calculations are performed in all three stages of the site selection process. In stage 1 generic safety calculations were made to develop criteria to be used for the identification of potential siting regions. In stage 2, dose calculations are made for comparing the different siting regions according to a procedure prescribed in detail by the regulator. Combined with qualitative evaluations this will lead to a narrowing down of the number of siting regions to at least two siting regions for each repository type. In stage 3 full safety cases will be prepared as part of the documentation for the general license applications. Besides the dose calculations, many other issues related to safety are analyzed in a quantitative and qualitative manner. These consider the 13 criteria defined in the Sectoral Plan and the corresponding indicators. The features analyzed cover the following broad themes: efficiency of

  17. Nocturnal Boundary-Layer Phenomena Observed at a Complex Site During the Perdigão Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T.; Klein, P. M.; Smith, E.; Gebauer, J.; Turner, D. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Perdigão Field Experiment set out to study atmospheric flows in complex terrain and to collect a high-quality dataset for the validation of meso- and micro-scale models. An Intensive Observation Period (IOP) was conducted from May 1, 2017 through June 15, 2017 where a multitude of instruments were deployed in and around two nearly parallel ridges. The Collaborative Lower Atmospheric Mobile Profiling System (CLAMPS) was deployed and operated in the valley between the ridges. The CLAMPS facility, which was developed as a joint effort between the School of Meteorology at OU and NOAA's National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL), takes advantage of a microwave radiometer (MWR), an atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI), and a scanning doppler Lidar to profile the boundary layer with a high temporal and spatial resolution. Optimized Lidar scanning strategies and joint retrievals for the MWR and ARI data provide detailed information about the wind, turbulence and thermodynamic structure from the surface up to 1000 m AGL on most nights; sometimes the max height is even higher. Over the course of the IOP, CLAMPS observed many different phenomena. During some nights, when stronger background prevailed and was directed perpendicular to the valley, waves were observed at the ridges and in the valley. At the same time, radiational cooling led to drainage flows in the valley, particularly during nights when the mesoscale forcing was weak. At first, CLAMPS profile observations and data collected with radiosondes released at a near-by site are compared to assess the data quality. The radiosonde observations are also being used to document and classify the upper-level flow during the IOP. Additionally, CLAMPS data from a few selected nights will be presented and analyzed in terms of turbulence and its impact on mixing inside and above the valley. June 1-2 represents a good base-state case. Winds at ridge height were generally less than 5ms-1 after 0Z and valley flows

  18. Effect of connective tissue grafting on peri-implant tissue in single immediate implant sites: A RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiderveld, Elise G; Meijer, Henny J A; den Hartog, Laurens; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M

    2018-02-01

    To assess the effect of connective tissue grafting on the mid-buccal mucosal level (MBML) of immediately placed and provisionalized single implants in the maxillofacial aesthetic zone. Sixty patients with a failing tooth were provided with an immediately placed and provisionalized implant. During implant placement, patients randomly received either a connective tissue graft from the maxillary tuberosity (n = 30, test group) or no graft (n = 30, control group). Follow-up visits were at one (T 1 ) and twelve months (T 12 ) after final crown placement. The primary outcome measure was any change in MBML compared to the pre-operative situation. In addition, gingival biotype, aesthetics (using the Pink Esthetic Score-White Esthetic Score), marginal bone level, soft tissue peri-implant parameters and patient satisfaction were assessed. The mean MBML change at T 12 was -0.5 ± 1.1 mm in the control group and 0.1 ± 0.8 mm in the test group (p = .03). No significant differences regarding other outcome variables were observed, neither was gingival biotype associated with a gain or loss in MBML. This one-year study shows that connective tissue grafting in single, immediately placed and provisionalized implants leads to less recession of the peri-implant soft tissue at the mid-buccal aspect, irrespective of the gingival biotype (www.trialregister.nl: TC3815). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Single-pulse observations of the Galactic Center magnetar PSR J1745-2900 at 3.1 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W. M.; Wang, N.; Manchester, R. N.; Wen, Z. G.; Yuan, J. P.

    2018-02-01

    We report on single-pulse observations of the Galactic Center magnetar PSR J1745-2900 that were made using the Parkes 64-m radio telescope with a central frequency of 3.1 GHz at five observing epochs between 2013 July and August. The shape of the integrated pulse profiles was relatively stable across the five observations, indicating that the pulsar was in a stable state between MJDs 56475 and 56514. This extends the known stable state of this pulsar to 6.8 months. Short term pulse shape variations were also detected. It is shown that this pulsar switches between two emission modes frequently and that the typical duration of each mode is about ten minutes. No giant pulses or subpulse drifting were observed. Apparent nulls in the pulse emission were detected on MJD 56500. Although there are many differences between the radio emission of magnetars and normal radio pulsars, they also share some properties. The detection of mode changing and pulse nulling in PSR J1745-2900 suggests that the basic radio emission process for magnetars and normal pulsars is the same.

  20. Laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS retroperitoneal partial adrenalectomy using a custom-made single-access platform and standard laparoscopic instruments: Technical considerations and surgical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hsun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Our results clearly demonstrate that LESS retroperitoneal partial adrenalectomy can be performed safely and effectively using a custom-made single-access platform and standard laparoscopic instruments.

  1. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery for the treatment of different urological pathologies: Defining the learning curve of an experienced laparoscopist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Karim, Aly M; Elhenawy, Ibrahim M; Eid, Ahmed A; Yahia, Elsayed; Elsalmy, Salah A

    2017-09-01

    To define the learning curve of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) of an experienced laparoscopist. Patients who had LESS, since its implementation in December 2009 until December 2014, were retrospectively analysed. Procedures were divided into groups of 10 and scored according to the European Scoring System for Laparoscopic Operations in Urology. Different LESS indications were done by one experienced laparoscopist. Technical feasibility, surgical safety, outcome, as well as the number of patients required to achieve professional competence were assessed. In all, 179 patients were included, with mean (SD) age of 36.3 (17.5) years and 25.4% of the patients had had previous surgeries. Upper urinary tract procedures were done in 65.9% of patients and 54.7% of the procedures were extirpative. Both transperitoneal and retroperitoneal LESS were performed in 92.8% and 7.2% of the patients, respectively. The intraoperative and postoperative complication rates were 2.2% and 5.6% (Clavien-Dindo Grade II 3.9% and IIIa 1.7%), respectively. In all, 75% of intraoperative complications and all conversions were reported during the first 30 LESS procedures; despite the significantly higher difficulty score in the subsequent LESS procedures. One 5-mm extra port, conversion to conventional laparoscopy and open surgery was reported in 14%, 1.7%, and 1.1% of the cases, respectively. At mean (SD) follow-up of 39.7 (11.4) months, all the patients that underwent reconstructive LESS procedures but one were successful. In experienced hands, at least 30 LESS procedures are required to achieve professional competence. Although difficult, both conversion and complication rates of LESS are low in experienced hands.

  2. Risk factors for neurosurgical site infections after a neurosurgical procedure: a prospective observational study at Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buang, S S; Haspani, M S

    2012-08-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) after craniotomy even though rare, poses a real risk of surgery and represents a substantial burden of disease for both patients and healthcare services in terms of morbidity, mortality and economic cost. The knowledge of risk factor for surgical site infection after craniotomy will allow the authority to implement specific preventive measures to reduce the infection rate. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to determine the incidence and the risk factors of surgical site infection after craniotomy. This study highlights an observational prospective study on adult patients who has undergone neurosurgical procedures in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) over a period of 2 years (June 2007 to June 2009). The neurosurgical procedures are craniectomy, craniotomy, cranioplasty and burrhole. A total of 390 cases fulfilled the requirements of inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Every patient in the study population was prospectively evaluated for development and risk factors for SSI. The follow-up cases were done by direct observation of the wound during their post-operative stay and ideally up to and including day 30 post-operatively, either as in-patients or through post discharge surveillance i.e. follow-up in the clinic 30 days post-operatively. SSIs were defined according to the Center for Disease Control definitions. Incidence was calculated per patient. Univariate Simple Logistic Regression analysis was used to analyse the association of the risk factors and SSI. A total of 30 post craniotomy surgical site infections (SSI) has been identified among 390 cases included in the study, resulting in an overall infection rate of 7.7%. This included 19 with superficial wound infection (63.3%), 9 with bone flap osteitis (30%) and 2 with organ/space infection (6.7%). Most of SSIs were detected during in patient cases accounting for 20 cases. The mean time between surgery and the onset of infection was 11.8 +/- 21.8 days

  3. Lability and Basicity of Bipyridine-Carboxylate-Phosphonate Ligand Accelerate Single-Site Water Oxidation by Ruthenium-Based Molecular Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, David W; Xie, Yan; Szalda, David J; Concepcion, Javier J

    2017-11-01

    A critical step in creating an artificial photosynthesis system for energy storage is designing catalysts that can thrive in an assembled device. Single-site catalysts have an advantage over bimolecular catalysts because they remain effective when immobilized. Hybrid water oxidation catalysts described here, combining the features of single-site bis-phosphonate catalysts and fast bimolecular bis-carboxylate catalysts, have reached turnover frequencies over 100 s -1 , faster than both related catalysts under identical conditions. The new [(bpHc)Ru(L) 2 ] (bpH 2 cH = 2,2'-bipyridine-6-phosphonic acid-6'-carboxylic acid, L = 4-picoline or isoquinoline) catalysts proceed through a single-site water nucleophilic attack pathway. The pendant phosphonate base mediates O-O bond formation via intramolecular atom-proton transfer with a calculated barrier of only 9.1 kcal/mol. Additionally, the labile carboxylate group allows water to bind early in the catalytic cycle, allowing intramolecular proton-coupled electron transfer to lower the potentials for oxidation steps and catalysis. That a single-site catalyst can be this fast lends credence to the possibility that the oxygen evolving complex adopts a similar mechanism.

  4. Lability and Basicity of Bipyridine-Carboxylate-Phosphonate Ligand Accelerate Single-Site Water Oxidation by Ruthenium-Based Molecular Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, David W.; Xie, Yan; Szalda, David J.; Concepcion, Javier J.

    2017-01-01

    Here, a critical step in creating an artificial photosynthesis system for energy storage is designing catalysts that can thrive in an assembled device. Single-site catalysts have an advantage over bimolecular catalysts because they remain effective when immobilized. Hybrid water oxidation catalysts described here, combining the features of single-site bis-phosphonate catalysts and fast bimolecular bis-carboxylate catalysts, have reached turnover frequencies over 100 s –1 , faster than both related catalysts under identical conditions. The new [(bpHc)Ru(L) 2 ] (bpH 2 cH = 2,2'-bipyridine-6-phosphonic acid-6'-carboxylic acid, L = 4-picoline or isoquinoline) catalysts proceed through a single-site water nucleophilic attack pathway. The pendant phosphonate base mediates O–O bond formation via intramolecular atom-proton transfer with a calculated barrier of only 9.1 kcal/mol. Additionally, the labile carboxylate group allows water to bind early in the catalytic cycle, allowing intramolecular proton-coupled electron transfer to lower the potentials for oxidation steps and catalysis. That a single-site catalyst can be this fast lends credence to the possibility that the oxygen evolving complex adopts a similar mechanism.

  5. RCRA Assessment Plan for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area S-SX at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.J.; Johnson, V.G.

    1999-01-01

    A groundwater quality assessment plan was prepared for waste management area S-SX at the Hanford Site. Groundwater monitoring is conducted at this facility in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Part 265, Subpart F [and by reference of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-400(3)]. The facility was placed in assessment groundwater monitoring program status after elevated waste constituents and indicator parameter measurements (i.e., chromium, technetium-99 and specific conductance) in downgradient monitoring wells were observed and confirmed. A first determination, as allowed under 40 CFR 265.93(d), provides the owner/operator of a facility an opportunity to demonstrate that the regulated unit is not the source of groundwater contamination. Based on results of the first determination it was concluded that multiple source locations in the waste management area could account for observed spatial and temporal groundwater contamination patterns. Consequently, a continued investigation is required. This plan, developed using the data quality objectives process, is intended to comply with the continued investigation requirement. Accordingly, the primary purpose of the present plan is to determine the rate and extent of dangerous waste (hexavalent chromium and nitrate) and radioactive constituents (e.g., technetium-99) in groundwater and to determine their concentrations in groundwater beneath waste management area S-SX. Comments and concerns expressed by the Washington State Department of Ecology on the initial waste management area S-SX assessment report were addressed in the descriptive narrative of this plan as well as in the planned activities. Comment disposition is documented in a separate addendum to this plan

  6. Numerical simulation of extreme snowmelt observed at the SIGMA-A site, northwest Greenland, during summer 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Niwano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The surface energy balance (SEB from 30 June to 14 July 2012 at site SIGMA (Snow Impurity and Glacial Microbe effects on abrupt warming in the Arctic-A, (78°03' N, 67°38' W; 1490 m a.s.l. on the northwest Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS was investigated by using in situ atmospheric and snow measurements as well as numerical modeling with a one-dimensional multi-layered physical snowpack model called SMAP (Snow Metamorphism and Albedo Process. At SIGMA-A, remarkable near-surface snowmelt and continuous heavy rainfall (accumulated precipitation between 10 and 14 July was estimated to be 100 mm were observed after 10 July 2012. Application of the SMAP model to the GrIS snowpack was evaluated based on the snow temperature profile, snow surface temperature, surface snow grain size, and shortwave albedo, all of which the model simulated reasonably well. Above all, the fact that the SMAP model successfully reproduced frequently observed rapid increases in snow albedo under cloudy conditions highlights the advantage of the physically based snow albedo model (PBSAM incorporated in the SMAP model. Using such data and model, we estimated the SEB at SIGMA-A from 30 June to 14 July 2012. Radiation-related fluxes were obtained from in situ measurements, whereas other fluxes were calculated with the SMAP model. By examining the components of the SEB, we determined that low-level clouds accompanied by a significant temperature increase played an important role in the melt event observed at SIGMA-A. These conditions induced a remarkable surface heating via cloud radiative forcing in the polar region.

  7. Enhancing catalytic activity of a hybrid xylanase through single substitution of Leu to Pro near the active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhao, Li-Li; Sun, Jian-Yi; Liu, Jian-Xin; Weng, Xiao-Yan

    2012-03-01

    A modified error-prone PCR and high-throughout screening system based on 96-well plate were employed to improve catalytic activity of a hybrid xylanase (ATx). The mutant (FSI-A124) with enhanced activity was further heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris under the control of GAP promoter. The recombinant xylanase driven by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-mating factor was secreted into culture medium. After growth in YPD medium for 96 h, xylanase activity in the culture supernatant reached 66.1 U ml(-1), which was 2.92 times as that of its parent. 6 × His-tagged purification increased the specific activity to 1557.61 U mg(-1). The optimum temperature and pH of recombinant xylanase were 55°C and 6.0, respectively. A single amino acid substitution (L49P) was observed within sequence of the mutant. Insight of the three dimensional structure revealed that proline possibly produced weaker hydrogen bond, van der Waals force and hydrophobic interaction with other residues nearby than leucine, especially for V174, contributing to the flexibility of catalytic residue E177. In this study, FSI-A124 exhibited higher xylanase activity but poorer thermostability than its parent, indicating that activity and stability might be negatively correlated.

  8. First observation of 3D aggregates in a single-component Langmuir film below the equilibrium spreading pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov George R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single component monolayers from Dipalamitoyl Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine head labelled with the fluorescent chromophore NitroBenzoxaDiazole (DP-NBD-PE were investigated at the air-water interface as Langmuir films and deposited on silicon wafers or glass plates as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB films. A step compression and monitoring of the pressure relaxation together with domain formation as observed with Brewster angle microscopy suggests that main transition from liquid expanded to liquid compressed state start at around 6.9 mN/m though on the isotherm it starts around 9 mN/m at 25° C. Brewster angle microscopy also reveals a nonuniform structure in the monolayer. 3D aggregates - cylinders with 50 – 150 nm diameter and bilayer height were observed with Atomic Force Microscopy when deposition was carried at 7 mN/m, above the main phase transition but considerably lower than the equilibrium spreading pressure of 19.6 mN/m for this molecule. When LB film deposition is carried just below the main phase transition a uniform height layer of film in a liquid phase is observed with AFM with no structures. Both compression and deposition were carried at very low speeds with large time to relax in ordered to avoid kinetic effects. These 3D aggregates are not due to the transfer process or interaction with the substrate. These aggregates provide a highly developed area combined with monolayer thick structure which can produce very fast and highly sensitive biosensors.

  9. Intraregional links between the trends in air pollutants observed at the EANET network sites for 2000-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Sergey A.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2016-04-01

    Recent changes in economic development tendencies and environmental protection policies in the East Asian countries raise hopes for improvement of regional air quality in this vast region populated by more than 3 billion people. To recognize anticipated changes in atmospheric pollutants levels, deposition rates and impact on the environment, the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET, http://www.eanet.asia/) is regularly operating region-wide since 2000 in 13 countries. The network provides continuous monitoring data on the air quality and precipitation (including gas-phase and particulate chemistry) at 55 monitoring sites, including 20 remote and 14 rural sites. Observation of soil and inland water environments are performed at more than 30 monitoring sites [1]. In this study we focus on 1) the data quality assessment and preparation and 2) analysis of temporal trends of compositions observed at selected 26 non-urban EANET stations. Speciation includes gas-phase (SO2, HNO3, HCl, NH3) and particulate matter (SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) abundances analysed in samples collected using filterpack technique with sampling duration/frequency of one-two weeks. Data quality assessment (distribution test and manual inspection) allowed us to remove/repair random and operator errors. Wrong sample timing was found for 0.37% (severe) and 34% (mild inconsistency) of the total of 7630 samples regarded. Erroneous data flagging (e.g. missing or below the detection limit) was repaired for 9.3%, respectively. Some 1.8% of severely affected data were corrected (where possible) or removed. Thus refined 15-year dataset is made available for the scientific community. For convenience, we also provide data in netCDF format (per station or in an assembly). Based on this refined dataset, we performed trend analysis using several statistical approaches including quantile regression which provides robust results against outliers and better understanding of trend

  10. Fingerprinting the K/T impact site and determining the time of impact by U-Pb dating of single shocked zircons from distal ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, T. E.; Kamo, S. L.; Bohor, B. F.

    1993-01-01

    U-Pb isotopic dating of single 1 - 3 micrograms zircons from K/T distal ejecta from a site in the Raton Basin, Colorado provides a powerful new tool with which to determine both the time of the impact event and the age of the basement at the impact site. Data for the least shocked zircons are slightly displaced from the 544 +/- 5 Ma primary age for a component of the target site, while those for highly shocked and granular grains are strongly displaced towards the time of impact at 65.5 +/- 3.0 Ma. Such shocked and granular zircons have never been reported from any source, including explosive volcanic rocks. Zircon is refractory and has one of the highest thermal blocking temperatures; hence, it can record both shock features and primary and secondary ages without modification by post-crystallization processes. Unlike shocked quartz, which can come from almost anywhere on the Earth's crust, shocked zircons can be shown to come from a specific site because basement ages vary on the scale of meters to kilometers. With U-Pb zircon dating, it is now possible to correlate ejecta layers derived from the same target site, test the single versus multiple impact hypothesis, and identify the target source of impact ejecta. The ages obtained in this study indicate that the Manson impact site, Iowa, which has basement rocks that are mid-Proterozoic in age, cannot be the source of K/T distal ejecta. The K/T distal ejecta probably originated from a single impact site because most grains have the same primary age.

  11. Validity and inter-rater reliability of medio-lateral knee motion observed during a single-limb mini squat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simic Milena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle function may influence the risk of knee injury and outcomes following injury. Clinical tests, such as a single-limb mini squat, resemble conditions of daily life and are easy to administer. Fewer squats per 30 seconds indicate poorer function. However, the quality of movement, such as the medio-lateral knee motion may also be important. The aim was to validate an observational clinical test of assessing the medio-lateral knee motion, using a three-dimensional (3-D motion analysis system. In addition, the inter-rater reliability was evaluated. Methods Twenty-five (17 women non-injured participants (mean age 25.6 years, range 18-37 were included. Visual analysis of the medio-lateral knee motion, scored as knee-over-foot or knee-medial-to-foot by two raters, and 3-D kinematic data were collected simultaneously during a single-limb mini squat. Frontal plane 2-D peak tibial, thigh, and knee varus-valgus angles, and 3-D peak hip internal-external rotation, and knee varus-valgus angles were calculated. Results Ten subjects were scored as having a knee-medial-to-foot position and 15 subjects a knee-over-foot position assessed by visual inspection. In 2-D, the peak tibial angle (mean 89.0 (SE 0.7 vs mean 86.3 (SE 0.4 degrees, p = 0.001 and peak thigh angle (mean 77.4 (SE 1.0 vs mean 81.2 (SE 0.5 degrees, p = 0.001 with respect to the horizontal, indicated that the knee was more medially placed than the ankle and thigh, respectively. Thus, the knee was in more valgus (mean 11.6 (SE 1.5 vs 5.0 (SE 0.8 degrees, p 0.90 and 96 between raters. Conclusions Medio-lateral motion of the knee can reliably be assessed during a single-leg mini-squat. The test is valid in 2-D, while the actual movement, in 3-D, is mainly exhibited as increased internal hip rotation. The single-limb mini squat is feasible and easy to administer in the clinical setting and in research to address lower extremity movement quality.

  12. Non-uniform binding of single-stranded DNA binding proteins to hybrids of single-stranded DNA and single-walled carbon nanotubes observed by atomic force microscopy in air and in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemura, Kazuo, E-mail: meicun2006@163.com; Ishizaka, Kei; Nii, Daisuke; Izumi, Katsuki

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Conjugates of protein, DNA, and SWNTs were observed by AFM in liquid. • Non-uniform binding of proteins was visualized in liquid. • Thickness of DNA molecules on SWNT surfaces was well characterized in liquid. - Abstract: Using atomic force spectroscopy (AFM), we observed hybrids of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with or without protein molecules in air and in an aqueous solution. This is the first report of ssDNA–SWNT hybrids with proteins in solution analyzed by AFM. In the absence of protein, the height of the ssDNA–SWNT hybrids was 1.1 ± 0.3 nm and 2.4 ± 0.6 nm in air and liquid, respectively, suggesting that the ssDNA molecules adopted a flexible structure on the SWNT surface. In the presence of single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) proteins, the heights of the hybrids in air and liquid increased to 6.4 ± 3.1 nm and 10.0 ± 4.5 nm, respectively. The AFM images clearly showed binding of the SSB proteins to the ssDNA–SWNT hybrids. The morphology of the SSB–ssDNA–SWNT hybrids was non-uniform, particularly in aqueous solution. The variance of hybrid height was quantitatively estimated by cross-section analysis along the long-axis of each hybrid. The SSB–ssDNA–SWNT hybrids showed much larger variance than the ssDNA–SWNT hybrids.

  13. Results of Phase I groundwater quality assessment for single-shell tank waste management areas T and TX-TY at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, F.N.

    1998-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a Phase I, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) groundwater quality assessment for the Richland Field Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE-RL) under the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement. The purpose of the investigation was to determine if the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas (WMAs) T and TX-TY have impacted groundwater quality. Waste Management Areas T and TX-TY, located in the northern part of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, contain the 241-T, 241-TX, and 241-TY tank farms and ancillary waste systems. These two units are regulated under RCRA interim-status regulations (under 40 CFR 265.93) and were placed in assessment groundwater monitoring because of elevated specific conductance in downgradient wells. Anomalous concentrations of technetium-99, chromium, nitrate, iodine-129, and cobalt-60 also were observed in some downgradient wells. Phase I assessment, allowed under 40 CFR 265, provides the owner-operator of a facility with the opportunity to show that the observed contamination has a source other than the regulated unit. For this Phase I assessment, PNNL evaluated available information on groundwater chemistry and past waste management practices in the vicinity of WMAs T and TX-TY. Background contaminant concentrations in the vicinity of WMAs T and TX-TY are the result of several overlapping contaminant plumes resulting from past-practice waste disposal operations. This background has been used as baseline for determining potential WMA impacts on groundwater

  14. Influence of soot mixing state on aerosol light absorption and single scattering albedo during air mass aging at a polluted regional site in northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y. F.; Berghof, M.; Garland, R. M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Wehner, B.; Müller, T.; Su, H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Achtert, P.; Nowak, A.; PöSchl, U.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.; Zeng, L. M.

    2009-01-01

    An aerosol optical closure study was performed using the observed high time- and size-resolved soot mixing states determined by a Volatility Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (VTDMA) at a polluted regional site, Yufa, in the south of Beijing during the summer of 2006. Good agreement was found between the simulated and measured aerosol absorption (σap, R = 0.9) and scattering (σsp, R ≥ 0.95). The soot mixing state at Yufa can be generally determined by VTDMA, in terms of properly predicting the σap using a simple optical model combined with spherical homogeneous and core-shell coated Mie codes. The possible uncertainties in the modeled σap were discussed. Rapid soot aging was observed, which led to large variations in the fractional contributions to σap by externally mixed and coated soot. On average, about 37% of the σap (˜10-60%) arose by the coated soot. The coating enhancement in σap and σsp of the coated soot can reach up to a factor of 8-10 within several hours owing to the secondary processing during daytime. It was contributed not only by the increased thickness of coating shell, but also the transition of soot from externally mixed to coated one. Hence, assuming constant soot mixing state for the regional climate model is not realistic and may lead to uncertainties. In the highly polluted region in northeastern China, the aerosol single scattering albedo may increase very fast owing to the rapid secondary particle formation and condensation (up to 0.90-0.95). This increase took place although the concurrent coating processing enhanced the light absorption capability of soot.

  15. First observations of tritium in ground water outside chimneys of underground nuclear explosions, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, N.B.

    1976-01-01

    Abnormal levels of radionuclides had not been detected in ground water at the Nevada Test Site beyond the immediate vicinity of underground nuclear explosions until April 1974, when above-background tritium activity levels were detected in ground-water inflow from the tuff beneath Yucca Flat to an emplacement chamber being mined in hole U2aw in the east-central part of Area 2. No other radionuclides were detected in a sample of water from the chamber. In comparison with the amount of tritium estimated to be present in the ground water in nearby nuclear chimneys, the activity level at U2aw is very low. To put the tritium activity levels at U2aw into proper perspective, the maximum tritium activity level observed was significantly less than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for a restricted area, though from mid-April 1974 until the emplacement chamber was expended in September 1974, the tritium activity exceeded the MPC for the general public. Above-background tritium activity was also detected in ground water from the adjacent exploratory hole, Ue2aw. The nearest underground nuclear explosion detonated beneath the water table, believed to be the source of the tritium observed, is Commodore (U2am), located 465 m southeast of the emplacement chamber in U2aw. Commodore was detonated in May 1967. In May 1975, tritium activity May significantly higher than regional background. was detected in ground water from hole Ue2ar, 980 m south of the emplacement chamber in U2aw and 361 m from a second underground nuclear explosion, Agile (U2v), also detonated below the water table, in February 1967. This paper describes these occurrences of tritium in the ground water. A mechanism to account for the movement of tritium is postulated

  16. Thermohaline variability and mesoscale activities observed at the E2M3A deep site in the south Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensi, M.; Cardin, V.; Gačić, M.

    2012-04-01

    The south Adriatic Sea is recognized as a dense water formation site which is able to oxygenate the deep layer of the whole eastern Mediterranean Sea. The entrance of salty water from the Ionian Sea represents a preconditioning factor for the deep convection which can occur during winters characterized by particularly vigorous air-sea heat exchanges. Continuous sampling measurements are strictly essential to better understand the deep convection. For that reason, the south Adriatic Sea has been constantly monitored by means of the E2M3A deep mooring site located in its central part (Latitude 41° 50' N, Longitude 17° 45' E, maximum depth 1250m) since 2006. Temperature, salinity and currents time series at the E2M3A site from 2006 till 2010 are analyzed. They represent currently the longest timeseries available for this region. Moreover, their integration with data obtained from several oceanographic cruises provides the necessary spatial distribution of the thermohaline properties in the study area. Here we report on the abrupt temperature and salinity decrease particularly evident down to 600m depth from March 2008 on. In fact, the intermediate layer shows a maximum temperature and salinity decrease of ~0.3°C and ~0.06 respectively, clearly evident after each severe winter. The bottom layer (~1200m) shows an opposite behaviour: it suffered an unforeseen and continous temperature and salinity increase (linear trend of ~0.05 °C y-1 and ~0.004 psu y-1respectively) during the whole observational period. The results show a strong relationship between the recently discovered variability of the Ionian surface circulation (Gačić et al. 2010) and the thermohaline variability observed in the south Adriatic. In particular, we demonstrate here the role of the winter convection in trasferring fresher surface waters towards deeper layers triggering salt content changes in the Adriatic. The intrusion of fresher water at the depth of about 700-800m noticed in the mooring

  17. Probabilistic nowcast of PBL profiles with a single column model and ensemble filter assimilation of surface observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostkier-Edelstein, D.; Hacker, J. P.

    2009-09-01

    A long-term goal of this work is to find an efficient system for probabilistic planetary boundary layer (PBL) nowcasting that can be deployed wherever surface observations are present. One approach showing promise is the use of a single column model (SCM) and ensemble filter (EF) data assimilation techniques. Earlier work showed that surface observations can be an important source of information with an SCM and an EF. Here we extend that work to quantify the deterministic and probabilistic skill of ensemble SCM predictions with added complexity. Although it is appealing to add additional physics and dynamics to the SCM model it is not immediately clear that additional complexity will improve the performance of a PBL nowcasting system based on a simple model. We address this question with regard to treatment of surface assimilation, radiation in the column, and also advection to account for realistic 3D dynamics (a timely WRF prediction). We adopt factor separation analysis to quantify the individual contribution of each model component to the deterministic and probabilistic skill of the system, as well as any beneficial or detrimental interactions between them. Deterministic skill of the system is evaluated through the mean absolute error, and probabilistic skill through the Brier Skill Score (BSS) and the area under the relative operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUR). The BSS is further decomposed into both a reliability and resolution term to understand the trade-offs in different components of probabilistic skill. An alternative system based on climatological covariances and surface observations is used as a reference to assess the real utility of the flow-dependent covariances estimated with the ensemble system. In essence it is a dressing technique, whereby a deterministic 3D mesoscale forecast (e.g. WRF) is corrected with surface forecast errors and covariances computed from a distribution of available historical mesoscale forecasts. The adjusted profile

  18. The clinical meaning of gastric-wall hyperactivity observed on sestamibi cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, C.; Dumont, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Quebec, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: christian.cote@chuq.qc.ca

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate prospectively the incidence and clinical meaning, if any, of gastric-wall hyperactivity observed on sestamibi cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This phenomenon is completely different from the well-known intraluminal gastric reflux of sestamibi. A group of 819 patients who underwent sestamibi cardiac SPECT was studied from January 2000 to October 2000. Gastric-wall activity was graded qualitatively. Only patients with gastric-wall activity near or equivalent to their heart activity were considered for subsequent analysis. The medical records of patient candidates were reviewed, and their family physicians were asked to respond to a questionnaire by telephone when further information was needed. We identified 13 patients with significant gastric-wall hyperactivity, which was more intense on rest images. Our review of the clinical data shows that all these patients were suffering from dyspepsia and were taking gastric medication. These 13 cases were assigned to 3 groups: gastroesophageal reflux, chronic functional dyspepsia and nonspecific gastritis. Significant gastric-wall hyperactivity is an infrequent observation on sestamibi cardiac SPECT. Our results indicate that the presence of significant gastric-wall hyperactivity is associated with dyspepsia. It is important to realize that this gastric-wall hyperactivity by its proximity to the inferior myocardial wall could in some circumstances lead to either false-negative or false-positive findings, representing a diagnostic problem. Although infrequent, this situation could be avoided by proper quality control, including a systematic review of the raw cine data before reading the images. (author)

  19. Observing dynamics of chromatin fibers in Xenopus egg extracts by single DNA manipulation using a transverse magnetic tweezer setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie; Skoko, Dunja; Marko, John; Maresca, Tom; Heald, Rebecca

    2005-03-01

    We have studied assembly of chromatin on single DNAs using Xenopus egg extracts and a specially designed magnetic tweezer setup which generates controlled force in the focal plane of the objective, allowing us to visualize and measure DNA extension under a wide range of constant tensions. We found, in the absence of ATP, interphase extracts assembled nucleosomes against DNA tensions of up to 3.5 piconewtons (pN). We observed force-induced disassembly and opening-closing fluctuations indicating our experiments were in mechano-chemical equilibrium. We found that the ATP-depleted reaction can do mechanical work of 27 kcal/mol per nucleosome, providing a measurement of the free energy difference between core histone octamers on and off DNA. Addition of ATP leads to highly dynamic behavior: time courses show processive runs of assembly and disassembly of not observed in the -ATP case, with forces of 2 pN leading to nearly complete fiber disassembly. Our study shows that ATP hydrolysis plays a major role in nucleosome rearrangement and removal, and suggests that chromatin in vivo may be subject to continual assembly and disassembly.

  20. Saturated multikilovolt x-ray amplification with Xe clusters: single-pulse observation of Xe(L) spectral hole burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Alex B; Davis, Jack; Song, Xiangyang; Koshman, Yevgeniya; Dai Yang; Boyer, Keith; Rhodes, Charles K

    2003-01-01

    Single-pulse measurements of spectral hole burning of Xe(L) 3d → 2p hollow atom transition arrays observed from a self-trapped plasma channel provide new information on the dynamics of saturated amplification in the λ ∼ 2.8-2.9 A region. The spectral hole burning on transitions in the Xe 34+ and Xe 35+ arrays reaches full suppression of the spontaneous emission and presents a corresponding width Δ h-bar ω x ∼ = 60 eV, a value adequate for efficient amplification of multikilovolt x-ray pulses down to a limiting length τ x ∼ 30 as. The depth of the suppression at 2.86 A indicates that the gain-to-loss ratio is ≥10. An independent determination of the x-ray pulse energy from damage produced on the surface of a Ti foil in the far field of the source gives a pulse energy of 20-30 μJ, a range that correlates well with the observation of the spectral hole burning and indicates an overall extraction efficiency of ∼10%. (letter to the editor)

  1. Microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the β-globin locus control region-hypersensitive Site 2: SPECIFICITY of Tunisian βs chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mustapha, Maha; Moumni, Imen; Zorai, Amine; Douzi, Kaïs; Ghanem, Abderraouf; Abbes, Salem

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of sickle cell disease severity is attributed to several cis acting factors, among them the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and (AT) rich region in the β-locus control region (β-LCR). This contains five DNase I hypersensitive sites (HS) located 6 to 22 kb upstream to the ϵ gene. The most important of these is the HS2 (5' β-LCR-HS2), characterized by the presence of three different SNPs and a microsatellite region known to be in association with β(S) chromosomes in various populations. The aim of this study was to present the molecular investigation of the 5' β-LCR-HS2 site in normal and sickle cell disease individuals in order to determine if there is any correlation or specificity between these molecular markers, the β(S) Tunisian chromosomes and phenotypical expression of sickle cell disease. One hundred and twenty-four chromosomes from Tunisian individuals (49 β(S) carriers and 13 normal individuals) were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing for the polymorphic short tandem microsatellite repeats (AT)(X)N(12)(AT)(Y) and the three SNPs (rs7119428, rs9736333 and rs60240093) of the 5' β-LCR-HS2. Twelve configurations of the microsatellite motif were found with an ancestral configuration elaborated by ClustalW software. Normal and mutated alleles were observed at the homozygous and heterozygous states for the three SNPs. Correlation between microsatellites and SNPs suggests that mutant SNP alleles were mainly associated, in the homozygous sickle cell disease phenotype, with the (AT)(8)N(12)GT(AT)(7) configuration, whereas, normal SNP alleles were associated with the (AT)(X)N(12)(AT)(11) configurations in normal β(A) chromosomes. The correlation of these various configurations with Hb F expression was also investigated. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed the correlation between the homozygous sickle cell disease phenotype, mutated SNP alleles and the Benin microsatellite configuration (AT)(8)N(12)GT

  2. Coupled atmosphere and land-surface assimilation of surface observations with a single column model and ensemble data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostkier-Edelstein, Dorita; Hacker, Joshua P.; Snyder, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Numerical weather prediction and data assimilation models are composed of coupled atmosphere and land-surface (LS) components. If possible, the assimilation procedure should be coupled so that observed information in one module is used to correct fields in the coupled module. There have been some attempts in this direction using optimal interpolation, nudging and 2/3DVAR data assimilation techniques. Aside from satellite remote sensed observations, reference height in-situ observations of temperature and moisture have been used in these studies. Among other problems, difficulties in coupled atmosphere and LS assimilation arise as a result of the different time scales characteristic of each component and the unsteady correlation between these components under varying flow conditions. Ensemble data-assimilation techniques rely on flow dependent observations-model covariances. Provided that correlations and covariances between land and atmosphere can be adequately simulated and sampled, ensemble data assimilation should enable appropriate assimilation of observations simultaneously into the atmospheric and LS states. Our aim is to explore assimilation of reference height in-situ temperature and moisture observations into the coupled atmosphere-LS modules(simultaneously) in NCAR's WRF-ARW model using the NCAR's DART ensemble data-assimilation system. Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) are performed using the single column model (SCM) version of WRF. Numerical experiments during a warm season are centered on an atmospheric and soil column in the South Great Plains. Synthetic observations are derived from "truth" WRF-SCM runs for a given date,initialized and forced using North American Regional Reanalyses (NARR). WRF-SCM atmospheric and LS ensembles are created by mixing the atmospheric and soil NARR profile centered on a given date with that from another day (randomly chosen from the same season) with weights drawn from a logit-normal distribution. Three

  3. Observation of aerosol size distribution and new particle formation at a mountain site in subtropical Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the formation and growth processes of nucleation mode particles, and to quantify the particle number (PN concentration and size distributions in Hong Kong, an intensive field measurement was conducted from 25 October to 29 November in 2010 near the mountain summit of Tai Mo Shan, a suburban site approximately the geographical centre of the New Territories in Hong Kong. Based on observations of the particle size distribution, new particle formation (NPF events were found on 12 out of 35 days with the estimated formation rate J5.5 from 0.97 to 10.2 cm−3 s−1, and the average growth rates from 1.5 to 8.4 nm h−1. The events usually began at 10:00–11:00 LT characterized by the occurrence of a nucleation mode with a peak diameter of 6–10 nm. Solar radiation, wind speed, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ozone (O3 concentrations were on average higher, whereas temperature, relative humidity and daytime nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentration were lower on NPF days than on non-NPF days. Back trajectory analysis suggested that in majority of the NPF event days, the air masses originated from the northwest to northeast directions. The concentrations of gaseous sulfuric acid (SA showed good power-law relationship with formation rates, with exponents ranging from 1 to 2. The result suggests that the cluster activation theory and kinetic nucleation could potentially explain the observed NPF events in this mountainous atmosphere of Hong Kong. Meanwhile, in these NPF events, the contribution of sulfuric acid vapor to particle growth rate (GR5.5–25 ranged from 9.2 to 52.5% with an average of 26%. Measurement-based calculated oxidation rates of monoterpenes (i.e. α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene and limonene by O3 positively correlated with the GR5.5–25 (R = 0.80, p < 0.05. The observed associations of the

  4. Geochemical Processes Data Package for the Vadose Zone in the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Zachara, John M.; Dresel, P. Evan; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2007-09-28

    This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical process information available for the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tank farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility. Two companion reports to this one were recently published which discuss the geology of the farms (Reidel and Chamness 2007) and groundwater flow and contamination beneath the farms (Horton 2007).

  5. Evaluation of Fourier and Response Spectra at Ichihasama and Koromogawa Seismic Intensity Observation Sites During the Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hayato; Miyajima, Masakatsu

    In this study, we evaluate an acceleration Fourier and response spectra at Ichihasama and Koromogawa seismic intensity observation sites which observed JMA seismic intensity of 6 upper but seismic waveform records don't exist during the Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake in 2008. Firstly, formula to evaluate acceleration Fourier and response spectra are developed using peak ground acceleration, JMA seismic intensity and predominant period of earthquake spectra based on records obtained from crustal earthquakes with Magnitude of 6 to 7. Acceleration Fourier and response spectra are evaluated for another local government site which are not chosen for development of the formula. The evaluated values mostly agree with the observed ones. Finally, acceleration Fourier and response spectra are evaluated for Ichihasama and Koromogawa observation sites. It is clarified that short period below 1 second was predominated in the evaluated spectra.

  6. Redox-active on-surface polymerization of single-site divalent cations from pure metals by a ketone-functionalized phenanthroline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skomski, Daniel; Tempas, Christopher D.; Bukowski, Gregory S.; Smith, Kevin A.; Tait, Steven L., E-mail: tait@indiana.edu [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, 800 E. Kirkwood Ave., Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    Metallic iron, chromium, or platinum mixing with a ketone-functionalized phenanthroline ligand on a single crystal gold surface demonstrates redox activity to a well-defined oxidation state and assembly into thermally stable, one dimensional, polymeric chains. The diverging ligand geometry incorporates redox-active sub-units and bi-dentate binding sites. The gold surface provides a stable adsorption environment and directs growth of the polymeric chains, but is inert with regard to the redox chemistry. These systems are characterized by scanning tunnelling microscopy, non-contact atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The relative propensity of the metals to interact with the ketone group is examined, and it is found that Fe and Cr more readily complex the ligand than Pt. The formation and stabilization of well-defined transition metal single-sites at surfaces may open new routes to achieve higher selectivity in heterogeneous catalysts.

  7. The efficacy of ampicillin compared with ceftriaxone on preventing cesarean surgical site infections: an observational prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisuda Assawapalanggool

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cesarean surgical site infections (SSIs can be prevented by proper preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Differences in antibiotic selection in clinical practice exist according to obstetricians’ preferences despite clear guidelines on preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of ampicillin and ceftriaxone in preventing cesarean SSIs. Methods The observational prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Thailand from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2012. Propensity scores for ceftriaxone prophylaxis were calculated from potential influencing confounders. The cesarean SSI rates of the ceftriaxone group vs. those of the ampicillin prophylactic group were estimated by multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regression nested by propensity score. Results Data of 4149 cesarean patients were collected. Among these, 911 patients received ceftriaxone whereas 3238 patients received ampicillin as preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. The incidence of incisional SSIs was (0.1% vs. 1.2%; p = 0.001 and organ space SSIs was (1.2% vs. 2.9%; p = 0.003 in the ceftriaxone group compared with the ampicillin group. After adjusting for confounders, the rate ratios of incisional and organ/space SSIs in the ceftriaxone compared with the ampicillin group did not differ (RR, 0.23; 95% CI 0.03–1.78, and (RR, 1.62; 95% CI 0.83–3.18, respectively. Conclusion These data indicate no difference exists between ampicillin and ceftriaxone to prevent SSIs after cesarean section. Ampicillin may be used as antibiotic prophylaxis in cesarean section.

  8. The optimal anatomic site for a single slice to estimate the total volume of visceral adipose tissue by using the quantitative computed tomography (QCT) in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X; Zhang, Y; Wang, C; Deng, W; Wang, L; Duanmu, Y; Li, K; Yan, D; Xu, L; Wu, C; Shen, W; Tian, W

    2018-03-20

    To investigate the relationship between the cross-sectional visceral adipose tissue (VAT) areas at different anatomic sites and the total VAT volume in a healthy Chinese population using quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and to identify the optimal anatomic site for a single slice to estimate the total VAT volume. A total of 389 healthy Chinese subjects aged 19-63 years underwent lumbar spine QCT scans. The cross-sectional area of total adipose tissue and VAT were measured using the tissue composition module of the software (QCT Pro, Mindways) at each intervertebral disc level from T 12 /L 1 to L 5 /S 1 , as well as at the umbilical level. The total VAT volume was defined as the fat areas multiplied by the height of vertebral body for all six slices. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the correlation between single-slice VAT areas and the total VAT volume. Moreover, the optimal anatomic site for a single slice to estimate the total VAT volume was identified by multiple regression analysis. The cross-sectional area of VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) measured at each anatomic site was all highly correlated with the total VAT volume and the total SAT volume (r = 0.89-0.98). Additionally, the VAT area measured at the L 2 /L 3 level showed the strongest correlation with the total VAT volume (r = 0.98, P VAT volume. It is feasible to perform measurements of VAT area on a single slice at L 2 /L 3 level for estimating the total VAT volume.

  9. Engineered single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mosquito MEK docking site alter Plasmodium berghei development in Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Susceptibility to Plasmodium infection in Anopheles gambiae has been proposed to result from naturally occurring polymorphisms that alter the strength of endogenous innate defenses. Despite the fact that some of these mutations are known to introduce non-synonymous substitutions in coding sequences, these mutations have largely been used to rationalize knockdown of associated target proteins to query the effects on parasite development in the mosquito host. Here, we assay the effects of engineered mutations on an immune signaling protein target that is known to control parasite sporogonic development. By this proof-of-principle work, we have established that naturally occurring mutations can be queried for their effects on mosquito protein function and on parasite development and that this important signaling pathway can be genetically manipulated to enhance mosquito resistance. Methods We introduced SNPs into the A. gambiae MAPK kinase MEK to alter key residues in the N-terminal docking site (D-site), thus interfering with its ability to interact with the downstream kinase target ERK. ERK phosphorylation levels in vitro and in vivo were evaluated to confirm the effects of MEK D-site mutations. In addition, overexpression of various MEK D-site alleles was used to assess P. berghei infection in A. gambiae. Results The MEK D-site contains conserved lysine residues predicted to mediate protein-protein interaction with ERK. As anticipated, each of the D-site mutations (K3M, K6M) suppressed ERK phosphorylation and this inhibition was significant when both mutations were present. Tissue-targeted overexpression of alleles encoding MEK D-site polymorphisms resulted in reduced ERK phosphorylation in the midgut of A. gambiae. Furthermore, as expected, inhibition of MEK-ERK signaling due to D-site mutations resulted in reduction in P. berghei development relative to infection in the presence of overexpressed catalytically active MEK. Conclusion MEK-ERK signaling in

  10. Phase change material for thermotherapy of Buruli ulcer: a prospective observational single centre proof-of-principle trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Junghanss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU is an infection of the subcutaneous tissue leading to chronic necrotizing skin ulcers. The causative pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans, grows best at 30 degrees C-33 degrees C and not above 37 degrees C. We explored the safety, tolerability and efficacy of phase change material (PCM, a novel heat application system for thermotherapy of BU. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective observational single centre proof-of-principle trial in Ayos/Cameroon, six laboratory reconfirmed patients with ulcerative Buruli lesions received 28-31 (ulcers 2 cm days of thermotherapy with the PCM sodium acetate trihydrate as heat application system. This PCM is widely used in commercial pocket heat pads, it is easy to apply, rechargeable in hot water, non-toxic and non-hazardous to the environment. All patients enrolled in the trial completed treatment. Being completely mobile during the well-tolerated heat application, acceptability of the PCM bandages was very high. In patients with smaller ulcers, wounds healed completely without further intervention. Patients with large defects had skin grafting after successful heat treatment. Heat treatment was not associated with marked increases in local inflammation or the development of ectopic lymphoid tissue. One and a half years after completion of treatment, all patients are relapse-free. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our reusable PCM-based heat application device appears perfectly suited to treat BU in endemic countries with limited resources and infrastructure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN88392614.

  11. Wavelength dependence of Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo observed by skyradiometer in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ja-Ho; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Eck, Thomas F.; Lee, Yun Gon; Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Mijin; Jung, Ukkyo; Yoon, Jongmin; Mok, Jungbin; Cho, Hi-Ku

    2016-11-01

    Absorption and scattering characteristics of various aerosol events are investigated using 2-years of measurements from a skyradiometer at Yonsei University in Seoul, Korea. Both transported dust and anthropogenic aerosols are observed at distinct geo-location of Seoul, a megacity located a few thousand kilometers away from dust source regions in China. We focus on the wavelength dependence of Ångström exponent (AE) and single scattering albedo (SSA), showing the characteristics of regional aerosols. The correlation between spectral SSAs and AEs calculated using different wavelength pairs generally indicates relatively weak absorption of fine-mode aerosols (urban pollution and/or biomass burning) and strong absorption of coarse-mode aerosols (desert dust) at this location. AE ratio (AER), a ratio of AEs calculated using wavelength pair between shorter (340-675 nm) and longer wavelength pair (675-1020 nm) correlates differently with SSA according to the dominant size of local aerosols. Correlations between SSA and AER show strong absorption of aerosols for AER 2.0. Based on the seasonal pattern of wavelength dependence of AER and SSA, this correlation difference looks to reveal the separated characteristics of transported dust and anthropogenic particles from urban pollution respectively. The seasonal characteristics of AER and SSAs also show that the skyradiometer measurement with multiple wavelengths may be able to detect the water soluble brown carbon, one of the important secondary organic aerosols in the summertime atmospheric composition.

  12. Mesodermal repression of single-minded in Drosophila embryo is mediated by a cluster of Snail-binding sites proximal to the early promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kye Won Park1 & Joung-Woo Hong2,*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available single-minded (sim is a master regulatory gene that directs differentiationin the central nervous system during Drosophilaembryogenesis. Recent identification of the mesectoderm enhancer(MSE of sim has led to the hypothesis that two Snail(Sna-binding sites in the MSE may repress sim expression inthe presumptive mesoderm. We provide evidence here thatthree Sna-binding sites proximal to the sim promoter, but notthose of the MSE, are responsible for the mesodermal repressionof sim in vivo. Using transgenic embryos injectedwith lacZ transgenes, we showed that sim repression in themesoderm requires the three promoter-proximal Sna-bindingsites. These results suggest that Sna represses the mesectodermalexpression of sim by directly repressing the nearby promoter,and not by quenching adjacent transcriptional activatorsin the MSE. These data also showed how the MSE, lackingthe three proximal Sna-binding sites, reproduced the endogenouspattern of sim expression in transgenic embryos.

  13. No difference in incidence of port-site hernia and chronic pain after single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette W; Brandt, Erik; Oehlenschläger, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    and matched 1:2 with patients subjected to CLC using pre-defined criteria. Follow-up data were obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry, mailed patient questionnaires, and clinical examination. A port-site hernia was defined as a repair for a port-site hernia or clinical hernia located at one......BACKGROUND: Conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC) is regarded as the gold standard for cholecystectomy. However, single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC) has been suggested to replace CLC. This study aimed at comparing long-term incidences of port-site hernia and chronic pain...... after SLC versus CLC. METHODS: We conducted a matched cohort study based on prospective data (Jan 1, 2009-June 1, 2011) from the Danish Cholecystectomy Database with perioperative information and clinical follow-up. Consecutive patients undergoing elective SLC during the study period were included...

  14. Hybrid laparoendoscopic single-site surgery of upper urinary tract with the use of mini-laparoscopic instruments: cosmetic outcome and midterm oncological outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Kyriazis, Jason; Kamal, Wissam; Porpiglia, Francesco; Liatsikos, Evangelos

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of mini-laparoscopic instruments in combination with laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) instruments for the performance of oncological urological surgery. Thirty-five patients underwent oncological hybrid LESS either mini-laparoscopic-assisted LESS partial nephrectomy (LESS-PN, n = 12) or mini-laparoscopic-assisted LESS radical nephrectomy (LESS-RN, n = 23). Perioperative data were prospectively collected. The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) was used for the evaluation of the cosmetic outcome. Mean tumor size treated by LESS-PNs was 28.8 (IQR 20.5-37.3) mm. Average operative time and blood loss were 123 (IQR 112.5-145) min and 158.3 (IQR 100-200) ml, respectively. Renal artery clamping took place in seven cases. LESS-RN was performed in cases with a mean tumor size of 60 (IQR 48-71.5) mm. The average operative time was 116.8 (IQR 100-130) min. Average blood loss was 137 (IQR 100-150) ml. Complications were limited to grade II according to Clavien classification. The oncological outcome, including midterm results, was directly comparable to the literature. Patients reported low pain scores and high satisfaction in terms of postoperative scarring. The POSAS scores confirmed the excellent cosmetic outcome of hybrid LESS. The combination of mini-laparoscopic and LESS instrumentation as routine equipment of oncological surgery provided an efficient option for urologic surgery. The combination of mini-laparoscopic and LESS instruments improves the intraoperative ergonomics of LESS-PN and LESS-RN. The provided surgical and oncological outcome compares favorably to the LESS and conventional laparoscopic literature.

  15. Single thrombopoietin dose alleviates hematopoietic stem cells intrinsic short- and long-term ionizing radiation damage. In vivo identification of anatomical cell expansion sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronik-Le Roux, Diana; Nicola, Marie-Anne; Vaigot, Pierre; Nurden, Paquita

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are essential for maintaining the integrity of complex and long-lived organisms. HSC, which are self-renewing, reconstitute the hematopoietic system through out life and facilitate long-term repopulation of myeloablated recipients. We have previously demonstrated that when mice are exposed to sublethal doses of ionizing radiation, subsets of the stem/progenitor compartment are affected. In this study we examine the role of thrombopoietin (TPO) on the regenerative capacities of HSC after irradiation and report the first demonstration of efficacy of a single injection of TPO shortly after in vivo exposure to ionizing radiation for reducing HSC injury and improving their functional outcome. Our results demonstrate that TPO treatment not only reduced the number of apoptotic cells but also induced a significant modification of their intrinsic characteristics. These findings were supported by transplantation assays with long-term HSC that were irradiated or unirradiated, TPO treated or untreated, in CD45.1/CD45.2 systems and by using luciferase-labeled HSC for direct bioluminescence imaging in living animals. Of particular importance, our data demonstrate the skull to be a highly favorable site for the TPO-induced emergence of hematopoietic cells after irradiation, suggesting a TPO-mediated relationship of primitive hematopoietic cells to an anatomical component. Together, the data presented here: provide novel findings about aspects of TPO action on stem cells, open new areas of investigation for therapeutic options in patients who are treated with radiation therapy, and show that early administration of a clinically suitable TPO-agonist counteracts the previously observed adverse effects.

  16. Minilaparoscopic radical hysterectomy (mLPS-RH) vs laparoendoscopic single-site radical hysterectomy (LESS-RH) in early stage cervical cancer: a multicenter retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagotti, Anna; Ghezzi, Fabio; Boruta, David M; Scambia, Giovanni; Escobar, Pedro; Fader, Amanda N; Malzoni, Mario; Fanfani, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    To compare the perioperative outcomes of laparoendoscopic single-site radical hysterectomy (LESS-RH) and minilaparoscopic radical hysterectomy (mLPS-RH). Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Seven institutions in Italy. Forty-six patents with early cervical cancer (FIGO stage IA2-IB1/IIA1) were included in the study. Nineteen patients (41.3%) underwent LESS-RH, and 27 (58.7%) underwent mLPS-RH. Pelvic lymph node dissection was performed in all patients. In the LESS-RH group, all surgical procedures were performed through a single umbilical multichannel port. In the mLPS-RH group, the procedure was completed using a 5-mm umbilical optical trocar and 3 additional 3-mm ancillary trocars, placed suprapubically and in the left and right lower abdominal regions. There was no difference in clinicopathologic characteristics at the time of diagnosis between the LESS-RH and mLPS-RH groups. Median operative time was 270 minutes (range, 149-380 minutes) for LESS-RH, and was 180 minutes (range, 90-240 minutes) for mLPS-RH (p = .001). No further differences were detected between the 2 groups insofar as type of radical hysterectomy, number of lymph nodes removed, or perioperative outcomes. In the LESS-RH group, conversion to laparotomy was necessary in 1 patient (5.3%) because of external iliac vein injury, and in another patient, conversion to standard laparoscopy was required because of truncal obesity. In the mLPS-RH group, no conversions were observed; however, a repeat operation was performed to repair a ureteral injury. The percentage of patients discharged 1 day after surgery was significantly higher in the LESS-RH group (57.9%) compared with the mLPS-RH group (25.0%) (p = .03). After a median follow-up of 27 months (range, 9-73 months), only 1 patient, who had undergone mLPS-RH, experienced pelvic recurrence and died of the disease. Both LESS-RH and mLPS-RH are feasible ultra-minimally invasive approaches for performance of radical hysterectomy

  17. Single-charge craters excavated during subsurface high-explosive experiments at Big Black Test Site, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.R.; Bryan, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Single-charge and row-charge subsurface cratering experiments were performed to learn how close-spacing enhances single-crater dimensions. Our first experimental phase established cratering curves for 60-lb charges of the chemical explosive. For the second phase, to be described in a subsequent report, the Row-cratering experiments were designed and executed. This data report contains excavated dimensions and auxiliary data for the single-charge cratering experiments. The dimensions for the row-charge experiments will be in the other report. Significant changes in the soil's water content appeared to cause a variability in the excavated dimensions. This variability clouded the interpretation and application of the cratering curves obtained

  18. Geohazards affecting UNESCO WHL sites in the UK observed from geological data and satellite InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Francesca; Tapete, Deodato; Lee, Kathryn

    2016-08-01

    Geohazards pose significant threats to cultural and natural heritage worldwide. In the UK, only 1 out of 29 UNESCO World Heritage List (WHL) sites has been inscribed on the list of World Heritage in Danger, whilst it is widely accepted that many more could be affected by geohazards. In this paper we set out the foundations of a methodological approach to analyse geological, geohazard and remote sensing data available at the British Geological Survey to retrieve an overview of geohazards affecting the UK WHL sites. The Castles and Town Walls (constructed in the time of King Edward I) in Gwynedd in north Wales are used as test sites to showcase the methodology for geohazard assessment at the scale of individual property also to account for situations of varied geology and local topography across multiproperty WHL sites. How such baseline geohazard assessment can be combined with space-borne radar interferometry (InSAR) data is showcased for the four UNESCO WHL sites located in Greater London. Our analysis feeds into the innovative contribution that the JPI-CH project PROTHEGO `PROTection of European cultural HEritage from GeOhazards' (www.prothego.eu) is making towards mapping geohazards in the 400+ WHL sites of Europe by exploiting non-invasive remote sensing methods and surveying technologies.

  19. Survey package: Technical and contracting strategies for single-shell tank waste retrieval on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsower, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company is interested in innovative, commercially available or adaptable retrieval system equipment, concepts, and contracting strategies that will ad to existing Hanford Site technology and significantly reduce cost and/or risk from the baseline retrieval approach of sluicing (hydraulically mining) the waste from the SSTs onsite. The objective of this request is to gather information from industry to identify and summarize a suite of retrieval-related components, systems, and contracting approaches. This information will be used to ensure that WHC understands the various waste retrieval alternative approaches, their risks, and their application on the Hanford Site tanks for those occasions when sluicing is not sufficiently effective, appropriate, or cost-effective. An additional objective is to facilitate industry's understanding of the tank and site interface requirements for SST waste retrieval and the complex statutory, legal, regulatory, labor, and other institutional standards being applied to the Hanford Site. This effort will identify and summarize retrieval solutions by the end of September 1996 so that a clear basis for future retrieval program decisions can be established

  20. Ambient Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Observations in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Fixed-site Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martien, P. T.; Guha, A.; Bower, J.; Perkins, I.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Stevenson, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District is the greater San Francisco Bay metropolitan area's chief air quality regulatory agency. Aligning itself with the Governor's Executive Order S-3-05, the Air District has set a goal to reduce the region's GHG emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The Air District's 2016 Clean Air Plan will lay out the agency's vision and actions to put the region on a path forward towards achieving the 2050 goal while also reducing air pollution and related health impacts. The 2016 Plan has three overarching objectives: 1) develop a multi-pollutant emissions control strategy, (2) reduce population exposure to harmful air pollutants, especially in vulnerable communities, and (3) protect climate through a comprehensive Regional Climate Protection Strategy. To accomplish one of 2016 Plan's control measures (SL3 - Greenhouse Gas Monitoring and Measurement Network), the Air District has set up a long-term, ambient GHG monitoring network at four sites. The first site is located north and upwind of the urban core at Bodega Bay by the Pacific Coast. It mostly receives clean marine inflow and serves as the regional background site. The other three sites are strategically located at regional exit points for Bay Area plumes that presumably contain well-mixed GHG enhancements from local sources. CO2 and CH4are being measured continuously at the fixed-sites, along with combustion tracer CO and other air pollutants. In the longer term, the network will allow the Air District to monitor ambient concentrations of GHGs and thus evaluate the effectiveness of its policy, regulation and enforcement efforts. We present data trends from the first year of operation of the fixed-site monitoring network including monthly and seasonal patterns, diurnal variations and regional enhancements at individual sites above background concentrations. We also locate an isotopic methane instrument (Picarro, G132-i) for a short duration (a week) at each of the

  1. Pediatric Emergency Department Suicidal Patients: Two-Site Evaluation of Suicide Ideators, Single Attempters, and Repeat Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Baraff, Larry J.; Berk, Michele; Grob, Charles; Devich-Navarro, Mona; Suddath, Robert; Piacentini, John; Tang, Lingqi

    2008-01-01

    The study examines ideators, single attempters, and repeats attempters of suicide to clarify optimal strategies for emergency department management and risk assessment to help them in reducing youth suicide and suicide attempts. Depression was found to be a strong predictor of suicide/suicide attempts along with substance use, externalizing…

  2. The effect of driving force on intramolecular electron transfer in proteins. Studies on single-site mutated azurins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Skov, L K; van de Kamp, M

    1992-01-01

    An intramolecular electron-transfer process has previously been shown to take place between the Cys3--Cys26 radical-ion (RSSR-) produced pulse radiolytically and the Cu(II) ion in the blue single-copper protein, azurin [Farver, O. & Pecht, I. (1989) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 86, 6868-6972]. To fu...

  3. Photopicking : In Situ Approach for Site-Specific Attachment of Single Multiprotein Nanoparticles to Atomic Force Microscopy Tips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liashkovich, Ivan; Rosso, Gonzalo; Rangl, Martina; Ebner, Andreas; Hafezi, Wali; Kühn, Joachim; Schön, Peter; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Shahin, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Ligand–receptor interactions are fundamental in life sciences and include hormone–receptor, protein–protein, pathogen–host, and cell–cell interactions, among others. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) proved to be invaluable for scrutinizing ligand–receptor interactions at the single molecular level.

  4. Effect of connective tissue grafting on peri-implant tissue in single immediate implant sites : A RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderveld, Elise G; Meijer, Henny J A; den Hartog, Laurens; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M

    AimTo assess the effect of connective tissue grafting on the mid-buccal mucosal level (MBML) of immediately placed and provisionalized single implants in the maxillofacial aesthetic zone. Materials and methodsSixty patients with a failing tooth were provided with an immediately placed and

  5. Is total pancreatectomy as feasible, safe, efficacious, and cost-effective as pancreaticoduodenectomy? A single center, prospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadei, Riccardo; Ricci, Claudio; Taffurelli, Giovanni; Guariniello, Anna; Di Gioia, Anthony; Di Marco, Mariacristina; Pagano, Nico; Serra, Carla; Calculli, Lucia; Santini, Donatella; Minni, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    Total pancreatectomy is actually considered a viable option in selected patients even if large comparative studies between partial versus total pancreatectomy are not currently available. Our aim was to evaluate whether total pancreatectomy can be considered as feasible, safe, efficacious, and cost-effective as pancreaticoduodenectomy. A single center, prospective, observational trial, regarding postoperative outcomes, long-term results, and cost-effectiveness, in a tertiary referral center was conducted, comparing consecutive patients who underwent elective total pancreatectomy and/or pancreaticoduodenectomy. Seventy-three consecutive elective total pancreatectomies and 184 pancreaticoduodenectomies were compared. There were no significant differences regarding postoperative outcomes and overall survival. The quality of life, evaluated in 119 patients according to the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire, showed that there were no significant differences regarding the five items considered. The mean EQ-5D-5L score was similar in the two procedures (total pancreatectomy = 0.872, range 0.345-1.000; pancreaticoduodenectomy = 0.832, range 0.393-1.000; P = 0.320). The impact of diabetes according to the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) questionnaire did not show any significant differences except for question 13 (total pancreatectomy = 0.60; pancreaticoduodenectomy = 0.19; P = 0.022). The cost-effectiveness analysis suggested that the quality-adjusted life year was not significantly different between the two procedures (total pancreatectomy = 0.910, range 0.345-1.000; pancreaticoduodenectomy = 0.910, range -0.393-1.000; P = 0.320). From this study, it seems reasonable to suggest that total pancreatectomy can be considered as safe, feasible, and efficacious as PD and acceptable in terms of cost-effectiveness.

  6. A single base difference between Pit-1 binding sites at the hGH promoter and locus control region specifies distinct Pit-1 conformations and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewchuk, Brian M; Ho, Yugong; Liebhaber, Stephen A; Cooke, Nancy E

    2006-09-01

    Activation of the human growth hormone (hGH-N) gene in pituitary somatotropes is mediated by a locus control region (LCR). This LCR is composed of DNase I-hypersensitive sites (HS) located -14.5 kb to -32 kb relative to the hGH-N promoter. HSI, at -14.5 kb, is the dominant determinant of hGH-N expression and is essential for establishment of a 32-kb domain of histone acetylation that encompasses the active hGH locus. This activity is conferred by three binding sites for the POU domain transcription factor Pit-1. These Pit-1 elements are sufficient to activate hGH-N expression in the mouse pituitary. In contrast, Pit-1 sites at the hGH-N promoter are consistently unable to mediate similar activity. In the present study, we demonstrate that the functional difference between the promoter-proximal and the HSI Pit-1 binding sites can be attributed in part to a single base difference. This base affects the conformation of the Pit-1/DNA complex, and reciprocal exchange of the divergent bases between the two sets of Pit-1 elements results in a partial reversal of their transgenic activities. These data support a model in which the Pit-1 binding sites in the hGH LCR allosterically program the bound Pit-1 complex for chromatin activating functions.

  7. Water-quality characteristics and trends for selected sites in or near the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, South Dakota, 1973-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzert, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents data on water-quality samples that were collected in and near the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center from 1973 through 2000. The investigation is a collaborated effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Discipline (WRD), and Geography (formerly National Mapping) Discipline, EROS Data Center. A water-quality monitoring program was initiated in 1973, when the EROS Data Center was constructed, and continues at the present time (2003). Under this program, water-quality samples were collected at various sites on the EROS Data Center's property and in the surrounding area. These sites include 4 wastewater-treatment lagoons, 1 site on EROS Lake located behind the EROS Data Center, 2 stream sites near the EROS Data Center, and 9 ground-water wells surrounding the EROS Data Center. Additionally, 3 sites on EROS Lake, 7 stream sites, and 9 ground-water sites are located within the study area and have been sampled during the period covered in the report. Some of these additional sites were part of the initial water-quality monitoring conducted during and immediately after the construction of the EROS Data Center. For other sites, some special sampling (depth-profile and bottom material) has occurred at times during the sampling history; however, these sites have little water-quality data and were not used for statistical or trend analysis. A trend-analysis program, Estimate TREND (ESTREND), was used to analyze for trends for one surface-water site, the Big Sioux River, which was the only site that had a substantial number of samples collected during an extensive period. The ESTREND trend-analysis program was used to analyze 16 constituents. Specific conductance and dissolved orthophosphate were the only constituents determined to have statistically significant trends. Results showed an increasing trend for specific conductance and a decreasing trend for dissolved orthophosphate. Scatter plots with regression smoothing

  8. Simulation of fluid distributions observed at a crude oil spill site incorporating hysteresis, oil entrapment, and spatial variability of hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, H.I.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Hess, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    Subsurface oil, water, and air saturation distributions were determined using 146 samples collected from seven boreholes along a 120-m transect at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota. The field data, collected 10 years after the spill, show a clearly defined oil body that has an oil saturation distribution that appears to be influenced by sediment heterogeneities and water table fluctuations. The center of the oil body has depressed the water-saturated zone boundary and the oil appears to have migrated laterally within the capillary fringe. A multiphase cross-sectional flow model was developed and used to simulate the movement of oil and water at the spill site. Comparisons between observed and simulated oil saturation distributions serve as an indicator of the appropriateness of using such models to predict the actual spread of organic immiscible liquids at spill sites. Sediment hydraulic properties used in the model were estimated from particle size data. The general large-scale features of the observed oil body were reproduced only when hysteresis with oil entrapment and representations of observed spatial variability of hydraulic properties were incorporated into the model. The small-scale details of the observed subsurface oil distribution were not reproduced in the simulations. The discrepancy between observed and simulated oil distributions reflects the considerable uncertainty in model parameter estimates and boundary conditions, three-phase capillary pressure-saturation-relative permeability functions, representations of spatial variability of hydraulic properties, and hydrodynamics of the groundwater flow system at the study site.

  9. Haemodynamic consequences of targeted single- and dual-site right ventricular pacing in adults with congenital heart disease undergoing surgical pulmonary valve replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plymen, Carla M.; Finlay, Malcolm; Tsang, Victor; O'leary, Justin; Picaut, Nathalie; Cullen, Shay; Walker, Fiona; Deanfield, John E; Hsia, T.Y.; Bolger, Aidan P.; Lambiase, Pier D.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to create an epicardial electroanatomic map of the right ventricle (RV) and then apply post-operative-targeted single- and dual-site RV temporary pacing with measurement of haemodynamic parameters. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is an established treatment for symptomatic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. In congenital heart disease, RV dysfunction is a common cause of morbidity—little is known regarding the potential benefits of CRT in this setting. Methods and results Sixteen adults (age = 32 ± 8 years; 6 M, 10 F) with right bundle branch block (RBBB) and repaired tetralogy of Fallot (n = 8) or corrected congenital pulmonary stenosis (n = 8) undergoing surgical pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) for pulmonary regurgitation underwent epicardial RV mapping and haemodynamic assessment of random pacing configurations including the site of latest RV activation. The pre-operative pulmonary regurgitant fraction was 49 ± 10%; mean LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) 85 ± 19 mL/min/m2 and RVEDV 183 ± 89 mL/min/m2 on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The mean pre-operative QRS duration is 136 ± 26 ms. The commonest site of latest activation was the RV free wall and DDD pacing here alone or combined with RV apical pacing resulted in significant increases in cardiac output (CO) vs. AAI pacing (P < 0.01 all measures). DDDRV alternative site pacing significantly improved CO by 16% vs. AAI (P = 0.018), and 8.5% vs. DDDRV apical pacing (P = 0.02). Conclusion Single-site RV pacing targeted to the region of latest activation in patients with RBBB undergoing PVR induces acute improvements in haemodynamics and supports the concept of ‘RV CRT’. Targeted pacing in such patients has therapeutic potential both post-operatively and in the long term. PMID:25371427

  10. Optimizing CT angiography in patients with Fontan physiology: single-center experience of dual-site power injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, K.L.; Markham, L.W.; Mah, M.L.; Byrum, E.P.; Williams, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To identify adult patients with single-ventricle congenital heart disease and Fontan procedure palliation who have been misdiagnosed with or incompletely evaluated for pulmonary embolism. Additionally, this study was designed to demonstrate that simultaneous, dual-injection of contrast medium into an upper and lower extremity vein is superior to single-injection protocols for CT angiography (CTA) of the chest in this population. Materials and methods: Patients included in the study were retrospectively selected from the Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) database. Search criteria included history of Fontan palliation and available chest CT examination. Patients were evaluated for (1) type of congenital heart disease and prior operations;(2) indication for initial CT evaluation;(3) route of contrast medium administration for the initial CT examination and resulting diagnosis;(4) whether or not anticoagulation therapy was initiated; and (5) final diagnosis and treatment plan. Results: The query of the ACHD database resulted in 28 individuals or patients with Fontan palliation (superior and inferior venae cavae anastomosed to the pulmonary arteries). Of these, 19 patients with Fontan physiology underwent CTA of the pulmonary circulation, and 17 had suboptimal imaging studies. Unfortunately, seven of these 17 patients (41%) were started on anticoagulation therapy due to a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism that was later excluded. Conclusion: Patients with single-ventricle/Fontan physiology are at risk of thromboembolic disease. Therefore, studies evaluating their complex anatomy must be performed with the optimal imaging protocol to ensure diagnostic accuracy, which is best achieved with dual-injection of an upper and lower extremity central vein. - Highlights: • The adult congenital heart disease population is growing. • Many of these patients have single ventricle/Fontan physiology. • Patients with Fontan physiology are at increased risk for

  11. Radionuclide migration in groundwater at a low-level waste disposal site: a comparison of predictive performance modeling versus field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.; Myers, D.A.; Bergeron, M.P.; Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Moltyaner, G.L.; Young, J.L.

    1985-08-01

    This paper describes a project which is structured to test the concept of modeling a shallow land low-level waste burial site. The project involves a comparison of the actual observed radionuclide migration in groundwaters at a 30-year-old well-monitored field site with the results of predictive transport modeling. The comparison is being conducted as a cooperative program with the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) at the low-level waste management area at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Ontario, Canada. A joint PNL-AECL field inviestigation was conducted in 1983 and 1984 to complement the existing extensive data base on actual radionuclide migration. Predictive transport modeling is currently being conducted for this site; first, as if it were a new location being considered for a low-level waste shallow-land burial site and only minimal information about the site were available, and second, utilizing the extensive data base available for the site. The modeling results will then be compared with the empirical observations to provide insight into the level of effort needed to reasonably predict the spacial and temporal movement of radionuclides in the groundwater enviroment. 8 refs., 5 figs.,

  12. Enzyme-mediated site-specific bioconjugation of metal complexes to proteins: sortase-mediated coupling of copper-64 to a single-chain antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Brett M; Alt, Karen; Jeffery, Charmaine M; Price, Roger I; Jagdale, Shweta; Rigby, Sheena; Williams, Charlotte C; Peter, Karlheinz; Hagemeyer, Christoph E; Donnelly, Paul S

    2014-06-10

    The enzyme-mediated site-specific bioconjugation of a radioactive metal complex to a single-chain antibody using the transpeptidase sortase A is reported. Cage amine sarcophagine ligands that were designed to function as substrates for the sortase A mediated bioconjugation to antibodies were synthesized and enzymatically conjugated to a single-chain variable fragment. The antibody fragment scFv(anti-LIBS) targets ligand-induced binding sites (LIBS) on the glycoprotein receptor GPIIb/IIIa, which is present on activated platelets. The immunoconjugates were radiolabeled with the positron-emitting isotope (64)Cu. The new radiolabeled conjugates were shown to bind selectively to activated platelets. The diagnostic potential of the most promising conjugate was demonstrated in an in vivo model of carotid artery thrombosis using positron emission tomography. This approach gives homogeneous products through site-specific enzyme-mediated conjugation and should be broadly applicable to other metal complexes and proteins. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Immediate Loading of Anterior Single-Tooth Implants Placed in Healed Sites: Five-Year Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, Laurens; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Stellingsma, Kees; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny Ja

    The aim of this study was to compare the 5-year outcome of immediate loading with that of conventional loading for anterior single-tooth implants placed in healed sites. It was hypothesized that immediate loading is not inferior to conventional loading. A total of 62 patients with a missing maxillary anterior tooth were included. At random, patients were treated with an implant that was restored either with a nonoccluding temporary crown within 24 hours after implant placement (immediate group) or according to a two-stage procedure after 3 months (conventional group). All implants were placed in healed sites. Follow-up visits were performed after definitive crown delivery and 1 and 5 years thereafter. Outcome measures were radiographic marginal bone level changes, implant survival, complications, soft tissue aspects (probing depth, plaque, bleeding, soft tissue level changes), esthetic outcome, and patient satisfaction. Three patients in each study group were lost to follow-up. No significant differences were found in terms of marginal bone loss (1.16 ± 0.93 mm in the immediate group and 1.20 ± 1.10 mm in the conventional group), survival (one implant lost in the immediate group), complications, soft tissue aspects, esthetic outcome, and patient satisfaction. For anterior single-tooth implants placed in healed sites, the outcome of immediate loading is not inferior to conventional loading.

  14. High-resolution polarimetric X-band weather radar observations at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, T.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the horizontally scanning polarimetric X-band radar IDRA (IRCTR Drizzle Radar) was installed on top of the 213 m high mast at the Dutch meteorological observatory Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) at Netherlands. This radar complements a large variety of measurement

  15. Observation of martensitic structure evolution in Cu-Al-Ni single crystals with shape memory effect under external load using photoacoustic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratikov, K.L.; Glazov, A.L.; Nikolaev, V.I.; Pul'nev, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy is applied to observe the surface structure of Cu-Al-Ni shape-memory single crystals in both the loaded and unloaded states. Visualizing the early stages of the loading-induced martensitic transformation in Cu-Al-Ni single crystals is demonstrated to be feasible. The photoacoustic images are distinguished to advantage from the corresponding optical images by a higher contrast between different phases of the Cu-Al-Ni shape-memory alloy [ru

  16. Nailfold capillary microscopy in healthy children and in childhood rheumatic diseases: a prospective single blind observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezalova, P; Young, S P; Bacon, P A; Southwood, T R

    2003-05-01

    To develop an objective method of nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC), applicable to a wide age range of paediatric patients. To compare the morphological characteristics of the nailfold capillaries in different rheumatology patient groups and controls. A colour digital video camera attached to a stereomicroscope was used to capture nailfold capillary images. Computerised image processing was used to analyse and store data. Subsequent quantitative and qualitative morphological analysis was performed in the following paediatric patient and control groups: 18 children with connective tissue diseases (CTD: juvenile dermatomyositis, systemic sclerosis, and undifferentiated connective tissue disease), eight with systemic lupus erythematosus, nine with primary Raynaud's disease, three with primary vasculitis, 15 with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, 17 healthy children and 20 healthy adults. Images were analysed by a single assessor who was unaware of the patient details. The NFC technique was simple to perform and gave reproducible results, although some intra- and intersubject variation was noted. Capillary density and width was age related, with younger children having fewer and wider capillaries than older children and adults. Linear capillary density was significantly higher in healthy adults (mean (SD) 8.6 (1.6) capillaries/mm) compared with healthy children (HC 6.9 (0.9) capillaries/mm). The group with CTD had the most abnormal findings, with lower linear density (4.9 (1.7) capillaries/mm) and increased capillary loop width (10.7 (7.3) mm) compared with HC (3.5 (1.7) mm). In addition, 11/18 (61%) patients in the CTD group had more than two definitely abnormal capillaries in at least two nailfolds, an abnormality not seen in other subjects. Two qualitative measures, the degree of avascularity and general disarrangement of capillary pattern, were more commonly observed in the CTD group than in HC. The proportion of tortuous capillaries did not differ significantly between

  17. The effect of driving force on intramolecular electron transfer in proteins. Studies on single-site mutated azurins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Skov, L K; van de Kamp, M

    1992-01-01

    these substitutions are not in the microenvironment separating the electron donor and acceptor, they were expected to affect the LRET rate because of their effect on the redox potential of the copper site and thus on the driving force of the reaction, as well as on the reorganization energies of the copper site....... The rate of intramolecular electron transfer from RSSR- to Cu(II) in the wild-type P. aeruginosa azurin (delta G degrees = -68.9 kJ/mol) has previously been determined to be 44 +/- 7 s-1 at 298 K, pH 7.0. The [M44K]azurin mutant (delta G degrees = -75.3 kJ/mol) was now found to react considerably faster (k...... = 134 +/- 12 s-1 at 298 K, pH 7.0) while the [H35Q]azurin mutant (delta G degrees = -65.4 kJ/mol) exhibits, within experimental error, the same specific rate (k = 52 +/- 11 s-1, 298 K, pH 7.0) as that of the wild-type azurin. From the temperature dependence of these LRET rates the following activation...

  18. Design of Single-Atom Co-N5Catalytic Site: A Robust Electrocatalyst for CO2Reduction with Nearly 100% CO Selectivity and Remarkable Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuan; Lin, Rui; Chen, Yinjuan; Liu, Shoujie; Zhu, Wei; Cao, Xing; Chen, Wenxing; Wu, Konglin; Cheong, Weng-Chon; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Lirong; Luo, Jun; Lin, Yan; Liu, Yunqi; Liu, Chenguang; Li, Jun; Lu, Qi; Chen, Xin; Wang, Dingsheng; Peng, Qing; Chen, Chen; Li, Yadong

    2018-03-14

    We develop an N-coordination strategy to design a robust CO 2 reduction reaction (CO 2 RR) electrocatalyst with atomically dispersed Co-N 5 site anchored on po