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Sample records for single simple task

  1. Stimulating Mathematical Reasoning with Simple Open-Ended Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John

    2018-01-01

    The importance of mathematical reasoning is unquestioned and providing opportunities for students to become involved in mathematical reasoning is paramount. The open-ended tasks presented incorporate mathematical content explored through the contexts of problem solving and reasoning. This article presents a number of simple tasks that may be…

  2. Influence of time pressure in a simple response task, a choice-by-location task, and the Simon task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Wauschkuhn, Bernd; Verleger, Rolf

    2001-01-01

    Examined the influence of strategy for a simple response task, a choice-by-location task, and the Simon task by varying time pressure in 11 Ss (mean age 28 yrs). Besides reaction time (RT) and accuracy, we measured response force and derived two measures from the event-related EEG potential to form

  3. Circadian Effects on Simple Components of Complex Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Benjamin A.; Wickens, Christopher D.; Vieane, Alex Z.; Gutzwiller, Robert S.; Sebok, Angelia L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to advance understanding and prediction of the impact of circadian rhythm on aspects of complex task performance during unexpected automation failures, and subsequent fault management. Participants trained on two tasks: a process control simulation, featuring automated support; and a multi-tasking platform. Participants then completed one task in a very early morning (circadian night) session, and the other during a late afternoon (circadian day) session. Small effects of time of day were seen on simple components of task performance, but impacts on more demanding components, such as those that occur following an automation failure, were muted relative to previous studies where circadian rhythm was compounded with sleep deprivation and fatigue. Circadian low participants engaged in compensatory strategies, rather than passively monitoring the automation. The findings and implications are discussed in the context of a model that includes the effects of sleep and fatigue factors.

  4. Redundancy gains in simple responses and go/no-go tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Götze, C.; Greenlee, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    In divided-attention tasks with two classes of target stimuli, participants typically respond more quickly if both targets are presented simultaneously, as compared with single-target presentation (redundant-signals effect). Different explanations exist for this effect, including serial, parallel...... times in both the simple and go/no-go responses were well explained by a common coactivation model assuming linear superposition of modality-specific activation. In Experiment 2, the go/no-go task was made more difficult. Participants had to respond to high-frequency tones or right-tilted Gabor patches...

  5. Development of a Cognitive Robotic System for Simple Surgical Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Muradore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of robotic surgery within the operating rooms has significantly improved the quality of many surgical procedures. Recently, the research on medical robotic systems focused on increasing the level of autonomy in order to give them the possibility to carry out simple surgical actions autonomously. This paper reports on the development of technologies for introducing automation within the surgical workflow. The results have been obtained during the ongoing FP7 European funded project Intelligent Surgical Robotics (I-SUR. The main goal of the project is to demonstrate that autonomous robotic surgical systems can carry out simple surgical tasks effectively and without major intervention by surgeons. To fulfil this goal, we have developed innovative solutions (both in terms of technologies and algorithms for the following aspects: fabrication of soft organ models starting from CT images, surgical planning and execution of movement of robot arms in contact with a deformable environment, designing a surgical interface minimizing the cognitive load of the surgeon supervising the actions, intra-operative sensing and reasoning to detect normal transitions and unexpected events. All these technologies have been integrated using a component-based software architecture to control a novel robot designed to perform the surgical actions under study. In this work we provide an overview of our system and report on preliminary results of the automatic execution of needle insertion for the cryoablation of kidney tumours.

  6. The Use of Conjunctions in Cognitively Simple versus Complex Oral L2 Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Marije C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores the use of conjunctions in simple versus complex argumentative tasks performed by second language (L2) learners as a specific measure for the amount of reasoning involved in task performance. The Cognition Hypothesis (Robinson, 2005) states that an increase in cognitive task complexity promotes improvements in L2…

  7. The simple map for a single-null divertor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, A.; Verma, A.; Boozer, A.

    1996-01-01

    We present the simple map for a single-null divertor tokamak. The simple map is an area-preserving map based on the idea that magnetic field lines are a single-degree-of-freedom time-dependent Hamiltonian system, and that the basic features of such systems near the X-point are generic. We obtain the properties of this map and the resulting footprints of field lines on the divertor plate. These include the width of the stochastic layer, the edge safety factor, the area of the footprint and the amount of magnetic flux diverted. We give the safety factor profile, the average and median values of strike angles, lengths and the Liapunov exponents. We describe how the effects of magnetic perturbations can be included in the simple map. We show how the map can be applied to the problem of the determination of heat flux on the divertor plate in tokamaks. (Author)

  8. Responses to a simple barter task in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Sarah F; de Waal, Frans B M

    2005-07-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) frequently participate in social exchange involving multiple goods and services of variable value, yet they have not been tested in a formalized situation to see whether they can barter using multiple tokens and rewards. We set up a simple barter economy with two tokens and two associated rewards and tested chimpanzees on their ability to obtain rewards by returning the matching token in situations in which their access to tokens was unlimited or limited. Chimpanzees easily learned to associate value with the tokens, as expected, and did barter, but followed a simple strategy of favoring the higher-value token, regardless of the reward proffered, instead of a more complex but more effective strategy of returning the token that matched the reward. This response is similar to that shown by capuchin monkeys in our previous study. We speculate that this response, while not ideal, may be sufficient to allow for stability of the social exchange system in these primates, and that the importance of social barter to both species may have led to this convergence of strategies.

  9. The effects of stimulus modality and task integrality: Predicting dual-task performance and workload from single-task levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S. G.; Shively, R. J.; Vidulich, M. A.; Miller, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of stimulus modality and task difficulty on workload and performance was investigated. The goal was to quantify the cost (in terms of response time and experienced workload) incurred when essentially serial task components shared common elements (e.g., the response to one initiated the other) which could be accomplished in parallel. The experimental tasks were based on the Fittsberg paradigm; the solution to a SternBERG-type memory task determines which of two identical FITTS targets are acquired. Previous research suggested that such functionally integrated dual tasks are performed with substantially less workload and faster response times than would be predicted by suming single-task components when both are presented in the same stimulus modality (visual). The physical integration of task elements was varied (although their functional relationship remained the same) to determine whether dual-task facilitation would persist if task components were presented in different sensory modalities. Again, it was found that the cost of performing the two-stage task was considerably less than the sum of component single-task levels when both were presented visually. Less facilitation was found when task elements were presented in different sensory modalities. These results suggest the importance of distinguishing between concurrent tasks that complete for limited resources from those that beneficially share common resources when selecting the stimulus modalities for information displays.

  10. Medical Data Analytics Is Not a Simple Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babič, František; Vadovský, Michal; Paralič, Ján

    2018-01-01

    Data analytics represents a new chance for medical diagnosis and treatment to make it more effective and successful. This expectation is not so easy to achieve as it may look like at a first glance. The medical experts, doctors or general practitioners have their own vocabulary, they use specific terms and type of speaking. On the other side, data analysts have to understand the task and to select the right algorithms. The applicability of the results depends on the effectiveness of the interactions between those two worlds. This paper presents our experiences with various medical data samples in form of SWOT analysis. We identified the most important input attributes for the target diagnosis or extracted decision rules and analysed their interestingness with cooperating doctors, for most promising new cut-off values or an investigation of possible important relations hidden in data sample. In general, this type of knowledge can be used for clinical decision support, but it has to be evaluated on different samples, conditions and ideally in long-term studies. Sometimes, the interaction needed much more time than we expected at the beginning but our experiences are mostly positive.

  11. Grotoco@SLAM: Second Language Acquisition Modeling with Simple Features, Learners and Task-wise Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klerke, Sigrid; Martínez Alonso, Héctor; Plank, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    We present our submission to the 2018 Duolingo Shared Task on Second Language Acquisition Modeling (SLAM). We focus on evaluating a range of features for the task, including user-derived measures, while examining how far we can get with a simple linear classifier. Our analysis reveals that errors...

  12. Modeling Simple Driving Tasks with a One-Boundary Diffusion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger; Strayer, David

    2014-01-01

    A one-boundary diffusion model was applied to the data from two experiments in which subjects were performing a simple simulated driving task. In the first experiment, the same subjects were tested on two driving tasks using a PC-based driving simulator and the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT). The diffusion model fit the response time (RT) distributions for each task and individual subject well. Model parameters were found to correlate across tasks which suggests common component processes were being tapped in the three tasks. The model was also fit to a distracted driving experiment of Cooper and Strayer (2008). Results showed that distraction altered performance by affecting the rate of evidence accumulation (drift rate) and/or increasing the boundary settings. This provides an interpretation of cognitive distraction whereby conversing on a cell phone diverts attention from the normal accumulation of information in the driving environment. PMID:24297620

  13. Criticality safety validation: Simple geometry, single unit 233U systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, V.L.

    1997-06-01

    Typically used LMITCO criticality safety computational methods are evaluated for suitability when applied to INEEL 233 U systems which reasonably can be modeled as simple-geometry, single-unit systems. Sixty-seven critical experiments of uranium highly enriched in 233 U, including 57 aqueous solution, thermal-energy systems and 10 metal, fast-energy systems, were modeled. These experiments include 41 cylindrical and 26 spherical cores, and 41 reflected and 26 unreflected systems. No experiments were found for intermediate-neutron-energy ranges, or with interstitial non-hydrogenous materials typical of waste systems, mixed 233 U and plutonium, or reflectors such as steel, lead, or concrete. No simple geometry experiments were found with cubic or annular cores, or approximating infinite sea systems. Calculations were performed with various tools and methodologies. Nine cross-section libraries, based on ENDF/B-IV, -V, or -VI.2, or on Hansen-Roach source data, were used with cross-section processing methods of MCNP or SCALE. The k eff calculations were performed with neutral-particle transport and Monte Carlo methods of criticality codes DANT, MCNP 4A, and KENO Va

  14. A Validated Task Analysis of the Single Pilot Operations Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Cynthia A.; Gore, Brian F.

    2015-01-01

    The current day flight deck operational environment consists of a two-person Captain/First Officer crew. A concept of operations (ConOps) to reduce the commercial cockpit to a single pilot from the current two pilot crew is termed Single Pilot Operations (SPO). This concept has been under study by researchers in the Flight Deck Display Research Laboratory (FDDRL) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Ames (Johnson, Comerford, Lachter, Battiste, Feary, and Mogford, 2012) and researchers from Langley Research Centers (Schutte et al., 2007). Transitioning from a two pilot crew to a single pilot crew will undoubtedly require changes in operational procedures, crew coordination, use of automation, and in how the roles and responsibilities of the flight deck and ATC are conceptualized in order to maintain the high levels of safety expected of the US National Airspace System. These modifications will affect the roles and the subsequent tasks that are required of the various operators in the NextGen environment. The current report outlines the process taken to identify and document the tasks required by the crew according to a number of operational scenarios studied by the FDDRL between the years 2012-2014. A baseline task decomposition has been refined to represent the tasks consistent with a new set of entities, tasks, roles, and responsibilities being explored by the FDDRL as the move is made towards SPO. Information from Subject Matter Expert interviews, participation in FDDRL experimental design meetings, and study observation was used to populate and refine task sets that were developed as part of the SPO task analyses. The task analysis is based upon the proposed ConOps for the third FDDRL SPO study. This experiment possessed nine different entities operating in six scenarios using a variety of SPO-related automation and procedural activities required to guide safe and efficient aircraft operations. The task analysis presents the roles and

  15. Single-task and dual-task tandem gait test performance after concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David R; Osternig, Louis R; Chou, Li-Shan

    2017-07-01

    To compare single-task and dual-task tandem gait test performance between athletes after concussion with controls on observer-timed, spatio-temporal, and center-of-mass (COM) balance control measurements. Ten participants (19.0±5.5years) were prospectively identified and completed a tandem gait test protocol within 72h of concussion and again 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, and 2 months post-injury. Seven uninjured controls (20.0±4.5years) completed the same protocol in similar time increments. Tandem gait test trials were performed with (dual-task) and without (single-task) concurrently performing a cognitive test as whole-body motion analysis was performed. Outcome variables included test completion time, average tandem gait velocity, cadence, and whole-body COM frontal plane displacement. Concussion participants took significantly longer to complete the dual-task tandem gait test than controls throughout the first 2 weeks post-injury (mean time=16.4 [95% CI: 13.4-19.4] vs. 10.1 [95% CI: 6.4-13.7] seconds; p=0.03). Single-task tandem gait times were significantly lower 72h post-injury (p=0.04). Dual-task cadence was significantly lower for concussion participants than controls (89.5 [95% CI: 68.6-110.4] vs. 127.0 [95% CI: 97.4-156.6] steps/minute; p=0.04). Moderately-high to high correlations between tandem gait test time and whole-body COM medial-lateral displacement were detected at each time point during dual-task gait (r s =0.70-0.93; p=0.03-0.001). Adding a cognitive task during the tandem gait test resulted in longer detectable deficits post-concussion compared to the traditional single-task tandem gait test. As a clinical tool to assess dynamic motor function, tandem gait may assist with return to sport decisions after concussion. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain activity during auditory and visual phonological, spatial and simple discrimination tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Rinne, Teemu; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2013-02-16

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure human brain activity during tasks demanding selective attention to auditory or visual stimuli delivered in concurrent streams. Auditory stimuli were syllables spoken by different voices and occurring in central or peripheral space. Visual stimuli were centrally or more peripherally presented letters in darker or lighter fonts. The participants performed a phonological, spatial or "simple" (speaker-gender or font-shade) discrimination task in either modality. Within each modality, we expected a clear distinction between brain activations related to nonspatial and spatial processing, as reported in previous studies. However, within each modality, different tasks activated largely overlapping areas in modality-specific (auditory and visual) cortices, as well as in the parietal and frontal brain regions. These overlaps may be due to effects of attention common for all three tasks within each modality or interaction of processing task-relevant features and varying task-irrelevant features in the attended-modality stimuli. Nevertheless, brain activations caused by auditory and visual phonological tasks overlapped in the left mid-lateral prefrontal cortex, while those caused by the auditory and visual spatial tasks overlapped in the inferior parietal cortex. These overlapping activations reveal areas of multimodal phonological and spatial processing. There was also some evidence for intermodal attention-related interaction. Most importantly, activity in the superior temporal sulcus elicited by unattended speech sounds was attenuated during the visual phonological task in comparison with the other visual tasks. This effect might be related to suppression of processing irrelevant speech presumably distracting the phonological task involving the letters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A simple shear limited, single size, time dependent flocculation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprenas, R.; Tran, D. A.; Strom, K.

    2017-12-01

    This research focuses on the modeling of flocculation of cohesive sediment due to turbulent shear, specifically, investigating the dependency of flocculation on the concentration of cohesive sediment. Flocculation is important in larger sediment transport models as cohesive particles can create aggregates which are orders of magnitude larger than their unflocculated state. As the settling velocity of each particle is determined by the sediment size, density, and shape, accounting for this aggregation is important in determining where the sediment is deposited. This study provides a new formulation for flocculation of cohesive sediment by modifying the Winterwerp (1998) flocculation model (W98) so that it limits floc size to that of the Kolmogorov micro length scale. The W98 model is a simple approach that calculates the average floc size as a function of time. Because of its simplicity, the W98 model is ideal for implementing into larger sediment transport models; however, the model tends to over predict the dependency of the floc size on concentration. It was found that the modification of the coefficients within the original model did not allow for the model to capture the dependency on concentration. Therefore, a new term within the breakup kernel of the W98 formulation was added. The new formulation results is a single size, shear limited, and time dependent flocculation model that is able to effectively capture the dependency of the equilibrium size of flocs on both suspended sediment concentration and the time to equilibrium. The overall behavior of the new model is explored and showed align well with other studies on flocculation. Winterwerp, J. C. (1998). A simple model for turbulence induced flocculation of cohesive sediment. .Journal of Hydraulic Research, 36(3):309-326.

  18. Simple real-time computerized tasks for detection of malingering among murderers with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertzman, Semion; Grinspan, Haim; Birger, Moshe; Shliapnikov, Nina; Alish, Yakov; Ben Nahum, Zeev; Mester, Roberto; Kotler, Moshe

    2006-01-01

    It is our contention that computer-based two-alternative forced choice techniques can be useful tools for the detection of patients with schizophrenia who feign acute psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment as opposed to patients with schizophrenia with a true active psychosis. In our experiment, Visual Simple and Choice Reaction Time tasks were used. Reaction time in milliseconds was recorded and accuracy rate was obtained for all subjects' responses. Both types of task were administered to 27 patients with schizophrenia suspected of having committed murder. Patients with schizophrenia who were clinically assessed as malingerers achieved significantly fewer correct results, were significantly slower and less consistent in their reaction time. Congruence of performance between the Simple and Choice tasks was an additional parameter for the accurate diagnosis of malingering. The four parameters of both tests (accuracy of response, reaction time, standard deviation of reaction time and task congruency) are simple and constitute a user-friendly means for the detection of malingering in forensic practice. Another advantage of this procedure is that the software automatically measures and evaluates all the parameters.

  19. Single-Task and Dual-Task Gait Among Collegiate Athletes of Different Sport Classifications: Implications for Concussion Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David R; Oldham, Jessie R; DiFabio, Melissa; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Hall, Eric E; Ketcham, Caroline J; Meehan, William P; Buckley, Thomas A

    2017-02-01

    Gait impairments have been documented following sport-related concussion. Whether preexisting gait pattern differences exist among athletes who participate in different sport classifications, however, remains unclear. Dual-task gait examinations probe the simultaneous performance of everyday tasks (ie, walking and thinking), and can quantify gait performance using inertial sensors. The purpose of this study was to compare the single-task and dual-task gait performance of collision/contact and noncontact athletes. A group of collegiate athletes (n = 265) were tested before their season at 3 institutions (mean age= 19.1 ± 1.1 years). All participants stood still (single-task standing) and walked while simultaneously completing a cognitive test (dual-task gait), and completed walking trials without the cognitive test (single-task gait). Spatial-temporal gait parameters were compared between collision/contact and noncontact athletes using MANCOVAs; cognitive task performance was compared using ANCOVAs. No significant single-task or dual-task gait differences were found between collision/contact and noncontact athletes. Noncontact athletes demonstrated higher cognitive task accuracy during single-task standing (P = .001) and dual-task gait conditions (P = .02) than collision/contact athletes. These data demonstrate the utility of a dual-task gait assessment outside of a laboratory and suggest that preinjury cognitive task performance during dual-tasks may differ between athletes of different sport classifications.

  20. Single-Family Energy Auditor Job Task Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Head, Heather R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-02

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is contracted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) to develop and maintain the resources under the Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals (GHEP) project. As part of the GHEP strategy to increase the quality of work conducted for single-family, residential energy-efficiency retrofits, the Home Energy Professionals Job Task Analysis are used as the foundation for quality training programs and trainers.

  1. Measuring listening effort: driving simulator versus simple dual-task paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Aksan, Nazan; Rizzo, Matthew; Stangl, Elizabeth; Zhang, Xuyang; Bentler, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The dual-task paradigm has been widely used to measure listening effort. The primary objectives of the study were to (1) investigate the effect of hearing aid amplification and a hearing aid directional technology on listening effort measured by a complicated, more real world dual-task paradigm and (2) compare the results obtained with this paradigm to a simpler laboratory-style dual-task paradigm. The listening effort of adults with hearing impairment was measured using two dual-task paradigms, wherein participants performed a speech recognition task simultaneously with either a driving task in a simulator or a visual reaction-time task in a sound-treated booth. The speech materials and road noises for the speech recognition task were recorded in a van traveling on the highway in three hearing aid conditions: unaided, aided with omnidirectional processing (OMNI), and aided with directional processing (DIR). The change in the driving task or the visual reaction-time task performance across the conditions quantified the change in listening effort. Compared to the driving-only condition, driving performance declined significantly with the addition of the speech recognition task. Although the speech recognition score was higher in the OMNI and DIR conditions than in the unaided condition, driving performance was similar across these three conditions, suggesting that listening effort was not affected by amplification and directional processing. Results from the simple dual-task paradigm showed a similar trend: hearing aid technologies improved speech recognition performance, but did not affect performance in the visual reaction-time task (i.e., reduce listening effort). The correlation between listening effort measured using the driving paradigm and the visual reaction-time task paradigm was significant. The finding showing that our older (56 to 85 years old) participants' better speech recognition performance did not result in reduced listening effort was not

  2. Timing of electromyographic activity and ranges of motion during simple motor tasks of upper extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syczewska Małgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Improvement of the upper extremities’ performance is one of the key aims in the rehabilitation process. In order to achieve high effectiveness of this process the amount of functional improvement achieved by a patient during the therapy needs to be assessed. The aim of this study was to obtain electromyographic (EMG activity profiles of the upper extremity muscles during execution of simple tasks in healthy subjects. Additionally the ranges of wrist, elbow and shoulder joints were measured and reported during performed trials. The second aim was to determine whether the movement execution and ranges of move­ments and muscular activity depend on age. Material and methods: Twenty-eight healthy adults, age range 21 to 65 years old, participated in the study. Surface electrodes were placed bilaterally on 7 upper extremity muscles. To obtain information about the beginning and end of the movement task and ranges of upper extremity joints, 13 markers were placed on the elbows and wrists of both upper extremities. The move­ments of the segments were calculated (distal vs proximal in five simple functional tasks (each task involved only one joint, performed while sitting. Kinematic data were collected by the VICON 460 system, and electromyographic data with the Mo­tion Lab EMG system. Results: Charts of timing of EMG activity of the upper extremity muscles together with ranges of upper extremity joint motion were obtained. Conclusion: The results show that the number of muscles activated and the time (or percentage of the task during which they are active depend on the type of the task and age. These data can be used as a reference in evaluation of functional deficits of patients.

  3. Testing a Poisson Counter Model for Visual Identification of Briefly Presented, Mutually Confusable Single Stimuli in Pure Accuracy Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyllingsbaek, Soren; Markussen, Bo; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The authors propose and test a simple model of the time course of visual identification of briefly presented, mutually confusable single stimuli in pure accuracy tasks. The model implies that during stimulus analysis, tentative categorizations that stimulus i belongs to category j are made at a constant Poisson rate, v(i, j). The analysis is…

  4. Action video games do not improve the speed of information processing in simple perceptual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ravenzwaaij, Don; Boekel, Wouter; Forstmann, Birte U; Ratcliff, Roger; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2014-10-01

    Previous research suggests that playing action video games improves performance on sensory, perceptual, and attentional tasks. For instance, Green, Pouget, and Bavelier (2010) used the diffusion model to decompose data from a motion detection task and estimate the contribution of several underlying psychological processes. Their analysis indicated that playing action video games leads to faster information processing, reduced response caution, and no difference in motor responding. Because perceptual learning is generally thought to be highly context-specific, this transfer from gaming is surprising and warrants corroborative evidence from a large-scale training study. We conducted 2 experiments in which participants practiced either an action video game or a cognitive game in 5 separate, supervised sessions. Prior to each session and following the last session, participants performed a perceptual discrimination task. In the second experiment, we included a third condition in which no video games were played at all. Behavioral data and diffusion model parameters showed similar practice effects for the action gamers, the cognitive gamers, and the nongamers and suggest that, in contrast to earlier reports, playing action video games does not improve the speed of information processing in simple perceptual tasks.

  5. A simple output voltage control scheme for single phase wavelet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    of the wavelet modulated (WM) scheme is that a single synthesis function, derived ... a single-phase H-bridge voltage-source (VS) inverter using MATLAB simulations. ... reconstruction process has been suggested to device a new class of ...

  6. Detecting gait abnormalities after concussion or mild traumatic brain injury: A systematic review of single-task, dual-task, and complex gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fino, Peter C; Parrington, Lucy; Pitt, Will; Martini, Douglas N; Chesnutt, James C; Chou, Li-Shan; King, Laurie A

    2018-05-01

    While a growing number of studies have investigated the effects of concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on gait, many studies use different experimental paradigms and outcome measures. The path for translating experimental studies for objective clinical assessments of gait is unclear. This review asked 2 questions: 1) is gait abnormal after concussion/mTBI, and 2) what gait paradigms (single-task, dual-task, complex gait) detect abnormalities after concussion. Data sources included MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) accessed on March 14, 2017. Original research articles reporting gait outcomes in people with concussion or mTBI were included. Studies of moderate, severe, or unspecified TBI, and studies without a comparator were excluded. After screening 233 articles, 38 studies were included and assigned to one or more sections based on the protocol and reported outcomes. Twenty-six articles reported single-task simple gait outcomes, 24 reported dual-task simple gait outcomes, 21 reported single-task complex gait outcomes, and 10 reported dual-task complex gait outcomes. Overall, this review provides evidence for two conclusions: 1) gait is abnormal acutely after concussion/mTBI but generally resolves over time; and 2) the inconsistency of findings, small sample sizes, and small number of studies examining homogenous measures at the same time-period post-concussion highlight the need for replication across independent populations and investigators. Future research should concentrate on dual-task and complex gait tasks, as they showed promise for detecting abnormal locomotor function outside of the acute timeframe. Additionally, studies should provide detailed demographic and clinical characteristics to enable more refined comparisons across studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A simple method for assessment of muscle force, velocity, and power producing capacities from functional movement tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, Milena Z; Djuric, Sasa; Cuk, Ivan; Suzovic, Dejan; Jaric, Slobodan

    2017-07-01

    A range of force (F) and velocity (V) data obtained from functional movement tasks (e.g., running, jumping, throwing, lifting, cycling) performed under variety of external loads have typically revealed strong and approximately linear F-V relationships. The regression model parameters reveal the maximum F (F-intercept), V (V-intercept), and power (P) producing capacities of the tested muscles. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the level of agreement between the routinely used "multiple-load model" and a simple "two-load model" based on direct assessment of the F-V relationship from only 2 external loads applied. Twelve participants were tested on the maximum performance vertical jumps, cycling, bench press throws, and bench pull performed against a variety of different loads. All 4 tested tasks revealed both exceptionally strong relationships between the parameters of the 2 models (median R = 0.98) and a lack of meaningful differences between their magnitudes (fixed bias below 3.4%). Therefore, addition of another load to the standard tests of various functional tasks typically conducted under a single set of mechanical conditions could allow for the assessment of the muscle mechanical properties such as the muscle F, V, and P producing capacities.

  8. Effect of Passive Hyperthermia on Working Memory Resources during Simple and Complex Cognitive Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaoua, Nadia; Herrera, Christopher P; Périard, Julien D; El Massioui, Farid; Racinais, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that hyperthermia represents a cognitive load limiting available resources for executing concurrent cognitive tasks. Electroencephalographic activity (EEG: alpha and theta power) was obtained in 10 hyperthermic participants in HOT (50°C, 50% RH) conditions and in a normothermic state in CON (25°C, 50% RH) conditions in counterbalanced order. In each trial, EEG was measured over the frontal lobe prior to task engagement (PRE) in each condition and during simple (One Touch Stockings of Cambridge, OTS-4) and complex (OTS-6) cognitive tasks. Core (39.5 ± 0.5 vs. 36.9 ± 0.2°C) and mean skin (39.06 ± 0.3 vs. 31.6 ± 0.6°C) temperatures were significantly higher in HOT than CON ( p cognitive load. However, this load disappeared during OTS-6 together with an impaired performance, suggesting a potential saturation of the available resources.

  9. Mechanisms of Practice-Related Reductions of Dual-Task Interference with Simple Tasks: Data and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Torsten, Schubert

    2017-01-01

    In dual-task situations, interference between two simultaneous tasks impairs performance. With practice, however, this impairment can be reduced. To identify mechanisms leading to a practice-related improvement in sensorimotor dual tasks, the present review applied the following general hypothesis: Sources that impair dual-task performance at the beginning of practice are associated with mechanisms for the reduction of dual-task impairment at the end of practice. The following types of processes provide sources for the occurrence of this impairment: (a) capacity-limited processes within the component tasks, such as response-selection or motor response stages, and (b) cognitive control processes independent of these tasks and thus operating outside of component-task performance. Dual-task practice studies show that, under very specific conditions, capacity-limited processes within the component tasks are automatized with practice, reducing the interference between two simultaneous tasks. Further, there is evidence that response-selection stages are shortened with practice. Thus, capacity limitations at these stages are sources for dual-task costs at the beginning of practice and are overcome with practice. However, there is no evidence demonstrating the existence of practice-related mechanisms associated with capacity-limited motor-response stages. Further, during practice, there is an acquisition of executive control skills for an improved allocation of limited attention resources to two tasks as well as some evidence supporting the assumption of improved task coordination. These latter mechanisms are associated with sources of dual-task interference operating outside of component task performance at the beginning of practice and also contribute to the reduction of dual-task interference at its end. PMID:28439319

  10. Effect of Passive Hyperthermia on Working Memory Resources during Simple and Complex Cognitive Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Gaoua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that hyperthermia represents a cognitive load limiting available resources for executing concurrent cognitive tasks. Electroencephalographic activity (EEG: alpha and theta power was obtained in 10 hyperthermic participants in HOT (50°C, 50% RH conditions and in a normothermic state in CON (25°C, 50% RH conditions in counterbalanced order. In each trial, EEG was measured over the frontal lobe prior to task engagement (PRE in each condition and during simple (One Touch Stockings of Cambridge, OTS-4 and complex (OTS-6 cognitive tasks. Core (39.5 ± 0.5 vs. 36.9 ± 0.2°C and mean skin (39.06 ± 0.3 vs. 31.6 ± 0.6°C temperatures were significantly higher in HOT than CON (p < 0.005. Theta power significantly increased with task demand (p = 0.017, η2 = 0.36 and was significantly higher in HOT than CON (p = 0.041, η2 = 0.39. The difference between HOT and CON was large (η2 = 0.40 and significant (p = 0.036 PRE, large (η2 = 0.20 but not significant (p = 0.17 during OTS-4, and disappeared during OTS-6 (p = 0.87, η2 = 0.00. Those changes in theta power suggest that hyperthermia may act as an additional cognitive load. However, this load disappeared during OTS-6 together with an impaired performance, suggesting a potential saturation of the available resources.

  11. Simple test system for single molecule recognition force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riener, Christian K.; Stroh, Cordula M.; Ebner, Andreas; Klampfl, Christian; Gall, Alex A.; Romanin, Christoph; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Gruber, Hermann J.

    2003-01-01

    We have established an easy-to-use test system for detecting receptor-ligand interactions on the single molecule level using atomic force microscopy (AFM). For this, avidin-biotin, probably the best characterized receptor-ligand pair, was chosen. AFM sensors were prepared containing tethered biotin molecules at sufficiently low surface concentrations appropriate for single molecule studies. A biotin tether, consisting of a 6 nm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain and a functional succinimide group at the other end, was newly synthesized and covalently coupled to amine-functionalized AFM tips. In particular, PEG 800 diamine was glutarylated, the mono-adduct NH 2 -PEG-COOH was isolated by ion exchange chromatography and reacted with biotin succinimidylester to give biotin-PEG-COOH which was then activated as N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester to give the biotin-PEG-NHS conjugate which was coupled to the aminofunctionalized AFM tip. The motional freedom provided by PEG allows for free rotation of the biotin molecule on the AFM sensor and for specific binding to avidin which had been adsorbed to mica surfaces via electrostatic interactions. Specific avidin-biotin recognition events were discriminated from nonspecific tip-mica adhesion by their typical unbinding force (∼40 pN at 1.4 nN/s loading rate), unbinding length (<13 nm), the characteristic nonlinear force-distance relation of the PEG linker, and by specific block with excess of free d-biotin. The convenience of the test system allowed to evaluate, and compare, different methods and conditions of tip aminofunctionalization with respect to specific binding and nonspecific adhesion. It is concluded that this system is well suited as calibration or start-up kit for single molecule recognition force microscopy

  12. Simple motor tasks independently predict extubation failure in critically ill neurological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchak, Fernanda Machado; Rieder, Marcelo de Mello; Victorino, Josué Almeida; Meneguzzi, Carla; Poersch, Karla; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Bianchin, Marino Muxfeldt

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of simple motor tasks such as hand grasping and tongue protrusion as predictors of extubation failure in critically ill neurological patients. This was a prospective cohort study conducted in the neurological ICU of a tertiary care hospital in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Adult patients who had been intubated for neurological reasons and were eligible for weaning were included in the study. The ability of patients to perform simple motor tasks such as hand grasping and tongue protrusion was evaluated as a predictor of extubation failure. Data regarding duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, mortality, and incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia were collected. A total of 132 intubated patients who had been receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 24 h and who passed a spontaneous breathing trial were included in the analysis. Logistic regression showed that patient inability to grasp the hand of the examiner (relative risk = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.01-2.44; p commands is predictive of extubation failure in critically ill neurological patients. Hand grasping and tongue protrusion on command might be quick and easy bedside tests to identify neurocritical care patients who are candidates for extubation. Avaliar a utilidade de tarefas motoras simples, tais como preensão de mão e protrusão da língua, para predizer extubação malsucedida em pacientes neurológicos críticos. Estudo prospectivo de coorte realizado na UTI neurológica de um hospital terciário em Porto Alegre (RS). Pacientes adultos que haviam sido intubados por motivos neurológicos e que eram candidatos ao desmame foram incluídos no estudo. O estudo avaliou se a capacidade dos pacientes de realizar tarefas motoras simples como apertar as mãos do examinador e pôr a língua para fora seria um preditor de extubação malsucedida. Foram coletados dados referentes ao tempo de ventilação mecânica, tempo de internação na

  13. Echoic Sensory Substitution Information in a Single Obstacle Circumvention Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarik, Andrew J; Scarfe, Amy C; Moore, Brian C J; Pardhan, Shahina

    2016-01-01

    Accurate motor control is required when walking around obstacles in order to avoid collisions. When vision is unavailable, sensory substitution can be used to improve locomotion through the environment. Tactile sensory substitution devices (SSDs) are electronic travel aids, some of which indicate the distance of an obstacle using the rate of vibration of a transducer on the skin. We investigated how accurately such an SSD guided navigation in an obstacle circumvention task. Using an SSD, 12 blindfolded participants navigated around a single flat 0.6 x 2 m obstacle. A 3-dimensional Vicon motion capture system was used to quantify various kinematic indices of human movement. Navigation performance under full vision was used as a baseline for comparison. The obstacle position was varied from trial to trial relative to the participant, being placed at two distances 25 cm to the left, right or directly ahead. Under SSD guidance, participants navigated without collision in 93% of trials. No collisions occurred under visual guidance. Buffer space (clearance between the obstacle and shoulder) was larger by a factor of 2.1 with SSD guidance than with visual guidance, movement times were longer by a factor of 9.4, and numbers of velocity corrections were larger by a factor of 5 (all p<0.05). Participants passed the obstacle on the side affording the most space in the majority of trials for both SSD and visual guidance conditions. The results are consistent with the idea that SSD information can be used to generate a protective envelope during locomotion in order to avoid collisions when navigating around obstacles, and to pass on the side of the obstacle affording the most space in the majority of trials.

  14. Echoic Sensory Substitution Information in a Single Obstacle Circumvention Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Kolarik

    Full Text Available Accurate motor control is required when walking around obstacles in order to avoid collisions. When vision is unavailable, sensory substitution can be used to improve locomotion through the environment. Tactile sensory substitution devices (SSDs are electronic travel aids, some of which indicate the distance of an obstacle using the rate of vibration of a transducer on the skin. We investigated how accurately such an SSD guided navigation in an obstacle circumvention task. Using an SSD, 12 blindfolded participants navigated around a single flat 0.6 x 2 m obstacle. A 3-dimensional Vicon motion capture system was used to quantify various kinematic indices of human movement. Navigation performance under full vision was used as a baseline for comparison. The obstacle position was varied from trial to trial relative to the participant, being placed at two distances 25 cm to the left, right or directly ahead. Under SSD guidance, participants navigated without collision in 93% of trials. No collisions occurred under visual guidance. Buffer space (clearance between the obstacle and shoulder was larger by a factor of 2.1 with SSD guidance than with visual guidance, movement times were longer by a factor of 9.4, and numbers of velocity corrections were larger by a factor of 5 (all p<0.05. Participants passed the obstacle on the side affording the most space in the majority of trials for both SSD and visual guidance conditions. The results are consistent with the idea that SSD information can be used to generate a protective envelope during locomotion in order to avoid collisions when navigating around obstacles, and to pass on the side of the obstacle affording the most space in the majority of trials.

  15. Single-Grasp Object Classification and Feature Extraction with Simple Robot Hands and Tactile Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, Adam J; Liarokapis, Minas V; Calli, Berk; Dollar, Aaron M

    2016-01-01

    Classical robotic approaches to tactile object identification often involve rigid mechanical grippers, dense sensor arrays, and exploratory procedures (EPs). Though EPs are a natural method for humans to acquire object information, evidence also exists for meaningful tactile property inference from brief, non-exploratory motions (a 'haptic glance'). In this work, we implement tactile object identification and feature extraction techniques on data acquired during a single, unplanned grasp with a simple, underactuated robot hand equipped with inexpensive barometric pressure sensors. Our methodology utilizes two cooperating schemes based on an advanced machine learning technique (random forests) and parametric methods that estimate object properties. The available data is limited to actuator positions (one per two link finger) and force sensors values (eight per finger). The schemes are able to work both independently and collaboratively, depending on the task scenario. When collaborating, the results of each method contribute to the other, improving the overall result in a synergistic fashion. Unlike prior work, the proposed approach does not require object exploration, re-grasping, grasp-release, or force modulation and works for arbitrary object start positions and orientations. Due to these factors, the technique may be integrated into practical robotic grasping scenarios without adding time or manipulation overheads.

  16. An Evaluation of the Value of Choice-Making Opportunities in Single-Operant Arrangements: Simple Fixed- and Progressive-Ratio Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Toussaint, Karen A.; Roath, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    The current study compared the effects of choice and no-choice reinforcement conditions on the task responding of 3 children with autism across 2 single-operant paradigm reinforcer assessments. The first assessment employed simple fixed-ratio (FR) schedules; the second used progressive-ratio (PR) schedules. The latter assessment identified the…

  17. [Connectionist models of social learning: a case of learning by observing a simple task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paignon, A; Desrichard, O; Bollon, T

    2004-03-01

    alone is not sufficient to ensure accurate reproduction and must be made functional through the production phase (Deakin & Proteau, 2000). Results obtained through a second simulation replicate those produced by Bandura & Jeffery (1973), who observed that the individual tested following the retention phase recalled recorded information better than he realized in the production phase. The outcome of a third simulation shows that, when performing the transfer task, agents performed the task all the more effectively when they were required to learn a simple path which facilitated knowledge transfer to an adjacent situation. New explanatory assumptions of the mechanics of learning through observation may be produced through OLEANNet. Thus, observed deterioration between memorization and production is caused by successive approximations which occur in the acquisition phase then in the production phase. Further, depending on the type of learning undergone by agents, use of representation as a production guide induces a more or less stringent constraint in the approximation of actual behaviour. This results, during the transfer task, in the ability to effectively generalize acquired knowledge where such knowledge is not specifically related to the task at hand. In conclusion, connectionist model architecture appears valid for modeling learning through observation as defined by Bandura (1977). However, certain limitations appear during implementation, especially in terms of the observed behaviour's availability and the planning of produced behaviours that future developments are liable to counter.

  18. Task-specific modulation of effective connectivity during two simple unimanual motor tasks: A 122-channel EEG study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian M.; Christensen, Mark S.; Reck, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Neural oscillations are thought to underlie coupling of spatially remote neurons and gating of information within the human sensorimotor system. Here we tested the hypothesis that different unimanual motor tasks are specifically associated with distinct patterns of oscillatory coupling in human...

  19. Ramifications of single-port laparoscopic surgery: measuring differences in task performance using simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Nathan E; Romanelli, John R; Bush, Ron W; Seymour, Neal E

    2014-02-01

    Single-port laparoscopic surgery imposes unique psychomotor challenges. We used surgical simulation to define performance differences between surgeons with and without single-port clinical experience and examined whether a short course of training resulted in improved performance. Study participants were assigned to 3 groups: resident group (RES), experienced laparoscopic surgeons with (SP) and without (LAP) prior single-port laparoscopic experience. Participants performed the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery precision cutting task on a ProMIS trainer through conventional ports or with articulating instruments via a SILS Port (Covidien, Inc). Two iterations of each method were performed. Then, 6 residents performed 10 successive single-port iterations to assess the effect of practice on task performance. The SP group had faster task times for both laparoscopic (P = .0486) and single-port (P = .0238) methods. The LAP group had longer path lengths for the single-port task than for the laparoscopic task (P = .03). The RES group was slower (P = .0019), with longer path length (P = .0010) but with greater smoothness (P = .0186) on the single-port task than the conventional laparoscopic task. Resident performance task time (P = .005) and smoothness (P = .045) improved with successive iterations. Our data show that surgeons with clinical single-port surgery experience perform a simulated single-port surgical task better than inexperienced single-port surgeons. Furthermore, this performance is comparable to that achieved with conventional laparoscopic techniques. Performance of residents declined dramatically when confronted with the challenges of the single-port task but improved with practice. These results suggest a role for lab-based single-port training.

  20. Training Excitatory-Inhibitory Recurrent Neural Networks for Cognitive Tasks: A Simple and Flexible Framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Francis Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to simultaneously record from large numbers of neurons in behaving animals has ushered in a new era for the study of the neural circuit mechanisms underlying cognitive functions. One promising approach to uncovering the dynamical and computational principles governing population responses is to analyze model recurrent neural networks (RNNs that have been optimized to perform the same tasks as behaving animals. Because the optimization of network parameters specifies the desired output but not the manner in which to achieve this output, "trained" networks serve as a source of mechanistic hypotheses and a testing ground for data analyses that link neural computation to behavior. Complete access to the activity and connectivity of the circuit, and the ability to manipulate them arbitrarily, make trained networks a convenient proxy for biological circuits and a valuable platform for theoretical investigation. However, existing RNNs lack basic biological features such as the distinction between excitatory and inhibitory units (Dale's principle, which are essential if RNNs are to provide insights into the operation of biological circuits. Moreover, trained networks can achieve the same behavioral performance but differ substantially in their structure and dynamics, highlighting the need for a simple and flexible framework for the exploratory training of RNNs. Here, we describe a framework for gradient descent-based training of excitatory-inhibitory RNNs that can incorporate a variety of biological knowledge. We provide an implementation based on the machine learning library Theano, whose automatic differentiation capabilities facilitate modifications and extensions. We validate this framework by applying it to well-known experimental paradigms such as perceptual decision-making, context-dependent integration, multisensory integration, parametric working memory, and motor sequence generation. Our results demonstrate the wide range of neural

  1. Training Excitatory-Inhibitory Recurrent Neural Networks for Cognitive Tasks: A Simple and Flexible Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2016-01-01

    The ability to simultaneously record from large numbers of neurons in behaving animals has ushered in a new era for the study of the neural circuit mechanisms underlying cognitive functions. One promising approach to uncovering the dynamical and computational principles governing population responses is to analyze model recurrent neural networks (RNNs) that have been optimized to perform the same tasks as behaving animals. Because the optimization of network parameters specifies the desired output but not the manner in which to achieve this output, “trained” networks serve as a source of mechanistic hypotheses and a testing ground for data analyses that link neural computation to behavior. Complete access to the activity and connectivity of the circuit, and the ability to manipulate them arbitrarily, make trained networks a convenient proxy for biological circuits and a valuable platform for theoretical investigation. However, existing RNNs lack basic biological features such as the distinction between excitatory and inhibitory units (Dale’s principle), which are essential if RNNs are to provide insights into the operation of biological circuits. Moreover, trained networks can achieve the same behavioral performance but differ substantially in their structure and dynamics, highlighting the need for a simple and flexible framework for the exploratory training of RNNs. Here, we describe a framework for gradient descent-based training of excitatory-inhibitory RNNs that can incorporate a variety of biological knowledge. We provide an implementation based on the machine learning library Theano, whose automatic differentiation capabilities facilitate modifications and extensions. We validate this framework by applying it to well-known experimental paradigms such as perceptual decision-making, context-dependent integration, multisensory integration, parametric working memory, and motor sequence generation. Our results demonstrate the wide range of neural activity

  2. Self-Reported Versus Performance-Based Assessments of a Simple Mobility Task Among Older Adults in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedersheimer, Kyle M; Pereira, Greg F; Jones, Christopher W; Braz, Valerie A; Mangipudi, Sowmya A; Platts-Mills, Timothy F

    2016-02-01

    Accurate information about the mobility of independently living older adults is essential in determining whether they may be safely discharged home from the emergency department (ED). We assess the accuracy of self-reported ability to complete a simple mobility task among older ED patients. This was a cross-sectional study of cognitively intact patients aged 65 years and older who were neither nursing home residents nor critically ill, conducted in 2 academic EDs. Consenting participants were asked whether they could get out of bed, walk 10 feet, turn around, and get back in bed without assistance, and if not, whether they could perform this task with a cane, walker, or assistance. Each participant was then asked to perform the task and was provided with a mobility device or assistance as needed. Of 272 patients who met eligibility criteria and answered the physical task question, 161 (59%) said they could do the task unassisted, 45 (17%) said they could do it with a cane or walker, 21 (8%) said they could do it with assistance, and 45 (17%) said they would be unable to do it even with assistance. Among those who said they could do the task either with or without assistance and who were subsequently willing to attempt the task (N=172), discrepancies between self-reported ability and actual performance were common. Of those who said they could perform the task without assistance, 12% required some assistance or were unable to complete the task. Of those who said they could perform the task with a cane or walker, 48% required either assistance or were unable to perform the task. Of those who said they could perform the task with assistance, 24% were unable to perform the task even with assistance. In this sample of older adults receiving care in the ED, the accuracy of their self-reported ability to perform a simple mobility task was poor, particularly for those who reported some need for assistance. For older adults being considered for discharge who report a need

  3. Correlation among electronegativity, cation polarizability, optical basicity and single bond strength of simple oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, Vesselin, E-mail: vesselin@uctm.edu [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8, Kl. Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Komatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: komatsu@mst.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    A suitable relationship between free-cation polarizability and electronegativity of elements in different valence states and with the most common coordination numbers has been searched on the basis of the similarity in physical nature of both quantities. In general, the cation polarizability increases with decreasing element electronegativity. A systematic periodic change in the polarizability against the electronegativity has been observed in the isoelectronic series. It has been found that generally the optical basicity increases and the single bond strength of simple oxides decreases with decreasing the electronegativity. The observed trends have been discussed on the basis of electron donation ability of the oxide ions and type of chemical bonding in simple oxides. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the single bond strength of simple oxides as a function of element electronegativity. A remarkable correlation exists between these independently obtained quantities. High values of electronegativity correspond to high values of single bond strength and vice versa. It is obvious that the observed trend in this figure is closely related to the type of chemical bonding in corresponding oxide. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A suitable relationship between free-cation polarizability and electronegativity of elements was searched. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cation polarizability increases with decreasing element electronegativity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The single bond strength of simple oxides decreases with decreasing the electronegativity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed trends were discussed on the basis of type of chemical bonding in simple oxides.

  4. Single Spore Isolation as a Simple and Efficient Technique to obtain fungal pure culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, E.; Al-Gheethi, AA; Rahman, N. K.; Talip, B.; Mohamed, R.; H, N.; Kadir, O. A.

    2018-04-01

    The successful identification of fungi by phenotypic methods or molecular technique depends mainly on the using an advanced technique for purifying the isolates. The most efficient is the single spore technique due to the simple requirements and the efficiency in preventing the contamination by yeast, mites or bacteria. The method described in the present work is depends on the using of a light microscope to transfer one spore into a new culture medium. The present work describes a simple and efficient procedure for single spore isolation to purify of fungi recovered from the clinical wastes.

  5. Brain wave concomitants of cross-cultural differences in scores on simple cognitive tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonke, C.J.; Boxtel, van G.J.M.; Griesel, R.D.; Poortinga, Y.H.

    2008-01-01

    Interpretations of cross-cultural differences in performance on cognitive tasks tend to rely on broad concepts, such as general intelligence or cultural modes of thinking. In this study, the authors examine two proximate parameters, stimulus complexity and task exposure, using reaction time (RT) and

  6. Problem Solving vs. Troubleshooting Tasks: The Case of Sixth-Grade Students Studying Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Rafi'; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2014-01-01

    We compared the materialization of knowledge integration processes in class discussions that followed troubleshooting (TS) and problem-solving (PS) tasks and examined the impact of these tasks on students' conceptual understanding. The study was conducted in two sixth-grade classes taught by the same teacher, in six lessons that constituted a…

  7. Action video games do not improve the speed of information processing in simple perceptual tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenzwaaij, D.; Boekel, W.; Forstmann, B.U.; Ratcliff, R.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that playing action video games improves performance on sensory, perceptual, and attentional tasks. For instance, Green, Pouget, and Bavelier (2010) used the diffusion model to decompose data from a motion detection task and estimate the contribution of several underlying

  8. Multi-Tasking and Choice of Training Data Influencing Parietal ERP Expression and Single-Trial Detection—Relevance for Neuroscience and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Elsa A.; Kim, Su Kyoung

    2018-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) are often used in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for communication or system control for enhancing or regaining control for motor-disabled persons. Especially results from single-trial EEG classification approaches for BCIs support correlations between single-trial ERP detection performance and ERP expression. Hence, BCIs can be considered as a paradigm shift contributing to new methods with strong influence on both neuroscience and clinical applications. Here, we investigate the relevance of the choice of training data and classifier transfer for the interpretability of results from single-trial ERP detection. In our experiments, subjects performed a visual-motor oddball task with motor-task relevant infrequent (targets), motor-task irrelevant infrequent (deviants), and motor-task irrelevant frequent (standards) stimuli. Under dual-task condition, a secondary senso-motor task was performed, compared to the simple-task condition. For evaluation, average ERP analysis and single-trial detection analysis with different numbers of electrodes were performed. Further, classifier transfer was investigated between simple and dual task. Parietal positive ERPs evoked by target stimuli (but not by deviants) were expressed stronger under dual-task condition, which is discussed as an increase of task emphasis and brain processes involved in task coordination and change of task set. Highest classification performance was found for targets irrespective whether all 62, 6 or 2 parietal electrodes were used. Further, higher detection performance of targets compared to standards was achieved under dual-task compared to simple-task condition in case of training on data from 2 parietal electrodes corresponding to results of ERP average analysis. Classifier transfer between tasks improves classification performance in case that training took place on more varying examples (from dual task). In summary, we showed that P300 and overlaying parietal positive

  9. Frontal lobe functioning during a simple response conflict task in first-episode psychosis and its relationship to treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafritz, Keith M; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Greene, Allison; Robinson, Delbert G; Gallego, Juan; Lencz, Todd; DeRosse, Pamela; Kingsley, Peter B; Szeszko, Philip R

    2018-05-09

    Prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have investigated the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive control in patients with psychosis with findings of both hypo- and hyperfrontality. One factor that may contribute to inconsistent findings is the use of complex and polyfactorial tasks to investigate frontal lobe functioning. In the current study we employed a simple response conflict task during fMRI to examine differences in brain activation between patients experiencing their first-episode of psychosis (n = 33) and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (n = 33). We further investigated whether baseline brain activation among patients predicted changes in symptom severity and treatment response following 12 weeks of controlled antipsychotic treatment. During the task subjects were instructed to press a response button on the same side or opposite side of a circle that appeared on either side of a central fixation point. Imaging data revealed that for the contrast of opposite-side vs. same-side, patients showed significantly greater activation compared with healthy volunteers in the anterior cingulate cortex and intraparietal sulcus. Among patients, greater baseline anterior cingulate cortex, temporal-parietal junction, and superior temporal cortex activation predicted greater symptom reduction and therapeutic response following treatment. All findings remained significant after covarying for task performance. Intact performance on this relatively parsimonious task was associated with frontal hyperactivity suggesting the need for patients to utilize greater neural resources to achieve task performance comparable to healthy individuals. Moreover, frontal hyperactivity observed using a simple fMRI task may provide a biomarker for predicting treatment response in first-episode psychosis.

  10. A simple optical fiber device for quantitative fluorescence microscopy of single living cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Graft, M.; van Graft, Marja; Oosterhuis, B.; Oosterhuis, Bernard; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    simple and relatively inexpensive system is described for obtaining quantitative fluorescence measurements on single living cells loaded with a fluorescent probe to study cell physiological processes. The light emitted from the fluorescent cells is captured by and transported through an optical

  11. The development of children's knowledge of attention and resource allocation in single and dual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossett, D; Burns, B

    2000-06-01

    Developmental changes in kindergarten, 1st-, and 4th-grade children's knowledge about the variables that affect attention sharing and resource allocation were examined. Findings from the 2 experiments showed that kindergartners understood that person and strategy variables affect performance in attention-sharing tasks. However, knowledge of how task variables affect performance was not evident to them and was inconsistent for 1st and 4th graders. Children's knowledge about resource allocation revealed a different pattern and varied according to the dissimilarity of task demands in the attention-sharing task. In Experiment 1, in which the dual attention tasks were similar (i.e., visual detection), kindergarten and 1st-grade children did not differentiate performance in single and dual tasks. Fourth graders demonstrated knowledge that performance on a single task would be better than performance on the dual tasks for only 2 of the variables examined. In Experiment 2, in which the dual attention tasks were dissimilar (i.e., visual and auditory detection), kindergarten and 1st-grade children demonstrated knowledge that performance in the single task would be better than in the dual tasks for 1 of the task variables examined. However, 4th-grade children consistently gave higher ratings for performance on the single than on the dual attention tasks for all variables examined. These findings (a) underscore that children's meta-attention is not unitary and (b) demonstrate that children's knowledge about variables affecting attention sharing and resource allocation have different developmental pathways. Results show that knowledge about attention sharing and about the factors that influence the control of attention develops slowly and undergoes reorganization in middle childhood.

  12. Evaluating low-resolution tomography neurofeedback by single dissociation of mental grotation task from stop signal task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getter, Nir; Kaplan, Zeev; Todder, Doron

    2015-10-01

    Electroencephalography source localization neurofeedback, i.e Standardized low-resolution tomography (sLORETA) neurofeedback are non-invasive method for altering region specific brain activity. This is an improvement over traditional neurofeedback which were based on recordings from a single scalp-electrode. We proposed three criteria clusters as a methodological framework to evaluate electroencephalography source localization neurofeedback and present relevant data. Our objective was to evaluate standardized low resolution EEG tomography neurofeedback by examining how training one neuroanatomical area effects the mental rotation task (which is related to the activity of bilateral Parietal regions) and the stop-signal test (which is related to frontal structures). Twelve healthy participants were enrolled in a single session sLORETA neurofeedback protocol. The participants completed both the mental rotation task and the stop-signal test before and after one sLORETA neurofeedback session. During sLORETA neurofeedback sessions participants watched one sitcom episode while the picture quality co-varied with activity in the superior parietal lobule. Participants were rewarded for increasing activity in this region only. Results showed a significant reaction time decrease and an increase in accuracy after sLORETA neurofeedback on the mental rotation task but not after stop signal task. Together with behavioral changes a significant activity increase was found at the left parietal brain after sLORETA neurofeedback compared with baseline. We concluded that activity increase in the parietal region had a specific effect on the mental rotation task. Tasks unrelated to parietal brain activity were unaffected. Therefore, sLORETA neurofeedback could be used as a research, or clinical tool for cognitive disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Age and Sex Differences in Intra-Individual Variability in a Simple Reaction Time Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisletta, Paolo; Renaud, Olivier; Fagot, Delphine; Lecerf, Thierry; de Ribaupierre, Anik

    2018-01-01

    While age effects in reaction time (RT) tasks across the lifespan are well established for level of performance, analogous findings have started appearing also for indicators of intra-individual variability (IIV). Children are not only slower, but also display more variability than younger adults in RT. Yet, little is known about potential…

  14. Simple Plans or Sophisticated Habits? State, Transition and Learning Interactions in the Two-Step Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akam, Thomas; Costa, Rui; Dayan, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The recently developed 'two-step' behavioural task promises to differentiate model-based from model-free reinforcement learning, while generating neurophysiologically-friendly decision datasets with parametric variation of decision variables. These desirable features have prompted its widespread adoption. Here, we analyse the interactions between a range of different strategies and the structure of transitions and outcomes in order to examine constraints on what can be learned from behavioural performance. The task involves a trade-off between the need for stochasticity, to allow strategies to be discriminated, and a need for determinism, so that it is worth subjects' investment of effort to exploit the contingencies optimally. We show through simulation that under certain conditions model-free strategies can masquerade as being model-based. We first show that seemingly innocuous modifications to the task structure can induce correlations between action values at the start of the trial and the subsequent trial events in such a way that analysis based on comparing successive trials can lead to erroneous conclusions. We confirm the power of a suggested correction to the analysis that can alleviate this problem. We then consider model-free reinforcement learning strategies that exploit correlations between where rewards are obtained and which actions have high expected value. These generate behaviour that appears model-based under these, and also more sophisticated, analyses. Exploiting the full potential of the two-step task as a tool for behavioural neuroscience requires an understanding of these issues.

  15. Sustaining attention to simple visual tasks: a central deficit in schizophrenia? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonakker, Marc; Doignon-Camus, Nadège; Bonnefond, Anne

    2017-11-01

    Impairments in sustained attention, that is, the ability to achieve and maintain the focus of cognitive activity on a given stimulation source or task, have been described as central to schizophrenia. Today, sustained attention deficit is still considered as a hallmark of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, current findings on this topic are not consistent. To clarify these findings, we attempt to put these results into perspective according to the type of assessment (i.e., overall and over time assessment), the participants' characteristics (i.e., clinical and demographic characteristics), and the paradigms (i.e., traditionally formatted tasks, go/no-go tasks, and the sustained attention task) and measures used. Two types of assessment lead to opposite findings; they do not evaluate sustained attention the same way. Studies using overall assessments of sustained attention ability tend to reveal a deficit, whereas studies using over time assessments do not. Therefore, further research is needed to investigate the underlying cognitive control mechanisms of changes in sustained attention in schizophrenia. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Simple Plans or Sophisticated Habits? State, Transition and Learning Interactions in the Two-Step Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akam, Thomas; Costa, Rui; Dayan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed ‘two-step’ behavioural task promises to differentiate model-based from model-free reinforcement learning, while generating neurophysiologically-friendly decision datasets with parametric variation of decision variables. These desirable features have prompted its widespread adoption. Here, we analyse the interactions between a range of different strategies and the structure of transitions and outcomes in order to examine constraints on what can be learned from behavioural performance. The task involves a trade-off between the need for stochasticity, to allow strategies to be discriminated, and a need for determinism, so that it is worth subjects’ investment of effort to exploit the contingencies optimally. We show through simulation that under certain conditions model-free strategies can masquerade as being model-based. We first show that seemingly innocuous modifications to the task structure can induce correlations between action values at the start of the trial and the subsequent trial events in such a way that analysis based on comparing successive trials can lead to erroneous conclusions. We confirm the power of a suggested correction to the analysis that can alleviate this problem. We then consider model-free reinforcement learning strategies that exploit correlations between where rewards are obtained and which actions have high expected value. These generate behaviour that appears model-based under these, and also more sophisticated, analyses. Exploiting the full potential of the two-step task as a tool for behavioural neuroscience requires an understanding of these issues. PMID:26657806

  17. Simple Plans or Sophisticated Habits? State, Transition and Learning Interactions in the Two-Step Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Akam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed 'two-step' behavioural task promises to differentiate model-based from model-free reinforcement learning, while generating neurophysiologically-friendly decision datasets with parametric variation of decision variables. These desirable features have prompted its widespread adoption. Here, we analyse the interactions between a range of different strategies and the structure of transitions and outcomes in order to examine constraints on what can be learned from behavioural performance. The task involves a trade-off between the need for stochasticity, to allow strategies to be discriminated, and a need for determinism, so that it is worth subjects' investment of effort to exploit the contingencies optimally. We show through simulation that under certain conditions model-free strategies can masquerade as being model-based. We first show that seemingly innocuous modifications to the task structure can induce correlations between action values at the start of the trial and the subsequent trial events in such a way that analysis based on comparing successive trials can lead to erroneous conclusions. We confirm the power of a suggested correction to the analysis that can alleviate this problem. We then consider model-free reinforcement learning strategies that exploit correlations between where rewards are obtained and which actions have high expected value. These generate behaviour that appears model-based under these, and also more sophisticated, analyses. Exploiting the full potential of the two-step task as a tool for behavioural neuroscience requires an understanding of these issues.

  18. Single-task fMRI overlap predicts concurrent multitasking interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Menno; Borst, Jelmer; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels

    2014-10-15

    There is no consensus regarding the origin of behavioral interference that occurs during concurrent multitasking. Some evidence points toward a multitasking locus in the brain, while other results imply that interference is the consequence of task interactions in several brain regions. To investigate this issue, we conducted a functional MRI (fMRI) study consisting of three component tasks, which were performed both separately and in combination. The results indicated that no specific multitasking area exists. Instead, different patterns of activation across conditions could be explained by assuming that the interference is a result of task interactions. Additionally, similarity in single-task activation patterns correlated with a decrease in accuracy during dual-task conditions. Taken together, these results support the view that multitasking interference is not due to a bottleneck in a single "multitasking" brain region, but is a result of interactions between concurrently running processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A simple optical fiber device for quantitative fluorescence microscopy of single living cells

    OpenAIRE

    van Graft, M.; van Graft, Marja; Oosterhuis, B.; Oosterhuis, Bernard; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    simple and relatively inexpensive system is described for obtaining quantitative fluorescence measurements on single living cells loaded with a fluorescent probe to study cell physiological processes. The light emitted from the fluorescent cells is captured by and transported through an optical fiber. After passage through appropriate filters the light is measured using a photomultiplier tube. The optical fiber is mounted in one of the microscope outlets. Signals derived from the photomultipl...

  20. Differences in Lower Extremity and Trunk Kinematics between Single Leg Squat and Step Down Tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara L Lewis

    Full Text Available The single leg squat and single leg step down are two commonly used functional tasks to assess movement patterns. It is unknown how kinematics compare between these tasks. The purpose of this study was to identify kinematic differences in the lower extremity, pelvis and trunk between the single leg squat and the step down. Fourteen healthy individuals participated in this research and performed the functional tasks while kinematic data were collected for the trunk, pelvis, and lower extremities using a motion capture system. For the single leg squat task, the participant was instructed to squat as low as possible. For the step down task, the participant was instructed to stand on top of a box, slowly lower him/herself until the non-stance heel touched the ground, and return to standing. This was done from two different heights (16 cm and 24 cm. The kinematics were evaluated at peak knee flexion as well as at 60° of knee flexion. Pearson correlation coefficients (r between the angles at those two time points were also calculated to better understand the relationship between each task. The tasks resulted in kinematics differences at the knee, hip, pelvis, and trunk at both time points. The single leg squat was performed with less hip adduction (p ≤ 0.003, but more hip external rotation and knee abduction (p ≤ 0.030, than the step down tasks at 60° of knee flexion. These differences were maintained at peak knee flexion except hip external rotation was only significant in the 24 cm step down task (p ≤ 0.029. While there were multiple differences between the two step heights at peak knee flexion, the only difference at 60° of knee flexion was in trunk flexion (p < 0.001. Angles at the knee and hip had a moderate to excellent correlation (r = 0.51-0.98, but less consistently so at the pelvis and trunk (r = 0.21-0.96. The differences in movement patterns between the single leg squat and the step down should be considered when selecting a

  1. Experimental demonstration of a simple displacement sensor based on a bent single-mode–multimode–single-mode fiber structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiang; Semenova, Yuliya; Wang, Pengfei; Hatta, Agus Muhamad; Farrell, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    A simple displacement sensor based on a bent single-mode–multimode–single-mode (SMS) fiber structure is proposed and experimentally investigated. The sensor offers a wider displacement range, not limited by the risk of fiber breakage, as well as a three-fold increase in displacement sensitivity by comparison with a straight SMS structure sensor. This sensor can be interrogated by either an optical spectral analyzer (OSA) or a ratiometric interrogation system: (1) if interrogated by an OSA assuming a resolution of 1 pm, it has a sensitivity of 28.2 nm for a displacement measurement range from 0 to 280 µm; (2) if interrogated by a ratiometric interrogation system, it has worst and best case resolutions of 556 and 38 nm, respectively, for a displacement measurement range from 0 to 520 µm

  2. IEA SHC Task 42/ECES Annex 29 – A Simple Tool for the Economic Evaluation of Thermal Energy Storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathgeber, Christoph; Hiebler, Stefan; Lävemann, Eberhard

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of IEA SHC Task 42 / ECES Annex 29, a simple tool for the economic evaluation of thermal energy storages has been developed and tested on various existing storages. On that account, the storage capacity costs (costs per installed storage capacity) of thermal energy storages...... have been evaluated via a Top-down and a Bottom-up approach. The Top-down approach follows the assumption that the costs of energy supplied by the storage should not exceed the costs of energy from the market. The maximum acceptable storage capacity costs depend on the interest rate assigned...

  3. The evidence for hippocampal long-term potentiation as a basis of memory for simple tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Izquierdo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation (LTP is the enhancement of postsynaptic responses for hours, days or weeks following the brief repetitive afferent stimulation of presynaptic afferents. It has been proposed many times over the last 30 years to be the basis of long-term memory. Several recent findings finally supported this hypothesis: a memory formation of one-trial avoidance learning depends on a series of molecular steps in the CA1 region of the hippocampus almost identical to those of LTP in the same region; bhippocampal LTP in this region accompanies memory formation of that task and of another similar task. However, CA1 LTP and the accompanying memory processes can be dissociated, and in addition plastic events in several other brain regions(amygdala, entorhinal cortex, parietal cortex are also necessary for memory formation of the one-trial task, and perhaps of many others.A potenciação de longa duração (LTP é o aumento de respostas pós-sinápticas durante horas, dias ou semanas após a breve estimulação repetitiva de aferentes pre-sinápticos. Foi proposto durante 30 anos ser a base da memória de longa duração. Vários achados recentes finalmente apoiaram esta hipótese: a a formação da memória de esquiva inibitória adquirida numa sessão depende de uma cadeia de processos moleculares na região CA1 do hipocampo quase idêntica à da LTP nessa mesma região; b LTP hipocampal nessa região acompanha a formação da memóría dessa tarefa e de outra semelhante. No entanto, a LTP de CA1 e os processos de memória podem ser dissociados e, fora disso, processos plásticos em outras regiões cerebrais (amígdala, córtex entorrinal, córtex parietal também são necessários para a formação da memória da tarefa de uma sessão e talvez de muitas outras.

  4. The effect of single-task and dual-task balance exercise programs on balance performance in adults with osteoporosis: a randomized controlled preliminary trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konak, H E; Kibar, S; Ergin, E S

    2016-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious disease characterized by muscle weakness in the lower extremities, shortened length of trunk, and increased dorsal kyphosis leading to poor balance performance. Although balance impairment increases in adults with osteoporosis, falls and fall-related injuries have been shown to occur mainly during the dual-task performance. Several studies have shown that dual-task performance was improved with specific repetitive dual-task exercises. The aims of this study were to compare the effect of single- and dual-task balance exercise programs on static balance, dynamic balance, and activity-specific balance confidence in adults with osteoporosis and to assess the effectiveness of dual-task balance training on gait speed under dual-task conditions. Older adults (N = 42) (age range, 45-88 years) with osteoporosis were randomly assigned into two groups. Single-task balance training group was given single-task balance exercises for 4 weeks, whereas dual-task balance training group received dual-task balance exercises. Participants received 45-min individualized training session, three times a week. Static balance was evaluated by one-leg stance (OLS) and a kinesthetic ability trainer (KAT) device. Dynamic balance was measured by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Time Up and Go (TUG) test, and gait speed. Self-confidence was assessed with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC-6) scale. Assessments were performed at baseline and after the 4-week program. At the end of the treatment periods, KAT score, BBS score, time in OLS and TUG, gait speeds under single- and dual-task conditions, and ABC-6 scale scores improved significantly in all patients (p gait speeds under single- and dual-task conditions showed significantly greater improvement in the dual-task balance training group than in the single-task balance training group (p gait speeds showed greater improvement following the application of a specific type of dual-task exercise programs

  5. How checking breeds doubt: reduced performance in a simple working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Ben; Kessler, Klaus

    2009-06-01

    A paradox of memory research is that repeated checking results in a decrease in memory certainty, memory vividness and confidence [van den Hout, M. A., & Kindt, M. (2003a). Phenomenological validity of an OCD-memory model and the remember/know distinction. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 369-378; van den Hout, M. A., & Kindt, M. (2003b). Repeated checking causes memory distrust. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 301-316]. Although these findings have been mainly attributed to changes in episodic long-term memory, it has been suggested [Shimamura, A. P. (2000). Toward a cognitive neuroscience of metacognition. Consciousness and Cognition, 9, 313-323] that representations in working memory could already suffer from detrimental checking. In two experiments we set out to test this hypothesis by employing a delayed-match-to-sample working memory task. Letters had to be remembered in their correct locations, a task that was designed to engage the episodic short-term buffer of working memory [Baddeley, A. D. (2000). The episodic buffer: a new component in working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 417-423]. Of most importance, we introduced an intermediate distractor question that was prone to induce frustrating and unnecessary checking on trials where no correct answer was possible. Reaction times and confidence ratings on the actual memory test of these trials confirmed the success of this manipulation. Most importantly, high checkers [cf. VOCI; Thordarson, D. S., Radomsky, A. S., Rachman, S., Shafran, R, Sawchuk, C. N., & Hakstian, A. R. (2004). The Vancouver obsessional compulsive inventory (VOCI). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42(11), 1289-1314] were less accurate than low checkers when frustrating checking was induced, especially if the experimental context actually emphasized the irrelevance of the misleading question. The clinical relevance of this result was substantiated by means of an extreme groups comparison across the two studies. The findings

  6. A simple technique of intraocular lenses explantation for single-piece foldable lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Bhaumik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs are most commonly used in modern-day cataract surgery. Explantation of these IOLs is not frequently encountered, but sometimes extreme situations may demand the same. Commonly explantation is achieved by bisecting the IOL inside the anterior chamber with a cutter and delivering the pieces out one by one. This may require corneal wound extension with associated damage and endothelial loss leading to visual deterioration. We devised a simple, innovative IOL explantation technique utilizing a modified Alcon A cartridge and snare. This can successfully refold the IOL to be explanted inside the eye and deliver it out through the same wound. The device has limitations with very thick optic lenses, multipiece, and silicon IOLs. In conclusion, we describe a simple, innovative, and reproducible technique to explant almost any single piece IOL without compromising the original surgery and yielding very satisfactory outcomes.

  7. Task-oriented control of Single-Master Multi-Slave Manipulator System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Jun; Furuta, Katsuhisa; Hariki, Kazuo; Sakai, Masaru.

    1994-01-01

    A master-slave manipulator system, in general, consists of a master arm manipulated by a human and a slave arm used for real tasks. Some tasks, such as manipulation of a heavy object, etc., require two or more slave arms operated simultaneously. A Single-Master Multi-Slave Manipulator System consists of a master arm with six degrees of freedom and two or more slave arms, each of which has six or more degrees of freedom. In this system, a master arm controls the task-oriented variables using Virtual Internal Model (VIM) based on the concept of 'Task-Oriented Control'. VIM is a reference model driven by sensory information and used to describe the desired relation between the motion of a master arm and task-oriented variables. The motion of slave arms are controlled based on the task oriented variables generated by VIM and tailors the system to meet specific tasks. A single-master multi-slave manipulator system, having two slave arms, is experimentally developed and illustrates the concept. (author)

  8. Gait parameter risk factors for falls under simple and dual task conditions in cognitively impaired older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Morag E; Delbaere, Kim; Mikolaizak, A Stefanie; Lord, Stephen R; Close, Jacqueline C T

    2013-01-01

    Impaired gait may contribute to the increased rate of falls in cognitively impaired older people. We investigated whether gait under simple and dual task conditions could predict falls in this group. The study sample consisted of 64 community dwelling older people with mild to moderate cognitive impairment. Participants walked at their preferred speed under three conditions: (a) simple walking, (b) walking while carrying a glass of water and (c) walking while counting backwards from 30. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were measured using the GAITRite(®) mat. Falls were recorded prospectively for 12months with the assistance of carers. Twenty-two (35%) people fell two or more times in the 12month follow-up period. There was a significant main effect of gait condition and a significant main effect of faller status for mean value measures (velocity, stride length, double support time and stride width) and for variability measures (swing time variability and stride length variability). Examination of individual gait parameters indicated that the multiple fallers walked more slowly, had shorter stride length, spent longer time in double support, had a wider support width and showed more variability in stride length and swing time (p<0.05). There was no significant interaction between gait condition and faller status for any of the gait variables. In conclusion, dual task activities adversely affect gait in cognitively impaired older people. Multiple fallers performed worse in each gait condition but the addition of a functional or cognitive secondary task provided no added benefit in discriminating fallers from non-fallers with cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Large-scale single-chirality separation of single-wall carbon nanotubes by simple gel chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaping; Nishide, Daisuke; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kataura, Hiromichi

    2011-01-01

    Monostructured single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are important in both scientific research and electronic and biomedical applications; however, the bulk separation of SWCNTs into populations of single-chirality nanotubes remains challenging. Here we report a simple and effective method for the large-scale chirality separation of SWCNTs using a single-surfactant multicolumn gel chromatography method utilizing one surfactant and a series of vertically connected gel columns. This method is based on the structure-dependent interaction strength of SWCNTs with an allyl dextran-based gel. Overloading an SWCNT dispersion on the top column results in the adsorption sites of the column becoming fully occupied by the nanotubes that exhibit the strongest interaction with the gel. The unbound nanotubes flow through to the next column, and the nanotubes with the second strongest interaction with the gel are adsorbed in this stage. In this manner, 13 different (n, m) species were separated. Metallic SWCNTs were finally collected as unbound nanotubes because they exhibited the lowest interaction with the gel. PMID:21556063

  10. Addressing challenges in single species assessments via a simple state-space assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    Single-species and age-structured fish stock assessments still remains the main tool for managing fish stocks. A simple state-space assessment model is presented as an alternative to (semi) deterministic procedures and the full parametric statistical catch at age models. It offers a solution...... to some of the key challenges of these models. Compared to the deterministic procedures it solves a list of problems originating from falsely assuming that age classified catches are known without errors and allows quantification of uncertainties of estimated quantities of interest. Compared to full...

  11. Age-Related Changes in Brain Activation Underlying Single- and Dual-Task Performance: Visuomanual Drawing and Mental Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Impe, A.; Coxon, J. P.; Goble, D. J.; Wenderoth, N.; Swinnen, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    Depending on task combination, dual-tasking can either be performed successfully or can lead to performance decrements in one or both tasks. Interference is believed to be caused by limitations in central processing, i.e. structural interference between the neural activation patterns associated with each task. In the present study, single- and…

  12. Simple and efficient absorption filter for single photons from a cold atom quantum memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Daniel T; Lee, Patricia J; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2015-03-09

    The ability to filter unwanted light signals is critical to the operation of quantum memories based on neutral atom ensembles. Here we demonstrate an efficient frequency filter which uses a vapor cell filled with (85)Rb and a buffer gas to attenuate both residual laser light and noise photons by nearly two orders of magnitude with little loss to the single photons associated with our cold (87)Rb quantum memory. This simple, passive filter provides an additional 18 dB attenuation of our pump laser and erroneous spontaneous emissions for every 1 dB loss of the single photon signal. We show that the addition of a frequency filter increases the non-classical correlations and the retrieval efficiency of our quantum memory by ≈ 35%.

  13. A simple route to the synthesis of single crystalline copper metagermanate nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, L.Z., E-mail: lzpei@ahut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Zhao, H.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Tan, W. [Henkel Huawei Electronics Co. Ltd., Lian' yungang, Jiangsu 222006 (China); Yu, H.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Chen, Y.W. [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang Qianfeng; Fan, C.G. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China)

    2009-12-15

    Single crystalline copper metagermanate (CuGeO{sub 3}) nanowires with the diameter of 30-300 nm and length of longer than 100 {mu}m have been prepared by a simple hydrothermal deposition route. X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Raman analyses confirm that the nanowires are orthorhombic single crystals with a main growth direction along <101>. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurement shows a strong blue emission peak at 442 nm with a broad emission band. The blue emission may be ascribed to radiative recombination of oxygen vacancies and oxygen-germanium vacancies. The formation process of CuGeO{sub 3} nanowires is also discussed.

  14. A simple and rapid method for high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Omichi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prompt determination of spatial points of single-ion tracks plays a key role in high-energy particle induced-cancer therapy and gene/plant mutations. In this study, a simple method for the high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks without etching was developed through the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA-N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm blend films. One of the steps of the proposed method includes exposure of the irradiated films to water vapor for several minutes. Water vapor was found to promote the cross-linking reaction of PAA and MBAAm to form a bulky cross-linked structure; the ion-track scars were detectable at a nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrated that each scar is easily distinguishable, and the amount of generated radicals of the ion tracks can be estimated by measuring the height of the scars, even in highly dense ion tracks. This method is suitable for the visualization of the penumbra region in a single-ion track with a high spatial resolution of 50 nm, which is sufficiently small to confirm that a single ion hits a cell nucleus with a size ranging between 5 and 20 μm.

  15. A simple and rapid method for high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omichi, Masaaki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Center for Collaborative Research, Anan National College of Technology, Anan, Tokushima 774-0017 (Japan); Choi, Wookjin; Sakamaki, Daisuke; Seki, Shu, E-mail: seki@chem.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsukuda, Satoshi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Sugimoto, Masaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Gunma, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Prompt determination of spatial points of single-ion tracks plays a key role in high-energy particle induced-cancer therapy and gene/plant mutations. In this study, a simple method for the high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks without etching was developed through the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm) blend films. One of the steps of the proposed method includes exposure of the irradiated films to water vapor for several minutes. Water vapor was found to promote the cross-linking reaction of PAA and MBAAm to form a bulky cross-linked structure; the ion-track scars were detectable at a nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrated that each scar is easily distinguishable, and the amount of generated radicals of the ion tracks can be estimated by measuring the height of the scars, even in highly dense ion tracks. This method is suitable for the visualization of the penumbra region in a single-ion track with a high spatial resolution of 50 nm, which is sufficiently small to confirm that a single ion hits a cell nucleus with a size ranging between 5 and 20 μm.

  16. Computational quantum chemistry for single Heisenberg spin couplings made simple: Just one spin flip required

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhall, Nicholas J.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We highlight a simple strategy for computing the magnetic coupling constants, J, for a complex containing two multiradical centers. On the assumption that the system follows Heisenberg Hamiltonian physics, J is obtained from a spin-flip electronic structure calculation where only a single electron is excited (and spin-flipped), from the single reference with maximum S ^ z , M, to the M − 1 manifold, regardless of the number of unpaired electrons, 2M, on the radical centers. In an active space picture involving 2M orbitals, only one β electron is required, together with only one α hole. While this observation is extremely simple, the reduction in the number of essential configurations from exponential in M to only linear provides dramatic computational benefits. This (M, M − 1) strategy for evaluating J is an unambiguous, spin-pure, wave function theory counterpart of the various projected broken symmetry density functional theory schemes, and likewise gives explicit energies for each possible spin-state that enable evaluation of properties. The approach is illustrated on five complexes with varying numbers of unpaired electrons, for which one spin-flip calculations are used to compute J. Some implications for further development of spin-flip methods are discussed

  17. Simple immunoglobulin G sensor based on thin core single-mode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingfang; Lang, Tingting; Shen, Tingting; Shen, Changyu

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a simple fiber biosensor (FOB) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) detection is designed and experimentally verified. The FOB is constructed by a 20 mm long thin core single-mode fiber (TCSMF) sandwiched between two single-mode optical fibers (SMFs). First, the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of the fiber structures is calculated by the beam propagation method. The refractive index sensing experiment is performed using different concentrations of glycerol solutions, and the experimental results are mostly consistent with the simulation predictions. The experimental RI sensitivity increases with the surrounding RI and reaches 82.7 nm/RIU. Then the surface of the FOB is functionalized by APTES for covalent bonding. The human IgG and goat anti-human IgG are chosen as a bioconjugated pair to examine the bio-sensing effectiveness of this FOB. The sensitivity of IgG detection is determined to be 10.4 nm/(mg/ml). And the serum IgG concentration in normal adults lies within the range of 6-16 mg/ml (Worsfold et al., 1985), so the sensor is applicable to human IgG monitoring. The specificity of the FOB is also verified by a contrast experiment conducted using rabbit immunoglobulin G. The proposed FOB is simple, low loss, cost-effective, and can be used for various biological and chemical applications.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of muscle synergy models: a single-trial task decoding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Ioannis; Berret, Bastien; Pozzo, Thierry; Panzeri, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Muscle synergies, i.e., invariant coordinated activations of groups of muscles, have been proposed as building blocks that the central nervous system (CNS) uses to construct the patterns of muscle activity utilized for executing movements. Several efficient dimensionality reduction algorithms that extract putative synergies from electromyographic (EMG) signals have been developed. Typically, the quality of synergy decompositions is assessed by computing the Variance Accounted For (VAF). Yet, little is known about the extent to which the combination of those synergies encodes task-discriminating variations of muscle activity in individual trials. To address this question, here we conceive and develop a novel computational framework to evaluate muscle synergy decompositions in task space. Unlike previous methods considering the total variance of muscle patterns (VAF based metrics), our approach focuses on variance discriminating execution of different tasks. The procedure is based on single-trial task decoding from muscle synergy activation features. The task decoding based metric evaluates quantitatively the mapping between synergy recruitment and task identification and automatically determines the minimal number of synergies that captures all the task-discriminating variability in the synergy activations. In this paper, we first validate the method on plausibly simulated EMG datasets. We then show that it can be applied to different types of muscle synergy decomposition and illustrate its applicability to real data by using it for the analysis of EMG recordings during an arm pointing task. We find that time-varying and synchronous synergies with similar number of parameters are equally efficient in task decoding, suggesting that in this experimental paradigm they are equally valid representations of muscle synergies. Overall, these findings stress the effectiveness of the decoding metric in systematically assessing muscle synergy decompositions in task space.

  19. Effectiveness of a Forward Collision Warning System in simple and in dual task from an electrophysiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Mercedes; Fort, Alexandra; Francois, Mathilde; Ndiaye, Daniel; Deleurence, Philippe; Fabrigoule, Colette

    2013-04-29

    Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) are expected to assist drivers; however, it is not completely clear whether these systems are of benefit to distracted drivers as much as they are to undistracted drivers. This study aims at investigating further the analysis of the effectiveness of a surrogate FCWS according to the attentional state of participants. In this experiment electrophysiological and behavioural data were recording while participants were required to drive in a simple car simulator and to react to the braking of the lead vehicle which could be announced by a warning system. The effectiveness of this warning system was evaluated when drivers were distracted or not by a secondary cognitive task. In a previous study, the warning signal was not completely effective likely due to the presence of another predictor of the forthcoming braking which competes with the warning. By eliminating this secondary predictor in the present study, the results confirmed the negative effect of the secondary task and revealed the expected effectiveness of the warning system at behavioural and electrophysiological levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Single-trial effective brain connectivity patterns enhance discriminability of mental imagery tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Dheeraj; Cecotti, Hubert; Prasad, Girijesh

    2017-10-01

    Objective. The majority of the current approaches of connectivity based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems focus on distinguishing between different motor imagery (MI) tasks. Brain regions associated with MI are anatomically close to each other, hence these BCI systems suffer from low performances. Our objective is to introduce single-trial connectivity feature based BCI system for cognition imagery (CI) based tasks wherein the associated brain regions are located relatively far away as compared to those for MI. Approach. We implemented time-domain partial Granger causality (PGC) for the estimation of the connectivity features in a BCI setting. The proposed hypothesis has been verified with two publically available datasets involving MI and CI tasks. Main results. The results support the conclusion that connectivity based features can provide a better performance than a classical signal processing framework based on bandpass features coupled with spatial filtering for CI tasks, including word generation, subtraction, and spatial navigation. These results show for the first time that connectivity features can provide a reliable performance for imagery-based BCI system. Significance. We show that single-trial connectivity features for mixed imagery tasks (i.e. combination of CI and MI) can outperform the features obtained by current state-of-the-art method and hence can be successfully applied for BCI applications.

  1. A comparative study of single and multiple hand tasks using functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Byung Suck; Lee, Ho Kyu; Park, Sung Tae; Kim, Dong Eun; Lee, Myung Jun; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Jae Kyun; Suh, Dae Chul; Lim, Tae Hwan

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess, using functional MRI and by comparing activated motor sensory areas, the independence of brain activation during single and alternative multiple hand tasks. The subjects were six healthy volunteers. Using at 1.5T Siemens system and single shot FID-EPI sequencing (T2 weighted image; TR/TE 0.96 msec/ 61msec, flip angle 90 deg, matrix size 96 x 128, slice thickness/gap 5 mm/0.8 mm, FOV 200 mm) and T1-weighted anatomic images, functional MRI was performed. The paradigm of motor tasks consisted of appositional finger movements; the first involved the separate use of the right, left, and both hands in sequence. Using cross-correlation method (threshold : 0.6) and fMRI analysis software (stimulate 5.0), functional images were obtained. The activated area of brain cortex, the number of pixel, the average percentage change in signal intensity, and correlation of the time-signal intensity curve in the activated motor area were analysed and compared between the two task groups. Statistical analysis involved the use of Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Brain activation did not differ according to whether the motor task was single or alternative. We therefore suggest that during multiple stimuli, the relevant functional area and neuronal column are activated independently. (author). 19 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  2. A simple analytical model of single-event upsets in bulk CMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogoyan, Armen V.; Chumakov, Alexander I.; Smolin, Anatoly A., E-mail: aasmol@spels.ru; Ulanova, Anastasia V.; Boruzdina, Anna B.

    2017-06-01

    During the last decade, multiple new methods of single event upset (SEU) rate prediction for aerospace systems have been proposed. Despite different models and approaches being employed in these methods, they all share relatively high usage complexity and require information about a device that is not always available to an end user. This work presents an alternative approach to estimating SEU cross-section as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) that can be further developed into a method of SEU rate prediction. The goal is to propose a simple, yet physics-based, approach with just two parameters that can be used even in situations when only a process node of the device is known. The developed approach is based on geometrical interpretation of SEU cross-section and an analytical solution to the diffusion problem obtained for a simplified IC topology model. A good fit of the model to the experimental data encompassing 7 generations of SRAMs is demonstrated.

  3. Simple and Reproducible Sample Preparation for Single-Shot Phosphoproteomics with High Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R.; Sultan, Abida; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    The traditional sample preparation workflow for mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomics is time consuming and usually requires multiple steps, e.g., lysis, protein precipitation, reduction, alkylation, digestion, fractionation, and phosphopeptide enrichment. Each step can introduce chemical...... artifacts, in vitro protein and peptide modifications, and contaminations. Those often result in sample loss and affect the sensitivity, dynamic range and accuracy of the mass spectrometric analysis. Here we describe a simple and reproducible phosphoproteomics protocol, where lysis, denaturation, reduction......, and alkylation are performed in a single step, thus reducing sample loss and increasing reproducibility. Moreover, unlike standard cell lysis procedures the cell harvesting is performed at high temperatures (99 °C) and without detergents and subsequent need for protein precipitation. Phosphopeptides are enriched...

  4. A Simple Setup to Perform 3D Locomotion Tracking in Zebrafish by Using a Single Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Audira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the measurement of three-dimensional (3D swimming behavior in zebrafish relies on commercial software or requires sophisticated scripts, and depends on more than two cameras to capture the video. Here, we establish a simple and economic apparatus to detect 3D locomotion in zebrafish, which involves a single camera capture system that records zebrafish movement in a specially designed water tank with a mirror tilted at 45 degrees. The recorded videos are analyzed using idTracker, while spatial positions are calibrated by ImageJ software and 3D trajectories are plotted by Origin 9.1 software. This easy setting allowed scientists to track 3D swimming behavior of multiple zebrafish with low cost and precise spatial position, showing great potential for fish behavioral research in the future.

  5. Simple extraction-solvothermal synthesis of single-crystalline silver microplates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Ting; Sun, Sixiu; Song, Xinyu; Xu, Shuling [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University (China)

    2009-08-15

    Single-crystalline silver microplates, with average edge length of about 1.5{mu}m and thickness of 100 nm, have been synthesized by a simple extraction-solvothermal method. Samples were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) technologies. Extractant primary amine N1923 can also act as reducing agent. It has been found that microstructure of the silver can be controlled by the n-octanol during the solvothermal treatment. Based on a series of experimental analysis, the possible formation mechanism of these microplates was discussed briefly. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Single crystalline ZnO nanorods grown by a simple hydrothermal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, L.Z., E-mail: lzpei1977@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Zhao, H.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Tan, W. [Henkel Huawei Electronics Co. Ltd., Lian' yungang, Jiangsu 222006 (China); Yu, H.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Chen, Y.W. [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang Qianfeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Single crystalline ZnO nanorods with wurtzite structure have been prepared by a simple hydrothermal process. The microstructure and composition of the products were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS) and Raman spectrum. The nanorods have diameters ranging from 100 nm to 800 nm and length of longer than 10 {mu}m. Raman peak at 437.8 cm{sup -1} displays the characteristic peak of wurtzite ZnO. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum shows a blue light emission at 441 nm, which is related to radiative recombination of photo-generated holes with singularly ionized oxygen vacancies.

  7. Single crystalline ZnO nanorods grown by a simple hydrothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, L.Z.; Zhao, H.S.; Tan, W.; Yu, H.Y.; Chen, Y.W.; Zhang Qianfeng

    2009-01-01

    Single crystalline ZnO nanorods with wurtzite structure have been prepared by a simple hydrothermal process. The microstructure and composition of the products were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS) and Raman spectrum. The nanorods have diameters ranging from 100 nm to 800 nm and length of longer than 10 μm. Raman peak at 437.8 cm -1 displays the characteristic peak of wurtzite ZnO. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum shows a blue light emission at 441 nm, which is related to radiative recombination of photo-generated holes with singularly ionized oxygen vacancies.

  8. A simple analytical model of single-event upsets in bulk CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogoyan, Armen V.; Chumakov, Alexander I.; Smolin, Anatoly A.; Ulanova, Anastasia V.; Boruzdina, Anna B.

    2017-01-01

    During the last decade, multiple new methods of single event upset (SEU) rate prediction for aerospace systems have been proposed. Despite different models and approaches being employed in these methods, they all share relatively high usage complexity and require information about a device that is not always available to an end user. This work presents an alternative approach to estimating SEU cross-section as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) that can be further developed into a method of SEU rate prediction. The goal is to propose a simple, yet physics-based, approach with just two parameters that can be used even in situations when only a process node of the device is known. The developed approach is based on geometrical interpretation of SEU cross-section and an analytical solution to the diffusion problem obtained for a simplified IC topology model. A good fit of the model to the experimental data encompassing 7 generations of SRAMs is demonstrated.

  9. Criticality safety validation: Simple geometry, single unit {sup 233}U systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putman, V.L.

    1997-06-01

    Typically used LMITCO criticality safety computational methods are evaluated for suitability when applied to INEEL {sup 233}U systems which reasonably can be modeled as simple-geometry, single-unit systems. Sixty-seven critical experiments of uranium highly enriched in {sup 233}U, including 57 aqueous solution, thermal-energy systems and 10 metal, fast-energy systems, were modeled. These experiments include 41 cylindrical and 26 spherical cores, and 41 reflected and 26 unreflected systems. No experiments were found for intermediate-neutron-energy ranges, or with interstitial non-hydrogenous materials typical of waste systems, mixed {sup 233}U and plutonium, or reflectors such as steel, lead, or concrete. No simple geometry experiments were found with cubic or annular cores, or approximating infinite sea systems. Calculations were performed with various tools and methodologies. Nine cross-section libraries, based on ENDF/B-IV, -V, or -VI.2, or on Hansen-Roach source data, were used with cross-section processing methods of MCNP or SCALE. The k{sub eff} calculations were performed with neutral-particle transport and Monte Carlo methods of criticality codes DANT, MCNP 4A, and KENO Va.

  10. Simple single-emitting layer hybrid white organic light emitting with high color stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, C.; Lu, Z. H.

    2017-10-01

    Simultaneously achieving a high efficiency and color quality at luminance levels required for solid-state lighting has been difficult for white organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Single-emitting layer (SEL) white OLEDs, in particular, exhibit a significant tradeoff between efficiency and color stability. Furthermore, despite the simplicity of SEL white OLEDs being its main advantage, the reported device structures are often complicated by the use of multiple blocking layers. In this paper, we report a highly simplified three-layered white OLED that achieves a low turn-on voltage of 2.7 V, an external quantum efficiency of 18.9% and power efficiency of 30 lm/W at 1000 cd/cm2. This simple white OLED also shows good color quality with a color rendering index of 75, CIE coordinates (0.42, 0.46), and little color shifting at high luminance. The device consists of a SEL sandwiched between a hole transport layer and an electron transport layer. The SEL comprises a thermally activated delayer fluorescent molecule having dual functions as a blue emitter and as a host for other lower energy emitters. The improved color stability and efficiency in such a simple device structure is explained as due to the elimination of significant energy barriers at various organic-organic interfaces in the traditional devices having multiple blocking layers.

  11. A large collapsed-state RNA can exhibit simple exponential single-molecule dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenna J; Lee, Kang Taek; Qu, Xiaohui; Xie, Zheng; Pesic, Jelena; Sosnick, Tobin R; Pan, Tao; Scherer, Norbert F

    2008-05-09

    The process of large RNA folding is believed to proceed from many collapsed structures to a unique functional structure requiring precise organization of nucleotides. The diversity of possible structures and stabilities of large RNAs could result in non-exponential folding kinetics (e.g. stretched exponential) under conditions where the molecules have not achieved their native state. We describe a single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) study of the collapsed-state region of the free energy landscape of the catalytic domain of RNase P RNA from Bacillus stearothermophilus (C(thermo)). Ensemble measurements have shown that this 260 residue RNA folds cooperatively to its native state at >or=1 mM Mg(2+), but little is known about the conformational dynamics at lower ionic strength. Our measurements of equilibrium conformational fluctuations reveal simple exponential kinetics that reflect a small number of discrete states instead of the expected inhomogeneous dynamics. The distribution of discrete dwell times, collected from an "ensemble" of 300 single molecules at each of a series of Mg(2+) concentrations, fit well to a double exponential, which indicates that the RNA conformational changes can be described as a four-state system. This finding is somewhat unexpected under [Mg(2+)] conditions in which this RNA does not achieve its native state. Observation of discrete well-defined conformations in this large RNA that are stable on the seconds timescale at low [Mg(2+)] (<0.1 mM) suggests that even at low ionic strength, with a tremendous number of possible (weak) interactions, a few critical interactions may produce deep energy wells that allow for rapid averaging of motions within each well, and yield kinetics that are relatively simple.

  12. Testing a Poisson counter model for visual identification of briefly presented, mutually confusable single stimuli in pure accuracy tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Markussen, Bo; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-06-01

    The authors propose and test a simple model of the time course of visual identification of briefly presented, mutually confusable single stimuli in pure accuracy tasks. The model implies that during stimulus analysis, tentative categorizations that stimulus i belongs to category j are made at a constant Poisson rate, v(i, j). The analysis is continued until the stimulus disappears, and the overt response is based on the categorization made the greatest number of times. The model was evaluated by Monte Carlo tests of goodness of fit against observed probability distributions of responses in two extensive experiments and also by quantifications of the information loss of the model compared with the observed data by use of information theoretic measures. The model provided a close fit to individual data on identification of digits and an apparently perfect fit to data on identification of Landolt rings.

  13. Comparison of cortical activation in an upper limb added-purpose task versus a single-purpose task: a near-infrared spectroscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Fubiao; Hirano, Daisuke; Shi, Yun; Taniguchi, Takamichi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare prefrontal activations during an added-purpose task with those during a single-purpose task using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. [Subjects] Six healthy right-handed adults were included in this study. [Methods] The participants were instructed to complete both added-purpose and single-purpose activities separately with each hand. The near-infrared spectroscopy probes were placed on the scalp overlying the prefrontal cortex, according ...

  14. Effects of aripiprazole and haloperidol on neural activation during a simple motor task in healthy individuals: A functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goozee, Rhianna; O'Daly, Owen; Handley, Rowena; Reis Marques, Tiago; Taylor, Heather; McQueen, Grant; Hubbard, Kathryn; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria; Reinders, Antje A T S; Dazzan, Paola

    2017-04-01

    The dopaminergic system plays a key role in motor function and motor abnormalities have been shown to be a specific feature of psychosis. Due to their dopaminergic action, antipsychotic drugs may be expected to modulate motor function, but the precise effects of these drugs on motor function remain unclear. We carried out a within-subject, double-blind, randomized study of the effects of aripiprazole, haloperidol and placebo on motor function in 20 healthy men. For each condition, motor performance on an auditory-paced task was investigated. We entered maps of neural activation into a random effects general linear regression model to investigate motor function main effects. Whole-brain imaging revealed a significant treatment effect in a distributed network encompassing posterior orbitofrontal/anterior insula cortices, and the inferior temporal and postcentral gyri. Post-hoc comparison of treatments showed neural activation after aripiprazole did not differ significantly from placebo in either voxel-wise or region of interest analyses, with the results above driven primarily by haloperidol. We also observed a simple main effect of haloperidol compared with placebo, with increased task-related recruitment of posterior cingulate and precentral gyri. Furthermore, region of interest analyses revealed greater activation following haloperidol compared with placebo in the precentral and post-central gyri, and the putamen. These diverse modifications in cortical motor activation may relate to the different pharmacological profiles of haloperidol and aripiprazole, although the specific mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear. Evaluating healthy individuals can allow investigation of the effects of different antipsychotics on cortical activation, independently of either disease-related pathology or previous treatment. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1833-1845, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A learning rule for very simple universal approximators consisting of a single layer of perceptrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Peter; Burgsteiner, Harald; Maass, Wolfgang

    2008-06-01

    One may argue that the simplest type of neural networks beyond a single perceptron is an array of several perceptrons in parallel. In spite of their simplicity, such circuits can compute any Boolean function if one views the majority of the binary perceptron outputs as the binary output of the parallel perceptron, and they are universal approximators for arbitrary continuous functions with values in [0,1] if one views the fraction of perceptrons that output 1 as the analog output of the parallel perceptron. Note that in contrast to the familiar model of a "multi-layer perceptron" the parallel perceptron that we consider here has just binary values as outputs of gates on the hidden layer. For a long time one has thought that there exists no competitive learning algorithm for these extremely simple neural networks, which also came to be known as committee machines. It is commonly assumed that one has to replace the hard threshold gates on the hidden layer by sigmoidal gates (or RBF-gates) and that one has to tune the weights on at least two successive layers in order to achieve satisfactory learning results for any class of neural networks that yield universal approximators. We show that this assumption is not true, by exhibiting a simple learning algorithm for parallel perceptrons - the parallel delta rule (p-delta rule). In contrast to backprop for multi-layer perceptrons, the p-delta rule only has to tune a single layer of weights, and it does not require the computation and communication of analog values with high precision. Reduced communication also distinguishes our new learning rule from other learning rules for parallel perceptrons such as MADALINE. Obviously these features make the p-delta rule attractive as a biologically more realistic alternative to backprop in biological neural circuits, but also for implementations in special purpose hardware. We show that the p-delta rule also implements gradient descent-with regard to a suitable error measure

  16. Single- and Dual-Task Balance Training Are Equally Effective in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüder, Benjamin; Kiss, Rainer; Granacher, Urs

    2018-01-01

    Due to maturation of the postural control system and secular declines in motor performance, adolescents experience deficits in postural control during standing and walking while concurrently performing cognitive interference tasks. Thus, adequately designed balance training programs may help to counteract these deficits. While the general effectiveness of youth balance training is well-documented, there is hardly any information available on the specific effects of single-task (ST) versus dual-task (DT) balance training. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (i) to examine static/dynamic balance performance under ST and DT conditions in adolescents and (ii) to study the effects of ST versus DT balance training on static/dynamic balance under ST and DT conditions in adolescents. Twenty-eight healthy girls and boys aged 12-13 years were randomly assigned to either 8 weeks of ST or DT balance training. Before and after training, postural sway and spatio-temporal gait parameters were registered under ST (standing/walking only) and DT conditions (standing/walking while concurrently performing an arithmetic task). At baseline, significantly slower gait speed ( p 0.05, d = 0-0.1) in DT costs for all parameters of secondary task performance during standing and walking. Training produced significant pre-post increases ( p = 0.001; d = 1.47) in secondary task performance while sitting. The observed increase was significantly greater for the ST training group ( p = 0.04; d = 0.81). For standing, no significant changes were found over time irrespective of the experimental group. We conclude that adolescents showed impaired DT compared to ST walking but not standing. ST and DT balance training resulted in significant and similar changes in DT costs during walking. Thus, there appears to be no preference for either ST or DT balance training in adolescents.

  17. A simple method for microtuber production in dioscorea opposita using single nodal segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Wang, Y; Liu, W.; Li, S.

    2015-01-01

    Dioscorea opposita Thunb. (Chinese yam) is an important tuber crop in East Asia because of its dual benefits edible and medicinal properties. Microtubers may provide a feasible alternative to in-vitro-grown plantlets as a means of micropropagation and a way to exchange healthy planting material. In this study, we have developed a simplified culture method for In vitro production of microtubers from D. opposita cv. Tiegun. In this method, microtubers formed in 98% of the internodes of single nodal segments after four weeks of dark-incubation when cultured in MS medium supplemented with 60 g sucrose 1-1 with shaking. Anatomical observations strongly supported the process of tuberization. We also found that 66% of the microtubers produced In vitro sprouted two months after transfer to vermiculite. The protocol presented here provides a simple model for studying the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of tuberization in D. opposita, and shows good potential for large-scale production of microtubers as well. (author)

  18. A Simple Interface for 3D Position Estimation of a Mobile Robot with Single Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chun-Tang; Chung, Ming-Hsuan; Chiou, Juing-Shian; Wang, Chi-Jo

    2016-03-25

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of mobile robots controlled by a smart phone or tablet. This paper proposes a visual control interface for a mobile robot with a single camera to easily control the robot actions and estimate the 3D position of a target. In this proposal, the mobile robot employed an Arduino Yun as the core processor and was remote-controlled by a tablet with an Android operating system. In addition, the robot was fitted with a three-axis robotic arm for grasping. Both the real-time control signal and video transmission are transmitted via Wi-Fi. We show that with a properly calibrated camera and the proposed prototype procedures, the users can click on a desired position or object on the touchscreen and estimate its 3D coordinates in the real world by simple analytic geometry instead of a complicated algorithm. The results of the measurement verification demonstrates that this approach has great potential for mobile robots.

  19. Decision Support System to Choose Digital Single Lens Camera with Simple Additive Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Pina Putri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the technologies that evolve today is Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR camera. The number of products makes users have difficulties to choose the appropriate camera based on their criteria. Users may utilize several ways to help them choosing the intended camera such as using magazine, internet, and other media. This paper discusses about a web based decision support system to choose cameras by using SAW (Simple Additive Weighting method in order to make the decision process more effective and efficient. This system is expected to give recommendations about the camera which is appropriate with the user’s need and criteria based on the cost, the resolution, the feature, the ISO, and the censor. The system was implemented by using PHP and MySQL. Based on the result of questionnaire distributed to 20 respondents, 60% respondents agree that this decision support system can help users to choose the appropriate camera DSLR in accordance with the user’s need, 60% of respondents agree that this decision support system is more effective to choose DSLR camera and 75% of respondents agree that this system is more efficient. In addition, 60.55% of respondents agree that this system has met 5 Es Usability Framework.

  20. A Simple Interface for 3D Position Estimation of a Mobile Robot with Single Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Tang Chao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of mobile robots controlled by a smart phone or tablet. This paper proposes a visual control interface for a mobile robot with a single camera to easily control the robot actions and estimate the 3D position of a target. In this proposal, the mobile robot employed an Arduino Yun as the core processor and was remote-controlled by a tablet with an Android operating system. In addition, the robot was fitted with a three-axis robotic arm for grasping. Both the real-time control signal and video transmission are transmitted via Wi-Fi. We show that with a properly calibrated camera and the proposed prototype procedures, the users can click on a desired position or object on the touchscreen and estimate its 3D coordinates in the real world by simple analytic geometry instead of a complicated algorithm. The results of the measurement verification demonstrates that this approach has great potential for mobile robots.

  1. Classification of response-types for single-pilot NOE helicopter combat tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David G.; Hoh, Roger H.; Atencio, Adolph, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Two piloted simulations have recently been conducted to evaluate both workload and handling qualities requirements for operation of a helicopter by a single pilot in a nap-of-the-earth combat environment. An advanced cockpit, including a moving-map display and an interactive touchpad screen, provided aircraft mission, status, and position information to the pilot. The results of the simulations are reviewed, and the impact of these results on the development of a revised helicopter handling qualities specification is discussed. Rate command is preferred over attitude command in pitch and roll, and attitude hold over groundspeed hold, for low-speed precision pointing tasks. Position hold is necessary for Level 1 handling qualities in hover when the pilot is required to perform secondary tasks. Addition of a second crew member improves pilot ratings.

  2. Contrasting single and multi-component working-memory systems in dual tasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Menno; Borst, Jelmer; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Working memory can be a major source of interference in dual tasking. However, there is no consensus on whether this interference is the result of a single working memory bottleneck, or of interactions between different working memory components that together form a complete working-memory system. We report a behavioral and an fMRI dataset in which working memory requirements are manipulated during multitasking. We show that a computational cognitive model that assumes a distributed version of working memory accounts for both behavioral and neuroimaging data better than a model that takes a more centralized approach. The model's working memory consists of an attentional focus, declarative memory, and a subvocalized rehearsal mechanism. Thus, the data and model favor an account where working memory interference in dual tasking is the result of interactions between different resources that together form a working-memory system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of particle-release conditions in microfiltration: A simple single-particle model tested on a model membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, S.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Nijdam, W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2000-01-01

    A simple single-particle model was developed for cross-flow microfiltration with microsieves. The model describes the cross-flow conditions required to release a trapped spherical particle from a circular pore. All equations are derived in a fully analytical way without any fitting parameters. For

  4. Variability of writing disorders in Wernicke's aphasia underperforming different writing tasks: A single-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozintseva, Elena; Skvortsov, Anatoliy

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our study was to evolve views on writing disorders in Wernicke's agraphia by comparing group data and analysis of a single patient. We showed how a single-case study can be useful in obtaining essential results that can be hidden by averaging group data. Analysis of a single patient proved to be important for resolving contradictions of the "holistic" and "elementaristic" paradigms of psychology and for the development of theoretical knowledge with the example of a writing disorder. The implementation of a holistic approach was undertaken by presenting the tasks differing in functions in which writing had been performed since its appearance in human culture (communicative, mnestic, and regulatory). In spite of the identical composition of involved psychological components, these differences were identified when certain types of errors were analyzed in the single subject. The results are discussed in terms of used writing strategy, resulting in a way of operation of involved components that lead to qualitative and quantitative changes of writing errors within the syndrome of Wernicke's agraphia. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Post-error expression of speed and force while performing a simple, monotonous task with a haptic pen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruns, M.; Keyson, D.V.; Jabon, M.E.; Hummels, C.C.M.; Hekkert, P.P.M.; Bailenson, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Control errors often occur in repetitive and monotonous tasks, such as manual assembly tasks. Much research has been done in the area of human error identification; however, most existing systems focus solely on the prediction of errors, not on increasing worker accuracy. The current study examines

  6. The Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) Task: A Simple Cognitive Paradigm to Investigate False Memories in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardilla-Delgado, Enmanuelle; Payne, Jessica D

    2017-01-31

    The Deese, Roediger and McDermott (DRM) task is a false memory paradigm in which subjects are presented with lists of semantically related words (e.g., nurse, hospital, etc.) at encoding. After a delay, subjects are asked to recall or recognize these words. In the recognition memory version of the task, subjects are asked whether they remember previously presented words, as well as related (but never presented) critical lure words ('doctor'). Typically, the critical word is recognized with high probability and confidence. This false memory effect has been robustly demonstrated across short (e.g., immediate, 20 min) and long (e.g., 1, 7, 60 d) delays between encoding and memory testing. A strength of using this task to study false memory is its simplicity and short duration. If encoding and retrieval components of the task occur in the same session, the entire task can take as little as 2 - 30 min. However, although the DRM task is widely considered a 'false memory' paradigm, some researchers consider DRM illusions to be based on the activation of semantic memory networks in the brain, and argue that such semantic gist-based false memory errors may actually be useful in some scenarios (e.g., remembering the forest for the trees; remembering that a word list was about "doctors", even though the actual word "doctor" was never presented for study). Remembering the gist of experience (instead of or along with individual details) is arguably an adaptive process and this task has provided a great deal of knowledge about the constructive, adaptive nature of memory. Therefore, researchers should use caution when discussing the overall reach and implications of their experiments when using this task to study 'false memory', as DRM memory errors may not adequately reflect false memories in the real world, such as false memory in eyewitness testimony, or false memories of sexual abuse.

  7. Simple non-Markovian microscopic models for the depolarizing channel of a single qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Romero, K M; Lo Franco, R

    2012-01-01

    The archetypal one-qubit noisy channels - depolarizing, phase-damping and amplitude-damping channels - describe both Markovian and non-Markovian evolution. Simple microscopic models for the depolarizing channel, both classical and quantum, are considered. Microscopic models that describe phase-damping and amplitude-damping channels are briefly reviewed.

  8. Single-session percutaneous ethanol sclerotherapy in simple renal cysts in children: long-term follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinci, Devrim; Gumus, Burcak; Ozkan, Orhan S.; Ozmen, Mustafa N.; Akhan, Okan [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-02-01

    Simple renal cysts are rare in children and managed conservatively unless symptomatic. To demonstrate the efficacy and long-term results of single-session ethanol sclerotherapy in symptomatic simple renal cysts in children. Three simple renal cysts in three children (age 1, 5 and 16 years) were included in the study. Indications for treatment were flank pain (n=1), hypertension (n=1), and increasing cyst size and urinary tract infection (n=1). The mean follow-up period was 5.5 years (range 3-7 years). The procedures were performed with the guidance of US and fluoroscopy and under IV sedation. After the cystogram, 95% ethanol with a volume of 40% of the cyst volume (but not more than 100 ml) was used as the sclerosing agent. Two cysts disappeared completely, while the volume reduction was 99% for the third cyst at the end of the first year. CT demonstrated calcification of the cyst without an enhancing soft-tissue component in the third one 7 years after sclerotherapy. After the procedures, hypertension and pain resolved without any medication. There were no complications during the procedures or during follow-up. Cytological examination was unremarkable in all patients. Percutaneous treatment of symptomatic simple renal cysts in children with single-session ethanol sclerotherapy is a safe, effective and minimally invasive procedure. Calcification owing to sclerotherapy can be observed on follow-up. (orig.)

  9. Upper Extremity Motor Learning among Individuals with Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis Evaluating Movement Time in Simple Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Felix

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor learning has been found to occur in the rehabilitation of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD. Through repetitive structured practice of motor tasks, individuals show improved performance, confirming that motor learning has probably taken place. Although a number of studies have been completed evaluating motor learning in people with PD, the sample sizes were small and the improvements were variable. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the ability of people with PD to learn motor tasks. Studies which measured movement time in upper extremity reaching tasks and met the inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. Results of the meta-analysis indicated that people with PD and neurologically healthy controls both demonstrated motor learning, characterized by a decrease in movement time during upper extremity movements. Movement time improvements were greater in the control group than in individuals with PD. These results support the findings that the practice of upper extremity reaching tasks is beneficial in reducing movement time in persons with PD and has important implications for rehabilitation.

  10. Hippocampal Negative Event-Related Potential Recorded in Humans During a Simple Sensorimotor Task Occurs Independently of Motor Execution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roman, R.; Brázdil, M.; Chládek, Jan; Rektor, I.; Jurák, Pavel; Světlák, M.; Damborská, A.; Shaw, D. J.; Kukleta, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 12 (2013), s. 1337-1344 ISSN 1050-9631 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR GAP103/11/0933 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : intracranial recordings * auditory task * hippocampus * ERP latency * motor response Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 4.302, year: 2013

  11. Laparoscopic treatment of symptomatic simple renal cysts in children: single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marte

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Simple renal cysts, although common in adults, are rare in children. They are usually discovered incidentally in the course of the study of other urinary tract symptoms, although they are not always asymptomatic. Renal cysts can be classified as being either simple or complex. The purpose of this review is to present our case series of simple symptomatic renal cysts treated with laparoscopy. Nineteen patients with symptomatic renal cysts (6 to 13.5 cm were referred to our institution between January 2006 and January 2017. They comprised 12 (40.5% females and seven (59.5% males, aged 8 to 15, with a mean age of 12.2 years. Of these patients, nine had previously been treated unsuccessfully by ultrasound-guided aspiration/alcoholization with 95%-ethanol, between 9 and 13 months prior to the laparoscopy. Five patients had undergone one treatment and four had undergone two treatments. All of the patients were treated by laparoscopic threetrocar deroofing. The cysts were opened and the wall excised using scissors and a monopolar hook. In most cases, to better handle the edges of the cyst and obtain a better grip, a needle was used to aspirate a small amount of fluid (used for cytological examination. The wall of the cyst was excised, the cyst edges were sealed, and the perirenal fat was placed on the bottom of the cyst (wadding technique. The mean operating time was 95 minutes (range 50- 150. The postoperative course was uneventful for all of the patients. The hospital stay ranged from one to three days. All of the patients were asymptomatic following the treatment. At a mean follow-up time of 3.6 years, none of the patients had experienced a recurrence. Renal function, as assessed by a MAG3 renal scintigraphy scan, was well-preserved in all of the patients, and all of them undergo an annual ultrasound scan.

  12. A simple angular transmit diversity scheme using a single RF frontend for PSK modulation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama Nafeth Saleem; Papadias, Constantinos B.; Kalis, Antonis

    2009-01-01

    array (SPA) with a single transceiver, and an array area of 0.0625 square wavelengths. The scheme which requires no channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter, provides mainly a diversity gain to combat against multipath fading. The performance/capacity of the proposed diversity scheme...

  13. Sintered pellets: A simple and cost effective method to predict the performance of GGAG:Ce single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fang; Koschan, Merry; Melcher, Charles L.; Cohen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sintered pellets were firstly used to predict the performance of single crystals. • Similar properties between sintered pellets and single crystals were investigated. • B and Ba increase luminescence intensity in pellets and light yield in crystals. • Ca shortens photoluminescence decay in pellets and scintillation decay in crystals. - Abstract: Polycrystalline Gd 3 Ga 3 Al 2 O 12 :Ce (GGAG:Ce) pellets with various codopants were prepared via solid-state synthesis and characterized by X-ray diffraction, radioluminescence (RL), photoluminescence (PL), reflectivity and PL decay measurements. GGAG:Ce pellets codoped with B and Ba were found to have higher RL intensity than pellets with other codopants, while Ca codoping improved the decay time but reduced the RL intensity. These results were strongly correlated with the performance of these codopants in GGAG:Ce single crystals. The light yield of the single crystals codoped with B or Ba was ∼15% higher than the light yield of the GGAG:Ce crystal without codoping, while Ca codoping in single crystals resulted in lower light yield but shorter scintillation decay time (43 ns vs. 56 ns). The consistent performance of these codopants in both matrix forms indicates that sintering pellets may be used as a simple cost effective technique to evaluate compositions for likely single crystal scintillator performance

  14. Simple Atomic Quantum Memory Suitable for Semiconductor Quantum Dot Single Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Janik; Buser, Gianni; Horsley, Andrew; Béguin, Lucas; Jöckel, Andreas; Jahn, Jan-Philipp; Warburton, Richard J.; Treutlein, Philipp

    2017-08-01

    Quantum memories matched to single photon sources will form an important cornerstone of future quantum network technology. We demonstrate such a memory in warm Rb vapor with on-demand storage and retrieval, based on electromagnetically induced transparency. With an acceptance bandwidth of δ f =0.66 GHz , the memory is suitable for single photons emitted by semiconductor quantum dots. In this regime, vapor cell memories offer an excellent compromise between storage efficiency, storage time, noise level, and experimental complexity, and atomic collisions have negligible influence on the optical coherences. Operation of the memory is demonstrated using attenuated laser pulses on the single photon level. For a 50 ns storage time, we measure ηe2 e 50 ns=3.4 (3 )% end-to-end efficiency of the fiber-coupled memory, with a total intrinsic efficiency ηint=17 (3 )%. Straightforward technological improvements can boost the end-to-end-efficiency to ηe 2 e≈35 %; beyond that, increasing the optical depth and exploiting the Zeeman substructure of the atoms will allow such a memory to approach near unity efficiency. In the present memory, the unconditional read-out noise level of 9 ×10-3 photons is dominated by atomic fluorescence, and for input pulses containing on average μ1=0.27 (4 ) photons, the signal to noise level would be unity.

  15. Microstructure evolution of pure copper during a single pass of simple shear extrusion (SSE): role of shear reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagherpour, E., E-mail: e.bagherpour@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610–0394 (Japan); Qods, F., E-mail: qods@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, R., E-mail: ebrahimy@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Miyamoto, H., E-mail: hmiyamot@mail.doshisha.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610–0394 (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper the role of shear reversal on microstructure, texture and mechanical properties of pure copper during a single pass of the simple shear extrusion (SSE) process was investigated. For SSE processing an appropriate die with a linear die profile was designed and constructed, which imposes forward shear in the first half and reverse shear in the second half channels. Electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were used to evaluate the microstructure of the deformed samples. The geometrical nature of this process imposes a distribution of strain results in the inhomogeneous microstructure and the hardness throughout the plane perpendicular to the extrusion direction. Strain reversal during the process results in a slight reduction in dislocation density, the hardness and mean disorientation angle of the samples, and an increase in the grain size. After a complete pass of SSE, dislocation density decreased by ~14% if compared to the middle of the process. This suggests that the dislocation annihilation occurred by the reversal of the shear strain. The simple shear textures were formed gradually and the strongest simple shear textures were observed on the middle of the SSE channel. The degree of the simple shear textures decreases with the distance from the middle plane where the shear is reversed, but the simple shear textures are still the major components after exit of the channel. Hardness variation was modeled by contributions from dislocation strengthening and grain boundary strengthening, where dislocation density is approximated by the misorientation angle of LAGBs which are regarded as dislocation cell boundaries. As a result, the hardness can be predicted successfully by the microstructural features, i.e. the low-angle boundaries, the mean misorientation angle and the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries.

  16. A Field-Tested Task Analysis for Creating Single-Subject Graphs Using Microsoft[R] Office Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ya-yu; Konrad, Moira

    2007-01-01

    Creating single-subject (SS) graphs is challenging for many researchers and practitioners because it is a complex task with many steps. Although several authors have introduced guidelines for creating SS graphs, many users continue to experience frustration. The purpose of this article is to minimize these frustrations by providing a field-tested…

  17. Adjoint eigenfunctions of temporally recurrent single-spiral solutions in a simple model of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Christopher D; Grigoriev, Roman O

    2016-09-01

    This paper introduces a numerical method for computing the spectrum of adjoint (left) eigenfunctions of spiral wave solutions to reaction-diffusion systems in arbitrary geometries. The method is illustrated by computing over a hundred eigenfunctions associated with an unstable time-periodic single-spiral solution of the Karma model on a square domain. We show that all leading adjoint eigenfunctions are exponentially localized in the vicinity of the spiral tip, although the marginal modes (response functions) demonstrate the strongest localization. We also discuss the implications of the localization for the dynamics and control of unstable spiral waves. In particular, the interaction with no-flux boundaries leads to a drift of spiral waves which can be understood with the help of the response functions.

  18. A simple optimization can improve the performance of single feature polymorphism detection by Affymetrix expression arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujisawa Hironori

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-density oligonucleotide arrays are effective tools for genotyping numerous loci simultaneously. In small genome species (genome size: Results We compared the single feature polymorphism (SFP detection performance of whole-genome and transcript hybridizations using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Rice Genome Array, using the rice cultivars with full genome sequence, japonica cultivar Nipponbare and indica cultivar 93-11. Both genomes were surveyed for all probe target sequences. Only completely matched 25-mer single copy probes of the Nipponbare genome were extracted, and SFPs between them and 93-11 sequences were predicted. We investigated optimum conditions for SFP detection in both whole genome and transcript hybridization using differences between perfect match and mismatch probe intensities of non-polymorphic targets, assuming that these differences are representative of those between mismatch and perfect targets. Several statistical methods of SFP detection by whole-genome hybridization were compared under the optimized conditions. Causes of false positives and negatives in SFP detection in both types of hybridization were investigated. Conclusions The optimizations allowed a more than 20% increase in true SFP detection in whole-genome hybridization and a large improvement of SFP detection performance in transcript hybridization. Significance analysis of the microarray for log-transformed raw intensities of PM probes gave the best performance in whole genome hybridization, and 22,936 true SFPs were detected with 23.58% false positives by whole genome hybridization. For transcript hybridization, stable SFP detection was achieved for highly expressed genes, and about 3,500 SFPs were detected at a high sensitivity (> 50% in both shoot and young panicle transcripts. High SFP detection performances of both genome and transcript hybridizations indicated that microarrays of a complex genome (e.g., of Oryza sativa can be

  19. A tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength fiber laser with a simple linear cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoying; Fang, Xia; Liao, Changrui; Wang, D N; Sun, Junqiang

    2009-11-23

    A simple linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser based on a Fabry-Perot filter which consists of a pair of fiber Bragg gratings is proposed for tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength operation. The single-longitudinal-mode is obtained by the saturable absorption of an unpumed erbium-doped fiber together with a narrow-band fiber Bragg grating. Under the high pump power (>166 mW) condition, the stable dual-wavelength oscillation with uniform amplitude can be realized by carefully adjusting the polarization controller in the cavity. Wavelength selection and switching are achieved by tuning the narrow-band fiber Bragg grating in the system. The spacing of the dual-wavelength can be selected at 0.20 nm (approximately 25.62 GHz), 0.22 nm (approximately 28.19 GHz) and 0.54 nm (approximately 69.19 GHz).

  20. Outcomes of robot-assisted simple enucleation of renal masses: A single European center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Deliu Victor; Vartolomei, Mihai Dorin; Musi, Gennaro; Renne, Giuseppe; Tringali, Valeria Maria Lucia; Mistretta, Francesco Alessandro; Delor, Maurizio; Russo, Andrea; Cioffi, Antonio; Bianchi, Roberto; Cozzi, Gabriele; Di Trapani, Ettore; Bottero, Danilo; Cordima, Giovanni; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Ferro, Matteo; de Cobelli, Ottavio

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of pre-and intraoperative parameters, to predict the risk of perioperative complications after robot-assisted laparoscopic simple enucleation (RASE) of renal masses, and to evaluate the rate of trifecta achievement of this approach stratifying the cohort according to the use of ischemia during the enucleation.From April 2009 to June 2016, 129 patients underwent RASE at our Institution. We stratified the procedures in 2 groups: clamping and clamp-less RASE. After RASE, all specimens were retrospectively reviewed to assess the surface-intermediate-base (SIB) scoring system. Patients were followed-up according to the European Association of Urology guidelines recommendations. All pre-, intra-, and postoperative outcomes were prospectively collected in a customized database and retrospectively analyzed.A total of 112 (86.8%) patients underwent a pure RASE and 17 (13.2%) had a hybrid according to SIB classification system. The mean age was 61.17 years. In 21 patients (16.3%), complications occurred, 13 (61.9%) were Clavien 1 and 2, while 8 were Clavien 3a and b complications. Statistical significant association with complications was found in patients with American Society of Anestesiology (ASA) score 3 (44.5%, P = .04), longer mean operative time (OT) 195 versus 161.36 minutes (P =.03), mean postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) 10.1 versus 11.8 (P 3, longer OT, and ΔHb. RASE is suitable for the clamp-less approach, which allows to perform easier the pure enucleation (SIB 0) and to obtain higher rates of trifecta outcomes.

  1. A Simple Negative Interaction in the Positive Transcriptional Feedback of a Single Gene Is Sufficient to Produce Reliable Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró-Bueno, Jesús M.; Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Negative and positive transcriptional feedback loops are present in natural and synthetic genetic oscillators. A single gene with negative transcriptional feedback needs a time delay and sufficiently strong nonlinearity in the transmission of the feedback signal in order to produce biochemical rhythms. A single gene with only positive transcriptional feedback does not produce oscillations. Here, we demonstrate that this single-gene network in conjunction with a simple negative interaction can also easily produce rhythms. We examine a model comprised of two well-differentiated parts. The first is a positive feedback created by a protein that binds to the promoter of its own gene and activates the transcription. The second is a negative interaction in which a repressor molecule prevents this protein from binding to its promoter. A stochastic study shows that the system is robust to noise. A deterministic study identifies that the dynamics of the oscillator are mainly driven by two types of biomolecules: the protein, and the complex formed by the repressor and this protein. The main conclusion of this paper is that a simple and usual negative interaction, such as degradation, sequestration or inhibition, acting on the positive transcriptional feedback of a single gene is a sufficient condition to produce reliable oscillations. One gene is enough and the positive transcriptional feedback signal does not need to activate a second repressor gene. This means that at the genetic level an explicit negative feedback loop is not necessary. The model needs neither cooperative binding reactions nor the formation of protein multimers. Therefore, our findings could help to clarify the design principles of cellular clocks and constitute a new efficient tool for engineering synthetic genetic oscillators. PMID:22205920

  2. Production of single superphosphate labeled with 34S Produção de superfosfato simples marcado com 34S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexssandra Luiza Rodrigues Molina Rossete

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Single superphosphate is currently one of the mostly used fertilizers as an alternative source for phosphorus and sulphur. Sulphur presents four stable isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S, and 36S with natural abundances of 95.00; 0.76; 4.22; and 0.014% in atoms, respectively. Single superphosphate labeled with the 34S isotope was obtained from a chemical reaction in stoichiometric amounts between Ca(H2PO42 and Ca34SO4.2H2O. Calcium sulphate (Ca34SO4.2H2O was enriched with 5.85 ± 0.01 atoms % of 34S. The Ca(H2PO42 reagent was obtained from a reaction between CaCl2.2H2O and H3PO4. The reaction between the Ca(H2PO42 thus produced and the labeled Ca34SO4.2H2O compound was then performed to obtain the 34S-labeled single surperphosphate. The thermal decomposition of the labeled superphosphate for the production of gaseous 34SO2 was carried out under a vacuum line at 900ºC in the presence of NaPO3. The isotopic determination of S (atoms % of 34S was carried out on an ATLAS-MAT model CH-4 mass spectrometer. The production yield of Ca(H2PO42 and labeled single superphosphate were approximately 97 and 99% respectively, and the purity level of the labeled single superphosphate was estimated as 96%. No isotopic fractionation was observed in the production process of 34S-labeled single superphosphate.O superfosfato simples é um dos fertilizantes mais utilizados atualmente como fonte de fósforo e uma alternativa para enxofre. O enxofre apresenta quatro isótopos estáveis, 32S, 33S, 34S e 36S, com abundância natural de 95,00; 0,76; 4,22 e 0,014% em átomos, respectivamente. O superfosfato simples marcado com 34S foi obtido a partir da reação química em proporção estequiométrica entre o Ca(H2PO42 e o Ca34SO4.2H2O. O Ca34SO4.2H2O foi enriquecido com 5,85 ± 0,01% em átomos de 34S. O Ca(H2PO42 foi obtido a partir da reação entre CaCl2.2H2O com o H3PO4. A decomposição térmica do superfosfato marcado para produção do 34SO2 gasoso foi realizada em linha de

  3. Dual-task and anticipation impact lower limb biomechanics during a single-leg cut with body borne load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymore, Kayla D; Cameron, Sarah E; Kaplan, Jonathan T; Ramsay, John W; Brown, Tyler N

    2017-12-08

    This study quantified how a dual cognitive task impacts lower limb biomechanics during anticipated and unanticipated single-leg cuts with body borne load. Twenty-four males performed anticipated and unanticipated cuts with and without a dual cognitive task with three load conditions: no load (∼6 kg), medium load (15% of BW), and heavy load (30% of BW). Lower limb biomechanics were submitted to a repeated measures linear mixed model to test the main and interaction effects of load, anticipation, and dual task. With body borne load, participants increased peak stance (PS) hip flexion (p = .004) and hip internal rotation (p = .001) angle, and PS hip flexion (p = .001) and internal rotation (p = .018), and knee flexion (p = .016) and abduction (p = .001) moments. With the dual task, participants decreased PS knee flexion angle (p biomechanical adaptations thought to increase risk of musculoskeletal injury, but neither anticipation nor dual task exaggerated those biomechanical adaptations. With a dual task, participants adopted biomechanics known to increase injury risk; whereas, participants used lower limb biomechanics thought to decrease injury risk during unanticipated cuts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fatigue Resistance Assessed in Five Tasks for a Single Session of Sleep Deprivation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaiken, Scott R; Harville, Donald L; Harrison, Richard; Fischer, Joe; Fisher, Dion; Whitmore, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    ..., as part of a larger project investigating genetic factors in fatigue-resistance. We considered a rule based on percent-change decrement with fatigue and another rule based on residuals of task performance predicted...

  5. Asynchronous Task-Based Polar Decomposition on Single Node Manycore Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Sukkari, Dalal E.; Ltaief, Hatem; Faverge, Mathieu; Keyes, David E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces the first asynchronous, task-based formulation of the polar decomposition and its corresponding implementation on manycore architectures. Based on a formulation of the iterative QR dynamically-weighted Halley algorithm (QDWH) for the calculation of the polar decomposition, the proposed implementation replaces the original LU factorization for the condition number estimator by the more adequate QR factorization to enable software portability across various architectures. Relying on fine-grained computations, the novel task-based implementation is capable of taking advantage of the identity structure of the matrix involved during the QDWH iterations, which decreases the overall algorithmic complexity. Furthermore, the artifactual synchronization points have been weakened compared to previous implementations, unveiling look-ahead opportunities for better hardware occupancy. The overall QDWH-based polar decomposition can then be represented as a directed acyclic graph (DAG), where nodes represent computational tasks and edges define the inter-task data dependencies. The StarPU dynamic runtime system is employed to traverse the DAG, to track the various data dependencies and to asynchronously schedule the computational tasks on the underlying hardware resources, resulting in an out-of-order task scheduling. Benchmarking experiments show significant improvements against existing state-of-the-art high performance implementations for the polar decomposition on latest shared-memory vendors' systems, while maintaining numerical accuracy.

  6. Asynchronous Task-Based Polar Decomposition on Single Node Manycore Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Sukkari, Dalal E.

    2017-09-29

    This paper introduces the first asynchronous, task-based formulation of the polar decomposition and its corresponding implementation on manycore architectures. Based on a formulation of the iterative QR dynamically-weighted Halley algorithm (QDWH) for the calculation of the polar decomposition, the proposed implementation replaces the original LU factorization for the condition number estimator by the more adequate QR factorization to enable software portability across various architectures. Relying on fine-grained computations, the novel task-based implementation is capable of taking advantage of the identity structure of the matrix involved during the QDWH iterations, which decreases the overall algorithmic complexity. Furthermore, the artifactual synchronization points have been weakened compared to previous implementations, unveiling look-ahead opportunities for better hardware occupancy. The overall QDWH-based polar decomposition can then be represented as a directed acyclic graph (DAG), where nodes represent computational tasks and edges define the inter-task data dependencies. The StarPU dynamic runtime system is employed to traverse the DAG, to track the various data dependencies and to asynchronously schedule the computational tasks on the underlying hardware resources, resulting in an out-of-order task scheduling. Benchmarking experiments show significant improvements against existing state-of-the-art high performance implementations for the polar decomposition on latest shared-memory vendors\\' systems, while maintaining numerical accuracy.

  7. A simple rainfall-runoff model for the single and long term hydrological performance of green roofs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    Green roofs are being widely implemented for storm water control and runoff reduction. There is need for incorporating green roofs into urban drainage models in order to evaluate their impact. These models must have low computational costs and fine time resolution. This paper aims to develop...... a model of green roof hydrological performance. A simple conceptual model for the long term and single event hydrological performance of green roofs, shows to be capable of reproducing observed runoff measurements. The model has surface and subsurface storage components representing the overall retention...... capacity of the green roof. The runoff from the system is described by the non-linear reservoir method and the storage capacity of the green roof is continuously re-established by evapotranspiration. Runoff data from a green roof in Denmark are collected and used for parameter calibration....

  8. A Simple Differential Mode EMI Suppressor for the LLCL-Filter-Based Single-Phase Grid-Tied Transformerless Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Junhao; Wu, Weimin; He, Yuanbin

    2015-01-01

    The single-phase power converter topologies evolving of photovoltaic applications are still including passive filters, like the LCLor LLCL-filter. Compared with the LCL-filter, the total inductance of the LLCL-filter can be reduced a lot. However, due to the resonant inductor in series...... with the bypass capacitor, the differential mode (DM) electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise attenuation of an LLCL-filter-based grid-tied inverter declines. Conventionally, a capacitor was inserted in parallel with the LC resonant circuit branch of the LLCL-filter to suppress the DM EMI noise. In order...... to achieve a small value of capacitor as well as to minimize the additional reactive power, a novel simple DM EMI suppressor for the LLCL-filter-based system is proposed. The characters of two kinds of DM EMI suppressor are analyzed and compared in detail. Simulations and experiments on a 0.5-kW 110-V/50-Hz...

  9. Can Dual Task Walking Improve in Parkinson's Disease After External Focus of Attention Exercise? A Single Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Eric N; Intzandt, Brittany N; Almeida, Quincy J

    2018-01-01

    It may be possible to use attention-based exercise to decrease demands associated with walking in Parkinson's disease (PD), and thus improve dual task walking ability. For example, an external focus of attention (focusing on the effect of an action on the environment) may recruit automatic control processes degenerated in PD, whereas an internal focus (limb movement) may recruit conscious (nonautomatic) control processes. Thus, we aimed to investigate how externally and internally focused exercise influences dual task walking and symptom severity in PD. Forty-seven participants with PD were randomized to either an Externally (n = 24) or Internally (n = 23) focused group and completed 33 one-hour attention-based exercise sessions over 11 weeks. In addition, 16 participants were part of a control group. Before, after, and 8 weeks following the program (pre/post/washout), gait patterns were measured during single and dual task walking (digit-monitoring task, ie, walking while counting numbers announced by an audio-track), and symptom severity (UPDRS-III) was assessed ON and OFF dopamine replacement. Pairwise comparisons (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) and repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted. Pre to post: Dual task step time decreased in the external group (Δ = 0.02 seconds, CI 0.01-0.04). Dual task step length (Δ = 2.3 cm, CI 0.86-3.75) and velocity (Δ = 4.5 cm/s, CI 0.59-8.48) decreased (became worse) in the internal group. UPDRS-III scores (ON and OFF) decreased (improved) in only the External group. Pre to washout: Dual task step time ( P = .005) and percentage in double support ( P = .014) significantly decreased (improved) in both exercise groups, although only the internal group increased error on the secondary counting task (ie, more errors monitoring numbers). UPDRS-III scores in both exercise groups significantly decreased ( P = .001). Since dual task walking improvements were found immediately, and 8 weeks after the cessation of an

  10. Task-dependent changes in cross-level coupling between single neurons and oscillatory activity in multiscale networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan T Canolty

    Full Text Available Understanding the principles governing the dynamic coordination of functional brain networks remains an important unmet goal within neuroscience. How do distributed ensembles of neurons transiently coordinate their activity across a variety of spatial and temporal scales? While a complete mechanistic account of this process remains elusive, evidence suggests that neuronal oscillations may play a key role in this process, with different rhythms influencing both local computation and long-range communication. To investigate this question, we recorded multiple single unit and local field potential (LFP activity from microelectrode arrays implanted bilaterally in macaque motor areas. Monkeys performed a delayed center-out reach task either manually using their natural arm (Manual Control, MC or under direct neural control through a brain-machine interface (Brain Control, BC. In accord with prior work, we found that the spiking activity of individual neurons is coupled to multiple aspects of the ongoing motor beta rhythm (10-45 Hz during both MC and BC, with neurons exhibiting a diversity of coupling preferences. However, here we show that for identified single neurons, this beta-to-rate mapping can change in a reversible and task-dependent way. For example, as beta power increases, a given neuron may increase spiking during MC but decrease spiking during BC, or exhibit a reversible shift in the preferred phase of firing. The within-task stability of coupling, combined with the reversible cross-task changes in coupling, suggest that task-dependent changes in the beta-to-rate mapping play a role in the transient functional reorganization of neural ensembles. We characterize the range of task-dependent changes in the mapping from beta amplitude, phase, and inter-hemispheric phase differences to the spike rates of an ensemble of simultaneously-recorded neurons, and discuss the potential implications that dynamic remapping from oscillatory activity to

  11. A simple method for encapsulating single cells in alginate microspheres allows for direct PCR and whole genome amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saharnaz Bigdeli

    Full Text Available Microdroplets are an effective platform for segregating individual cells and amplifying DNA. However, a key challenge is to recover the contents of individual droplets for downstream analysis. This paper offers a method for embedding cells in alginate microspheres and performing multiple serial operations on the isolated cells. Rhodobacter sphaeroides cells were diluted in alginate polymer and sprayed into microdroplets using a fingertip aerosol sprayer. The encapsulated cells were lysed and subjected either to conventional PCR, or whole genome amplification using either multiple displacement amplification (MDA or a two-step PCR protocol. Microscopic examination after PCR showed that the lumen of the occupied microspheres contained fluorescently stained DNA product, but multiple displacement amplification with phi29 produced only a small number of polymerase colonies. The 2-step WGA protocol was successful in generating fluorescent material, and quantitative PCR from DNA extracted from aliquots of microspheres suggested that the copy number inside the microspheres was amplified up to 3 orders of magnitude. Microspheres containing fluorescent material were sorted by a dilution series and screened with a fluorescent plate reader to identify single microspheres. The DNA was extracted from individual isolates, re-amplified with full-length sequencing adapters, and then a single isolate was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. After filtering the reads, the only sequences that collectively matched a genome in the NCBI nucleotide database belonged to R. sphaeroides. This demonstrated that sequencing-ready DNA could be generated from the contents of a single microsphere without culturing. However, the 2-step WGA strategy showed limitations in terms of low genome coverage and an uneven frequency distribution of reads across the genome. This paper offers a simple method for embedding cells in alginate microspheres and performing PCR on isolated

  12. A simple method for the quantification of benzodiazepine receptors using iodine-123 iomazenil and single-photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Goto, Ryoui; Koyama, Masamichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Ono, Shuichi; Sato, Kazunori; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    Iodine-123 iomazenil (Iomazenil) is a ligand for central type benzodiazepine receptors that is suitable for single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The purpose of this study was to develop a simple method for the quantification of its binding potential (BP). The method is based on a two-compartment model (K 1 , influx rate constant; k 2 ', efflux rate constant; V T '(=K 1 /k 2 '), the total distribution volumes relative to the total arterial tracer concentration), and requires two SPET scans and one blood sampling. For a given input function, the radioactivity ratio of the early to delayed scans can be considered to tabulate as a function of k 2 ', and a table lookup procedure provides the corresponding k 2 ' value, from which K 1 and V t ' values are then calculated. The arterial input function is obtained by calibration of the standard input function by the single blood sampling. SPET studies were performed on 14 patients with cerebrovascular diseases, dementia or brain tumours (mean age ±SD, 56.0±12.2). None of the patients had any heart, renal or liver disease. A dynamic SPET scan was performed following intravenous bolus injection of Iomazenil. A static SPET scan was performed at 180 min after injection. Frequent blood sampling from the brachial artery was performed on all subjects for determination of the arterial input function. Two-compartment model analysis was validated for calculation of the V T ' value of Iomazenil. Good correlations were observed between V T ' values calculated by three-compartment model analysis and those calculated by the present method, in which the scan time combinations (early scan/delayed scan) used were 15/180 min, 30/180 min or 45/180 min (all combinations: r=0.92), supporting the validity of this method. The present method is simple and applicable for clinical use. (orig.)

  13. A single bout of meditation biases cognitive control but not attentional focusing: Evidence from the global-local task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; van der Wel, Pauline; Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that a single bout of meditation can impact information processing. We were interested to see whether this impact extends to attentional focusing and the top-down control over irrelevant information. Healthy adults underwent brief single bouts of either focused attention meditation (FAM), which is assumed to increase top-down control, or open monitoring meditation (OMM), which is assumed to weaken top-down control, before performing a global-local task. While the size of the global-precedence effect (reflecting attentional focusing) was unaffected by type of meditation, the congruency effect (indicating the failure to suppress task-irrelevant information) was considerably larger after OMM than after FAM. Our findings suggest that engaging in particular kinds of meditation creates particular cognitive-control states that bias the individual processing style toward either goal-persistence or cognitive flexibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of methylphenidate on postural stability under single and dual task conditions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - a double blind randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi-Polishook, Talia; Shorer, Zamir; Melzer, Itshak

    2009-05-15

    To investigate the effects of Methylphenidate (MPH) on postural stability in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children in single and dual task conditions. A randomized controlled double-blind study analyzing postural stability in 24 ADHD children before and after MPH vs. placebo treatments, in three task conditions: (1) Single task, standing still; (2) dual task, standing still performing a memory-attention demanding task; (3) standing still listening to music. MPH resulted in a significant improvement in postural stability during the dual task condition and while listening to music, with no equivalent improvement in placebo controls. MPH improves postural stability in ADHD, especially when an additional task is performed. This is probably due to enhanced attention abilities, thus contributing to improved balance control during performance of tasks that require attention. MPH remains to be studied as a potential drug treatment to improve balance control and physical functioning in other clinical populations.

  15. Cognitive Task Analysis for Instruction in Single-Injection Ultrasound Guided-Regional Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucev, Gligor V.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is methodology for eliciting knowledge from subject matter experts. CTA has been used to capture the cognitive processes, decision-making, and judgments that underlie expert behaviors. A review of the literature revealed that CTA has not yet been used to capture the knowledge required to perform ultrasound guided…

  16. Single-task fMRI overlap predicts concurrent multitasking interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Menno; Borst, Jelmer; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus regarding the origin of behavioral interference that occurs during concurrent multitasking. Some evidence points toward a multitasking locus in the brain, while other results imply that interference is the consequence of task interactions in several brain regions. To

  17. Rats socially-reared and full fed learned an autoshaping task, showing less levels of fear-like behaviour than fasted or singly-reared rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia

    2004-07-01

    During the learning of instrumental tasks, rats are usually fasted to increase reinforced learning. However, fasting produces several undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that control rats, i.e. full-fed and group-reared rats, will learn an autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. The interaction between fasting and single-rearing of rats was also tested. Results showed that control rats and fasted rats acquired the autoshaping task similarly, independently of rearing condition or gender. However, fasted or singly-reared rats produced fear-like behaviour, since male rats group-reared and fasted (85% body/wt, P autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. However, fasting or single-rearing produced fear-like behaviour. Thus, the training of control rats in autoshaping tasks may be an option that improves animal welfare.

  18. Long-term results of single-session percutaneous drainage and ethanol sclerotherapy in simple renal cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinci, Devrim; Akhan, Okan; Ozmen, Mustafa; Gumus, Burcak; Ozkan, Orhan; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Cil, Barbaros; Haliloglu, Mithat

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the efficacy and long-term results of the single-session ethanol sclerotherapy in simple renal cysts. Materials and methods: Ninety-eight cysts in 97 patients (range: 18-76 years; mean age, 54 years) were included in the study. Indications were determined as flank pain in 74, hydronephrosis in 12, hypertension in 8, patient reassurance due to increasing cyst size in three patients. Mean follow-up period was 24.4 months. Procedures were performed with the guidance of fluoroscopy and ultrasonography at all times using 5-7 Fr pigtail catheters. After the cystogram that was obtained in all cases, 95% ethanol with a volume of 30-40% of the cyst volume was used as a sclerosing agent on an outpatient basis. Maximum volume of the injected ethanol was 200 ml. Follow-up examinations were performed 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the procedure and once every year thereafter. Results: Average cyst volume reduction was 93% at the end of the first year. The cysts disappeared completely in 17 (17.5%) patients. After the procedure, in 67 (90%) patients improvement in flank pain was noted. Sixty-one (82%) patients were free of pain and in 6 (8%) of them the pain decreased. Normotension was obtained in 7 (87.5%) of the 8 hypertensive patients and no hydronephrosis was detected in 10 (83.3%) of the 12 patients after the procedure. Second intervention was required in 2 (2%) patients due to recurrence of cysts and related symptoms. One (1%) patient had small retroperitoneal hematoma that resolved spontaneously and in another (1%) patient spontaneous hemorrhage was detected into the cyst 1 year after the procedure. No other complication was detected during the procedure and follow-up. Conclusion: Percutaneous treatment of simple renal cysts with single-session sclerotherapy is a safe, effective and minimally invasive procedure and can be used as an alternative to multiple-session sclerotherapy with comparable results. High volume, up to 200 ml ethanol can be used

  19. Long-term results of single-session percutaneous drainage and ethanol sclerotherapy in simple renal cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinci, Devrim [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Shhiye, Ankara TR-06100 (Turkey)]. E-mail: akincid@hotmail.com; Akhan, Okan [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Shhiye, Ankara TR-06100 (Turkey); Ozmen, Mustafa [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Shhiye, Ankara TR-06100 (Turkey); Gumus, Burcak [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Shhiye, Ankara TR-06100 (Turkey); Ozkan, Orhan [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Shhiye, Ankara TR-06100 (Turkey); Karcaaltincaba, Musturay [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Shhiye, Ankara TR-06100 (Turkey); Cil, Barbaros [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Shhiye, Ankara TR-06100 (Turkey); Haliloglu, Mithat [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Shhiye, Ankara TR-06100 (Turkey)

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the efficacy and long-term results of the single-session ethanol sclerotherapy in simple renal cysts. Materials and methods: Ninety-eight cysts in 97 patients (range: 18-76 years; mean age, 54 years) were included in the study. Indications were determined as flank pain in 74, hydronephrosis in 12, hypertension in 8, patient reassurance due to increasing cyst size in three patients. Mean follow-up period was 24.4 months. Procedures were performed with the guidance of fluoroscopy and ultrasonography at all times using 5-7 Fr pigtail catheters. After the cystogram that was obtained in all cases, 95% ethanol with a volume of 30-40% of the cyst volume was used as a sclerosing agent on an outpatient basis. Maximum volume of the injected ethanol was 200 ml. Follow-up examinations were performed 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the procedure and once every year thereafter. Results: Average cyst volume reduction was 93% at the end of the first year. The cysts disappeared completely in 17 (17.5%) patients. After the procedure, in 67 (90%) patients improvement in flank pain was noted. Sixty-one (82%) patients were free of pain and in 6 (8%) of them the pain decreased. Normotension was obtained in 7 (87.5%) of the 8 hypertensive patients and no hydronephrosis was detected in 10 (83.3%) of the 12 patients after the procedure. Second intervention was required in 2 (2%) patients due to recurrence of cysts and related symptoms. One (1%) patient had small retroperitoneal hematoma that resolved spontaneously and in another (1%) patient spontaneous hemorrhage was detected into the cyst 1 year after the procedure. No other complication was detected during the procedure and follow-up. Conclusion: Percutaneous treatment of simple renal cysts with single-session sclerotherapy is a safe, effective and minimally invasive procedure and can be used as an alternative to multiple-session sclerotherapy with comparable results. High volume, up to 200 ml ethanol can be used

  20. A simple, single-substrate model to interpret intra-annual stable isotope signals in tree-ring cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogée, J.; Barbour, M. M.; Wingate, L.; Bert, D.; Bosc, A.; Stievenard, M.; Lambrot, C.; Pierre, M.; Bariac, T.; Dewar, R. C.

    2009-04-01

    High-resolution intra-annual measurements of the carbon and oxygen stable isotope composition of cellulose in annual tree rings (δ13Ccellulose and δ18Ocellulose, respectively) reveal well-defined seasonal patterns that could contain valuable records of past climate and tree function. Interpreting these signals is nonetheless complex because they not only record the signature of current assimilates, but also depend on carbon allocation dynamics within the trees. Here, we present a simple, single-substrate model for wood growth containing only 12 main parameters. The model is used to interpret an isotopic intra-annual chronology collected in an even-aged maritime pine plantation growing in the South-West of France, where climate, soil and flux variables were also monitored. The empirical δ13Ccellulose and δ18Ocellulose exhibit dynamic seasonal patterns, with clear differences between years and individuals, that are mostly captured by the model. In particular, the amplitude of both signals is reproduced satisfactorily as well as the sharp 18O enrichment at the beginning of 1997 and the less pronounced 13C and 18O depletion observed at the end of the latewood. Our results suggest that the single-substrate hypothesis is a good approximation for tree ring studies on Pinus pinaster, at least for the environmental conditions covered by this study. A sensitivity analysis revealed that, in the early wood, the model was particularly sensitive to the date when cell wall thickening begins (twt). We therefore propose to use the model to reconstruct time series of twt and explore how climate influences this key parameter of xylogenesis.

  1. Proprioceptive Interaction between the Two Arms in a Single-Arm Pointing Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Kigawa

    Full Text Available Proprioceptive signals coming from both arms are used to determine the perceived position of one arm in a two-arm matching task. Here, we examined whether the perceived position of one arm is affected by proprioceptive signals from the other arm in a one-arm pointing task in which participants specified the perceived position of an unseen reference arm with an indicator paddle. Both arms were hidden from the participant's view throughout the study. In Experiment 1, with both arms placed in front of the body, the participants received 70-80 Hz vibration to the elbow flexors of the reference arm (= right arm to induce the illusion of elbow extension. This extension illusion was compared with that when the left arm elbow flexors were vibrated or not. The degree of the vibration-induced extension illusion of the right arm was reduced in the presence of left arm vibration. In Experiment 2, we found that this kinesthetic interaction between the two arms did not occur when the left arm was vibrated in an abducted position. In Experiment 3, the vibration-induced extension illusion of one arm was fully developed when this arm was placed at an abducted position, indicating that the brain receives increased proprioceptive input from a vibrated arm even if the arm was abducted. Our results suggest that proprioceptive interaction between the two arms occurs in a one-arm pointing task when the two arms are aligned with one another. The position sense of one arm measured using a pointer appears to include the influences of incoming information from the other arm when both arms were placed in front of the body and parallel to one another.

  2. A Simple Fractionated Extraction Method for the Comprehensive Analysis of Metabolites, Lipids, and Proteins from a Single Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed; Bernach, Michal; Bajdzienko, Krzysztof; Giavalisco, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Understanding of complex biological systems requires the measurement, analysis and integration of multiple compound classes of the living cell, usually determined by transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomics and lipidomic measurements. In this protocol, we introduce a simple method for the reproducible extraction of metabolites, lipids and proteins from biological tissues using a single aliquot per sample. The extraction method is based on a methyl tert-butyl ether: methanol: water system for liquid: liquid partitioning of hydrophobic and polar metabolites into two immiscible phases along with the precipitation of proteins and other macromolecules as a solid pellet. This method, therefore, provides three different fractions of specific molecular composition, which are fully compatible with common high throughput 'omics' technologies such as liquid chromatography (LC) or gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometers. Even though the method was initially developed for the analysis of different plant tissue samples, it has proved to be fully compatible for the extraction and analysis of biological samples from systems as diverse as algae, insects, and mammalian tissues and cell cultures.

  3. Specific ionic effect for simple and rapid colorimetric sensing assays of amino acids using gold nanoparticles modified with task-specific ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Datong; Cai, Pengfei; Tao, Zhihao; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel task-specific ionic liquid functionalized gold nanoparticle (TSIL-GNP) was successfully prepared and applied in the recognition of amino acids. Particularly, the surface of GNP was modified with the ionic liquid containing carbamido and ester group via thiol, which was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The stability of this material in aqueous solution improves apparently and can remain unchanged for more than three months. The effect of pH was also discussed in this study. Attractive ionic interaction would effectively weaken intensity of the covalent coupling between the metal ion and the functional groups of amino acids. Thus, TSIL-GNP was successfully applied to recognizing serine, aspartic acid, lysine, arginine, and histidine in the presence of Cu"2"+ through distinctive color changes. Suspension would be generated once a spot of cysteine was added into the GNPs solution. Results indicated that it had a good linear relationship between extinction coefficients and concentration of amino acids in a wide range of 10"−"3–10"−"6 M. Moreover, the proposed strategy was successfully used to analyze the histidine in urinary samples. In brief, TSIL-GNP is a suitable substrate for discrimination of five amino acids in a rapid and simple way without sophisticated instruments. - Highlights: • A novel task-specific ionic liquid functionalized gold nanoparticle was successfully prepared. • This material was successfully applied to recognizing five amino acids with Cu(II) through distinctive color changes. • The proposed strategy was successfully used to analyze the histidine in real samples.

  4. Specific ionic effect for simple and rapid colorimetric sensing assays of amino acids using gold nanoparticles modified with task-specific ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Datong; Cai, Pengfei; Tao, Zhihao; Pan, Yuanjiang, E-mail: panyuanjiang@zju.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel task-specific ionic liquid functionalized gold nanoparticle (TSIL-GNP) was successfully prepared and applied in the recognition of amino acids. Particularly, the surface of GNP was modified with the ionic liquid containing carbamido and ester group via thiol, which was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The stability of this material in aqueous solution improves apparently and can remain unchanged for more than three months. The effect of pH was also discussed in this study. Attractive ionic interaction would effectively weaken intensity of the covalent coupling between the metal ion and the functional groups of amino acids. Thus, TSIL-GNP was successfully applied to recognizing serine, aspartic acid, lysine, arginine, and histidine in the presence of Cu{sup 2+} through distinctive color changes. Suspension would be generated once a spot of cysteine was added into the GNPs solution. Results indicated that it had a good linear relationship between extinction coefficients and concentration of amino acids in a wide range of 10{sup −3}–10{sup −6} M. Moreover, the proposed strategy was successfully used to analyze the histidine in urinary samples. In brief, TSIL-GNP is a suitable substrate for discrimination of five amino acids in a rapid and simple way without sophisticated instruments. - Highlights: • A novel task-specific ionic liquid functionalized gold nanoparticle was successfully prepared. • This material was successfully applied to recognizing five amino acids with Cu(II) through distinctive color changes. • The proposed strategy was successfully used to analyze the histidine in real samples.

  5. Engineering task plan for determining breathing rates in single shell tanks using tracer gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The testing of single shell tanks to determine breathing rates. Inert tracer gases helium, and sulfur hexafluoride will be injected into the tanks AX-103, BY-105, C-107 and U-103. Periodic samples will be taken over a three month interval to determine actual headspace breathing rates

  6. Simple unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, W.A.; Zepeda, A.

    1987-08-01

    We present the results obtained from our systematic search of a simple Lie group that unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions in a single truly unified theory. We work with fractionally charged quarks, and allow for particles and antiparticles to belong to the same irreducible representation. We found that models based on SU(6), SU(7), SU(8) and SU(10) are viable candidates for simple unification. (author). 23 refs

  7. A Pilot Model for the NASA Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) (Single-Axis Pitch Task)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Patrick Mark

    This thesis defines, tests, and validates a descriptive pilot model for a single-axis pitch control task of the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER). SAFER is a small propulsive jetpack used by astronauts for self-rescue. Pilot model research supports development of improved self-rescue strategies and technologies through insights into pilot behavior.This thesis defines a multi-loop pilot model. The innermost loop controls the hand controller, the middle loop controls pitch rate, and the outer loop controls pitch angle. A human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to gather data from a human pilot. Quantitative and qualitative metrics both indicate that the model is an acceptable fit to the human data. Fuel consumption was nearly identical; time to task completion matched very well. There is some evidence that the model responds faster to initial pitch rates than the human, artificially decreasing the model's time to task completion. This pilot model is descriptive, not predictive, of the human pilot. Insights are made into pilot behavior from this research. Symmetry implies that the human responds to positive and negative initial conditions with the same strategy. The human pilot appears indifferent to pitch angles within 0.5 deg, coasts at a constant pitch rate 1.09 deg/s, and has a reaction delay of 0.1 s.

  8. Task Allocation for Single Pilot Operations: A Role for the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Walter; Lachter, Joel; Feary, Mike; Comerford, Doreen; Battiste, Vernol; Mogford, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Ames Research Center and NASA Langley Research Center are jointly investigating issues associated with potential configurations for an environment in which a single pilot, or reduced crew, might operate. The research summarized in this document represents several of the efforts being put forth at NASA Ames Research Center. Specifically, researchers at NASA Ames Research Center coordinated and hosted a technical interchange meeting in order to gain insight from members of the aviation community. A description of this meeting and the findings are presented first. Thereafter, plans for ensuing research are presented.

  9. Active ocular vergence improves postural control in elderly as close viewing distance with or without a single cognitive task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheron, Eric; Yang, Qing; Delpit-Baraut, Vincent; Dailly, Olivier; Kapoula, Zoï

    2016-01-01

    Performance of the vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems decreases with age, reducing the capacity of postural control, and increasing the risk of falling. The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of vision, active vergence eye movements, viewing distance/vergence angle and a simple cognitive task on postural control during an upright stance, in completely autonomous elderly individuals. Participated in the study, 23 elderly subjects (73.4 ± 6.8 years) who were enrolled in a center dedicated to the prevention of falling. Their body oscillations were measured with the DynaPort(®) device, with three accelerometers, placed at the lumbosacral level, near the center of mass. The conditions were the following: eyes open fixating on LED at 20 cm or 150 cm (vergence angle 17.0° and 2.3° respectively) with or without additional cognitive tasks (counting down from one hundred), performing active vergence by alternating the fixation between the far and the near LED (convergence and divergence), eyes closed after having fixated the far LED. The results showed that the postural stability significantly decreased when fixating on the LED at a far distance (weak convergence angle) with or without cognitive tasks; active convergence-divergence between the LEDs improved the postural stability while eye closure decreased it. The privilege of proximity (with increased convergence at near), previously established with foot posturography, is shown here to be valid for accelerometry with the center of mass in elderly. Another major result is the beneficial contribution of active vergence eye movements to better postural stability. The results bring new perspectives for the role of eye movement training to preserve postural control and autonomy in elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neural Correlates of Single- and Dual-Task Walking in the Real World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pizzamiglio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in mobile brain-body imaging (MoBI technologies have enabled studies of human locomotion where subjects are able to move freely in more ecologically valid scenarios. In this study, MoBI was employed to describe the behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of three different commonly occurring walking conditions in healthy adults. The experimental conditions were self-paced walking, walking while conversing with a friend and lastly walking while texting with a smartphone. We hypothesized that gait performance would decrease with increased cognitive demands and that condition-specific neural activation would involve condition-specific brain areas. Gait kinematics and high density electroencephalography (EEG were recorded whilst walking around a university campus. Conditions with dual tasks were accompanied by decreased gait performance. Walking while conversing was associated with an increase of theta (θ and beta (β neural power in electrodes located over left-frontal and right parietal regions, whereas walking while texting was associated with a decrease of β neural power in a cluster of electrodes over the frontal-premotor and sensorimotor cortices when compared to walking whilst conversing. In conclusion, the behavioral “signatures” of common real-life activities performed outside the laboratory environment were accompanied by differing frequency-specific neural “biomarkers”. The current findings encourage the study of the neural biomarkers of disrupted gait control in neurologically impaired patients.

  11. Performance Considerations for the SIMPL Single Photon, Polarimetric, Two-Color Laser Altimeter as Applied to Measurements of Forest Canopy Structure and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Philip W.; Harding, David J.; Valett, Susan R.; Vasilyev, Aleksey A.; Yu, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    The Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL) is a multi-beam, micropulse airborne laser altimeter that acquires active and passive polarimetric optical remote sensing measurements at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. SIMPL was developed to demonstrate advanced measurement approaches of potential benefit for improved, more efficient spaceflight laser altimeter missions. SIMPL data have been acquired for wide diversity of forest types in the summers of 2010 and 2011 in order to assess the potential of its novel capabilities for characterization of vegetation structure and composition. On each of its four beams SIMPL provides highly-resolved measurements of forest canopy structure by detecting single-photons with 15 cm ranging precision using a narrow-beam system operating at a laser repetition rate of 11 kHz. Associated with that ranging data SIMPL provides eight amplitude parameters per beam unlike the single amplitude provided by typical laser altimeters. Those eight parameters are received energy that is parallel and perpendicular to that of the plane-polarized transmit pulse at 532 nm (green) and 1064 nm (near IR), for both the active laser backscatter retro-reflectance and the passive solar bi-directional reflectance. This poster presentation will cover the instrument architecture and highlight the performance of the SIMPL instrument with examples taken from measurements for several sites with distinct canopy structures and compositions. Specific performance areas such as probability of detection, after pulsing, and dead time, will be highlighted and addressed, along with examples of their impact on the measurements and how they limit the ability to accurately model and recover the canopy properties. To assess the sensitivity of SIMPL's measurements to canopy properties an instrument model has been implemented in the FLIGHT radiative transfer code, based on Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport. SIMPL data collected in 2010 over

  12. A comparison of the effects of temporary hippocampal lesions on single and dual context versions of the olfactory sequence memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sill, Orriana C; Smith, David M

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, many animal models of memory have focused on one or more of the various components of episodic memory. For example, the odor sequence memory task requires subjects to remember individual items and events (the odors) and the temporal aspects of the experience (the sequence of odor presentation). The well-known spatial context coding function of the hippocampus, as exemplified by place cell firing, may reflect the "where" component of episodic memory. In the present study, we added a contextual component to the odor sequence memory task by training rats to choose the earlier odor in one context and the later odor in another context and we compared the effects of temporary hippocampal lesions on performance of the original single context task and the new dual context task. Temporary lesions significantly impaired the single context task, although performance remained significantly above chance levels. In contrast, performance dropped all the way to chance when temporary lesions were used in the dual context task. These results demonstrate that rats can learn a dual context version of the odor sequence learning task that requires the use of contextual information along with the requirement to remember the "what" and "when" components of the odor sequence. Moreover, the addition of the contextual component made the task fully dependent on the hippocampus.

  13. Over-focused? The relation between patients' inclination for conscious control and single- and dual-task motor performance after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneman, R P M; Kal, E C; Houdijk, H; Kamp, J van der

    2018-05-01

    Many stroke patients are inclined to consciously control their movements. This is thought to negatively affect patients' motor performance, as it disrupts movement automaticity. However, it has also been argued that conscious control may sometimes benefit motor performance, depending on the task or patientś motor or cognitive capacity. To assess whether stroke patients' inclination for conscious control is associated with motor performance, and explore whether the putative association differs as a function of task (single- vs dual) or patientś motor and cognitive capacity. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis were used to assess associations between patients' disposition to conscious control (i.e., Conscious Motor Processing subscale of Movement-Specific Reinvestment Scale; MSRS-CMP) and single-task (Timed-up-and-go test; TuG) and motor dual-task costs (TuG while tone counting; motor DTC%). We determined whether these associations were influenced by patients' walking speed (i.e., 10-m-walk test) and cognitive capacity (i.e., working memory, attention, executive function). Seventy-eight clinical stroke patients (task TuG performance. However, patients with a strong inclination for conscious control showed higher motor DTC%. These associations were irrespective of patients' motor and cognitive abilities. Patients' disposition for conscious control was not associated with single task motor performance, but was associated with higher motor dual task costs, regardless of patients' motor or cognitive abilities. Therapists should be aware that patients' conscious control inclination can influence their dual-task performance while moving. Longitudinal studies are required to test whether reducing patients' disposition for conscious control would improve dual-tasking post-stroke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law 23: medically assisted reproduction in singles, lesbian and gay couples, and transsexual people†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wert, G; Dondorp, W; Shenfield, F; Barri, P; Devroey, P; Diedrich, K; Tarlatzis, B; Provoost, V; Pennings, G

    2014-09-01

    This Task Force document discusses ethical issues arising with requests for medically assisted reproduction from people in what may be called 'non-standard' situations and relationships. The document stresses that categorically denying access to any of these groups cannot be reconciled with a human rights perspective. If there are concerns about the implications of assisted reproduction on the wellbeing of any of the persons involved, including the future child, a surrogate mother or the applicants themselves, these concerns have to be considered in the light of the available scientific evidence. When doing so it is important to avoid the use of double standards. More research is needed into the psychosocial implications of raising children in non-standard situations, especially with regard to single women, male homosexual couples and transsexual people. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Gap junctions and memory: an investigation using a single trial discrimination avoidance task for the neonate chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwey, L J; Edwards, T M

    2010-02-01

    Gap junctions are important to how the brain functions but are relatively under-investigated with respect to their contribution towards behaviour. In the present study a single trial discrimination avoidance task was used to investigate the effect of the gap junction inhibitor 18-alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid (alphaGA) on retention. Past studies within our research group have implied a potential role for gap junctions during the short-term memory (STM) stage which decays by 15 min post-training. A retention function study comparing 10 microM alphaGA and vehicle given immediately post-training demonstrated a significant main effect for drug with retention loss at all times of test (10-180 min post-training). Given that the most common gap junction in the brain is that forming the astrocytic network it is reasonable to conclude that alphaGA was acting upon these. To confirm this finding and interpretation two additional investigations were undertaken using endothelin-1 (ET-1) and ET-1+tolbutamide. Importantly, a retention function study using 10nM ET-1 replicated the retention loss observed for alphaGA. In order to confirm that ET-1 was acting on astrocytic gap junctions the amnestic action of ET-1 was effectively challenged with increasing concentrations of tolbutamide. The present findings suggest that astrocytic gap junctions are important for memory processing. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Percutaneous Treatment of Simple Hepatic Cysts: The Long-Term Results of PAIR and Catheterization Techniques as Single-Session Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhan, Okan; Islim, Filiz; Balci, Sinan; Erbahceci, Aysun; Akpınar, Burcu; Ciftci, Turkmen; Akinci, Devrim

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of our study is to evaluate results of percutaneous aspiration with alcohol sclerotherapy in symptomatic patients with simple hepatic cysts by employing single-session techniques either by a needle or a catheter.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively included 39 simple hepatic cysts in 35 patients treated via percutaneous aspiration and single-session alcohol sclerotherapy between years 1993 and 2012. Indications were pain (n = 28) or ruling out cystic echinococcus (CE) disease (n = 7). 29 cysts in 26 patients were treated by needle technique (Group A) and ten cysts in nine patients were treated by single-session catheter technique (Group B). Patients were followed for 4–173 months (median: 38 months).ResultsAll patients were successfully treated. Before procedure, cyst volumes were 21–676 cc (median: 94 cc). Post-procedure cyst volumes at last follow-up were 0-40 cc (median: 1 cc). The mean decrease in cyst volume was 95.92 ± 2.86 % in all patients (95.96 ± 3.26 % in Group A and 95.80 ± 6.20 % in Group B). There was no statistically significant difference between the volume reduction rates of Group A and Group B. Only one patient, in Group B, developed a major complication, an abscess. Hospitalization period was 1 day for all patients.ConclusionsFor patients with symptomatic simple hepatic cysts smaller than 500 cc in volume by using puncture, aspiration, injection, and reaspiration (PAIR) technique with only needle, single-session alcohol sclerotherapy of 10 min is a safe and effective procedure with high success rate.

  17. Percutaneous Treatment of Simple Hepatic Cysts: The Long-Term Results of PAIR and Catheterization Techniques as Single-Session Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhan, Okan, E-mail: akhano@tr.net [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Islim, Filiz, E-mail: fislim@yahoo.com [Istanbul Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Balci, Sinan, E-mail: snnbalci@gmail.com [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Erbahceci, Aysun, E-mail: aysunerbahceci@yahoo.com [Istanbul Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Akpınar, Burcu, E-mail: burcu-akpinar@yahoo.com; Ciftci, Turkmen, E-mail: turkmenciftci@yahoo.com; Akinci, Devrim, E-mail: akincid@hotmail.com [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2016-06-15

    PurposeThe purpose of our study is to evaluate results of percutaneous aspiration with alcohol sclerotherapy in symptomatic patients with simple hepatic cysts by employing single-session techniques either by a needle or a catheter.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively included 39 simple hepatic cysts in 35 patients treated via percutaneous aspiration and single-session alcohol sclerotherapy between years 1993 and 2012. Indications were pain (n = 28) or ruling out cystic echinococcus (CE) disease (n = 7). 29 cysts in 26 patients were treated by needle technique (Group A) and ten cysts in nine patients were treated by single-session catheter technique (Group B). Patients were followed for 4–173 months (median: 38 months).ResultsAll patients were successfully treated. Before procedure, cyst volumes were 21–676 cc (median: 94 cc). Post-procedure cyst volumes at last follow-up were 0-40 cc (median: 1 cc). The mean decrease in cyst volume was 95.92 ± 2.86 % in all patients (95.96 ± 3.26 % in Group A and 95.80 ± 6.20 % in Group B). There was no statistically significant difference between the volume reduction rates of Group A and Group B. Only one patient, in Group B, developed a major complication, an abscess. Hospitalization period was 1 day for all patients.ConclusionsFor patients with symptomatic simple hepatic cysts smaller than 500 cc in volume by using puncture, aspiration, injection, and reaspiration (PAIR) technique with only needle, single-session alcohol sclerotherapy of 10 min is a safe and effective procedure with high success rate.

  18. Associations between Tactile Sensory Threshold and Postural Performance and Effects of Healthy Aging and Subthreshold Vibrotactile Stimulation on Postural Outcomes in a Simple Dual Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Marius; Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Specific activities that require concurrent processing of postural and cognitive tasks may increase the risk for falls in older adults. We investigated whether peripheral receptor sensitivity was associated with postural performance in a dual-task and whether an intervention in form of subthreshold vibration could affect performance. Ten younger (age: 20-35 years) and ten older adults (70-85 years) performed repeated auditory-verbal 1-back tasks while standing quietly on a force platform. Foot sole vibration was randomly added during several trials. Several postural control and performance measures were assessed and statistically analyzed (significance set to α-levels of .05). There were moderate correlations between peripheral sensitivity and several postural performance and control measures (r = .45 to .59). Several postural performance measures differed significantly between older and younger adults (p stimulation should focus on older adults whose balance is significantly affected.

  19. A low-cost phantom for simple routine testing of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, A.H.; Ng, K.H.; Dharmendra, H.; Perkins, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    A simple sphere test phantom has been developed for routine performance testing of SPECT systems in situations where expensive commercial phantoms may not be available. The phantom was based on a design with six universal syringe hubs set in the frame to support a circular array of six glass blown spheres of different sizes. The frame was then placed into a water-filled CT abdomen phantom and scanned with a triple head camera system (Philips IRIX TM , USA). Comparison was made with a commercially available phantom (Deluxe Jaszczak phantom). Whereas the commercial phantom demonstrates cold spot resolution, an important advantage of the sphere test phantom was that hot spot resolution could be easily measured using almost half (370 MBq) of the activity recommended for use in the commercial phantom. Results showed that the contrast increased non-linearly with sphere volume and radionuclide concentration. The phantom was found to be suitable as an inexpensive option for daily performance tests.

  20. Simple convergent-nozzle aerosol injector for single-particle diffractive imaging with X-ray free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Kirian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in high-resolution x-ray free-electron laser-based coherent diffractive imaging is the development of aerosol injectors that can efficiently deliver particles to the peak intensity of the focused X-ray beam. Here, we consider the use of a simple convergent-orifice nozzle for producing tightly focused beams of particles. Through optical imaging we show that 0.5 μm particles can be focused to a full-width at half maximum diameter of 4.2 μm, and we demonstrate the use of such a nozzle for injecting viruses into a micro-focused soft-X-ray FEL beam.

  1. A Combined Cognitive Stimulation and Physical Exercise Programme (MINDVital) in Early Dementia: Differential Effects on Single- and Dual-Task Gait Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Laura; Lim, Wee Shiong; Chan, Mark; Ali, Noorhazlina; Chong, Mei Sian

    2016-01-01

    Gait disorders are common in early dementia, with particularly pronounced dual-task deficits, contributing to the increased fall risk and mobility decline associated with cognitive impairment. This study examines the effects of a combined cognitive stimulation and physical exercise programme (MINDVital) on gait performance under single- and dual-task conditions in older adults with mild dementia. Thirty-nine patients with early dementia participated in a multi-disciplinary rehabilitation programme comprising both physical exercise and cognitive stimulation. The programme was conducted in 8-week cycles with participants attending once weekly, and all participants completed 2 successive cycles. Cognitive, functional performance and behavioural symptoms were assessed at baseline and at the end of each 8-week cycle. Gait speed was examined under both single- (Timed Up and Go and 6-metre walk tests) and dual-task (animal category and serial counting) conditions. A random effects model was performed for the independent effect of MINDVital on the primary outcome variable of gait speed under dual-task conditions. The mean age of patients enroled in the rehabilitation programme was 79 ± 6.2 years; 25 (64.1%) had a diagnosis of Alzheimer's dementia, and 26 (66.7%) were receiving a cognitive enhancer therapy. There was a significant improvement in cognitive performance [random effects coefficient (standard error) = 0.90 (0.31), p = 0.003] and gait speed under both dual-task situations [animal category: random effects coefficient = 0.04 (0.02), p = 0.039; serial counting: random effects coefficient = 0.05 (0.02), p = 0.013], with reduced dual-task cost for gait speed [serial counting: random effects coefficient = -4.05 (2.35), p = 0.086] following successive MINDVital cycles. No significant improvement in single-task gait speed was observed. Improved cognitive performance over time was a significant determinant of changes in dual-task gait speed [random effects coefficients

  2. Factors Contributing to Single- and Dual-Task Timed "Up & Go" Test Performance in Middle-Aged and Older Adults Who Are Active and Dwell in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Ya; Tang, Pei-Fang

    2016-03-01

    Dual-task Timed "Up & Go" (TUG) tests are likely to have applications different from those of a single-task TUG test and may have different contributing factors. The purpose of this study was to compare factors contributing to performance on single- and dual-task TUG tests. This investigation was a cross-sectional study. Sixty-four adults who were more than 50 years of age and dwelled in the community were recruited. Interviews and physical examinations were performed to identify potential contributors to TUG test performance. The time to complete the single-task TUG test (TUGsingle) or the dual-task TUG test, which consisted of completing the TUG test while performing a serial subtraction task (TUGcognitive) or while carrying water (TUGmanual), was measured. Age, hip extensor strength, walking speed, general mental function, and Stroop scores for word and color were significantly associated with performance on all TUG tests. Hierarchical multiple regression models, without the input of walking speed, revealed different independent factors contributing to TUGsingle performance (Mini-Mental Status Examination score, β=-0.32), TUGmanual performance (age, β=0.35), and TUGcognitive performance (Stroop word score, β=-0.40; Mini-Mental Status Examination score, β=-0.31). At least 40% of the variance in the performance on the 3 TUG tests was not explained by common clinical measures, even when the factor of walking speed was considered. However, this study successfully identified some important factors contributing to performance on different TUG tests, and other studies have reported similar findings for single-task TUG test and dual-task gait performance. Although the TUGsingle and the TUGcognitive shared general mental function as a common factor, the TUGmanual was uniquely influenced by age and the TUGcognitive was uniquely influenced by focused attention. These results suggest that both common and unique factors contribute to performance on single- and dual-task

  3. High-dose nifuratel for simple and mixed aerobic vaginitis: A single-center prospective open-label cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qian; Li, Nan; Song, Shurong; Zhang, Aihua; Li, Ni; Duan, Ying

    2016-10-01

    The efficacy and safety of two nifuratel dosages for the treatment of aerobic vaginitis (AV) were compared. This was a prospective open-label cohort study of patients diagnosed and treated at the Tianjin Third Central Hospital between January 2012 and December 2013. The co-presence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), or/and trichomonal vaginitis (TV; mixed AV) was determined. Patients were randomized to nifuratel-500 (500 mg nifuratel, intravaginal, 10 days) or nifuratel-250 (250 mg nifuratel, intravaginal, 10 days), and followed-up for three to seven days after treatment completion. Primary and secondary outcomes were recovery rate and adverse events, respectively. The study included 142 patients with AV. Age was not significantly different between the groups (n = 71 each), and disease distribution was identical: 29 (40.85%) simple AV and 42 (59.15%) mixed AV (AV + BV, 42.86 %; AV + VVC, 30.95%; AV + TV, 26.19%). In patients with simple AV, the recovery rate did not differ significantly between the nifuratel-500 (26/29, 89.66%) and nifuratel-250 (22/29, 75.86%) groups. In patients with mixed AV, recovery rates were significantly higher in the nifuratel-500 than in the nifuratel-250 group (AV + BV, 88.89% vs 50.00 %; AV + VVC, 76.92 % vs 30.77 %; AV + TV, 90.91 % vs 36.36%; all P < 0.05). Only one patient (nifuratel-500) reported an adverse event (mild anaphylactic reaction). Nifuratel 500 mg showed good clinical efficacy for the treatment of AV, particularly mixed AV, and is superior to the 250 mg dosage in the treatment of mixed AV. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Associations between Tactile Sensory Threshold and Postural Performance and Effects of Healthy Aging and Subthreshold Vibrotactile Stimulation on Postural Outcomes in a Simple Dual Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Marius; Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Specific activities that require concurrent processing of postural and cognitive tasks may increase the risk for falls in older adults. We investigated whether peripheral receptor sensitivity was associated with postural performance in a dual-task and whether an intervention in form of subthreshold vibration could affect performance. Ten younger (age: 20–35 years) and ten older adults (70–85 years) performed repeated auditory-verbal 1-back tasks while standing quietly on a force platform. Foot sole vibration was randomly added during several trials. Several postural control and performance measures were assessed and statistically analyzed (significance set to α-levels of .05). There were moderate correlations between peripheral sensitivity and several postural performance and control measures (r = .45 to .59). Several postural performance measures differed significantly between older and younger adults (p older adults' performance in dual-tasks, and peripheral sensitivity may be a contributor to the observed differences. A vibration intervention may only be useful when there are more severe impairments of the sensorimotor system. Hence, future research regarding the efficacy of sensorimotor interventions in the form of vibrotactile stimulation should focus on older adults whose balance is significantly affected. PMID:27143967

  5. Associations between Tactile Sensory Threshold and Postural Performance and Effects of Healthy Aging and Subthreshold Vibrotactile Stimulation on Postural Outcomes in a Simple Dual Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dettmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific activities that require concurrent processing of postural and cognitive tasks may increase the risk for falls in older adults. We investigated whether peripheral receptor sensitivity was associated with postural performance in a dual-task and whether an intervention in form of subthreshold vibration could affect performance. Ten younger (age: 20–35 years and ten older adults (70–85 years performed repeated auditory-verbal 1-back tasks while standing quietly on a force platform. Foot sole vibration was randomly added during several trials. Several postural control and performance measures were assessed and statistically analyzed (significance set to α-levels of .05. There were moderate correlations between peripheral sensitivity and several postural performance and control measures (r=.45 to .59. Several postural performance measures differed significantly between older and younger adults (p<0.05; addition of vibration did not affect outcome measures. Aging affects healthy older adults’ performance in dual-tasks, and peripheral sensitivity may be a contributor to the observed differences. A vibration intervention may only be useful when there are more severe impairments of the sensorimotor system. Hence, future research regarding the efficacy of sensorimotor interventions in the form of vibrotactile stimulation should focus on older adults whose balance is significantly affected.

  6. A Simple and Consistent Equation of State for Sodium in the Single Phase and Two Phase Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    An equation of state valid over an extended temperature and density range has been derived. Then, the following properties have been deduced: coefficient of thermal expansion, isothermal coefficient of bulk compressibility, thermal pressure coefficient, heat capacity at constant pressure, at constant volume, along the saturation curve for liquid, for vapor, heat of vaporization, speed of sound, and finally the Mollier diagram and the entropy diagram. All the obtained properties are thermodynamically consistent and satisfy the basic relations of thermodynamics for both single phase and two-phase regions. Experimental results were always used when available

  7. A simple and consistent equation of state for sodium in the single phase and two phase regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    An equation of state valid over an extended temperature and density range has been derived. Then, the following properties have been deduced : coefficient of thermal expansion, isothermal coefficient of bulk compressibility, thermal pressure coefficient, heat capacity at constant pressure, at constant volume, along the saturation curve for liquid, for vapor, heat of vaporization, speed of sound, and finally the Mollier diagram and the entropy diagram. All the obtained properties are thermodynamically consistent and satisfy the basic relations of thermodynamics for both single phase and two-phase regions. Experimental results were always used when available. (auth.)

  8. Simple die pressing for making artificial holes in single-grain Gd1.5Ba2Cu3O7−y superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K-M; Park, S-D; Jun, B-H; Kim, C-J; Ko, T K

    2012-01-01

    The presence of artificial holes in single-grain REBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−y (RE123, RE: rare-earth elements) bulk superconductors can facilitate oxygen diffusion into superconducting grains through the increased surface area. In addition to the enhancement of oxygen diffusion, the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of bulk superconductors can be improved by filling holes with a metallic conductive phase. This study presents a new and simple hole-making process for single-grain RE123 bulk superconductors. Artificial holes 3 or 5 mm in diameter were made for Gd 1.5 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7−y (Gd1.5) powder compacts prior to the sintering/melt growth process using specially designed pressing dies. The die pressing neither induced cracking in powder compacts nor influenced thermal procedures for the Gd123 growth. Single-grain Gd1.5 bulk superconductors with holes were successfully fabricated by a top-seeded melt growth (TSMG) process using Gd1.5 powder compacts with holes. The die pressing was proven as a time-saving process in comparison with the conventional method which makes holes in sintered or melt-processed hard bodies by mechanical drilling. The detailed fabrication process of single-grain Gd1.5 bulk superconductor with holes, magnetic levitation forces, and magnetic flux density, estimated for the single-grain Gd123 bulk superconductors with holes, are reported. (paper)

  9. Simple Adaptive Single Differential Coherence Detection of BPSK Signals in IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaoyuan; Wen, Hong; Wang, Longye; Xie, Ping; Song, Liang; Tang, Jie; Liao, Runfa

    2017-12-26

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive single differential coherent detection (SDCD) scheme for the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signals in IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In particular, the residual carrier frequency offset effect (CFOE) for differential detection is adaptively estimated, with only linear operation, according to the changing channel conditions. It was found that the carrier frequency offset (CFO) and chip signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions do not need a priori knowledge. This partly benefits from that the combination of the trigonometric approximation sin - 1 ( x ) ≈ x and a useful assumption, namely, the asymptotic or high chip SNR, is considered for simplification of the full estimation scheme. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve an accurate estimation and the detection performance can completely meet the requirement of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, although with a little loss of reliability and robustness as compared with the conventional optimal single-symbol detector.

  10. Adaptation and Retention of a Perceptual-Motor Task in Children: Effects of a Single Bout of Intense Endurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Uris, Blai; Busquets, Albert; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa

    2018-02-01

    We assessed the effect of an acute intense exercise bout on the adaptation and consolidation of a visuomotor adaptation task in children. We also sought to assess if exercise and learning task presentation order could affect task consolidation. Thirty-three children were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) exercise before the learning task, (b) exercise after the learning task, and (c) only learning task. Baseline performance was assessed by practicing the learning task in a 0° rotation condition. Afterward, a 60° rotation-adaptation set was applied followed by three rotated retention sets after 1 hr, 24 hr, and 7 days. For the exercise groups, exercise was presented before or after the motor adaptation. Results showed no group differences during the motor adaptation while exercise seemed to enhance motor consolidation. Greater consolidation enhancement was found in participants who exercised before the learning task. Our data support the importance of exercise to improve motor-memory consolidation in children.

  11. Counting efficiencies by liquid scintillation counting. Single isomeric transitions; Eficiencia de recuento por centelleo liquido. Transiciones isomericas simples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1995-07-01

    In this work we present liquid scintillation counting efficiency tables for several radionuclides with single isomeric transitions, in which electron conversion and gamma emission processes are competitive. We study the radionuclides: 58mCo, 77mSe, 79mBr, 87mSr, S9mY, 93mNb, 103mRh, 107mAg, 109mAg, 113mIn, 131mXe, I33mXe, 135raBa, 137mBa, 167raEr, for two different scintillators, Ultima-Gold and Insta-Gel. We consider volumes of 10 and 15 mL for Ultima Gold, and 15 mL for Insta-Gel. (Author) 18 refs.

  12. Simple Objective Detection of Human Lyme Disease Infection Using Immuno-PCR and a Single Recombinant Hybrid Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Micah D.; Molins, Claudia R.; Schriefer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A serology-based tiered approach has, to date, provided the most effective means of laboratory confirmation of clinically suspected cases of Lyme disease, but it lacks sensitivity in the early stages of disease and is often dependent on subjectively scored immunoblots. We recently demonstrated the use of immuno-PCR (iPCR) for detecting Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in patient serum samples that were positive for Lyme disease. To better understand the performance of the Lyme disease iPCR assay, the repeatability and variability of the background of the assay across samples from a healthy population (n = 36) were analyzed. Both of these parameters were found to have coefficients of variation of Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 12) demonstrated a strong correlation with that of 2-tier testing. Furthermore, a simplified iPCR approach using a single hybrid antigen and detecting only IgG antibodies confirmed the 2-tier diagnosis in the Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 12). Validation of the hybrid antigen IgG iPCR assay using a blinded panel of Lyme disease and non-Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 92) resulted in a sensitivity of 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50% to 84%), compared to that of the 2-tier analysis at 59% (95% CI, 41% to 76%), and a specificity of 98% (95% CI, 91% to 100%) compared to that of the 2-tier analysis at 97% (95% CI, 88% to 100%). A single-tier hybrid antigen iPCR assay has the potential to be an improved method for detecting host-generated antibodies against B. burgdorferi. PMID:24899074

  13. Synthesis of single-crystal PbS nanorods via a simple hydrothermal process using PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer as a structure-directing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Junfu; Nie Chageng; Liang Jinxia; Sun Lan; Xie Zhaoxiong; Wu Qi; Lin Changjian

    2011-01-01

    Single-crystal PbS nanorods were successfully synthesized through a simple hydrothermal route using PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer (P123) as a structure-directing agent. The XRD pattern indicates that the crystal structure of the nanorods is face-centre-cubic rocksalt. A SEM image shows that the nanorods have a diameter of 40-70 nm and a length of 200-600 nm, and both tips exhibit taper-like structures. HRTEM and SAED images reveal the single-crystalline nature of the nanorods with the growth along the (111) direction. The experimental results indicated that the P123 concentration and reaction temperature played important roles in controlling the morphology of the PbS nanostructures. The optical property of PbS nanorods was investigated by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and the band structure was calculated by the B3LYP hybrid density functional theory.

  14. The effect of a cognitive-motor intervention on voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichierri G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Pichierri,1 Amos Coppe,1 Silvio Lorenzetti,2 Kurt Murer,1 Eling D de Bruin11Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; 2Institute for Biomechanics, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: This randomized controlled pilot study aimed to explore whether a cognitive-motor exercise program that combines traditional physical exercise with dance video gaming can improve the voluntary stepping responses of older adults under attention demanding dual task conditions.Methods: Elderly subjects received twice weekly cognitive-motor exercise that included progressive strength and balance training supplemented by dance video gaming for 12 weeks (intervention group. The control group received no specific intervention. Voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions was recorded at baseline and post intervention (Week 12.Results: After intervention between-group comparison revealed significant differences for initiation time of forward steps under dual task conditions (U = 9, P = 0.034, r = 0.55 and backward steps under dual task conditions (U = 10, P = 0.045, r = 0.52 in favor of the intervention group, showing altered stepping levels in the intervention group compared to the control group.Conclusion: A cognitive-motor intervention based on strength and balance exercises with additional dance video gaming is able to improve voluntary step execution under both single and dual task conditions in older adults.Keywords: fall prevention, exercise, dance, video game

  15. A Simple Network to Remove Interference in Surface EMG Signal from Single Gene Affected Phenylketonuria Patients for Proper Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Madhusmita; Basu, Mousumi; Pattanayak, Deba Narayan; Mohapatra, Sumant Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Recently Autosomal Recessive Single Gene (ARSG) diseases are highly effective to the children within the age of 5-10 years. One of the most ARSG disease is a Phenylketonuria (PKU). This single gene disease is associated with mutations in the gene that encodes the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH, Gene 612349). Through this mutation process, PAH of the gene affected patient can not properly manufacture PAH as a result the patients suffer from decreased muscle tone which shows abnormality in EMG signal. Here the extraction of the quality of the PKU affected EMG (PKU-EMG) signal is a keen interest, so it is highly necessary to remove the added ECG signal as well as the biological and instrumental noises. In the Present paper we proposed a method for detection and classification of the PKU affected EMG signal. Here Discrete Wavelet Transformation is implemented for extraction of the features of the PKU affected EMG signal. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) network is used for the classification of the signal. Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) and Modified Genetic Algorithm (MGA) are used to train the ANFIS network. Simulation result shows that the proposed method gives better performance as compared to existing approaches. Also it gives better accuracy of 98.02% for the detection of PKU-EMG signal. The advantages of the proposed model is to use MGA and MPSO to train the parameters of ANFIS network for classification of ECG and EMG signal of PKU affected patients. The proposed method obtained the high SNR (18.13 ± 0.36 dB), SNR (0.52 ± 1.62 dB), RE (0.02 ± 0.32), MSE (0.64 ± 2.01), CC (0.99 ± 0.02), RMSE (0.75 ± 0.35) and MFRE (0.01 ± 0.02), RMSE (0.75 ± 0.35) and MFRE (0.01 ± 0.02). From authors knowledge, this is the first time a composite method is used for diagnosis of PKU affected patients. The accuracy (98.02%), sensitivity (100%) and specificity (98.59%) helps for proper clinical treatment. It can help for readers

  16. Simple transmission Raman measurements using a single multivariate model for analysis of pharmaceutical samples contained in capsules of different colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeojin; Kim, Jaejin; Lee, Sanguk; Woo, Young-Ah; Chung, Hoeil

    2012-01-30

    Direct transmission Raman measurements for analysis of pharmaceuticals in capsules are advantageous since they can be used to determine active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) concentrations in a non-destructive manner and with much less fluorescence background interference from the capsules themselves compared to conventional back-scattering measurements. If a single calibration model such as developed from spectra simply collected in glass vials could be used to determine API concentrations of samples contained in capsules of different colors rather than constructing individual models for each capsule color, the utility of transmission measurements would be further enhanced. To evaluate the feasibility, transmission Raman spectra of binary mixtures of ambroxol and lactose were collected in a glass vial and a partial least squares (PLS) model for the determination of ambroxol concentration was developed. Then, the model was directly applied to determine ambroxol concentrations of samples contained in capsules of 4 different colors (blue, green, white and yellow). Although the prediction performance was slightly degraded when the samples were placed in blue or green capsules, due to the presence of weak fluorescence, accurate determination of ambroxol was generally achieved in all cases. The prediction accuracy was also investigated when the thickness of the capsule was varied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Concentrated Solutions of Single-Chain Nanoparticles: A Simple Model for Intrinsically Disordered Proteins under Crowding Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Angel J; Lo Verso, Federica; Arbe, Arantxa; Pomposo, José A; Colmenero, Juan

    2016-03-03

    By means of large-scale computer simulations and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we investigate solutions of single-chain nanoparticles (SCNPs), covering the whole concentration range from infinite dilution to melt density. The analysis of the conformational properties of the SCNPs reveals that these synthetic nano-objects share basic ingredients with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), as topological polydispersity, generally sparse conformations, and locally compact domains. We investigate the role of the architecture of the SCNPs in their collapse behavior under macromolecular crowding. Unlike in the case of linear macromolecules, which experience the usual transition from self-avoiding to Gaussian random-walk conformations, crowding leads to collapsed conformations of SCNPs resembling those of crumpled globules. This behavior is already found at volume fractions (about 30%) that are characteristic of crowding in cellular environments. The simulation results are confirmed by the SANS experiments. Our results for SCNPs--a model system free of specific interactions--propose a general scenario for the effect of steric crowding on IDPs: collapse from sparse conformations at high dilution to crumpled globular conformations in cell environments.

  18. A single session of prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation does not modulate implicit task sequence learning and consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Branislav; Müri, René; Meier, Beat

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is assumed to affect cortical excitability and dependent on the specific stimulation conditions either to increase or decrease learning. The purpose of this study was to modulate implicit task sequence learning with tDCS. As cortico-striatal loops are critically involved in implicit task sequence learning, tDCS was applied above the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In Experiment 1, anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS was applied before the start of the sequence learning task. In Experiment 2, stimulation was applied during the sequence learning task. Consolidation of learning was assessed after 24 h. The results of both experiments showed that implicit task sequence learning occurred consistently but it was not modulated by different tDCS conditions. Similarly, consolidation measured after a 24 h-interval including sleep was also not affected by stimulation. These results indicate that a single session of DLPFC tDCS is not sufficient to modulate implicit task sequence learning. This study adds to the accumulating evidence that tDCS may not be as effective as originally thought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Working Memory Deficits in Children with Reading Difficulties: Memory Span and Dual Task Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shinmin; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the cause of the reported problems in working memory in children with reading difficulties. Verbal and visuospatial simple and complex span tasks, and digit span and reaction times tasks performed singly and in combination, were administered to 46 children with single word reading difficulties and 45 typically…

  20. Voluntary stepping behavior under single- and dual-task conditions in chronic stroke survivors: A comparison between the involved and uninvolved legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Itshak; Goldring, Melissa; Melzer, Yehudit; Green, Elad; Tzedek, Irit

    2010-12-01

    If balance is lost, quick step execution can prevent falls. Research has shown that speed of voluntary stepping was able to predict future falls in old adults. The aim of the study was to investigate voluntary stepping behavior, as well as to compare timing and leg push-off force-time relation parameters of involved and uninvolved legs in stroke survivors during single- and dual-task conditions. We also aimed to compare timing and leg push-off force-time relation parameters between stroke survivors and healthy individuals in both task conditions. Ten stroke survivors performed a voluntary step execution test with their involved and uninvolved legs under two conditions: while focusing only on the stepping task and while a separate attention-demanding task was performed simultaneously. Temporal parameters related to the step time were measured including the duration of the step initiation phase, the preparatory phase, the swing phase, and the total step time. In addition, force-time parameters representing the push-off power during stepping were calculated from ground reaction data and compared with 10 healthy controls. The involved legs of stroke survivors had a significantly slower stepping time than uninvolved legs due to increased swing phase duration during both single- and dual-task conditions. For dual compared to single task, the stepping time increased significantly due to a significant increase in the duration of step initiation. In general, the force time parameters were significantly different in both legs of stroke survivors as compared to healthy controls, with no significant effect of dual compared with single-task conditions in both groups. The inability of stroke survivors to swing the involved leg quickly may be the most significant factor contributing to the large number of falls to the paretic side. The results suggest that stroke survivors were unable to rapidly produce muscle force in fast actions. This may be the mechanism of delayed execution

  1. The "Parachute" Technique: A Simple and Effective Single-Row Procedure to Achieve an Increased Contact Area Between the Cuff-Tendon and Its Footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natera, Luis; Consigliere, Paolo; Witney-Lagen, Caroline; Brugera, Juan; Sforza, Giuseppe; Atoun, Ehud; Levy, Ofer

    2017-10-01

    Many techniques of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair have been described. No significant differences in clinical outcomes or rerupture rates have been observed when comparing single-row with double-row methods. Not all single- and double-row repairs are the same. The details of the technique used are crucial. It has been shown that the suture-tendon interface is the weakest point of the reconstruction. Therefore, the biomechanical properties of rotator cuff repairs might be influenced more by the suture configuration than by the number of anchors or by the number of rows involved. Techniques that secure less amount of tendon over a smaller area of the healing zone might be expected to have higher failure rates. The way the sutures of the "parachute technique" are configured represents a quadruple mattress that increases the contact and pressure between the tendon and its footprint and increases the primary load to failure of the repair. We present a simple and effective single-row technique that involves the biomechanical and biological advantages related to the increased contact area and pressure between the cuff and its footprint.

  2. A retrospective study comparing the outcome of horses undergoing small intestinal resection and anastomosis with a single layer (Lembert) or double layer (simple continuous and Cushing) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Kristyn; Epstein, Kira L; Sherlock, Ceri E

    2014-05-01

    To (1) compare postoperative complications and survival in horses after small intestinal resection and anastomosis using 2 anastomosis techniques (single layer Lembert; double layer simple continuous oversewn with Cushing), and (2) to compare outcome by anastomosis type (jejunoileostomy; jejunojejunostomy). Retrospective case series. Horses (n = 53). Medical records (July 2006-July 2010) of all horses that had small intestinal resection and anastomosis. Horses were divided into groups based on technique and type of anastomosis. Comparisons of pre- and intraoperative findings (disease severity), postoperative complications, and survival rates were made between groups. There were no differences in disease severity, postoperative complications, or survival between single layer (n = 23) or double layer (n = 31) anastomoses. There were no differences in disease severity or survival between jejunoileostomy (n = 16) or jejunojejunostomy (n = 38). There was a higher incidence of postoperative colic in hospital after jejunoileostomy (13/16) compared with jejunojejunostomy (18/38) (P = .0127). Postoperative complications and survival are comparable between horses undergoing single layer and double layer small intestinal end-to-end anastomoses. With the exception of increased postoperative colic in the hospital, postoperative complications and survival after jejunoileostomy and jejunojejunostomy are also comparable. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  3. Rudimentary simple, single step fabrication of nano-flakes like AgCd alloy electro-catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandary, Nimai; Basu, Suddhasatwa; Ingole, Pravin P.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, for the first time, we report rudimentary simple, single step fabrication of an electro-catalyst based on AgCd alloy nanoparticles with flakes like geometry which shows highly efficient activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A simple potentiostatic deposition method has been employed for co-depositing AgCd alloy nanostructures with flakes like shapes along with dendrites on the surface of carbon fibre paper. The chemico-physical properties of the catalyst are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS). Electro-catalytic activity of AgCd alloy based electro-catalyst towards ORR is studied in alkaline medium by cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) technique. Electrochemical in-situ FTIR measurements are also performed to identify the species generated during ORR process. Based on the results from electro-catalysis experiment, it is concluded that nano-alloyed AgCd electrodeposited on carbon paper shows excellent activity for ORR, following four electron pathways with H_2O_2 yield less than 15%. The combination of low cost of Ag and Cd, fast and facile method of its fabrication and higher activity towards ORR makes the AgCd electro-catalyst an attractive catalyst of choice for alkaline fuel cell.

  4. The effect of a single dose of multivitamin and mineral combinations with and without guaraná on functional brain activity during a continuous performance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David J; Camfield, David A; Maggini, Silvia; Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Relatively few studies have explored the possibility of acute cognitive effects of multivitamin ingestion. This report explores the acute brain electrophysiological changes associated with multivitamin and mineral supplementation, with and without guaraná, using the steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP). Based on the known SSVEP correlates of A-X continuous performance task (CPT) performance, and sensitivity to acute psychopharmacological manipulations, the A-X CPT was adopted as a task paradigm to explore treatment-related neurophysiological changes in attentional processing. Twenty healthy non-smoking adults aged 21-39 years (mean age = 28.35 years, SD = 5.52) took part in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, balanced crossover design study. The study demonstrated both transient and tonic changes in the SSVEP response during completion of the A-X CPT following multivitamin and mineral treatment both with and without guaraná. Transient changes in SSVEP response in prefrontal regions were observed after a single dose of a multivitamin and mineral preparation indicative of enhanced activity within brain regions engaged by the attentional demands of the task. This pattern of change in frontal regions was correlated with improved behavioural performance after treatment with the multivitamin and mineral combination. Where tonic shifts in SSVEP response were investigated, multivitamin and mineral treatment was associated with a pattern of increased inhibition across posterior regions, with enhanced excitatory processing in prefrontal regions. In contrast, multivitamin and mineral treatment with additional guaraná showed a tonic shift towards greater excitatory processes after a single treatment, consistent with the caffeine content of this treatment. While preliminary in nature, these findings suggest a single multivitamin/mineral dose is sufficient to impact on functional brain activity in task-related brain regions.

  5. Motor-cognitive dual-task performance: effects of a concurrent motor task on distinct components of visual processing capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künstler, E C S; Finke, K; Günther, A; Klingner, C; Witte, O; Bublak, P

    2018-01-01

    Dual tasking, or the simultaneous execution of two continuous tasks, is frequently associated with a performance decline that can be explained within a capacity sharing framework. In this study, we assessed the effects of a concurrent motor task on the efficiency of visual information uptake based on the 'theory of visual attention' (TVA). TVA provides parameter estimates reflecting distinct components of visual processing capacity: perceptual threshold, visual processing speed, and visual short-term memory (VSTM) storage capacity. Moreover, goodness-of-fit values and bootstrapping estimates were derived to test whether the TVA-model is validly applicable also under dual task conditions, and whether the robustness of parameter estimates is comparable in single- and dual-task conditions. 24 subjects of middle to higher age performed a continuous tapping task, and a visual processing task (whole report of briefly presented letter arrays) under both single- and dual-task conditions. Results suggest a decline of both visual processing capacity and VSTM storage capacity under dual-task conditions, while the perceptual threshold remained unaffected by a concurrent motor task. In addition, goodness-of-fit values and bootstrapping estimates support the notion that participants processed the visual task in a qualitatively comparable, although quantitatively less efficient way under dual-task conditions. The results support a capacity sharing account of motor-cognitive dual tasking and suggest that even performing a relatively simple motor task relies on central attentional capacity that is necessary for efficient visual information uptake.

  6. The reliability of the quantitative timed up and go test (QTUG) measured over five consecutive days under single and dual-task conditions in community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin; Walsh, Lorcan; Doyle, Julie; Greene, Barry; Blake, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The timed up and go (TUG) test is a commonly used assessment in older people with variations including the addition of a motor or cognitive dual-task, however in high functioning older adults it is more difficult to assess change. The quantified TUG (QTUG) uses inertial sensors to detect test and gait parameters during the test. If it is to be used in the longitudinal assessment of older adults, it is important that we know which parameters are reliable and under which conditions. This study aims to examine the relative reliability of the QTUG over five consecutive days under single, motor and cognitive dual-task conditions. Twelve community dwelling older adults (10 females, mean age 74.17 (3.88)) performed the QTUG under three conditions for five consecutive days. The relative reliability of each of the gait parameters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC 3,1) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Five of the measures demonstrated excellent reliability (ICC>0.70) under all three conditions (time to complete test, walk time, number of gait cycles, number of steps and return from turn time). Measures of variability and turn derived parameters demonstrated weak reliability under all three conditions (ICC=0.05-0.49). For the most reliable parameters under single-task conditions, the addition of a cognitive task resulted in a reduction in reliability suggesting caution when interpreting results under these conditions. Certain sensor derived parameters during the QTUG test may provide an additional resource in the longitudinal assessment of older people and earlier identification of falls risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gaussian counter models for visual identification of briefly presented, mutually confusable single stimuli in pure accuracy tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamborrino, Massimiliano; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Markussen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    counter model proposed by Kyllingsbæk, Markussen, and Bundesen (2012) was carried out, together with model selection among the competing candidates. Both the Wiener and the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck race models provide a close fit to individual data on identification of both digits and Landolt rings...... immediately or that it continues for some time after the stimulus offset. Each type of model was evaluated by Monte Carlo tests of goodness of fit against observed probability distributions of responses in two extensive experiments. A comparison of these continuous models with a simple discrete Poisson...

  8. Potencial de híbridos simples de milho para extração de linhagens Potential of maize single hybrids to generate inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odair Bison

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de híbridos simples comerciais de milho é uma das opções de populações para a extração de linhagens, porque são adaptados e provavelmente concentram alta freqüência de alelos favoráveis já fixados. Mesmo nos locos que estão segregando, a freqüência de alelos favoráveis é 0,5. Assim, a identificação de populações promissoras, derivadas de híbridos simples superiores, é uma boa estratégia para aumentar a eficiência dos programas de melhoramento. As populações derivadas dos híbridos simples comerciais AG9012 e C333 foram avaliadas com o objetivo de verificar o potencial dessas para extração de linhagens superiores, por meio das estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos, da estimativa de m+a e a metodologia proposta por Jinks & Pooni (1976. Foram avaliadas 169 famílias S1 de cada população, durante a safra agrícola de 1999/2000, na área experimental do Departamento de Biologia da UFLA, em Lavras - MG, em látice simples 13x13, sendo as parcelas constituídas por uma linha de 3 m. As características analisadas foram incidência de Phaeosphaeria maydis em duas épocas, altura de plantas, altura de espigas e produtividade de espigas despalhadas. Foi constatado que há possibilidade de se obterem linhagens com bom desempenho per se, sendo a população derivada do C333 a mais promissora, por associar resistência a Phaeosphaeria maydis e possuir média mais alta e maior probabilidade de obtenção de linhagens superiores. A metodologia proposta por Jinks & Pooni (1976 mostrou-se mais informativa do que a estimativa de m+a para a escolha de populações, mas, quando possível, as duas podem ser utilizadas simultaneamente para auxiliar na decisão dos melhoristas.Populations derived from commercial single hybrids are one of the breeder options for inbred line extraction because of their adaptation and probable high frequency of loci with fixed favorable alleles. Even the segregating loci carry

  9. A single session of hatha yoga improves stress reactivity and recovery after an acute psychological stress task-A counterbalanced, randomized-crossover trial in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenutti, Mateus J; Alves, Eduardo da Sliva; Michael, Scott; Ding, Ding; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Edwards, Kate M

    2017-12-01

    Yoga is promoted as an anti-stress activity, however, little is known about the mechanisms through which it acts. The present study investigated the acute effects of a hatha yoga session, displayed on a video, on the response to and recovery from an acute psychological stressor. Twenty-four healthy young adults took part in a counterbalanced, randomized-crossover trial, with a yoga and a control condition (watching TV). Participants attended the laboratory in the afternoon on two days and each session comprised a baseline, control or yoga task, stress task and recovery. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and salivary cortisol responses were measured. State cognitive- and somatic-anxiety along with self-confidence were assessed before and after the stressor. Although no difference in the BP or HR responses to stress were found between conditions, systolic BP (p=0.047) and diastolic BP (p=0.018) recovery from stress were significantly accelerated and salivary cortisol reactivity was significantly lower (p=0.01) in the yoga condition. A yoga session also increased self-confidence (p=0.006) in preparation for the task and after completion. Moreover, self-confidence reported after the stress task was considered debilitative towards performance in the control condition, but remained facilitative in the yoga condition. Our results show that a single video-instructed session of hatha yoga was able to improve stress reactivity and recovery from an acute stress task in healthy individuals. These positive preliminary findings encourage further investigation in at-risk populations in which the magnitude of effects may be greater, and support the use of yoga for stress reactivity and recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Analysis of the Impact of Single-Sex Schools on Seventh Grade Math and Reading Tasks Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves-Redwood, Tarawa F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a statistically significant mean difference in math and reading student performance by types of schools. The types of schools were identified as all-male and all-female public middle schools. Specifically, this study examined the impact of public single-sex schools on the mathematics and…

  11. Solute transport along a single fracture in a porous rock: a simple analytical solution and its extension for modeling velocity dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longcheng; Neretnieks, Ivars; Shahkarami, Pirouz; Meng, Shuo; Moreno, Luis

    2018-02-01

    A simple and robust solution is developed for the problem of solute transport along a single fracture in a porous rock. The solution is referred to as the solution to the single-flow-path model and takes the form of a convolution of two functions. The first function is the probability density function of residence-time distribution of a conservative solute in the fracture-only system as if the rock matrix is impermeable. The second function is the response of the fracture-matrix system to the input source when Fickian-type dispersion is completely neglected; thus, the effects of Fickian-type dispersion and matrix diffusion have been decoupled. It is also found that the solution can be understood in a way in line with the concept of velocity dispersion in fractured rocks. The solution is therefore extended into more general cases to also account for velocity variation between the channels. This leads to a development of the multi-channel model followed by detailed statistical descriptions of channel properties and sensitivity analysis of the model upon changes in the model key parameters. The simulation results obtained by the multi-channel model in this study fairly well agree with what is often observed in field experiments—i.e. the unchanged Peclet number with distance, which cannot be predicted by the classical advection-dispersion equation. In light of the findings from the aforementioned analysis, it is suggested that forced-gradient experiments can result in considerably different estimates of dispersivity compared to what can be found in natural-gradient systems for typical channel widths.

  12. Verification of RELAP5/MOD3 with theoretical and numerical stability results on single-phase, natural circulation in a simple loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreri, Juan C.; Ambrosini, Walter

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical results given by Pierre Welander are used to test the capability of the RELAP5 series of codes to predict instabilities in single-phase flow. These results are related to the natural circulation in a loop formed by two parallel adiabatic tubes with a point heat sink at the top and a point heat source at the bottom. A stability curve may be defined for laminar flow and was extended to consider turbulent flow. By a suitable selection of the ratio of the total buoyancy force in the loop to the friction resistance, the flow may show instabilities. The solution was useful to test two basic numerical properties of the RELAP5 code, namely: a) convergence to steady state flow-rate using a 'lumped parameter' approximation to both the heat source and sink and; b) the effect of nodalization to numerically damp the instabilities. It was shown that, using a single volume to lump the heat source and sink, it was not possible to reach convergence to steady state flow rate when the heated (cooled) length was diminished and the heat transfer coefficient increased to keep constant the total heat transferred to (and removed from) the fluid. An algebraic justification of these results is presented, showing that it is a limitation inherent to the numerical scheme adopted. Concerning the effect of nodalization on the damping of instabilities, it was shown that a 'reasonably fine' discretization led, as expected, to the damping of the solution. However, the search for convergence of numerical and theoretical results was successful, showing the expected nearly chaotic behavior. This search lead to very refined nodalization. The results obtained have also been verified by the use of simple, ad hoc codes. A procedure to assess the effects of nodalization on the prediction of instabilities threshold is outlined in this report. It is based on the experience gained with aforementioned simpler codes. (author)

  13. Type I error rates of rare single nucleotide variants are inflated in tests of association with non-normally distributed traits using simple linear regression methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Sung, Heejong; Sabourin, Jeremy A; Justice, Cristina M; Sorant, Alexa J M; Wilson, Alexander F

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of (a) the minor allele frequency of the single nucleotide variant (SNV), (b) the degree of departure from normality of the trait, and (c) the position of the SNVs on type I error rates were investigated in the Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 19 whole exome sequence data. To test the distribution of the type I error rate, 5 simulated traits were considered: standard normal and gamma distributed traits; 2 transformed versions of the gamma trait (log 10 and rank-based inverse normal transformations); and trait Q1 provided by GAW 19. Each trait was tested with 313,340 SNVs. Tests of association were performed with simple linear regression and average type I error rates were determined for minor allele frequency classes. Rare SNVs (minor allele frequency < 0.05) showed inflated type I error rates for non-normally distributed traits that increased as the minor allele frequency decreased. The inflation of average type I error rates increased as the significance threshold decreased. Normally distributed traits did not show inflated type I error rates with respect to the minor allele frequency for rare SNVs. There was no consistent effect of transformation on the uniformity of the distribution of the location of SNVs with a type I error.

  14. A simple framework for assessing the trade-off between the climate impact of aviation carbon dioxide emissions and contrails for a single flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Irvine, E; J Hoskins, B; P Shine, K

    2014-01-01

    Persistent contrails are an important climate impact of aviation which could potentially be reduced by re-routing aircraft to avoid contrailing; however this generally increases both the flight length and its corresponding CO 2 emissions. Here, we provide a simple framework to assess the trade-off between the climate impact of CO 2 emissions and contrails for a single flight, in terms of the absolute global warming potential and absolute global temperature potential metrics for time horizons of 20, 50 and 100 years. We use the framework to illustrate the maximum extra distance (with no altitude changes) that can be added to a flight and still reduce its overall climate impact. Small aircraft can fly up to four times further to avoid contrailing than large aircraft. The results have a strong dependence on the applied metric and time horizon. Applying a conservative estimate of the uncertainty in the contrail radiative forcing and climate efficacy leads to a factor of 20 difference in the maximum extra distance that could be flown to avoid a contrail. The impact of re-routing on other climatically-important aviation emissions could also be considered in this framework. (letters)

  15. High power laser therapy treatment compared to simple segmental physical rehabilitation in whiplash injuries (1° and 2° grade of the Quebec Task Force classification) involving muscles and ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Maria; Fachinetti, Giorgio Paolo

    2013-04-01

    whiplash is a frequent post traumatic pathology caused by muscle, tendon and capsular elements over stretching. The authors conducted a short term prospective randomised study to test the effectiveness of a multi wave High Power Laser Therapy (HPLT) versus conventional simple segmental physical rehabilitation (PT) included in Italian tariff nomenclature performance physiotherapy Study Design: prospective randomised study (Level II). the authors identified 135 homogeneous patients with whiplash grade 1 - 2 of the Quebec Task Force classification (QTFC). INAIL, the Italian National Workers Insurance, based in Milan, was reliable source for identifying patients. All patients with whiplash injuries grade 1 or 2 QTFC, were eligible for the study, starting from April 28 2010 to September 30 2010. Patients referred to a Coordinator (C.M.) who applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients who agreed to participate were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups. Dates for initial treatment session were arranged, including cervical spine X-ray, and assessment. Each patient gave informed consent for participation and agreed to adopt only the study treatment for 6 weeks. Group A (84 patients) was treated with High Power Laser Therapy (HPLT), Group B (51 patients) received conventional simple segmental physical rehabilitation (PT). During the treatment period, no other electro-medical therapy, analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs were allowed. All patients were assessed at baseline (T0) and at the end of the treatment period (T1) using a Visual Analogical Scale (VAS), (T2) the date of return to work was registered afterwards. there was a reduction in VAS pain scores at T1. Group A (VAS = 20) Group B (VAS = 34,8) (p =0.0048). Laser treatment allowed quick recovery and return to work (T2). Group A after 48 days against 66 days of Group B (p=0.0005). results suggest that High Power Laser Therapy - is an effective treatment in patients with whiplash injury

  16. Limited effect of dopaminergic medication on straight walking and turning in early to moderate Parkinson’s disease during single and dual tasking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morad eElshehabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Parkinson’s disease (PD, the effects of dopaminergic medication on straight walking and turning were mainly investigated under single tasking (ST conditions. However, multitasking situations are considered more daily relevant.Methods: Thirty-nine early to moderate PD patients performed the following standarized ST and dual tasks (DT as fast as possible for one minute during On- and Off-medication while wearing inertial sensors: straight walking and turning, checking boxes, and subtracting serial 7s. Quantitative gait parameters, as well as velocity of the secondary tasks were analyzed.Results: The following parameters improved significantly in On-medication during ST: gait velocity during straight walking (p=0.03; step duration (p=0.048 and peak velocity (p=0.04 during turning; velocity of checking boxes during ST (p=0.04 and DT (p=0.04. Velocity of checking boxes was the only parameter that also improved during DT.Conclusion: These results suggest that dopaminergic medication does not relevantly influence straight walking and turning in early to moderate PD during DT.

  17. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  18. Discourse segmentation and the management of multiple tasks in single episodes of air traffic controller-pilot spoken radio communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Falzon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Episodes of VHF radio-mediated pilot-controller spoken communication in which multiple tasks are conducted are engendered in and through the skilful deployment and combination, by the parties to the talk, of multiple orders of discourse segmentation. These orders of segmentation are manifest at the levels of transmission design and sequential organisation. Both of these features are analysed from a Conversation Analytic standpoint in order to track their segment by segment genesis, development and completion. From the analysis it emerges that in addition to the serial type of sequential organisations described by Schegloff (1986, there exists an alternative form of organisation that enables tasks to be managed in a quasi-parallel manner, and which affords controllers and pilots a number of practical advantages in the conduct of their radio-mediated service encounters.Cet article présente des extraits d’échanges oraux entre pilots et contrôleurs du ciel via la radio VHF. On peut y voir comment le déploiement et la combinaison habile de plusieurs ordres de segmentation discursive, engageant les deux coénonciateurs de la conversation, leur permet d’accomplir des tâches multiples. Ces ordres de segmentation se manifestent aux niveaux du plan de la transmission et de l’organisation séquentielle. Ces deux niveaux sont envisagées du point de vue de l’analyse conversationnelle dans le but d’examiner, segment après segment, comment ils se mettent en place, se développent puis prennent fin. Notre étude montre que, outre le type sériel d’organisations séquentielles décrit par Schegloff (1986, il existe une forme alternative d’organisation qui permet de gérer les tâches de manière quasi parallèle, et qui fournit aux contrôleurs aériens ainsi qu’aux pilotes de nombreux avantages pratiques dans la conduite de leurs radio.

  19. A dual-task home-based rehabilitation programme for improving balance control in patients with acquired brain injury: a single-blind, randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirone, Eliana; Goria, Paolo Filiberto; Anselmino, Arianna

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the safety, feasibility and effectiveness of a dual-task home-based rehabilitation programme on balance impairments among adult patients with acquired brain injury. Single-blind, randomized controlled pilot study. Single rehabilitation centre. Sixteen participants between 12 and 18 months post-acquired brain injury with balance impairments and a score task home-based programme six days a week for seven weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Balance Evaluation System Test; secondary measures were the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale and Goal Attainment Scaling. At the end of the pilot study, the intervention group showed significantly greater improvement in Balance Evaluation System Test scores (17.87, SD 6.05) vs. the control group (5.5, SD 3.53; P = 0.008, r = 0.63). There was no significant difference in improvement in Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale scores between the intervention group (25.25, SD 25.51) and the control group (7.00, SD 14.73; P = 0.11, r = 0.63). There was no significant improvement in Goal Attainment Scaling scores in the intervention (19.37, SD 9.03) vs. the control group (16.28, SD 6.58; P = 0.093, r = 0.63). This pilot study shows the safety, feasibility and short-term benefit of a dual-task home-based rehabilitation programme to improve balance control in patients with acquired brain injury. A sample size of 26 participants is required for a definitive study.

  20. Yielding the yield-stress analysis: a study focused on the effects of elasticity on the settling of a single spherical particle in simple yield-stress fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraggedakis, D; Dimakopoulos, Y; Tsamopoulos, J

    2016-06-28

    The sedimentation of a single particle in materials that exhibit simultaneously elastic, viscous and plastic behavior is examined in an effort to explain phenomena that contradict the nature of purely yield-stress materials. Such phenomena include the loss of the fore-and-aft symmetry with respect to an isolated settling particle under creeping flow conditions and the appearance of the "negative wake" behind it. Despite the fact that similar observations have been reported in studies involving viscoelastic fluids, researchers conjectured that thixotropy is responsible for these phenomena, as the aging of yield-stress materials is another common feature. By means of transient calculations, we study the effect of elasticity on both the fluidized and the solid phase. The latter is considered to behave as an ideal Hookean solid. The material properties of the model are determined under the isotropic kinematic hardening framework via Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (LAOS) measurements. In this way, we are able to predict accurately the unusual phenomena observed in experiments with simple yield-stress materials, irrespective of the appearance of slip on the particle surface. Viscoelasticity favors the formation of intense shear and extensional stresses downstream of the particle, significantly changing the entrapment mechanism in comparison to that observed in viscoplastic fluids. Therefore, the critical conditions under which the entrapment of the particle occurs deviate from the well-known criterion established theoretically by Beris et al. (1985) and verified experimentally by Tabuteau et al. (2007) for similar materials under conditions that elastic effects are negligible. Our predictions are in quantitative agreement with published experimental results by Holenberg et al. (2012) on the loss of the fore-aft symmetry and the formation of the negative wake in Carbopol with well-characterized rheology. Additionally, we propose simple expressions for the Stokes drag

  1. Comparison of a laboratory grade force platform with a Nintendo Wii Balance Board on measurement of postural control in single-leg stance balance tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurnink, Arnold; Fransz, Duncan P; Kingma, Idsart; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2013-04-26

    Training and testing of balance have potential applications in sports and medicine. Laboratory grade force plates (FP) are considered the gold standard for the measurement of balance performance. Measurements in these systems are based on the parameterization of center of pressure (CoP) trajectories. Previous research validated the inexpensive, widely available and portable Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB). The novelty of the present study is that FP and WBB are compared on CoP data that was collected simultaneously, by placing the WBB on the FP. Fourteen healthy participants performed ten sequences of single-leg stance tasks with eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC) and after a sideways hop (HOP). Within trial comparison of the two systems showed small root-mean-square differences for the CoP trajectories in the x and y direction during the three tasks (mean±SD; EO: 0.33±0.10 and 0.31±0.16 mm; EC: 0.58±0.17 and 0.63±0.19 mm; HOP: 0.74±0.34 and 0.74±0.27 mm, respectively). Additionally, during all 420 trials, comparison of FP and WBB revealed very high Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) of the CoP trajectories (x: 0.999±0.002; y: 0.998±0.003). A general overestimation was found on the WBB compared to the FP for 'CoP path velocity' (EO: 5.3±1.9%; EC: 4.0±1.4%; HOP: 4.6±1.6%) and 'mean absolute CoP sway' (EO: 3.5±0.7%; EC: 3.7±0.5%; HOP: 3.6±1.0%). This overestimation was highly consistent over the 140 trials per task (r>0.996). The present findings demonstrate that WBB is sufficiently accurate in quantifying CoP trajectory, and overall amplitude and velocity during single-leg stance balance tasks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparing the effects of balance training with and without cognitive tasks on the quality of life and balance performance in community-dwelling older adults: a single-blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sinaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging process can deteriorate the ability to maintain balance, specifically under dual-task conditions. Thus far, different methods of exercises therapy have been applied to improve balance performance of older adults. The present study was designed to compare the effects of two protocols of balance training on the quality of life (QoL and balance performance in older adults with mild balance impairments. Methods: Twenty-four older adults over 60 years old were allocated randomly into single-task (n=12 and dual-task (n=12 exercise groups. Single-task group received routine balance exercises, over a four-week period and dual-task group was treated by the same exercise program plus a cognitive task. QoL and balance status were assessed by the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 and Fullerton Advanced Balance scale (FAB questionnaires, before and after the interventions. Results: After four weeks of training, balance performance and some factors of QoL improved significantly in both groups (P<0.05. However, there were no significant differences in any of the variables between the two groups. Conclusion: Balance exercises, under both single- and dual-task conditions can improve the balance level and some aspects of QoL in older adults with mild balance impairments, with no priority of one group over another.

  3. Simple prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Han M, Partin AW. Simple prostatectomy: open and robot-assisted laparoscopic approaches. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  4. Excel 2010 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Abbott

    2011-01-01

    Get the most out of Excel 2010 with Excel 2010 Made Simple - learn the key features, understand what's new, and utilize dozens of time-saving tips and tricks to get your job done. Over 500 screen visuals and clear-cut instructions guide you through the features of Excel 2010, from formulas and charts to navigating around a worksheet and understanding Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and macros. Excel 2010 Made Simple takes a practical and highly effective approach to using Excel 2010, showing you the best way to complete your most common spreadsheet tasks. You'll learn how to input, format,

  5. Single and Dual Task Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie de Bruin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the viability and efficacy of integrating cadence-matched, salient music into a walking intervention for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Twenty-two people with PD were randomised to a control (CTRL, n=11 or experimental (MUSIC, n=11 group. MUSIC subjects walked with an individualised music playlist three times a week for the intervention period. Playlists were designed to meet subject's musical preferences. In addition, the tempo of the music closely matched (±10–15 bpm the subject's preferred cadence. CTRL subjects continued with their regular activities during the intervention. The effects of training accompanied by “walking songs” were evaluated using objective measures of gait score. The MUSIC group improved gait velocity, stride time, cadence, and motor symptom severity following the intervention. This is the first study to demonstrate that music listening can be safely implemented amongst PD patients during home exercise.

  6. It Is Not That Simple nor Compelling!; Comment on “Translating Evidence Into Healthcare Policy and Practice: Single Versus Multi-faceted Implementation Strategies – Is There a Simple Answer to a Complex Question?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Bucknall

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare decisions are often made under pressure, with varying levels of information in a changing clinical context. With limited resources and a focus on improving patient outcomes, healthcare managers and health professionals strive to implement both clinical and cost-effective care. However, the gap between research evidence and health policy/clinical practice persists despite our best efforts. In an attempt to close the gap through behaviour change interventions, there has been a strong held belief that ‘more is better,’ without understanding the mechanisms and circumstances of knowledge translation (KT. We argue that even a singleintervention or strategy in translating evidence into healthcare policy or practice is rarely simple to implement. Nor is the evidence compelling on the best approach. As Harvey and Kitson argued, designing and evaluating KT interventions requires flexibility and responsiveness. If we are to move forward in translation science then we need to use rigorous designs such as randomised controlled trials to test effectiveness of interventions or strategies with embedded process evaluations to understand the reason interventions do or do not work!

  7. Analyser for fast single events; Analyseur d'evenements rapides simples; Analizator bystrykh odnokratnykh yavlenij; Analizador de sucesos rapidos no recurrentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlmeyer, J W; Patten, R B; Fussell, L Jr [Edgerton, Germeshausen And Grier, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1962-04-15

    An electronic analyser has been designed and constructed for use with single non-recurring transient signals. The signal, during passage along a coaxial line, is sampled instantaneously at a number of tap-off points, by means of a single short-duration gate pulse. Multipoint time-dissection is accomplished using a gate-duration and a time-interval between samples, which are independently adjustable from about 4 ns. The time-intervals may be programmed in non-linear array, and jitter is less than 0.5 ns. The speed of response is at present limited by diode characteristics. Each sampled voltage is stretched in a circuit which retains the voltage amplitude. A time-stretch by a factor of 10{sup 8} has been realized, with good stability. These data points may be commutated and transmitted over open-wire to low-frequency recording systems ; they may be converted to digital form for rapid data-processing, using conventional equipment; and/or they may be presented visually. The analyser is advantageous, compared with high-speed oscilloscopy, when large numbers of single-transients require individual analysis; such requirements exist for investigations into fluctuations in the response of systems, or for production-testing of components. The analyser is advantageous when the data-analysis must be accomplished quickly after the signal event occurs; it is not necessary to develop films or to read them. The analyser is also advantageous when the analysis-computation centre is located remotely from the event. Applications of this technique in the nuclear field are many. Fluctuation studies of reactors and subcritical assemblies may be carried out rapidly by pulsed neutron techniques. The build-up and decay characteristics of detectors may be determined, together with analysis of statistics and fluctuations. The pulse shape of the radiation wave from nuclear accelerators may be measured. Neutron-spectrometry using the time-of-flight method may be facilitated. Isomeric studies

  8. Single- and dual-task performance during on-the-road driving at a low and moderate dose of alcohol: A comparison between young novice and more experienced drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Stefan; van der Sluiszen, Nick N J J M; Brown, Dennis; Vuurman, Eric F P M

    2018-05-01

    Driving experience and alcohol are two factors associated with a higher risk of crash involvement in young novice drivers. Driving a car is a complex task involving multiple tasks leading to dividing attention. The aim of this study was to compare the single and combined effects of a low and moderate dose of alcohol on single- and dual-task performance between young novice and more experienced young drivers during actual driving. Nine healthy novice drivers were compared with 9 more experienced drivers in a three-way, placebo-controlled, cross-over study design. Driving performance was measured in actual traffic, with standard deviation of lateral position as the primary outcome variable. Secondary task performance was measured with an auditory word learning test during driving. Results showed that standard deviation of lateral position increased dose-dependently at a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.2 and 0.5 g/L in both novice and experienced drivers. Secondary task performance was impaired in both groups at a BAC of 0.5 g/L. Furthermore, it was found that driving performance in novice drivers was already impaired at a BAC of 0.2 g/L during dual-task performance. The findings suggest that young inexperienced drivers are especially vulnerable to increased mental load while under the influence of alcohol. © 2018 The Authors Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Caffeine improves anticipatory processes in task switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieges, Zoe; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Wijnen, Jasper G.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    We studied the effects of moderate amounts of caffeine on task switching and task maintenance using mixed-task (AABB) blocks, in which participants alternated predictably between two tasks, and single-task (AAAA, BBBB) blocks. Switch costs refer to longer reaction times (RT) on task switch trials

  10. A single simple procedure for dewaxing, hydration and heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) for immunohistochemistry in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, I M S; Dimke, H; Frische, S

    2015-01-01

    Heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) is widely used for immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and includes temperatures well above the melting point of paraffin. We therefore tested whether traditional xylene-based removal of paraffin is required on sections from paraff...... of dewaxing in xylene. In conclusion, the HIER procedure described and tested can be used as a single procedure enabling dewaxing, hydration and epitope retrieval for immunohistochemistry in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue....

  11. Sleep-wake patterns in patients with cirrhosis: all you need to know on a single sheet. A simple sleep questionnaire for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnese, Sara; Middleton, Benita; Skene, Debra J; Morgan, Marsha Y

    2009-10-01

    Sleep-wake abnormalities are common in patients with cirrhosis but their evaluation is time consuming and laborious. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a simple Sleep Timing and Sleep Quality Screening questionnaire (STSQS) against an established sleep quality questionnaire and daily sleep diaries. The study population comprised 87 patients with cirrhosis and 19 healthy volunteers. All participants completed the STSQS (sleep quality score range 1-9) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI; total score range: 0-21; scores >5 identify 'poor' sleepers); a subgroup of 35 patients and 12 healthy volunteers also kept daily sleep diaries for 2 weeks. Patients slept significantly less well than the healthy volunteers (total PSQI score: 8.4+/-4.9 vs. 4.6+/-2.5, p4: sensitivity 75%, specificity 93%; patients: STSQS sleep quality >3: sensitivity 83%, specificity 70%). The STSQS provided estimates of habitual sleep timing variables which did not significantly differ from the average data recorded in the sleep diaries, although more variability was observed in the patients. The STSQS provides acceptable estimates of sleep quality and sleep timing and could be used to identify patients with cirrhosis whose sleep behaviour might require further assessment.

  12. Fototerapia simples versus dupla no tratamento de recém-nascidos a termo com hiperbilirrubinemia não-hemolítica Single vs. double phototherapy in the treatment of full-term newborns with nonhemolytic hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacia Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a eficácia da fototerapia simples (1 painel versus dupla (2 painéis na redução da hiperbilirrubinemia não-hemolítica em recém-nascidos a termo. MÉTODOS: Os recém-nascidos a termo foram randomizados prospectivamente para receber fototerapia simples ou dupla. Os níveis de bilirrubina foram medidos no momento da internação e em intervalos de 12 horas, assim como em seguimento 48 horas após a alta. RESULTADOS: Trinta e sete pacientes receberam fototerapia simples, e 40, dupla. A redução média dos níveis de bilirrubina nas primeiras 24 horas de tratamento foi maior no grupo que recebeu fototerapia dupla (5,1±2,2 mg/dL versus 4,3±2,1 mg/dL, porém sem significância estatística (p = 0,18. As taxas de readmissão foram similares e nenhum dos grupos apresentou efeitos adversos. CONCLUSÃO: A fototerapia dupla não foi mais eficaz do que a fototerapia simples no tratamento da hiperbilirrubinemia não-hemolítica em recém-nascidos a termo. Entretanto, nossos resultados sugerem que a fototerapia dupla possa ser mais eficaz em recém-nascidos a termo com níveis de bilirrubina mais altos no momento da internação.OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of single (1 panel vs. double (2 panels phototherapy in reducing nonhemolytic hyperbilirubinemia in term newborns. METHODS: Term newborns with hyperbilirubinemia were prospectively randomized to receive double or single phototherapy. Bilirubin levels were measured at admission and at 12-hour intervals, as well as at a follow-up 48 hours after discharge. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients received single and 40 double phototherapy. The mean decrease in bilirubin level in the first 24 hours of treatment was greater in the double phototherapy group (5.1±2.2 mg/dL vs. 4.3±2.1 mg/dL, but without statistical significance (p = 0.18. Readmission rates were similar and no adverse effects were found in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Double-surface was not more effective than single

  13. A simple, high-throughput method to detect Plasmodium falciparum single nucleotide polymorphisms in the dihydrofolate reductase, dihydropteroate synthase, and P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter genes using polymerase chain reaction- and enzyme-linked immunosorbent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alifrangis, Michael; Enosse, Sonia; Pearce, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps), and chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) genes are used as molecular markers of P. falciparum resistance to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and chloroquine....... However, to be a practical tool in the surveillance of drug resistance, simpler methods for high-throughput haplotyping are warranted. Here we describe a quick and simple technique that detects dhfr, dhps, and Pfcrt SNPs using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA...

  14. Investigating Perfect Timesharing: The Relationship between IM-Compatible Tasks and Dual-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Kimberly M.; Ebner, Herschel; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    Why are dual-task costs reduced with ideomotor (IM) compatible tasks (Greenwald & Shulman, 1973; Lien, Proctor & Allen, 2002)? In the present experiments, we first examine three different measures of single-task performance (pure single-task blocks, mixed blocks, and long stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] trials in dual-task blocks) and two…

  15. Bentonite clay purification for development of polymeric nan composites using a single screw extruder; Purificacao de argila bentonita para desenvolvimento de nanocomposito polimerico utilizando uma extrusora rosca simples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In this work, a bentonite clay rich in montmorillonite was purified and chemical treat to be used in the development of poly (methyl methacrylate) /clay nanocomposites via melting processes. After the clay treatment and purification, a masterbatch with 25% clay and 75% PMMA was produced by solution technique, using acetone as solvent. For produce samples with 2.5% clay, the masterbatch along with pure polymer were added and mixed in single screw extruder with a diameter of 16 mm and W/D 26. X-rays diffractometry (XRD) and X-rays fluorescence (XRF). Tests were performed to evaluate and characterizing the bentonite clay used in the development of this work and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests were performed to evaluate changes in the thermal properties of the nanocomposites produced. (author)

  16. A simple, high throughput method to locate single copy sequences from Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC libraries using High Resolution Melt analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caligari Peter DS

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high-throughput anchoring of genetic markers into contigs is required for many ongoing physical mapping projects. Multidimentional BAC pooling strategies for PCR-based screening of large insert libraries is a widely used alternative to high density filter hybridisation of bacterial colonies. To date, concerns over reliability have led most if not all groups engaged in high throughput physical mapping projects to favour BAC DNA isolation prior to amplification by conventional PCR. Results Here, we report the first combined use of Multiplex Tandem PCR (MT-PCR and High Resolution Melt (HRM analysis on bacterial stocks of BAC library superpools as a means of rapidly anchoring markers to BAC colonies and thereby to integrate genetic and physical maps. We exemplify the approach using a BAC library of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Super pools of twenty five 384-well plates and two-dimension matrix pools of the BAC library were prepared for marker screening. The entire procedure only requires around 3 h to anchor one marker. Conclusions A pre-amplification step during MT-PCR allows high multiplexing and increases the sensitivity and reliability of subsequent HRM discrimination. This simple gel-free protocol is more reliable, faster and far less costly than conventional PCR screening. The option to screen in parallel 3 genetic markers in one MT-PCR-HRM reaction using templates from directly pooled bacterial stocks of BAC-containing bacteria further reduces time for anchoring markers in physical maps of species with large genomes.

  17. A single simple procedure for dewaxing, hydration and heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER for immunohistochemistry in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.S. Paulsen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER is widely used for immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and includes temperatures well above the melting point of paraffin. We therefore tested whether traditional xylene-based removal of paraffin is required on sections from paraffin-embedded tissue, when HIER is performed by vigorous boiling in 10 mM Tris/0.5 mM EGTA-buffer (pH=9. Immunohistochemical results using HIER with or without prior dewaxing in xylene were evaluated using 7 primary antibodies targeting proteins located in the cytosol, intracellular vesicles and plasma membrane. No effect of omitting prior dewaxing was observed on staining pattern. Semiquantitative analysis did not show HIER to influence the intensity of labelling consistently. Consequently, quantification of immune labelling intensity using fluorescent secondary antibodies was performed at 5 dilutions of primary antibody with and without prior dewaxing in xylene. No effect of omitting prior dewaxing on signal intensity was detectable indicating similar immunoreactivity in dewaxed and non-dewaxed sections. The intensity of staining the nucleus with the DNA-stain ToPro3 was similarly unaffected by omission of dewaxing in xylene. In conclusion, the HIER procedure described and tested can be used as a single procedure enabling dewaxing, hydration and epitope retrieval for immunohistochemistry in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

  18. Numerical investigation on lateral migration and lift force of single bubble in simple shear flow in low viscosity fluid using volume of fluid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhongchun, Li; Xiaoming, Song; Shengyao, Jiang; Jiyang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A VOF simulation of bubble in low viscosity fluid was conducted. • Lift force in different viscosity fluid had different lateral migration characteristics. • Bubble with different size migrated to different direction. • Shear stress triggered the bubble deformation process and the bubble deformation came along with the oscillation behaviors. - Abstract: Two phase flow systems have been widely used in industrial engineering. Phase distribution characteristics are vital to the safety operation and optimization design of two phase flow systems. Lift force has been known as perpendicular to the bubbles’ moving direction, which is one of the mechanisms of interfacial momentum transfer. While most widely used lift force correlations, such as the correlation of Tomiyama et al. (2002), were obtained by experimentally tracking single bubble trajectories in high viscosity glycerol–water mixture, the applicability of these models into low viscosity fluid, such as water in nuclear engineering system, needs to be further evaluated. In the present paper, bubble in low viscosity fluid in shear flow was investigated in a full 3D numerical simulation and the volume of fluid (VOF) method was applied to capture the interface. The fluid parameter: fluid viscosity, bubble parameter: diameter and external flow parameters: shear stress magnitude and liquid velocity were examined. Comparing with bubble in high viscosity shear flow and bubble in low viscosity still flow, relative large bubble in low viscosity shear flow keep an oscillation way towards the moving wall and experienced a shape deformation process. The oscillation amplitude increased as the viscosity of fluid decreased. Small bubble migrated to the static wall in a line with larger migration velocity than that in high viscosity fluid and no deformation occurred. The shear stress triggered the oscillation behaviors while it had no direct influence with the behavior. The liquid velocity had no effect on

  19. A simple and effective protocol for fast isolation of human Tenon's fibroblasts from a single trabeculectomy biopsy - a comparison of cell behaviour in different culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekora, Agata; Zarnowski, Tomasz; Ginalska, Grazyna

    2017-01-01

    Human Tenon's fibroblasts (HTFs) play a crucial role in wound healing. They cause postoperative scarring of the filtering bleb and are thus responsible for trabeculectomy failure. This study aimed to find an effective and fast protocol for HTF isolation from trabeculectomy biopsies. The protocol was compared with the commonly recommended HTF isolation procedure, which uses Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM). We used Eagle's minimum essential medium (EMEM) enriched with fibroblast growth factor (FGF), which selectively promoted the proliferation of HTF cells. A secondary goal was to compare HTF morphology, metabolism and growth during parallel cultivation of the isolated cells in FGF-enriched EMEM and DMEM. Standard procedures for HTF isolation from tissue biopsies require a 20- to 30-day culture of the explants to obtain the first monolayer. Our protocol yielded the first monolayer after approx. 15 days. More importantly, the majority of the cells were fibroblasts with only individual epithelium-derived cells present. Using FGF-enriched EMEM allowed 1.3 × 10 6 vimentin-positive fibroblasts to be obtained from a single biopsy within approx. 25 days. Using DMEM resulted in isolation failure and required exchange to FGF-enriched medium to recover the fibroblast culture. HTFs maintained in FGF-enriched EMEM also showed faster proliferation and a different type I collagen production ability compared to HTFs cultured in DMEM. Thus, FGF-enriched EMEM is recommended for fast propagation of HTFs unless the aim of the study is to assess the effect of a tested agent on proliferation ability or type I collagen production. Our fast protocol for HTF isolation allows easy setup of cell banks by researchers under laboratory conditions and could be very useful during testing of novel ophthalmologic anti-fibrotic agents in vitro. Molecular analysis of HTFs isolated from patients with known treatment histories may provide valuable information on the effects of some

  20. Poorer divided attention in children born very preterm can be explained by difficulty with each component task, not the executive requirement to dual-task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delane, Louise; Campbell, Catherine; Bayliss, Donna M; Reid, Corinne; Stephens, Amelia; French, Noel; Anderson, Mike

    2017-07-01

    Children born very preterm (VP, ≤ 32 weeks) exhibit poor performance on tasks of executive functioning. However, it is largely unknown whether this reflects the cumulative impact of non-executive deficits or a separable impairment in executive-level abilities. A dual-task paradigm was used in the current study to differentiate the executive processes involved in performing two simple attention tasks simultaneously. The executive-level contribution to performance was indexed by the within-subject cost incurred to single-task performance under dual-task conditions, termed dual-task cost. The participants included 77 VP children (mean age: 7.17 years) and 74 peer controls (mean age: 7.16 years) who completed Sky Search (selective attention), Score (sustained attention) and Sky Search DT (divided attention) from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children. The divided-attention task requires the simultaneous performance of the selective- and sustained-attention tasks. The VP group exhibited poorer performance on the selective- and divided-attention tasks, and showed a strong trend toward poorer performance on the sustained-attention task. However, there were no significant group differences in dual-task cost. These results suggest a cumulative impact of vulnerable lower-level cognitive processes on dual-tasking or divided attention in VP children, and fail to support the hypothesis that VP children show a separable impairment in executive-level abilities.

  1. Designing for dynamic task allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, van K.; Maanen, van P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Future platforms are envisioned in which human-machine teams are able to share and trade tasks as demands in situations change. It seems that human-machine coordination has not received the attention it deserves by past and present approaches to task allocation. In this paper a simple way to make

  2. Effects of noise and task loading on a communication task loading on a communication task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrell, Dean H., II

    Previous research had shown the effect of noise on a single communication task. This research has been criticized as not being representative of a real world situation since subjects allocated all of their attention to only one task. In the present study, the effect of adding a loading task to a standard noise-communication paradigm was investigated. Subjects performed both a communication task (Modified Rhyme Test; House et al. 1965) and a short term memory task (Sternberg, 1969) in simulated levels of aircraft noise (95, 105 and 115 dB overall sound pressure level (OASPL)). Task loading was varied with Sternberg's task by requiring subjects to memorize one, four, or six alphanumeric characters. Simulated aircraft noise was varied between levels of 95, 105 and 115 dB OASPL using a pink noise source. Results show that the addition of Sternberg's task and little effect on the intelligibility of the communication task while response time for the communication task increased.

  3. Estabilidade de produção de híbridos simples e duplos de milho oriundos de um mesmo conjunto gênico Yield stability in single and double crosses of maize originated from the same gene pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Campolina Machado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar a estabilidade de híbridos simples e híbridos duplos de milho oriundos de um mesmo conjunto gênico. Foram avaliados 55 tratamentos, sendo dez híbridos simples comerciais, utilizados como parentais e 45 híbridos duplos resultantes de um dialelo completo. As sementes dos híbridos duplos foram obtidas na área experimental do Departamento de Biologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras (DBI/UFLA. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos em 15 ambientes, no ano agrícola de 2005/2006, em propriedades de agricultores e estações experimentais. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com três repetições e o caráter avaliado foi a produtividade de espigas despalhadas (kg ha-1, corrigida para 13% de umidade. Obteve-se a contribuição de cada híbrido para a interação genótipos x ambientes e o desvio em relação ao desempenho máximo em cada ambiente utilizando a estatística não-paramétrica por meio da soma de postos. Os híbridos duplos foram, em média, mais estáveis, contudo, identificaram-se híbridos simples tão estáveis quanto os duplos.The objective of the present work was to study the adaptability and stability of single and double-crosses of maize originated from the same gene pool. Ten commercial single-crosses and all possible double-crosses, obtained from a complete diallel, were evaluated. Seeds of the double-crosses were obtained in an experimental area of the Biology Department at Universidade Federal de Lavras (DBI/UFLA. The experiments were conducted in 15 environments in the 2005/06 growing season, on farms and in experimental stations. The cultural practices were the ones normally used by farmers or experimental stations for maize. The entries were evaluated in randomized complete blocks design with three replications per environment. The trait under study was husked ears yield (kg ha-1, corrected to 13% of moisture content

  4. A Comparison of the Effects of Temporary Hippocampal Lesions on Single and Dual Context Versions of the Olfactory Sequence Memory Task

    OpenAIRE

    Sill, Orriana C.; Smith, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many animal models of memory have focused on one or more of the various components of episodic memory. For example, the odor sequence memory task requires subjects to remember individual items and events (the odors) and the temporal aspects of the experience (the sequence of odor presentation). The well-known spatial context coding function of the hippocampus, as exemplified by place cell firing, may reflect the ‘where’ component of episodic memory. In the present study, we a...

  5. Changes in ground reaction force during a rebound-jump task after hip strength training for single-sided ankle dorsiflexion restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hitoshi; Someya, Fujiko

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lateral ankle sprains are common injuries suffered while playing sports, and abnormal forward- and inward-directed ground reaction force occurs during a jumping task. However, the influence of hip muscle strength training on jumping performance after ankle injuries has not been fully examined. This study thus examined changes in ground reaction force during a rebound-jump task after training to strengthen hip muscles. [Subjects and Methods] Ten of 30 female high school basketball players were assigned as subjects who showed a difference of 7 or more degrees in dorsiflexion ranges between the bilateral ankles. The subjects underwent 12 weeks of training to strengthen hip abductors and external rotators. Comparisons between before and after training were made regarding ground reaction force components, hip and knee joint angles, percentage of maximum voluntary contraction in leg muscles, and muscle strength of hip muscles during the rebound-jump task. [Results] After training, the subjects showed increased strength of external rotator muscles, increased percentage of maximum voluntary contraction in the gluteus medius muscle, decreased inward ground reaction force, and increased flexion angles of the hip and knee joints. [Conclusion] This study suggests that training to strengthen hip muscles may ameliorate the inward ground reaction force in athletes with ankle dorsiflexion restriction.

  6. Estimating rice yield related traits and quantitative trait loci analysis under different nitrogen treatments using a simple tower-based field phenotyping system with modified single-lens reflex cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Hiroki; Ogawa, Satoshi; Valencia, Milton Orlando; Mohri, Hiroki; Urano, Yutaka; Hosoi, Fumiki; Shimizu, Yo; Chavez, Alba Lucia; Ishitani, Manabu; Selvaraj, Michael Gomez; Omasa, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Application of field based high-throughput phenotyping (FB-HTP) methods for monitoring plant performance in real field conditions has a high potential to accelerate the breeding process. In this paper, we discuss the use of a simple tower based remote sensing platform using modified single-lens reflex cameras for phenotyping yield traits in rice under different nitrogen (N) treatments over three years. This tower based phenotyping platform has the advantages of simplicity, ease and stability in terms of introduction, maintenance and continual operation under field conditions. Out of six phenological stages of rice analyzed, the flowering stage was the most useful in the estimation of yield performance under field conditions. We found a high correlation between several vegetation indices (simple ratio (SR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), transformed vegetation index (TVI), corrected transformed vegetation index (CTVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI)) and multiple yield traits (panicle number, grain weight and shoot biomass) across a three trials. Among all of the indices studied, SR exhibited the best performance in regards to the estimation of grain weight (R2 = 0.80). Under our tower-based field phenotyping system (TBFPS), we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield related traits using a mapping population of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) and a single nucleotide polymorphism data set. Our findings suggest the TBFPS can be useful for the estimation of yield performance during early crop development. This can be a major opportunity for rice breeders whom desire high throughput phenotypic selection for yield performance traits.

  7. Buckling of steel containment shells. Task 4. Use of the PANDA program for simple buckling analyses of stiffened cylindrical shells. Final report, 25 August 1980-30 September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushnell, D.

    1982-12-01

    Under Task 4 the PANDA computer program was modified to permit calculation of critical load interaction curves for buckling of stiffened cylindrical shells with stiffeners running axially or circumferentially or both. Knockdown factors for geometric imperfections and plasticity reduction factors were introduced so that interaction curves can now be calculated for imperfect elastic-plastic shells. The knockdown factors and plasticity reduction factors are computed from a modified form of ASME Code Case N-284. The new version of PANDA was checked by making numerous comparisons with tests on fabricated stiffened cylinders

  8. Is simple nephrectomy truly simple? Comparison with the radical alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, S S; O'Brien, M Frank; Kunni, I M; Phelan, E; Conroy, R; Thornhill, J A; Grainger, R

    2011-03-01

    The Oxford English dictionary defines the term "simple" as "easily done" and "uncomplicated". We tested the validity of this terminology in relation to open nephrectomy surgery. Retrospective review of 215 patients undergoing open, simple (n = 89) or radical (n = 126) nephrectomy in a single university-affiliated institution between 1998 and 2002. Operative time (OT), estimated blood loss (EBL), operative complications (OC) and length of stay in hospital (LOS) were analysed. Statistical analysis employed Fisher's exact test and Stata Release 8.2. Simple nephrectomy was associated with shorter OT (mean 126 vs. 144 min; p = 0.002), reduced EBL (mean 729 vs. 859 cc; p = 0.472), lower OC (9 vs. 17%; 0.087), and more brief LOS (mean 6 vs. 8 days; p < 0.001). All parameters suggest favourable outcome for the simple nephrectomy group, supporting the use of this terminology. This implies "simple" nephrectomies are truly easier to perform with less complication than their radical counterpart.

  9. Renal Transplants from Older Deceased Donors: Use of Preimplantation Biopsy and Differential Allocation to Dual or Single Kidney Transplant according to Histological Score Has No Advantages over Allocation to Single Kidney Transplant by Simple Clinical Indication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Casati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Grafts from elderly donors (ECD are increasingly allocated to single (SKT or dual (DKT kidney transplantation according to biopsy score. Indications and benefits of either procedure lack universal agreement. Methods. A total of 302 ECD-transplants in period from Jan 1, 2000, to Dec 31, 2015, were allocated to SKT (SKTpre on clinical grounds alone (before Dec 2010, pre-DKT era, n=170 or according to a clinical-histological protocol (after Dec 2010, DKT era, n=132 to DKT (n=48, SKT biopsy-based protocol (“high-risk”, SKThr, n=51, or SKT clinically based protocol (“low-risk”, SKTlr, n=33. Graft and patient survival were compared between the two periods and between different transplant categories. Results. Graft and overall survival in recipients from ECD in pre-DKT and DKT era did not differ (5-year graft survival 87.7% and 84.2%, resp.; equal survival in the 2 ECD periods was shown in both donor age ranges of 60–69 and >70-years, and in low-risk or high-risk ECD categories. Within the DKT protocol SKThr showed worst graft and overall survival in the 60–69 donor age range; DKT did not result in significantly better outcome than SKT from ECD in either era. One-year posttransplant creatinine clearance in recipients did not differ between any ECD transplant category. At 3 and 5 years after transplantation there were significantly higher total dialysis-free recipient life years from an equal donor number in the pre-DKT era than in the DKT protocol. Conclusions. Use of a biopsy-based protocol to allocate grafts from aged donors to SKT or DKT did not result in better short term graft survival than a clinically based protocol with allocation only to SKT and reduced overall recipient dialysis-free life years in time.

  10. Renal Transplants from Older Deceased Donors: Use of Preimplantation Biopsy and Differential Allocation to Dual or Single Kidney Transplant according to Histological Score Has No Advantages over Allocation to Single Kidney Transplant by Simple Clinical Indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Costanza; Colombo, Valeriana Giuseppina; Perrino, Marialuisa; Rossetti, Ornella Marina; Querques, Marialuisa; Giacomoni, Alessandro; Binaggia, Agnese; Colussi, Giacomo

    2018-01-01

    Grafts from elderly donors (ECD) are increasingly allocated to single (SKT) or dual (DKT) kidney transplantation according to biopsy score. Indications and benefits of either procedure lack universal agreement. A total of 302 ECD-transplants in period from Jan 1, 2000, to Dec 31, 2015, were allocated to SKT (SKT pre ) on clinical grounds alone (before Dec 2010, pre-DKT era, n = 170) or according to a clinical-histological protocol (after Dec 2010, DKT era, n = 132) to DKT ( n = 48), SKT biopsy-based protocol ("high-risk", SKT hr , n = 51), or SKT clinically based protocol ("low-risk", SKT lr , n = 33). Graft and patient survival were compared between the two periods and between different transplant categories. Graft and overall survival in recipients from ECD in pre-DKT and DKT era did not differ (5-year graft survival 87.7% and 84.2%, resp.); equal survival in the 2 ECD periods was shown in both donor age ranges of 60-69 and >70-years, and in low-risk or high-risk ECD categories. Within the DKT protocol SKT hr showed worst graft and overall survival in the 60-69 donor age range; DKT did not result in significantly better outcome than SKT from ECD in either era. One-year posttransplant creatinine clearance in recipients did not differ between any ECD transplant category. At 3 and 5 years after transplantation there were significantly higher total dialysis-free recipient life years from an equal donor number in the pre-DKT era than in the DKT protocol. Use of a biopsy-based protocol to allocate grafts from aged donors to SKT or DKT did not result in better short term graft survival than a clinically based protocol with allocation only to SKT and reduced overall recipient dialysis-free life years in time.

  11. New rather than old? For working memory tasks with abstract patterns the P3 and the single-trial delta response are larger for modified than identical probe stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, B; Schmiedt, J; Schmiedt-Fehr, C; Pantelis, C; Basar-Eroglu, C

    2012-07-01

    Memory-guided decision making is dynamic and context-dependent, even though many studies describe an enhancement of the P3 for recognized items in memory tasks ("old-new effect"). This study utilized a delay-dependent working memory task during which decision making could be optimized by focusing attention on detected changes instead of recognized similarities. Mean P3 amplitude and delta activity were analyzed from participants who classified probe stimuli as identical or modified. The P3 amplitudes were larger for modified than for identical probes, even when the probe occurred 4,000 ms after the primary stimulus. Enhanced single-trial amplitude, trial-by-trial consistency, and frontoparietal phase coherence of delta activity contributed to the larger P3 for the modified probe. Thus, context-dependent attentional resource allocation supporting memory-guided decisions might explain the enhancement of the P3 for specific probe types. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Performance Enhancements Under Dual-task Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, A. F.; Wickens, C. D.; Donchin, E.

    1984-01-01

    Research on dual-task performance has been concerned with delineating the antecedent conditions which lead to dual-task decrements. Capacity models of attention, which propose that a hypothetical resource structure underlies performance, have been employed as predictive devices. These models predict that tasks which require different processing resources can be more successfully time shared than tasks which require common resources. The conditions under which such dual-task integrality can be fostered were assessed in a study in which three factors likely to influence the integrality between tasks were manipulated: inter-task redundancy, the physical proximity of tasks and the task relevant objects. Twelve subjects participated in three experimental sessions in which they performed both single and dual-tasks. The primary task was a pursuit step tracking task. The secondary tasks required the discrimination between different intensities or different spatial positions of a stimulus. The results are discussed in terms of a model of dual-task integrality.

  13. Creating Simple Admin Tools Using Info*Engine and Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; Kapatos, Dennis; Skradski, Cory; Felkins, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    PTC has provided a simple way to dynamically interact with Windchill using Info*Engine. This presentation will describe how to create a simple Info*Engine Tasks capable of saving Windchill 10.0 administration of tedious work.

  14. A 9-Week Jaques-Dalcroze Eurhythmics Intervention Improves Single and Dual-Task Gait Speed in Community-Dwelling Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa; Vang, Mandy; Wolfe, Anthony S; Thomsen, Kathy M

    2017-09-01

    Falls are a major public health concern among older adults, and most occur while walking, especially under dualtask conditions. Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics (JDE) is a music-based movement training program that emphasizes multitask coordinated movement. A previous 6-mo JDE study in older people demonstrated improved gait and balance; however, the effects of short-term JDE interventions on fall risk-related outcomes are largely unknown. We conducted a preliminary investigation on whether a 9-week JDE intervention improved gait and stability in a community-dwelling older cohort, hypothesizing that improvements would occur in all outcome measures. Nine participants (78.9 ± 12.3 y) completed the supervised JDE intervention (once/week for 60 min). Gait speed was determined by the 6-m timed walk test (6MTW); dual-task gait speed was determined by another 6MTW while counting backward from 50 aloud; and coordinated stability was assessed using a Swaymeter-like device. Gait speed (0.92 ± 0.11 vs 1.04 ± 0.12 m/sec, P = .04) and dual-task gait speed (0.77 ± 0.09 vs 0.92 ± 0.11 m/sec, P = .0005) significantly improved. This novel intervention is an effective short-term physical activity option for those that plan physical activity or fall-risk reduction programs for the older people.

  15. Instant simple botting with PHP

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Shay Michael

    2013-01-01

    do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is a hands-on Starter guide that takes the reader from initialization to the coding and implementation of bot apps.Instant Simple Botting with PHP targets programmers of all levels who are familiar with common PHP functions and syntax, and who want to learn about bots and how to design and develop bots using objects.

  16. Crescimento de mudas de pinhão-manso em resposta a adubação com superfosfato simples e pó-de-rocha Growth of jatropha seedlings in response to single superphosphate and rock-flour fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Barbosa de Souza Prates

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas feitas com pó-de-rocha têm mostrado a potencialidade de alguns desses resíduos em promover o enriquecimento mineral de solos; prática definida como rochagem do solo. Ela visa aumentar a fertilidade do solo, proporcionar uma boa produtividade e maior sustentabilidade agrícola. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o crescimento de mudas de pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L. em resposta a adubação do substrato com superfosfato simples e pó-de-rocha. O experimento foi instalado e conduzido no período de setembro a novembro de 2007, em casa de vegetação do Instituto de Ciências Agrárias/UFMG. Os tratamentos, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com 3 repetições, corresponderam a 2 doses de pó-de-rocha (0 e 20 kg m-3 de substrato e 5 doses de superfosfato simples (1,25; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 kg m-3 de substrato. Foram avaliados: altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, relação altura da planta/diâmetro do caule, número de folhas por planta, área foliar, matéria fresca e seca da raiz e da parte aérea, matéria fresca e seca total, relação matéria seca da parte aérea/matéria seca da raiz e índice de qualidade de Dickson IQD. Os resultados mostram que não houve interação significativa entre as doses de fósforo e a de pó-de-rocha aplicadas e as variáveis estudadas. A aplicação de superfosfato simples foi significativa para altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, área foliar, matéria fresca da raiz, da parte aérea e total, respondendo positivamente até a dose máxima de fósforo aplicada.Research into rock-flour have shown the potential of some of these residues in promoting the mineral enrichment of soils; a practice defined as stonemeal soil. Such practice aims to increase soil fertility and provide good productivity and greater agricultural sustainability. The present study had as objective to evaluate the growth of jatropha seedlings (Jatropha curcas L. in response to

  17. Interval Timing Deficits Assessed by Time Reproduction Dual Tasks as Cognitive Endophenotypes for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang-Gu, Shoou-Lian; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-01-01

    The literature has suggested timing processing as a potential endophenotype for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, whether the subjective internal clock speed presented by verbal estimation and limited attention capacity presented by time reproduction could be endophenotypes for ADHD is still unknown. We assessed 223 youths with DSM-IV ADHD (age range: 10-17 years), 105 unaffected siblings, and 84 typically developing (TD) youths using psychiatric interviews, intelligence tests, verbal estimation and time reproduction tasks (single task and simple and difficult dual tasks) at 5-second, 12-second, and 17-second intervals. We found that youths with ADHD tended to overestimate time in verbal estimation more than their unaffected siblings and TD youths, implying that fast subjective internal clock speed might be a characteristic of ADHD, rather than an endophenotype for ADHD. Youths with ADHD and their unaffected siblings were less precise in time reproduction dual tasks than TD youths. The magnitude of estimated errors in time reproduction was greater in youths with ADHD and their unaffected siblings than in TD youths, with an increased time interval at the 17-second interval and with increased task demands on both simple and difficult dual tasks versus the single task. Increased impaired time reproduction in dual tasks with increased intervals and task demands were shown in youths with ADHD and their unaffected siblings, suggesting that time reproduction deficits explained by limited attention capacity might be a useful endophenotype of ADHD. PMID:25992899

  18. Simple Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Simple Kidney Cysts What are simple kidney cysts? Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled ... that form in the kidneys. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  19. Discovery and mapping of a new expressed sequence tag-single nucleotide polymorphism and simple sequence repeat panel for large-scale genetic studies and breeding of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegre, Mathilde; Argout, Xavier; Boccara, Michel; Fouet, Olivier; Roguet, Yolande; Bérard, Aurélie; Thévenin, Jean Marc; Chauveau, Aurélie; Rivallan, Ronan; Clement, Didier; Courtois, Brigitte; Gramacho, Karina; Boland-Augé, Anne; Tahi, Mathias; Umaharan, Pathmanathan; Brunel, Dominique; Lanaud, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Theobroma cacao is an economically important tree of several tropical countries. Its genetic improvement is essential to provide protection against major diseases and improve chocolate quality. We discovered and mapped new expressed sequence tag-single nucleotide polymorphism (EST-SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and constructed a high-density genetic map. By screening 149 650 ESTs, 5246 SNPs were detected in silico, of which 1536 corresponded to genes with a putative function, while 851 had a clear polymorphic pattern across a collection of genetic resources. In addition, 409 new SSR markers were detected on the Criollo genome. Lastly, 681 new EST-SNPs and 163 new SSRs were added to the pre-existing 418 co-dominant markers to construct a large consensus genetic map. This high-density map and the set of new genetic markers identified in this study are a milestone in cocoa genomics and for marker-assisted breeding. The data are available at http://tropgenedb.cirad.fr. PMID:22210604

  20. Integrating the behavioral and neural dynamics of response selection in a dual-task paradigm: a dynamic neural field model of Dux et al. (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Aaron T; Wifall, Tim; Hazeltine, Eliot; Spencer, John P

    2014-02-01

    People are typically slower when executing two tasks than when only performing a single task. These dual-task costs are initially robust but are reduced with practice. Dux et al. (2009) explored the neural basis of dual-task costs and learning using fMRI. Inferior frontal junction (IFJ) showed a larger hemodynamic response on dual-task trials compared with single-task trial early in learning. As dual-task costs were eliminated, dual-task hemodynamics in IFJ reduced to single-task levels. Dux and colleagues concluded that the reduction of dual-task costs is accomplished through increased efficiency of information processing in IFJ. We present a dynamic field theory of response selection that addresses two questions regarding these results. First, what mechanism leads to the reduction of dual-task costs and associated changes in hemodynamics? We show that a simple Hebbian learning mechanism is able to capture the quantitative details of learning at both the behavioral and neural levels. Second, is efficiency isolated to cognitive control areas such as IFJ, or is it also evident in sensory motor areas? To investigate this, we restrict Hebbian learning to different parts of the neural model. None of the restricted learning models showed the same reductions in dual-task costs as the unrestricted learning model, suggesting that efficiency is distributed across cognitive control and sensory motor processing systems.

  1. A P300-based Brain-Computer Interface with Stimuli on Moving Objects: Four-Session Single-Trial and Triple-Trial Tests with a Game-Like Task Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganin, Ilya P.; Shishkin, Sergei L.; Kaplan, Alexander Y.

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are tools for controlling computers and other devices without using muscular activity, employing user-controlled variations in signals recorded from the user’s brain. One of the most efficient noninvasive BCIs is based on the P300 wave of the brain’s response to stimuli and is therefore referred to as the P300 BCI. Many modifications of this BCI have been proposed to further improve the BCI’s characteristics or to better adapt the BCI to various applications. However, in the original P300 BCI and in all of its modifications, the spatial positions of stimuli were fixed relative to each other, which can impose constraints on designing applications controlled by this BCI. We designed and tested a P300 BCI with stimuli presented on objects that were freely moving on a screen at a speed of 5.4°/s. Healthy participants practiced a game-like task with this BCI in either single-trial or triple-trial mode within four sessions. At each step, the participants were required to select one of nine moving objects. The mean online accuracy of BCI-based selection was 81% in the triple-trial mode and 65% in the single-trial mode. A relatively high P300 amplitude was observed in response to targets in most participants. Self-rated interest in the task was high and stable over the four sessions (the medians in the 1st/4th sessions were 79/84% and 76/71% in the groups practicing in the single-trial and triple-trial modes, respectively). We conclude that the movement of stimulus positions relative to each other may not prevent the efficient use of the P300 BCI by people controlling their gaze, e.g., in robotic devices and in video games. PMID:24302977

  2. Control and Interference in Task Switching--A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Steinhauser, Marco; Wendt, Mike; Falkenstein, Michael; Jost, Kerstin; Philipp, Andrea M.; Koch, Iring

    2010-01-01

    The task-switching paradigm offers enormous possibilities to study cognitive control as well as task interference. The current review provides an overview of recent research on both topics. First, we review different experimental approaches to task switching, such as comparing mixed-task blocks with single-task blocks, predictable task-switching…

  3. Creating Simple Windchill Admin Tools Using Info*Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; Kapatos, Dennis; Skradski, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Being a Windchill administrator often requires performing simple yet repetitive tasks on large sets of objects. These can include renaming, deleting, checking in, undoing checkout, and much more. This is especially true during a migration. Fortunately, PTC has provided a simple way to dynamically interact with Windchill using Info*Engine. This presentation will describe how to create simple Info*Engine tasks capable of saving Windchill 10.0 administrators hours of tedious work. It will also show how these tasks can be combined and displayed on a simple JSP page that acts as a "Windchill Administrator Dashboard/Toolbox". The attendee will learn some valuable tasks Info*Engine capable of performing. The attendee will gain a basic understanding of how to perform and implement Info*Engine tasks. The attendee will learn what's involved in creating a JSP page that displays Info*Engine tasks

  4. Rostering and Task Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders Høeg

    . The rostering process is non-trivial and especially when service is required around the clock, rostering may involve considerable effort from a designated planner. Therefore, in order to minimize costs and overstaffing, to maximize the utilization of available staff, and to ensure a high level of satisfaction...... as possible to the available staff, while respecting various requirements and rules and while including possible transportation time between tasks. This thesis presents a number of industrial applications in rostering and task scheduling. The applications exist within various contexts in health care....... Mathematical and logic-based models are presented for the problems considered. Novel components are added to existing models and the modeling decisions are justified. In one case, the model is solved by a simple, but efficient greedy construction heuristic. In the remaining cases, column generation is applied...

  5. El uso de fotocélulas de haz simple y doble para medir la velocidad en carreras®. The use of single- and dual-beam photocells to measure the sprint time®.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan García-López

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ResuemnEl objetivo del estudio fue analizar la influencia de la tecnología de las fotocélulas en el registro de tiempo y su fiabilidad durante de carreras de velocidad de corta distancia. Participaron 25 estudiantes (20.5±0.5 años; 1.78±0.02 m; 77.5±1.8 kg que fueron evaluados en 3 días (2 de familiarización y 1 de test. Se registraron aleatoriamente 3 carreras de aceleración y 3 velocidad lanzada, cronometradas simultáneamente a los 5, 10 y 15 m por dos sistemas de fotocélulas DSD Laser System®: haz simple y doble haz. El tipo de fotocélulas utilizadas influyó en el tiempo de carrera (F=11.92 y p 0.80 a los 10 y 5 m, respectivamente. En la carrera lanzada ambos sistemas midieron prácticamente igual (diferencias de ~0.005 s, obteniendo registros fiables a los 15 y 10 m, respectivamente. En conclusión, en carreras de aceleración la distancia mínima a registrar con haz simple debe ser de 10 m, y de 5 m con haz doble, mientras que en carreras lanzadas deberían utilizarse unas distancias mínimas de 15 y 10 m, respectivamente. Futuros estudios deberían analizar la distancia óptima a la primera fotocélula en las carreras de aceleración, para aumentar la fiabilidad de la medición y facilitar la comparación entre registros de diferentes estudios.AbstractThe purpose was to analyze the influence of the timing gates’ technology on both running time performance and its reliability during short sprint distances. Twenty-five physical students participated (20.5±0.5 yr; 1.78±0.02 m; 77.5±1.8 kg, whose were evaluated during 3 separate days (2 familiarization sessions and 1 testing session. Three standing-start and 3 flying-start runs were randomized and simultaneously registered at 5, 10 and 15 m by two timing gates DSD Laser System®: single- and dual-beam. The type of timing gates affected the performance (F=11.92 y p0.80 at the distances of 10 and 5 m, respectively. During the flying-start runs, both systems obtained a very

  6. A simple, low-cost and eco-friendly approach to synthesize single-crystalline LiMn2O4 nanorods with high electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hongyuan; Li, Fang; Liu, Xingquan; Xiong, Weiqiang; Chen, Bing; Shao, Huailing; Que, Dongyang; Zhang, Zheng; Wu, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The single-crystalline LiMn 2 O 4 nanorods were successfully synthesized by a simple, low-cost and eco-friendly approach in which the γ-MnOOH nanorods were prepared through a facile hydrothermal process, in which KMnO 4 was reduced by anhydrous alcohol (CH 3 CH 2 OH) without adding any template reagent or additional surfactant. The crystal structures and morphologies of synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The results showed that the γ-MnOOH nanorods had high crystallinity and well-shaped morphology with an average diameter of 200 nm and an average length of 12 μm. For the resulting LiMn 2 O 4 nanorods, the electrochemical properties were investigated by galvanostatic charge-discharge test, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). For the optimal LiMn 2 O 4 nanorods, the initial discharge capacity was 123.5 mAh g −1 and remained 110.2 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at 1.0 C in the voltage range of 3.20∼4.35 V. Moreover, the optimal LiMn 2 O 4 nanorods can present superior rate performance, especially the capacity recovery performance as the charge-discharge rate restores to 0.1 C from 5.0 C. Such excellent electrochemical performance could make them to be the promising cathode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries

  7. On-line task scheduling and trajectory planning techniques for reconnaissance missions with multiple unmanned aerial vehicles supervised by a single human operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Rubiano, Andres Eduardo

    The problem of a single human operator monitoring multiple UAVs in reconnaissance missions is addressed in this work. In such missions, the operator inspects and classifies targets as they appear on video feeds from the various UAVs. In parallel, the aircraft autonomously execute a flight plan and transmit real-time video of an unknown terrain. The main contribution of this work is the development of a system that autonomously schedules the display of video feeds such that the human operator is able to inspect each target in real time (i.e., no video data is recorded and queued for later inspection). The construction of this non-overlapping schedule is made possible by commanding changes to the flight plan of the UAVs. These changes are constructed such that the impact on the mission time is minimized. The development of this system is addressed in the context of both fixed and arbitrary target inspection times. Under the assumption that the inspection time is constant, a Linear Program (LP) formulation is used to optimally solve the display scheduling problem in the time domain. The LP solution is implemented in the space domain via velocity and trajectory modifications to the flight plan of the UAVs. An online algorithm is proposed to resolve scheduling conflicts between multiple video feeds as targets are discovered by the UAVs. Properties of this algorithm are studied to develop conflict resolution strategies that ensure correctness regardless of the target placement. The effect of such strategies on the mission time is evaluated via numerical simulations. In the context of arbitrary inspection time, the human operator indicates the end of target inspection in real time. A set of maneuvers is devised that enable the operator to inspect each target uninterruptedly and indefinitely. In addition, a cuing mechanism is proposed to increase the situational awareness of the operator and potentially reduce the inspection times. The benefits of operator cuing on mission

  8. Simple Impeller Systems for Maintenance of Oil Palm Culture Aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarmizi, A.H.; Zaiton, R.; Rosli, M.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Scaling up of liquid culture systems generally involves moving from the use of simple shake flasks to bioreactors or specialised vessels; this is costly. A new innovation called the Two-in-One MPOB Simple Impeller (2-in-1 MoSLIM) was developed using commonly available Schott bottles in the laboratory. This system provided simultaneous aeration and agitation (two-in-one) in a single device for tissue propagation in liquid culture. The 2-in-1 MoSLIM produced cell aggregates with fresh weight increments of two- to six-fold over 30-40 days. This system was a convenient alternative compared to the conventional shake flask system. Multiplication of cultures in the 2-in-1 MoSLIM did not require any shaker or a big space area. This system with a working volume of 300 - 700 ml used a simple impeller and a pump for agitation and aeration purposes. However, with the 2-in-1 MoSLIM, media replenishment remained a tedious task. To overcome this, modifications were made to the system to enable media replenishment on-site without the need of a sterile hood. The adaptation of 2-in-1 MoSLIM with an earlier innovation, Fast Transfer Technique (MoFaTT) in Liquid Culture System, resulted in the development of the Simple Impeller with Fast Transfer Technique (SLIM-FaTT) system. This new system can be applied to the liquid culture system of any crop with a potential towards automation. (author)

  9. Working Memory Training Improves Dual-Task Performance on Motor Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takehide; Kaneko, Fuminari; Nagahata, Keita; Shibata, Eriko; Aoki, Nobuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigated whether working memory training improves motor-motor dual-task performance consisted of upper and lower limb tasks. The upper limb task was a simple reaction task and the lower limb task was an isometric knee extension task. 45 participants (age = 21.8 ± 1.6 years) were classified into a working memory training group (WM-TRG), dual-task training group, or control group. The training duration was 2 weeks (15 min, 4 times/week). Our results indicated that working memory capacity increased significantly only in the WM-TRG. Dual-task performance improved in the WM-TRG and dual-task training group. Our study provides the novel insight that working memory training improves dual-task performance without specific training on the target motor task.

  10. Correcting slightly less simple movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Aivar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets in sequence suggests that whole sequences of movements are planned together. Planning related segments of a movement together makes it possible to optimise the whole sequence, but it means that some parts are planned quite long in advance, so that it is likely that they will have to be modified. In the present study we examined how people respond to changes that occur while they are moving to the first target of a sequence. Subjects moved a stylus across a digitising tablet. They moved from a specified starting point to two targets in succession. The first of these targets was always at the same position but it could have one of two sizes. The second target could be in one of two different positions and its size was different in each case. On some trials the first target changed size, and on some others the second target changed size and position, as soon as the subject started to move. When the size of the first target changed the subjects slowed down the first segment of their movements. Even the peak velocity, which was only about 150 ms after the change in size, was lower. Beside this fast response to the change itself, the dwell time at the first target was also affected: its duration increased after the change. Changing the size and position of the second target did not influence the first segment of the movement, but also increased the dwell time. The dwell time was much longer for a small target, irrespective of its initial size. If subjects knew in advance which target could change, they moved faster than if they did not know which could change. Taken together, these

  11. Brain activations during bimodal dual tasks depend on the nature and combination of component tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eSalo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activations during nine different dual tasks in which the participants were required to simultaneously attend to concurrent streams of spoken syllables and written letters. They performed a phonological, spatial or simple (speaker-gender or font-shade discrimination task within each modality. We expected to find activations associated specifically with dual tasking especially in the frontal and parietal cortices. However, no brain areas showed systematic dual task enhancements common for all dual tasks. Further analysis revealed that dual tasks including component tasks that were according to Baddeley’s model modality atypical, that is, the auditory spatial task or the visual phonological task, were not associated with enhanced frontal activity. In contrast, for other dual tasks, activity specifically associated with dual tasking was found in the left or bilateral frontal cortices. Enhanced activation in parietal areas, however, appeared not to be specifically associated with dual tasking per se, but rather with intermodal attention switching. We also expected effects of dual tasking in left frontal supramodal phonological processing areas when both component tasks required phonological processing and in right parietal supramodal spatial processing areas when both tasks required spatial processing. However, no such effects were found during these dual tasks compared with their component tasks performed separately. Taken together, the current results indicate that activations during dual tasks depend in a complex manner on specific demands of component tasks.

  12. Systems analysis made simple computerbooks

    CERN Document Server

    Antill, Lyn

    1980-01-01

    Systems Analysis: Made Simple Computerbooks introduces the essential elements of information systems analysis and design and teaches basic technical skills required for the tasks involved. The book covers the aspects to the design of an information system; information systems and the organization, including the types of information processing activity and computer-based information systems; the role of the systems analyst; and the human activity system. The text also discusses information modeling, socio-technical design, man-machine interface, and the database design. Software specification

  13. Convolutional Deep Belief Networks for Single-Cell/Object Tracking in Computational Biology and Computer Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Bineng; Pan, Shengnan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Tian; Du, Jixiang; Chen, Duansheng; Cao, Liujuan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose deep architecture to dynamically learn the most discriminative features from data for both single-cell and object tracking in computational biology and computer vision. Firstly, the discriminative features are automatically learned via a convolutional deep belief network (CDBN). Secondly, we design a simple yet effective method to transfer features learned from CDBNs on the source tasks for generic purpose to the object tracking tasks using only limited amount of tra...

  14. Agronomic traits and chemical composition of single hybrids of sweet corn Caracteres agronômicos e composição química de híbridos simples de milho doce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kwiatkowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the greengrocery market of sweet corn has been expanding along the country. In contrast, there have been few agri-industries canning sweet corn (Zea mays because of the lack of cultivars with agronomic characteristics proper to industrial purposes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the general combining ability (GCA of seven inbred lines of sweet corn, and the specific combining ability (SCA of their hybrid combinations based on their agronomic traits, and the chemical composition of the grain. In the growing season 2006/2007, twenty-one single hybrids were evaluated in the Iguatemi Research Station, Maringá County, Northwestern Paraná, in Brazil using a complete randomized block design with four replications. Data were subjected to the analysis of variance and the genotypes were clustered by the Scott-Knott test. We estimated the GCA and SCA effects using the Griffing's method IV with the fixed model for plant height (PH, height of ear (EH, dehusked ears yield (DEY, reducing (RS and total sugars (TS, starch (ST, proteins (PTN, ether extract (EE and fibers (FB. The inbred line L4, which was originated from the 'Doce de Cuba', had the best GCA for crop yield and grain quality and therefore should be used in the next hybrid combinations. The hybrids L4xL5 and L3xL7 were the most promising with regard to crop yield and grain quality.No Brasil, poucas indústrias envazam o milho doce (Zea mays por causa da falta de cultivares para o processamento industrial. Em compensação, o mercado de milho verde doce aumentou. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a capacidade geral de combinação (CGC de sete linhagens de milho doce e da capacidade específica de combinação (CEC das combinações híbridas, com base em características agronômicas e composição química dos grãos. Os vinte e um híbridos simples foram avaliados em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, durante o ano agrícola 2006/2007, no distrito de Iguatemi

  15. Crossing simple resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, T.

    1985-08-01

    A simple criterion governs the beam distortion and/or loss of protons on a fast resonance crossing. Results from numerical integrations are illustrated for simple sextupole, octupole, and 10-pole resonances

  16. Crossing simple resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, T.

    1985-08-01

    A simple criterion governs the beam distortion and/or loss of protons on a fast resonance crossing. Results from numerical integrations are illustrated for simple sextupole, octupole, and 10-pole resonances.

  17. Biology task group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The accomplishments of the task group studies over the past year are reviewed. The purposes of biological investigations, in the context of subseabed disposal, are: an evaluation of the dose to man; an estimation of effects on the ecosystem; and an estimation of the influence of organisms on and as barriers to radionuclide migration. To accomplish these ends, the task group adopted the following research goals: (1) acquire more data on biological accumulation of specific radionuclides, such as those of Tc, Np, Ra, and Sr; (2) acquire more data on transfer coefficients from sediment to organism; (3) Calculate mass transfer rates, construct simple models using them, and estimate collective dose commitment; (4) Identify specific pathways or transfer routes, determine the rates of transfer, and make dose limit calculations with simple models; (5) Calculate dose rates to and estimate irradiation effects on the biota as a result of waste emplacement, by reference to background irradiation calculations. (6) Examine the effect of the biota on altering sediment/water radionuclide exchange; (7) Consider the biological data required to address different accident scenarios; (8) Continue to provide the basic biological information for all of the above, and ensure that the system analysis model is based on the most realistic and up-to-date concepts of marine biologists; and (9) Ensure by way of free exchange of information that the data used in any model are the best currently available

  18. Differences in perceptual learning transfer as a function of training task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C Shawn; Kattner, Florian; Siegel, Max H; Kersten, Daniel; Schrater, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research--including results from behavioral psychology, human structural and functional imaging, single-cell recordings in nonhuman primates, and computational modeling--suggests that perceptual learning effects are best understood as a change in the ability of higher-level integration or association areas to read out sensory information in the service of particular decisions. Work in this vein has argued that, depending on the training experience, the "rules" for this read-out can either be applicable to new contexts (thus engendering learning generalization) or can apply only to the exact training context (thus resulting in learning specificity). Here we contrast learning tasks designed to promote either stimulus-specific or stimulus-general rules. Specifically, we compare learning transfer across visual orientation following training on three different tasks: an orientation categorization task (which permits an orientation-specific learning solution), an orientation estimation task (which requires an orientation-general learning solution), and an orientation categorization task in which the relevant category boundary shifts on every trial (which lies somewhere between the two tasks above). While the simple orientation-categorization training task resulted in orientation-specific learning, the estimation and moving categorization tasks resulted in significant orientation learning generalization. The general framework tested here--that task specificity or generality can be predicted via an examination of the optimal learning solution--may be useful in building future training paradigms with certain desired outcomes.

  19. Quasispecies made simple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Quasispecies are clouds of genotypes that appear in a population at mutation-selection balance. This concept has recently attracted the attention of virologists, because many RNA viruses appear to generate high levels of genetic variation that may enhance the evolution of drug resistance and immune escape. The literature on these important evolutionary processes is, however, quite challenging. Here we use simple models to link mutation-selection balance theory to the most novel property of quasispecies: the error threshold-a mutation rate below which populations equilibrate in a traditional mutation-selection balance and above which the population experiences an error catastrophe, that is, the loss of the favored genotype through frequent deleterious mutations. These models show that a single fitness landscape may contain multiple, hierarchically organized error thresholds and that an error threshold is affected by the extent of back mutation and redundancy in the genotype-to-phenotype map. Importantly, an error threshold is distinct from an extinction threshold, which is the complete loss of the population through lethal mutations. Based on this framework, we argue that the lethal mutagenesis of a viral infection by mutation-inducing drugs is not a true error catastophe, but is an extinction catastrophe.

  20. Second Workshop on Supporting Complex Search Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belkin, Nicholas J.; Bogers, Toine; Kamps, Jaap; Kelly, Diane; Koolen, Marijn; Yilmaz, Emine

    2017-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks, is

  1. Integrated Task And Data Parallel Programming: Language Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; West, Emily A.

    1998-01-01

    his research investigates the combination of task and data parallel language constructs within a single programming language. There are an number of applications that exhibit properties which would be well served by such an integrated language. Examples include global climate models, aircraft design problems, and multidisciplinary design optimization problems. Our approach incorporates data parallel language constructs into an existing, object oriented, task parallel language. The language will support creation and manipulation of parallel classes and objects of both types (task parallel and data parallel). Ultimately, the language will allow data parallel and task parallel classes to be used either as building blocks or managers of parallel objects of either type, thus allowing the development of single and multi-paradigm parallel applications. 1995 Research Accomplishments In February I presented a paper at Frontiers '95 describing the design of the data parallel language subset. During the spring I wrote and defended my dissertation proposal. Since that time I have developed a runtime model for the language subset. I have begun implementing the model and hand-coding simple examples which demonstrate the language subset. I have identified an astrophysical fluid flow application which will validate the data parallel language subset. 1996 Research Agenda Milestones for the coming year include implementing a significant portion of the data parallel language subset over the Legion system. Using simple hand-coded methods, I plan to demonstrate (1) concurrent task and data parallel objects and (2) task parallel objects managing both task and data parallel objects. My next steps will focus on constructing a compiler and implementing the fluid flow application with the language. Concurrently, I will conduct a search for a real-world application exhibiting both task and data parallelism within the same program m. Additional 1995 Activities During the fall I collaborated

  2. Effects of Task Complexity, Task Conditions, and Task Difficulty on the Grammatical Accuracy of EFL Learners in Written Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ahangari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Different methods of language teaching have tried to help EFL learners to develop good language skills based on their various perspectives. Research findings have underscored the effect of using task types in promoting language skills in terms of accuracy in written discourse. Therefore, this study set out to investigate whether there is an evidence of correct use of simple past tense (Accuracy based on Task Complexity (Task type :Here-and now & There-and-then,Task Conditions (Gender: Male & Female, and Task Difficulty (Proficiency: Lower-intermediate & Intermediate. Sixty Iranian English learners in a language institute participated in the study and were assigned to four groups of lower-intermediate male, lower-intermediate female, intermediate male and intermediate female. Initial homogeneity of the groups was verified using two general proficiency tests; KET for lower-intermediate and PET for intermediate. All groups in here-and-now task type were asked to write a story using simple past based on a picture strip while for there-and-then task type the participants were supposed to write about their last birthday. The results from paired samples t-test, independent samples t-test and two-way ANOVA analysis of the written data revealed significant differences in performing task types, at different proficiency levels and interaction between them. The findings have significant pedagogical implications for EFL learners to understand the relationship among Task Complexity,Task Conditions, Task Difficulty and L2 written production leading to various degrees of Accuracy.

  3. Microwave Radiometer Linearity Measured by Simple Means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Modern spaceborne radiometer systems feature an almost perfect on-board calibration, hence the primary calibration task to be carried out before launch is a check of radiometer linearity. This paper describes two ways of measuring linearity of microwave radiometers only requiring relatively simple...

  4. Performance in complex motor tasks deteriorates in hyperthermic humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Jacob Feder; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Trangmar, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    -motor tracking performance was reduced by 10.7 ± 6.5% following exercise-induced hyperthermia when integrated in the multipart protocol and 4.4 ± 5.7% when tested separately (bothP 1.3% (P math tasks...... of information or decision-making prior to responding. We hypothesized that divergences could relate to task complexity and developed a protocol consisting of 1) simple motor task [TARGET_pinch], 2) complex motor task [Visuo-motor tracking], 3) simple math task [MATH_type], 4) combined motor-math task [MATH...

  5. Rules and more rules: the effects of multiple tasks, extensive training, and aging on task-switching performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchler, Norbou G; Hoyer, William J; Cerella, John

    2008-06-01

    Task-switching performance was assessed in young and older adults as a function of the number of task sets to be actively maintained in memory (varied from 1 to 4) over the course of extended training (5 days). Each of the four tasks required the execution of a simple computational algorithm, which was instantaneously cued by the color of the two-digit stimulus. Tasks were presented in pure (task set size 1) and mixed blocks (task set sizes 2, 3, 4), and the task sequence was unpredictable. By considering task switching beyond two tasks, we found evidence for a cognitive control system that is not overwhelmed by task set size load manipulations. Extended training eliminated age effects in task-switching performance, even when the participants had to manage the execution of up to four tasks. The results are discussed in terms of current theories of cognitive control, including task set inertia and production system postulates.

  6. Central as well as peripheral attentional bottlenecks in dual-task performance activate lateral prefrontal cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre J Szameitat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human information processing suffers from severe limitations in parallel processing. In particular, when required to respond to two stimuli in rapid succession, processing bottlenecks may appear at central and peripheral stages of task processing. Importantly, it has been suggested that executive functions are needed to resolve the interference arising at such bottlenecks. The aims of the present study were to test whether central attentional limitations (i.e., bottleneck at the decisional response selection stage as well as peripheral limitations (i.e., bottleneck at response initiation both demand executive functions located in the lateral prefrontal cortex. For this, we re-analysed two previous studies, in which a total of 33 participants performed a dual-task according to the paradigm of the psychological refractory period (PRP during fMRI. In one study (N=17, the PRP task consisted of two two-choice response tasks known to suffer from a central bottleneck (CB group. In the other study (N=16, the PRP task consisted of two simple-response tasks known to suffer from a peripheral bottleneck (PB group. Both groups showed considerable dual-task costs in form of slowing of the second response in the dual-task (PRP effect. Imaging results are based on the subtraction of both single-tasks from the dual-task within each group. In the CB group, the bilateral middle frontal gyri and inferior frontal gyri were activated. Higher activation in these areas was associated with lower dual-task costs. In the PB group, the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus were activated. Here, higher activation was associated with higher dual-task costs. In conclusion we suggest that central and peripheral bottlenecks both demand executive functions located in lateral prefrontal cortices. Differences between the CB and PB groups with respect to the exact prefrontal areas activated and the correlational patterns suggest that the executive functions resolving

  7. The Effect of Two Different Cognitive Tests on Gait Parameters during Dual Tasks in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Hagner-Derengowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paper aims to evaluate the influence of two different demanding cognitive tasks on gait parameters using BTS SMART system analysis. Patients and Methods. The study comprised 53 postmenopausal women aged 64.5 ± 6.7 years (range: 47–79. For every subject, gait analysis using a BTS SMART system was performed in a dual-task study design under three conditions: (I while walking only (single task, (II walking while performing a simultaneous simple cognitive task (SCT (dual task, and (III walking while performing a simultaneous complex cognitive task (CCT (dual task. Time-space parameters of gait pertaining to the length of a single support phase, double support phase, gait speed, step length, step width, and leg swing speed were analyzed. Results. Performance of cognitive tests during gait resulted in a statistically significant prolongation of the left (by 7% and right (by 7% foot gait cycle, shortening of the length of steps made with the right extremity (by 4%, reduction of speed of swings made with the left (by 11% and right (by 8% extremity, and reduction in gait speed (by 6%. Conclusions. Performance of cognitive tests during gait changes its individual pattern in relation to the level of the difficulty of the task.

  8. Calculation of the detection efficiency in liquid scintillators. I.- Single negatrons emitters; Calculo de la eficiencia de deteccion en liquidos centelleadores. I. Nucleidos que se desintegran por emision simple de negatrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-torano, E.

    1981-07-01

    Counting efficiency for 62 single beta emitters has been computed from the beta energy distribution, the figure of merit and the ionization quenching. Efficiency v.s. figure of merit is plotted and tabulated. (Author) 16 refs.

  9. Dividing attention between tasks : Testing whether explicit payoff functions elicit optimal dual-task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farmer, George D.; Janssen, C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412781654; Nguyen, Anh T; Brumby, Duncan P.

    2018-01-01

    We test people's ability to optimize performance across two concurrent tasks. Participants performed a number entry task while controlling a randomly moving cursor with a joystick. Participants received explicit feedback on their performance on these tasks in the form of a single combined score.

  10. The “Parachute” Technique: A Simple and Effective Single-Row Procedure to Achieve an Increased Contact Area Between the Cuff-Tendon and Its Footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Natera, Luis; Consigliere, Paolo; Witney-Lagen, Caroline; Brugera, Juan; Sforza, Giuseppe; Atoun, Ehud; Levy, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    Many techniques of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair have been described. No significant differences in clinical outcomes or rerupture rates have been observed when comparing single-row with double-row methods. Not all single- and double-row repairs are the same. The details of the technique used are crucial. It has been shown that the suture-tendon interface is the weakest point of the reconstruction. Therefore, the biomechanical properties of rotator cuff repairs might be influenced more by ...

  11. Sustained Attention Ability Affects Simple Picture Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Jongman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention has previously been shown as a requirement for language production. However, this is mostly evident for difficult conditions, such as a dual-task situation. The current study provides corroborating evidence that this relationship holds even for simple picture naming. Sustained attention ability, indexed both by participants’ reaction times and individuals’ hit rate (the proportion of correctly detected targets on a digit discrimination task, correlated with picture naming latencies. Individuals with poor sustained attention were consistently slower and their RT distributions were more positively skewed when naming pictures compared to individuals with better sustained attention. Additionally, the need to sustain attention was manipulated by changing the speed of stimulus presentation. Research has suggested that fast event rates tax sustained attention resources to a larger degree than slow event rates. However, in this study the fast event rate did not result in increased difficulty, neither for the picture naming task nor for the sustained attention task. Instead, the results point to a speed-accuracy trade-off in the sustained attention task (lower accuracy but faster responses in the fast than in the slow event rate, and to a benefit for faster rates in the picture naming task (shorter naming latencies with no difference in accuracy. Performance on both tasks was largely comparable, supporting previous findings that sustained attention is called upon during language production.

  12. Poststimulation time interval-dependent effects of motor cortex anodal tDCS on reaction-time task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero-Chamizo, Andrés; Alameda Bailén, José R; Garrido Béjar, Tamara; García López, Macarena; Jaén Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Gutiérrez Lérida, Carolina; Pérez Panal, Silvia; González Ángel, Gloria; Lemus Corchero, Laura; Ruiz Vega, María J; Nitsche, Michael A; Rivera-Urbina, Guadalupe N

    2018-02-01

    Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) induces long-term potentiation-like plasticity, which is associated with long-lasting effects on different cognitive, emotional, and motor performances. Specifically, tDCS applied over the motor cortex is considered to improve reaction time in simple and complex tasks. The timing of tDCS relative to task performance could determine the efficacy of tDCS to modulate performance. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a single session of anodal tDCS (1.5 mA, for 15 min) applied over the left primary motor cortex (M1) versus sham stimulation on performance of a go/no-go simple reaction-time task carried out at three different time points after tDCS-namely, 0, 30, or 60 min after stimulation. Performance zero min after anodal tDCS was improved during the whole course of the task. Performance 30 min after anodal tDCS was improved only in the last block of the reaction-time task. Performance 60 min after anodal tDCS was not significantly different throughout the entire task. These findings suggest that the motor cortex excitability changes induced by tDCS can improve motor responses, and these effects critically depend on the time interval between stimulation and task performance.

  13. The functional neuroanatomy of multitasking: combining dual tasking with a short term memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Sabine; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Peeters, Ron; Emsell, Louise; Amant, Frederic; Sunaert, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Insight into the neural architecture of multitasking is crucial when investigating the pathophysiology of multitasking deficits in clinical populations. Presently, little is known about how the brain combines dual-tasking with a concurrent short-term memory task, despite the relevance of this mental operation in daily life and the frequency of complaints related to this process, in disease. In this study we aimed to examine how the brain responds when a memory task is added to dual-tasking. Thirty-three right-handed healthy volunteers (20 females, mean age 39.9 ± 5.8) were examined with functional brain imaging (fMRI). The paradigm consisted of two cross-modal single tasks (a visual and auditory temporal same-different task with short delay), a dual-task combining both single tasks simultaneously and a multi-task condition, combining the dual-task with an additional short-term memory task (temporal same-different visual task with long delay). Dual-tasking compared to both individual visual and auditory single tasks activated a predominantly right-sided fronto-parietal network and the cerebellum. When adding the additional short-term memory task, a larger and more bilateral frontoparietal network was recruited. We found enhanced activity during multitasking in components of the network that were already involved in dual-tasking, suggesting increased working memory demands, as well as recruitment of multitask-specific components including areas that are likely to be involved in online holding of visual stimuli in short-term memory such as occipito-temporal cortex. These results confirm concurrent neural processing of a visual short-term memory task during dual-tasking and provide evidence for an effective fMRI multitasking paradigm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Simple WZW currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.

    1990-08-01

    A complete classification of simple currents of WZW theory is obtained. The proof is based on an analysis of the quantum dimensions of the primary fields. Simple currents are precisely the primaries with unit quantum dimension; for WZW theories explicit formulae for the quantum dimensions can be derived so that an identification of the fields with unit quantum dimension is possible. (author). 19 refs.; 2 tabs

  15. WWC Review of the Report "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 study, "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities", examined the impact of the strategies developed by an interagency task force in New York City to combat chronic absenteeism in…

  16. Paw Preference Correlates to Task Performance in Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alphen, A. van; Bosse, T.; Frank, I.; Jonker, C.M.; Koeman, F.; Bara, B.G.; Barsalou, L.; Bucciarelli, M.

    2005-01-01

    A study involving 36 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) in a simple search task provides evidence of a correlation between paw use and performance. The study was carried out to determine whether or not paw use is related to task performance. Different aspects of task performance were taken into

  17. Strategy as simple rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple.

  18. The Effects of Multimedia Task-Based Language Teaching on EFL Learners' Oral L2 Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    BavaHarji, Madhubala; Gheitanchian, Mehrnaz; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of tasks, with varying levels of complexity, i.e. simple, + complex and ++ complex tasks on EFL learners' oral production in a multimedia task-based language teaching environment. 57 EFL adult learners carried out a total of 12 tasks, in sets of four tasks within three different themes and different levels of…

  19. Transfer of Training in Simple Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yalin; Campbell, Jamie I D

    2017-04-18

    In recent years several researchers have proposed that skilled adults may solve single-digit addition problems (e.g. 3 + 1 = 4, 4 + 3 = 7) using a fast counting procedure. Practicing a procedure, often leads to transfer of learning and faster performance of unpracticed items. Such transfer has been demonstrated using a counting-based alphabet arithmetic task (e.g., B + 4 = C D E F) that indicated robust generalization of practice (i.e., RT gains) when untrained transfer problems at test had been implicitly practiced (e.g., practice B + 3, test B + 2 or B + 1). Here we constructed analogous simple addition problems (practice 4 + 3, test 4 + 2 or 4 + 1). In each of three experiments (total n = 108) participants received six practice blocks followed by two test blocks of new problems to examine generalization effects. Practice of addition identity-rule problems (i.e., 0 + N = N) showed complete transfer of RT gains made during practice to unpracticed items at test. In contrast, the addition ties (2 + 2, 3 + 3, etc.) presented large RT costs for unpracticed problems at test, but sped up substantially in the second test block. This pattern is consistent with item-specific strengthening of associative memory. The critical items were small non-tie additions (sum ≤ 10) for which the test problems would be implicitly practiced if counting was employed during practice. In all three experiments (and collectively) there was no evidence of generalization for these items in the first test block, but there was robust speed up when the items were repeated in the second test block. Thus, there was no evidence of the generalization of practice that would be expected if counting procedures mediated our participants' performance on small non-tie addition problems.

  20. APPLYING SIMPLE TECHNOLOGY ACCOMPLISHES VISUAL INSPECTION CHALLENGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the successful implementation of simple video technologies at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to perform complex visual inspection, monitoring, and surveillance tasks. Because SRS facilities are similar to those of an industrial plant, the environmental and accessibility considerations for remote viewing are the primary determining factors in the selection of technology. The constraints and challenges associated with remote viewing are discussed, and examples of applications are given

  1. Simple Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-03-07

    We will begin our treatment of summability calculus by analyzing what will be referred to, throughout this book, as simple finite sums. Even though the results of this chapter are particular cases of the more general results presented in later chapters, they are important to start with for a few reasons. First, this chapter serves as an excellent introduction to what summability calculus can markedly accomplish. Second, simple finite sums are encountered more often and, hence, they deserve special treatment. Third, the results presented in this chapter for simple finite sums will, themselves, be used as building blocks for deriving the most general results in subsequent chapters. Among others, we establish that fractional finite sums are well-defined mathematical objects and show how various identities related to the Euler constant as well as the Riemann zeta function can actually be derived in an elementary manner using fractional finite sums.

  2. Simple Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-01-01

    We will begin our treatment of summability calculus by analyzing what will be referred to, throughout this book, as simple finite sums. Even though the results of this chapter are particular cases of the more general results presented in later chapters, they are important to start with for a few reasons. First, this chapter serves as an excellent introduction to what summability calculus can markedly accomplish. Second, simple finite sums are encountered more often and, hence, they deserve special treatment. Third, the results presented in this chapter for simple finite sums will, themselves, be used as building blocks for deriving the most general results in subsequent chapters. Among others, we establish that fractional finite sums are well-defined mathematical objects and show how various identities related to the Euler constant as well as the Riemann zeta function can actually be derived in an elementary manner using fractional finite sums.

  3. Droids Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Mazo, Gary

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Droid series smartphone - Droid, Droid X, Droid 2, or Droid 2 Global - and are eager to get the most out of your device, Droids Made Simple is perfect for you. Authors Martin Trautschold, Gary Mazo and Marziah Karch guide you through all of the features, tips, and tricks using their proven combination of clear instructions and detailed visuals. With hundreds of annotated screenshots and step-by-step directions, Droids Made Simple will transform you into a Droid expert, improving your productivity, and most importantly, helping you take advantage of all of the cool features that c

  4. Clusters in simple fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sator, N.

    2003-01-01

    This article concerns the correspondence between thermodynamics and the morphology of simple fluids in terms of clusters. Definitions of clusters providing a geometric interpretation of the liquid-gas phase transition are reviewed with an eye to establishing their physical relevance. The author emphasizes their main features and basic hypotheses, and shows how these definitions lead to a recent approach based on self-bound clusters. Although theoretical, this tutorial review is also addressed to readers interested in experimental aspects of clustering in simple fluids

  5. Association "Les Simples"

    OpenAIRE

    Thouzery, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fondée par les producteurs du Syndicat Inter-Massifs pour la Production et l’Économie des Simples (S.I.M.P.L.E.S), l’association base son action sur la recherche et le maintien d’une production de qualité (herboristerie et préparations à base de plantes) qui prend en compte le respect de l’environnement et la pérennité des petits producteurs en zone de montagne. Actions de formation Stages de découverte de la flore médicinale sauvage, Stages de culture et transformation des plantes médicinale...

  6. A simple electron multiplexer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzynski, L; Akjouj, A; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Al-Wahsh, H; Zielinski, P

    2003-01-01

    We present a simple multiplexing device made of two atomic chains coupled by two other transition metal atoms. We show that this simple atomic device can transfer electrons at a given energy from one wire to the other, leaving all other electron states unaffected. Closed-form relations between the transmission coefficients and the inter-atomic distances are given to optimize the desired directional electron ejection. Such devices can be adsorbed on insulating substrates and characterized by current surface technologies. (letter to the editor)

  7. Keep it Simple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S.

    2010-05-01

    Creating a story for a particular audience is one of the most difficult tasks for anyone to learn. This is true for scientists and writers as well as any creative artist who tries to understand the complexity of the world and explain it to other people. Telling a good story always takes skill. Telling a popular story, however, requires simplification.

  8. Allocating time to future tasks: the effect of task segmentation on planning fallacy bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Darryl K; Burt, Christopher D B

    2008-06-01

    The scheduling component of the time management process was used as a "paradigm" to investigate the allocation of time to future tasks. In three experiments, we compared task time allocation for a single task with the summed time allocations given for each subtask that made up the single task. In all three, we found that allocated time for a single task was significantly smaller than the summed time allocated to the individual subtasks. We refer to this as the segmentation effect. In Experiment 3, we asked participants to give estimates by placing a mark on a time line, and found that giving time allocations in the form of rounded close approximations probably does not account for the segmentation effect. We discuss the results in relation to the basic processes used to allocate time to future tasks and the means by which planning fallacy bias might be reduced.

  9. Triple representation of language, working memory, social and emotion processing in the cerebellum: convergent evidence from task and seed-based resting-state fMRI analyses in a single large cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guell, Xavier; Gabrieli, John D E; Schmahmann, Jeremy D

    2018-05-15

    Delineation of functional topography is critical to the evolving understanding of the cerebellum's role in a wide range of nervous system functions. We used data from the Human Connectome Project (n = 787) to analyze cerebellar fMRI task activation (motor, working memory, language, social and emotion processing) and resting-state functional connectivity calculated from cerebral cortical seeds corresponding to the peak Cohen's d of each task contrast. The combination of exceptional statistical power, activation from both motor and multiple non-motor tasks in the same participants, and convergent resting-state networks in the same participants revealed novel aspects of the functional topography of the human cerebellum. Consistent with prior studies there were two distinct representations of motor activation. Newly revealed were three distinct representations each for working memory, language, social, and emotional task processing that were largely separate for these four cognitive and affective domains. In most cases, the task-based activations and the corresponding resting-network correlations were congruent in identifying the two motor representations and the three non-motor representations that were unique to working memory, language, social cognition, and emotion. The definitive localization and characterization of distinct triple representations for cognition and emotion task processing in the cerebellum opens up new basic science questions as to why there are triple representations (what different functions are enabled by the different representations?) and new clinical questions (what are the differing consequences of lesions to the different representations?). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Task-Specific Training and Job Design

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Balmaceda

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a simple theoretical framework based on a new type of human capital introduced by Gibbons and Waldman (2004), called task-specific training, to understand job design. Mainly, in the presence of task-specific training, promotions might result ex-post in the underutilization of human capital and thus firms at the time of designing jobs should attempt to diversify this risk.

  11. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  12. A Simple Tiltmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, M. G.; Harrison, D. R.; Edwards, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    Bubble vial with external aluminum-foil electrodes is sensing element for simple indicating tiltmeter. To measure bubble displacement, bridge circuit detects difference in capacitance between two sensing electrodes and reference electrode. Tiltmeter was developed for experiment on forecasting seismic events by changes in Earth's magnetic field.

  13. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  14. Structure of simple liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, J.F.

    1969-01-01

    The results obtained by application to argon and sodium of the two important methods of studying the structure of liquids: scattering of X-rays and neutrons, are presented on one hand. On the other hand the principal models employed for reconstituting the structure of simple liquids are exposed: mathematical models, lattice models and their derived models, experimental models. (author) [fr

  15. Simple mathematical fireworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Luca, R; Faella, O

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical fireworks are reproduced in two dimensions by means of simple notions in kinematics and Newtonian mechanics. Extension of the analysis in three dimensions is proposed and the geometric figures the falling tiny particles make on the ground after explosion are determined. (paper)

  16. simple sequence repeat (SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, 78 mapped simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers representing 11 linkage groups of adzuki bean were evaluated for transferability to mungbean and related Vigna spp. 41 markers amplified characteristic bands in at least one Vigna species. The transferability percentage across the genotypes ranged ...

  17. A Simple Wave Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  18. Síntese de nanotubos de carbono de parede simples por sublimação de grafite em atmosfera de hélio Synthesis of single-wall nanotubes by pyrolysis of graphite in helium atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gino Venegas Romero

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Macroscopic samples of fullerene nanostructures are obtained in a modified arc furnace using the electric arc method with a Helium atmosphere at low pressures. High purity graphite rods are used as electrodes but, when drilled and the orifices filled with powders of transition metals (Fe, Co, Ni acting as catalysts, the resulting particles are carbon nanostructures of the fullerene family, known as Single Wall Nanotubes (SWNTs. They have typical diameters of 1.4 nm, lengths up to tenths of microns and they are arranged together in bundles containing several SWNTs. Those samples are observed and analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM techniques.

  19. Developmental changes in using verbal self-cueing in task-switching situations: the impact of task practice and task-sequencing demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kray, Jutta; Gaspard, Hanna; Karbach, Julia; Blaye, Agnès

    2013-01-01

    In this study we examined whether developmental changes in using verbal self-cueing for task-goal maintenance are dependent on the amount of task practice and task-sequencing demands. To measure task-goal maintenance we applied a switching paradigm in which children either performed only task A or B in single-task blocks or switched between them on every second trial in mixed-task blocks. Task-goal maintenance was determined by comparing the performance between both blocks (mixing costs). The influence of verbal self-cueing was measured by instructing children to either name the next task aloud or not to verbalize during task preparation. Task-sequencing demands were varied between groups whereas one group received spatial task cues to support keeping track of the task sequence, while the other group did not. We also varied by the amount of prior practice in task switching while one group of participants practiced task switching first, before performing the task naming in addition, and the other group did it vice versa. Results of our study investigating younger (8–10 years) and older children (11–13 years) revealed no age differences in beneficial effects of verbal self-cueing. In line with previous findings, children showed reduced mixing costs under task-naming instructions and under conditions of low task-sequence demands (with the presence of spatial task cues). Our results also indicated that these benefits were only obtained for those groups of children that first received practice in task switching alone with no additional verbalization instruction. These findings suggest that internal task-cueing strategies can be efficiently used in children but only if they received prior practice in the underlying task so that demands on keeping and coordinating various instructions are reduced. Moreover, children benefitted from spatial task cues for better task-goal maintenance only if no verbal task-cueing strategy was introduced first. PMID:24381566

  20. Cognitive task analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Cognitive task analysis is defined as the extension of traditional task analysis techniques to yield information about the knowledge, thought processes and goal structures that underlie observable task performance. Cognitive task analyses are conducted for a wide variety of purposes, including the

  1. Simple concurrent garbage collection almost without synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Lali, M.I.

    We present two simple mark and sweep algorithms, A and B, for concurrent garbage collection by a single collector running concurrently with a number of mutators that concurrently modify shared data. Both algorithms are based on the ideas of Ben-Ari's classical algorithm for on-the-fly garbage

  2. Posture-Motor and Posture-Ideomotor Dual-Tasking: A Putative Marker of Psychomotor Retardation and Depressive Rumination in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftanas, Lyubomir I; Bazanova, Olga M; Novozhilova, Nataliya V

    2018-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that the assessment of postural performance may be a potentially reliable and objective marker of the psychomotor retardation (PMR) in the major depressive disorder (MDD). One of the important facets of MDD-related PMR is reflected in disrupted central mechanisms of psychomotor control, heavily influenced by compelling maladaptive depressive rumination. In view of this we designed a research paradigm that included sequential execution of simple single-posture task followed by more challenging divided attention posture tasks, involving concurring motor and ideomotor workloads. Another difficulty dimension assumed executing of all the tasks with eyes open (EO) (easy) and closed (EC) (difficult) conditions. We aimed at investigating the interplay between the severity of MDD, depressive rumination, and efficiency of postural performance. Methods: Compared with 24 age- and body mass index-matched healthy controls (HCs), 26 patients with MDD sequentially executed three experimental tasks: (1) single-posture task of maintaining a quiet stance (ST), (2) actual posture-motor dual task (AMT); and (3) mental/imaginary posture-motor dual task (MMT). All the tasks were performed in the EO and the EC conditions. The primary dependent variable was the amount of kinetic energy ( E ) expended for the center of pressure deviations (CoPDs), whereas the absolute divided attention cost index showed energy cost to the dual-tasking vs. the single-posture task according to the formula: Δ E = ( E Dual-task - E Single-task ). Results: The signs of PMR in the MDD group were objectively indexed by deficient posture control in the EC condition along with overall slowness of fine motor and ideomotor activity. Another important and probably more challenging feature of the findings was that the posture deficit manifested in the ST condition was substantially and significantly attenuated in the MMT and AMT performance dual-tasking activity. A multiple

  3. Different Neuroplasticity for Task Targets and Distractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spingath, Elsie Y.; Kang, Hyun Sug; Plummer, Thane; Blake, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Adult learning-induced sensory cortex plasticity results in enhanced action potential rates in neurons that have the most relevant information for the task, or those that respond strongly to one sensory stimulus but weakly to its comparison stimulus. Current theories suggest this plasticity is caused when target stimulus evoked activity is enhanced by reward signals from neuromodulatory nuclei. Prior work has found evidence suggestive of nonselective enhancement of neural responses, and suppression of responses to task distractors, but the differences in these effects between detection and discrimination have not been directly tested. Using cortical implants, we defined physiological responses in macaque somatosensory cortex during serial, matched, detection and discrimination tasks. Nonselective increases in neural responsiveness were observed during detection learning. Suppression of responses to task distractors was observed during discrimination learning, and this suppression was specific to cortical locations that sampled responses to the task distractor before learning. Changes in receptive field size were measured as the area of skin that had a significant response to a constant magnitude stimulus, and these areal changes paralleled changes in responsiveness. From before detection learning until after discrimination learning, the enduring changes were selective suppression of cortical locations responsive to task distractors, and nonselective enhancement of responsiveness at cortical locations selective for target and control skin sites. A comparison of observations in prior studies with the observed plasticity effects suggests that the non-selective response enhancement and selective suppression suffice to explain known plasticity phenomena in simple spatial tasks. This work suggests that differential responsiveness to task targets and distractors in primary sensory cortex for a simple spatial detection and discrimination task arise from nonselective

  4. Different neuroplasticity for task targets and distractors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsie Y Spingath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult learning-induced sensory cortex plasticity results in enhanced action potential rates in neurons that have the most relevant information for the task, or those that respond strongly to one sensory stimulus but weakly to its comparison stimulus. Current theories suggest this plasticity is caused when target stimulus evoked activity is enhanced by reward signals from neuromodulatory nuclei. Prior work has found evidence suggestive of nonselective enhancement of neural responses, and suppression of responses to task distractors, but the differences in these effects between detection and discrimination have not been directly tested. Using cortical implants, we defined physiological responses in macaque somatosensory cortex during serial, matched, detection and discrimination tasks. Nonselective increases in neural responsiveness were observed during detection learning. Suppression of responses to task distractors was observed during discrimination learning, and this suppression was specific to cortical locations that sampled responses to the task distractor before learning. Changes in receptive field size were measured as the area of skin that had a significant response to a constant magnitude stimulus, and these areal changes paralleled changes in responsiveness. From before detection learning until after discrimination learning, the enduring changes were selective suppression of cortical locations responsive to task distractors, and nonselective enhancement of responsiveness at cortical locations selective for target and control skin sites. A comparison of observations in prior studies with the observed plasticity effects suggests that the non-selective response enhancement and selective suppression suffice to explain known plasticity phenomena in simple spatial tasks. This work suggests that differential responsiveness to task targets and distractors in primary sensory cortex for a simple spatial detection and discrimination task arise from

  5. The Role of Covert Retrieval in Working Memory Span Tasks: Evidence from Delayed Recall Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, David P.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined delayed recall of items that had been processed during simple and complex span tasks. Three experiments were reported showing that despite more items being recalled initially from a simple span task (i.e., word span) than a complex span task (i.e., operation span), on a delayed recall test more items were recalled that…

  6. A new semantic vigilance task: vigilance decrement, workload, and sensitivity to dual-task costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epling, Samantha L; Russell, Paul N; Helton, William S

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive resource theory is a common explanation for both the performance decline in vigilance tasks, known as the vigilance decrement, and the limited ability to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. The limited supply of cognitive resources may be utilized faster than they are replenished resulting in a performance decrement, or may need to be allocated among multiple tasks with some performance cost. Researchers have proposed both domain-specific, for example spatial versus verbal processing resources, and domain general cognitive resources. One challenge in testing the domain specificity of cognitive resources in vigilance is the current lack of difficult semantic vigilance tasks which reliably produce a decrement. In the present research, we investigated whether the vigilance decrement was found in a new abbreviated semantic discrimination vigilance task, and whether there was a performance decrement in said vigilance task when paired with a word recall task, as opposed to performed individually. As hypothesized, a vigilance decrement in the semantic vigilance task was found in both the single-task and dual-task conditions, along with reduced vigilance performance in the dual-task condition and reduced word recall in the dual-task condition. This is consistent with cognitive resource theory. The abbreviated semantic vigilance task will be a useful tool for researchers interested in determining the specificity of cognitive resources utilized in vigilance tasks.

  7. Walking modality, but not task difficulty, influences the control of dual-task walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrightson, J G; Smeeton, N J

    2017-10-01

    During dual-task gait, changes in the stride-to-stride variability of stride time (STV) are suggested to represent the allocation of cognitive control to walking [1]. However, contrasting effects have been reported for overground and treadmill walking, which may be due to differences in the relative difficulty of the dual task. Here we compared the effect of overground and treadmill dual-task walking on STV in 18 healthy adults. Participants walked overground and on a treadmill for 120s during single-task (walking only) and dual-task (walking whilst performing serial subtractions in sevens) conditions. Dual-task effects on STV, cognitive task (serial subtraction) performance and perceived task difficulty were compared between walking modalities. STV was increased during overground dual-task walking, but was unchanged during treadmill dual-task walking. There were no differences in cognitive task performance or perceived task difficulty. These results show that gait is controlled differently during overground and treadmill dual-task walking. However, these differences are not solely due to differences in task difficulty, and may instead represent modality dependent control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Are factors related to dual-task performance in people with Parkinson's disease dependent on the type of dual task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouwen, Carolien; Molenaar, Esther A L M; Keus, Samyra H J; Münks, Liesbeth; Heremans, Elke; Vandenberghe, Wim; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2016-02-01

    Impaired dual-task performance significantly impacts upon functional mobility in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to identify determinants of dual-task performance in people with PD in three different dual tasks to assess their possible task-dependency. We recruited 121 home-dwelling patients with PD (mean age 65.93 years; mean disease duration 8.67 years) whom we subjected to regular walking (control condition) and to three dual-task conditions: walking combined with a backwards Digit Span task, an auditory Stroop task and a Mobile Phone task. We measured dual-task gait velocity using the GAITRite mat and dual-task reaction times and errors on the concurrent tasks as outcomes. Motor, cognitive and descriptive variables which correlated to dual-task performance (p task gait velocity and executive function, tested by the alternating intake test, was significantly associated with gait velocity during the Digit Span (R(2) = 0.65; p task (R(2) = 0.62; p task. Age was a surplus determinant of gait velocity while using a mobile phone. Single-task gait velocity and executive function as measured by a verbal fluency switching task were independent determinants of dual-task gait performance in people with PD. In contrast to expectation, these factors were the same across different tasks, supporting the robustness of the findings. Future study needs to determine whether these factors predict dual-task abnormalities prospectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Applicability of Rhythm-Motor Tasks to a New Dual Task Paradigm for Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Ji Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the interplay between cognitive and motor functions during walking, cognitive demands required during gait have been investigated with regard to dual task performance. Along with the needs to understand how the type of concurrent task while walking affects gait performance, there are calls for diversified dual tasks that can be applied to older adults with varying levels of cognitive decline. Therefore, this study aimed to examine how rhythm-motor tasks affect dual task performance and gait control, compared to a traditional cognitive-motor task. Also, it examined whether rhythm-motor tasks are correlated with traditional cognitive-motor task performance and cognitive measures. Eighteen older adults without cognitive impairment participated in this study. Each participant was instructed to walk at self-paced tempo without performing a concurrent task (single walking task and walk while separately performing two types of concurrent tasks: rhythm-motor and cognitive-motor tasks. Rhythm-motor tasks included instrument playing (WalkIP, matching to rhythmic cueing (WalkRC, and instrument playing while matching to rhythmic cueing (WalkIP+RC. The cognitive-motor task involved counting forward by 3s (WalkCount.f3. In each condition, dual task costs (DTC, a measure for how dual tasks affect gait parameters, were measured in terms of walking speed and stride length. The ratio of stride length to walking speed, a measure for dynamic control of gait, was also examined. The results of this study demonstrated that the task type was found to significantly influence these measures. Rhythm-motor tasks were found to interfere with gait parameters to a lesser extent than the cognitive-motor task (WalkCount.f3. In terms of ratio measures, stride length remained at a similar level, walking speed greatly decreased in the WalkCount.f3 condition. Significant correlations between dual task-related measures during rhythm-motor and cognitive-motor tasks support the

  10. Complexity is simple!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, William; Montero, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    In this note we investigate the role of Lloyd's computational bound in holographic complexity. Our goal is to translate the assumptions behind Lloyd's proof into the bulk language. In particular, we discuss the distinction between orthogonalizing and `simple' gates and argue that these notions are useful for diagnosing holographic complexity. We show that large black holes constructed from series circuits necessarily employ simple gates, and thus do not satisfy Lloyd's assumptions. We also estimate the degree of parallel processing required in this case for elementary gates to orthogonalize. Finally, we show that for small black holes at fixed chemical potential, the orthogonalization condition is satisfied near the phase transition, supporting a possible argument for the Weak Gravity Conjecture first advocated in [1].

  11. Unicameral (simple) bone cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Rafath; Eady, John L

    2006-09-01

    Since their original description by Virchow, simple bone cysts have been studied repeatedly. Although these defects are not true neoplasms, simple bone cysts may create major structural defects of the humerus, femur, and os calcis. They are commonly discovered incidentally when x-rays are taken for other reasons or on presentation due to a pathologic fracture. Various treatment strategies have been employed, but the only reliable predictor of success of any treatment strategy is the age of the patient; those being older than 10 years of age heal their cysts at a higher rate than those under age 10. The goal of management is the formation of a bone that can withstand the stresses of use by the patient without evidence of continued bone destruction as determined by serial radiographic follow-up. The goal is not a normal-appearing x-ray, but a functionally stable bone.

  12. Information technology made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Information Technology: Made Simple covers the full range of information technology topics, including more traditional subjects such as programming languages, data processing, and systems analysis. The book discusses information revolution, including topics about microchips, information processing operations, analog and digital systems, information processing system, and systems analysis. The text also describes computers, computer hardware, microprocessors, and microcomputers. The peripheral devices connected to the central processing unit; the main types of system software; application soft

  13. Modern mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Modern Mathematics: Made Simple presents topics in modern mathematics, from elementary mathematical logic and switching circuits to multibase arithmetic and finite systems. Sets and relations, vectors and matrices, tesselations, and linear programming are also discussed.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to sets and basic operations on sets, as well as solving problems with Venn diagrams. The discussion then turns to elementary mathematical logic, with emphasis on inductive and deductive reasoning; conjunctions and disjunctions; compound statements and conditional

  14. A Novel Eye-Tracking Method to Assess Attention Allocation in Individuals with and without Aphasia Using a Dual-Task Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Sabine; Hallowell, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Numerous authors report that people with aphasia have greater difficulty allocating attention than people without neurological disorders. Studying how attention deficits contribute to language deficits is important. However, existing methods for indexing attention allocation in people with aphasia pose serious methodological challenges. Eye-tracking methods have great potential to address such challenges. We developed and assessed the validity of a new dual-task method incorporating eye tracking to assess attention allocation. Twenty-six adults with aphasia and 33 control participants completed auditory sentence comprehension and visual search tasks. To test whether the new method validly indexes well-documented patterns in attention allocation, demands were manipulated by varying task complexity in single- and dual-task conditions. Differences in attention allocation were indexed via eye-tracking measures. For all participants significant increases in attention allocation demands were observed from single- to dual-task conditions and from simple to complex stimuli. Individuals with aphasia had greater difficulty allocating attention with greater task demands. Relationships between eye-tracking indices of comprehension during single and dual tasks and standardized testing were examined. Results support the validity of the novel eye-tracking method for assessing attention allocation in people with and without aphasia. Clinical and research implications are discussed. PMID:25913549

  15. The task complexity experiment 2003/2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laumann, Karin; Braarud, Per Oeivind; Svengren, Haakan

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to explore how additional tasks added to base case scenarios affected the operators' performance of the main tasks. These additional tasks were in different scenario variants intended to cause high time pressure, high information load, and high masking. The experiment was run in Halden Man-Machine Laboratory's BWR simulator. Seven crews participated, each for one week. There were three operators in each crew. Five main types of scenarios and 20 scenario variants were run. The data from the experiment were analysed by completion time for important actions and by in-depth qualitative analyses of the crews' communications. The results showed that high time pressure decreased some of the crews' performance in the scenarios. When a crew had problems in solving a task for which the time pressure was high, they had even more problems in solving other important tasks. High information load did not affect the operators' performance much and in general the crews were very good at selecting the most important tasks in the scenarios. The scenarios that included both high time pressure and high information load resulted in more reduced performance for the crews compared to the scenarios that only included high time pressure. The total amount of tasks to do and information load to attend to seemed to affect the crews' performance. To solve the scenarios with high time pressure well, it was important to have good communication and good allocation of tasks within the crew. Furthermore, the results showed that scenarios with an added complex, masked task created problems for some crews when solving a relatively simple main task. Overall, the results confirmed that complicating, but secondary tasks, that are not normally taken into account when modelling the primary tasks in a PRA scenario can adversely affect the performance of the main tasks modelled in the PRA scenario. (Author)

  16. Simple substrates for complex cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dayan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex cognitive tasks present a range of computational and algorithmic challenges for neural accounts of both learning and inference. In particular, it is extremely hard to solve them using the sort of simple policies that have been extensively studied as solutions to elementary Markov decision problems. There has thus been recent interest in architectures for the instantiation and even learning of policies that are formally more complicated than these, involving operations such as gated working memory. However, the focus of these ideas and methods has largely been on what might best be considered as automatized, routine or, in the sense of animal conditioning, habitual, performance. Thus, they have yet to provide a route towards understanding the workings of rule-based control, which is critical for cognitively sophisticated competence. Here, we review a recent suggestion for a uniform architecture for habitual and rule-based execution, discuss some of the habitual mechanisms that underpin the use of rules, and consider a statistical relationship between rules and habits.

  17. Task demand, task management, and teamwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braarud, Per Oeivind; Brendryen, Haavar

    2001-03-15

    The current approach to mental workload assessment in process control was evaluated in 3 previous HAMMLAB studies, by analysing the relationship between workload related measures and performance. The results showed that subjective task complexity rating was related to team's control room performance, that mental effort (NASA-TLX) was weakly related to performance, and that overall activity level was unrelated to performance. The results support the argument that general cognitive measures, i.e., mental workload, are weakly related to performance in the process control domain. This implies that other workload concepts than general mental workload are needed for valid assessment of human reliability and for valid assessment of control room configurations. An assessment of task load in process control suggested that how effort is used to handle task demand is more important then the level of effort invested to solve the task. The report suggests two main workload related concepts with a potential as performance predictors in process control: task requirements, and the work style describing how effort is invested to solve the task. The task requirements are seen as composed of individual task demand and team demand. In a similar way work style are seen as composed of individual task management and teamwork style. A framework for the development of the concepts is suggested based on a literature review and experiences from HAMMLAB research. It is suggested that operational definitions of workload concepts should be based on observable control room behaviour, to assure a potential for developing performance-shaping factors. Finally an explorative analysis of teamwork measures and performance in one study indicated that teamwork concepts are related to performance. This lends support to the suggested development of team demand and teamwork style as elements of a framework for the analysis of workload in process control. (Author)

  18. Task-set inertia and memory-consolidation bottleneck in dual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Iring; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2006-11-01

    Three dual-task experiments examined the influence of processing a briefly presented visual object for deferred verbal report on performance in an unrelated auditory-manual reaction time (RT) task. RT was increased at short stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) relative to long SOAs, showing that memory consolidation processes can produce a functional processing bottleneck in dual-task performance. In addition, the experiments manipulated the spatial compatibility of the orientation of the visual object and the side of the speeded manual response. This cross-task compatibility produced relative RT benefits only when the instruction for the visual task emphasized overlap at the level of response codes across the task sets (Experiment 1). However, once the effective task set was in place, it continued to produce cross-task compatibility effects even in single-task situations ("ignore" trials in Experiment 2) and when instructions for the visual task did not explicitly require spatial coding of object orientation (Experiment 3). Taken together, the data suggest a considerable degree of task-set inertia in dual-task performance, which is also reinforced by finding costs of switching task sequences (e.g., AC --> BC vs. BC --> BC) in Experiment 3.

  19. Unnecessary work tasks and mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Tripathi, Manisha; Borritz, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: According to the "stress-as-offense-to-self" perspective, work tasks that are considered unnecessary or unreasonable - so-called "illegitimate work tasks" - are likely to elicit stress-reactions. Previous studies, mostly cross-sectional, have shown that illegitimate tasks are associated...... with increased self-reported stress, cortisol, and counterproductive work behavior. In this article, we examine the prospective association between unnecessary work tasks, one type of illegitimate work tasks, and mental health among Danish human service workers. Further, we explore whether this association...... is modified by sex, age, occupational position, and baseline mental health status. METHODS: The data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires from 1351 Danish human service workers in three waves of data-collection during 1999-2005. We measured unnecessary work tasks by a single item, and assessed...

  20. Dimensional analysis made simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    An inductive strategy is proposed for teaching dimensional analysis to second- or third-year students of physics, chemistry, or engineering. In this strategy, Buckingham's theorem is seen as a consequence and not as the starting point. In order to concentrate on the basics, the mathematics is kept as elementary as possible. Simple examples are suggested for classroom demonstrations of the power of the technique and others are put forward for homework or experimentation, but instructors are encouraged to produce examples of their own. (paper)

  1. Applied mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Applied Mathematics: Made Simple provides an elementary study of the three main branches of classical applied mathematics: statics, hydrostatics, and dynamics. The book begins with discussion of the concepts of mechanics, parallel forces and rigid bodies, kinematics, motion with uniform acceleration in a straight line, and Newton's law of motion. Separate chapters cover vector algebra and coplanar motion, relative motion, projectiles, friction, and rigid bodies in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces. The final chapters deal with machines and hydrostatics. The standard and conte

  2. Data processing made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing: Made Simple, Second Edition presents discussions of a number of trends and developments in the world of commercial data processing. The book covers the rapid growth of micro- and mini-computers for both home and office use; word processing and the 'automated office'; the advent of distributed data processing; and the continued growth of database-oriented systems. The text also discusses modern digital computers; fundamental computer concepts; information and data processing requirements of commercial organizations; and the historical perspective of the computer industry. The

  3. ASP made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Deane, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    ASP Made Simple provides a brief introduction to ASP for the person who favours self teaching and/or does not have expensive computing facilities to learn on. The book will demonstrate how the principles of ASP can be learned with an ordinary PC running Personal Web Server, MS Access and a general text editor like Notepad.After working through the material readers should be able to:* Write ASP scripts that can display changing information on a web browser* Request records from a remote database or add records to it* Check user names & passwords and take this knowledge forward, either for their

  4. Theory of simple liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Jean-Pierre

    1986-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of the theory of ""simple"" liquids. The new second edition has been rearranged and considerably expanded to give a balanced account both of basic theory and of the advances of the past decade. It presents the main ideas of modern liquid state theory in a way that is both pedagogical and self-contained. The book should be accessible to graduate students and research workers, both experimentalists and theorists, who have a good background in elementary mechanics.Key Features* Compares theoretical deductions with experimental r

  5. Decision-making in research tasks with sequential testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a recent controversial essay, published by JPA Ioannidis in PLoS Medicine, it has been argued that in some research fields, most of the published findings are false. Based on theoretical reasoning it can be shown that small effect sizes, error-prone tests, low priors of the tested hypotheses and biases in the evaluation and publication of research findings increase the fraction of false positives. These findings raise concerns about the reliability of research. However, they are based on a very simple scenario of scientific research, where single tests are used to evaluate independent hypotheses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we present computer simulations and experimental approaches for analyzing more realistic scenarios. In these scenarios, research tasks are solved sequentially, i.e. subsequent tests can be chosen depending on previous results. We investigate simple sequential testing and scenarios where only a selected subset of results can be published and used for future rounds of test choice. Results from computer simulations indicate that for the tasks analyzed in this study, the fraction of false among the positive findings declines over several rounds of testing if the most informative tests are performed. Our experiments show that human subjects frequently perform the most informative tests, leading to a decline of false positives as expected from the simulations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the research tasks studied here, findings tend to become more reliable over time. We also find that the performance in those experimental settings where not all performed tests could be published turned out to be surprisingly inefficient. Our results may help optimize existing procedures used in the practice of scientific research and provide guidance for the development of novel forms of scholarly communication.

  6. What Is a Simple Liquid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond S. Ingebrigtsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to identify the real essence of simplicity of liquids in John Locke’s understanding of the term. Simple liquids are traditionally defined as many-body systems of classical particles interacting via radially symmetric pair potentials. We suggest that a simple liquid should be defined instead by the property of having strong correlations between virial and potential-energy equilibrium fluctuations in the NVT ensemble. There is considerable overlap between the two definitions, but also some notable differences. For instance, in the new definition simplicity is not a direct property of the intermolecular potential because a liquid is usually only strongly correlating in part of its phase diagram. Moreover, not all simple liquids are atomic (i.e., with radially symmetric pair potentials and not all atomic liquids are simple. The main part of the paper motivates the new definition of liquid simplicity by presenting evidence that a liquid is strongly correlating if and only if its intermolecular interactions may be ignored beyond the first coordination shell (FCS. This is demonstrated by NVT simulations of the structure and dynamics of several atomic and three molecular model liquids with a shifted-forces cutoff placed at the first minimum of the radial distribution function. The liquids studied are inverse power-law systems (r^{-n} pair potentials with n=18,6,4, Lennard-Jones (LJ models (the standard LJ model, two generalized Kob-Andersen binary LJ mixtures, and the Wahnstrom binary LJ mixture, the Buckingham model, the Dzugutov model, the LJ Gaussian model, the Gaussian core model, the Hansen-McDonald molten salt model, the Lewis-Wahnstrom ortho-terphenyl model, the asymmetric dumbbell model, and the single-point charge water model. The final part of the paper summarizes properties of strongly correlating liquids, emphasizing that these are simpler than liquids in general. Simple liquids, as defined here, may be

  7. Secondary task for full flight simulation incorporating tasks that commonly cause pilot error: Time estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, E.

    1975-01-01

    The task of time estimation, an activity occasionally performed by pilots during actual flight, was investigated with the objective of providing human factors investigators with an unobtrusive and minimally loading additional task that is sensitive to differences in flying conditions and flight instrumentation associated with the main task of piloting an aircraft simulator. Previous research indicated that the duration and consistency of time estimates is associated with the cognitive, perceptual, and motor loads imposed by concurrent simple tasks. The relationships between the length and variability of time estimates and concurrent task variables under a more complex situation involving simulated flight were clarified. The wrap-around effect with respect to baseline duration, a consequence of mode switching at intermediate levels of concurrent task distraction, should contribute substantially to estimate variability and have a complex effect on the shape of the resulting distribution of estimates.

  8. Project Tasks in Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik

    1998-01-01

    Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...

  9. Probabilistic simple sticker systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajoo, Mathuri; Heng, Fong Wan; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

    2017-04-01

    A model for DNA computing using the recombination behavior of DNA molecules, known as a sticker system, was introduced by by L. Kari, G. Paun, G. Rozenberg, A. Salomaa, and S. Yu in the paper entitled DNA computing, sticker systems and universality from the journal of Acta Informatica vol. 35, pp. 401-420 in the year 1998. A sticker system uses the Watson-Crick complementary feature of DNA molecules: starting from the incomplete double stranded sequences, and iteratively using sticking operations until a complete double stranded sequence is obtained. It is known that sticker systems with finite sets of axioms and sticker rules generate only regular languages. Hence, different types of restrictions have been considered to increase the computational power of sticker systems. Recently, a variant of restricted sticker systems, called probabilistic sticker systems, has been introduced [4]. In this variant, the probabilities are initially associated with the axioms, and the probability of a generated string is computed by multiplying the probabilities of all occurrences of the initial strings in the computation of the string. Strings for the language are selected according to some probabilistic requirements. In this paper, we study fundamental properties of probabilistic simple sticker systems. We prove that the probabilistic enhancement increases the computational power of simple sticker systems.

  10. Simple stochastic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilstra, Maria J; Martin, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    Stochastic simulations may be used to describe changes with time of a reaction system in a way that explicitly accounts for the fact that molecules show a significant degree of randomness in their dynamic behavior. The stochastic approach is almost invariably used when small numbers of molecules or molecular assemblies are involved because this randomness leads to significant deviations from the predictions of the conventional deterministic (or continuous) approach to the simulation of biochemical kinetics. Advances in computational methods over the three decades that have elapsed since the publication of Daniel Gillespie's seminal paper in 1977 (J. Phys. Chem. 81, 2340-2361) have allowed researchers to produce highly sophisticated models of complex biological systems. However, these models are frequently highly specific for the particular application and their description often involves mathematical treatments inaccessible to the nonspecialist. For anyone completely new to the field to apply such techniques in their own work might seem at first sight to be a rather intimidating prospect. However, the fundamental principles underlying the approach are in essence rather simple, and the aim of this article is to provide an entry point to the field for a newcomer. It focuses mainly on these general principles, both kinetic and computational, which tend to be not particularly well covered in specialist literature, and shows that interesting information may even be obtained using very simple operations in a conventional spreadsheet.

  11. Exploring the Cosmic Frontier, Task A - Direct Detection of Dark Matter, Task B - Experimental Particle Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, John A.J.; Gold, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the work of Task A and B for the period 2013-2016. For Task A the work is for direct detection of dark matter with the single-phase liquid argon experiment Mini-CLEAN. For Task B the work is for the search for new physics in the analysis of fluorescence events with the Auger experiment and for the search for the indirect detection of dark matter with the HAWC experiment.

  12. Exploring the Cosmic Frontier, Task A - Direct Detection of Dark Matter, Task B - Experimental Particle Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, John A.J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gold, Michael S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    This report summarizes the work of Task A and B for the period 2013-2016. For Task A the work is for direct detection of dark matter with the single-phase liquid argon experiment Mini-CLEAN. For Task B the work is for the search for new physics in the analysis of fluorescence events with the Auger experiment and for the search for the indirect detection of dark matter with the HAWC experiment.

  13. Task assignment and coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching from a manager, the junior employee only has information about his past performance. Based on his past performance, a talented junior who has performed a difficult task sometimes decides to leave the...

  14. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; hide

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  15. Task assignment and coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching

  16. Definição da dimensão do indivíduo solo e determinação do número de amostras simples necessário à sua representação Determination of a soil individual and the number of single samples required to represent it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Guarçoni M.

    2006-12-01

    -se coletar 25 amostras simples, necessárias à formação de uma amostra composta representativa, num hexágono de 68,75 cm de lado e área de 1,228 m².A population consists of individuals and a correct sampling of the individuals estimates population characteristics adequately. However, to evaluate soil fertility, what would be the soil individual (sample units, and of what size? The objective of this study was to determine the dimension of the individual soil component of a particular population, in three sampling areas: under no-till or under conventional tillage before or after plowing, and to evaluate soil fertility and develop a soil sampling method, determining the number of single samples required to form a composite sample that would characterize a soil individual (sample unit. Single soil samples (5.4 cm diameter x 10 cm deep were collected along the semi-diagonals of five hexagons outlined on the selected sampling areas. The sampling hexagons had 2 m long sides and from each of the six semi-diagonals, 10 single soil samples (55 per hexagon were collected at the distances 12.5; 25.0; 37.5; 50.0; 75.0; 100.0; 112.5; 150.0 and 200.0 cm, measured from a simple central sample, to the center of the sampling spot. The single central sample was the same for the six semi-diagonals. Soil pH (H2O, available P and K, Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations and H + Al, equilibrium-P and organic matter were determined. The single samples were grouped successively from the hexagon center and formed nine sampling units: A (up to 18.75, B (up to 31.25, C (up to 43.75, D (up to 56.25, E (up to 81.25, F (up to 106.25, G (up to 118.75, H (up to 156.25 and I (up to 206.25 cm. Regression analysis of the means and standard deviations of the evaluated characteristics was performed considering the possible dimensions of the soil sample unit. Based on the results, the conclusion was drawn that 25 simple samples must be collected to characterize a soil individual (sample unit, for the formation of a

  17. Comparing the effects of balance training with and without cognitive tasks on the quality of life and balance performance in community-dwelling older adults: a single-blind randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Sinaei; Fahimeh Kamali; Ahmadreza Nematollahi; Zahra Etminan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aging process can deteriorate the ability to maintain balance, specifically under dual-task conditions. Thus far, different methods of exercises therapy have been applied to improve balance performance of older adults. The present study was designed to compare the effects of two protocols of balance training on the quality of life (QoL) and balance performance in older adults with mild balance impairments. Methods: Twenty-four older adults over 60 years old were ...

  18. Memory distorions resulting from a choice blindness task

    OpenAIRE

    Pärnamets, Philip; Hall, Lars; Johansson, Petter

    2015-01-01

    Using a choice blindness paradigm, it is possible to switch decisions and outcomes in simple choice tasks. Such switches have been found to carry over into later choices, hypothesized to be mediated by beliefs about earlier decisions. Here we investigated participants’ memories for stimuli in a simple choice blindness task involving preferential choices between pairs of faces. We probed participants’ recognition and source memory following a round of choices where on some trials participants ...

  19. Beyond Simple Headquarters Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellestrand, Henrik; Kappen, Philip; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    We investigate “dual headquarters involvement”, i.e. corporate and divisional headquarters’ simultaneous involvement in subsidiaries’ innovation development projects. Analyses draw on 85 innovation projects in 23 multibusiness firms and reveal that cross-divisional innovation importance, i.......e., an innovation that is important for the firm beyond the divisional boundaries, drives dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. Contrary to expectations, on average, a non-significant effect of cross-divisional embeddedness on dual headquarters involvement is found. Yet, both cross......-divisional importance and embeddedness effects are contingent on the overall complexity of the innovation project as signified by the size of the development network. The results lend support for the notion that parenting in complex structures entails complex headquarters structures and that we need to go beyond simple...

  20. Simple relation algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Givant, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This monograph details several different methods for constructing simple relation algebras, many of which are new with this book. By drawing these seemingly different methods together, all are shown to be aspects of one general approach, for which several applications are given. These tools for constructing and analyzing relation algebras are of particular interest to mathematicians working in logic, algebraic logic, or universal algebra, but will also appeal to philosophers and theoretical computer scientists working in fields that use mathematics. The book is written with a broad audience in mind and features a careful, pedagogical approach; an appendix contains the requisite background material in relation algebras. Over 400 exercises provide ample opportunities to engage with the material, making this a monograph equally appropriate for use in a special topics course or for independent study. Readers interested in pursuing an extended background study of relation algebras will find a comprehensive treatme...

  1. A Simple Harmonic Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Peter W.; /Stanford U., ITP; Horn, Bart; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Rajendran, Surjeet; /Johns Hopkins U. /Stanford U., ITP; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We explore simple but novel bouncing solutions of general relativity that avoid singularities. These solutions require curvature k = +1, and are supported by a negative cosmological term and matter with -1 < w < -1 = 3. In the case of moderate bounces (where the ratio of the maximal scale factor a{sub +} to the minimal scale factor a{sub -} is {Omicron}(1)), the solutions are shown to be classically stable and cycle through an infinite set of bounces. For more extreme cases with large a{sub +} = a{sub -}, the solutions can still oscillate many times before classical instabilities take them out of the regime of validity of our approximations. In this regime, quantum particle production also leads eventually to a departure from the realm of validity of semiclassical general relativity, likely yielding a singular crunch. We briefly discuss possible applications of these models to realistic cosmology.

  2. SIMPLE for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Azmi; Abd Nassir Ibrahim; Siti Madiha Muhammad Amir; Glam Hadzir Patai Mohamad; Saidi Rajab

    2004-01-01

    The first thing industrial radiographers have to do before commencing radiography works is to determine manually the amount of correct exposure that the film need to be exposed in order to obtain the right density. The amount of exposure depends on many variables such as type of radioisotope, type of film, nature of test-object and its orientation, and specific arrangement related to object location and configuration. In many cases radiography works are rejected because of radiographs fail to meet certain reference criteria as defined in the applicable standard. One of the main reasons of radiograph rejection is due to inadequate exposure received by the films. SIMPLE is a software specially developed to facilitate the calculation of gamma-radiography exposure. By using this software and knowing radiographic parameters to be encountered during the work, it is expected that human error will be minimized, thus enhancing the quality and productivity of NDT jobs. (Author)

  3. Molecular genetics made simple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Sh. Kassem

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetics have undoubtedly become an integral part of biomedical science and clinical practice, with important implications in deciphering disease pathogenesis and progression, identifying diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as designing better targeted treatments. The exponential growth of our understanding of different genetic concepts is paralleled by a growing list of genetic terminology that can easily intimidate the unfamiliar reader. Rendering genetics incomprehensible to the clinician however, defeats the very essence of genetic research: its utilization for combating disease and improving quality of life. Herein we attempt to correct this notion by presenting the basic genetic concepts along with their usefulness in the cardiology clinic. Bringing genetics closer to the clinician will enable its harmonious incorporation into clinical care, thus not only restoring our perception of its simple and elegant nature, but importantly ensuring the maximal benefit for our patients.

  4. Molecular genetics made simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Heba Sh.; Girolami, Francesca; Sanoudou, Despina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Genetics have undoubtedly become an integral part of biomedical science and clinical practice, with important implications in deciphering disease pathogenesis and progression, identifying diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as designing better targeted treatments. The exponential growth of our understanding of different genetic concepts is paralleled by a growing list of genetic terminology that can easily intimidate the unfamiliar reader. Rendering genetics incomprehensible to the clinician however, defeats the very essence of genetic research: its utilization for combating disease and improving quality of life. Herein we attempt to correct this notion by presenting the basic genetic concepts along with their usefulness in the cardiology clinic. Bringing genetics closer to the clinician will enable its harmonious incorporation into clinical care, thus not only restoring our perception of its simple and elegant nature, but importantly ensuring the maximal benefit for our patients. PMID:25610837

  5. SIMPLE LIFE AND RELIGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIRIM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals in terms of the economy in which we live is one of the most important phenomenon of the century. This phenomenon present itself as the only determinant of people's lives by entering almost makes itself felt. The mo st obvious objective needs of the economy by triggering motive is to induce people to consume . Consumer culture pervades all aspects of the situation are people . Therefore, these people have the blessing of culture , beauty and value all in the name of w hatever is consumed. This is way out of the siege of moral and religious values we have is to go back again . Referred by local cultural and religious values, based on today increasingly come to the fore and the Muslim way of life appears to be close to th e plain / lean preferred by many people life has been a way of life. Even the simple life , a way of life in the Western world , a conception of life , a philosophy, a movement as it has become widely accepted. Here in determining the Muslim way of life Pr ophet. Prophet (sa lived the kind of life a very important model, sample, and determining which direction is known. Religious values, which is the carrier of the prophets, sent to the society they have always been examples and models. Because every aspect of human life, his life style and the surrounding area has a feature. We also value his life that he has unknowingly and without learning and skills and to understand it is not possible to live our religion . We also our presentation, we mainly of Islam o utlook on life and predicted life - style, including the Prophet of Islam 's (sa simple life to scrutinize and lifestyle issues related to reveal , in short Islam's how life has embraced and the Prophet. Prophet's will try to find answers to questions reg arding how to live.

  6. Convolutional Deep Belief Networks for Single-Cell/Object Tracking in Computational Biology and Computer Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bineng; Pan, Shengnan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Tian; Du, Jixiang; Chen, Duansheng; Cao, Liujuan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose deep architecture to dynamically learn the most discriminative features from data for both single-cell and object tracking in computational biology and computer vision. Firstly, the discriminative features are automatically learned via a convolutional deep belief network (CDBN). Secondly, we design a simple yet effective method to transfer features learned from CDBNs on the source tasks for generic purpose to the object tracking tasks using only limited amount of training data. Finally, to alleviate the tracker drifting problem caused by model updating, we jointly consider three different types of positive samples. Extensive experiments validate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Testing the Automatization Deficit Hypothesis of Dyslexia via a Dual-Task Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Regina L.; van der Leij, Aryan

    1994-01-01

    Fourteen Dutch children with dyslexia were compared with controls on automatic processing under a dual task (motor balance task and auditory choice task) model. Results indicated the dyslexic group was more impaired in the dual task condition than in the single task condition, compared with controls. Findings support the automatization deficit…

  8. Anterior medial prefrontal cortex exhibits activation during task preparation but deactivation during task execution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideya Koshino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC exhibits activation during some cognitive tasks, including episodic memory, reasoning, attention, multitasking, task sets, decision making, mentalizing, and processing of self-referenced information. However, the medial part of anterior PFC is part of the default mode network (DMN, which shows deactivation during various goal-directed cognitive tasks compared to a resting baseline. One possible factor for this pattern is that activity in the anterior medial PFC (MPFC is affected by dynamic allocation of attentional resources depending on task demands. We investigated this possibility using an event related fMRI with a face working memory task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixteen students participated in a single fMRI session. They were asked to form a task set to remember the faces (Face memory condition or to ignore them (No face memory condition, then they were given 6 seconds of preparation period before the onset of the face stimuli. During this 6-second period, four single digits were presented one at a time at the center of the display, and participants were asked to add them and to remember the final answer. When participants formed a task set to remember faces, the anterior MPFC exhibited activation during a task preparation period but deactivation during a task execution period within a single trial. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the anterior MPFC plays a role in task set formation but is not involved in execution of the face working memory task. Therefore, when attentional resources are allocated to other brain regions during task execution, the anterior MPFC shows deactivation. The results suggest that activation and deactivation in the anterior MPFC are affected by dynamic allocation of processing resources across different phases of processing.

  9. Report on the Second Workshop on Supporting Complex Search Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Kamps, Jaap; Bogers, Toine

    2017-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain-specific collections, and both in our professional and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks...

  10. A simple scaler timer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, R.; Kalavathy, K.R.

    1989-01-01

    In any nuclear reactor, the start-up channels monitor the neutron flux during the start-up operation and give the alarm signals for safety purposes. Normally, a fission chamber is used as a detector to detect the low level neutron fluxes. The output of the detector after amplification and discrimination is shaped in a pulse shaper to provide constant width, constant height pulses for further processing in rate meters. The shaped pulses also go to a scaler timer, where they are counted for fixed time intervals and the accumulated counts displayed. The scaler timer described in this paper uses LSIs to get at a simple, compact and reliable unit. The design is centered around two LSIs. MOS Counter Timebase LSI type MK 5009P (U1) is used to generate the gating pulses. A 1 MHz crystal is used to generate the system clock. A 4 bit address selects the desired gating intervals of 1 or 10 or 100 seconds. In fact, MK 5009 is a very versatile LSI in a 16 pin DIP package, consisting of a MOS oscillator and divider chain. It is binary encoded for frequency division selection ranging from 1 to 36 x 10. With an input frequency of 1 MHz, MK 5009 provides the time periods of 1 μs to 100 seconds, one minute, ten minute and one hour periods. (author)

  11. A Simple Accelerometer Calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, R A; Islamy, M R F; Khairurrijal; Munir, M M; Latief, H; Irsyam, M

    2016-01-01

    High possibility of earthquake could lead to the high number of victims caused by it. It also can cause other hazards such as tsunami, landslide, etc. In that case it requires a system that can examine the earthquake occurrence. Some possible system to detect earthquake is by creating a vibration sensor system using accelerometer. However, the output of the system is usually put in the form of acceleration data. Therefore, a calibrator system for accelerometer to sense the vibration is needed. In this study, a simple accelerometer calibrator has been developed using 12 V DC motor, optocoupler, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and AVR 328 microcontroller as controller system. The system uses the Pulse Wave Modulation (PWM) form microcontroller to control the motor rotational speed as response to vibration frequency. The frequency of vibration was read by optocoupler and then those data was used as feedback to the system. The results show that the systems could control the rotational speed and the vibration frequencies in accordance with the defined PWM. (paper)

  12. Performance effects of nicotine during selective attention, divided attention, and simple stimulus detection: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Britta; Ross, Thomas J; Wolkenberg, Frank A; Shakleya, Diaa M; Huestis, Marilyn A; Stein, Elliot A

    2009-09-01

    Attention-enhancing effects of nicotine appear to depend on the nature of the attentional function. Underlying neuroanatomical mechanisms, too, may vary depending on the function modulated. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study recorded blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity in minimally deprived smokers during tasks of simple stimulus detection, selective attention, or divided attention after single-blind application of a transdermal nicotine (21 mg) or placebo patch. Smokers' performance in the placebo condition was unimpaired as compared with matched nonsmokers. Nicotine reduced reaction time (RT) in the stimulus detection and selective attention but not divided attention condition. Across all task conditions, nicotine reduced activation in frontal, temporal, thalamic, and visual regions and enhanced deactivation in so-called "default" regions. Thalamic effects correlated with RT reduction selectively during stimulus detection. An interaction with task condition was observed in middle and superior frontal gyri, where nicotine reduced activation only during stimulus detection. A visuomotor control experiment provided evidence against nonspecific effects of nicotine. In conclusion, although prefrontal activity partly displayed differential modulation by nicotine, most BOLD effects were identical across tasks, despite differential performance effects, suggesting that common neuronal mechanisms can selectively benefit different attentional functions. Overall, the effects of nicotine may be explained by increased functional efficiency and downregulated task-independent "default" functions.

  13. Mind Wandering in Text Comprehension under Dual-Task Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eDixon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments, subjects responded to on-task probes while reading under dual-task conditions. The secondary task was to monitor the text for occurrences of the letter e. In Experiment 1, reading comprehension was assessed with a multiple-choice recognition test; in Experiment 2, subjects recalled the text. In both experiments, the secondary task replicated the well-known missing-letter effect in which detection of e’s was less effective for the word the. Letter detection was also more effective when subjects were on task, but this effect did not interact with the missing-letter effect. Comprehension was assessed in both the dual-task conditions and in a control single-task conditions. In the single-task conditions, both recognition (Experiment 1 and recall (Experiment 2 was better when subjects were on task, replicating previous research on mind wandering. Surprisingly, though, comprehension under dual-task conditions only showed an effect of being on task when measured with recall; there was no effect on recognition performance. Our interpretation of this pattern of results is that subjects generate their response to on-task probes on the basis of a retrospective assessment of the contents of working memory. Further, we argue that under dual-task conditions, the contents of working memory is not related to the reading processes required for accurate recognition performance. These conclusions have implications for models of text comprehension and for the interpretation of on-task probe responses.

  14. Water nanoelectrolysis: A simple model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Juan; Hammadi, Zoubida; Morin, Roger; Lapena, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    A simple model of water nanoelectrolysis—defined as the nanolocalization at a single point of any electrolysis phenomenon—is presented. It is based on the electron tunneling assisted by the electric field through the thin film of water molecules (˜0.3 nm thick) at the surface of a tip-shaped nanoelectrode (micrometric to nanometric curvature radius at the apex). By applying, e.g., an electric potential V1 during a finite time t1, and then the potential -V1 during the same time t1, we show that there are three distinct regions in the plane (t1, V1): one for the nanolocalization (at the apex of the nanoelectrode) of the electrolysis oxidation reaction, the second one for the nanolocalization of the reduction reaction, and the third one for the nanolocalization of the production of bubbles. These parameters t1 and V1 completely control the time at which the electrolysis reaction (of oxidation or reduction) begins, the duration of this reaction, the electrolysis current intensity (i.e., the tunneling current), the number of produced O2 or H2 molecules, and the radius of the nanolocalized bubbles. The model is in good agreement with our experiments.

  15. Multi-task feature learning by using trace norm regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangmei Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-task learning can extract the correlation of multiple related machine learning problems to improve performance. This paper considers applying the multi-task learning method to learn a single task. We propose a new learning approach, which employs the mixture of expert model to divide a learning task into several related sub-tasks, and then uses the trace norm regularization to extract common feature representation of these sub-tasks. A nonlinear extension of this approach by using kernel is also provided. Experiments conducted on both simulated and real data sets demonstrate the advantage of the proposed approach.

  16. Implicit and Explicit Knowledge Both Improve Dual Task Performance in a Continuous Pursuit Tracking Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewolds, Harald E; Bröker, Laura; de Oliveira, Rita F; Raab, Markus; Künzell, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of predictability on dual-task performance in a continuous tracking task. Participants practiced either informed (explicit group) or uninformed (implicit group) about a repeated segment in the curves they had to track. In Experiment 1 participants practices the tracking task only, dual-task performance was assessed after by combining the tracking task with an auditory reaction time task. Results showed both groups learned equally well and tracking performance on a predictable segment in the dual-task condition was better than on random segments. However, reaction times did not benefit from a predictable tracking segment. To investigate the effect of learning under dual-task situation participants in Experiment 2 practiced the tracking task while simultaneously performing the auditory reaction time task. No learning of the repeated segment could be demonstrated for either group during the training blocks, in contrast to the test-block and retention test, where participants performed better on the repeated segment in both dual-task and single-task conditions. Only the explicit group improved from test-block to retention test. As in Experiment 1, reaction times while tracking a predictable segment were no better than reaction times while tracking a random segment. We concluded that predictability has a positive effect only on the predictable task itself possibly because of a task-shielding mechanism. For dual-task training there seems to be an initial negative effect of explicit instructions, possibly because of fatigue, but the advantage of explicit instructions was demonstrated in a retention test. This might be due to the explicit memory system informing or aiding the implicit memory system.

  17. Device simulation of charge collection and single-event upset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the current status of device simulation of ionizing-radiation-induced charge collection and single-event upset (SEU), with an emphasis on significant results of recent years. The author presents an overview of device-modeling techniques applicable to the SEU problem and the unique challenges this task presents to the device modeler. He examines unloaded simulations of radiation-induced charge collection in simple p/n diodes, SEU in dynamic random access memories (DRAM's), and SEU in static random access memories (SRAM's). The author concludes with a few thoughts on future issues likely to confront the SEU device modeler

  18. Transport Task Force Leadership, Task 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    The Transport Task Force (TTF) was initiated as a broad-based US magnetic fusion community activity during the fall of 1988 to focus attention on and encourage development of an increased understanding of anomalous transport in tokamaks. The overall TTF goal is to make progress on Characterizing, Understanding and Identifying how to Reduce plasma transport in tokamaks -- to CUIR transport

  19. A Simple Spectral Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Torres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of a spectral observer is twofold: the reconstruction of a signal of time via state estimation and the decomposition of such a signal into the frequencies that make it up. A spectral observer can be catalogued as an online algorithm for time-frequency analysis because is a method that can compute on the fly the Fourier transform (FT of a signal, without having the entire signal available from the start. In this regard, this paper presents a novel spectral observer with an adjustable constant gain for reconstructing a given signal by means of the recursive identification of the coefficients of a Fourier series. The reconstruction or estimation of a signal in the context of this work means to find the coefficients of a linear combination of sines a cosines that fits a signal such that it can be reproduced. The design procedure of the spectral observer is presented along with the following applications: (1 the reconstruction of a simple periodical signal, (2 the approximation of both a square and a triangular signal, (3 the edge detection in signals by using the Fourier coefficients, (4 the fitting of the historical Bitcoin market data from 1 December 2014 to 8 January 2018 and (5 the estimation of a input force acting upon a Duffing oscillator. To round out this paper, we present a detailed discussion about the results of the applications as well as a comparative analysis of the proposed spectral observer vis-à-vis the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT, which is a well-known method for time-frequency analysis.

  20. "Photographing money" task pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhongxiang

    2018-05-01

    "Photographing money" [1]is a self-service model under the mobile Internet. The task pricing is reasonable, related to the success of the commodity inspection. First of all, we analyzed the position of the mission and the membership, and introduced the factor of membership density, considering the influence of the number of members around the mission on the pricing. Multivariate regression of task location and membership density using MATLAB to establish the mathematical model of task pricing. At the same time, we can see from the life experience that membership reputation and the intensity of the task will also affect the pricing, and the data of the task success point is more reliable. Therefore, the successful point of the task is selected, and its reputation, task density, membership density and Multiple regression of task positions, according to which a nhew task pricing program. Finally, an objective evaluation is given of the advantages and disadvantages of the established model and solution method, and the improved method is pointed out.

  1. Board Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings....... The findings show that: (i) Board processes have a larger potential than demographic variables to explain board task performance; (ii) board task performance differs significantly between boards operating in different contexts; and (iii) national context moderates the relationships between board processes...... and board task performance....

  2. Mining Tasks from the Web Anchor Text Graph: MSR Notebook Paper for the TREC 2015 Tasks Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    Mining Tasks from the Web Anchor Text Graph: MSR Notebook Paper for the TREC 2015 Tasks Track Paul N. Bennett Microsoft Research Redmond, USA pauben...anchor text graph has proven useful in the general realm of query reformulation [2], we sought to quantify the value of extracting key phrases from...anchor text in the broader setting of the task understanding track. Given a query, our approach considers a simple method for identifying a relevant

  3. ADLIB: A simple database framework for beamline codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1993-01-01

    There are many well developed codes available for beamline design and analysis. A significant fraction of each of these codes is devoted to processing its own unique input language for describing the problem. None of these large, complex, and powerful codes does everything. Adding a new bit of specialized physics can be a difficult task whose successful completion makes the code even larger and more complex. This paper describes an attempt to move in the opposite direction, toward a family of small, simple, single purpose physics and utility modules, linked by an open, portable, public domain database framework. These small specialized physics codes begin with the beamline parameters already loaded in the database, and accessible via the handful of subroutines that constitute ADLIB. Such codes are easier to write, and inherently organized in a manner suitable for incorporation in model based control system algorithms. Examples include programs for analyzing beamline misalignment sensitivities, for simulating and fitting beam steering data, and for translating among MARYLIE, TRANSPORT, and TRACE3D formats

  4. The influence of social, individual and linguistic factors on children's performance in tasks of reading single words aloud / A Influência de fatores sociais, individuais e lingüísticos no desempenho de crianças na leitura em voz alta de palavras isoladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Silva Lúcio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates social, individual and linguistic factors in the performance of a single- word reading aloud task. A group of 1st to 4th grade school children from Belo Horizonte-MG (N = 333 read aloud 323 single words presented in a computer screen. Measures of reaction time (RT and error scores were collected. The Generalized Estimating Equations method exhibited the grapheme-phoneme and phoneme-grapheme regularity effect in reading and also showed an impact on the number of categories of regularity in this effect. No social factor was important to explain the results, but their mothers' education was correlated to the error scores (in opposite direction. There was no gender effect. Other factors rather than the traditional ones were also relevant, such as the age of reading acquisition and the verbal comprehension. The work brings important theoretical issues to cognitive reading assessment in Brazil.

  5. Vasectomy: A simple snip?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Bhatta Dhar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasectomy is one of the most common forms of permanent sterilization methods currently in use and has a failure rate of < 1% in most reported series. Since failure of vasectomy may result in pregnancy, adequate counseling is essential. Couples are advised that an analysis of a semen specimen after vasectomy is required to confirm success before the use of alternative contraception is abandoned. However, measuring the success of vasectomy is complicated by a lack of consistency with regards to both the number and timing of tests and the end points accepted. Materials and Methods: A Medline search was used to identify manuscripts dealing with vasectomy, with specific attempts to identify protocols designed to confirm sterility. Results and Conclusion: Vasectomy is one of the most reliable permanent methods of contraception. However, despite its popularity, certain issues pertaining to the procedure remain unresolved. Debate continues over the relative merits of the various techniques of isolating and sealing the vasal ends. Postoperative complication rates remain minimal regardless of the technique used, and no single strategy attempting to maximize patient compliance with postoperative semen analysis has enjoyed unmitigated success. Long-term consequences, other than regret, are rare.

  6. Is our world simple?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faessler, A.

    1991-01-01

    Grand unified models try to unify the electroweak interaction of Glashow, Salam, and Weinberg and the strong interaction of the nuclear forces (quantum-chromodynamics) into a single force. These models predict that the neutrino is identical to its antiparticle (Majorana-neutrino), that the neutrino has a mass, and that a small, right-handed, weak interaction also exists. This allows double neutrinoless beta-decay, which is forbidden in the standard model. Thus, double beta-decay without the emission of neutrinos would falsify the standard model and strongly support grand unified models. This neutrinoless double beta-decay has not yet been found but lower limits of the half-life of nuclei against the double neutrinoless beta-decay (about 10 24 years) allow to give upper limits of the neutrino mass and of the right-handedness of the weak interaction. The conditions for such limits are reliable nuclear structure calculations which are available for about 2 to 3 years. (orig.) [de

  7. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    , is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...

  8. Task leaders reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loriaux, E.F.; Jehee, J.N.T.

    1995-01-01

    Report on CRP-OSS Task 4.1.1. ''Survey of existing documentation relevant to this programme's goals'' and report on CRP-OSS Task 4.1.2. ''Survey of existing Operator Support Systems and the experience with them'' are presented. 2 tabs

  9. Modulation of EMG-EMG Coherence in a Choice Stepping Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippei Nojima

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The voluntary step execution task is a popular measure for identifying fall risks among elderly individuals in the community setting because most falls have been reported to occur during movement. However, the neurophysiological functions during this movement are not entirely understood. Here, we used electromyography (EMG to explore the relationship between EMG-EMG coherence, which reflects common oscillatory drive to motoneurons, and motor performance associated with stepping tasks: simple reaction time (SRT and choice reaction time (CRT tasks. Ten healthy elderly adults participated in the study. Participants took a single step forward in response to a visual imperative stimulus. EMG-EMG coherence was analyzed for 1000 ms before the presentation of the stimulus (stationary standing position from proximal and distal tibialis anterior (TA and soleus (SOL muscles. The main result showed that all paired EMG-EMG coherences in the alpha and beta frequency bands were greater in the SRT than the CRT task. This finding suggests that the common oscillatory drive to the motoneurons during the SRT task occurred prior to taking a step, whereas the lower value of corticospinal activity during the CRT task prior to taking a step may indicate an involvement of inhibitory activity, which is consistent with observations from our previous study (Watanabe et al., 2016. Furthermore, the beta band coherence in intramuscular TA tended to positively correlate with the number of performance errors that are associated with fall risks in the CRT task, suggesting that a reduction in the inhibitory activity may result in a decrease of stepping performance. These findings could advance the understanding of the neurophysiological features of postural adjustments in elderly individuals.

  10. Manual lateralization in macaques: handedness, target laterality and task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regaiolli, Barbara; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates represent models to understand the evolution of handedness in humans. Despite several researches have been investigating non-human primates handedness, few studies examined the relationship between target position, hand preference and task complexity. This study aimed at investigating macaque handedness in relation to target laterality and tastiness, as well as task complexity. Seven pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were involved in three different "two alternative choice" tests: one low-level task and two high-level tasks (HLTs). During the first and the third tests macaques could select a preferred food and a non-preferred food, whereas by modifying the design of the second test, macaques were presented with no-difference alternative per trial. Furthermore, a simple-reaching test was administered to assess hand preference in a social context. Macaques showed hand preference at individual level both in simple and complex tasks, but not in the simple-reaching test. Moreover, target position seemed to affect hand preference in retrieving an object in the low-level task, but not in the HLT. Additionally, individual hand preference seemed to be affected from the tastiness of the item to be retrieved. The results suggest that both target laterality and individual motivation might influence hand preference of macaques, especially in simple tasks.

  11. Musical expertise has minimal impact on dual task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchini, Gianna; Filardi, Maria Serena; Crhonkova, Marcela; Halpern, Andrea R

    2017-05-01

    Studies investigating effect of practice on dual task performance have yielded conflicting findings, thus supporting different theoretical accounts about the organisation of attentional resources when tasks are performed simultaneously. Because practice has been proven to reduce the demand of attention for the trained task, the impact of long-lasting training on one task is an ideal way to better understand the mechanisms underlying dual task decline in performance. Our study compared performance during dual task execution in expert musicians compared to controls with little if any musical experience. Participants performed a music recognition task and a visuo-spatial task separately (single task) or simultaneously (dual task). Both groups showed a significant but similar performance decline during dual tasks. In addition, the two groups showed a similar decline of dual task performance during encoding and retrieval of the musical information, mainly attributed to a decline in sensitivity. Our results suggest that attention during dual tasks is similarly distributed by expert and non-experts. These findings are in line with previous studies showing a lack of sensitivity to difficulty and lack of practice effect during dual tasks, supporting the idea that different tasks may rely on different and not-sharable attentional resources.

  12. a simple a simple excitation control excitation control excitation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    field voltages determined follow a simple quadratic relationship that offer a very simple control scheme, dependent on only the stator current. Keywords: saturated reactances, no-load field voltage, excitation control, synchronous generators. 1. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. The commonest generator in use today is ...

  13. Estudo da circulação hepatomesentérica pela angiografia por ressonância magnética com gadolínio: comparação entre doses simples e dupla no estudo de pacientes esquistossomóticos Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for hepatomesenteric vascular evaluation: single and double doses comparison in schistosomiasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Pedreschi Caldana

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência de visualização dos segmentos da circulação hepatomesentérica pela angiografia por ressonância magnética (angio-RM com contraste e comparar o valor do método, utilizando-se duas diferentes dosagens de gadolínio (doses simples e dupla. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo de 36 pacientes esquistossomóticos submetidos a angio-RM. Os exames foram realizados em equipamento de RM de 1,5 T, usando-se bobina de corpo e bomba injetora para a administração endovenosa do contraste. Foram utilizadas, de maneira randomizada, dose dupla do contraste paramagnético (0,2 mmol/kg de Gd-DTPA em 21 pacientes e dose simples (0,1 mmol/kg em outros 15 pacientes. Os exames foram interpretados por dois observadores em consenso, que classificaram o grau de visualização de 25 segmentos vasculares estabelecidos para análise, sem conhecimento da dose de gadolínio utilizada. RESULTADOS: Os segmentos vasculares proximais e de maior calibre foram as estruturas com melhor grau de visualização na maioria da amostra em estudo. O tronco celíaco, a artéria hepática comum, a artéria esplênica, a croça e terço médio da artéria mesentérica superior, a veia porta, a veia esplênica e a veia mesentérica superior apresentaram grau 2 de visualização em mais de 70% da amostra. Quanto à comparação das diferentes dosagens, não houve diferença significante (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the visibility of hepatomesenteric vascular segments by 3D gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR angiography and to compare the method effectiveness between two different gadolinium doses (single and double doses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was performed with 36 schistosomiasis patients who were submitted to 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography. Scans were performed in a high-field equipment (1.5 T, with body coil and power injector for intravenous contrast administration. Contrast double doses (Gd-DTPA 0.2 mmol/kg and

  14. Task-Driven Comparison of Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Eric; Gleicher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Topic modeling, a method of statistically extracting thematic content from a large collection of texts, is used for a wide variety of tasks within text analysis. Though there are a growing number of tools and techniques for exploring single models, comparisons between models are generally reduced to a small set of numerical metrics. These metrics may or may not reflect a model's performance on the analyst's intended task, and can therefore be insufficient to diagnose what causes differences between models. In this paper, we explore task-centric topic model comparison, considering how we can both provide detail for a more nuanced understanding of differences and address the wealth of tasks for which topic models are used. We derive comparison tasks from single-model uses of topic models, which predominantly fall into the categories of understanding topics, understanding similarity, and understanding change. Finally, we provide several visualization techniques that facilitate these tasks, including buddy plots, which combine color and position encodings to allow analysts to readily view changes in document similarity.

  15. Dual-task performance involving hand dexterity and cognitive tasks and daily functioning in people with schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Keh-chung; Wu, Yi-fang; Chen, I-chen; Tsai, Pei-luen; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Chia-ling

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated separate and concurrent performance on cognitive and hand dexterity tasks and the relationship to daily functioning in 16 people with schizophrenia and 16 healthy control participants. Participants performed the Purdue Pegboard Test and the Serial Seven Subtraction Test under single- and dual-task conditions and completed two daily functioning evaluations. The hand dexterity of all participants declined in the dual-task condition, but the discrepancy between single-task and dual-task hand dexterity was greater in the schizophrenia group than in the control group (p.70, for all). The extent of discrepancy in hand dexterity was negatively correlated with daily functioning in the schizophrenia group (rs=-.3 to -.5, ps=.04-.26). Ability to perform dual tasks may be an indicator of daily functioning in people with schizophrenia. Use of dual-task training may be considered as a therapeutic activity with these clients. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  16. Robotic general surgery experience: a gradual progress from simple to more complex procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naami, M; Anjum, M N; Aldohayan, A; Al-Khayal, K; Alkharji, H

    2013-12-01

    Robotic surgery was introduced at our institution in 2003, and we used a progressive approach advancing from simple to more complex procedures. A retrospective chart review. Cases included totalled 129. Set-up and operative times have improved over time and with experience. Conversion rates to standard laparoscopic or open techniques were 4.7% and 1.6%, respectively. Intraoperative complications (6.2%), blood loss and hospital stay were directly proportional to complexity. There were no mortalities and the postoperative complication rate (13.2%) was within accepted norms. Our findings suggest that robot technology is presently most useful in cases tailored toward its advantages, i.e. those confined to a single space, those that require performance of complex tasks, and re-do procedures. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Task complexity, student perceptions of vocabulary learning in EFL, and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Lowyck, Joost; Sercu, Lies; Elen, Jan

    2013-03-01

    The study deepened our understanding of how students' self-efficacy beliefs contribute to the context of teaching English as a foreign language in the framework of cognitive mediational paradigm at a fine-tuned task-specific level. The aim was to examine the relationship among task complexity, self-efficacy beliefs, domain-related prior knowledge, learning strategy use, and task performance as they were applied to English vocabulary learning from reading tasks. Participants were 120 second-year university students (mean age 21) from a Chinese university. This experiment had two conditions (simple/complex). A vocabulary level test was first conducted to measure participants' prior knowledge of English vocabulary. Participants were then randomly assigned to one of the learning tasks. Participants were administered task booklets together with the self-efficacy scales, measures of learning strategy use, and post-tests. Data obtained were submitted to multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and path analysis. Results from the MANOVA model showed a significant effect of vocabulary level on self-efficacy beliefs, learning strategy use, and task performance. Task complexity showed no significant effect; however, an interaction effect between vocabulary level and task complexity emerged. Results from the path analysis showed self-efficacy beliefs had an indirect effect on performance. Our results highlighted the mediating role of self-efficacy beliefs and learning strategy use. Our findings indicate that students' prior knowledge plays a crucial role on both self-efficacy beliefs and task performance, and the predictive power of self-efficacy on task performance may lie in its association with learning strategy use. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  18. "Testing a Poisson counter model for visual identification of briefly presented, mutually confusable single stimuli in pure accuracy tasks": Correction to Kyllingsbæk, Markussen, and Bundesen (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Søren; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Markussen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The article “Testing a Poisson Counter Model for Visual Identification of Briefly Presented, Mutually Confusable Single Stimuli in Pure Accuracy Tasks” by Søren Kyllingsbæk, Bo Markussen and Claus Bundesen (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2012, Vol. 38, No. 3......, pp. 628–642. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0024751) used a computational shortcut (Equation A5) that strongly reduced the time needed to fit the Poisson counter model to experimental data. Unfortunately, the computational shortcut built on an approximation that was not well-founded in the Poisson...... counter model. To measure the actual deviation, the authors refitted both the computational shortcut and the Poisson counter model (Equations A1-A4) to the experimental data reported in the article. The Poisson counter model fits did, fortunately, not deviate noticeably from those produced...

  19. Ecological Relevance Determines Task Priority in Older Adults' Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Michail; Krampe, Ralf Th

    2015-05-01

    Multitasking is a challenging aspect of human behavior, especially if the concurrently performed tasks are different in nature. Several studies demonstrated pronounced performance decrements (dual-task costs) in older adults for combinations of cognitive and motor tasks. However, patterns of costs among component tasks differed across studies and reasons for participants' resource allocation strategies remained elusive. We investigated young and older adults' multitasking of a working memory task and two sensorimotor tasks, one with low (finger force control) and one with high ecological relevance (postural control). The tasks were performed in single-, dual-, and triple-task contexts. Working memory accuracy was reduced in dual-task contexts with either sensorimotor task and deteriorated further under triple-task conditions. Postural and force performance deteriorated with age and task difficulty in dual-task contexts. However, in the triple-task context with its maximum resource demands, older adults prioritized postural control over both force control and memory. Our results identify ecological relevance as the key factor in older adults' multitasking. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Locally Simple Models Construction: Methodology and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kazakov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most notable trends associated with the Fourth industrial revolution is a significant strengthening of the role played by semantic methods. They are engaged in artificial intelligence means, knowledge mining in huge flows of big data, robotization, and in the internet of things. Smart contracts also can be mentioned here, although the ’intelligence’ of smart contracts still needs to be seriously elaborated. These trends should inevitably lead to an increased role of logical methods working with semantics, and significantly expand the scope of their application in practice. However, there are a number of problems that hinder this process. We are developing an approach, which makes the application of logical modeling efficient in some important areas. The approach is based on the concept of locally simple models and is primarily focused on solving tasks in the management of enterprises, organizations, governing bodies. The most important feature of locally simple models is their ability to replace software systems. Replacement of programming by modeling gives huge advantages, for instance, it dramatically reduces development and support costs. Modeling, unlike programming, preserves the explicit semantics of models allowing integration with artificial intelligence and robots. In addition, models are much more understandable to general people than programs. In this paper we propose the implementation of the concept of locally simple modeling on the basis of so-called document models, which has been developed by us earlier. It is shown that locally simple modeling is realized through document models with finite submodel coverages. In the second part of the paper an example of using document models for solving a management problem of real complexity is demonstrated.

  1. Characterization of simple wireless neurostimulators and sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Daniel W; Towe, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    A single diode with a wireless power source and electrodes can act as an implantable stimulator or sensor. We have built such devices using RF and ultrasound power coupling. These simple devices could drastically reduce the size, weight, and cost of implants for applications where efficiency is not critical. However, a shortcoming has been a lack of control: any movement of the external power source would change the power coupling, thereby changing the stimulation current or modulating the sensor response. To correct for changes in power and signal coupling, we propose to use harmonic signals from the device. The diode acts as a frequency multiplier, and the harmonics it emits contain information about the drive level and bias. A simplified model suggests that estimation of power, electrode bias, and electrode resistance is possible from information contained in radiated harmonics even in the presence of significant noise. We also built a simple RF-powered stimulator with an onboard voltage limiter.

  2. Generic cognitive adaptations to task interference in task switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poljac, E.; Bekkering, H.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated how the activation of previous tasks interferes with the execution of future tasks as a result of temporal manipulations. Color and shape matching tasks were organized in runs of two trials each. The tasks were specified by a cue presented before a task run, cueing

  3. Complementary roles of systems representing sensory evidence and systems detecting task difficulty during perceptual decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A Ruff

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual decision making is a multi-stage process where incoming sensory information is used to select one option from several alternatives. Researchers typically have adopted one of two conceptual frameworks to define the criteria for determining whether a brain region is involved in decision computations. One framework, building on single unite recordings in monkeys, posits that activity in a region involved in decision making reflects the accumulation of evidence toward a decision threshold, thus showing the lowest level of BOLD signal during the hardest decisions. The other framework instead posits that activity in a decision-making region reflects the difficulty of a decision, thus showing the highest level of BOLD signal during the hardest decisions. We had subjects perform a face detection task on degraded face images while we simultaneously recorded BOLD activity. We searched for brain regions where changes in BOLD activity during this task supported either of these frameworks by calculating the correlation of BOLD activity with reaction time - a measure of task difficulty. We found that the right supplementary eye field, right frontal eye field and right inferior frontal gyrus had increased activity relative to baseline that positively correlated with reaction time, while the left superior frontal sulcus and left middle temporal gyrus had decreased activity relative to baseline that negatively correlated with reaction time. We propose that a simple mechanism that scales a region’s activity based on task demands can explain our results.

  4. Energy Efficient Task Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this work is to develop a task light for office lighting that fulfils the minimum requirements of the European standard EN12464 - 1 : Light and lighting – Lighting of work places, Part 1: Indoor workplaces and the Danish standard DS 700 : Lys og belysning I arbejdsrum , or more...... specifically the requirements that apply to the work area and the immediate surrounding area. By providing a task light that fulfils the requirements for task lighting and the immediate surrounding area, the general lighting only needs to provide the illuminance levels required for background lighting...... and thereby a reduction in installed power for general lighting of about 40 % compared to the way illuminance levels are designed in an office environment in Denmark today. This lighting strategy is useful when the placement of the task area is not defined in the space before the lighting is design ed...

  5. Task complexity and maximal isometric strength gains through motor learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jessica; Green, Lara A.; Gabriel, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study compared the effects of a simple versus complex contraction pattern on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of maximal isometric strength gains and reductions in force variability. A control group (N = 12) performed simple isometric contractions of the wrist flexors. An experimental group (N = 12) performed complex proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) contractions consisting of maximal isometric wrist extension immediately reversing force direction to wrist flexion within a single trial. Ten contractions were completed on three consecutive days with a retention and transfer test 2‐weeks later. For the retention test, the groups performed their assigned contraction pattern followed by a transfer test that consisted of the other contraction pattern for a cross‐over design. Both groups exhibited comparable increases in strength (20.2%, P < 0.01) and reductions in mean torque variability (26.2%, P < 0.01), which were retained and transferred. There was a decrease in the coactivation ratio (antagonist/agonist muscle activity) for both groups, which was retained and transferred (35.2%, P < 0.01). The experimental group exhibited a linear decrease in variability of the torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves, indicating transfer to the simple contraction pattern (P < 0.01). The control group underwent a decrease in variability of the torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves from the first day of training to retention, but participants returned to baseline levels during the transfer condition (P < 0.01). However, the difference between torque RMS error versus the variability in torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves suggests the demands of the complex task were transferred, but could not be achieved in a reproducible way. PMID:25428951

  6. Multi-population genomic prediction using a multi-task Bayesian learning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liuhong; Li, Changxi; Miller, Stephen; Schenkel, Flavio

    2014-05-03

    Genomic prediction in multiple populations can be viewed as a multi-task learning problem where tasks are to derive prediction equations for each population and multi-task learning property can be improved by sharing information across populations. The goal of this study was to develop a multi-task Bayesian learning model for multi-population genomic prediction with a strategy to effectively share information across populations. Simulation studies and real data from Holstein and Ayrshire dairy breeds with phenotypes on five milk production traits were used to evaluate the proposed multi-task Bayesian learning model and compare with a single-task model and a simple data pooling method. A multi-task Bayesian learning model was proposed for multi-population genomic prediction. Information was shared across populations through a common set of latent indicator variables while SNP effects were allowed to vary in different populations. Both simulation studies and real data analysis showed the effectiveness of the multi-task model in improving genomic prediction accuracy for the smaller Ayshire breed. Simulation studies suggested that the multi-task model was most effective when the number of QTL was small (n = 20), with an increase of accuracy by up to 0.09 when QTL effects were lowly correlated between two populations (ρ = 0.2), and up to 0.16 when QTL effects were highly correlated (ρ = 0.8). When QTL genotypes were included for training and validation, the improvements were 0.16 and 0.22, respectively, for scenarios of the low and high correlation of QTL effects between two populations. When the number of QTL was large (n = 200), improvement was small with a maximum of 0.02 when QTL genotypes were not included for genomic prediction. Reduction in accuracy was observed for the simple pooling method when the number of QTL was small and correlation of QTL effects between the two populations was low. For the real data, the multi-task model achieved an

  7. Cognitive and motor dual task gait training improve dual task gait performance after stroke - A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Ci; Yang, Yea-Ru; Tsai, Yun-An; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2017-06-22

    This study investigated effects of cognitive and motor dual task gait training on dual task gait performance in stroke. Participants (n = 28) were randomly assigned to cognitive dual task gait training (CDTT), motor dual task gait training (MDTT), or conventional physical therapy (CPT) group. Participants in CDTT or MDTT group practiced the cognitive or motor tasks respectively during walking. Participants in CPT group received strengthening, balance, and gait training. The intervention was 30 min/session, 3 sessions/week for 4 weeks. Three test conditions to evaluate the training effects were single walking, walking while performing cognitive task (serial subtraction), and walking while performing motor task (tray-carrying). Parameters included gait speed, dual task cost of gait speed (DTC-speed), cadence, stride time, and stride length. After CDTT, cognitive-motor dual task gait performance (stride length and DTC-speed) was improved (p = 0.021; p = 0.015). After MDTT, motor dual task gait performance (gait speed, stride length, and DTC-speed) was improved (p = 0.008; p = 0.008; p = 0.008 respectively). It seems that CDTT improved cognitive dual task gait performance and MDTT improved motor dual task gait performance although such improvements did not reach significant group difference. Therefore, different types of dual task gait training can be adopted to enhance different dual task gait performance in stroke.

  8. Contaminated sediment research task: SHC Task 3.61.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    A poster presentation for the SHC BOSC review will summarize the research efforts under Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHC) in the Contaminated Sediment Task within the Contaminated Sites Project. For the Task, Problem Summary & Decision Context; Task O...

  9. Drift estimation from a simple field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, F. M.; Figueiredo, A.

    2008-01-01

    Given the outcome of a Wiener process, what can be said about the drift and diffusion coefficients? If the process is stationary, these coefficients are related to the mean and variance of the position displacements distribution. However, if either drift or diffusion are time-dependent, very little can be said unless some assumption about that dependency is made. In Bayesian statistics, this should be translated into some specific prior probability. We use Bayes rule to estimate these coefficients from a single trajectory. This defines a simple, and analytically tractable, field theory.

  10. Synthetic Synchronisation: From Attention and Multi-Tasking to Negative Capability and Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stables, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Educational literature has tended to focus, explicitly and implicitly, on two kinds of task orientation: the ability either to focus on a single task, or to multi-task. A third form of orientation characterises many highly successful people. This is the ability to combine several tasks into one: to "kill two (or more) birds with one…

  11. The development of a task analysis method applicable to the tasks of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wan Chul; Park, Ji Soo; Baek, Dong Hyeon; Ham, Dong Han; Kim, Huhn [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    While task analysis is one of the essential processes for human factors studies, traditional methods reveal weaknesses in dealing with the cognitive aspects, which become more critical in modern complex system. This report proposes a cognitive task analysis (CTA) method for identifying cognitive requirements of operators' tasks in nuclear power plants. The proposed CTA method is characterized by the information-oriented concept and procedure-based approach. The task prescription identifies the information requirements and trace the information flow to reveal the cognitive organization of task procedure with emphasis to the relations among the information requirements. The cognitive requirements are then analyzed in terms of cognitive span of task information, cognitive envelope and working memory relief point of t procedures, and working memory load. The proposed method is relatively simple and, possibly being incorporated in a full task analysis scheme, directly applicable to the design/evaluation of human-machine interfaces and operating procedures. A prototype of a computerized support system is developed for supporting the practicality of the proposed method. (Author) 104 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs.

  12. The development of a task analysis method applicable to the tasks of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wan Chul; Park, Ji Soo; Baek, Dong Hyeon; Ham, Dong Han; Kim, Huhn [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    While task analysis is one of the essential processes for human factors studies, traditional methods reveal weaknesses in dealing with the cognitive aspects, which become more critical in modern complex system. This report proposes a cognitive task analysis (CTA) method for identifying cognitive requirements of operators' tasks in nuclear power plants. The proposed CTA method is characterized by the information-oriented concept and procedure-based approach. The task prescription identifies the information requirements and trace the information flow to reveal the cognitive organization of task procedure with emphasis to the relations among the information requirements. The cognitive requirements are then analyzed in terms of cognitive span of task information, cognitive envelope and working memory relief point of t procedures, and working memory load. The proposed method is relatively simple and, possibly being incorporated in a full task analysis scheme, directly applicable to the design/evaluation of human-machine interfaces and operating procedures. A prototype of a computerized support system is developed for supporting the practicality of the proposed method. (Author) 104 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs.

  13. Simple turbulence measurements with azopolymer thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillé, Regis; Pérez, Darío G; Morille, Yohann; Zielińska, Sonia; Ortyl, Ewelina

    2013-04-01

    A simple method to measure the influence on the laser beam propagation by a turbid medium is proposed. This measurement is based on the inscription of a surface relief grating (SRG) on an azopolymer thin film. The grating obtained with a single laser beam after propagation into a turbulent medium is perturbed and directly analyzed by a CCD camera through its diffraction pattern. Later, by scanning the surface pattern with an atomic force microscope, the inscribed SRG is analyzed with the Radon transform. This method has the advantage of using a single beam to remotely inscribe a grating detecting perturbations during the beam path. A method to evaluate the refractive index constant structure is developed.

  14. Task Switching in a Hierarchical Task Structure: Evidence for the Fragility of the Task Repetition Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms.…

  15. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Dry Eye The SSF thanks J. Daniel Nelson, MD, Associate Medical Director, Specialty Care HealthPartners Medical Group & Clinics, and Professor of Ophthalmology, University of ...

  16. Robot task space analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W.R.; Osborn, J.

    1997-01-01

    Many nuclear projects such as environmental restoration and waste management challenges involve radiation or other hazards that will necessitate the use of remote operations that protect human workers from dangerous exposures. Remote work is far more costly to execute than what workers could accomplish directly with conventional tools and practices because task operations are slow and tedious due to difficulties of remote manipulation and viewing. Decades of experience within the nuclear remote operations community show that remote tasks may take hundreds of times longer than hands-on work; even with state-of-the-art force- reflecting manipulators and television viewing, remote task performance execution is five to ten times slower than equivalent direct contact work. Thus the requirement to work remotely is a major cost driver in many projects. Modest improvements in the work efficiency of remote systems can have high payoffs by reducing the completion time of projects. Additional benefits will accrue from improved work quality and enhanced safety

  17. Performing Task Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    by shared goals and knowledge as well as mutual respect and frequent, timely, accurate and problem-solving ways of communication with the purpose of dealing with the tasks at hand in an integrated way. We introduce and discuss relational coordination theory through a case-study within public healthcare....... Here cross-professional coordination of work was done by scheduled communication twice a day. When we proposed a way for further integration of tasks through an all-inclusive team organization, we were met with resistance. We use the study to discuss whether relational coordination theory is able to do...... away with differences regarding task definitions and working conditions as well as professional knowledge hierarchies and responsibilities for parts and wholes....

  18. Simple Tidal Prism Models Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luketina, D.

    1998-01-01

    Simple tidal prism models for well-mixed estuaries have been in use for some time and are discussed in most text books on estuaries. The appeal of this model is its simplicity. However, there are several flaws in the logic behind the model. These flaws are pointed out and a more theoretically correct simple tidal prism model is derived. In doing so, it is made clear which effects can, in theory, be neglected and which can not.

  19. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...

  20. Meta-analysis of mismatch negativity to simple versus complex deviants in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avissar, Michael; Xie, Shanghong; Vail, Blair; Lopez-Calderon, Javier; Wang, Yuanjia; Javitt, Daniel C

    2018-01-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) deficits in schizophrenia (SCZ) have been studied extensively since the early 1990s, with the vast majority of studies using simple auditory oddball task deviants that vary in a single acoustic dimension such as pitch or duration. There has been a growing interest in using more complex deviants that violate more abstract rules to probe higher order cognitive deficits. It is still unclear how sensory processing deficits compare to and contribute to higher order cognitive dysfunction, which can be investigated with later attention-dependent auditory event-related potential (ERP) components such as a subcomponent of P300, P3b. In this meta-analysis, we compared MMN deficits in SCZ using simple deviants to more complex deviants. We also pooled studies that measured MMN and P3b in the same study sample and examined the relationship between MMN and P3b deficits within study samples. Our analysis reveals that, to date, studies using simple deviants demonstrate larger deficits than those using complex deviants, with effect sizes in the range of moderate to large. The difference in effect sizes between deviant types was reduced significantly when accounting for magnitude of MMN measured in healthy controls. P3b deficits, while large, were only modestly greater than MMN deficits (d=0.21). Taken together, our findings suggest that MMN to simple deviants may still be optimal as a biomarker for SCZ and that sensory processing dysfunction contributes significantly to MMN deficit and disease pathophysiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Technical task plan for Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, L.B.

    1995-01-01

    Objective is to determine from industry their best approaches to retrieving waste from the Single Shell Tanks. This task plan describes the first 18 months of work; the task will be further defined as the work progresses. The retrieval is to be demonstrated on tank 241-C-106

  2. Task-Based Variability in Children's Singing Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Bryan E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of task demands on children's singing accuracy. A 2 × 4 factorial design was used to examine the performance of fourth-grade children (N = 120) in solo and doubled response conditions. Each child sang four task types: single pitch, interval, pattern, and the song "Jingle Bells." The…

  3. Data Center Tasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temares, M. Lewis; Lutheran, Joseph A.

    Operations tasking for data center management is discussed. The original and revised organizational structures of the data center at the University of Miami are also described. The organizational strategy addresses the functions that should be performed by the data center, anticipates the specialized skills required, and addresses personnel…

  4. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  5. India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India's Telecom Story is now well known · Indian Operators become an enviable force · At the same time · India Amongst the Leaders · Unfinished Tasks as Operators · LightGSM ON: Innovation for Rural Area from Midas · Broadband Access Options for India · Broadband driven by DSL: still too slow · Is Wireless the answer?

  6. Effects of dual-task training on balance and executive functions in Parkinson's disease: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela Fernandes; Nuno Rocha; Rubim Santos; João Manuel R. S. Tavares

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of cognitive-motor dual-task training compared with single-task training on balance and executive functions in individuals with Parkinson's disease. Fifteen subjects, aged between 39 and 75 years old, were randomly assigned to the dual-task training group (n = 8) and single-task training group (n = 7). The training was run twice a week for 6 weeks. The single-task group received balance training and the dual-task group performed cognitive task...

  7. An Approach to Operational Analysis: Doctrinal Task Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Once the unit is selected , CATS will output all of the doctrinal collective tasks associated with the unit. Currently, CATS outputs this information...Army unit are controlled data items, but for explanation purposes consider this simple example using a restaurant as the unit of interest. Table 1...shows an example Task Model for a restaurant using language and format similar to what CATS provides. Only 3 levels are shown in the example, but

  8. Event-related potentials and secondary task performance during simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, A E; Böcker, K B E; Volkerts, E R; Verster, J C; Kenemans, J L

    2008-01-01

    Inattention and distraction account for a substantial number of traffic accidents. Therefore, we examined the impact of secondary task performance (an auditory oddball task) on a primary driving task (lane keeping). Twenty healthy participants performed two 20-min tests in the Divided Attention Steering Simulator (DASS). The visual secondary task of the DASS was replaced by an auditory oddball task to allow recording of brain activity. The driving task and the secondary (distracting) oddball task were presented in isolation and simultaneously, to assess their mutual interference. In addition to performance measures (lane keeping in the primary driving task and reaction speed in the secondary oddball task), brain activity, i.e. event-related potentials (ERPs), was recorded. Performance parameters on the driving test and the secondary oddball task did not differ between performance in isolation and simultaneous performance. However, when both tasks were performed simultaneously, reaction time variability increased in the secondary oddball task. Analysis of brain activity indicated that ERP amplitude (P3a amplitude) related to the secondary task, was significantly reduced when the task was performed simultaneously with the driving test. This study shows that when performing a simple secondary task during driving, performance of the driving task and this secondary task are both unaffected. However, analysis of brain activity shows reduced cortical processing of irrelevant, potentially distracting stimuli from the secondary task during driving.

  9. Processing of unattended, simple negative pictures resists perceptual load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Anders; Wiens, Stefan

    2011-05-11

    As researchers debate whether emotional pictures can be processed irrespective of spatial attention and perceptual load, negative and neutral pictures of simple figure-ground composition were shown at fixation and were surrounded by one, two, or three letters. When participants performed a picture discrimination task, there was evidence for motivated attention; that is, an early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) to negative versus neutral pictures. When participants performed a letter discrimination task, the EPN was unaffected whereas the LPP was reduced. Although performance decreased substantially with the number of letters (one to three), the LPP did not decrease further. Therefore, attention to simple, negative pictures at fixation seems to resist manipulations of perceptual load.

  10. Persistency and flexibility of complex brain networks underlie dual-task interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavash, Mohsen; Hilgetag, Claus C; Thiel, Christiane M; Gießing, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies on multitasking suggest that performance decline during concurrent task processing arises from interfering brain modules. Here, we used graph-theoretical network analysis to define functional brain modules and relate the modular organization of complex brain networks to behavioral dual-task costs. Based on resting-state and task fMRI we explored two organizational aspects potentially associated with behavioral interference when human subjects performed a visuospatial and speech task simultaneously: the topological overlap between persistent single-task modules, and the flexibility of single-task modules in adaptation to the dual-task condition. Participants showed a significant decline in visuospatial accuracy in the dual-task compared with single visuospatial task. Global analysis of topological similarity between modules revealed that the overlap between single-task modules significantly correlated with the decline in visuospatial accuracy. Subjects with larger overlap between single-task modules showed higher behavioral interference. Furthermore, lower flexible reconfiguration of single-task modules in adaptation to the dual-task condition significantly correlated with larger decline in visuospatial accuracy. Subjects with lower modular flexibility showed higher behavioral interference. At the regional level, higher overlap between single-task modules and less modular flexibility in the somatomotor cortex positively correlated with the decline in visuospatial accuracy. Additionally, higher modular flexibility in cingulate and frontal control areas and lower flexibility in right-lateralized nodes comprising the middle occipital and superior temporal gyri supported dual-tasking. Our results suggest that persistency and flexibility of brain modules are important determinants of dual-task costs. We conclude that efficient dual-tasking benefits from a specific balance between flexibility and rigidity of functional brain modules. © 2015 Wiley

  11. Decoding Decoders: Finding Optimal Representation Spaces for Unsupervised Similarity Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhelezniak, Vitalii; Busbridge, Dan; Shen, April; Smith, Samuel L.; Hammerla, Nils Y.

    2018-01-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that simple models outperform complex deep networks on many unsupervised similarity tasks. We provide a simple yet rigorous explanation for this behaviour by introducing the concept of an optimal representation space, in which semantically close symbols are mapped to representations that are close under a similarity measure induced by the model's objective function. In addition, we present a straightforward procedure that, without any retraining or architectura...

  12. Single-Arc IMRT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortfeld, Thomas; Webb, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The idea of delivering intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multileaf collimator in a continuous dynamic mode during a single rotation of the gantry has recently gained momentum both in research and industry. In this note we investigate the potential of this Single-Arc IMRT technique at a conceptual level. We consider the original theoretical example case from Brahme et al that got the field of IMRT started. Using analytical methods, we derive deliverable intensity 'landscapes' for Single-Arc as well as standard IMRT and Tomotherapy. We find that Tomotherapy provides the greatest flexibility in shaping intensity landscapes and that it allows one to deliver IMRT in a way that comes close to the ideal case in the transverse plane. Single-Arc and standard IMRT make compromises in different areas. Only in relatively simple cases that do not require substantial intensity modulation will Single-Arc be dosimetrically comparable to Tomotherapy. Compared with standard IMRT, Single-Arc could be dosimetrically superior in certain cases if one is willing to accept the spreading of low dose values over large volumes of normal tissue. In terms of treatment planning, Single-Arc poses a more challenging optimization problem than Tomotherapy or standard IMRT. We conclude that Single-Arc holds potential as an efficient IMRT technique especially for relatively simple cases. In very complex cases, Single-Arc may unduly compromise the quality of the dose distribution, if one tries to keep the treatment time below 2 min or so. As with all IMRT techniques, it is important to explore the tradeoff between plan quality and the efficiency of its delivery carefully for each individual case. (note)

  13. Simple arithmetic: not so simple for highly math anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyesang; Sprute, Lisa; Maloney, Erin A; Beilock, Sian L; Berman, Marc G

    2017-12-01

    Fluency with simple arithmetic, typically achieved in early elementary school, is thought to be one of the building blocks of mathematical competence. Behavioral studies with adults indicate that math anxiety (feelings of tension or apprehension about math) is associated with poor performance on cognitively demanding math problems. However, it remains unclear whether there are fundamental differences in how high and low math anxious individuals approach overlearned simple arithmetic problems that are less reliant on cognitive control. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals. We implemented a partial least squares analysis, a data-driven, multivariate analysis method to measure distributed patterns of whole-brain activity associated with performance. Despite overall high simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals, performance was differentially dependent on the fronto-parietal attentional network as a function of math anxiety. Specifically, low-compared to high-math anxious individuals perform better when they activate this network less-a potential indication of more automatic problem-solving. These findings suggest that low and high math anxious individuals approach even the most fundamental math problems differently. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Effects of Gait and Cognitive Task Difficulty on Cognitive-Motor Interference in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Plummer-D'Amato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although gait-related dual-task interference in aging is well established, the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on dual-task interference is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on cognitive-motor interference in aging. Fifteen older adults (72.1 years, SD 5.2 and 20 young adults (21.7 years, SD 1.6 performed three walking tasks of varying difficulty (self-selected speed, fast speed, and fast speed with obstacle crossing under single- and dual-task conditions. The cognitive tasks were the auditory Stroop task and the clock task. There was a significant Group × Gait Task × Cognitive Task interaction for the dual-task effect on gait speed. After adjusting for education, there were no significant effects of gait or cognitive task difficulty on the dual-task effects on cognitive task performance. The results of this study provide evidence that gait task difficulty influences dual-task effects on gait speed, especially in older adults. Moreover, the effects of gait task difficulty on dual-task interference appear to be influenced by the difficulty of the cognitive task. Education is an important factor influencing cognitive-motor interference effects on cognition, but not gait.

  15. Microprocessor multi-task monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludemann, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-task monitor program for microprocessors. Although written for the Intel 8085, it incorporates features that would be beneficial for implementation in other microprocessors used in controlling and monitoring experiments and accelerators. The monitor places permanent programs (tasks) arbitrarily located throughout ROM in a priority ordered queue. The programmer is provided with the flexibility to add new tasks or modified versions of existing tasks, without having to comply with previously defined task boundaries or having to reprogram all of ROM. Scheduling of tasks is triggered by timers, outside stimuli (interrupts), or inter-task communications. Context switching time is of the order of tenths of a milllisecond

  16. Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.

    1996-01-01

    Generalized gradient approximations (GGA close-quote s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  17. From simple desires to ordinary beliefs: the early development of everyday psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, H M; Woolley, J D

    1990-06-01

    We provide evidence for the claim that before young children construe human action in terms of beliefs and desires they understand action only in terms of simple desires. This type of naive psychology--a simple desire psychology--constitutes a coherent understanding of human action, but it differs from the belief--desire psychology of slightly older children and adults. In this paper we characterize what we mean by a simple desire psychology and report two experiments. In Experiment 1 we demonstrate that 2-year-old can predict actions and reactions related to simple desires. In Experiment 2 we demonstrate that many 2-year-old pass desire reasoning tasks while at the same time failing belief reasoning tasks that are passed by slightly older children, and that are as comparable as possible to the desire tasks they pass with ease.

  18. Metacognition of Multi-Tasking: How Well Do We Predict the Costs of Divided Attention?

    OpenAIRE

    Finley, Jason R.; Benjamin, Aaron S.; McCarley, Jason S.

    2014-01-01

    Risky multi-tasking, such as texting while driving, may occur because people misestimate the costs of divided attention. In two experiments, participants performed a computerized visual-manual tracking task in which they attempted to keep a mouse cursor within a small target that moved erratically around a circular track. They then separately performed an auditory n-back task. After practicing both tasks separately, participants received feedback on their single-task tracking performance and ...

  19. Task Force report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The International Task Force on Prevention of Nuclear Terrorism was formed in 1985 under the auspices of the Nuclear Control Institute. This report is a consensus report of the 26 task force members - all members not necessarily agreeing on every point and all wordings, but in each case a substantial majority did agree. First, the report defines the threat, then establishes the priorities. Short-term recommendations are presented on: (1) protecting nuclear weapons; (2) protecting nuclear materials; (3) protecting nuclear facilities; (4) intelligence programs; (5) civil liberties concerns; (6) controlling nuclear transfers; (7) US - Soviet cooperation; (8) arms control initiatives; (9) convention of physical protection of nuclear material; (10) role of emergency management programs; and (11) role of the media. Brief long-term recommendations are included on (1) international measures, and (2) emerging nuclear technologies. An Appendix, Production of Nuclear Materials Usable in Weapons is presented for further consideration (without recommendations)

  20. Task conflict in the Stroop task: When Stroop interference decreases as Stroop facilitation increases in a low task conflict context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Andrew Parris

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study participants completed two blocks of the Stroop task, one in which the Response-Stimulus Interval (RSI was 3500ms and one in which RSI was 200ms. It was expected that, in line with previous research, the shorter RSI would induce a low Task Conflict context by increasing focus on the colour identification goal in the Stroop task. Based on previous research showing the role of Task Conflict in the presence or absence Stroop facilitation, this was expected to lead to the novel finding of an increase in facilitation and simultaneous decrease in interference. Such a finding would be problematic for models of Stroop effects that predict these indices of performance should be affected in tandem. A crossover interaction is reported supporting these predictions. As predicted, the shorter RSI resulted in incongruent and congruent trial RTs decreasing relative to a static neutral baseline condition; hence interference decreased as facilitation increased. An explanatory model (expanding on the work of Goldfarb, Henik and colleagues is presented that: 1 Shows how under certain conditions the predictions from single mechanism models hold true (i.e. when Task conflict is held constant; 2 Shows how it is possible that interference can be affected by an experimental manipulation that leaves facilitation apparently untouched and; 3 Predicts that facilitation cannot be independently affected by an experimental manipulation.

  1. The task force process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegate, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the unique aspects of the Fernald Citizens Task Force process that have contributed to a largely successful public participation effort at Fernald. The Fernald Citizens Task Force passed quickly by many procedural issues. Instead, the Task Force concentrated on (a) educating itself about the site, its problems, and possible solutions, and (b) choosing a directed way to approach its mandate: To make recommendations on several open-quotes big pictureclose quotes issues, including future use of the site, cleanup levels, waste disposition, and cleanup priorities. This paper presents the approach used at Fernald for establishing and running a focused site-specific advisory board, the key issues that have been faced, and how these issues were resolved. The success of Fernald in establishing a strong and functioning site-specific advisory board serves as a useful model for other DOE facilities, although the Fernald model is just one of many approaches that can be taken. However, the approach presented here has worked extremely well for Fernald

  2. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  3. Mobile Thread Task Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Estlin, Tara A.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    The Mobile Thread Task Manager (MTTM) is being applied to parallelizing existing flight software to understand the benefits and to develop new techniques and architectural concepts for adapting software to multicore architectures. It allocates and load-balances tasks for a group of threads that migrate across processors to improve cache performance. In order to balance-load across threads, the MTTM augments a basic map-reduce strategy to draw jobs from a global queue. In a multicore processor, memory may be "homed" to the cache of a specific processor and must be accessed from that processor. The MTTB architecture wraps access to data with thread management to move threads to the home processor for that data so that the computation follows the data in an attempt to avoid L2 cache misses. Cache homing is also handled by a memory manager that translates identifiers to processor IDs where the data will be homed (according to rules defined by the user). The user can also specify the number of threads and processors separately, which is important for tuning performance for different patterns of computation and memory access. MTTM efficiently processes tasks in parallel on a multiprocessor computer. It also provides an interface to make it easier to adapt existing software to a multiprocessor environment.

  4. LHCb computing tasks

    CERN Document Server

    Binko, P

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the computing tasks of the LHCb computing system. It also describes the logistics of the dataflow between the tasks and the detailed requirements for each task, in particular the data sizes and CPU power requirements. All data sizes are calculated assuming that the LHCb experiment will take data about 107 s per year at a frequency of 200 Hz, which gives 2 \\Theta 109 real events per year. The raw event size should not exceed 100 kB (200 TB per year). We will have to generate about 109 MonteCarlo events per year. The current MonteCarlo simulation program based on the GEANT3.21 package requires about 12 s to produce an average event (all CPU times are normalised to a 1000 MIPS processor). The size of an average MonteCarlo event will be about 200 kB (100 TB per year) of simulated data (without the hits). We will start to use the GEANT4 package in 1998. Rejection factors of 8 and 25 are required in the Level-2 and Level-3 triggers respectively, to reduce the frequency of events to 200 Hz. T...

  5. Coherent single-photon absorption by single emitters coupled to 1D nanophotonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuntian; Wubs, Martijn; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We have derived an efficient model that allows calculating the dynamical single-photon absorption of an emitter coupled to a waveguide. We suggest a novel and simple structure that leads to strong single-photon absorption.......We have derived an efficient model that allows calculating the dynamical single-photon absorption of an emitter coupled to a waveguide. We suggest a novel and simple structure that leads to strong single-photon absorption....

  6. Realization of parking task based on affine system modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Woo; Narikiyo, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a motion control system of an unmanned vehicle, where parallel parking task is realized based on a self-organizing affine system modeling and a quadratic programming based robust controller. Because of non-linearity of the vehicle system and complexity of the task to realize, control objective is not always realized with a single algorithm or control mode. This paper presents a hybrid model for parallel parking task in which seven modes for describing sub-tasks constitute an entire model

  7. Task analysis and support for problem solving tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is concerned with Task Analysis as the basis for ergonomic design to reduce human error rates, rather than for predicting human error rates. Task Analysis techniques usually provide a set of categories for describing sub tasks, and a framework describing the relations between sub-tasks. Both the task type categories and their organisation have implications for optimum interface and training design. In this paper, the framework needed for considering the most complex tasks faced by operators in process industries is discussed such as fault management in unexpected situations, and what is likely to minimise human error in these circumstances. (author)

  8. Emergence Issues - not so simple

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetics Supplement: Emergence Issues - not so simple. S Afr Fam Pract 2014. Vol 56 No 2 Supplement 1. Introduction. Emergence from anaesthesia is by definition the process of return to baseline physiological function of all organ systems after cessation of administration of general anaesthesia and is the stage from ...

  9. On framed simple Lie groups

    OpenAIRE

    MINAMI, Haruo

    2016-01-01

    For a compact simple Lie group $G$, we show that the element $[G, \\mathcal{L}] \\in \\pi^S_*(S^0)$ represented by the pair $(G, \\mathcal{L})$ is zero, where $\\mathcal{L}$ denotes the left invariant framing of $G$. The proof relies on the method of E. Ossa [Topology, 21 (1982), 315–323].

  10. The simple ethers of glycerin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimsanov, B.Kh.; Karimov, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    From glycerin derivatives the considerable interest is present simple ethers because many of them are biological active and found wide practical using as an effect drugs, inters for thin organic synthesis, vehicle for injections, regulators of plants growth, reagents, components for perfumery-cosmetic goods and etc

  11. Solving Simple Kinetics without Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Pen~a, Lisandro Herna´ndez

    2016-01-01

    The solution of simple kinetic equations is analyzed without referencing any topic from differential equations or integral calculus. Guided by the physical meaning of the rate equation, a systematic procedure is used to generate an approximate solution that converges uniformly to the exact solution in the case of zero, first, and second order…

  12. Grief: Difficult Times, Simple Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Emily Lane

    This guide presents techniques to assist others in coping with the loss of a loved one. Using the language of 9 layperson, the book contains more than 100 tips for caregivers or loved ones. A simple step is presented on each page, followed by reasons and instructions for each step. Chapters include: "What to Say"; "Helpful Things to Do"; "Dealing…

  13. Simple stålrammebygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellum, J.C.

    Anvisningen gennemgår dimensioneringen og bringer detaljerede konstruktionstegninger til simple stålrammebygninger, dvs. lukkede, fritliggende bygninger i én etage, hvor tagkonstruktionen ud over egenlast kun er påvirket af naturlaster, dvs. sne og vind. Dimensioneringen sker ved at udfylde et di...

  14. Simple models with ALICE fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Striet, J

    2000-01-01

    We introduce two simple models which feature an Alice electrodynamics phase. In a well defined sense the Alice flux solutions we obtain in these models obey first order equations similar to those of the Nielsen-Olesen fluxtube in the abelian higgs model in the Bogomol'nyi limit. Some numerical solutions are presented as well.

  15. Multi-layer network utilizing rewarded spike time dependent plasticity to learn a foraging task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Sanda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural networks with a single plastic layer employing reward modulated spike time dependent plasticity (STDP are capable of learning simple foraging tasks. Here we demonstrate advanced pattern discrimination and continuous learning in a network of spiking neurons with multiple plastic layers. The network utilized both reward modulated and non-reward modulated STDP and implemented multiple mechanisms for homeostatic regulation of synaptic efficacy, including heterosynaptic plasticity, gain control, output balancing, activity normalization of rewarded STDP and hard limits on synaptic strength. We found that addition of a hidden layer of neurons employing non-rewarded STDP created neurons that responded to the specific combinations of inputs and thus performed basic classification of the input patterns. When combined with a following layer of neurons implementing rewarded STDP, the network was able to learn, despite the absence of labeled training data, discrimination between rewarding patterns and the patterns designated as punishing. Synaptic noise allowed for trial-and-error learning that helped to identify the goal-oriented strategies which were effective in task solving. The study predicts a critical set of properties of the spiking neuronal network with STDP that was sufficient to solve a complex foraging task involving pattern classification and decision making.

  16. Structure of simple liquids; Structure des liquides simples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blain, J F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The results obtained by application to argon and sodium of the two important methods of studying the structure of liquids: scattering of X-rays and neutrons, are presented on one hand. On the other hand the principal models employed for reconstituting the structure of simple liquids are exposed: mathematical models, lattice models and their derived models, experimental models. (author) [French] On presente d'une part les resultats obtenus par application a l'argon et au sodium des deux principales methodes d'etude de la structure des liquides: la diffusion des rayons X et la diffusion des neutrons; d'autre part, les principaux modeles employes pour reconstituer la structure des liquides simples sont exposes: modeles mathematiques, modeles des reseaux et modeles derives, modeles experimentaux. (auteur)

  17. Job and task analysis for technical staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toline, B.C.

    1991-01-01

    In September of 1989 Cooper Nuclear Station began a project to upgrade the Technical Staff Training Program. This project's roots began by performing job and Task Analysis for Technical Staff. While the industry has long been committed to Job and Task Analysis to target performance based instruction for single job positions, this approach was unique in that it was not originally considered appropriate for a group as diverse as Tech Staff. Much to his satisfaction the Job and Task Analysis Project was much less complicated for Technical Staff than the author had imagined. The benefits of performing the Job and Task Analysis for Technical Staff have become increasingly obvious as he pursues lesson plan development and course revisions. The outline for this presentation will be as follows: philosophy adopted; preparation of the job survey document; performing the job analysis; performing task analysis for technical staff and associated pitfalls; clustering objectives for training and comparison to existing program; benefits now and in the future; final phase (comparison to INPO guides and meeting the needs of non-degreed engineering professionals); and conclusion. By focusing on performance based needs for engineers rather than traditional academics for training the author is confident the future Technical Staff Program will meet the challenges ahead and will exceed requirements for accreditation

  18. A simple approximation method for dilute Ising systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, M.

    1996-10-01

    We describe a simple approximate method to analyze dilute Ising systems. The method takes into consideration the fluctuations of the effective field, and is based on a probability distribution of random variables which correctly accounts for all the single site kinematic relations. It is shown that the simplest approximation gives satisfactory results when compared with other methods. (author). 12 refs, 2 tabs

  19. epilepsy following simple febrile seizure in a rural community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... family history of epilepsy did not significantly influence the development of later epilepsy X2 ... following a single simple febrile seizure. MATERIALS ANd ... If the parent did not witness the seizure, an adult who witnessed the ...

  20. How to observe simple structures in deep inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frascaria, N.

    1981-10-01

    Evidence is presented for the observation of simple structures at high excitation energy in the energy spectra of fragments from numerous ion reactions. Techniques employed in the single as well as in the coincidence experiments are discussed. The main characteristics of these structures are pointed out and some possible interpretations of the experimental observations are given

  1. Good results after laparoscopic marsupialisation of simple liver cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Christian Lolle; Ainsworth, Alan Patrick

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Large simple liver cysts often tend to be symptomatic with pain being the most common symptom. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients who had intended laparoscopic surgery for liver cysts between December 2007 and December 2012 at a single institution...

  2. Advanced statistics: linear regression, part I: simple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Keith A

    2004-01-01

    Simple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between a single independent predictor variable and a single dependent outcome variable. In this, the first of a two-part series exploring concepts in linear regression analysis, the four fundamental assumptions and the mechanics of simple linear regression are reviewed. The most common technique used to derive the regression line, the method of least squares, is described. The reader will be acquainted with other important concepts in simple linear regression, including: variable transformations, dummy variables, relationship to inference testing, and leverage. Simplified clinical examples with small datasets and graphic models are used to illustrate the points. This will provide a foundation for the second article in this series: a discussion of multiple linear regression, in which there are multiple predictor variables.

  3. Postural adjustments are modulated by manual task complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Augusto Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Daily life activities of humans are characterized by dual tasks, in which a manual task is performed concomitantly with a postural task. Based on the assumption that both manual and postural tasks require attentional resources, no consensus exists as to how the central nervous system modulates postural adjustments in dual tasks. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a manual task requiring attentional resources on shoulder and ankle adjustments as a function of the direction and predictability of postural perturbation. The participants (n=6 were evaluated during the performance of a simple and a complex manual task, while the base of support was moved backward or forward. Latency of activation of the tibialis anterior and gastroc-nemius muscles and angular acceleration of the shoulder were analyzed. The results showed that execution of the complex manual task delayed postural adjustment. Moreover, this delay occurred differently depending on the direction of postural perturbation. The delay in postural adjustment occurred proximally in the case of anterior displacement of the platform, and distally in the case of posterior displacement. Postural adjustments were more affected by the attentional task than by the predictability of platform displacement. These results are consistent with the concept of an integrated control between manual actions and the maintenance of static posture.

  4. Task switching costs in preschool children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Anna; Kirkham, Natasha Z; Mareschal, Denis

    2018-08-01

    Past research investigating cognitive flexibility has shown that preschool children make many perseverative errors in tasks that require switching between different sets of rules. However, this inflexibility might not necessarily hold with easier tasks. The current study investigated the developmental differences in cognitive flexibility using a task-switching procedure that compared reaction times and accuracy in 4- and 6-year-olds with those in adults. The experiment involved simple target detection tasks and was intentionally designed in a way that the stimulus and response conflicts were minimal together with a long preparation window. Global mixing costs (performance costs when multiple tasks are relevant in a context), and local switch costs (performance costs due to switching to an alternative task) are typically thought to engage endogenous control processes. If this is the case, we should observe developmental differences with both of these costs. Our results show, however, that when the accuracy was good, there were no age differences in cognitive flexibility (i.e., the ability to manage multiple tasks and to switch between tasks) between children and adults. Even though preschool children had slower reaction times and were less accurate, the mixing and switch costs associated with task switching were not reliably larger for preschool children. Preschool children did, however, show more commission errors and greater response repetition effects than adults, which may reflect differences in inhibitory control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigating the visual span in comparative search: the effects of task difficulty and divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomplun, M; Reingold, E M; Shen, J

    2001-09-01

    In three experiments, participants' visual span was measured in a comparative visual search task in which they had to detect a local match or mismatch between two displays presented side by side. Experiment 1 manipulated the difficulty of the comparative visual search task by contrasting a mismatch detection task with a substantially more difficult match detection task. In Experiment 2, participants were tested in a single-task condition involving only the visual task and a dual-task condition in which they concurrently performed an auditory task. Finally, in Experiment 3, participants performed two dual-task conditions, which differed in the difficulty of the concurrent auditory task. Both the comparative search task difficulty (Experiment 1) and the divided attention manipulation (Experiments 2 and 3) produced strong effects on visual span size.

  6. The task-to-task communication between computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shuzi; Zhang Bingyun; Zhao Weiren

    1992-01-01

    The task-to-task communication is used in the Institute of High Energy Physics. The BES (Beijing Spectrometer) uses the communication mode to take some of the BEPC (Beijing Electron Positron Collider) running parameters needed by BES experiments in a periodic time. The authors describe the principle of transparent task-to-task communication and how to use it in BES on-line data acquisition system

  7. Balancing the Demands of Two Tasks: An Investigation of Cognitive-Motor Dual-Tasking in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchard-MacDonald, Emma; Paul, Lorna; Evans, Jonathan J

    2018-03-01

    People with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (PwRRMS) suffer disproportionate decrements in gait under dual-task conditions, when walking and a cognitive task are combined. There has been much less investigation of the impact of cognitive demands on balance. This study investigated whether: (1) PwRRMS show disproportionate decrements in postural stability under dual-task conditions compared to healthy controls, and (2) dual-task decrements are associated with everyday dual-tasking difficulties. The impact of mood, fatigue, and disease severity on dual-tasking was also examined. A total of 34 PwRRMS and 34 matched controls completed cognitive (digit span) and balance (movement of center of pressure on Biosway on stable and unstable surfaces) tasks under single- and dual-task conditions. Everyday dual-tasking was measured using the Dual-Tasking Questionnaire. Mood was measured by the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale. Fatigue was measured via the Modified Fatigue Index Scale. No differences in age, gender, years of education, estimated pre-morbid IQ, or baseline digit span between groups. Compared with controls, PwRRMS showed significantly greater decrement in postural stability under dual-task conditions on an unstable surface (p=.007), but not a stable surface (p=.679). Balance decrement scores were not correlated with everyday dual-tasking difficulties or fatigue. Stable surface balance decrement scores were significantly associated with levels of anxiety (rho=0.527; p=.001) and depression (rho=0.451; p=.007). RRMS causes dual-tasking difficulties, impacting balance under challenging conditions, which may contribute to increased risk of gait difficulties and falls. The relationship between anxiety/depression and dual-task decrement suggests that emotional factors may be contributing to dual-task difficulties. (JINS, 2018, 24, 247-258).

  8. Simple spatial scaling rules behind complex cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruiqi; Dong, Lei; Zhang, Jiang; Wang, Xinran; Wang, Wen-Xu; Di, Zengru; Stanley, H Eugene

    2017-11-28

    Although most of wealth and innovation have been the result of human interaction and cooperation, we are not yet able to quantitatively predict the spatial distributions of three main elements of cities: population, roads, and socioeconomic interactions. By a simple model mainly based on spatial attraction and matching growth mechanisms, we reveal that the spatial scaling rules of these three elements are in a consistent framework, which allows us to use any single observation to infer the others. All numerical and theoretical results are consistent with empirical data from ten representative cities. In addition, our model can also provide a general explanation of the origins of the universal super- and sub-linear aggregate scaling laws and accurately predict kilometre-level socioeconomic activity. Our work opens a new avenue for uncovering the evolution of cities in terms of the interplay among urban elements, and it has a broad range of applications.

  9. Search without Boundaries Using Simple APIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qi

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Library, where the author serves as the digital services librarian, is increasingly challenged to make it easier for users to find information from many heterogeneous information sources. Information is scattered throughout different software applications (i.e., library catalog, federated search engine, link resolver, and vendor websites), and each specializes in one thing. How could the library integrate the functionalities of one application with another and provide a single point of entry for users to search across? To improve the user experience, the library launched an effort to integrate the federated search engine into the library's intranet website. The result is a simple search box that leverages the federated search engine's built-in application programming interfaces (APIs). In this article, the author describes how this project demonstrated the power of APIs and their potential to be used by other enterprise search portals inside or outside of the library.

  10. Simple implementation of general dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, Jolyon K.; Pearson, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a formalism for the numerical implementation of general theories of dark energy, combining the computational simplicity of the equation of state for perturbations approach with the generality of the effective field theory approach. An effective fluid description is employed, based on a general action describing single-scalar field models. The formalism is developed from first principles, and constructed keeping the goal of a simple implementation into CAMB in mind. Benefits of this approach include its straightforward implementation, the generality of the underlying theory, the fact that the evolved variables are physical quantities, and that model-independent phenomenological descriptions may be straightforwardly investigated. We hope this formulation will provide a powerful tool for the comparison of theoretical models of dark energy with observational data

  11. Children's Task Engagement during Challenging Puzzle Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong; Algina, James; Snyder, Patricia; Cox, Martha

    2017-01-01

    We examined children's task engagement during a challenging puzzle task in the presence of their primary caregivers by using a representative sample of rural children from six high-poverty counties across two states. Weighted longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to identify a task engagement factor…

  12. Designing Dendrimer and Miktoarm Polymer Based Multi-Tasking Nanocarriers for Efficient Medical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anjali; Kakkar, Ashok

    2015-09-17

    To address current complex health problems, there has been an increasing demand for smart nanocarriers that could perform multiple complimentary biological tasks with high efficacy. This has provoked the design of tailor made nanocarriers, and the scientific community has made tremendous effort in meeting daunting challenges associated with synthetically articulating multiple functions into a single scaffold. Branched and hyper-branched macromolecular architectures have offered opportunities in enabling carriers with capabilities including location, delivery, imaging etc. Development of simple and versatile synthetic methodologies for these nanomaterials has been the key in diversifying macromolecule based medical therapy and treatment. This review highlights the advancement from conventional "only one function" to multifunctional nanomedicine. It is achieved by synthetic elaboration of multivalent platforms in miktoarm polymers and dendrimers by physical encapsulation, covalent linking and combinations thereof.

  13. Designing Dendrimer and Miktoarm Polymer Based Multi-Tasking Nanocarriers for Efficient Medical Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To address current complex health problems, there has been an increasing demand for smart nanocarriers that could perform multiple complimentary biological tasks with high efficacy. This has provoked the design of tailor made nanocarriers, and the scientific community has made tremendous effort in meeting daunting challenges associated with synthetically articulating multiple functions into a single scaffold. Branched and hyper-branched macromolecular architectures have offered opportunities in enabling carriers with capabilities including location, delivery, imaging etc. Development of simple and versatile synthetic methodologies for these nanomaterials has been the key in diversifying macromolecule based medical therapy and treatment. This review highlights the advancement from conventional “only one function” to multifunctional nanomedicine. It is achieved by synthetic elaboration of multivalent platforms in miktoarm polymers and dendrimers by physical encapsulation, covalent linking and combinations thereof.

  14. Simple Electromagnetic Analysis in Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Martinasek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main principle and methods of simple electromagnetic analysis and thus provides an overview of simple electromagnetic analysis.The introductions chapters describe specific SPA attack used visual inspection of EM traces, template based attack and collision attack.After reading the article, the reader is sufficiently informed of any context of SEMA.Another aim of the article is the practical realization of SEMA which is focused on AES implementation.The visual inspection of EM trace of AES is performed step by step and the result is the determination of secret key Hamming weight.On the resulting EM trace, the Hamming weight of the secret key 1 to 8 was clearly visible.This method allows reduction from the number of possible keys for following brute force attack.

  15. Complexity-aware simple modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Schiavon, Mariana; El-Samad, Hana

    2018-02-26

    Mathematical models continue to be essential for deepening our understanding of biology. On one extreme, simple or small-scale models help delineate general biological principles. However, the parsimony of detail in these models as well as their assumption of modularity and insulation make them inaccurate for describing quantitative features. On the other extreme, large-scale and detailed models can quantitatively recapitulate a phenotype of interest, but have to rely on many unknown parameters, making them often difficult to parse mechanistically and to use for extracting general principles. We discuss some examples of a new approach-complexity-aware simple modeling-that can bridge the gap between the small-scale and large-scale approaches. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simple Functions Spreadsheet tool presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grive, Mireia; Domenech, Cristina; Montoya, Vanessa; Garcia, David; Duro, Lara

    2010-09-01

    This document is a guide for users of the Simple Functions Spreadsheet tool. The Simple Functions Spreadsheet tool has been developed by Amphos 21 to determine the solubility limits of some radionuclides and it has been especially designed for Performance Assessment exercises. The development of this tool has been promoted by the necessity expressed by SKB of having a confident and easy-to-handle tool to calculate solubility limits in an agile and relatively fast manner. Its development started in 2005 and since then, it has been improved until the current version. This document describes the accurate and preliminary study following expert criteria that has been used to select the simplified aqueous speciation and solid phase system included in the tool. This report also gives the basic instructions to use this tool and to interpret its results. Finally, this document also reports the different validation tests and sensitivity analyses that have been done during the verification process

  17. Gradings on simple Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Elduque, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Gradings are ubiquitous in the theory of Lie algebras, from the root space decomposition of a complex semisimple Lie algebra relative to a Cartan subalgebra to the beautiful Dempwolff decomposition of E_8 as a direct sum of thirty-one Cartan subalgebras. This monograph is a self-contained exposition of the classification of gradings by arbitrary groups on classical simple Lie algebras over algebraically closed fields of characteristic not equal to 2 as well as on some nonclassical simple Lie algebras in positive characteristic. Other important algebras also enter the stage: matrix algebras, the octonions, and the Albert algebra. Most of the presented results are recent and have not yet appeared in book form. This work can be used as a textbook for graduate students or as a reference for researchers in Lie theory and neighboring areas.

  18. Licensing of simple digital devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    The inability to guarantee error-free software gave rise to the potential for common-cause failure of digital safety systems in nuclear power plants. To address this vulnerability, the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) required a quality software development process and a defense-in-depth and diversity analysis for digital safety systems. As a result of recent interim [NRC] staff guidance in the digital instrumentation and control (I and C) area, licensing of simple digital devices decreases some regulatory burden with respect to demonstrating a quality software development process and defense-in-depth and diversity analysis. This paper defines simple digital devices and addresses the interim staff guidance that applies to such devices. The paper also highlights the technical aspects that affect the licensing of such devices and incorporates licensing experience in the U.S. to date. (authors)

  19. Unidirectional interference in use of nondominant hand during concurrent Grooved Pegboard and random number generation tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenge, Hans; Niederberger, Uwe

    2008-06-01

    The interference effect between Grooved Pegboard task with either hand and the executive task of cued verbal random number generation was investigated. 24 normal right-handed subjects performed each task under separate (single-task) and concurrent (dual-task) conditions. Articulatory suppression was required as an additional secondary task during pegboard performance. Analysis indicated an unambiguous distinction between the two hands. Comparisons of single-task and dual-task conditions showed an asymmetrical pattern of unidirectional interference with no practice effects during pegboard performance. Concurrent performance with nondominant hand but not the dominant hand of random number generation performance became continuously slower. There was no effect of divided attention on pegboard performance. Findings support the idea that the nondominant hand on the pegboard and random number tasks draw from the same processing resources but that for the executive aspect random number generation is more sensitive to changes in allocation of attentional resources.

  20. A simple electron plasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, G.; Stenflo, L.

    2017-01-01

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.

  1. A Simple Probabilistic Combat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    Government may violate any copyrights that exist in this work. This page intentionally left blank. ABSTRACT The Lanchester ...page intentionally left blank. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No.Abstract iii List of Illustrations vii 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. DETERMINISTIC LANCHESTER MODEL...This page intentionally left blank. 1. INTRODUCTION The Lanchester combat model1 is a simple way to assess the effects of quantity and quality

  2. A simple electron plasma wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodin, G., E-mail: gert.brodin@physics.umu.se [Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Stenflo, L. [Department of Physics, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2017-03-18

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.

  3. Simple and Realistic Data Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kenneth Houkjær; Torp, Kristian; Wind, Rico

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a generic, DBMS independent, and highly extensible relational data generation tool. The tool can efficiently generate realistic test data for OLTP, OLAP, and data streaming applications. The tool uses a graph model to direct the data generation. This model makes it very simple...... to generate data even for large database schemas with complex inter- and intra table relationships. The model also makes it possible to generate data with very accurate characteristics....

  4. Classification of simple current invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    1992-01-01

    We summarize recent work on the classification of modular invariant partition functions that can be obtained with simple currents in theories with a center (Z_p)^k with p prime. New empirical results for other centers are also presented. Our observation that the total number of invariants is monodromy-independent for (Z_p)^k appears to be true in general as well. (Talk presented in the parallel session on string theory of the Lepton-Photon/EPS Conference, Geneva, 1991.)

  5. Blink activity and task difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y; Yamaoka, K

    1993-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between task difficulty and blink activity, which includes blink rate, blink amplitude, and blink duration. Two kinds of tasks established two levels of difficulty. In Exp. 1, a mental arithmetic task was used to examine the relationship. Analysis showed that blink rate for a difficult task was significantly higher than that for an easier one. In Exp. 2, a letter-search task (hiragana Japanese alphabet) was used while the other conditions were the same as those in Exp. 1; however, the results of this experiment were not influenced by the difficulty of the task. As results indicate that blink rate is related to not only difficulty but also the nature of the task, the nature of the task is probably dependent on a mechanism in information processing. The results for blink amplitude and blink duration showed no systematic change during either experiment.

  6. Partitioning the Metabolic Cost of Human Running: A Task-by-Task Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Christopher J.; Kram, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Compared with other species, humans can be very tractable and thus an ideal “model system” for investigating the metabolic cost of locomotion. Here, we review the biomechanical basis for the metabolic cost of running. Running has been historically modeled as a simple spring-mass system whereby the leg acts as a linear spring, storing, and returning elastic potential energy during stance. However, if running can be modeled as a simple spring-mass system with the underlying assumption of perfect elastic energy storage and return, why does running incur a metabolic cost at all? In 1980, Taylor et al. proposed the “cost of generating force” hypothesis, which was based on the idea that elastic structures allow the muscles to transform metabolic energy into force, and not necessarily mechanical work. In 1990, Kram and Taylor then provided a more explicit and quantitative explanation by demonstrating that the rate of metabolic energy consumption is proportional to body weight and inversely proportional to the time of foot-ground contact for a variety of animals ranging in size and running speed. With a focus on humans, Kram and his colleagues then adopted a task-by-task approach and initially found that the metabolic cost of running could be “individually” partitioned into body weight support (74%), propulsion (37%), and leg-swing (20%). Summing all these biomechanical tasks leads to a paradoxical overestimation of 131%. To further elucidate the possible interactions between these tasks, later studies quantified the reductions in metabolic cost in response to synergistic combinations of body weight support, aiding horizontal forces, and leg-swing-assist forces. This synergistic approach revealed that the interactive nature of body weight support and forward propulsion comprises ∼80% of the net metabolic cost of running. The task of leg-swing at most comprises ∼7% of the net metabolic cost of running and is independent of body weight support and forward

  7. College Aptitude Test Simple Checker (Version 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake G. Maggay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available All enrolees of the Cagayan State University are required to take the College Aptitude Test (CAT. The CAT result serves as a basis for recommendation and admission to a specific course or field of specialization, thus, result must be accurate. The study a imed to develop a computerized College Aptitude Test (CAT Simple Checker of Cagayan State University – Lasam Campus to facilitate and to reduce the time of the guidance counsellor in checking many aptitude test papers as well as to ensure accuracy of resu lt. It followed the framework of Design Science Research in Information Systems which consists of six steps such as problem identification and motivation, definition of objectives for a solution based on the identified problem, design and development of th e system, demonstration of the system to the guidance counsellor, evaluation of the system’s functionality and impact and communication which involves documentation and publication. A combination of Visual Basic 6 as the programming language and SQL Server 2005 as the Database Management System (DBMS were used in the development of the system. As a result, the system provides support to the guidance counsellor in performing the assigned tasks by reducing the time consumed in checking aptitude test papers t hat makes the guidance counsellor more effective, efficient and productive.

  8. Crowding with conjunctions of simple features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põder, Endel; Wagemans, Johan

    2007-11-20

    Several recent studies have related crowding with the feature integration stage in visual processing. In order to understand the mechanisms involved in this stage, it is important to use stimuli that have several features to integrate, and these features should be clearly defined and measurable. In this study, Gabor patches were used as target and distractor stimuli. The stimuli differed in three dimensions: spatial frequency, orientation, and color. A group of 3, 5, or 7 objects was presented briefly at 4 deg eccentricity of the visual field. The observers' task was to identify the object located in the center of the group. A strong effect of the number of distractors was observed, consistent with various spatial pooling models. The analysis of incorrect responses revealed that these were a mix of feature errors and mislocalizations of the target object. Feature errors were not purely random, but biased by the features of distractors. We propose a simple feature integration model that predicts most of the observed regularities.

  9. Self-Controlled Feedback for a Complex Motor Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Peter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-controlled augmented feedback enhances learning of simple motor tasks. Thereby, learners tend to request feedback after trials that were rated as good by themselves. Feedback after good trials promotes positive reinforcement, which enhances motor learning. The goal of this study was to investigate when naïve learners request terminal visual feedback in a complex motor task, as conclusions drawn on simple tasks can hardly be transferred to complex tasks. Indeed, seven of nine learners stated to have intended to request feedback predominantly after good trials, but in contrast to their intention, kinematic analysis showed that feedback was rather requested randomly (23% after good, 44% after intermediate, 33% after bad trials. Moreover, requesting feedback after good trials did not correlate with learning success. It seems that self-estimation of performance in complex tasks is challenging. As a consequence, learners might have focused on certain movement aspects rather than on the overall movement. Further studies should assess the current focus of the learner in detail to gain more insight in self-estimation capabilities during complex motor task learning.

  10. Single port laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Henrik; Istre, Olav

    2012-01-01

    LESS, or laparo-endoscopic single site surgery, is a promising new method in minimally invasive surgery. An increasing number of surgical procedures are being performed using this technique, however, its large-scale adoption awaits results of prospective randomized controlled studies confirming...... potential benefits. Theoretically, cosmetic outcomes, postoperative pain and complication rates could be improved with use of single site surgery. This study describes introduction of the method in a private hospital in Denmark, in which 40 patients have been treated for benign gynecologic conditions....... Although the operations described are the first of their kind reported in Denmark, favorable operating times and very low complication rates are seen. It is the authors' opinion that in addition to being feasible for hysterectomy, single port laparoscopy may become the preferred method for many simple...

  11. The Use of Digital Technology in Finding Multiple Paths to Solve and Extend an Equilateral Triangle Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Reyes-Rodriguez, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical tasks are crucial elements for teachers to orient, foster and assess students' processes to comprehend and develop mathematical knowledge. During the process of working and solving a task, searching for or discussing multiple solution paths becomes a powerful strategy for students to engage in mathematical thinking. A simple task that…

  12. Japanese professional nurses spend unnecessarily long time doing nursing assistants' tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yasushi; Yoshimura, Emiko; Shahzad, Machiko Taruzuka; Shibuya, Akitaka; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2012-09-01

    In environments in which professional nurses do simple tasks, e.g., laundry, cleaning, and waste disposal, they cannot concentrate on technical jobs by utilizing their expertise to its fullest benefit. Particularly, in Japan, the nursing shortage is a serious problem. If professional nurses take their time to do any of these simple tasks, the tasks should be preferentially allocated to nursing assistants. Because there has been no descriptive study to investigate the amount of time Japanese professional nurses spent doing such simple tasks during their working time, their actual conditions remain unclear. Professional nurses recorded their total working time and the time they spent doing such simple tasks during the week of the survey period. The time an individual respondent spent doing one or more simple tasks during that week was summed up, as was their working time. Subsequently, the percentage of the summed time he or she spent doing any of those tasks in his or her summed working time was calculated. A total of 1,086 respondents in 19 hospitals that had 87 to 376 beds were analyzed (response rate: 53.3%). The average time (SD) that respondents spent doing those simple tasks and their total working time were 2.24 (3.35) hours and 37.48 (10.88) hours, respectively. The average percentage (SD) of the time they spent doing the simple tasks in their working time was 6.00% (8.39). Hospital administrators must decrease this percentage. Proper working environments in which professional nurses can concentrate more on their technical jobs must be created.

  13. Does spinal excitability scale to the difficulty of the dual-task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Devon M; Boivin, Mario T; Adkin, Allan L; Tokuno, Craig D

    2017-08-01

    This study examined whether spinal excitability, as measured by the soleus Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex), is scaled to the difficulty level of the dual-task being performed. Twenty-two participants completed a combination of three balance task and three secondary cognitive (visuo-motor) task difficulty levels for a total of nine dual-task conditions. An additional eight participants were tested while performing the same three balance task difficulty levels on its own (i.e., single-tasking). The balance task required participants to maintain their balance on a fixed or rotating stabilometer while the visuo-motor task required participants to respond to moving targets presented on a monitor. Throughout each single- and dual-task trial, H-reflexes were elicited from the soleus. Although dual-task performance, as quantified by visuo-motor task accuracy as well as the root mean square of the stabilometer position and velocity, decreased by 10-34% with increasing dual-task difficulty (p dual-task conditions (p = 0.483-0.758). This contrasts to when participants performed the balance task as a single-task, where the H-reflex amplitude decreased by ~25% from the easy to the hard balance task difficulty level (p = 0.037). In contrast to the commonly reported finding of a reduced soleus H-reflex amplitude when individuals perform a less posturally stable task by itself, the results indicate that spinal excitability is not modulated as a function of dual-task difficulty. It is possible that when an individual's attentional resource capacity is exceeded during dual-tasking, they become ineffective in regulating spinal excitability for balance control.

  14. Task 7: ADPAC User's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E. J.; Topp, D. A.; Delaney, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    The overall objective of this study was to develop a 3-D numerical analysis for compressor casing treatment flowfields. The current version of the computer code resulting from this study is referred to as ADPAC (Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Codes-Version 7). This report is intended to serve as a computer program user's manual for the ADPAC code developed under Tasks 6 and 7 of the NASA Contract. The ADPAC program is based on a flexible multiple- block grid discretization scheme permitting coupled 2-D/3-D mesh block solutions with application to a wide variety of geometries. Aerodynamic calculations are based on a four-stage Runge-Kutta time-marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. Steady flow predictions are accelerated by a multigrid procedure. An iterative implicit algorithm is available for rapid time-dependent flow calculations, and an advanced two equation turbulence model is incorporated to predict complex turbulent flows. The consolidated code generated during this study is capable of executing in either a serial or parallel computing mode from a single source code. Numerous examples are given in the form of test cases to demonstrate the utility of this approach for predicting the aerodynamics of modem turbomachinery configurations.

  15. Windowed correlation: a suitable tool for providing dynamic fMRI-based functional connectivity neurofeedback on task difficulty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zilverstand

    Full Text Available The goal of neurofeedback training is to provide participants with relevant information on their ongoing brain processes in order to enable them to change these processes in a meaningful way. Under the assumption of an intrinsic brain-behavior link, neurofeedback can be a tool to guide a participant towards a desired behavioral state, such as a healthier state in the case of patients. Current research in clinical neuroscience regarding the most robust indicators of pathological brain processes in psychiatric and neurological disorders indicates that fMRI-based functional connectivity measures may be among the most important biomarkers of disease. The present study therefore investigated the general potential of providing fMRI neurofeedback based on functional correlations, computed from short-window time course data at the level of single task periods. The ability to detect subtle changes in task performance with block-wise functional connectivity measures was evaluated based on imaging data from healthy participants performing a simple motor task, which was systematically varied along two task dimensions representing two different aspects of task difficulty. The results demonstrate that fMRI-based functional connectivity measures may provide a better indicator for an increase in overall (motor task difficulty than activation level-based measures. Windowed functional correlations thus seem to provide relevant and unique information regarding ongoing brain processes, which is not captured equally well by standard activation level-based neurofeedback measures. Functional connectivity markers, therefore, may indeed provide a valuable tool to enhance and monitor learning within an fMRI neurofeedback setup.

  16. Age-related decrements in dual-task performance: Comparison of different mobility and cognitive tasks. A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustio, Paolo Riccardo; Magistro, Daniele; Zecca, Massimiliano; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Liubicich, Monica Emma

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the age-related differences in dual-task performance both in mobility and cognitive tasks and the additive dual-task costs in a sample of older, middle-aged and young adults. 74 older adults (M = 72.63±5.57 years), 58 middle-aged adults (M = 46.69±4.68 years) and 63 young adults (M = 25.34±3.00 years) participated in the study. Participants performed different mobility and subtraction tasks under both single- and dual-task conditions. Linear regressions, repeated-measures and one-way analyses of covariance were used, The results showed: significant effects of the age on the dual and mobility tasks (ptask costs (pperformance under dual-task conditions in all groups (pperformance in the older group (ptask activity affected mobility and cognitive performance, especially in older adults who showed a higher dual-task cost, suggesting that dual-tasks activities are affected by the age and consequently also mobility and cognitive tasks are negatively influenced.

  17. Selection of maintenance tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, B; Rombos, P [Wardrop (W.L.) and Associates Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    1995-10-01

    Two methodologies for maintenance task selection, Reliability Centre Maintenance (RCM) and Degradation Mode Analysis (DMA), are compared with regard to application in the nuclear industry and potential for application at CANDU nuclear power plants. RCM is the favoured one of the two methodologies. It is more thorough than DMA, is well supported within the US nuclear industry, and - with experience in application - is gaining cost effectiveness. There is interest in the use of RCM in other nations, including France and Japan, and it is already being implemented at Bruce A NGS and Bruce B NGS in Canada. DMA lags behind RCM in development and currently there is little experience to support claims of major benefits at reduced cost. Significant advantages over RCM need to be demonstrated if DMA is to gain acceptance in the nuclear industry. (author). 41 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  18. Selection of maintenance tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, B.; Rombos, P.

    1995-10-01

    Two methodologies for maintenance task selection, Reliability Centre Maintenance (RCM) and Degradation Mode Analysis (DMA), are compared with regard to application in the nuclear industry and potential for application at CANDU nuclear power plants. RCM is the favoured one of the two methodologies. It is more thorough than DMA, is well supported within the US nuclear industry, and - with experience in application - is gaining cost effectiveness. There is interest in the use of RCM in other nations, including France and Japan, and it is already being implemented at Bruce A NGS and Bruce B NGS in Canada. DMA lags behind RCM in development and currently there is little experience to support claims of major benefits at reduced cost. Significant advantages over RCM need to be demonstrated if DMA is to gain acceptance in the nuclear industry. (author). 41 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

  19. a Task-Driven Disaster Data Link Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L. Y.; Zhu, Q.; Gu, J. Y.; Du, Z. Q.

    2015-08-01

    With the rapid development of sensor networks and Earth observation technology, a large quantity of disaster-related data is available, such as remotely sensed data, historic data, cases data, simulation data, disaster products and so on. However, the efficiency of current data management and service systems has become increasingly serious due to the task variety and heterogeneous data. For emergency task-oriented applications, data searching mainly relies on artificial experience based on simple metadata index, whose high time-consuming and low accuracy cannot satisfy the requirements of disaster products on velocity and veracity. In this paper, a task-oriented linking method is proposed for efficient disaster data management and intelligent service, with the objectives of 1) putting forward ontologies of disaster task and data to unify the different semantics of multi-source information, 2) identifying the semantic mapping from emergency tasks to multiple sources on the basis of uniform description in 1), 3) linking task-related data automatically and calculating the degree of correlation between each data and a target task. The method breaks through traditional static management of disaster data and establishes a base for intelligent retrieval and active push of disaster information. The case study presented in this paper illustrates the use of the method with a flood emergency relief task.

  20. a Task-Oriented Disaster Information Correlation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linyao, Q.; Zhiqiang, D.; Qing, Z.

    2015-07-01

    With the rapid development of sensor networks and Earth observation technology, a large quantity of disaster-related data is available, such as remotely sensed data, historic data, case data, simulated data, and disaster products. However, the efficiency of current data management and service systems has become increasingly difficult due to the task variety and heterogeneous data. For emergency task-oriented applications, the data searches primarily rely on artificial experience based on simple metadata indices, the high time consumption and low accuracy of which cannot satisfy the speed and veracity requirements for disaster products. In this paper, a task-oriented correlation method is proposed for efficient disaster data management and intelligent service with the objectives of 1) putting forward disaster task ontology and data ontology to unify the different semantics of multi-source information, 2) identifying the semantic mapping from emergency tasks to multiple data sources on the basis of uniform description in 1), and 3) linking task-related data automatically and calculating the correlation between each data set and a certain task. The method goes beyond traditional static management of disaster data and establishes a basis for intelligent retrieval and active dissemination of disaster information. The case study presented in this paper illustrates the use of the method on an example flood emergency relief task.

  1. Computer task performance by subjects with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiros, Silvia Regina Pinheiro; da Silva, Talita Dias; Favero, Francis Meire; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Fregni, Felipe; Ribeiro, Denise Cardoso; de Mello Monteiro, Carlos Bandeira

    2016-01-01

    Two specific objectives were established to quantify computer task performance among people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). First, we compared simple computational task performance between subjects with DMD and age-matched typically developing (TD) subjects. Second, we examined correlations between the ability of subjects with DMD to learn the computational task and their motor functionality, age, and initial task performance. The study included 84 individuals (42 with DMD, mean age of 18±5.5 years, and 42 age-matched controls). They executed a computer maze task; all participants performed the acquisition (20 attempts) and retention (five attempts) phases, repeating the same maze. A different maze was used to verify transfer performance (five attempts). The Motor Function Measure Scale was applied, and the results were compared with maze task performance. In the acquisition phase, a significant decrease was found in movement time (MT) between the first and last acquisition block, but only for the DMD group. For the DMD group, MT during transfer was shorter than during the first acquisition block, indicating improvement from the first acquisition block to transfer. In addition, the TD group showed shorter MT than the DMD group across the study. DMD participants improved their performance after practicing a computational task; however, the difference in MT was present in all attempts among DMD and control subjects. Computational task improvement was positively influenced by the initial performance of individuals with DMD. In turn, the initial performance was influenced by their distal functionality but not their age or overall functionality.

  2. Speech Perception Engages a General Timer: Evidence from a Divided Attention Word Identification Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, Laurence; Burle, Boris; Nguyen, Noel

    2009-01-01

    Time is essential to speech. The duration of speech segments plays a critical role in the perceptual identification of these segments, and therefore in that of spoken words. Here, using a French word identification task, we show that vowels are perceived as shorter when attention is divided between two tasks, as compared to a single task control…

  3. The Effects of Describing Antecedent Stimuli and Performance Criteria in Task Analysis Instruction for Graphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyner, Bryan C.; Fienup, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Task analyses are ubiquitous to applied behavior analysis interventions, yet little is known about the factors that make them effective. Numerous task analyses have been published in behavior analytic journals for constructing single-subject design graphs; however, learner outcomes using these task analyses may fall short of what could be…

  4. Correlation and simple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Kelly H; Tuncali, Kemal; Silverman, Stuart G

    2003-06-01

    In this tutorial article, the concepts of correlation and regression are reviewed and demonstrated. The authors review and compare two correlation coefficients, the Pearson correlation coefficient and the Spearman rho, for measuring linear and nonlinear relationships between two continuous variables. In the case of measuring the linear relationship between a predictor and an outcome variable, simple linear regression analysis is conducted. These statistical concepts are illustrated by using a data set from published literature to assess a computed tomography-guided interventional technique. These statistical methods are important for exploring the relationships between variables and can be applied to many radiologic studies.

  5. Computer electronics made simple computerbooks

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdillon, J F B

    1975-01-01

    Computer Electronics: Made Simple Computerbooks presents the basics of computer electronics and explains how a microprocessor works. Various types of PROMs, static RAMs, dynamic RAMs, floppy disks, and hard disks are considered, along with microprocessor support devices made by Intel, Motorola and Zilog. Bit slice logic and some AMD bit slice products are also described. Comprised of 14 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the fundamentals of hardware design, followed by a discussion on the basic building blocks of hardware (NAND, NOR, AND, OR, NOT, XOR); tools and equipment that

  6. Singular perturbation of simple eigenvalues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenlee, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    Two operator theoretic theorems which generalize those of asymptotic regular perturbation theory and which apply to singular perturbation problems are proved. Application of these theorems to concrete problems is involved, but the perturbation expansions for eigenvalues and eigenvectors are developed in terms of solutions of linear operator equations. The method of correctors, as well as traditional boundary layer techniques, can be used to apply these theorems. The current formulation should be applicable to highly singular ''hard core'' potential perturbations of the radial equation of quantum mechanics. The theorems are applied to a comparatively simple model problem whose analysis is basic to that of the quantum mechanical problem

  7. Simple Simulations of DNA Condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEVENS,MARK J.

    2000-07-12

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a simple, bead-spring model of semiflexible polyelectrolytes such as DNA are performed. All charges are explicitly treated. Starting from extended, noncondensed conformations, condensed structures form in the simulations with tetravalent or trivalent counterions. No condensates form or are stable for divalent counterions. The mechanism by which condensates form is described. Briefly, condensation occurs because electrostatic interactions dominate entropy, and the favored Coulombic structure is a charge ordered state. Condensation is a generic phenomena and occurs for a variety of polyelectrolyte parameters. Toroids and rods are the condensate structures. Toroids form preferentially when the molecular stiffness is sufficiently strong.

  8. Wrist arthrography: a simple method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna-Serna, Juan D.; Reus, Manuel; Alonso, Jose [Virgen de la Arrixaca University Hospital, Department of Radiology, El Palmar (Murcia) (Spain); Martinez, Francisco; Domenech-Ratto, Gines [University of Murcia, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Murcia (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    A technique of wrist arthrography is presented using an adhesive marker-plate with radiopaque coordinates to identify precisely sites for puncture arthrography of the wrist and to obviate the need for fluoroscopic guidance. Radiocarpal joint arthrography was performed successfully in all 24 cases, 14 in the cadaveric wrists and 10 in the live patients. The arthrographic procedure described in this study is simple, safe, and rapid, and has the advantage of precise localisation of the site for puncture without need for fluoroscopic guidance. (orig.)

  9. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft has created a completely new smartphone operating system that focuses on allowing users to be productive with their smartphone in new ways, while offering seamless integration and use of Microsoft Office Mobile as well as other productivity apps available in the Microsoft App Store. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple offers a clear, visual, step-by-step approach to using your Windows Phone 7 smartphone, no matter what the manufacturer. Author Jon Westfall is an expert in mobile devices, recognized by Microsoft as a "Most Valuable Professional" with experience

  10. Three more semantic serial position functions and a SIMPLE explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Matthew R; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2013-05-01

    There are innumerable demonstrations of serial position functions-with characteristic primacy and recency effects-in episodic tasks, but there are only a handful of such demonstrations in semantic memory tasks, and those demonstrations have used only two types of stimuli. Here, we provide three more examples of serial position functions when recalling from semantic memory. Participants were asked to reconstruct the order of (1) two cartoon theme song lyrics, (2) the seven Harry Potter books, and (3) two sets of movies, and all three demonstrations yielded conventional-looking serial position functions with primacy and recency effects. The data were well-fit by SIMPLE, a local distinctiveness model of memory that was originally designed to account for serial position effects in short- and long-term episodic memory. According to SIMPLE, serial position functions in both episodic and semantic memory tasks arise from the same type of processing: Items that are more separated from their close neighbors in psychological space at the time of recall will be better remembered. We argue that currently available evidence suggests that serial position functions observed when recalling items that are presumably in semantic memory arise because of the same processes as those observed when recalling items that are presumably in episodic memory.

  11. Acute physical exercise affected processing efficiency in an auditory attention task more than processing effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutke, Stephan; Jaitner, Thomas; Berse, Timo; Barenberg, Jonathan

    2014-02-01

    Research on effects of acute physical exercise on performance in a concurrent cognitive task has generated equivocal evidence. Processing efficiency theory predicts that concurrent physical exercise can increase resource requirements for sustaining cognitive performance even when the level of performance is unaffected. This hypothesis was tested in a dual-task experiment. Sixty young adults worked on a primary auditory attention task and a secondary interval production task while cycling on a bicycle ergometer. Physical load (cycling) and cognitive load of the primary task were manipulated. Neither physical nor cognitive load affected primary task performance, but both factors interacted on secondary task performance. Sustaining primary task performance under increased physical and/or cognitive load increased resource consumption as indicated by decreased secondary task performance. Results demonstrated that physical exercise effects on cognition might be underestimated when only single task performance is the focus.

  12. Brief motivational interview and educational brochure in emergency room settings for adolescents and young adults with alcohol-related problems: a randomized single-blind clinical trial Intervenção motivacional breve e brochura educacional em pronto-socorro para adolescentes e adultos jovens com problemas relacionados ao álcool: um ensaio clínico simples-cego randomizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Segatto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of brief motivational interviewing and an educational brochure when delivered in emergency room to reduce alcohol abuse and related problems among adolescents and young adults. METHOD: A randomized single-blind clinical trial with a three-month follow-up was carried out at three emergency rooms from October 2004 to November 2005; subjects assessed were 16-25 years old treated for alcohol related events up to 6 hours after consumption. Socio-demographic data, quantity, frequency and negative consequences of alcohol consumption, motivation to change habits and future risk perception were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed on subjects who completed follow-up (completers. ANCOVA model was used to analyze the difference between the intervention groups with statistical significance level α = 5% and confidence interval (CI of 95%. RESULTS: 186 subjects formed the initial sample, being 175 included and randomized to the educational brochure group (n = 88 or motivational interviewing group (n = 87. Follow-up assessment was performed in 85.2% of the sample. No significant difference between groups was observed. However, significant reductions (p OBJETIVO: Avaliar a efetividade da entrevista motivacional breve e de uma brochura educativa quando aplicadas em prontos-socorros para reduzir o abuso e problemas relacionados ao álcool entre os jovens. MÉTODO: Um ensaio clínico randomizado simples-cego com três meses de seguimento foi realizado em três prontos-socorros de outubro de 2004 a novembro de 2005, com indivíduos de 16-25 anos tratados por eventos relacionados ao álcool com até 6 horas após o consumo. Dados sociodemográficos, quantidade, frequência e consequências negativas, motivação para mudanças de hábitos e percepção para riscos do consumo de álcool foram avaliados. A análise estatística foi realizada em indivíduos que completaram o seguimento (completados. Modelo de ANCOVA

  13. Brief motivational interview and educational brochure in emergency room settings for adolescents and young adults with alcohol related problems: a randomized single blind clinical trial Intervenção motivacional breve e brochura educacional em pronto-socorro para adolescentes e adultos jovens com problemas relacionados ao álcool: um ensaio clínico simples cego randomizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Segatto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of brief motivational interviewing and an educational brochure when delivered in emergency room to reduce alcohol abuse and related problems among adolescents and young adults. METHOD: a randomized single blind clinical trial with a 3 month follow-up was carried out at three emergency rooms from October 2004 to November 2005; subjects assessed were 16-25 years old treated for alcohol related events up to 6 hours after consumption. Socio-demographic data, quantity, frequency and negative consequences of alcohol consumption, motivation to change habits and future risk preception were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed on subjects who completed follow up (completers. ANCOVA model was used to analyze the difference between the intervention groups with statistical significance level α = 5% and Confidence Interval (CI 95%. RESULTS: 186 subjects formed the initial sample, being n = 175 included and randomized to educational brochure group (n = 88 or motivational interviewing group (n = 87. Follow-up assessment was performed in 85.2% sample. No significant difference between groups was observed. However, significant reductions (p OBJETIVO: Avaliar a efetividade da entrevista motivacional breve e de uma brochura educativa quando aplicadas em prontos-socorros para reduzir o abuso e problemas relacionados ao álcool entre os jovens. MÉTODO: Um ensaio clínico randomizado simples-cego com três meses de seguimento foi realizado em três prontos-socorros de outubro de 2004 a novembro de 2005, com indivíduos de 16-25 anos tratados por eventos relacionados ao álcool com até 6 horas após o consumo. Dados sociodemográficos, quantidade, frequência e consequências negativas, motivação para mudanças de hábitos e percepção para riscos do consumo de álcool foram avaliados. A análise estatística foi realizada em indivíduos que completaram o seguimento (completados. Modelo de ANCOVA foi utilizado

  14. Performance on a simple response time task: Is sleep or work more important for miners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sally A; Paech, Gemma M; Dorrian, Jillian; Roach, Gregory D; Jay, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the impact of work- and sleep-related factors on an objective measure of response time in a field setting. Thirty-five mining operators working 12-h shift patterns completed daily sleep and work diaries, wore activity monitors continuously and completed palm-based psychomotor vigilance tests (palmPVT) at the start and end of each shift. Linear mixed models were used to test the main effects on response time of roster, timing of test, sleep history and prior wake. The time at which the test occurred was a significant predictor of response time (F₃(,)₄₀₃(.)₄ = 6.72, p times than the start of night shifts, and the start or end of day shifts. Further, the amount of sleep obtained in the 24h prior to the test was also a significant predictor of response time (F₃(,)₄₀₇(.)₀ = 3.05, p time indicative of performance impairments. Of more interest however is that immediate sleep history was also predictive of changes in response time with lower amounts of prior sleep related to slower response times. The current data provides further evidence that sleep is a primary mediator of performance, independent of roster pattern. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. A Seemingly Simple Task: Filling a Solenoid Volume in Vacuum with Dense Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Roy, Prabir; Oks, Efim

    2010-01-01

    Space-charge neutralization of a pulsed, high-current ion beam is required to compress and focus the beam on a target for warm dense matter physics or heavy ion fusion experiments. We described attempts to produce dense plasma in and near the final focusing solenoid through which the ion beam travels, thereby providing an opportunity for the beam to acquire the necessary charge-compensating electrons. Among the options are plasma injection from four pulsed vacuum arc sources located outside the solenoid, and using a high current (> 4 kA) pulsed vacuum arc plasma from a ring cathode near the edge of the solenoid. The plasma distribution is characterized by photographic means and by an array of movable Langmuir probes. The plasma is produced at several cathode spots distributed azimuthally on the ring cathode. Beam neutralization and compression are accomplished, though issues of density, uniformity, and pulse-to-pulse reproducibly remain to be solved.

  16. Corticospinal excitability during observation and imagery of simple and complex hand tasks : Implications for motor rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosink, Meyke; Zijdewind, Inge

    2010-01-01

    Movement observation and imagery are increasingly propagandized for motor rehabilitation. Both observation and imagery are thought to improve motor function through repeated activation of mental motor representations. However, it is unknown what stimulation parameters or imagery conditions are

  17. Task-dependent modulation of oscillatory neural activity during movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, D. M.; Christensen, M. S.; Reck, C.

    2011-01-01

    connectivity was strongest between central and cerebellar regions. Our results show that neural coupling within motor networks is modulated in distinct frequency bands depending on the motor task. They provide evidence that dynamic causal modeling in combination with EEG source analysis is a valuable tool......Neural oscillations in different frequency bands have been observed in a range of sensorimotor tasks and have been linked to coupling of spatially distinct neurons. The goal of this study was to detect a general motor network that is activated during phasic and tonic movements and to study the task......-dependent modulation of frequency coupling within this network. To this end we recorded 122-multichannel EEG in 13 healthy subjects while they performed three simple motor tasks. EEG data source modeling using individual MR images was carried out with a multiple source beamformer approach. A bilateral motor network...

  18. Report on the Second Workshop on Supporting Complex Search Tasks : CHIIR 2017 Workshop Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, M.; Kamps, J.; Bogers, T.; Belkin, N.; Kelly, D.; Yilmaz, E.

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain-specific collections, and both in our professional and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks, is

  19. Single-Pilot Workload Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jason; Williams, Kevin; Hackworth, Carla; Burian, Barbara; Pruchnicki, Shawn; Christopher, Bonny; Drechsler, Gena; Silverman, Evan; Runnels, Barry; Mead, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Integrated glass cockpit systems place a heavy cognitive load on pilots (Burian Dismukes, 2007). Researchers from the NASA Ames Flight Cognition Lab and the FAA Flight Deck Human Factors Lab examined task and workload management by single pilots. This poster describes pilot performance regarding programming a reroute while at cruise and meeting a waypoint crossing restriction on the initial descent.

  20. CQPSO scheduling algorithm for heterogeneous multi-core DAG task model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Wenzheng; Hu, Yue-Li; Ran, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Efficient task scheduling is critical to achieve high performance in a heterogeneous multi-core computing environment. The paper focuses on the heterogeneous multi-core directed acyclic graph (DAG) task model and proposes a novel task scheduling method based on an improved chaotic quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (CQPSO) algorithm. A task priority scheduling list was built. A processor with minimum cumulative earliest finish time (EFT) was acted as the object of the first task assignment. The task precedence relationships were satisfied and the total execution time of all tasks was minimized. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has the advantage of optimization abilities, simple and feasible, fast convergence, and can be applied to the task scheduling optimization for other heterogeneous and distributed environment.